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Sample records for 121ins2 heterozygosity reduced

  1. Surfactant Protein-B 121ins2 Heterozygosity, Reduced Pulmonary Function and COPD in Smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Dahl, Morten; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes fatal respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Seventy percent of the cases of hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency are caused by homozygosity for the 121ins2 mutation in the surfactant...

  2. Surfactant protein-B 121ins2 heterozygosity, reduced pulmonary function, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes fatal respiratory distress syndrome in newborns. Seventy percent of the cases of hereditary surfactant protein-B deficiency are caused by homozygosity for the 121ins2 mutation in the surfactant protein-B gene...

  3. How Much Does Inbreeding Reduce Heterozygosity? Empirical Results from Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey R; Evans, Benjamin R

    2017-01-11

    Deriving strains of mosquitoes with reduced genetic variation is useful, if not necessary, for many genetic studies. Inbreeding is the standard way of achieving this. Full-sib inbreeding the mosquito Aedes aegypti for seven generations reduced heterozygosity to 72% of the initial heterozygosity in contrast to the expected 13%. This deviation from expectations is likely due to high frequencies of deleterious recessive alleles that, given the number of markers studied (27,674 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), must be quite densely spread in the genome.

  4. Reduced meiotic fitness in hybrids with heterozygosity for heterochromatin in the speciating Mus terricolor complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tikaram Sharma; Amit Bardhan; Min Bahadur

    2003-03-01

    Mus terricolor I, II and III are the three chromosomal species which differ in stable autosomal short-arm heterochromatin variations established in homozygous condition. Analysis of meiosis in the laboratorygenerated F1 male hybrids from crosses (both ways) between M. terricolor I and II and between M. terricolor I and III shows high frequencies of pairing abnormalities at pachytene. The backcross (N3 generation) male hybrids between M. terricolor I and II have meiotic abnormalities as in the F1 male hybrids, though to a lesser extent. They show difference in pairing abnormalities in the different karyotypic forms; the backcross hybrids heterozygous for the heterochromatic short arms have more anomalies compared to the homokaryotypic hybrids. This suggests a negative influence of the heterochromatin heterozygosity in meiotic pairing. The results indicate a role for heterochromatin variations in the development of a reproductive barrier in the speciating M. terricolor complex.

  5. Heterozygosity is linked to the costs of immunity in nestling great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegeli, Beatrice; Saladin, Verena; Wegmann, Michèle; Richner, Heinz

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) are more pronounced under harsh conditions. Empirical evidence suggests a mediating effect of parasite infestation on the occurrence of HFCs. Parasites have the potential to mediate HFCs not only by generally causing high stress levels but also by inducing resource allocation tradeoffs between the necessary investments in immunity and other costly functions. To investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms, we manipulated growth conditions of great tit nestlings by brood size manipulation, which modifies nestling competition, and simultaneously infested broods with ectoparasites. We investigated under which treatment conditions HFCs arise and, second, whether heterozygosity is linked to tradeoff decisions between immunity and growth. We classified microsatellites as neutral or presumed functional and analyzed these effects separately. Neutral heterozygosity was positively related to the immune response to a novel antigen in parasite-free nests, but not in infested nests. For nestlings with lower heterozygosity levels, the investments in immunity under parasite pressure came at the expenses of reduced feather growth, survival, and female body condition. Functional heterozygosity was negatively related to nestling immune response regardless of the growth conditions. These contrasting effects of functional and neutral markers might indicate different underlying mechanisms causing the HFCs. Our results confirm the importance of considering marker functionality in HFC studies and indicate that parasites mediate HFCs by influencing the costs of immune defense rather than by a general increase in environmental harshness levels.

  6. Can multilocus heterozygosity reveal inbreeding depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syukri, F; Nakajima, T; Nakajima, M

    2016-07-01

    Inbred lines of fish have been widely exploited as model organisms to determine the effect of inbreeding, which is often closely related to fitness such as endurance and productivity compared to morphological traits. Until now, much is unknown about the effects of inbreeding to fish. In the present study, inbred lines of guppies were used to examine the inbreeding effect on morphological traits corresponding to genotype variation. Two strains, called AY and NA1, were selected from the closed culture system. Both strains showed different levels of inbreeding coefficients when compared to microsatellite markers. The AY strain was less inbred as compared to NA1 strain. However, correlation between the standard lengths with multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) at the individual level was observed in the AY, but not in the NA1 strain. This indicated that highly inbred animals have higher similarity in morphological traits as compared to less inbred ones. The inbreeding process showed the importance of heterozygosity, even in laboratory-reared animals. This experiment illustrated the effects of inbreeding towards morphological and genetic changes. ?

  7. The population growth consequences of variation in individual heterozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina M I Di Fonzo

    Full Text Available Heterozygosity has been associated with components of fitness in numerous studies across a wide range of taxa. Because heterozygosity is associated with individual performance it is also expected to be associated with population dynamics. However, investigations into the association between heterozygosity and population dynamics have been rare because of difficulties in linking evolutionary and ecological processes. The choice of heterozygosity measure is a further issue confounding such studies as it can be biased by individual differences in the frequencies of the alleles studied, the number of alleles at each locus as well as the total number of loci typed. In this study, we first examine the differences between the principal metrics used to calculate heterozygosity using long-term data from a marked population of Soay sheep (Ovis aries. Next, by means of statistical transformation of the homozygosity weighted by loci index, we determine how heterozygosity contributes to population growth in Soay sheep by modelling individual contributions to population growth (p(t(i as a function of several covariates, including sex, weight and faecal egg count--a surrogate of parasitic nematode burden in the gut. We demonstrate that although heterozygosity is associated with some components of fitness, most notably adult male reproductive success, in general it is only weakly associated with population growth.

  8. Loss of heterozygosity in endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Ana; Pallares, Judit; Santacana, Maria; Yeramian, Andre; Dolcet, Xavier; Eritja, Nuria; Puente, Soraya; Sorolla, Anabel; Llecha, Nuria; Matias-Guiu, Xavier

    2008-07-01

    Inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene typically occurs in two steps, thus fulfilling Knudson hypothesis. One "hit" is frequently a point mutation or a small deletion. The other alteration is usually a large genomic loss of part of a gene, or even part of a chromosome, or the whole chromosome. However, it is not clear which of these two events occurs first. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis allows the identification of one of the 2 hits. Although microsatellite polymerase chain reaction is the technique most frequently used to assess LOH, other different approaches can also be used. The LOH can also be assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, single strand conformation polymorphism analysis, oligonucleotide microarrays capable to simultaneously determine the genotype of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphism (single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays), comparative genomic hybridization, multiplex amplification and probe hybridization, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. In this article, the authors review the results obtained with molecular analysis of LOH in the understanding of development and progression of endometrial carcinoma. Particular attention is given to: (1) the presence of widespread LOH in nonendometrioid carcinoma, probably reflecting the existence of chromosomal instability; and (2) specific LOH patterns associated with some clinicopathologic features.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity in bilateral breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, J; Man, S; Marafie, M; Carpenter, K; Pinder, S; Ellis, I O; Blamey, R W; Cross, G; Brook, J D

    2000-12-01

    Women who develop bilateral breast cancer at an early age are likely to harbour germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to test for concordant genetic changes in left and right breast cancer of young women (age < 50) with bilateral breast cancer that may suggest an inherited breast cancer predisposition. Microsatellite markers were used to test for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in left and right tumours for 31 women with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer. Markers adjacent to or within candidate genes on 17p (p53), 17q (BRCA1), 13q (BRCA2), 11q (Ataxia Telangiectasia-ATM) and 3p (FHIT) were chosen. Mutational testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed for cases where blood was available. Concordant LOH in both left and right tumours was demonstrated for at least one of the markers tested in 16/31(54%) cases. Where allelic loss was demonstrated for both left and right breast cancer, the same allele was lost on each occasion. This may suggest a common mutational event. Four cases showed concordant loss of alleles in both left and right breast cancer at D17S791 (BRCA1). BRCA1 mutations were identified in two of these cases where blood was available. Four cases showed concordant LOH at D13S155 (BRCA2). Concordant LOH was further demonstrated in seven cases for D11S1778 (ATM) and four cases for D3S1300 (which maps to the FHIT gene), suggesting a possible role for these tumour suppressor genes in this subgroup of breast cancer patients. No concordant allelic loss was demonstrated for D17S786 suggesting that germline mutations in p53 are unlikely in such cases of bilateral breast cancer.

  10. Effect of lead pollution on fitness and its dependence on heterozygosity in Drosophila subobscura

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marija Tanaskovic; Zorana Kurbalija Novicic; Bojan Kenig; Marina Stamenkovic-Radak; Marko Andjelkovic

    2015-12-01

    Lead is one of the most present contaminants in the environment, and different species respond differently to this type of pollution. If combined with genomic stress, lead may act synergistically, causing significant decrease of fitness components. We used two genetically diverse Drosophila subobscura populations (regarding both putatively adaptive inversion and microsatellite loci polymorphisms) originating from two ecologically distinct habitats. To establish different levels of genome heterozygosity, series of intraline, intrapopulation and interpopulation crosses were made. The progeny were reared on a standard medium and a medium with 200 g/mL of lead acetate. Development time was significantly extended to all groups reared on lead. The progeny of intraline crosses showed significantly extended development time compared to all other groups. The obtained results suggest that genome heterozygosity reduces the effect of lead pollution.

  11. Heterozygosity at a single locus explains a large proportion of variation in two fitness-related traits in great tits: a general or a local effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, V; Cáliz-Campal, C; Ferrer, E S; Sanz, J J; Ortego, J

    2014-12-01

    In natural populations, mating between relatives can have important fitness consequences due to the negative effects of reduced heterozygosity. Parental level of inbreeding or heterozygosity has been also found to influence the performance of offspring, via direct and indirect parental effects that are independent of the progeny own level of genetic diversity. In this study, we first analysed the effects of parental heterozygosity and relatedness (i.e. an estimate of offspring genetic diversity) on four traits related to offspring viability in great tits (Parus major) using 15 microsatellite markers. Second, we tested whether significant heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) were due to 'local' (i.e. linkage to genes influencing fitness) and/or 'general' (genome-wide heterozygosity) effects. We found a significant negative relationship between parental genetic relatedness and hatching success, and maternal heterozygosity was positively associated with offspring body size. The characteristics of the studied populations (recent admixture, polygynous matings) together with the fact that we found evidence for identity disequilibrium across our set of neutral markers suggest that HFCs may have resulted from genome-wide inbreeding depression. However, one locus (Ase18) had disproportionately large effects on the observed HFCs: heterozygosity at this locus had significant positive effects on hatching success and offspring size. It suggests that this marker may lie near to a functional locus under selection (i.e. a local effect) or, alternatively, heterozygosity at this locus might be correlated to heterozygosity across the genome due to the extensive ID found in our populations (i.e. a general effect). Collectively, our results lend support to both the general and local effect hypotheses and reinforce the view that HFCs lie on a continuum from inbreeding depression to those strictly due to linkage between marker loci and genes under selection.

  12. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinetti Isabella

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi depend on locus heterozygosity (H, and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals.

  13. Heterozygosity for a Bub1 mutation causes female-specific germ cell aneuploidy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, Shawn; Nagarajan, Prabakaran; Polyzos, Aris; Thomas, Sharon; Samaan, George; Donnell, Robert; Marchetti, Francesco; Venkatachalam, Sundaresan

    2009-06-24

    Aneuploidy, the most common chromosomal abnormality at birth and the main ascertained cause of pregnancy loss in humans, originates primarily from chromosome segregation errors during oogenesis. Here we report that heterozygosity for a mutation in the mitotic checkpoint kinase gene, Bub1, induces aneuploidy in female germ cells of mice, and that the effect increases with advancing maternal age. Analysis of Bub1 heterozygous oocytes showed that aneuploidy occurred primarily during the first meiotic division and involved premature sister chromatid separation. Furthermore, aneuploidy was inherited in zygotes and resulted in the loss of embryos after implantation. The incidence of aneuploidy in zygotes was sufficient to explain the reduced litter size in matings with Bub1 heterozygous females. No effects were seen in germ cells from heterozygous males. These findings show that Bub1 dysfunction is linked to inherited aneuploidy in female germ cells and may contribute to the maternal age-related increase in aneuploidy and pregnancy loss.

  14. Multilocus Heterozygosity and Coronary Heart Disease: Nested Case-Control Studies in Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Pers, Tune Hannes;

    2015-01-01

    , homocysteine, adiponectin, or body-mass index. Conclusions: In these parallel nested case-control studies, we found no relationship of multilocus heterozygosity with risk of CHD or its major risk factors. Studies in other populations are needed to rule out associations with lower levels of heterozygosity....

  15. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D.; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L.

    2014-01-01

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U. K. population of European ba

  16. Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a wild mammal population: accounting for parental and environmental effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Christopher; Buesching, Christina D.; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry; Dugdale, Hannah L.

    HFCs (heterozygosity-fitness correlations) measure the direct relationship between an individual's genetic diversity and fitness. The effects of parental heterozygosity and the environment on HFCs are currently under-researched. We investigated these in a high-density U. K. population of European

  17. Heterozygosity and orange coloration are associated in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, M; Dudka, K; Radwan, J

    2014-01-01

    The good-genes-as-heterozygosity hypothesis predicts that more elaborate male sexual ornaments are associated with higher levels of heterozygosity. Recent theoretical work suggests that such associations are likely to arise in finite, structured populations. We investigated the correlation between multilocus heterozygosity (MLH), which was estimated using 13 microsatellite loci, and male coloration in a wild population of guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a model species in sexual selection research. We found that MLH was a significant predictor of the relative area of orange spots, a trait that is subject to strong female preference in this species. Neither the relative area of black spots nor the number of black or orange spots was significantly correlated with MLH. We found no statistical support for local effects (i.e. strong effects of heterozygosity at specific markers), which suggests that relative orange spots area reflects genome-wide heterozygosity.

  18. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  19. [Gene frequencies and heterozygosity of the population of Donetsk Province, Ukraine by the alleles of the ABO and Rhesus systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, V N

    1999-01-01

    Frequency and heterozygosity indices of AB0 and Rh gene systems in the population of Donetsk Province were calculated. Uneven distribution of the genes was found and heterozygosity indices of the population were 0.554-0.573 for AB0 and 0.410-0.499 for Rh. Heterozygosity in this population was higher than average heterozygosity in total population of Ukraine as a result of intensive migrations and prevalence of heterolocal marriages over homolocal ones.

  20. Molecular marker heterozygosities and genetic distances as correlates of production traits in F1 bovine crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Tambasco-Talhari

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the relationship between heterozygosity, genetic distance and production traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the degree of heterozygosity and genetic distance on growth, carcass and reproductive related features in F1 bovine crosses. We tested 10 polymorphic markers in 330 purebred cattle (Nelore, Canchim, Aberdeen Angus and Simental and 256 crossbred cattle belonging to four crossbred groups. Individual heterozygosities (Hi and multilocus genetic similarity (Dm were estimated and used in correlation analysis against individual phenotypic measurements. Significant (p < 0.05 Hi effects occurred for birth weight, 15 to 18 month weight, hot carcass weight and longissimus rib eye area. The extent to which increased heterozygosity (deltaH in F1 crosses can be predicted from the genetic distance of parental breeds was also investigated using Nei's standard genetic distance (Ds and standard heterozygosity (Hs. High correlations were found between deltaHi, deltaHs and the Ds of the parental breeds. Our results suggest that heterozygosity of the ten molecular markers used in this study may affect live weight during at least one growth phase. Parental genetic distance was a suitable predictor of the degree of progeny heterozygosity.

  1. Heterozygosity for the classical galactosemia mutation does not affect ovarian reserve and menopausal age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knauff, Erik A. H.; Richardus, Renate; Eijkemans, Marinus J.; Broekinans, Frank J.; de Jong, Frank J.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Bosch, Annet M.

    2007-01-01

    Female patients with classical galactosemia (galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase [GALT] deficiency) frequently suffer from premature ovarian failure, despite treatment with a galactose-restricted diet. Earlier research has suggested an association between heterozygosity for GALT mutations and ea

  2. Male heterozygosity predicts territory size, song structure and reproductive success in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Nathalie; Amos, William; Mulder, Raoul A; Tobias, Joseph A

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies of non-social animals have shown that sexually selected traits signal at least one measure of genetic quality: heterozygosity. To determine whether similar cues reveal group quality in more complex social systems, we examined the relationship between territory size, song structure and heterozygosity in the subdesert mesite (Monias benschi), a group-living bird endemic to Madagascar. Using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci, we found that heterozygosity predicted both the size of territories and the structure of songs used to defend them: more heterozygous groups had larger territories, and more heterozygous males used longer, lower-pitched trills in their songs. Heterozygosity was linked to territory size and song structure in males, but not in females, implying that these traits are sexually selected by female choice and/or male-male competition. To our knowledge, this study provides the first direct evidence in any animal that territory size is related to genetic diversity. We also found a positive association between seasonal reproductive success and heterozygosity, suggesting that this heritable characteristic is a reliable indicator of group quality and fitness. Given that heterozygosity predicts song structure in males, and can therefore be determined by listening to acoustic cues, we identify a mechanism by which social animals may assess rival groups, prospective partners and group mates, information of potential importance in guiding decisions related to conflict, breeding and dispersal.

  3. Mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 double heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jufang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that heterozygosity for a single gene is linked with tumorigenesis and heterozygosity for two genes increases the risk of tumor incidence. Our previous work has demonstrated that Atm/Brca1 double heterozygosity leads to higher cell transformation rate than single heterozygosity. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, a series of pathways were investigated to clarify the possible mechanisms of increased risk of tumorigenesis in Atm and Brca1 heterozygosity. Methods Wild type cells, Atm or Brca1 single heterozygous cells, and Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells were used to investigate DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, micronuclei, and cell transformation after photon irradiation. Results Remarkable high transformation frequency was confirmed in Atm/Brca1 double heterozygous cells compared to wild type cells. It was observed that delayed DNA damage recognition, disturbed cell cycle checkpoint, incomplete DNA repair, and increased genomic instability were involved in the biological networks. Haploinsufficiency of either ATM or BRCA1 negatively impacts these pathways. Conclusions The quantity of critical proteins such as ATM and BRCA1 plays an important role in determination of the fate of cells exposed to ionizing radiation and double heterozygosity increases the risk of tumorigenesis. These findings also benefit understanding of the individual susceptibility to tumor initiation.

  4. Loss of heterozygosity: An independent prognostic factor of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shih-Ching Chang; Jen-Kou Lin; Tzu-Chen Lin; Wen-Yih Liang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Colorectal cancers result from the accumulation of several distinct genetic alterations. This study was to investigate the frequency and prognostic value of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) at 14 genetic loci located near or within regions containing important genes implicated in colorectal tumorigenesis.METHODS: We studied colorectal cancers with corresponding normal mucosae in 207 patients (139 males and 68 females,mean age at the time of tumor resection 66.2±12.4 years,range 22-88 years). There were 37 right-sided colonic tumors, 85 left-sided colonic tumors and 85 rectal tumors.The distribution of tumor staging was stage Ⅰ in 25, stage Ⅱ in 73, stage Ⅲ in 68, and stage Ⅳ in 41. We analyzed the LOH and MSI of HPC1, hMSH2, hMLH1, APC, MET,P53, NH23-H1, DCC, BAT25, BAT26, D17S250, MYCL1 and D8S254 with fluorescent polymerase chain reaction and denatured gel electrophoresis. High-frequency LOH was determined to be greater than three, or more than 50%of the informative marker with LOH. High-frequency MSI (MSI-H) was determined as more than four markers with instability (>30%). Correlations of LOH and MSI with clinical outcomes and pathological features were analyzed and compared.RESULTS: The occurrence of MSI-H was 7.25%, located predominantly in the right colons (7/15) and had a higher frequency of poor differentiation (6/15) and mucin production (7/15). LOH in at least one genetic locus occurred in 78.7% of the tumors and was significantly associated with disease progression. Of the 166 potentially cured patients, 45 developed tumor recurrence within 36 mo of follow-up. Clinicopathological factors affecting 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) were TNM staging, grade of differentiation, preoperative CEA level, and high LOH status. Patients with high LOH tumors had a significantly lower DFS (50%) compared with patients with low LOH tumors (84%). Of the patients developing subsequent tumor recurrence, the number and

  5. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). AIM: To determine the role played by APC gene in the genesis of cutaneous SCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allelic imbalance\\/loss of heterozygosity (AI\\/LOH) was examined in twenty-two histologically confirmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) using microsatellite markers, proximal to the APC gene. Immunohistochemical analysis of APC protein expression was also examined in the cutaneous SCC. RESULTS: AI\\/LOH was detected in 60% of the SCC samples using D5S346 marker (proximal to the APC gene). Ninty-five percent of the SCC samples showed positive reduced APC expression, however the localization of the APC protein was abnormal. CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of APC suggests that APC gene may play a role in cutaneous SCC development.

  6. Heterozygosity for fibrinogen results in efficient resolution of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrendra Kumar Ajay

    Full Text Available Fibrinogen (Fg has been recognized to play a central role in coagulation, inflammation and tissue regeneration. Several studies have used Fg deficient mice (Fg(-/- in comparison with heterozygous mice (Fg(+/- to point the proinflammatory role of Fg in diverse pathological conditions and disease states. Although Fg(+/- mice are considered 'normal', plasma Fg is reduced to ~75% of the normal circulating levels present in wild type mice (Fg(+/+. We report that this reduction in Fg protein production in the Fg(+/- mice is enough to protect them from kidney ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI as assessed by tubular injury, kidney dysfunction, necrosis, apoptosis and inflammatory immune cell infiltration. Mechanistically, we observed binding of Fg to ICAM-1 in kidney tissues of Fg(+/+ mice at 24 h following IRI as compared to a complete absence of binding observed in the Fg(+/- and Fg(-/- mice. Raf-1 and ERK were highly activated as evident by significantly higher phosphorylation in the Fg(+/+ kidneys at 24 h following IRI as compared to Fg(+/- and Fg(-/- mice kidneys. On the other hand Cyclin D1 and pRb, indicating higher cell proliferation, were significantly increased in the Fg(+/- and Fg(-/- as compared to Fg(+/+ kidneys. These data suggest that Fg heterozygosity allows maintenance of a critical balance of Fg that enables regression of initial injury and promotes faster resolution of kidney damage.

  7. Determining the contribution of NPM1 heterozygosity to NPM-ALK-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mduff, Fiona K E; Hook, C Elizabeth; Tooze, Reuben M; Huntly, Brian J; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Turner, Suzanne D

    2011-09-01

    Heterozygous expression of Nucleophosmin (NPM1) predisposes to hematological malignancies in the mouse and cooperates with Myc in lymphomagenesis. NPM1 is therefore regarded as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Heterozygous loss of NPM1 occurs as a result of the t(2;5), which generates the oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinase, NPM-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a molecule underlying the pathogenesis of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Given the aforementioned role of NPM1 as a tumor suppressor, we hypothesized that NPM1 heterozygosity would cooperate with NPM-ALK in lymphomagenesis. In the event, we observed no difference in tumor latency, incidence or phenotype in NPM-ALK-transgenic mice heterozygous for NPM1 relative to transgenic mice expressing both NPM1 alleles. We propose that although the t(2;5) simultaneously reduces NPM1 allelic dosage and creates the NPM-ALK fusion protein, the two events do not cooperate in the pathogenesis of ALCL in our mouse model. These data indicate that a tumor-suppressive role for NPM1 may depend on cellular and/or genetic context.

  8. Social pairing of Seychelles warblers under reduced constraints : MHC, neutral heterozygosity, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David J.; Brouwer, Lyanne; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and significance of precopulatory mate choice remains keenly debated. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, and variation at the MHC influences individual survival. Although MHC-dependent mate choice has been documented in certain

  9. Utilization of touch preparations and whole genome amplification for loss of heterozygosity analysis in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, M.J.; Halling, K.; Thibodeau, S.N. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses have been used extensively to identify tumor suppressor genes in a variety of tumor systems. In an effort to localize such genes in prostate cancer, we have examined tissue for LOH with the use of PCR-based assays for a variety of microsatellites. However, the highly infiltrative nature of prostate carcinoma makes it virtually impossible, by conventional methods, to obtain tumor DNA that is uncontaminated with DNA from normal cells. Thus, we have examined the use of touch preparations as a means to increase the percentage of tumor DNA for our LOH analyses. This method, which involves lightly touching the cut surface of fresh prostate tissue to the surface of a microscope slide, allows for selection of tumor cell clusters. DNA from these cells can then be used in a variety of PCR-based assays. In this study, we demonstrate that tumor cell clusters can be used effectively for LOH analysis. Our studies also demonstrate that use of the touch preparation technique reduces or eliminates normal cell contamination. However, the small quantity of DNA in these clusters prohibits analysis at multiple loci. Therefore, we have examined whole genome amplification (WGA) of tumor cells clusters as a method of avoiding this difficulty. Random 15 base oligonucleotides were used as primers for WGA of cell cluster DNA. Aliquots of the WGA were then subjected to a second round of PCR in which microsatellite markers demonstrating allelic loss in prostate cancer were amplified. Our studies indicate that analysis of limited quantities of prostate tumor DNA at multiple loci can be accomplished through coupling of the touch preparation technique with WGA. This method may have ramifications for the analysis of tissue in which procurement of sufficient quantities of DNA is difficult.

  10. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  11. The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment increases with environmental harshness in blue tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Esperanza S; García-Navas, Vicente; Sanz, Juan José; Ortego, Joaquín

    2016-12-01

    The extent of inbreeding depression and the magnitude of heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFC) have been suggested to depend on the environmental context in which they are assayed, but little evidence is available for wild populations. We combine extensive molecular and capture-mark-recapture data from a blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) population to (1) analyze the relationship between heterozygosity and probability of interannual adult local recruitment and (2) test whether environmental stress imposed by physiologically suboptimal temperatures and rainfall influence the magnitude of HFC. To address these questions, we used two different arrays of microsatellite markers: 14 loci classified as neutral and 12 loci classified as putatively functional. We found significant relationships between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment that were most likely explained by variation in genomewide heterozygosity. The strength of the association between heterozygosity and probability of interannual local recruitment was positively associated with annual accumulated precipitation. Annual mean heterozygosity increased over time, which may have resulted from an overall positive selection on heterozygosity over the course of the study period. Finally, neutral and putatively functional loci showed similar trends, but the former had stronger effect sizes and seemed to better reflect genomewide heterozygosity. Overall, our results show that HFC can be context dependent, emphasizing the need to consider the role of environmental heterogeneity as a key factor when exploring the consequences of individual genetic diversity on fitness in natural populations.

  12. Very CIN-ful: whole chromosome instability promotes tumor suppressor loss of heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, Rocio; Schvartzman, Juan-Manuel; Benezra, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Mechanisms by which whole chromosome instability lead to tumorigenesis have eluded the cancer research field. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Baker et al. show that CIN induced by a defective mitotic checkpoint, under certain genetic and tissue contexts, leads to accelerated loss of heterozygosity of a tumor suppressor gene.

  13. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival) among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness. PMID:21284886

  14. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penedo M Cecilia T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness.

  15. The Adaptive Response in p53 Cancer Prone Mice: Loss of heterozygosity and Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josee, Lavoie [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences; Dolling, Jo-Anna [Credit Valley Hospital, Missassauga, ON (Canada); Mitchel, Ron E.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL), Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Boreham, Douglas R. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences

    2004-09-28

    mice, only numerical aberrations were observed in 5 to 20% of the cells. There seem to be an age related increase in numerical aberrations as mice grow old. The results indicate that the presence of a defective copy of the Trp53 gene does not seem to affect spontaneous chromosomal instability or in response to chronic low dose exposure to g-radiation. In previous studies it was speculated that low dose and low dose rate in vivo exposure to g-radiation induces an adaptive response, which reduces the risk of cancer death generated by subsequent DNA damage from either spontaneous or radiation induced events due to enhanced recombinational repair. Induced recombination could result from reversion to homozygosity at Trp53 gene locus (Trp53 +/- to +/+) or loss of heterozygosity in unexposed mice (Trp53 +/- to -/-). This hypothesis was investigated using the quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) quantification method and the novel Rolling Circle Amplification technique (RCA). For these purposes, spleenocytes and bone marrow cells from all the mice were isolated for cell fixation and DNA extraction. The defective Trp53 allele is generated by integration of a portion of the cloning vector pKONEO DNA into the coding sequence. Therefore, the genotypic changes are monitored based on the detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in the cells. To evaluate loss of heterozygosity at the Trp53 gene locus in a cell, detection of the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele using the dual color RCA was utilized. In our hands, this protocol did not give the required sensitivity. The gene signal enumeration was inconsistent and not reproducible. The protocol was modified and could not be optimized. Therefore, the QRT-PCR method was selected to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity with greater sensitivity and efficiency. A set of 4 primers was designed to target the NEO allele and the normal Trp53 allele in a PCR experiment using the LightCycler instrument

  16. Females prefer the scent of outbred males: good-genes-as-heterozygosity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoß Michaela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest to determine the relative importance of non-additive genetic benefits as opposed to additive ones for the evolution of mating preferences and maintenance of genetic variation in sexual ornaments. The 'good-genes-as-heterozygosity' hypothesis predicts that females should prefer to mate with more heterozygous males to gain more heterozygous (and less inbred offspring. Heterozygosity increases males' sexual ornamentation, mating success and reproduction success, yet few experiments have tested whether females are preferentially attracted to heterozygous males, and none have tested whether females' own heterozygosity influences their preferences. Outbred females might have the luxury of being more choosey, but on the other hand, inbred females might have more to gain by mating with heterozygous males. We manipulated heterozygosity in wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus through inbreeding and tested whether the females are more attracted to the scent of outbred versus inbred males, and whether females' own inbreeding status affects their preferences. We also tested whether infecting both inbred and outbred males with Salmonella would magnify females' preferences for outbred males. Results Females showed a significant preference for outbred males, and this preference was more pronounced among inbred females. We found no evidence that Salmonella infection increased the relative attractiveness of outbred versus inbred males; however, we found no evidence that inbreeding affected males' disease resistance in this study. Conclusion Our findings support the idea that females are more attracted to outbred males, and they suggest that such preferences may be stronger among inbred than outbred females, which is consistent with the 'good-genes-as-heterozygosity' hypothesis. It is unclear whether this odour preference reflects females' actual mating preferences, though it suggests that future studies

  17. A Successful Mother and Neonate Outcome for a Woman with Essential Thrombocytosis and FV Leiden Heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Politou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential thrombocytosis (ET and FV Leiden heterozygosity represent an acquired and hereditable hypercoagulable state, respectively. An uncommon case of coexistence of ET and FV Leiden heterozygosity in a 36-year-old pregnant woman and her successful pregnancy outcome is described. She was considered to be at high risk of thrombosis during her pregnancy and she was treated with both prophylactic dose of LMWH and aspirin daily throughout her pregnancy and for a 6-week period postpartum. The efficacy of the anticoagulation treatment was monitored in various time points not only by measuring anti-Xa levels and D-Dimers but also with new coagulation methods such as rotation thromboelastometry and multiplate. Global assessment of coagulation using additional newer laboratory tests might prove useful in monitoring coagulation pregnancies at high risk for thrombosis.

  18. Testosterone, anastrozole, factor V Leiden heterozygosity and osteonecrosis of the jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Ramesh S; Glueck, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Our specific aim is to describe the development of thrombotic osteonecrosis of the jaws after testosterone-anastrozole therapy in a 55-year-old white man subsequently found to have previously undiagnosed factor V Leiden heterozygosity. Before the diagnosis of V Leiden heterozygosity, he was given testosterone gel, 50 mg/day, and on testosterone, serum testosterone (963 ng/dl) and estradiol were high (50 pg/ml). Anastrozole was started, and testosterone was continued. Six months later, osteonecrosis of the jaws was diagnosed. Exogenous testosterone is aromatized to estradiol and estradiol-induced thrombophilia, when superimposed on underlying familial thrombophilia, as in this case, may lead to thrombosis and osteonecrosis. We recommend that before giving testosterone, at a minimum, screening for the factor V Leiden and G20210A mutations, and factor VIII and XI activity be carried out, to avoid unanticipated thrombosis.

  19. Maternal and paternal lineage double heterozygosity alteration in familial breast cancer: a first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Lambo, Rossana; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary breast cancer syndrome was firstly associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes the mutations of which confer high risk to develop breast and/or ovarian cancer. Double heterozygosity is a rare condition in which both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are present in a family at the same time. In the current study, a family with double heterozygosity has been reported. Furthermore, for the first time a molecular analysis in both proband lineages, maternal and paternal, has been reported to understand the provenience of both germinal mutations.The case regards a woman who developed breast and ovarian cancer with liver metastasis which presented two mutations, each in the two genes, transmitted from her mother and her father, respectively. In this family all available members have been investigated. The concomitant presence of these peculiar mutations was never reported before suggesting a link with Caucasian population from Southern Italy.

  20. Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, Joanne [NCGR

    2012-06-01

    Joanne Mudge on "Phytophthora capsici - Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH): A Widespread Mechanism for Rapid Mutation" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  1. Loss of heterozygosity analyzed by single nucleotide polymorphisrn array in cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiTao Zheng; ZhiHai Peng; Sheng Li; Lin He

    2005-01-01

    Neoplastic progression is generally characterized by the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations including loss of tumor suppression gene function.Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been used to identify genomic regions that harbor tumor suppressor genes and to characterize different tumor types, pathological stages and progression. LOH pattern has been detected by allelotyping using restriction fragment length polymorphism, and later by simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs or microsatellite) for 10 years.This paper reviews the detection of LOH by recently developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays (all analyzed by Affymetrix array); furthermore, its advantage and disadvantage were analyzed in several kinds of cancer.

  2. Osteogenesis imperfecta due to compound heterozygosity for the LEPRE1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Adrienne; Alladin, Amanda; Navarrete, Cristina; Abdenour, George; Rodriguez, Maria M

    2013-10-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone density. Most cases are caused by an autosomal dominant mutation in either COL1A1 or COL1A2 gene encoding type I collagen. However, autosomal recessive forms have been identified. We present a patient with severe respiratory distress due to osteogenesis imperfecta simulating type II, born to a non-consanguineous couple with mixed African-American and African-Hispanic ethnicity. Cultured skin fibroblasts demonstrated compound heterozygosity for mutations in the LEPRE1 gene encoding prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1 confirming the diagnosis of autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type VIII, perinatal lethal type.

  3. Loss of heterozygosity and carrier identification in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a familiar case with recombination event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca-Mendoza Dora Janeth

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD is an X-linked recessive disease characterizedby muscular weakness. It is caused by mutations on the dystrophin gen. Loss of heterozygosityallows us to identify female carriers of deletions on the dystrophin gen. Objective: identifyfemale carriers in a family with a patient affected by DMD. Material and methods: nine familymembers and the affected child were analyzed using DNA extraction and posterior amplificationof ten STRs on the dystrophin gen. Haplotypes were constructed and the carrier status determinedin two of the six women analyzed due to loss of heterozygosity in three STRs. Additionally, weobserved a recombination event. Conclusions: loss of heterozygosity allows us to establish witha certainty of 100% the carrier status of females with deletions on the dystrophin gen. By theconstruction of haplotypes we were able to identify the X chromosome with the deletion in twoof the six women analyzed. We also determined a recombination event in one of the sisters of theaffected child. These are described with a high frequency (12%. A possible origin for the mutationis a gonadal mosaicism in the maternal grandfather or in the mother of the affected childin a very early stage in embryogensis. This can be concluded using the analysis of haplotypes.

  4. [Genetic ecological monitoring in human populations: heterozygosity, mtDNA haplotype variation, and genetic load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovskiĭ, O P; Koshel', S M; Zaporozhchenko, V V; Pshenichnov, A S; Frolova, S A; Kuznetsova, M A; Baranova, E E; Teuchezh, I E; Kuznetsova, A A; Romashkina, M V; Utevskaia, O M; Churnosov, M I; Villems, R; Balanovskaia, E V

    2011-11-01

    Yu. P. Altukhov suggested that heterozygosity is an indicator of the state of the gene pool. The idea and a linked concept of genetic ecological monitoring were applied to a new dataset on mtDNA variation in East European ethnic groups. Haplotype diversity (an analog of the average heterozygosity) was shown to gradually decrease northwards. Since a similar trend is known for population density, interlinked changes were assumed for a set of parameters, which were ordered to form a causative chain: latitude increases, land productivity decreases, population density decreases, effective population size decreases, isolation of subpopulations increases, genetic drift increases, and mtDNA haplotype diversity decreases. An increase in genetic drift increases the random inbreeding rate and, consequently, the genetic load. This was confirmed by a significant correlation observed between the incidence of autosomal recessive hereditary diseases and mtDNA haplotype diversity. Based on the findings, mtDNA was assumed to provide an informative genetic system for genetic ecological monitoring; e.g., analyzing the ecology-driven changes in the gene pool.

  5. Effect of CCR5-Δ32 heterozygosity on HIV-1 susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: So far, many studies have investigated the distribution of CCR5 genotype between HIV-1 infected patients and uninfected people. However, no definite results have been put forward about whether heterozygosity for a 32-basepair deletion in CCR5 gene (CCR5-Δ32 can affect HIV-1 susceptibility. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of 18 studies including more than 12000 subjects for whom the CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism was genotyped. Odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI were employed to assess the association of CCR5-Δ32 polymorphism with HIV-1 susceptibility. RESULTS: Compared with the wild-type CCR5 homozygotes, the pooled OR for CCR5-Δ32 heterozygotes was 1.02 (95%CI, 0.88-1.19 for healthy controls (HC and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.71-1.26 for exposed uninfected (EU controls. Similar results were found in stratified analysis by ethnicity, sample size and method of CCR5-Δ32 genotyping. CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis indicated that HIV-1 susceptibility is not significantly affected by heterozygosity for CCR5-Δ32.

  6. Exploring heterozygosity-survival correlations in a wild songbird population: contrasting effects between juvenile and adult stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Canal

    Full Text Available The relationship between genetic diversity and fitness, a major issue in evolutionary and conservation biology, is expected to be stronger in traits affected by many loci and those directly influencing fitness. Here we explore the influence of heterozygosity measured at 15 neutral markers on individual survival, one of the most important parameters determining individual fitness. We followed individual survival up to recruitment and during subsequent adult life of 863 fledgling pied flycatchers born in two consecutive breeding seasons. Mark-recapture analyses showed that individual heterozygosity did not influence juvenile or adult survival. In contrast, the genetic relatedness of parents was negatively associated with the offspring's survival during the adult life, but this effect was not apparent in the juvenile (from fledgling to recruitment stage. Stochastic factors experienced during the first year of life in this long-distance migratory species may have swamped a relationship between heterozygosity and survival up to recruitment.

  7. Homozygous factor V Leiden and double heterozygosity for factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Ymir; Sveinsdottir, Signý Vala; Svantesson, Henrik; Svensson, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    The most common forms of familial thrombophilia are factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin mutation (PTM). Homozygous FVL and PTM have long been feared conditions thought to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. To analyse clinical features in patients with homozygous FVL and PTM, as well as patients with double heterozygosity for FVL and PTM. All patients with homozygous FVL, PTM or double heterozygosity in the MATS database of 1465 consecutive unselected patients were analysed regarding age at inclusion venous thromboembolism (VTE), age at first thrombosis, recurrence, clinical course and acquired risk factors. We found 36 patients homozygous for FVL. Patients homozygous for FVL were younger than controls at group level (56 ± 18 vs. 63 ± 17, p < 0.02). Homozygous women were younger than female controls (50 ± 19 vs. 63 ± 18, p < 0.002). No difference was observed when comparing male subjects. Women were younger than men at inclusion thrombosis (50 ± 19 vs. 65 ± 14, p < 0.02) and at first thrombosis (47 ± 19 vs. 64 ± 14, p < 0.01). Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was seen in 33 patients (92 %), 6 (17 %) had pulmonary embolism (PE) and 3 (8 %) had combined DVT and PE. PE was less frequent in homozygous FVL women compared to female controls (p < 0.03). VTE recurred in 3 subjects during the duration of the study. Odds ratio for VTE in homozygous FVL patients compared to controls was 13.9 (95 % CI 9.9-19.7). We found no subjects with homozygous PTM. Double heterozygosity for FVL and PTM was seen in 12 subjects. There was no difference in age at inclusion VTE between double heterozygotes and controls (59 ± 16 vs. 63 ± 17, ns.). DVT was seen in 92 % at inclusion, 8 % had PE. Mean age at first VTE was 52 ± 17 (27-82). Consecutive homozygous FVL patients had a higher age at first thrombosis than previously described. Homozygous females are affected at an earlier age than homozygous men and female controls. It seems that

  8. Immune deficiency augments the prevalence of p53 loss of heterozygosity in spontaneous tumors but not bi-directional loss of heterozygosity in bone marrow progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetzer, Yoav; Napchan, Yael; Kaufman, Tom; Molchadsky, Alina; Tal, Perry; Goldfinger, Naomi; Rotter, Varda

    2017-03-15

    p53 loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a frequent event in tumors of somatic and Li-Fraumeni syndrome patients harboring p53 mutation. Here, we focused on resolving a possible crosstalk between the immune-system and p53 LOH. Previously, we reported that p53 heterozygous bone-marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells undergo p53 LOH in-vivo. Surprisingly, the loss of either the wild-type p53 allele or mutant p53 allele was detected with a three-to-one ratio in favor of losing the mutant allele. In this study, we examined whether the immune-system can affect the LOH directionality in bone marrow progenitors. We found that mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from immune-deficient mice exhibited the same preference of losing the mutant p53 allele as immune-competent matched cells, nevertheless, these animals showed a significantly shorter tumor-free survival, indicating the possible involvement of immune surveillance in this model. Surprisingly, spontaneous tumors of p53 heterozygous immune-deficient mice exhibited a significantly higher incidence of p53 LOH compared to that observed in tumors derived of p53 heterozygous immune-competent mice. These findings indicate that the immune-system may affect the p53 LOH prevalence in spontaneous tumors. Thus suggesting that the immune-system may recognize and clear cells that underwent p53 LOH, whereas in immune-compromised mice, those cells will form tumors with shorter latency. In individuals with a competent immune-system, p53 LOH independent pathways may induce malignant transformation which requires a longer tumor latency. Moreover, this data may imply that the current immunotherapy treatment aimed at abrogating the inhibition of cellular immune checkpoints may be beneficial for LFS patients.

  9. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY FOR MARKERS ON 22CHROMOSOME IN SPORADIC SCHWANNOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To analyze the loss of heterozygosity ( LOH) for markers on chromosome 22 ( CHR 22 ) and its significance with their clinical behaviors. Methods The frequency of CHR22 LOH in 36 schwannomas was observed by dena tured polyacrylamide gels and silver staining, and the proliferative index of schwannoma was calculated by Ki-67 and PCNA im munohistochemistry. Results 15 schwannomas (41.6%) showed allele loss. The proliferative index of schwannomas with LOH were significantly higher than those without LOH (P<0.05). In acoustic neuromas, patients with LOH were younger at the age of diagnosis, larger size of tumor, shorter history and higher growth rate than those without LOH, but with no signifi cance. Conclusion CHR22 LOH was the frequent event in the tumorigenesis of sporadic schwannoma. There were some links between CHR22 LOH and clinical behavior.

  10. Cytological evidence for assortment mitosis leading to loss of heterozygosity in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Li, Xiaomei; Chatterton, N Jerry

    2006-05-01

    In the root meristem cells of the rice line AMR, which causes loss of heterozygosity in its hybrids, both normal and assortment mitoses were observed. During normal mitosis, chromosomes did not form homologous pairs at metaphase; all chromosomes lined up at the equatorial plate and 2 chromatids of each chromosome disjoined at the centromere and moved toward opposite poles. During assortment mitosis, varying numbers of paired homologues were observed at mitotic metaphase. Two groups of 12 chromosomes separated and moved towards the opposite poles of daughter cells with few chromosomes having their chromatids separated at anaphase. These observations support the proposed mechanism that is responsible for early genotype fixation in rice hybrids involving AMR.

  11. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 17p13.3 IN OVARIAN CANCER AND CERVICAL CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoling; Yang Huijian; Xu Kaili; Zhou Jin; Qin Ruidi; Lu Minghua

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To identify the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 17p13.3 in ovarian cancer and cervical cancer. Methods: The frequency of LOH on chromosome 17p13.3 in DNA samples from 24 ovarian cancers, 9 cervical cancers, and 13 non-malignant gynecological diseases were determined respectively, using Southern blot method with probe PYNZ.22. Results:LOH on 17p13.3 was found in 12 of 24 (50.0%) ovarian cancers (including a borderline mucinous cystadenoma), 4of 9 (44.4%) cervical carcinomas, and 1 of 13 (7.7%) nonmalignant gynecological diseases, which was cervical intraepithelial neoplasm HI (CIN Ⅲ) (P<0.01).Conclusion: These results show that LOH on 17p13.3 is associated with ovarian cancer and cervical cancer,suggesting that detection of LOH on 17p13.3 may be helpful to understand the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.

  12. HeFPipe: a complete analytical pipeline for heterozygosity-fitness correlation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    As the body of heterozygosity-fitness correlation (HFC) research grows, more and increasingly complicated tests have become an integral part of a typical HFC analysis (Chapman et al. 2009). Currently, no software is available to undertake conversion between the file formats required to conduct all of these tests and to conduct the main regression analyses at the core of all HFCs. Heterozygosity-Fitness Pipeline (HeFPipe) is a script written in Python that accomplishes both of these tasks for studies based on microsatellite data. HeFPipe is designed to be used from the command line terminal and will run on any Mac OSX computer. The script takes input in the form of allele reports from either the genotype-calling software, GeneMapper or GeneMarker, and reconfigures the data into GENEPOP (Raymond & Rousset 1995), Rhh (Alho et al. 2010), RMES (David et al. 2007) and GEPHAST (Amos & Acevedo-Whitehouse 2009) formats. The script is also equipped to reformat the output from GENEPOP on the Web (option 5) and Rhh into csv spreadsheets that can be incorporated into downstream analyses. HeFPipe accommodates user-provided lists of samples and markers to be included in or excluded from analyses. HeFPipe is equipped to create generalized linear models (GLMs) from both the main data set and subsets of the data. Finally, HeFPipe allows users to explore single-marker effects and conduct correlation analyses. The script, a comprehensive manual, a link to a series of video tutorials, and an example data set are available from GitHub (http://github.com/Atticus29/HeFPipe_rpos).

  13. Heterozygosity for the alpha1-antitrypsin Z allele may confer genetic risk of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, F; Höblinger, A; Grünhage, F; Krawczyk, M; Gärtner, B C; Acalovschi, M; Sauerbruch, T; Lammert, F; Zimmer, V

    2011-02-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (α1AT) deficiency caused by Z allele homozygosity represents a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. Previous studies have also implicated α1AT Z heterozygosity in cholangiocarcinogenesis. To assess the 'common' Z and S alleles as well as the promoter variant rs8004738 for association with cholangiocarcinoma. We genotyped 182 Caucasian patients and 350 controls for rs28929474 (Z), rs17580 (S) and the variant rs8004738. Exploratory analyses were performed in relation to gender and cholangiocarcinoma localisation. rs28929474 was significantly enriched in the cholangiocarcinoma group (4.1 vs. 1.7%; OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.14-5.32; Bonferroni corrected p(c) = 0.036), reinforced by Armitage trend testing (OR 2.53; p(c) = 0.032). The rs8004738 (promoter) minor allele tended to be overrepresented in Z heterozygotes (30.0 vs. 16.7%: P = 0.13). Exploratory data analyses suggested a high genetic risk for extrahepatic tumour localisation (OR 3.0; p(c) = 0.016) and potentially female Z allele carriers (OR 3.37; unadjusted P = 0.022, p(c) = 0.088). These data point to a novel role of α1AT Z heterozygosity as a potential genetic susceptibility factor for cholangiocarcinoma formation and suggest a contribution of aberrant α1AT function in biliary carcinogenesis. However, given the overall low rs28929474 minor allele frequency, larger studies are warranted to confirm and extend our findings. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Direct inference of SNP heterozygosity rates and resolution of LOH detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Li

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been increasingly utilized to investigate somatic genetic abnormalities in premalignancy and cancer. LOH is a common alteration observed during cancer development, and SNP assays have been used to identify LOH at specific chromosomal regions. The design of such studies requires consideration of the resolution for detecting LOH throughout the genome and identification of the number and location of SNPs required to detect genetic alterations in specific genomic regions. Our study evaluated SNP distribution patterns and used probability models, Monte Carlo simulation, and real human subject genotype data to investigate the relationships between the number of SNPs, SNP HET rates, and the sensitivity (resolution for detecting LOH. We report that variances of SNP heterozygosity rate in dbSNP are high for a large proportion of SNPs. Two statistical methods proposed for directly inferring SNP heterozygosity rates require much smaller sample sizes (intermediate sizes and are feasible for practical use in SNP selection or verification. Using HapMap data, we showed that a region of LOH greater than 200 kb can be reliably detected, with losses smaller than 50 kb having a substantially lower detection probability when using all SNPs currently in the HapMap database. Higher densities of SNPs may exist in certain local chromosomal regions that provide some opportunities for reliably detecting LOH of segment sizes smaller than 50 kb. These results suggest that the interpretation of the results from genome-wide scans for LOH using commercial arrays need to consider the relationships among inter-SNP distance, detection probability, and sample size for a specific study. New experimental designs for LOH studies would also benefit from considering the power of detection and sample sizes required to accomplish the proposed aims.

  15. Pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient explains more variation in fitness than heterozygosity at 160 microsatellites in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Keller, Lukas F; Camenisch, Glauco; Guillaume, Frédéric; Arcese, Peter; Reid, Jane M; Postma, Erik

    2017-03-15

    Although the pedigree-based inbreeding coefficient F predicts the expected proportion of an individual's genome that is identical-by-descent (IBD), heterozygosity at genetic markers captures Mendelian sampling variation and thereby provides an estimate of realized IBD. Realized IBD should hence explain more variation in fitness than their pedigree-based expectations, but how many markers are required to achieve this in practice remains poorly understood. We use extensive pedigree and life-history data from an island population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to show that the number of genetic markers and pedigree depth affected the explanatory power of heterozygosity and F, respectively, but that heterozygosity measured at 160 microsatellites did not explain more variation in fitness than F This is in contrast with other studies that found heterozygosity based on far fewer markers to explain more variation in fitness than F Thus, the relative performance of marker- and pedigree-based estimates of IBD depends on the quality of the pedigree, the number, variability and location of the markers employed, and the species-specific recombination landscape, and expectations based on detailed and deep pedigrees remain valuable until we can routinely afford genotyping hundreds of phenotyped wild individuals of genetic non-model species for thousands of genetic markers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Radiosensitivity to high energy iron ions is influenced by heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Smilenov, L. B.; Lieberman, H. B.; Ludwig, T.; Hall, E. J.

    2010-09-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. We investigated the role of heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 on cell oncogenic transformation and cell survival induced by 1 GeV/ n56Fe ions. Our results show that cells heterozygous for both Atm and Rad9 or Atm and Brca1 have high survival rates and are more sensitive to transformation by high energy iron ions when compared with wild-type controls or cells haploinsufficient for only one of these proteins. Since mutations or polymorphisms for similar genes exist in a small percentage of the human population, we have identified a radiosensitive sub-population. This finding has several implications. First, the existence of a radiosensitive sub-population may distort the shape of the dose-response relationship. Second, it would not be ethical to put exceptionally radiosensitive individuals into a setting where they may potentially be exposed to substantial doses of radiation.

  17. Analysis of losses of heterozygosity of the candidate tumour suppressor gene DMBT1 in melanoma resection specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann, M; Mollenhauer, J; Helmke, B

    2002-01-01

    , hence we screened primary melanoma samples for losses of heterozygosity (LOH), and acquired melanocytic naevi and melanomas for transcription of DMBT1 and protein expression. Of 38 informative melanomas, 1 nodular melanoma and 2 subcutaneous metastases showed LOH of both microsatellites flanking...

  18. RADIOSENSITIVITY TO HIGH ENERGY IRON IONS IS INFLUENCED BY HETEROZYGOSITY for ATM, RAD9 and BRCA1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Smilenov, L. B.; Lieberman, H. B.; Ludwig, T.; Hall, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of function of DNA repair genes has been implicated in the development of many types of cancer. In the last several years, heterozygosity leading to haploinsufficiency for proteins involved in DNA repair was shown to play a role in genomic instability and carcinogenesis after DNA damage is induced, for example by ionizing radiation. Since the effect of heterozygosity for one gene is relatively small, we hypothesize that predisposition to cancer could be a result of the additive effect of heterozygosity for two or more genes critical to pathways that control DNA damage signaling, repair or apoptosis. We investigated the role of heterozygosity for Atm, Rad9 and Brca1 on cell oncogenic transformation and cell survival induced by 1GeV/n 56Fe ions. Our results show that cells heterozygous for both Atm and Rad9 or Atm and Brca1 have high survival rates and are more sensitive to transformation by high energy Iron ions when compared with wild-type controls or cells haploinsufficient for only one of these proteins. Since mutations or polymorphisms for similar genes exist in a small percentage of the human population, we have identified a radiosensitive sub-population. This finding has several implications. First, the existence of a radiosensitive sub-population may distort the shape of the dose-response relationship. Second, it would not be ethical to put exceptionally radiosensitive individuals into a setting where they may potentially be exposed to substantial doses of radiation. PMID:24431481

  19. Sex-specific correlations of individual heterozygosity, parasite load, and scalation asymmetry in a sexually dichromatic lizard.

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    Pei-Jen L Shaner

    Full Text Available Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs provide insights into the genetic bases of individual fitness variation in natural populations. However, despite decades of study, the biological significance of HFCs is still under debate. In this study, we investigated HFCs in a large population of the sexually dimorphic lizard Takydromus viridipunctatus (Lacertidae. Because of the high prevalence of parasitism from trombiculid mites in this lizard, we expect individual fitness (i.e., survival to decrease with increasing parasite load. Furthermore, because morphological asymmetry is likely to influence individuals' mobility (i.e., limb asymmetry and male biting ability during copulation (i.e., head asymmetry in this species, we also hypothesize that individual fitness should decrease with increasing morphological asymmetry. Although we did not formally test the relationship between morphological asymmetry and fitness in this lizard, we demonstrated that survival decreased with increasing parasite load using a capture-mark-recapture data set. We used a separate sample of 140 lizards to test the correlations between individual heterozygosity (i.e., standardized mean d(2 and HL based on 10 microsatellite loci and the two fitness traits (i.e., parasite load and morphological asymmetry. We also evaluated and excluded the possibility that single-locus effects produced spurious HFCs. Our results suggest male-only, negative correlations between individual heterozygosity and parasite load and between individual heterozygosity and asymmetry, suggesting sex-specific, positive HFCs. Male T. viridipunctatus with higher heterozygosity tend to have lower parasite loads (i.e., higher survival and lower asymmetry, providing a rare example of HFC in reptiles.

  20. Sex-specific correlations of individual heterozygosity, parasite load, and scalation asymmetry in a sexually dichromatic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Chen, Ying-Ru; Lin, Jhan-Wei; Kolbe, Jason J; Lin, Si-Min

    2013-01-01

    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) provide insights into the genetic bases of individual fitness variation in natural populations. However, despite decades of study, the biological significance of HFCs is still under debate. In this study, we investigated HFCs in a large population of the sexually dimorphic lizard Takydromus viridipunctatus (Lacertidae). Because of the high prevalence of parasitism from trombiculid mites in this lizard, we expect individual fitness (i.e., survival) to decrease with increasing parasite load. Furthermore, because morphological asymmetry is likely to influence individuals' mobility (i.e., limb asymmetry) and male biting ability during copulation (i.e., head asymmetry) in this species, we also hypothesize that individual fitness should decrease with increasing morphological asymmetry. Although we did not formally test the relationship between morphological asymmetry and fitness in this lizard, we demonstrated that survival decreased with increasing parasite load using a capture-mark-recapture data set. We used a separate sample of 140 lizards to test the correlations between individual heterozygosity (i.e., standardized mean d(2) and HL based on 10 microsatellite loci) and the two fitness traits (i.e., parasite load and morphological asymmetry). We also evaluated and excluded the possibility that single-locus effects produced spurious HFCs. Our results suggest male-only, negative correlations between individual heterozygosity and parasite load and between individual heterozygosity and asymmetry, suggesting sex-specific, positive HFCs. Male T. viridipunctatus with higher heterozygosity tend to have lower parasite loads (i.e., higher survival) and lower asymmetry, providing a rare example of HFC in reptiles.

  1. Loss of heterozygosity and its correlation with expression profiles in subclasses of invasive breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang C; Lin, Ming; Wei, Lee-Jen; Li, Cheng; Miron, Alexander; Lodeiro, Gabriella; Harris, Lyndsay; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Tanenbaum, David M; Meyerson, Matthew; Iglehart, James D; Richardson, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression array profiles identify subclasses of breast cancers with different clinical outcomes and different molecular features. The present study attempted to correlate genomic alterations (loss of heterozygosity; LOH) with subclasses of breast cancers having distinct gene expression signatures. Hierarchical clustering of expression array data from 89 invasive breast cancers identified four major expression subclasses. Thirty-four of these cases representative of the four subclasses were microdissected and allelotyped using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism detection arrays (Affymetrix, Inc.). LOH was determined by comparing tumor and normal single nucleotide polymorphism allelotypes. A newly developed statistical tool was used to determine the chromosomal regions of frequent LOH. We found that breast cancers were highly heterogeneous, with the proportion of LOH ranging widely from 0.3% to >60% of heterozygous markers. The most common sites of LOH were on 17p, 17q, 16q, 11q, and 14q, sites reported in previous LOH studies. Signature LOH events were discovered in certain expression subclasses. Unique regions of LOH on 5q and 4p marked a subclass of breast cancers with "basal-like" expression profiles, distinct from other subclasses. LOH on 1p and 16q occurred preferentially in a subclass of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Finding unique LOH patterns in different groups of breast cancer, in part defined by expression signatures, adds confidence to newer schemes of molecular classification. Furthermore, exclusive association between biological subclasses and restricted LOH events provides rationale to search for targeted genes.

  2. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY ON CHROMOSOME 13 IN SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS OF THE LARYNX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Sujuan; Zhang Xue; Wang Jun; Sun Kailai; Fei Shengzhong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To locate lost region of tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 13q in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (LSCC) and to provide clues and evidence for discovering and locating new suppressor gene.Methods: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 13q was analyzed in 58 LSCC patients by microsatellite polymorphic sequences in loci D13S765 (13q13), RB1.20(13q14.2), D13S133 (13q14.3) and D13S318 (13q21) on chromosome 13 by PCR. Results: There weren't any LOH on chromosome 13q in 3 cases with preinvasive LSCC. Forty-five percentage (24/53) of the 53 invasive LSCC cases showed LOH at one or more loci on chromosome 13q region. The highest percentage of LOH on chromosome 13q was 52% (22/53) at D13S765locus. Conclusion: The deletion region on chromosome 13q was located near by D13S765 locus which is centromeric to RB1. In this region there is suppressor gene, which is related to the genesis and development of LSCC, possibly including RB1. The inactivation of these suppressor genes may be related to the genesis and development of invasive LSCC.

  3. Allelotyping for loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 18 in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Cui Yu; Kai-Lai Sun; Buo Liu; Song-Bin Fu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 18 and sporadic gastric cancer.METHODS: Multiplex PCR was used to screen 14 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 18 in45 cases of primary gastric cancer. PCR products were separated on polyacrylamide gels and the electrophoresis maps were analyzed with Genescan and Genotyper.RESULTS: The LOH frequencies in gastric cancer at all 14markers ranged from 10% to 58%. Eleven markers were found with over 20% LOH frequencies, in which 9 markers located in 18q, and 2 markers in 18p. Two overlapping deleted regions were identified: R1 between D18S61-D18S1161 at 18q22 (9cM) with 24% LOH frequency; R2 between D18S462-D18S70 at 18q22-23(6cM) with 32% LOH frequency.CONCLUSION: LOH of chromosome 18 (18q and 18p) may be involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Two overlapping deleted fragments suggested that there might be unidentified tumor suppressor genes in those two regions.

  4. Inheritance and variation of Cytosine methylation in three populus allotriploid populations with different heterozygosity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Suo

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism with the potential to regulate gene expression and affect plant phenotypes. Both hybridization and genome doubling may affect the DNA methylation status of newly formed allopolyploid plants. Previous studies demonstrated that changes in cytosine methylation levels and patterns were different among individual hybrid plant, therefore, studies investigating the characteristics of variation in cytosine methylation status must be conducted at the population level to avoid sampling error. In the present study, an F1 hybrid diploid population and three allotriploid populations with different heterozygosity [originating from first-division restitution (FDR, second-division restitution (SDR, and post-meiotic restitution (PMR 2n eggs of the same female parent] were used to investigate cytosine methylation inheritance and variation relative to their common parents using methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP. The variation in cytosine methylation in individuals in each population exhibited substantial differences, confirming the necessity of population epigenetics. The total methylation levels of the diploid population were significantly higher than in the parents, but those of the three allotriploid populations were significantly lower than in the parents, indicating that both hybridization and polyploidization contributed to cytosine methylation variation. The vast majority of methylated status could be inherited from the parents, and the average percentages of non-additive variation were 6.29, 3.27, 5.49 and 5.07% in the diploid, FDR, SDR and PMR progeny populations, respectively. This study lays a foundation for further research on population epigenetics in allopolyploids.

  5. LOSS OF HETEROZYGOSITY OF ER GENE IN BREAST CANCER AND ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑唯强; 郑建明; 卢建; 胡凤仙

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Clinically, the reason of resistance for breast cancer to endocrine therapy has not been well known. The current study attempted to examine loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on the estrogen receptor (ER) gene in breast cancer and its relationship to clinicopathologic findings. Methods: DNAs of tumor tissues and blood lymphocytes were collected from 40 cases of primary breast cancer patients and LOH were detected using the microsatellite repeat assay and combined with other ER immunohistochemical assays. Results: ER-positive staining was observed in 65% of breast cancer. Heterogeneity of ER expression was found. Seven of the patients (17.5%) showed LOH. In three of the seven cases, there was total loss, and there was a marked reduction in the intensity of signal in the other four cases. LOH was associated with histologic grade, occurring more frequently in ER-negative and lymph node metastasis group, but not with tumor size and patient ages. Conclusion: This result implied that LOH of the ER gene may have an important role in the progression of breast cancer. It was postulated that the lack of ER function induced by LOH may contributed to endocrine therapy resistance of breast cancer since the tumor clone would escape from the ER regulation, obtain growth predisposition and finally lost response to therapy.

  6. Loss of heterozygosity drives clonal diversity of Phytophthora capsici in China.

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    Jian Hu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora capsici causes significant loss to pepper (Capsicum annum in China and our goal was to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for P. capsici and characterize genetic diversity nationwide. Eighteen isolates of P. capsici from locations worldwide were re-sequenced and candidate nuclear and mitochondrial SNPs identified. From 2006 to 2012, 276 isolates of P. capsici were recovered from 136 locations in 27 provinces and genotyped using 45 nuclear and 2 mitochondrial SNPs. There were two main mitochondrial haplotypes and 95 multi-locus genotypes (MLGs identified. Genetic diversity was geographically structured with a high level of genotypic diversity in the north and on Hainan Island in the south, suggesting outcrossing contributes to diversity in these areas. The remaining areas of China are dominated by four clonal lineages that share mitochondrial haplotypes, are almost exclusively the A1 or A2 mating type and appear to exhibit extensive diversity based on loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Analysis of SNPs directly from infected peppers confirmed LOH in field populations. One clonal lineage is dominant throughout much of the country. The overall implications for long-lived genetically diverse clonal lineages amidst a widely dispersed sexual population are discussed.

  7. Clinicopathological significance of loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinoma in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Hui Zhang; Wen-Ming Cong; Zhi-Hong Xian; Meng-Chao Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the features of microsatellite alterations and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) of 55 microsatellite loci were detected with PCR-based microsatellite polymorphism analyses in tumors and corresponding noncancerous liver tissues of 56 surgically resected HCCs using the MegaBACE 500 automatic DNA analysis system.RESULTS: LOH was found in 44 of 56 HCCs (78.6%) at one or several loci. Frequencies of LOH on 1p, 4q, 8p,16q, and 17p were 69.6% (39/56), 71.4% (40/56), 66.1% (37/56), 66.1% (37/56), and 64.3% (36/56), respectively. MSI was found in 18 of 56 HCCs (32.1%) at one or several loci. Ten of fifty-six (17.9%) HCCs had MSI-H. Serum HBV infection, alpha-fetoprotein concentration, tumor size, cirrhosis, histological grade, tumor capsule, as well as tumor intrahepatic metastasis, might be correlated with LOH on certain chromosome regions. CONCLUSION: Frequent microsatellite alterations exist in HCC. LOH, which represents a tumor suppressor gene pathway, plays a more important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. MSI, which represents a mismatch repair genepathway, is a rare event during liver carcinogenesis. Furthermore, LOH on certain chromosome regions may be correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in HCC.

  8. Compound heterozygosity of two novel RHAG alleles leads to a considerable disruption of the Rh complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Helene; Pelc-Klopotowska, Monika; Danzer, Martin; Suessner, Susanne; Gabriel, Christian; Wilflingseder, Julia; Żmudzin, Alicja; Orzińska, Agnieszka; Guz, Katarzyna; Michalewska, Bogumila; Brojer, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) complex consists of a core comprising the Rh proteins (RhD/RhCE) and the Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) with accessory chains (GPB, LW, CD47). Molecular defects of the RHAG gene may cause a regulator Rhnull phenotype without Rh antigen expression or a Rhmod phenotype with decreased Rh antigen expression. Blood samples of a donor with strongly diminished Rh antigens and five family members were analyzed by serological phenotyping, flow cytometry, molecular testing, and gene expression analysis of Rh complex candidate genes. RHAG sequencing identified a missense mutation, c.241G>C (p.Gly81Arg) and a splice site mutation, c.640 + 3del14, among the cohort. Compound heterozygosity of these novel alleles identified in the propositus and two siblings gave rise to a strongly diminished expression of RhAG, Rh, and CD47 antigens on the RBC surface. The Rhmod phenotype was caused by a novel RHAG splice site mutation in association with a non-functional allele. The primary depression of RhAG is most likely due to posttranslational events that affect the interaction and processing of the RhAG glycoprotein and gave rise to a secondary depression of RhD, RhCE, and CD47, the major members of the Rh complex. © 2016 AABB.

  9. Copy number and loss of heterozygosity detected by SNP array of formalin-fixed tissues using whole-genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Angela; Drozdov, Ignat; Guerra, Eliete; Ouzounis, Christos A; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Gleeson, Michael J; McGurk, Mark; Tavassoli, Mahvash; Odell, Edward W

    2011-01-01

    The requirement for large amounts of good quality DNA for whole-genome applications prohibits their use for small, laser capture micro-dissected (LCM), and/or rare clinical samples, which are also often formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE). Whole-genome amplification of DNA from these samples could, potentially, overcome these limitations. However, little is known about the artefacts introduced by amplification of FFPE-derived DNA with regard to genotyping, and subsequent copy number and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses. Using a ligation adaptor amplification method, we present data from a total of 22 Affymetrix SNP 6.0 experiments, using matched paired amplified and non-amplified DNA from 10 LCM FFPE normal and dysplastic oral epithelial tissues, and an internal method control. An average of 76.5% of SNPs were called in both matched amplified and non-amplified DNA samples, and concordance was a promising 82.4%. Paired analysis for copy number, LOH, and both combined, showed that copy number changes were reduced in amplified DNA, but were 99.5% concordant when detected, amplifications were the changes most likely to be 'missed', only 30% of non-amplified LOH changes were identified in amplified pairs, and when copy number and LOH are combined ∼50% of gene changes detected in the unamplified DNA were also detected in the amplified DNA and within these changes, 86.5% were concordant for both copy number and LOH status. However, there are also changes introduced as ∼20% of changes in the amplified DNA are not detected in the non-amplified DNA. An integrative network biology approach revealed that changes in amplified DNA of dysplastic oral epithelium localize to topologically critical regions of the human protein-protein interaction network, suggesting their functional implication in the pathobiology of this disease. Taken together, our results support the use of amplification of FFPE-derived DNA, provided sufficient samples are used to increase power

  10. No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZENG; Chunwang LI; Linyuan ZHANG; Zhenyu ZHONG; Zhigang JIANG

    2013-01-01

    Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals,it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern.Père David's deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity.Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations.We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David's deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center.We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH,IR,MD2 and HL,and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David's deer calves born over six consecutive years).We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1% ± 7.6%,not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates.The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality,nor birth weight.Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David's deer.

  11. No correlation between neonatal fitness and heterozygosity in a reintroduced population of Père David's deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZENG, Chunwang LI, Linyuan ZHANG, Zhenyu ZHONG, Zhigang JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the severe impacts of genetic bottlenecks and small numbers of founders in populations of reintroduced animals, it is necessary to study inbreeding and its effect on fitness in species of conservation concern. Père David’s deer is one of few large mammal species extinct in the wild but safely preserved in captivity. Its specific background gives us the opportunity to study the relationships between heterozygosity and neonatal fitness in relocated populations. We employed five microsatellite loci to explore heterozygosity-fitness correlations in a population of Père David’s deer at the Beijing Milu Ecological Research Center. We observed associations between microsatellite-based variables sMLH, IR, MD2 and HL, and two components of fitness expressed early in life (birth weight and the neonatal mortality of 123 Père David’s deer calves born over six consecutive years. We found that neonatal mortality was 19.1 ± 7.6%, not higher than the 19% or 18% reported in other ungulates. The heterozygosity of calves was not associated with neonatal mortality, nor birth weight. Our study implies that low genetic variability of microsatellite loci has no overt effect on birth weight and neonatal mortality in reintroduced populations of Père David’s deer [Current Zoology 59 (2: 249–256, 2013].

  12. HbD Punjab/HbQ India Compound Heterozygosity: An Unusual Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Stacy; Surve, Reema; Sawant, Pratibha; Nadkarni, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. Both beta thalassaemia and structural haemoglobin variants are relatively common in northwestern India. Here we report a 29-year-old Sindhi female who was referred to us for a haemoglobinopathy work up and genetic counseling since her spouse was a classical beta thalassaemia carrier. Method A complete blood count was done on an automated cell counter. Haemoglobin analysis was carried out using HPLC Variant Haemoglobin Testing System. The cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out [pH 8.9]. Confirmation of mutations was done by automated DNA sequencing. Results HPLC analysis showed four major peaks, HbA0, a peak in the HbD window, an unknown peak [retention time 4.74 minutes] and a peak in the HbC window. The HbA2 level was 2.2%, and the HbF level was 0.7%. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH, a slow moving band was seen at the HbS/D position along with a prominent band at the HbA2 position. DNA sequencing of the β and α genes showed presence of the two hemoglobin variants: Hb D [β 121GAA → CAA] and Hb Q [α 64 AAG → GAG]. The δ globin gene was normal. The additional peak in the HbC window was due to the formation of a heterodimer hybrid. Conclusion Both HbD Punjab and HbQ India are relatively common in India, but their co-inheritance has not been described in the country. This case is the third report of compound heterozygosity for HbQ India/HbD Punjab haemoglobinopathy globally and the second one from India. PMID:25408858

  13. Heterozygosity, gender, and the growth-defense trade-off in quaking aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher T; Stevens, Michael T; Anderson, Jon E; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Although plant growth is generally recognized to be influenced by allocation to defense, genetic background (e.g., inbreeding), and gender, rarely have those factors been addressed collectively. In quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) constitute up to 30 % of leaf dry weight. To quantify the allocation cost of this chemical defense, we measured growth, defense chemistry, and individual heterozygosity (H obs at 16 microsatellite loci) for male and female trees in both controlled and natural environments. The controlled environment consisted of 12 juvenile genets grown for 3 years in a common garden, with replication. The natural environment consisted of 51 mature genets in wild populations, from which we sampled multiple ramets (trees) per genet. Concentrations of PGs and CTs were negatively correlated. PGs were uncorrelated with growth, but CT production represented a major cost. Across the range of CT levels found in wild-grown trees, growth rates varied by 2.6-fold, such that a 10 % increase in CT concentration occurred with a 38.5 % decrease in growth. H obs had a marked effect on aspen growth: for wild trees, a 10 % increase in H obs corresponded to a 12.5 % increase in growth. In wild trees, this CT effect was significant only in females, in which reproduction seems to exacerbate the cost of defense, while the H obs effect was significant only in males. Despite the lower growth rate of low-H obs trees, their higher CT levels may improve survival, which could account for the deficit of heterozygotes repeatedly found in natural aspen populations.

  14. SNP array analysis reveals novel genomic abnormalities including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas.

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    Ahmed Idbaih

    Full Text Available Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD are rare glial tumors in adults with relative homogeneous clinical, radiological and histological features at the time of diagnosis but dramatically various clinical courses. Studies have identified several molecular abnormalities with clinical or biological relevance to AOD (e.g. t(1;19(q10;p10, IDH1, IDH2, CIC and FUBP1 mutations.To better characterize the clinical and biological behavior of this tumor type, the creation of a national multicentric network, named "Prise en charge des OLigodendrogliomes Anaplasiques (POLA," has been supported by the Institut National du Cancer (InCA. Newly diagnosed and centrally validated AOD patients and their related biological material (tumor and blood samples were prospectively included in the POLA clinical database and tissue bank, respectively.At the molecular level, we have conducted a high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, which included 83 patients. Despite a careful central pathological review, AOD have been found to exhibit heterogeneous genomic features. A total of 82% of the tumors exhibited a 1p/19q-co-deletion, while 18% harbor a distinct chromosome pattern. Novel focal abnormalities, including homozygously deleted, amplified and disrupted regions, have been identified. Recurring copy neutral losses of heterozygosity (CNLOH inducing the modulation of gene expression have also been discovered. CNLOH in the CDKN2A locus was associated with protein silencing in 1/3 of the cases. In addition, FUBP1 homozygous deletion was detected in one case suggesting a putative tumor suppressor role of FUBP1 in AOD.Our study showed that the genomic and pathological analyses of AOD are synergistic in detecting relevant clinical and biological subgroups of AOD.

  15. Loss of heterozygosity at thymidylate synthase locus in Barrett's metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallbohmer Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thymidylate synthase (TS is known to have a unique 28 bp tandemly repeated sequence in the promoter region, and the majorities of subjects have a heterozygous double repeat/triple repeat genotype in their non-cancerous tissue. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH at the TS locus is known to occur in cancer patients, but there is no evidence that it is present in precancerous tissue. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and timing of LOH at the TS locus in Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma (BA and its precursory lesions, such as intestinal metaplasia (IM and dysplasia. Methods One hundred twenty-three samples (including 37 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, 29 with IM, 13 with dysplasia, and 44 with BA were obtained from 100 patients. Biopsies were obtained from the lower esophageal mucosa/IM/dysplasia/BA, when available. Normal squamous tissue from the upper esophagus was taken as a control. All tissues were analyzed for the TS genotype and TS mRNA expression using the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method after laser-capture microdissection. Results Among the patients with informative heterozygous genotype in their control samples, no sample with LOH at the TS locus was observed in the lower esophageal mucosa in GERD patients (0/22 samples. However, 6 out of 21 samples (28.6% had LOH in IM, 2 of 7 (28.6% in dysplasia, and 10 of 25 (40.0% in BA. No significant difference in TS mRNA expression levels was observed between TS genotypes. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that LOH is a relatively frequent and early event in the IM-BA sequence.

  16. Analysis of comparative genomic hybridization and loss of heterozygosity in 43 primary gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 王柏秋; 关新元; 高慧; 程慧; 张岂凡; 黄承斌; 李璞; 傅松滨

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate common chromosomal changes and the LOH frequency of microsatellite loci in primary gastric cancer samples in order to locate the deleted regions in which human gastric cancer related genes might exist.Methods Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to define global chromosomal aberrations in 43 primary gastric tumors. Based on the results of CGH, analysis of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was performed in chromosome 19 in which the loss was first discovered in the gastric cancers. The PCR-based approach was used to investigate 22 loci, which are spaced at 1.1-10.9 cM intervals throughout chromosome 19. The amplified PCR fragments were subjected to electrophoresis in PAGE gel and analyzed with GenescanTM and GenotyperTM. Results CGH analysis revealed gains in chromosome 3p(8/43), 8q(8/43), 20 [20 (9/43), 20p(7/43), 20q(4/43)], 12q(16/43), 13q(12/43) and losses in 19 [19 (15/43)], 7 [17 (8/43), 17p (10/43)], 16 (10/43) and 1p (11/43). Among the 43 evaluated samples, the most frequent LOH was detected at locus D19S571 (27.81%). Conclusions The tumorigenesis of gastric cancer includes several chromosomal changes. The aberration of chromosome 19 was the first common change founded in gastric cancer. The region near the D19S571 might harbor potential genes related to the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer.

  17. HbD Punjab/HbQ India compound heterozygosity: An unusual association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Colaco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. Both beta thalassaemia and structural haemoglobin variants are relatively common in north western India. Here we report a 29 year old Sindhi female who was referred to us for a haemoglobinopathy work up and genetic counseling since her spouse was a classical beta thalassaemia carrier. Method: A complete blood count was done on an automated cell counter. Haemoglobin analysis was carried out using HPLC Variant Haemoglobin Testing System.  The cellulose acetate electrophoresis was carried out [pH 8.9]. Confirmation of mutations was done by automated DNA sequencing. Results: HPLC analysis showed four major peaks, HbA0, a peak in the HbD window, an unknown peak [retention time 4.74 minutes] and a peak in the HbC window. The HbA2 level was 2.2% and the HbF level was 0.7%.Cellulose acetate electrophoresis at alkaline pH, a slow moving band was seen at the HbS/D position along with a prominent band at the HbA2 position. DNA sequencing of the β and α genes showed presence of the 2 hemoglobin variants :Hb D [b 121GAA à CAA] and Hb Q [a 64 AAG à GAG]. The δ globin gene was normal. The additional peak in the HbC window was due to the formation of a heterodimer hybrid. Conclusion: Both HbD Punjab and HbQ India are relatively common in India but their co-inheritance has not been described in the country. This is the second report of compound heterozygosity for HbQ India/HbD Punjab haemoglobinopathy globally, and the first one from India.

  18. Autosomal mutants of proton-exposed kidney cells display frequent loss of heterozygosity on nonselected chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygoryev, Dmytro; Dan, Cristian; Gauny, Stacey; Eckelmann, Bradley; Ohlrich, Anna P; Connolly, Marissa; Lasarev, Michael; Grossi, Gianfranco; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2014-05-01

    High-energy protons found in the space environment can induce mutations and cancer, which are inextricably linked. We hypothesized that some mutants isolated from proton-exposed kidneys arose through a genome-wide incident that causes loss of heterozygosity (LOH)-generating mutations on multiple chromosomes (termed here genomic LOH). To test this hypothesis, we examined 11 pairs of nonselected chromosomes for LOH events in mutant cells isolated from the kidneys of mice exposed to 4 or 5 Gy of 1 GeV protons. The mutant kidney cells were selected for loss of expression of the chromosome 8-encoded Aprt gene. Genomic LOH events were also assessed in Aprt mutants isolated from isogenic cultured kidney epithelial cells exposed to 5 Gy of protons in vitro. Control groups were spontaneous Aprt mutants and clones isolated without selection from the proton-exposed kidneys or cultures. The in vivo results showed significant increases in genomic LOH events in the Aprt mutants from proton-exposed kidneys when compared with spontaneous Aprt mutants and when compared with nonmutant (i.e., nonselected) clones from the proton-exposed kidneys. A bias for LOH events affecting chromosome 14 was observed in the proton-induced Aprt mutants, though LOH for this chromosome did not confer increased radiation resistance. Genomic LOH events were observed in Aprt mutants isolated from proton-exposed cultured kidney cells; however the incidence was fivefold lower than in Aprt mutants isolated from exposed intact kidneys, suggesting a more permissive environment in the intact organ and/or the evolution of kidney clones prior to their isolation from the tissue. We conclude that proton exposure creates a subset of viable cells with LOH events on multiple chromosomes, that these cells form and persist in vivo, and that they can be isolated from an intact tissue by selection for a mutation on a single chromosome.

  19. TP53 Codon 72 Heterozygosity May Promote MicrosatelliteInstability in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer

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    Mehdi Nikbahkt Dastjerdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The polymorphic variants at codon 72 of the p53 gene, encoding prolineor arginine at residue 72, produce marked changes in the p53 structure. From theevidence that the DNA mismatch repair system and p53 interact to maintain genomicintegrity, we hypothesized that codon 72 variations may influence the prevalence ofmicrosatellite instability (MSI, a feature of malignancies associated with mismatchrepair deficiency in sporadic colorectal cancer.Materials and Methods: We investigated the frequency of MSI in three P53 codon72 genotypes using genomic DNAs from 144 paraffin blocks of sporadic colorectaladenocarcinomas by testing the BAT-26 poly(A marker. We used PCR-SSCP analysisto detect tumor sample MSI for the nonisotopic detection of deletions in the BAT-26 poly (A mononucleotide repeat. Associations between qualitative variables wereevaluated using the χ2-test. Statistical significance level was set to p ≤ 0.05.Results: MSI analysis revealed that 24.3% of the tumors (n=35 were MSI-positiveand 75.7% (n=109 were MSI-negative. The frequency of microsatellite instability inthe arginine/arginine, arginine/proline and proline/proline genotypes were 11 (16.9%,22 (36.1% and 2 (11.1% respectively. A significant difference in distribution of MSIwas found for the arginine/proline genotype compared with the grouped arginine/arginineand proline/proline genotypes (p=0.05.Conclusion: Our findings suggested that colorectal adenocarcinomas arising in individualswith the p53 codon 72 arginine/proline heterozygosity are more prone tomicrosatellite instability than those with other p53 genotypes. In our study, MSI wasimportant in the carcinogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancer arising in pro/arg heterozygotes.

  20. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumour suppressor genes in benign and malignant mixed odontogenic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Clarice F; Gomes, Carolina C; Diniz, Marina G; Vargas, Pablo A; de Paula, Alfredo M B; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Loyola, Adriano M; Gomez, Ricardo S

    2012-05-01

    Although molecular alterations are reported in different types of odontogenic tumours, their pathogenesis remains to be established. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies allow the identification of minimal regions of deletions of known or putative tumour suppressor genes, the losses of which may promote neoplastic growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate LOH in a set of odontogenic mixed tumours. Tumour suppressor gene loci on 3p, 9p, 11p, 11q and 17p chromosomes were analysed in five samples of ameloblastic fibroma (AF), three samples of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) and three samples of ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS). The most frequently lost genetic loci were p53 (17p13, 62%) and CHRNB1 (17p13, 55%). LOH at the chromosome regions 3p24.3, 9p22 and 9p22-p21 was identified only in AFS. No sample showed LOH at the chromosomal loci 3p21.2 and 11q13.4. For the region 9p22-p13, LOH occurred in one sample of AFO. The fractional allelic loss (FAL) was calculated for each sample. The mean FAL of the benign lesions (i.e. AF and AFO) was 22%, whereas the mean FAL of the malignant lesions (i.e. AFS) was 74.6%. In conclusion, our results show a higher FAL in AFS compared to its benign counterparts and reveal a different pattern of LOH of tumour suppressor genes in AFS, which may regulate changes in tumour behaviour. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instabilities of fragile histidine triad gene in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ping Xiao; Dong-Ying Wu; Lei Xu; Yan Xin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instabilities (MSI) of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene in gastric carcinoma and to study their association with the clinical pathological characteristics of gastric carcinoma.METHODS: LOH and MSI of FHIT gene were detected at four microsaterllite loci D3S13H, D3S4103, D3S1481 and D3S1234 using PCR in matched normal and cancerous tissues from 50 patients with primary gastric cancer.RESULTS: The average frequency of LOH and MSI of FHIT gene in gastric cancer was 32.4% and 26.4%respectively. LOH and MSI of FHIT gene in gastric cancer had no association with histological, Borrmann,and Lauren's classification. LOH of FHIT gene in gastric cancer was related to invasive depth. The frequency of FHIT LOH in gastric cancer with serosa-penetration was obviously higher than that in gastric cancer without serosa-penetration (73.5% vs 37.5%, P<0.05). MSI of FHIT gene in gastric cancer was associated with the lymph node metastasis. The frequency of MSI in gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than that in gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis (66.7% vs 34.3%, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LOH of FHIT gene is correlated with invasive depth of gastric carcinoma. MSI of FHIT gene is correlated with lymph node metastases. LOH and MSI of FHIT gene play an important role in carcinogenesis of gastric cancer.

  2. Telomere erosion is independent of microsatellite instability but related to loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-Chun Fang; Shi-Ming Yang; Xiao-Dong Zhou; Dong-Xu Wang; Yuan-Hui Luo

    2001-01-01

    AIM To correlate the length of the telomere to microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC, MCC and DCC genes in gastric carcinomas. METHODS Telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length of gastric cancer was measured with Southern blot. LOH of APC, MCC and DCC genes, microsatellite instability (MSI) and frameshift mutation of hMSH6, TGF-βR Ⅱ and BAX genes were analyzed by PCR-based methods. RESULTS Sixty-eight cases of sporadic gastric carcinoma were studied for MSI using five microsatellite markers. MSI in at least one locus was detected in 17 (25%) of 68 tumors analyzed. Frameshift mutations of hMSH6, TGF-βR Ⅱ and BAX were detected in 2,6 and 3 of gastric carcinomas respectively showing high MSI (≥ 2 loci, n = 8), but none was found in those showing Iow MSI (only one locus, n = 9) or MSS (tumor lacking MSI or stable, n = 51). Thirty-five cases, including all high MSI and Iow MSl, were studied for TRF. The mean TRF length was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters.No association was observed between TRF length and MSI or frameshift mutation. On the contrary, LOH at the DCC locus was related to telomere shortening (P< 0.01). This tendency was also observed in APC and MCC genes,although there was no statistical significance. CONCLUSION The development of gastric cancer can arise through two different genetic pathways. In high MSI gastric cancers, defective mismatch repair allows mutations to accumulate and generate the high MSI phenotype. In gastric cancers showing either Iow MSI or MSS, multiple deletions may represent the LOH pathway.Telomere erosion is independent of high MSI phenotype but related to the LOH pathway in gastric cancer.

  3. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sap4Δ sap5Δ sap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  4. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sap4Δ sap5Δ sap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  5. Detailed deletion mapping of loss of heterozygosity on 22q13 in sporadic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Zheng; Zhi-Hai Peng; Chong-Zhi Zhou; Da-Peng Li; Zhao-Wen Wang; Guo-Qiang Qiu; Lin He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Both development and progression of malignancies occur as a multistep process, requiring the activation of oncogenes and the inactivation of several tumor suppressor genes. The loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes is believed to play a key role in carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC).In this study, we analyzed the LOH of seven loci on chromosome 22q13 in an effort to identify candidate tumor suppressor genes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.METHODS: Matched tumor and normal tissue DNA were analyzed by PCR using fluorescence-labeled polymorphic microsatellite markers in 83 CRC patients. PCR products were eletrophoresed and LOH was determined by calculating the peak height acquired through computer software. Comparisons between LOH frequency and clinicopathological features Were performed by χ2 test.P<0.05 was considered as statistical significance.RESULTS: The average LOH frequency of chromosome 22q13 was 28.38%. The highest LOH frequency was 64.71% on D22S1160 locus, and the lowest was 21.43%on D22S1141 locus. We detected two obvious minimal deletion regions: one between markers D22S1171 and D22S274, the other flanked by markers D22S1160 and D22S1149, each about 2.7 and 1.8 cm, respectively. None had lost in all informative loci. LOH frequency on D22S1171is 50% on distal colon, which was higher than that on proximal one (P = 0.020); on D22S114 locus, none LOH event occurred in patients with liver metastasis, whilst 46.94% occurred in patients without liver metastasis (P= 0.008); on D22S1160 locus, LOH frequency in lymph nodes metastasis patients was 83.33%, which was much higher than 43.75% without lymph nodes metastasis ones (P = 0.016). There was no statistical significance between clinicopathological features and other loci.CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of two minimal deletion regions, which may harbor putative tumor suppressor genes related to progression and metastasis in sporadic colorectal carcinoma on

  6. HLA Class I and II alleles, heterozygosity and HLA-KIR interactions are associated with rates of genital HSV shedding and lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaret, A; Dong, L; John, M; Mallal, S A; James, I; Warren, T; Gaudieri, S; Koelle, D M; Wald, A

    2016-12-01

    Variation at HLA and KIR loci is associated with the severity of viral infections. To assess associations of genital HSV-2 infection with human HLA and KIR genetic loci, we measured the frequencies of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection and of genital lesions in HSV-2 seropositive persons. We followed 267 HSV-2 seropositive persons who collected daily genital swabs and recorded lesions for ⩾30 days. All persons were laboratory-documented as HIV-seronegative, and all were Caucasian by self-report. HSV detection rate and lesion frequency were compared by genotype using Poisson regression. Overall, HSV was detected on 19.1% of days and lesions on 11.6% of days. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with HSV detection frequency, whereas the presence of HLA-C*12 was inversely associated with HSV detection frequency. The presence of HLA-A*01 was directly associated with lesion rate, while HLA-A*26, -C*01 and -DQB1*0106 were associated with decreased lesions. We observed an interaction between the absence of both 2DS4del and HLA-Bw4 and higher lesion rate. Heterozygosity of HLA was also associated with reduced lesion frequency. Immune control of genital HSV infection relies on multiple interacting immunogenetic elements, including epistatic interactions between HLA and KIR.

  7. Effect of ATM heterozygosity on heritable DNA damage in mice following paternal F{sub 0} germline irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baulch, Janet E. [University of Maryland, Baltimore, Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, BRB 7-002, 655 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)]. E-mail: jbaulch@som.umaryland.edu; Li, M.-W. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Raabe, Otto G. [Center for Health and the Environment, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene product maintains genome integrity and initiates cellular DNA repair pathways following exposures to genotoxic agents. ATM also plays a significant role in meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis. Fertilization with sperm carrying damaged DNA could lead to adverse effects in offspring including developmental defects or increased cancer susceptibility. Currently, there is little information regarding the effect of ATM heterozygosity on germline DNA repair and heritable effects of paternal germline-ionizing irradiation. We used neutral pH comet assays to evaluate spermatozoa 45 days after acute whole-body irradiation of male mice (0.1 Gy, attenuated {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays) to determine the effect of ATM heterozygosity on delayed DNA damage effects of Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation. Using the neutral pH sperm comet assay, significant irradiation-related differences were found in comet tail length, percent tail DNA and tail extent moment, but there were no observed differences in effect between wild-type and ATM +/- mice. However, evaluation of spermatozoa from third generation descendants of irradiated male mice for heritable chromatin effects revealed significant differences in DNA electrophoretic mobility in the F{sub 3} descendants that were based upon the irradiated F{sub 0} sire's genotype. In this study, radiation-induced chromatin alterations to Type A/B spermatogonia, detected in mature sperm 45 days post-irradiation, led to chromatin effects in mature sperm three generations later. The early cellular response to and repair of DNA damage is critical and appears to be affected by ATM zygosity. Our results indicate that there is potential for heritable genetic or epigenetic changes following Type A/B spermatogonial irradiation and that ATM heterozygosity increases this effect00.

  8. Distinct regions of loss of heterozygosity on 22q in different sites of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Reis, Patricia Pintor; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia; dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported in many types of cancer, including head and neck carcinomas. Somatic deletions involving specific chromosomal regions are strongly associated with inactivation of the allele of a tumor suppressor gene located within the deleted...... on 22q and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters at the three major sites of HNSCC: oral cavity, larynx and pharynx. MATERIAL/METHODS: LOH and microsatellite instability (MSI) were studied using seven polymorphic microsatellite markers mapped to the 22q11-q13.3 region in 37 oral, 32...

  9. Analysis of APC allelic imbalance/loss of heterozygosity and APC protein expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, Sarah E

    2011-05-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is a tumor suppressor gene which is mutated in the hereditary disease, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Somatic mutations of the APC gene have also been identified in the majority of sporadic colorectal carcinomas, and mutation of the APC gene appears to be an early step in the initiation of colon cancer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of APC has been described in a variety of other cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, gastric cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, endometrial cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).

  10. Chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity is associated with a unique metabolic network in clear cell renal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Francesco; Nookaew, Intawat; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Several common oncogenic pathways have been implicated in the emergence of renowned metabolic features in cancer, which in turn are deemed essential for cancer proliferation and survival. However, the extent to which different cancers coordinate their metabolism to meet these requirements is largely unexplored. Here we show that even in the heterogeneity of metabolic regulation a distinct signature encompassed most cancers. On the other hand, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) strongly deviated in terms of metabolic gene expression changes, showing widespread down-regulation. We observed a metabolic shift that associates differential regulation of enzymes in one-carbon metabolism with high tumor stage and poor clinical outcome. A significant yet limited set of metabolic genes that explained the partial divergence of ccRCC metabolism correlated with loss of von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) and a potential activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further network-dependent analyses revealed unique defects in nucleotide, one-carbon, and glycerophospholipid metabolism at the transcript and protein level, which contrasts findings in other tumors. Notably, this behavior is recapitulated by recurrent loss of heterozygosity in multiple metabolic genes adjacent to VHL. This study therefore shows how loss of heterozygosity, hallmarked by VHL deletion in ccRCC, may uniquely shape tumor metabolism. PMID:24550497

  11. The 5'-end transitional CpGs between the CpG islands and retroelements are hypomethylated in association with loss of heterozygosity in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Eun-Joo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A loss of heterozygosity (LOH represents a unilateral chromosomal loss that reduces the dose of highly repetitive Alu, L1, and LTR retroelements. The aim of this study was to determine if the LOH events can affect the spread of retroelement methylation in the 5'-end transitional area between the CpG islands and their nearest retroelements. Methods The 5'-transitional area of all human genes (22,297 was measured according to the nearest retroelements to the transcription start sites. For 50 gastric cancer specimens, the level of LOH events on eight cancer-associated chromosomes was estimated using the microsatellite markers, and the 5'-transitional CpGs of 20 selected genes were examined by methylation analysis using the bisulfite-modified DNA. Results The extent of the transitional area was significantly shorter with the nearest Alu elements than with the nearest L1 and LTR elements, as well as in the extragenic regions containing a higher density of retroelements than in the intragenic regions. The CpG islands neighbouring a high density of Alu elements were consistently hypomethylated in both normal and tumor tissues. The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites bordered by a low density of Alu elements or the L1 and LTR elements were hypomethylated more frequently in the high-level LOH cases than in the low-level LOH cases. Conclusion The 5'-transitional methylated CpG sites not completely protected by the Alu elements were hypomethylated in association with LOH events in gastric cancers. This suggests that an irreversible unbalanced decrease in the genomic dose reduces the spread of L1 methylation in the 5'-end regions of genes.

  12. Compound heterozygosity of SHOX-encompassing and downstream PAR1 deletions results in Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Barros, Angel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Ross, Judith L; Zinn, Andrew R; Heath, Karen E

    2007-05-01

    We present the clinical and molecular characteristics of a multi-generation family in which the proband presented with clinical features of Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) whilst different family members had a diagnosis of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and/or pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). In the LMD proband two different deletions were identified in the pseudoautosomal 1 region (PAR1) of the X and Y chromosomes: a SHOX-encompassing deletion inherited from his father and a downstream PAR1 deletion, which did not include SHOX, inherited from his mother. The individuals with PSACH features presented the previously described G719D mutation in the C-terminal globular domain of the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene (COMP). The LMD proband described here represents the first LMD case due to compound heterozygosity for deletions of the two different PAR1 regions, SHOX-encompassing and downstream from SHOX, that have been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of LWD and LMD.

  13. Cohesin Rad21 Mediates Loss of Heterozygosity and Is Upregulated via Wnt Promoting Transcriptional Dysregulation in Gastrointestinal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Loss of heterozygosity (LOH of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene triggers a series of molecular events leading to intestinal adenomagenesis. Haploinsufficiency of the cohesin Rad21 influences multiple initiating events in colorectal cancer (CRC. We identify Rad21 as a gatekeeper of LOH and a β-catenin target gene and provide evidence that Wnt pathway activation drives RAD21 expression in human CRC. Genome-wide analyses identified Rad21 as a key transcriptional regulator of critical CRC genes and long interspersed element (LINE-1 or L1 retrotransposons. Elevated RAD21 expression tracks with reactivation of L1 expression in human sporadic CRC, implicating cohesin-mediated L1 expression in global genomic instability and gene dysregulation in cancer.

  14. Heterozygosity for transmembrane activator and calcium modulator ligand interactor A144E causes haploinsufficiency and pneumococcal susceptibility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabara, Haifa H; Lee, John J; Janssen, Erin; Ullas, Sumana; Liadaki, Kyriaki; Garibyan, Lilit; Benson, Halli; Sannikova, Tatyana; Bram, Richard; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Cruz, Anthony C; Siegel, Richard; Manis, John; Malley, Richard; Geha, Raif S

    2017-04-01

    The B-cell receptor transmembrane activator and calcium modulator ligand interactor (TACI) is important for T-independent antibody responses. One in 200 blood donors are heterozygous for the TACI A181E mutation. We sought to investigate the effect on B-cell function of TACI A181E heterozygosity in reportedly healthy subjects and of the corresponding TACI A144E mutation in mice. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation was measured by using the luciferase assay in 293T cells cotransfected with wild-type and mutant TACI. TACI-driven proliferation, isotype switching, and antibody responses were measured in B cells from heterozygous TACI A144E knock-in mice. Mouse mortality was monitored after intranasal pneumococcal challenge. Levels of natural antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide component phosphocholine were significantly lower in A181E-heterozygous than TACI-sufficient Swedish blood donors never immunized with pneumococcal antigens. Although overexpressed hTACI A181E and mTACI A144E acted as dominant-negative mutations in transfectants, homozygosity for A144E in mice resulted in absent TACI expression in B cells, indicating that the mutant protein is unstable when naturally expressed. A144E heterozygous mice, such as TACI(+/-) mice, expressed half the normal level of TACI on their B cells and exhibited similar defects in a proliferation-inducing ligand-driven B-cell activation, antibody responses to TNP-Ficoll, production of natural antibodies to phosphocholine, and survival after intranasal pneumococcal challenge. These results suggest that TACI A181E heterozygosity results in TACI haploinsufficiency with increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infection. This has important implications for asymptomatic TACI A181E carriers. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular genetic characterization and urinary excretion pattern of metabolites in two families with MCAD deficiency due to compound heterozygosity with a 13 base pair insertion in one allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Lyonnet, S

    1994-01-01

    Two families with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency due to compound heterozygosity are described. All patients have a 13 bp insertion in exon 11 of one allele at the MCAD gene locus. In the other allele patients in one of the families harbour the prevalent G985 mutation, and t...

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-Based Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) Testing by Real Time PCR in Patients Suspect of Myeloproliferative Disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, C.J.; Poodt, J.; Damen, J.; Linden, J.C. van der; Savelkoul, P.H.; Pruijt, J.F.M.; Hilbink, M.; Hermans, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    During tumor development, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) often occurs. When LOH is preceded by an oncogene activating mutation, the mutant allele may be further potentiated if the wild-type allele is lost or inactivated. In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) somatic acquisition of JAK2V617F may be fol

  17. Start of reproduction and allozyme heterozygosity in Pinus sibirica under different techniques of artificial forest stand establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Velisevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the main forest-forming tree species in boreal forests of Eurasia. Large edibleseeds of this species have an important resource value because of their high nutritious properties. Development of approaches toestablishment of early cone producing Siberian stone pine stands including utilization of corresponding genetic background is one of the priorities of forest resource management. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of stand density on the differentiation of trees bythe age of first reproduction and the relationship of allozyme heterozygosity and morphological traits variability in Siberian stone pine.Morphological and allozyme variability in artificial Pinus sibirica stands with high and low density was investigated. In the high-densitystand the distance between trees was 0.7 and 3 meters (4080 trees per ha while in the lowdensity stand it was 8 and 8 meters (144 treesper ha. Age of formation of first male and female cones was evaluated by retrospective method based on analysis of tracks of cones ona shoot bark. Tree height, diameter and number of male, female and vegetative shoots in a crown of model trees were measured.Genotypes of the trees were determined by 29 isozyme loci coding for 16 enzymes (ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MDH, MNR, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SDH, SKDH, SOD. In the low-density stand, the portion of generative trees was higher and differentiation of trees by age of reproduction starting was lower in spite of the smaller age of trees as compared to the high-density stand. Inboth samples, the age of formation of first generative organs was related negatively with stem height, stem diameter and number offemale shoots. In the high-density stand, positive relation of age of first reproduction with total number of shoots and number ofmale shoots was found. In both samples nonreproductive trees were less heterozygous at

  18. Start of reproduction and allozyme heterozygosity in Pinus sibirica under different techniques of artificial forest stand establishment

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    S.N. Velisevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour is one of the main forest-forming tree species in boreal forests of Eurasia. Large edibleseeds of this species have an important resource value because of their high nutritious properties. Development of approaches toestablishment of early cone producing Siberian stone pine stands including utilization of corresponding genetic background is one of the priorities of forest resource management. The goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of stand density on the differentiation of trees bythe age of first reproduction and the relationship of allozyme heterozygosity and morphological traits variability in Siberian stone pine.Morphological and allozyme variability in artificial Pinus sibirica stands with high and low density was investigated. In the high-densitystand the distance between trees was 0.7 and 3 meters (4080 trees per ha while in the lowdensity stand it was 8 and 8 meters (144 treesper ha. Age of formation of first male and female cones was evaluated by retrospective method based on analysis of tracks of cones ona shoot bark. Tree height, diameter and number of male, female and vegetative shoots in a crown of model trees were measured.Genotypes of the trees were determined by 29 isozyme loci coding for 16 enzymes (ADH, FDH, FEST, GDH, GOT, IDH, LAP, MDH, MNR, PEPCA, 6-PGD, PGI, PGM, SDH, SKDH, SOD. In the low-density stand, the portion of generative trees was higher and differentiation of trees by age of reproduction starting was lower in spite of the smaller age of trees as compared to the high-density stand. Inboth samples, the age of formation of first generative organs was related negatively with stem height, stem diameter and number offemale shoots. In the high-density stand, positive relation of age of first reproduction with total number of shoots and number ofmale shoots was found. In both samples nonreproductive trees were less heterozygous at

  19. Alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase-deficient miniature pigs produced by serial cloning using neonatal skin fibroblasts with loss of heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young June; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Min Ju; Ahn, Jin Seop; Ryu, Junghyun; Heo, Soon Young; Park, Sang-Min; Kang, Jee Hyun; Choi, You Jung; Shim, Hosup

    2017-01-01

    Objective Production of alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (αGT)-deficient pigs is essential to overcome xenograft rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. However, the production of such pigs requires a great deal of cost, time, and labor. Heterozygous αGT knockout pigs should be bred at least for two generations to ultimately obtain homozygote progenies. The present study was conducted to produce αGT-deficient miniature pigs in much reduced time using mitotic recombination in neonatal ear skin fibroblasts. Methods Miniature pig fibroblasts were transfected with αGT gene-targeting vector. Resulting gene-targeted fibroblasts were used for nuclear transfer (NT) to produce heterozygous αGT gene-targeted piglets. Fibroblasts isolated from ear skin biopsies of these piglets were cultured for 6 to 8 passages to induce loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and treated with biotin-conjugated IB4 that binds to galactose-α-1,3-galactose, an epitope produced by αGT. Using magnetic activated cell sorting, cells with monoallelic disruption of αGT were removed. Remaining cells with LOH carrying biallelic disruption of αGT were used for the second round NT to produce homozygous αGT gene-targeted piglets. Results Monoallelic mutation of αGT gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in fibroblasts. Using these cells as nuclear donors, three heterozygous αGT gene-targeted piglets were produced by NT. Fibroblasts were collected from ear skin biopsies of these piglets, and homozygosity was induced by LOH. The second round NT using these fibroblasts resulted in production of three homozygous αGT knockout piglets. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that the time required for the production of αGT-deficient miniature pigs could be reduced significantly by postnatal skin biopsies and subsequent selection of mitotic recombinants. Such procedure may be beneficial for the production of homozygote knockout animals, especially in species, such as pigs, that require a

  20. A Becker myotonia patient with compound heterozygosity for CLCN1 mutations and Prinzmetal angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Daniel; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Stachowiak, Paweł; Bryl, Anna; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Lehmann-Horn, Frank

    2012-04-01

    Becker myotonia is a recessive muscle disease with prevalence of > 1:50,000. It is caused by markedly reduced function of the chloride channel encoded by CLCN1. We describe a Polish patient with severe myotonia, transient weakness, and muscle cramps who only responds to lidocaine. In addition, the patient has Prinzmetal angina pectoris and multiple lipomatosis. He is compound heterozygeous for a novel p.W303X and a frequent p.R894X CLCN1 mutation. CLCN1 exon number variation was excluded by MLPA. His son with latent myotonia was heterozygeous for p.R894X. We discuss the potential relations of the three rare diseases and the inheritance of p.R894X.

  1. Testing the influence of family structure and outbreeding depression on heterozygosity-fitness correlations in small populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-Pineau, Helene; Folly, Joy; Crochet, Pierre-Andre; David, Patrice

    2012-11-01

    Theory predicts that positive heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) arise as a consequence of inbreeding, which is often assumed to have a strong impact in small, fragmented populations. Yet according to empirical data, HFC in such populations seem highly variable and unpredictable. We here discuss two overlooked phenomena that may contribute to this variation. First, in a small population, each generation may consist of a few families. This generates random correlations between particular alleles and fitness (AFCs, allele-fitness correlations) and results in too liberal tests for HFC. Second, in some contexts, small populations receiving immigrants may be more impacted by outbreeding depression than by inbreeding depression, resulting in negative rather than positive HFC. We investigated these processes through a case study in tadpole cohorts of Pelodytes punctatus living in small ponds. We provide evidence for a strong family structure and significant AFC in this system, as well as an example of negative HFC. By simulations, we show that this negative HFC cannot be a spurious effect of family structure, and therefore reflects outbreeding depression in the studied population. Our example suggests that a detailed examination of AFC and HFC patterns can provide valuable insights into the internal genetic structure and sources of fitness variation in small populations.

  2. Interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity in wild-type and Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM)-deficient mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Jeannine R; Stark, Jeremy M; Oh, Jin; Bojilova, Ekaterina; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Takeda, Junji; Jasin, Maria

    2011-07-19

    Genomic integrity often is compromised in tumor cells, as illustrated by genetic alterations leading to loss of heterozygosity (LOH). One mechanism of LOH is mitotic crossover recombination between homologous chromosomes, potentially initiated by a double-strand break (DSB). To examine LOH associated with DSB-induced interhomolog recombination, we analyzed recombination events using a reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells derived from F1 hybrid embryos. In this study, we were able to identify LOH events although they occur only rarely in wild-type cells (≤2.5%). The low frequency of LOH during interhomolog recombination suggests that crossing over is rare in wild-type cells. Candidate factors that may suppress crossovers include the RecQ helicase deficient in Bloom syndrome cells (BLM), which is part of a complex that dissolves recombination intermediates. We analyzed interhomolog recombination in BLM-deficient cells and found that, although interhomolog recombination is slightly decreased in the absence of BLM, LOH is increased by fivefold or more, implying significantly increased interhomolog crossing over. These events frequently are associated with a second homologous recombination event, which may be related to the mitotic bivalent structure and/or the cell-cycle stage at which the initiating DSB occurs.

  3. Loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 19q in early-stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease

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    Skirnisdottir Ingiridur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and prognosis for apparently similar cases of ovarian cancer varies. Recurrence of the disease in early stage (FIGO-stages I-II serous ovarian cancer results in survival that is comparable to those with recurrent advanced-stage disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are specific genomic aberrations that may explain recurrence and clinical outcome. Methods Fifty-one women with early stage serous ovarian cancer were included in the study. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed samples containing tumor cells from ovarian tumors. Tumor samples from thirty-seven patients were analysed for allele-specific copy numbers using OncoScan single nucleotide polymorphism arrays from Affymetrix and the bioinformatic tool Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite. Genomic gains, losses, and loss-of-heterozygosity that associated with recurrent disease were identified. Results The most significant differences (p  Conclusions The results of our study indicate that presence of two aberrations in TP53 on 17p and LOH on 19q in early stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease. Further studies related to the findings of chromosomes 17 and 19 are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the recurring genomic aberrations and the poor clinical outcome.

  4. Immune escape from NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy via loss of heterozygosity in the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Z K; Chou, J; Towlerton, A M; Voong, L N; Robbins, P; Bensinger, W I; Warren, E H

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy of tumors with T cells specific for the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 has shown great promise in preclinical models and in early stage clinical trials. Tumor persistence or recurrence after NY-ESO-1-specific therapy occurs, however, and the mechanisms of recurrence remain poorly defined. In a murine xenograft model of NY-ESO-1(+) multiple myeloma, we observed tumor recurrence after adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells genetically redirected to the prototypic NY-ESO-1157-165 peptide presented by HLA-A*02:01. Analysis of the myeloma cells that had escaped from T-cell control revealed intact expression of NY-ESO-1 and B2M, but selective, complete loss of HLA-A*02:01 expression from the cell surface. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) involving the HLA-A locus was identified in the tumor cells, and further analysis revealed selective loss of the allele encoding HLA-A*02:01. Although LOH involving the MHC has not been described in myeloma patients with persistent or recurrent disease after immune therapies such as allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), it has been described in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic HCT. These results suggest that MHC loss should be evaluated in patients with myeloma and other cancers who relapse after adoptive NY-ESO-1-specific T-cell therapy.

  5. High incidence of loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 17p13 in breast tumours from BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiriksdottir, G; Barkardottir, R B; Agnarsson, B A; Johannesdottir, G; Olafsdottir, K; Egilsson, V; Ingvarsson, S

    1998-01-08

    Breast tumours from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are genetically instable and display specific patterns of chromosomal aberrations, suggestive of distinct genetic pathways in tumour progression. The frequency of abnormalities affecting chromosome 17p and the TP53 gene was determined in 27 breast tumours from 26 female patients carrying the Icelandic BRCA2 founder mutation (999del5). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected in 23 of the 27 tumours (85%). The majority of tumours manifesting LOH had lost a large region on 17p, although a more restricted loss, including the TP53 locus was seen in a few tumours. Positive p53 immunostaining was observed in 18 of 26 tumours (69%). However, mutations in the TP53 gene were detected in only three tumours (11%), including a missense (codon 139) and a nonsense mutation (codon 306) in two tumours with moderate p53 expression and a frameshift deletion (codon 182) in a tumour with no detectable p53 expression. Positive p53 immunostaining, mainly weak, was observed in 16 of the 24 tumours (66%) without TP53 mutation. The high frequency of LOH at chromosome 17p13 suggests that one or more genes from this region are involved in the development of BRCA2-induced breast cancer. The frequent finding of weak overexpression of, presumably wild type p53 protein, suggests an alternative mechanism of TP53 involvement specific to these tumours.

  6. Genome Sequencing and Mapping Reveal Loss of Heterozygosity as a Mechanism for Rapid Adaptation in the Vegetable Pathogen Phytophthora capsici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamour, Kurt H.; Mudge, Joann; Gobena, Daniel; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Kuo, Alan; Miller, Neil A.; Rice, Brandon J.; Raffaele, Sylvain; Cano, Liliana M.; Bharti, Arvind K.; Donahoo, Ryan S.; Finely, Sabra; Huitema, Edgar; Hulvey, Jon; Platt, Darren; Salamov, Asaf; Savidor, Alon; Sharma, Rahul; Stam, Remco; Sotrey, Dylan; Thines, Marco; Win, Joe; Haas, Brian J.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Jenkins, Jerry; Knight, James R.; Affourtit, Jason P.; Han, Cliff S.; Chertkov, Olga; Lindquist, Erika A.; Detter, Chris; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kamoun, Sophien; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2012-02-07

    The oomycete vegetable pathogen Phytophthora capsici has shown remarkable adaptation to fungicides and new hosts. Like other members of this destructive genus, P. capsici has an explosive epidemiology, rapidly producing massive numbers of asexual spores on infected hosts. In addition, P. capsici can remain dormant for years as sexually recombined oospores, making it difficult to produce crops at infested sites, and allowing outcrossing populations to maintain significant genetic variation. Genome sequencing, development of a high-density genetic map, and integrative genomic or genetic characterization of P. capsici field isolates and intercross progeny revealed significant mitotic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in diverse isolates. LOH was detected in clonally propagated field isolates and sexual progeny, cumulatively affecting >30percent of the genome. LOH altered genotypes for more than 11,000 single-nucleotide variant sites and showed a strong association with changes in mating type and pathogenicity. Overall, it appears that LOH may provide a rapid mechanism for fixing alleles and may be an important component of adaptability for P. capsici.

  7. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Bryja, Josef; Galan, Maxime; Deter, Julie; Tollenaere, Charlotte; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Cosson, Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Heterogeneities in immune responsiveness may affect key epidemiological parameters and the dynamics of pathogens. The roles of immunogenetics in these variations remain poorly explored. We analysed the influence of Major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) genes and epigamic traits on the response to phytohaemagglutinin in males from cyclic populations of the montane water vole (Arvicola scherman). Besides, we tested the relevance of lateral scent glands as honest signals of male quality. Our results did not corroborate neither the hypotheses of genome-wide heterozygosity-fitness correlation nor the Mhc heterozygote advantage. We found a negative relationship between Mhc hetetozygosity and response to phytohaemagglutinin, mediated by a specific Mhc homozygous genotype. Our results therefore support the hypothesis of the Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous genotype being a 'good' Mhc variant in terms of immunogenetic quality. The development of the scent glands seems to be an honest signal for mate choice as it is negatively correlated with helminth load. The 'good gene' hypothesis was not validated as Arte-Dqa-05 homozygous males did not exhibit larger glands. Besides, the negative relationship observed between the size of these glands and the response to phytohaemagglutinin, mainly for Mhc homozygotes, corroborates the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. The Mhc variants associated with larger glands remain yet to be determined.

  8. Compound Heterozygosity for Y Box Proteins Causes Sterility Due to Loss of Translational Repression.

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    Elizabeth Snyder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Y-box proteins YBX2 and YBX3 bind RNA and DNA and are required for metazoan development and fertility. However, possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3 has prevented elucidation of their molecular function as RNA masking proteins and identification of their target RNAs. To investigate possible functional redundancy between YBX2 and YBX3, we attempted to construct Ybx2-/-;Ybx3-/- double mutants using a previously reported Ybx2-/- model and a newly generated global Ybx3-/- model. Loss of YBX3 resulted in reduced male fertility and defects in spermatid differentiation. However, homozygous double mutants could not be generated as haploinsufficiency of both Ybx2 and Ybx3 caused sterility characterized by extensive defects in spermatid differentiation. RNA sequence analysis of mRNP and polysome occupancy in single and compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes revealed loss of translational repression almost exclusively in the compound Ybx2/3 heterozygotes. RNAseq analysis also demonstrated that Y-box protein dose-dependent loss of translational regulation was inversely correlated with the presence of a Y box recognition target sequence, suggesting that Y box proteins bind RNA hierarchically to modulate translation in a range of targets.

  9. Heterozygosity for Pten promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse model of medulloblastoma.

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    Robert C Castellino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent publications have described an important role for cross talk between PI-3 kinase and sonic hedgehog signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We crossed mice with constitutive activation of Smoothened, SmoA1, with Pten deficient mice. Both constitutive and conditional Pten deficiency doubled the incidence of mice with symptoms of medulloblastoma and resulted in decreased survival. Analysis revealed a clear separation of gene signatures, with up-regulation of genes in the PI-3 kinase signaling pathway, including downstream activation of angiogenesis in SmoA1+/-; Pten +/- medulloblastomas. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced or absent Pten, Akt activation, and increased angiogenesis in Pten deficient tumors. Down-regulated genes included genes in the sonic hedgehog pathway and tumor suppressor genes. SmoA1+/-; Pten +/+ medulloblastomas appeared classic in histology with increased proliferation and diffuse staining for apoptosis. In contrast, Pten deficient tumors exhibited extensive nodularity with neuronal differentiation separated by focal areas of intense staining for proliferation and virtually absent apoptosis. Examination of human medulloblastomas revealed low to absent PTEN expression in over half of the tumors. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed worse overall survival in patients whose tumor exhibited low to absent PTEN expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This suggests that PTEN expression is a marker of favorable prognosis and mouse models with activation of PI-3 kinase pathways may be important tools for preclinical evaluation of promising agents for the treatment of medulloblastoma.

  10. CCR5-Δ32 Heterozygosity, HIV-1 Reservoir Size, and Lymphocyte Activation in Individuals Receiving Long-term Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Timothy J; Hanhauser, Emily; Harrison, Linda J; Palmer, Christine D; Romero-Tejeda, Marisol; Jost, Stephanie; Bosch, Ronald J; Kuritzkes, Daniel R

    2016-03-01

    We conducted a case-controlled study of the associations of CCR5-Δ32 heterozygosity with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reservoir size, lymphocyte activation, and CCR5 expression in 114 CCR5(Δ32/WT) and 177 wild-type CCR5 AIDS Clinical Trials Group participants receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Overall, no significant differences were found between groups for any of these parameters. However, higher levels of CCR5 expression correlated with lower amounts of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA. The relationship between CCR5-Δ32 heterozygosity, CCR5 expression, and markers of HIV-1 persistence is likely to be complex and may be influenced by factors such as the duration of ART.

  11. Analyzing the influence of BDNF heterozygosity on spatial memory response to 17β-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y W C; Du, X; van den Buuse, M; Hill, R A

    2015-01-20

    The recent use of estrogen-based therapies as adjunctive treatments for the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia has produced promising results; however the mechanism behind estrogen-based cognitive enhancement is relatively unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates learning and memory and its expression is highly responsive to estradiol. We recently found that estradiol modulates the expression of hippocampal parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons, known to regulate neuronal synchrony and cognitive function. What is unknown is whether disruptions to the aforementioned estradiol-parvalbumin pathway alter learning and memory, and whether BDNF may mediate these events. Wild-type (WT) and BDNF heterozygous (+/-) mice were ovariectomized (OVX) at 5 weeks of age and simultaneously received empty, estradiol- or progesterone-filled implants for 7 weeks. At young adulthood, mice were tested for spatial and recognition memory in the Y-maze and novel-object recognition test, respectively. Hippocampal protein expression of BDNF and GABAergic interneuron markers, including parvalbumin, were assessed. WT OVX mice show impaired performance on Y-maze and novel-object recognition test. Estradiol replacement in OVX mice prevented the Y-maze impairment, a Behavioral abnormality of dorsal hippocampal origin. BDNF and parvalbumin protein expression in the dorsal hippocampus and parvalbumin-positive cell number in the dorsal CA1 were significantly reduced by OVX in WT mice, while E2 replacement prevented these deficits. In contrast, BDNF(+/-) mice showed either no response or an opposite response to hormone manipulation in both behavioral and molecular indices. Our data suggest that BDNF status is an important biomarker for predicting responsiveness to estrogenic compounds which have emerged as promising adjunctive therapeutics for schizophrenia patients.

  12. [Gene frequencies and heterozygosity of the AB0 and RH blood group alleles in the populations of two cities of the Donetsk region, Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, V N; Chinakh, D G; Avdeev, A V; Kuleba, V V; Afanas'ev, M V

    2003-04-01

    The frequencies of the AB0 and RH blood group alleles and heterozygosity indices were determined for the populations of two large industrial cities of Gorlovka and Mariupol. In the population of Gorlovka the gene frequencies were as follows: AB0*0 = 0.576, AB0*A = 0.266, AB0*B = 0.158, and RH*D = 0.592, in Mariupol the frequencies were AB0*0 = 0.584, AB0*A = 0.265, AB0*B = 0.151, and RH*D = 0.604. In Gorlovka the heterozygosity indices in respect to the AB0 and RH alleles were 0.572 and 0.483, respectively; in Mariupol, 0.566 and 0.478, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two populations in respect to the genetic markers analyzed. However, the heterozygosity values obtained were more similar to the corresponding estimates for some populations of Russia, than for the total population of the Ukraine.

  13. Frequent loss of heterozygosity in two distinct regions,8p23.1 and 8p22,in hepatocelluar carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoe Lu; Hiroshi Hano; Chenxi Meng; Keisuke Nagatsuma; Satoru Chiba; Masahiro Ikegami

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To identify the precise location of putative tumor suppressor genes(TSGs)on the short arm of chromosome 8 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).METHODS:We used 16 microsatellite markers informative in Japanese patients,which were selected from 61 published markers,on 8p,to analyze the frequency of loss of heterozygosity(LOH)in each region in 33 cases(56 lesions)of HCC.RESULTS:The frequency of LOH at 8p23.2-21 with at least one marker was 63%(20/32)in the informative cases.More specifically,the frequency of LOH at 8p23.2,8p23.1,8p22,and 8p21 was 6%,52%,47%,and 13% in HCC cases.The LOH was significantly more frequent at 8p23.1 and 8p22 than the average(52% vs 22%,P = 0.0008;and 47% vs 22%,P = 0.004,respectively)or others sites,such as 8p23.2(52% vs 6%,P = 0.003;47% vs 22%,P = 0.004)and 8p21(52% vs 13%,P = 0.001;47% vs 13%,P = 0.005)in liver cancer on the basis of cases.Notably,LOH frequency was significantly higher at D8S277,D8S503,D8S1130,D8S552,D8S254 and D8S258 than at the other sites.However,no allelic loss was detected at any marker on 8p in the lesions of nontumor liver tissues.CONCLUSION:Deletion of 8p,especially the loss of 8p23.1-22,is an important event in the initiation or promotion of HCC.Our results should be useful in identifying critical genes that might lie at 8p23.1-22.

  14. Partial protective effect of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in a cohort of heterosexual Italian HIV-1 exposed uninfected individuals

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    Cauda Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite multiple sexual exposure to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative (exposed seronegative, ESN. The mechanisms underlying this resistance remain still unclear, although a multifactorial pathogenesis can be hypothesised. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozigosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32 bp deletion, i.e. CCR5-Delta32 allele is presently considered the most relevant one. In the present study we analysed the genotype at CCR5 locus of 30 Italian ESN individuals (case group who referred multiple unprotected heterosexual intercourse with HIV-1 seropositive partner(s, for at least two years. One hundred and twenty HIV-1 infected patients and 120 individuals representative of the general population were included as control groups. Twenty percent of ESN individuals had heterozygous CCR5-Delta 32 genotype, compared to 7.5% of HIV-1 seropositive and 10% of individuals from the general population, respectively. None of the analysed individuals had CCR5-Delta 32 homozygous genotype. Sequence analysis of the entire open reading frame of CCR5 was performed in all ESN subjects and no polymorphisms or mutations were identified. Moreover, we determined the distribution of C77G variant in CD45 gene, which has been previously related to HIV-1 infection susceptibility. The frequency of the C77G variant showed no significant difference between ESN subjects and the two control groups. In conclusion, our data show a significantly higher frequency of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygous genotype (p = 0.04 among the Italian heterosexual ESN individuals compared to HIV-1 seropositive patients, suggesting a partial protective role of CCR5-Delta 32 heterozygosity in this cohort.

  15. Conflicting HLA assignment by three different typing methods due to the apparent loss of heterozygosity in the MHC region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, T; Impola, U; Niittyvuopio, R; Kuittinen, O; Kaare, A; Rimpiläinen, J; Volin, L; Peräsaari, J; Jaatinen, T; Lauronen, J; Saarinen, T; Juvonen, E; Partanen, J; Koskela, S

    2016-05-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been reported to cause false human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous typing results in pre-transplant patients suffering from haematological malignancies, who in fact are HLA heterozygous. This poses a challenge for histocompatibility testing, as a stem cell graft from a genuinely HLA homozygous donor to a mistyped patient may lead to acute life-threatening graft-vs-host disease. LOH in the HLA region on chromosome 6 is known to be quite common in solid tumours, helping malignant cells to escape T-cell surveillance, but the incidence in haematological malignancies is less well known and the estimates vary. Here we report LOH in the HLA region of five patients with haematological malignancy. We found considerable differences in sensitivity between the three different HLA typing methods used in our laboratory: SSP was clearly the most sensitive method for detecting the lost haplotype, followed by rSSO, while SBT was the least sensitive technique. A subsequent, retrospective genotyping of 65 HLA homozygous haematological patients by SSP method showed no mistyped LOH cases in our laboratory in the past 10 years. The frequency of HLA homozygosity was found to be similar between haematological patients and control groups. It is important for an HLA laboratory to be aware of the differences in various HLA typing techniques' sensitivity for detecting an under-represented haplotype between HLA typing techniques when genotyping patients with haematological diseases. It is advisable for HLA laboratories to have at least two different methods with different sensitivities in their repertoire to be able to retype samples when a false homozygous result is suspected.

  16. Loss of heterozygosity of Kras2 gene on 12p12-13 in Chinese colon carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wan; Hong Li; Yuan Li; Mei-Ling Zhu; Po Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 12p12-13 in Chinese colon carcinoma patients.METHODS: DNA was extracted from 10 specimens of cancer tissue, 10 specimens of adjacent tissue and 10specimens of normal tissue, respectively. LOH of Kras2gene was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using 11 microsatellite markers on 12p-12-13.RESULTS: LOH of Kras gene was detected at least on one marker of 12p-12-13 in 30% (3/10) of adjacent tissue specimens. The highest frequency of LOH was identified on D12S1034 in 28.57% (2/7) of adjacent tissue specimens. LOH was detected at least on one marker of 12p12-13 in 60% (6/10) of carcinoma tissue specimens, the most frequent LOH was found on D12S1034 and D12S1591 in 42.86% (3/7) of carcinoma tissue specimens. LOH was detected in 30% (3/10) of carcinoma tissue specimens, 30% (3/10) of adjacent tissue specimens, and no signal in 1% (1/0) carcinoma tissue specimen. The occurrence of LOH did not correlate with sex, age, tumor size and lymph node metastasis.CONCLUSION: Genomic instability may occur on 12p-12-13 of Kras2 gene in the development and progression of colon carcinoma. The high LOH of Kras2 gene may directly influence the transcription and translation of wild type Kras2 gene.

  17. [Early loss of heterozygosity on chromosome arm 16q in flat epithelial atypia of the breast. Detection by microsatellite analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Dahrenmöller, C; Agelepoulos, K; Hungermann, D; Böcker, W

    2008-11-01

    With the improvement of breast carcinoma screening, pre-malignant cell lesions such as flat epithelial atypia (FEA) are detected more frequently. Several studies have demonstrated that FEA show features of a ductal neoplasia, but is it really a precursor lesion? We have started a comparative genetic analysis of a panel of nine microsatellite markers on six different chromosomal regions to investigate whether FEAs show the same characteristic genetic alterations as ductal carcinomas in situ (DCISs) and invasive carcinoma of the breast. FEAs, DCISs and invasive carcinomas of the same patients were microdissected using PALM micro laser technology. DNA was isolated using the QIAamp DNA Micro Kit (QIAGEN). We have investigated a set of the polymorphic microsatellite markers D7S522, D8S522, NEFL, D10S541 (PTEN), D13S153 (RB1), D16S400, D16S402, D16S422 and D17S855 (BRCA1) using multiplex PCR for the detection of allelic imbalances. Most of the investigated FEAs showed a lower frequency of loss of heterozygosity than associated DCISs or invasive carcinomas. However, we were able to detect the same alterations in FEAs as in DCISs or invasive carcinomas in a number of cases. Notably, the microsatellite marker on 16q showed more prevalent allelic imbalances in FEAs than the other investigated markers. One of the hallmarks in the pathogenesis of a large subgroup of invasive breast carcinomas is the early loss of chromosome arm 16q. In this study, we were able to detect frequent genetic alterations on chromosome 16q in FEAs, associated DCISs and invasive carcinomas. This suggests that FEA is a precursor lesion in the low-grade pathway.

  18. Heterozygosity in the glutathione synthesis gene Gclm increases sensitivity to diesel exhaust particulate induced lung inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldy, Chad S.; White, Collin C.; Wilkerson, Hui-Wen; Larson, Timothy V.; Stewart, James A.; Gill, Sean E.; Parks, William C.; Kavanagh, Terrance J.

    2012-01-01

    Context Inhalation of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects. A major fraction of PM2.5 in urban settings is diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), and DEP-induced lung inflammation is likely a critical event mediating many of its adverse health effects. Oxidative stress has been proposed to be an important factor in PM2.5-induced lung inflammation, and the balance between pro- and antioxidants is an important regulator of this inflammation. An important intracellular antioxidant is the tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH). Glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) carries out the first step in GSH synthesis. In humans, relatively common genetic polymorphisms in both the catalytic (Gclc) and modifier (Gclm) subunits of GCL have been associated with increased risk for lung and cardiovascular diseases. Objective This study was aimed to determine the effects of Gclm expression on lung inflammation following DEP exposure in mice. Materials and methods We exposed Gclm wild type, heterozygous, and null mice to DEP via intranasal instillation and assessed lung inflammation as determined by neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in lung lavage, inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels in lung tissue, as well as total lung GSH, Gclc, and Gclm protein levels. Results The Gclm heterozygosity was associated with a significant increase in DEP-induced lung inflammation when compared to that of wild type mice. Discussion and conclusion This finding indicates that GSH synthesis can mediate DEP-induced lung inflammation and suggests that polymorphisms in Gclm may be an important factor in determining adverse health outcomes in humans following inhalation of PM2.5. PMID:21967497

  19. Phenotypic Diversity of Sickle Cell Disease in Patients with a Double Heterozygosity for Hb S and Hb D-Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lidiane S; Okumura, Jéssika V; Belini-Júnior, Édis; Oliveira, Renan G; Nascimento, Patrícia P; Silva, Danilo G H; Lobo, Clarisse L C; Oliani, Sonia M; Bonini-Domingos, Claudia R

    2016-09-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity for sickle cell disease is associated to several genetic factors such as genotype for sickle cell disease, β-globin gene cluster haplotypes and Hb F levels. The coinheritance of Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) and Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G > C) results in a double heterozygosity, which constitutes one of the genotypic causes of sickle cell disease. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic diversity of sickle cell disease presented by carriers of the Hb S/Hb D-Punjab genotype and the Bantu [- + - - - -] haplotype. We evaluated medical records from 12 patients with sickle cell disease whose Hb S/Hb D-Punjab genotype and Bantu haplotype were confirmed by molecular analysis. Hb S and Hb D-Punjab levels were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Mean concentrations of Hb S and Hb D-Punjab were 44.8 ± 2.3% and 43.3 ± 1.8%, respectively. Painful crises were present in eight (66.7%) patients evaluated, representing the most common clinical event. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) was the second most prevalent manifestation, occurring in two individuals (16.7%). Three patients were asymptomatic, while another two exhibited greater diversity of severe clinical manifestations. Medical records here analyzed reported a significant clinical diversity in sickle cell disease ranging from the absence of symptoms to wide phenotypic variety. The sickle cell disease genotype, Bantu haplotype and hemoglobin (Hb) levels did not influence the clinical diversity. Thus, we concluded that the phenotypic variation in sickle cell disease was present within a specific genotype for disease regardless of the β-globin gene cluster haplotypes.

  20. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  1. [Analysis of loss of heterozygosity of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and BRCA1 in ovarial carcinomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Bojana; Perović, Milica; Novaković, Ivana; Atanacković, Jasmina; Popović, Branka; Luković, Ljiljana; Petković, Spasoje

    2006-09-01

    Among the genes involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, there has been increased interest in tumor-suppressor genes p53 and BRCA1. Both of the genes make control of cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. The p53 is a "genome guardian" inactivated in more than 50% of human cancers, while BRCA1 mutations are found mostly in breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this investigation was to establish the frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the regions of the genes p53 and BRCA1 in ovarian carcinomas, and to analyze the association of LOH with the disease stage and prognosis. We analyzed 20 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epithelilal ovarian carcinoma. DNA for molecular-genetic analysis was extracted from the tumor tissue and blood as normal tissue of each person. Microsatellite markers of the regions of genes p53 and BRCA1 were amplified by PCR method. The determination of allelic status of microsatellites and detection of LOH was performed after PAA gel electroforesis. Both of the analyzed microsatellite markers were informative in 13/20 (65%) cases. In the region of gene p53, LOH was established in 4/13 (30.7%) tumors. One of them had histological gradus G1, one had gradus G2, and two of them had gradus G3, while all were with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIIc stage. In the region of gene BRCA1, LOH was detected in 5/13 (38.5%) tumors. Four of them had histological gradus G2, and one had gradus G3, while by the (FIGO) classification one was with stage Ib, one was with stage IIIb, while the three were with stage IlIc. LOH in both of the analyzed regions was detected in one tumor (7.70), with histological gradus G3 and the FIGO IIIc stage. The frequency of LOH in epthelial ovarian carcinomas was 30.7% and 38.5% for p53 and BRCA1 gene regions, respectively. Most of tumors with LOH had histological gradus G2 or G3, and the clinical FIGO stage IIIc, suggesting the association of this occurrence with a later phase of the disease.

  2. Analysis of loss of heterozygosity of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and BRCA1 in ovarial carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luković Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Among the genes involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, there has been increased interest in tumor-suppressor genes p53 and BRCA1. Both of the genes make control of cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. The p53 is a "genome guardian" inactivated in more than 50% of human cancers, while BRCA1 mutations are found mostly in breast and ovarian cancer. The aim of this investigation was to establish the frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH in the regions of the genes p53 and BRCA1 in ovarian carcinomas, and to analyze the association of LOH with the disease stage and prognosis. Methods. We analyzed 20 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epithelilal ovarian carcinoma. DNA for molecular-genetic analysis was extracted from the tumor tissue and blood as normal tissue of each person. Microsatellite markers of the regions of genes p53 and BRCA1 were amplified by PCR method. The determination of allelic status of microsatellites and detection of LOH was performed after PAA gel electroforesis. Results. Both of the analyzed microsatellite markers were informative in 13/20 (65% cases. In the region of gene p53, LOH was established in 4/13 (30.7% tumors. One of them had histological gradus G1, one had gradus G2, and two of them had gradus G3, while all were with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO IIIc stage. In the region of gene BRCA1, LOH was detected in 5/13 (38.5% tumors. Four of them had histological gradus G2, and one had gradus G3, while by the (FIGO classification one was with stage Ib, one was with stage IIIb, while the three were with stage IIIc. LOH in both of the analyzed regions was detected in one tumor (7.7%, with histological gradus G3 and the FIGO IIIc stage. Conclusion. The frequency of LOH in epthelial ovarian carcinomas was 30.7% and 38.5% for p53 and BRCA1 gene regions, respectively. Most of tumors with LOH had histological gradus G2 or G3, and the clinical FIGO stage IIIc, suggesting the

  3. β-Thalassaemia Major in a Spanish Patient due to a Compound Heterozygosity for CD39 C→T/−28 A→C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Gamarra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A Spanish male patient with β-thalassaemia major was studied. Compound heterozygosity was found for one of the most common β-globin gene mutations in the Spanish population (codon 39 C→T and for a mutation in the TATA box element of the β-globin gene promoter (−28 A→C mutation. To our knowledge this is the first report of a CD39 C→T and −28 A→C change association and the first report of the −28 A→C substitution in a Spanish patient.

  4. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  5. Heterozygosity of mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotypes predicts advantage (heterosis) in relation to fatal outcome in intensive care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellemann, Dorthe; Larsson, Lars Anders Sune; Madsen, Hans O;

    2007-01-01

    .0045) at completion. No difference in MBL2 frequency was observed between patients and controls at baseline, and between patients classified as having sepsis or not. However, patients with the MBL2 O/O genotype had an increased frequency of Gram-positive bacterial infection (P = 0.01). Heterozygosity for MBL2 alleles...... by a PCR-based assay. Homozygosity for MBL2 variant alleles (O/O) causing MBL structural defects was associated with the highest adjusted mortality rate followed by homozygosity for the normal MBL2 allele (A/A) encoding high MBL levels, whereas heterozygous A/O patients had the most favourable outcome (P...

  6. Heterozygosity of Knob-Associated Tandem Repeats and Knob Instability in Mitotic Chromosomes of Zea (Zea mays L. and Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong XIONG; Yong LIU; Yong-Gang HE; Yun-Chun SONG; Ke-Xiu LI; Guan-Yuan HE

    2005-01-01

    Knobs are blocks of heterochromatin present on chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L.) and its relatives that have effects on the frequency of genetic recombination, as well as on chromosome behavior.Knob heterozygosity and instability in six maize inbred lines and one Z. diploperennis Iltis Doebley line were investigated using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with knob-associated tandem repeats (180 bp and 350 bp (TR-1)) as probes. Signals of seven heterozygous knobs containing 180-bp repeats and of one heterozygous knob containing TR- 1 were captured in chromosomes of all materials tested according to the results of FISH, which demonstrates that the 180-bp repeat is the main contributor to knob heterozygosity compared with the TR-1 element. In addition, one target cell with two TR-1 signals on one homolog of chromosome 2L, which was different from the normal cells in the maize inbred line GB57,was observed, suggesting knob duplication and an instability phenomenon in the maize genome.

  7. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  8. Heterozygosities and genetic relationship of tea cultivars revealed by simple sequence repeat markers and implications for breeding and genetic mapping programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L Q; Zhang, C C; Qi, G N; Wang, L Y; Wei, K; Chen, S X; Zou, Y; Wu, L Y; Cheng, H

    2015-03-06

    Genetic maps are essential tools for quantitative trait locus analysis and marker-assisted selection breeding. In order to select parents that are highly heterozygous for genetic mapping, the heterozygosity (HS) of 24 tea cultivars (Camellia sinensis) was analyzed with 72 simple sequence repeat markers. In total, 359 alleles were obtained with an average of 4.99 per marker. The HS varied greatly from 37.5 to 71.0% with an average of 51.3%. On average, tea cultivars from Fujian Province showed a higher level of heterozygosity (59.8%) than those from Zhejiang (48.5%) and Yunnan (44.5%), and the 12 national tea cultivars were generally more heterozygous than the 12 provincial cultivars. Unweighted pair-group analysis using the arithmetic average grouping divided the 24 cultivars into 2 groups that are consistent with the morphological classification. All dual combinations of the 24 cultivars were studied to calculate the percentage of mappable markers when using pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, and results showed that this value also varied greatly from 51.4 to 90.3%. The genetic relationships and HS differences among different cultivars were discussed, and tea cultivars with high HS were recommended as cross parents for genetic mapping programs.

  9. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 in two families with acromegaly/gigantism is independent of mutations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, M R; Prezant, T R; Une, K N; Glick, R P; Moskal, S F; Vaisman, M; Melmed, S; Kineman, R D; Frohman, L A

    1999-01-01

    Familial acromegaly/gigantism occurring in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1) or the Carney complex has been reported in 18 families since the biochemical diagnosis of GH excess became available, and the genetic defect is unknown. In the present study we examined 2 unrelated families with isolated acromegaly/gigantism. In family A, 3 of 4 siblings were affected, with ages at diagnosis of 19, 21, and 23 yr. In family B, 5 of 13 siblings exhibited the phenotype and were diagnosed at 13, 15, 17, 17, and 24 yr of age. All 8 affected patients had elevated basal GH levels associated with high insulin-like growth factor I levels and/or nonsuppressible serum GH levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. GHRH levels were normal in affected members of family A. An invasive macroadenoma was found in 6 subjects, and a microadenoma was found in 1 subject from family B. The sequence of the GHRH receptor complementary DNA in 1 tumor from family A was normal. There was no history of consanguinity in either family, and the past medical history and laboratory results excluded MEN-1 and the Carney complex in all affected and unaffected screened subjects. Five of 8 subjects have undergone pituitary surgery to date, and paraffin-embedded pituitary blocks were available for analysis. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 11q13 was studied by comparing microsatellite polymorphisms of leukocyte and tumor DNA using PYGM (centromeric) and D11S527 (telomeric), markers closely linked to the MEN-1 tumor suppressor gene. All tumors exhibited a loss of heterozygosity at both markers. Sequencing of the MEN-1 gene revealed no germline mutations in either family, nor was a somatic mutation found in tumor DNA from one subject in family A. The integrity of the MEN-1 gene in this subject was further supported by demonstration of the presence of MEN-1 messenger ribonucleic acid, as assessed by RT-PCR. These data indicate that loss of heterozygosity in these affected family

  10. Loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p35-pter, 4q, and 18q and protein expression differences between adenocarcinomas of the distal stomach and gastric cardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Man, Xiaohui; Lv, Zhi; Li, Deming; Sun, Zhe; Chen, Hong; Wang, Zhenning; Luo, Yang; Xu, Huimian

    2012-12-01

    Loss of heterozygosity of 1p35-pter, 4q, and 18q is frequent in gastric carcinoma, suggesting that these regions harbor tumor suppressor genes. However, the differences in these genetic alterations between adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach remain unclear. In this study, loss of heterozygosity at chromosomes 1p35-pter, 4q, and 18q were analyzed in adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia and adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach samples acquired by laser capture microdissection. The expression of several tumor suppressor gene proteins, runt-related transcription factor 3 (1p36), annexin A10 (4q33), SMAD family member 4 (18q21.1), and deleted in colorectal carcinoma (18q21.3), was evaluated immunohistochemically. The adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia lesions had a similar trend in total deletion frequency for chromosomes 1p35-pter (36.5% for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach and 32.5% for adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia), 4q (42.3% for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach and 47.5% for adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia), and 18q (38.5% for adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach and 45% for adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia). However, loss of heterozygosity patterns were clearly different in the 2 adenocarcinomas. Deletion mapping indicated that 4q32.2-4q34.3, 18q21.2-21.31, 18q22.3-23, and 1p35.2-1p36.13 were involved in adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, whereas 4q13.3-4q22.3, 4q31.21-4q32.2, 18q21.31-18q22.1, and 1p35.2-1p36.13 were involved in adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. Expression of ANXA10 (P = .038), SMAD family member 4 (P = .028), and deleted in colorectal carcinoma (P = .004) was less common in adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach than in adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. Expression of runt-related transcription factor 3 (P = .795) showed no significant difference in the 2 tumors. The tumors differed in the profile of genetic alterations and

  11. The role of proteases, endoplasmic reticulum stress and SERPINA1 heterozygosity in lung disease and alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2012-02-01

    The serine proteinase inhibitor alpha-1 anti-trypsin (AAT) provides an antiprotease protective screen throughout the body. Mutations in the AAT gene (SERPINA1) that lead to deficiency in AAT are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The Z mutation encodes a misfolded variant of AAT that is not secreted effectively and accumulates intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and other AAT-producing cells. Until recently, it was thought that loss of antiprotease function was the major cause of ZAAT-related lung disease. However, the contribution of gain-of-function effects is now being recognized. Here we describe how both loss- and gain-of-function effects can contribute to ZAAT-related lung disease. In addition, we explore how SERPINA1 heterozygosity could contribute to smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and consider the consequences.

  12. Further localization of the gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) in 15 Australasian families: Linkage and loss of heterozygosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Wicking, C.; Berkman, J.; Sharpe, H.; Hockey, A.; Haan, E.; Oley, C.; Ravine, D.; Turner, A.; Searle, J. (and others)

    1993-09-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS; basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome) is a cancer-predisposition syndrome characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and diverse developmental defects. The gene for NBCCS has been mapped to 9q23.1-q31 in North Americal and European families. In addition, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for genetic markers in this region has been detected in sporadic BCCs, indicating that the NBCCs gene is probably a tumor-suppressor gene. In this study the authors have determined that the NBCCS gene is also linked to this region in Australasian pedigrees and that there is no significant evidence of heterogeneity. They have defined the localization of the gene by multipoint and haplotype analysis of 15 families, using four microsatellite markers. LOH at these loci was detected in 50% of sporadic BCCs, a rate that is significantly higher than that in other skin lesions used as controls. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mitotic crossover promotes leukemogenesis in children born with TEL-AML1 via the generation of loss of heterozygosity at 12p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivanovski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene which is formed prenatally in 1% of the newborns, is a common genetic abnormality in childhood Bcell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But only one child out of a hundred children born with this fusion gene develops leukemia (bottleneck phenomenon later in its life, if contracts the second mutation. In other words, out of a hundred children born with TEL-AML1 only one child is at risk for leukemia development, which means that TEL-AML1 fusion gene is not sufficient for overt leukemia. There is a stringent requirement for a second genetic abnormality for leukemia development and this is the real or the ultimate cause of the leukemia bottleneck phenomenon. In most cases of TEL-AML1+ leukemia, the translocation t(12;21 is complemented with the loss of the normal TEL gene, not involved in the translocation, on the contralateral 12p. The loss of the normal TEL gene, i.e. loss of heterozygosity at 12p, occurs postnatally during the mitotic proliferation of TEL-AML1+ cell in the mitotic crossing over process. Mitotic crossing over is a very rare event with a frequency rate of 10–6 in a 10 kb region. The exploration and identification of the environmental exposure(s that cause(s proliferation of the TELAML1+ cell in which approximately 106 mitoses are generated to cause 12p loss of heterozygosity, i.e. TEL gene deletion, may contribute to the introduction of preventive measures for leukemia.

  14. α₁-Antitrypsin protease inhibitor MZ heterozygosity is associated with airflow obstruction in two large cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund

    2010-01-01

    Severe a1-antitrypsin deficiency is a known genetic risk factor for COPD. Heterozygous (protease inhibitor [PI] MZ) individuals have moderately reduced serum levels of a1-antitrypsin, but whether they have an increased risk of COPD is uncertain....

  15. CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygosity in Women With Breast Cancer Associated With Early Death, Breast Cancer-Specific Death, and Increased Risk of a Second Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pharoah, Paul

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS From 22 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Assoc...

  16. Major role for a 3p21 region and lack of involvement of the t(3;8) breakpoint region in the development of renal cell carcinoma suggested by loss of heterozygosity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anke; Hulsbeek, MMF; deJong, D; Kok, K; Veldhuis, PMJF; Roche, J; Buys, CHCM

    1996-01-01

    In a loss of heterozygosity analysis of 3p, we examined 44 sporadic cases of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and matched normal tissue with 18 markers distributed over the whole p-arm. The majority of these markers clustered in three regions that have been suggested to be involved in the development of R

  17. CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity in women with breast cancer associated with early death, breast cancer-specific death, and increased risk of a second breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Weischer (Maren); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.L. Hopper (John); P. Hall (Per); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); P. Devilee (Peter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Cox (Angela); G.G. Giles (Graham); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Lindblom (Annika); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Mannermaa (Arto); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); E.M. John (Esther); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Flyger (Henrik); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Q. Wang (Qing); T.A. Muranen (Taru); R.R. van Hien (Richard); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.C. Southey (Melissa); K. Czene (Kamila); J.A. Knight (Julia); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); J.M. Collee (Margriet); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); G. Severi (Gianluca); F. Marme (Federick); S. Margolin (Sara); J.E. Olson (Janet); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A. Miron (Alexander); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Shah (Mitul); C. Blomqvist (Carl); A. Broeks (Annegien); M.E. Sherman (Mark); K. Phillips (Kelly); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); G. Glendon (Gord); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); A.B. Ekici (Arif); K. Leunen; M. Kriege (Mieke); S.S. Cross (Simon); L. Baglietto (Laura); C. Sohn (Christof); X. Wang (Xing); V. Kataja (Vesa); A.L. Børresen-Dale (Anne Lise); A. Meyer (Andreas); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); S.E. Bojesen (Stig)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. Patients and Methods: From 22 studies participating in the Breast C

  18. Mild Microcytic Anemia in an Infant with a Compound Heterozygosity for Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb Osu Christiansborg (HBB: c.157G > A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Maria O; Chui, David H K; Woda, Bruce A; Newburger, Peter E

    2016-06-01

    We report an infant with a compound heterozygosity for Hb C (HBB: c.19G > A) and Hb Osu Christiansborg (HBB: c.157G > A) and a phenotype of mild microcytic anemia with target cell morphology but without overt hemolysis.

  19. CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity in women with breast cancer associated with early death, breast cancer-specific death, and increased risk of a second breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Weischer (Maren); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.L. Hopper (John); P. Hall (Per); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); P. Devilee (Peter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); D. Lambrechts (Diether); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Cox (Angela); G.G. Giles (Graham); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); A. Lindblom (Annika); F.J. Couch (Fergus); A. Mannermaa (Arto); G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); E.M. John (Esther); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Flyger (Henrik); A.M. Dunning (Alison); Q. Wang (Qing); T.A. Muranen (Taru); R.R. van Hien (Richard); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.C. Southey (Melissa); K. Czene (Kamila); J.A. Knight (Julia); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); M.R. Christiaens (Marie Rose); J.M. Collee (Margriet); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); G. Severi (Gianluca); F. Marme (Federick); S. Margolin (Sara); J.E. Olson (Janet); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); V. Kristensen (Vessela); A. Miron (Alexander); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); M. Shah (Mitul); C. Blomqvist (Carl); A. Broeks (Annegien); M.E. Sherman (Mark); K. Phillips (Kelly); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); G. Glendon (Gord); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); A.B. Ekici (Arif); K. Leunen; M. Kriege (Mieke); S.S. Cross (Simon); L. Baglietto (Laura); C. Sohn (Christof); X. Wang (Xing); V. Kataja (Vesa); A.L. Børresen-Dale (Anne Lise); A. Meyer (Andreas); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); S.E. Bojesen (Stig)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We tested the hypotheses that CHEK2*1100delC heterozygosity is associated with increased risk of early death, breast cancer-specific death, and risk of a second breast cancer in women with a first breast cancer. Patients and Methods: From 22 studies participating in the Breast

  20. α₁-Antitrypsin protease inhibitor MZ heterozygosity is associated with airflow obstruction in two large cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund

    2010-01-01

    Severe α₁-antitrypsin deficiency is a known genetic risk factor for COPD. Heterozygous (protease inhibitor [PI] MZ) individuals have moderately reduced serum levels of α₁-antitrypsin, but whether they have an increased risk of COPD is uncertain....

  1. Neurofibromatosis-1 heterozygosity increases microglia in a spatially and temporally restricted pattern relevant to mouse optic glioma formation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Grant W; Pong, Winnie W; Emnett, Ryan J; White, Crystal R; Gianino, Scott M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Gutmann, David H

    2011-01-01

    Whereas carcinogenesis requires the acquisition of driver mutations in progenitor cells, tumor growth and progression are heavily influenced by the local microenvironment. Previous studies from our laboratory have used Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) genetically engineered mice to characterize the role of stromal cells and signals to optic glioma formation and growth. Previously, we have shown that Nf1+/- microglia in the tumor microenvironment are critical cellular determinants of optic glioma proliferation. To define the role of microglia in tumor formation and maintenance further, we used CD11b-TK mice, in which resident brain microglia (CD11b+, CD68+, Iba1+, CD45low cells) can be ablated at specific times after ganciclovir administration. Ganciclovir-mediated microglia reduction reduced Nf1 optic glioma proliferation during both tumor maintenance and tumor development. We identified the developmental window during which microglia are increased in the Nf1+/- optic nerve and demonstrated that this accumulation reflected delayed microglia dispersion. The increase in microglia in the Nf1+/- optic nerve was associated with reduced expression of the chemokine receptor, CX3CR1, such that reduced Cx3cr1 expression in Cx3cr1-GFP heterozygous knockout mice led to a similar increase in optic nerve microglia. These results establish a critical role for microglia in the development and maintenance of Nf1 optic glioma.

  2. The genetic heterozygosity and fitness of tetraploid embryos and embryonic stem cells are crucial parameters influencing survival of mice derived from embryonic stem cells by tetraploid embryo aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyun; Wei, Wei; Yong, Jun; Jia, Qing; Yu, Yuansong; Di, Keqian

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether the genetic background of tetraploid embryos contributed to the survival of mice derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells by tetraploid embryo complementation. Twenty-five newborns were produced by aggregation of hybrid ES cells and tetraploid embryos with different genetic backgrounds. These newborns were entirely derived from ES cells judged by microsatellite DNA (A specific sequence of DNA bases or nucleotides that contains mono, di, tri or tetra repeats) and coat colour phenotype and germline transmission. Fifteen survived to adulthood while seven died of respiratory failure. All newborns were derived from outbred or hybrid tetraploid aggregates and no newborns were from the inbreds. Our results demonstrate that the genetic heterozygosity, fitness of tetraploid embryos and fitness of ES cells are crucial parameters influencing survival of mice derived from ES cells by tetraploid embryo aggregation. In addition, this method represents a simple and efficient procedure for immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps.

  3. Large proportion of low frequency microsatellite-instability and loss of heterozygosity in pheochromocytoma and endocrine tumors detected with an extended marker panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, Susan; Haack, Birgit; Zdichavsky, Marty; Mlinar, Tanja; Kienzle, Christine; Bock, Thomas; Kandolf, Reinhard; Kroeber, Stefan-Martin; Königsrainer, Alfred

    2008-04-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a usually benign tumor originated in the majority of patients from the adrenal medulla. Regarding sporadic forms of PCC, mechanisms of pathogenesis are largely unknown. Recently, microsatellite-instability (MSI) was discussed as genetic factor contributing to PCC development. Since microsatellite markers used for MSI detection have only been recommended for colorectal carcinoma (CRC), we established an extended marker set for MSI detection in PCC. Twenty-two PCC patients were analyzed applying 11 microsatellite markers. Our marker set comprised the reference panel for CRC and six additional markers, which have already been described to detect MSI in tumors other than CRC. Moreover, 23 endocrine tumors with gastrointestinal origin were examined in order to test the applicability of this marker panel. Microsatellite-instability was detected in 41% of PCCs. Twenty-seven percent showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events affecting different chromosomal regions. Among the 23 patients with endocrine tumors, only three (one pancreatic endocrine tumor, one duodenal neuro-endocrine tumor, one hepatic metastasis of a primary tumor with unknown origin) demonstrated MSI. The extended microsatellite panel is qualified to detect MSI in PCC. Nine percent of MSI-positive cases would have not been noticed by the use of the reference panel alone. PCCs are characterized by low frequency MSI pointing to failures in factors involved in DNA replication.

  4. Loss of heterozygosity on 10q23.3 and mutation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ling Li; Zhong Tian; Dong-Ying Wu; Bao-Yu Fu; Yan Xin

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in gastric cancer and precancerous lesions.METHODS: Thirty cases of normal gastric mucosa, advanced and early stage gastric cancer, intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, and atypical hyperplasia were analyzed for PTEN LOH and mutations within the entire coding region of PTEN gene by PCR-SSCP denaturing PAGE gel electrophoresis,and PTEN mutation was detected by PCR-SSCP sequencing followed by silver staining.RESULTS: LOH rate found in respectively atrophic gastritis was 10% (3/30), intestinal metaplasia 10% (3/30), atypical hyperpiasia 13.3% (4/30), early stage gastric cancer 20%(6/30), and advanced stage gastric cancer 33.3% (9/30),None of the precancerous lesions and early stage gastric cancer showed PTEN mutations, but 10% (3/30) of the advanced stage gastric cancers, which were all positive for LOH, showed PTEN mutation.CONCLUSION: LOH of PTEN gene appears in precancerous lesions, and PTEN mutations are restricted to advanced gastric cancer, LOH and mutation of PTEN gene are closely related to the infiltration and metastasis of gastric cancer.

  5. Genome-wide loss of heterozygosity and copy number alteration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10 K array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Alisa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is a common malignancy worldwide. Comprehensive genomic characterization of ESCC will further our understanding of the carcinogenesis process in this disease. Results Genome-wide detection of chromosomal changes was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip 10 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH and copy number alterations (CNA, for 26 pairs of matched germ-line and micro-dissected tumor DNA samples. LOH regions were identified by two methods – using Affymetrix's genotype call software and using Affymetrix's copy number alteration tool (CNAT software – and both approaches yielded similar results. Non-random LOH regions were found on 10 chromosomal arms (in decreasing order of frequency: 17p, 9p, 9q, 13q, 17q, 4q, 4p, 3p, 15q, and 5q, including 20 novel LOH regions (10 kb to 4.26 Mb. Fifteen CNA-loss regions (200 kb to 4.3 Mb and 36 CNA-gain regions (200 kb to 9.3 Mb were also identified. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that the Affymetrix 10 K SNP chip is a valid platform to integrate analyses of LOH and CNA. The comprehensive knowledge gained from this analysis will enable improved strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat ESCC.

  6. Leaf Transcriptome Sequencing for Identifying Genic-SSR Markers and SNP Heterozygosity in Crossbred Mango Variety ‘Amrapali’ (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Nimisha; Singh, Akshay; Srivastav, Manish; Jaiprakash; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is called “king of fruits” due to its sweetness, richness of taste, diversity, large production volume and a variety of end usage. Despite its huge economic importance genomic resources in mango are scarce and genetics of useful horticultural traits are poorly understood. Here we generated deep coverage leaf RNA sequence data for mango parental varieties ‘Neelam’, ‘Dashehari’ and their hybrid ‘Amrapali’ using next generation sequencing technologies. De-novo sequence assembly generated 27,528, 20,771 and 35,182 transcripts for the three genotypes, respectively. The transcripts were further assembled into a non-redundant set of 70,057 unigenes that were used for SSR and SNP identification and annotation. Total 5,465 SSR loci were identified in 4,912 unigenes with 288 type I SSR (n ≥ 20 bp). One hundred type I SSR markers were randomly selected of which 43 yielded PCR amplicons of expected size in the first round of validation and were designated as validated genic-SSR markers. Further, 22,306 SNPs were identified by aligning high quality sequence reads of the three mango varieties to the reference unigene set, revealing significantly enhanced SNP heterozygosity in the hybrid Amrapali. The present study on leaf RNA sequencing of mango varieties and their hybrid provides useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of mango. PMID:27736892

  7. Heterozygosity for an in-frame deletion causes glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient detected by newborn screening: investigation of the effect of the mutant allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, Peter; Frederiksen, Jane B; Bie, Anne S

    2012-01-01

    the proband were consistent with a mild biochemical GA-1 phenotype. Recombinant expression of the mutant variant in E. coli showed that the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein displayed severely decreased assembly into tetramers and enzyme activity. To discover a potential dominant negative effect of the mutant...... with the hypothesis that heterozygosity for this mutation confers a dominant negative effect resulting in a GCDH enzyme activity that is significantly lower than the expected 50%....

  8. Systematic hybrid LOH: a new method to reduce false positives and negatives during screening of yeast gene deletion libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvaro, D.; Sunjevaric, I.; Reid, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new method, systematic hybrid loss of heterozygosity, to facilitate genomic screens utilizing the yeast gene deletion library. Screening is performed using hybrid diploid strains produced through mating the library haploids with strains from a different genetic background...... mating a library gene deletion haploid to such a conditional centromere strain, which corresponds to the chromosome carrying the gene deletion, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the gene deletion locus can be generated in these otherwise hybrid diploids. The use of hybrid diploid strains permits...... complementation of any spurious recessive mutations in the library strain, facilitating attribution of the observed phenotype to the documented gene deletion and dramatically reducing false positive results commonly obtained in library screens. The systematic hybrid LOH method can be applied to virtually any...

  9. Genomic landscape of copy number variation and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity events in equine sarcoids reveals increased instability of the sarcoid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlina-Tyszko, Klaudia; Gurgul, Artur; Szmatoła, Tomasz; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Semik-Gurgul, Ewelina; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Koch, Christoph; Mählmann, Kathrin; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Although they are the most common neoplasms in equids, sarcoids are not fully characterized at the molecular level. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the landscape of structural rearrangements, such as copy number variation (CNV) and copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH), in the genomes of sarcoid tumor cells. This information will not only broaden our understanding of the characteristics of this genome but will also improve the general knowledge of this tumor and the mechanisms involved in its generation. To this end, Equine SNP64K Illumina microarrays were applied along with bioinformatics tools dedicated for signal intensity analysis. The analysis revealed increased instability of the genome of sarcoid cells compared with unaltered skin tissue samples, which was manifested by the prevalence of CNV and cnLOH events. Many of the identified CNVs overlapped with the other research results, but the simultaneously observed variability in the number and sizes of detected aberrations indicated a need for further studies and the development of more reliable bioinformatics algorithms. The functional analysis of genes co-localized with the identified aberrations revealed that these genes are engaged in vital cellular processes. In addition, a number of these genes directly contribute to neoplastic transformation. Furthermore, large numbers of cnLOH events identified in the sarcoids suggested that they may play no less significant roles than CNVs in the carcinogenesis of this tumor. Thus, our results indicate the importance of cnLOH and CNV in equine sarcoid oncogenesis and present a direction of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Loss of heterozygosity of the Mutated in Colorectal Cancer gene is not associated with promoter methylation in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursoltan, Pirooz; Currey, Nicola; Pangon, Laurent; van Kralingen, Christa; Selinger, Christina I; Mahar, Annabelle; Cooper, Wendy A; Kennedy, Catherine W; McCaughan, Brian C; Trent, Ronald; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J

    2012-08-01

    'Mutated in Colorectal Cancer' (MCC) is emerging as a multifunctional protein that affects several cellular processes and pathways. Although the MCC gene is rarely mutated in colorectal cancer, it is frequently silenced through promoter methylation. Previous studies have reported loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the closely linked MCC and APC loci in both colorectal and lung cancers. APC promoter methylation is a marker of poor survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, MCC methylation has not been previously studied in lung cancer. Therefore, we wanted to determine if MCC is silenced through promoter methylation in lung cancer and whether this methylation is associated with LOH of the MCC locus or methylation of the APC gene. Three polymorphic markers for the APC/MCC locus were analysed for LOH in 64 NSCLC specimens and matching normal tissues. Promoter methylation of both genes was determined using methylation specific PCR in primary tumours. LOH of the three markers was found in 41-49% of the specimens. LOH within the MCC locus was less common in adenocarcinoma (ADC) (29%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (72%; P=0.006) or large cell carcinoma (LCC) (75%; P=0.014). However, this LOH was not accompanied by MCC promoter methylation, which was found in only two cancers (3%). In contrast, 39% of the specimens showed APC methylation, which was more common in ADC (58%) than in SCC (13%). Western blotting revealed that MCC was expressed in a subset of lung tissue specimens but there was marked variation between patients rather than between cancer and matching non-cancer tissue specimens. In conclusion, we have shown that promoter methylation of the APC gene does not extend to the neighbouring MCC gene in lung cancer, but LOH is found at both loci. The variable levels of MCC expression were not associated with promoter methylation and may be regulated through other cellular mechanisms.

  11. Mutations of the KIT gene and loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN region in a primary malignant melanoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Genshu; Tajiri, Takuma; Suzuki, Takao; Mitsuya, Toshiyuki

    2009-04-01

    A tumor suppressor gene at 10q23.3, designated PTEN, encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase with lipid and protein phosphatase activity, has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human cancers. A frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 10q is found in melanoma; however, little is known about the role of PTEN in the pathogenesis of a primary malignant melanoma derived from ovarian mature cystic teratoma, which is an extremely rare melanoma. This study examined the genetic alterations involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase pathways in an ovarian malignant melanoma. A LOH analysis revealed hemizygous deletion around and in the PTEN gene not only in the ovarian melanoma but also in a mature cystic teratoma. Another case of ovarian mature cystic teratomas in the absence of melanoma also showed allelic loss of the PTEN region. To date, mutations of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT genes have been reported in malignant melanomas. In the present study, D816H and K558E mutations of the KIT gene were revealed in the melanoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma, but not in a mature cystic teratoma. No mutations of the BRAF and NRAS genes were found in the melanoma. These results indicate that LOH of the PTEN region is one of the molecular alterations of an ovarian mature cystic teratoma and a KIT mutation is an additional promotional event associated with the oncogenesis of a melanoma arising from an ovarian mature cystic teratoma.

  12. Molecular abnormalities in pediatric embryonal brain tumors--analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosomes 1, 5, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, M; Rieske, P; Debiec-Rychter, M; Zakrzewski, K; Polis, L; Fiks, T; Liberski, P P

    2004-01-01

    Embryonal tumors, the most common group of malignant brain tumors in childhood, are heterogeneous and have been associated with a large number of genetic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on regions harboring suppressor genes (PTCH2, PTCH1, APC, PTEN, DMBT1, SUFU, AXIN1, hSNF5/INI1) and to study chromosomal regions in which deletions have been described most frequently (1p, 1q, 11p, 16p, 17p). Twenty-nine children (17 male and 12 female), aged from 1 year 13 years were included in this study. There were 24 medulloblastomas (MB) and 5 supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET). Tissue samples from 29 primary and 11 recurrent tumors were analyzed according to the LOH standard procedures, which were extended to include fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of isochromosome 17q (i(17q)) and direct sequencing ofTP53 exon 4. LOH on 17p was found in 15 out of 29 tumors. FISH analysis identified the presence of i(17q) in 16 tumors. Comparison of LOH analysis and the FISH data indicated that alterations of 17p were related to be the introduction of an i(17q) formation. LOH on 10q and 9q was observed in 4 and 2 cases, respectively, and was associated with alterations of chromosome 17. These results indicated a connection between alterations of PTCH/SHH genes and abnormalities of chromosome 17. A deleted region on 22q, covering the hSNF5/INI1 locus, was observed in 3 tumors. Progression of the molecular changes occurred in 1 case of recurrent medulloblastoma. LOH on 10q and 17p was found in both primary and recurrent tumor, while losses on 11p, 16p, and 16q occurred only in the recurrent tumor. No evidence of alteration in TP53 exon 4 was identified.

  13. Are there any more ovarian tumor suppressor genes? A new perspective using ultra high-resolution copy number and loss of heterozygosity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Kylie L; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Williams, Louise H; Sridhar, Anita; Boyle, Samantha E; Bearfoot, Jennifer L; Li, Jason; Anglesio, Michael S; Campbell, Ian G

    2009-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by complex genetic alterations, including copy number loss and copy number-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH). These alterations are assumed to represent the "second hit" of the underlying tumor suppressor gene (TSG), however, relative to the number of LOH hotspots reported, few ovarian TSGs have been identified. We conducted a high-resolution LOH analysis using SNP arrays (500K and SNP6.0) of 106 primary ovarian tumors of various histological subtypes together with matching normal DNA. LOH was detected in at least 35% of samples on chromosomes 17, 19p, 22q, Xp, 13q, 8p, 6q, 4q, 5q, 1p, 16q, and 9q with a median minimal region of overlap of only 300 kb. Subtype-specific differences in LOH frequency were noted, particularly for mucinous cases. We also identified 192 somatic homozygous deletions (HDs). Recurrent HDs targeted known TSGs such as CDKN2A (eight samples), RB1 (five samples), and PTEN (three samples). Additional recurrent HDs targeted 16 candidate TSGs near minimal regions of LOH on chromosomes 17, 13, 8p, 5q, and X. Given the importance of HDs in inactivating known genes, these candidates are highly likely to be ovarian TSGs. Our data suggest that the poor success of previous LOH studies was due to the inability of previous technology to resolve complex genomic alterations and distinguish true LOH from allelic imbalance. This study shows that recurrent regions of LOH and HD frequently align with known TSGs suggesting that LOH analysis remains a valid approach to discovering new candidates.

  14. Detailed deletion mapping of loss of heterozygosity on 9p13-23 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma by microsatellite analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先发; 高燕宁; 程书鈞

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to investigate the hot spots of microsatellite loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on 9p13-23 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to find out the correlation between the incidence of microsatellite LOH and the clinicopathological parameters.Methods Tumor tissues were obtained from paraffin embedded sections with microdissection. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumor tissues and peripheral blood lymphocytes with the phenol-chloroform. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and denaturing gel electrophoresis were carried out in a set of 42 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of larynx and corresponding peripheral blood lymphocytes using 13 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers on 9p13-23. The correlation was analyzed between microsatellite LOH at the high frequency on 9p13-23 and clinicopathological parameters in the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of larynx.Results Of the 42 laryngeal cancers, 41 (97.6%) showed LOH in at least one of the microsatellite markers tested on 9p13-23. The most frequently deleted marker was D9S162 in 17 of the 19 (89.5%) informative samples. The marker D9S171, which is located on 9p21, had LOH detected in 12 of the 15 informative cases (80.0%). LOH at the D9S1748 marker (closest to the p16 gene locus) was detected in 18 of the 36 informative cases (50.0%). Allelic deletion mapping revealed two minimal regions of LOH encompassing markers D9S161-D9S171 on 9p21 and IFNA-D9S162 on 9p22-23. Multiple LOH (≥4) on 9p21-23 was found more frequently in the patients under 60 years, with supraglottic SCC or cervical lymph node metastasis than those over 60 years, with glottic SCC or without cervical lymph node metastasis (P<0.01 or 0.01, 0.05, respectively). On the contrary, there was no correlation between T stages or pathologic classification and the frequency of LOH on 9p21-23 in 42 SCC of Larynx.Conclusions These findings imply the presence of at least two putative tumor suppressor genes on 9p13-23 in

  15. Conjunctival scarring in trachoma is associated with the HLA-C ligand of KIR and is exacerbated by heterozygosity at KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrissy H Roberts

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is globally the predominant infectious cause of blindness and one of the most common bacterial causes of sexually transmitted infection. Infections of the conjunctiva cause the blinding disease trachoma, an immuno-pathological disease that is characterised by chronic conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis. The polymorphic Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR are found on Natural Killer cells and have co-evolved with the Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA class I system. Certain genetic constellations of KIR and HLA class I polymorphisms are associated with a number of diseases in which modulation of the innate responses to viral and intracellular bacterial pathogens is central.A sample of 134 Gambian pedigrees selected to contain at least one individual with conjunctival scarring in the F1 generation was used. Individuals (n = 830 were genotyped for HLA class I and KIR gene families. Family Based Association Tests and Case Pseudo-control tests were used to extend tests for transmission disequilibrium to take full advantage of the family design, genetic model and phenotype.We found that the odds of trachomatous scarring increased with the number of genome copies of HLA-C2 (C1/C2 OR = 2.29 BHP-value = 0.006; C2/C2 OR = 3.97 BHP-value = 0.0004 and further increased when both KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 (C2/C2 OR = 5.95 BHP-value = 0.006 were present.To explain the observations in the context of chlamydial infection and trachoma we propose a two-stage model of response and disease that balances the cytolytic response of KIR expressing NK cells with the ability to secrete interferon gamma, a combination that may cause pathology. The data presented indicate that HLA-C genotypes are important determinants of conjunctival scarring in trachoma and that KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3 heterozygosity further increases risk of conjunctival scarring in individuals carrying HLA-C2.

  16. Combined array-comparative genomic hybridization and single-nucleotide polymorphism-loss of heterozygosity analysis reveals complex genetic alterations in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenter Gemma G

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma develops as a result of multiple genetic alterations. Different studies investigated genomic alterations in cervical cancer mainly by means of metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (mCGH and microsatellite marker analysis for the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH. Currently, high throughput methods such as array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array and gene expression arrays are available to study genome-wide alterations. Integration of these 3 platforms allows detection of genomic alterations at high resolution and investigation of an association between copy number changes and expression. Results Genome-wide copy number and genotype analysis of 10 cervical cancer cell lines by array CGH and SNP array showed highly complex large-scale alterations. A comparison between array CGH and SNP array revealed that the overall concordance in detection of the same areas with copy number alterations (CNA was above 90%. The use of SNP arrays demonstrated that about 75% of LOH events would not have been found by methods which screen for copy number changes, such as array CGH, since these were LOH events without CNA. Regions frequently targeted by CNA, as determined by array CGH, such as amplification of 5p and 20q, and loss of 8p were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. Genome-wide, we did not find a correlation between copy-number and gene expression. At chromosome arm 5p however, 22% of the genes were significantly upregulated in cell lines with amplifications as compared to cell lines without amplifications, as measured by gene expression arrays. For 3 genes, SKP2, ANKH and TRIO, expression differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Conclusion This study showed that copy number data retrieved from either array CGH or SNP array are comparable and that the integration of genome-wide LOH, copy number and gene

  17. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity at 17p and homozygous mutations of TP53 are associated with complex chromosomal aberrations in patients newly diagnosed with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodova, Karla; Zemanova, Zuzana; Lhotska, Halka; Novakova, Milena; Podskalska, Lucie; Belickova, Monika; Brezinova, Jana; Sarova, Iveta; Izakova, Silvia; Lizcova, Libuse; Berkova, Adela; Siskova, Magda; Jonasova, Anna; Cermak, Jaroslav; Michalova, Kyra

    2016-03-01

    Complex karyotypes are seen in approximately 20% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are associated with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia and poor outcomes in patients. Copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH, i.e., both copies of a chromosomal pair or their parts originate from one parent) might contribute to increased genomic instability in the bone-marrow cells of patients with MDS. The pathological potential of CN-LOH, which arises as a clonal aberration in a proportion of somatic cells, consists of tumor suppressor gene and oncogene homozygous mutations. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of CN-LOH at 17p in bone-marrow cells of newly diagnosed MDS patients with complex chromosomal aberrations and to assess its correlation with mutations in the TP53 gene (17p13.1). CN-LOH was detected in 40 chromosomal regions in 21 (29%) of 72 patients analyzed. The changes in 27 of the 40 regions identified were sporadic. The most common finding was CN-LOH of the short arm of chromosome 17, which was detected in 13 (18%) of 72 patients. A mutational analysis confirmed the homozygous mutation of TP53 in all CN-LOH 17p patients, among which two frameshift mutations are not registered in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 Database. CN-LOH 17p correlated with aggressive disease (median overall survival 4 months) and was strongly associated with a complex karyotype in the cohort studied, which might cause rapid disease progression in high-risk MDS. No other CN-LOH region previously recorded in MDS or AML patients (1p, 4q, 7q, 11q, 13q, 19q, 21q) was detected in our cohort of patients with complex karyotype examined at the diagnosis of MDS. The LOH region appeared to be balanced (i.e., with no DNA copy number change) when examined with conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Therefore, a microarray that detects single-nucleotide polymorphisms is an ideal method with which to identify and

  18. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  19. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  20. 白介素7受体α基因缺陷导致严重联合免疫缺陷病一例%A compound heterozygosity mutation in the interleukin-7 recoptor-α gene resulted in severe combined immunodeficiency in a Chinese patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 赵晓东; 王墨; 于洁; 安云飞; 杨锡强

    2009-01-01

    α was firstly reported. The IL-7R α mRNA expression of the patient was remarkably reduced whereas the parents had relatively normal IL-7R α mRNA expression. IL-7R α cDNA of the patient was amplified by nested PCR. The PCR products were purified, cloned with a TA Cloning Kit and sequenced directly. A 64 bp deletion was found in exon 4 of IL-7R α. No mutation was found in IL-2RG and RAG1/RAG2 of the patient and his parents. Conclusion This is the first case with a compound heterozygosity mutation in the IL-7R receptor α gene and T-B + NK + phenotype from China.Intron 4(+ 1)G A was a novel mutation.%目的 探讨我国首例白介素7受体α(IL-7Rα)基因缺陷患儿的临床特征和基因突变类型.方法 患儿为男性,5月龄,生后15 d开始反复出现发热、咳嗽、腹泻,伴卡介苗接种处破溃、流脓和左腋下包块.采用PCR方法扩增患儿及父母IL-7Rα基因组DNA.采用RT-PCR扩增患儿及父母IL-7Rα mRNA.PCR产物直接进行双向序列测定.结果 患儿的免疫球蛋白IgG 6867 mg/L,IgA249 mg/L,IgM 206 mg/L,IgE 2.3 U/ml.淋巴细胞分类T淋巴细胞(CD3~+)0,B淋巴细胞(CD19~+)58%,NK细胞(CD16~+CD56~+)42%.基因分析患儿为IL-7Rα基因的复合杂合突变.在第4内含子剪接位点+1位发生突变[intron4(+1)GA],患儿父亲为此突变基因的携带者;第5外显子638位核苷酸发生无义突变(638 CT,R206X),患儿母亲为此突变基因的携带者.第4内含子剪接位点突变[intron4(+1)GA]为首次报道的突变类型.RT-PCR检测发现患儿IL-7Rα mRNA表达明显降低.患儿IL-7Rα cDNA经巢式PCR扩增并T-A克隆,测序发现外显子4出现64个核苷酸缺失(496-559del,K158fs160X).结论 通过临床筛查和基因分析,鉴定出我国首例IL-7Rα基因复合杂合突变[intron4(+1)GA和638 CT]患儿.

  1. Clinical significance of loss of heterozygosity of FHIT gene in tissues of gastric cancer%胃癌组织脆性组氨酸三联体基因杂合性丢失的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凡; 葛鹏; 岳晚霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测脆性组氨酸三联体(FHIT)基因在胃癌(GC)、不典型增生(DP)和肠上皮化生(IM)组织中的杂合性丢失(loss of heterozygosity,LOH),研究LOH在GC发生中的作用.方法 采用PCR方法检测GC、DP和IM组织和正常对照胃黏膜组织中FHIT基因多态性位点D3S1234和D3S1300中的LOH.结果 GC组、DP组和IM组在D3S1234位点的LOH发生率分别为33.0%,29.0%和11.0%;在D3S1300位点的LOH发生率分别为34.0%,33.0%和8.0%.GC组和DP组在D3S1234 和D3S1300位点的LOH发生率显著高于IM组,GC组与DP组间差异无统计学意义.结论 FHIT基因的LOH可能是GC形成过程中的早期事件,能用于GC高危人群筛查和早期诊断的研究.%Objective To studythe loss of heterozygosity(LOH) of FHIT gene in tissues of gastric cancer(GC) ,dysplasia( DP)and intestinal metaplasia ( IM ), and to reveal the effects of the LOH of FHIT gene in the carcinogenesis of GC.Methods The LOH at microsatellites loci D3S1234 and D3S1300 of FHIT gene was measured in 100 GC tissues, 100 DP tisues and 100 IM tissues and their corresponding 100 normal gastric mucosal tissues by PCR.Results The LOH at D3S1234 locus was detected positive in 33.0% of GC tissues,29.0%of the DP tissues and 11.1% of the IM tissues;and the LOH at D3S1300 locus was detected positive in 34.0% of the GC tissues,33.0%of the DP tissues and 8.0% of the IM tissues respectively.The LOH rates at D3S1234 and D3S1300 loci of the GC and atypical hyperplasia tissues were higher than that of the IM tissues.No significant differences of the LOH rates at D3S1234 and D3S1300 loci were found between the GC and DP mucosal tissues.Conclusion The loss of heterozygosity of FHIT gene may be an early event in the tumorigenesis of GC,which may has roles in the screening and early diagnosis of GC.

  2. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10q22-10q23 and 22q 11.2-22q12.1 and p53 gene in primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Neng Zhu; Li Zuo; Qing Zhou; Su-Mei Zhang; Hua-Qing Zhu; Shu-Yu Gui; Yuan Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To analyze loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and homozygous deletion on p53 gene (exon2-3, 4 and 11), chromosome10q22-10q23 and 22q11.2 -22q12.1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: PCR and PCR-based microsatellite polymorphism analysis techniques were used.RESULTS: LOH was observed at D10S579 (10q22-10q23)in 4 of 20 tumors (20%), at D22S421 (22q11.2-22q12.1) in3 of 20(15%), at TP53.A (p53 gene exon 2-3) in 4 of 20(20%), at TP53.B (p53 gene exon 4) in 6 of 20(30%), and at TP53.G (p53gene exon 11)in 0 of 20(0%). Homozygous deletion was detected at 10q22-10q23(8/20; 40%), 22q11.2-22q12.1(8/20; 40%), p53 gene exon 2-3(0/20;0%), p53gene exon 4(6/20; 30%), and p53gene exon 11(2/20; 10%).CONCLUSION: There might be unidentified tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 10q22-10q23 and 22q11.2-22q12.1 that contribute to the pathogenesis and development of HCC.

  3. Genetic aberration in primary hepatocellular carcinoma:correlation between p53 gene mutation and loss—of—heterozygosity on chromosome 16q21—q23 and 9p21—p23

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGANG; CHANGHUIHUANG; 等

    2000-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular pathology underlying the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),we used 41 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to examine 55 HCC and corresponding non-tumor liver tissues on chromosome 9,16 and 17.Loss-of-heterozygosity(LOH) is observed with high frequency on chromosomal region 17p13(36k/55,65%),9q21-p23(28/55,51%),16q21-23(27/55,49%) in tumors.Meanwhile,microsatellite instability is rarely found in these microsatellite loci.Direct sequencing was performed to detect the tentative mutation of tumor wuppressor genes in these regions:p53,MTS1/p16,and CDH1/E-cadherin.Wihin exon 5-9 of p53 gene,14 out of 55 HCC specimens(24%) have somatic mutations,and nucleotide deletion of this gene is reported in HCC for the first time.Mutation in MTS1/p16 is found only in one tumor case.We do not find mutations in CDH1/E-cadherin.Furthermore,a statistically significant correlation is present between p53 gene mutation and loss of chromosome region 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23,which indicates that synergism between p53 inactivation and deletion of 16q21-q23 and 9p21-p23 may play a role in the pathogenesis of HCC.

  4. Heterozygosity loss at FHIT, SLIT2 and EDNRB gene in endometrical carcinoma%子宫内膜癌患者FHIT、SLIT2、EDNRB基因杂合性丢失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解敏; 魏德娥; 王波; 卢爱英

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨子宫内膜癌患者FHT、SLrr2、EDNRB基因3个微卫星位点D3S1287、D4S1593、D13S160杂合性丢失(loss of heterozygosity,LOH),以确定侯选的抑癌基因.方法:应用PCR-变性PAGE-银染方法分别对35例子宫内膜癌患者癌组织及相对应的正常子宫内膜组织在FHIT、SLIT2、EDNRB基因3个微卫星位点D3S1287、D4S1593、D13S160行LOH检测.结果:LOH总检出率为54.3%,D3S1287、ID4S1593、D13S160位点分别为34.5%、20.5%、19.3%.FHIT、SLIT2、EDNRB基因的3个微卫星位点发生LOH率与子宫内膜癌手术-病理分期无明显相关性.结论:子宫内膜癌患者肿瘤组织在FHIT、SLIT2、及EDNRB基因的微卫星位点D3S1287、D4S1593、D13S160均有LOH.FHIT、SLIT2及EDNRB基因为抑癌基因,其失活可能与子宫内膜癌的发生有关.

  5. Loss of heterozygosity in colorectal cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... adenocarcinoma (Grady, 2005). CRC occurs ... risk of getting colorectal cancer increases with age. ..... pancreas, ovarian, lung and liver tumours (Wan et al.,. 2006). Wan et ... independent prognostic factor of colorectal cancer.

  6. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...

  7. 18q loss of heterozygosity in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer is correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype-negative (CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkner Gregory J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, associated with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high and BRAF mutations. 18q loss of heterozygosity (LOH commonly present in colorectal cancer with chromosomal instability (CIN is associated with global hypomethylation in tumor cell. A recent study has shown an inverse correlation between CIN and CIMP (determined by MINTs, p16, p14 and MLH1 methylation in colorectal cancer. However, no study has examined 18q LOH in relation to CIMP-high, CIMP-low (less extensive promoter methylation and CIMP-0 (CIMP-negative, determined by quantitative DNA methylation analysis. Methods: Utilizing MethyLight technology (real-time PCR, we quantified DNA methylation in 8 CIMP-specific promoters {CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3 and SOCS1} in 758 non-MSI-high colorectal cancers obtained from two large prospective cohorts. Using four 18q microsatellite markers (D18S55, D18S56, D18S67 and D18S487 and stringent criteria for 18q LOH, we selected 374 tumors (236 LOH-positive tumors with ≥ 2 markers showing LOH; and 138 LOH-negative tumors with ≥ 3 informative markers and no LOH. Results: CIMP-0 (0/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common in 18q LOH-positive tumors (59% = 139/236, p = 0.002 than 18q LOH-negative tumors (44% = 61/138, while CIMP-low/high (1/8–8/8 methylated promoters was significantly more common (56% in 18q LOH-negative tumors than 18q LOH-positive tumors (41%. These relations persisted after stratification by sex, location, or the status of MSI, p53 expression (by immunohistochemistry, or KRAS/BRAF mutation. Conclusion: 18q LOH is correlated positively with CIMP-0 and inversely with CIMP-low and CIMP-high. Our findings provide supporting evidence for relationship between CIMP-0 and 18q LOH as well as a molecular difference between CIMP-0 and CIMP-low in

  8. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  9. Reduce HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  10. β-Thalassemia major resulting from compound heterozygosity for HBB: c.92+2T>C [formerly known as IVS-I-2 (T>C)] and a novel β(0)-thalassemia frameshift mutation: HBB: c.209delG; p.Gly70Valfs*20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michelle L; Hoyer, James D; Swanson, Kenneth C; Oliveira, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    A novel β(0)-thalassemia (β-thal) frameshift mutation, HBB: c.209delG; p.Gly70Valfs*20, is described in a 21-year-old African American female with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) due to compound heterozygosity for the β(0)-thal mutation HBB: c.92+2T>C [formerly known as IVS-I-2 (T>C)] and HBB: c.209delG. The combination of these mutations demonstrates a complete lack of β-globin chain synthesis, evidenced by the proband having no Hb A present.

  11. Preliminary study of microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity in thymic squamous cell carcinoma%胸腺鳞癌微卫星不稳定和杂合性缺失的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明海; 胡炜; 王建华; 卢洪胜; 陈仕林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of micresatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and select sensitive loci for studying microsatellite DNA imbalance in thymic squamous cell carcinoma. Methods 5 microsat-ellitc polymorphism markers and extrated DNA were selected from 9 specmiens of paired thymie squamous cell carcinoma/nor-real tissues. MSI and LOH in the specmiens of thymic carcinoma and relevant pericancerou tissues were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by 6% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(PAGE) with silver staining. Results MSI or LOH was detected in 9 thymic carcinoma tissues. The frequency of MSI or LOH was 66.7% (6/9) at loci of D6S1708, 33.3% (3/9) at TP53, 33.3% (3/9)at DM, 33.3% (3/9)at D11S988 and 0% (0/9)at D8S136, LOH at D6S1708 (5/6) was a common genetic alteration. DI1S988 had only LOH alteration. Conclusion D6S1708, TP53, DM, and D11S988 are sensi-tive loci for studying microsatellite DNA imbalance in thymic squamous cell carcinoma. Microsatellite DNA imbalance may play a certain role in occurrence and development of thymic squamous cell carcinoma, and the relationship between MSi or LOH.The linicopathological features of thymic squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.%目的 检测胸腺鳞癌微卫星不稳定(MSI)和杂合性缺失(LOH)发生频率,以探讨胸腺鳞癌MSI现象的合适微卫星(MS)位点.方法 选择5个微卫星多态性标记,从石蜡包埋的存档标本中选取9例肿瘤组织和其对应的自身正常组织,提取DNA后用PCR扩增,6%聚丙稀酰胺凝胶电泳,银染显色后进行MSI和LOH分析.结果 9例胸腺鳞癌均出现MSI或LOH.在所检5个位点中D6S1708、TP53、DM、D11S988和D8S136微卫星不平衡发生率分别为66.7%(6/9)、33.3%(3/9)、33.3%(3/9)、33.3%(3/9)和0%(0/9).D6S1708遗传学改变多为LOH(5/6),D11S988位点仅见于LOH.结论 D6S1708、TP53、DM和D11S988可以作为研究胸腺鳞癌微卫星的位点;微卫星不平衡可

  12. 膀胱癌及其正常组织染色体缺失研究及其临床意义%Allelic loss of heterozygosity in normal urthelium of patients with bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵友光; 李莹; 杨劲; 李杰; 陈志文

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨膀胱癌患者9号染色体及p53等位基因的杂合性缺失(LOH) 与膀胱移行细胞癌(TCC)形成、进展之间的关系及其在早期诊断膀胱癌及复发检测中的价值.方法 选取9、17号染色体的5个微卫星位点D9S283、D9S303、D9S304、D9S1751和TP53,采用特异引物进行PCR扩增及变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳-硝酸银染色方法对40例TCC患者手术切除的癌组织及癌旁正常组织进行微卫星分析.结果 40例癌组织中,36例(90%)分别有1~5个微卫星位点发生LOH,其中微卫星改变发生最高的位点是TP53,发生率为62.5%,其次为D9S283,发生率为42.5%.结论 9、17号染色体上的5个微卫星位点LOH参与了膀胱癌的发生,通过检测这5个位点的LOH,可以为膀胱癌的早期诊断提供一定的线索.%Objective To investigate the relationship between loss of heterozygosity(LOH) of allele loci on chromosomes 9 and P53 in Chinese and development of transitional cell carcinoma(TCC) of urinary bladder.Methods LOH was studied in the tumor tissues of 40 patients,with their normal tumoradjacent bladder tissues as control, by means of PCR amplification of 5 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci D9S283, D9S303 , D9S304 , and D9S1751 on chromosome 9 and TP53.Following silver staining , 8% denaturing polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis was performed.Results 36 (90%) TCCs showed LOH at one or more loci, and 26 TCCs showed LOH at 2 loci.There was no significant difference between superfacial TCC and invasive TCC at these loci.Conclusion LOH on chromosome 9 might be an early event of the genesis of TCC of bladder,and LOH on p53 might be related with progression of TCC.Racial difference may contribute to different LOH on chromosome 9 and p53 between Chinese people and others.The combination of markers D9S283,D9S303 , D9S304 , D9S1751 and TP53 enable us to detect 36 out 40 of bladder cancers(90 %) ; This panel might be chosen for microsatellite analysis in bladder cancer

  13. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  14. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  15. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  16. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  17. Loss of Heterozygosity of microsatellites in Breast Cancer AND Precancerous Lesions%乳腺癌与癌前病变微卫星DNA杂合性缺失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘争; 赵华; 罗志永; 杨振

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺单纯性导管增生(UDH)、乳腺不典型导管增生(ADH)和浸润性导管癌(IDC)样本中位于3p、17p和17q的5个微卫星DNA(MS)位点杂合性缺失(LOH)的频率和模式.方法 采用显微分离技术分离病变细胞,聚合酶链反应扩增D3S1029、D3S1300、TP53、D17S579、D17S855目的 DNA片段.结果 (1)UDH组D3S1029、D17S855位点LOH频率分别为9.1%和8.3%;ADH组D3S1029、D3S1300、D17S579、D17S855位点LOH频率分别为25.0%、18.2%、10.0%、16.7%,TP53位点未见LOH;IDC组五个MS位点的LOH频率均大于25%.(2)IDC组TP53和D17S579位点LOH的频率显著高于ADH组(P<0.05);IDC组5个MS位点LOH的频率显著高于UDH组(P<0.05);IDC组发生多个位点LOH的频率显著高于ADH和UDH组(P<0.05).结论 (1)5个MS位点的LOH频繁发生于散发性乳腺癌;(2)部分UDH、ADH发生D3S1029、D3S1300、D17S579、D17S855位点的LOH,是否作为乳腺癌前损伤恶变风险的分子标志,需进一步研究.%Objective To study loss of heterozygosity (LOH ) frequency and pattern of the 5 MSs on 3p,17p,17q in unilateral ductal hyperplasia (UDH ) ,atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH ) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC ) groups .Methods (1) Microdis-sect normal control cells and sick cells from HE stained pathological sections ; (2) Amplify objective DNA fragments of D3S1029、 D3S1300、TP53、D17S579、D17S855 by polymorphism chain reaction (PCR) .Results (1) In UDH group ,the frequencies of LOH at D3S1029 and D17S855 were 9 .1% and 8 .3% separately ;In ADH group ,the frequencies of LOH at D3S1029 ,D3S1300 ,D17S579 were 25 Sf/a 48 .2% ,10 .0% ,16 .7% separately ,and there was no LOH at TP53 in this group ;In IDC group ,the frequencies of LOH at 5 MS were all over 25% . (2 )There were significant differences between ADH and UDH ,ADH and IDC groups ( ρ<0 .05 ), and significant differences between UDH and IDC ,ADH and IDC groups ( ρ<0 .05 ) .There were significant difference between UDH and ADH

  18. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  19. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  20. Reduced journal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) offers reduced rates for subscriptions to its journals to individual members of affiliated societies, including AGU. The offer is limited to one subscription per person to each journal.Rates for 1985 for AGU members are listed below

  1. Reduced Penetrance and Variable Expression of SCN5A Mutations and the Importance of Co-inherited Genetic Variants: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robyns, MD.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the SCN5A gene are responsible for multiple phenotypical presentations including Brugada syndrome, long QT syndrome, progressive familial heart block, sick sinus syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, lone atrial fibrillation and multiple overlap syndromes. These different phenotypic expressions of a mutation in a single gene can be explained by variable expression and reduced penetrance. One of the possible explanations of these phenomena is the co-inheritance of genetic variants. We describe a family where the individuals exhibit a compound heterozygosity in the SCN5A gene including a mutation (R1632H and a new variant (M858L. Individuals with both the mutation and new variant present with a more severe phenotype including spontaneous atrial tachyarrhythmia at young age. We give an overview of the different phenotypes of "SCN5A disease" and discuss the importance of co-inherited genetic variants in the expression of SCN5A disease.

  2. Reducing conspiracy theory beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to look at possible ways to reduce beliefs in conspiracy theories and increase the intention to have a fictitious child vaccinated. One hundred and sixty participants answered an online questionnaire. Three groups were used. The control group did not read any text prior to answering whereas the two experimental groups read either only debunking information or information about the motives of the conspiracists and the fallacy in their reasoning in addition to the debunking paragraph. The second experimental manipulation was effective in reducing medical conspiracy theories beliefs, but not belief in conspiracy theories in general. Neither intervention was effective in increasing the likelihood to have a fictitious child vaccinated. Those not intending to vaccinate a fictitious child endorsed conspiracy theories to a greater degree. A positive correlation between beliefs in conspiracy theories and the experiential/intuitive information processing system was found.

  3. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  4. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  5. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  6. Reducing medication errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nute, Christine

    2014-11-25

    Most nurses are involved in medicines management, which is integral to promoting patient safety. Medicines management is prone to errors, which depending on the error can cause patient injury, increased hospital stay and significant legal expenses. This article describes a new approach to help minimise drug errors within healthcare settings where medications are prescribed, dispensed or administered. The acronym DRAINS, which considers all aspects of medicines management before administration, was devised to reduce medication errors on a cardiothoracic intensive care unit.

  7. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  8. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  9. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  10. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  11. Modelling reduced sparse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of fitting to an ordered collection of points in arbitary Euclidean space called reduced data. We are not given here the corresponding interpolation knots. Instead, these are estimated by new knots upon minimizing a relevant highly nonlinear optimization scheme based on natural spline interpolation. The existence of a global minimizer (i.e. the collection of interpolation knots in ascending order) is also addressed in this paper. Finally, Leap-Frog optimization tool is used to compute these knots approximating the unknown interpolation knots. This numerical scheme is subsequently compared with the Secant Method. Two illustrative examples are given.

  12. Nonlinearity-reduced interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2007-12-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as the frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and the ghost reflections. An interferometer having accuracy in displacement measurement of less than one-nanometer is necessary in nanometrology. To meet the requirement, the periodic nonlinearity should be less than deep sub-nanometer. In this paper, a nonlinearity-reduced interferometry has been proposed. Both the linear- and straightness-interferometer were tested. The developed interferometer demonstrated of a residual nonlinearity less than 25 pm.

  13. A genome-wide survey of genetic variation in gorillas using reduced representation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylwyn Scally

    Full Text Available All non-human great apes are endangered in the wild, and it is therefore important to gain an understanding of their demography and genetic diversity. Whole genome assembly projects have provided an invaluable foundation for understanding genetics in all four genera, but to date genetic studies of multiple individuals within great ape species have largely been confined to mitochondrial DNA and a small number of other loci. Here, we present a genome-wide survey of genetic variation in gorillas using a reduced representation sequencing approach, focusing on the two lowland subspecies. We identify 3,006,670 polymorphic sites in 14 individuals: 12 western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla and 2 eastern lowland gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri. We find that the two species are genetically distinct, based on levels of heterozygosity and patterns of allele sharing. Focusing on the western lowland population, we observe evidence for population substructure, and a deficit of rare genetic variants suggesting a recent episode of population contraction. In western lowland gorillas, there is an elevation of variation towards telomeres and centromeres on the chromosomal scale. On a finer scale, we find substantial variation in genetic diversity, including a marked reduction close to the major histocompatibility locus, perhaps indicative of recent strong selection there. These findings suggest that despite their maintaining an overall level of genetic diversity equal to or greater than that of humans, population decline, perhaps associated with disease, has been a significant factor in recent and long-term pressures on wild gorilla populations.

  14. Skin-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Maurizio B; Cortinovis, Umberto; Ottolenghi, Joseph; Riggio, Egidio; Pennati, Angela; Catanuto, Giuseppe; Greco, Marco; Rovere, Guidubaldo Querci Della

    2006-09-01

    The authors propose a combined flap technique to reconstruct large and medium-sized ptotic breasts in a single-stage operation by use of anatomical permanent implants. The authors enrolled 28 patients fulfilling criteria for skin-sparing mastectomy and presenting with ptotic breasts whose areola-to-inframammary fold distance was more than 8 cm. All reconstructions were performed as a single-stage procedure. After preoperative planning, a large area in the lower half of the breast was deepithelialized according to the conventional Wise pattern. Mastectomy was then carried out. To perform reconstructions, the inferomedial fibers of the pectoralis major muscle were dissected and sutured to the superior border of the inferior dermal flap. An anatomical implant was then inserted into the pouch, which was closed laterally with the previously harvested serratus anterior fascia. Skin flaps were finally closed down to the inframammary fold. The authors performed 30 procedures on 28 patients. The medium size anatomical implants was 433 cc. Twelve women achieved symmetrization in a single stage ending in a symmetric inverted-T scar. The overall complication rate was 20 percent, with four cases (13 percent) complicated by severe, extensive necrosis of the skin flaps requiring implant removal. Breast cancer treatment must nowadays optimize cosmetic results. This can be accomplished in selected cases by means of a single-stage operation that the authors call "skin-reducing mastectomy." The final scars imitate those of cosmetic surgery. Careful patient selection and improvement in the learning curve may reduce the complication rate.

  15. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  16. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  17. Reducing GWAS Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J.; Conti, David V.; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 20151,2 from our groups. PMID:26771711

  18. Reducing client waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This first issues of Family Planning (FP) Manager focuses on how to analyze client waiting time and reduce long waits easily and inexpensively. Client flow analysis can be used by managers and staff to identify organizational factors affecting waiting time. Symptoms of long waiting times are overcrowded waiting rooms, clients not returning for services, staff complaints about rushing and waiting, and hurried counseling sessions. Client satisfaction is very important in order to retain FP users. Simple procedures such as routing return visits differently can make a difference in program effectiveness. Assessment of the number of first visits, the number of revisits, and types of methods and services that the clinic provides is a first step. Client flow analysis involves assigning a number to each client on registration, attaching the client flow form to the medical chart, entering the FP method and type of visit, asking staff to note the time at each station, and summarizing data in a master chart. The staff should be involved in plotting data for each client to show waiting versus staff contact time through the use of color coding for each type of staff contact. Bottlenecks become very visible when charted. The amount of time spent at each station can be measured, and gaps in client's contact with staff can be identified. An accurate measure of total waiting time can be obtained. A quick assessment can be made by recording arrival and departure times for each client in one morning or afternoon of a peak day. The procedure is to count the number of clients waiting at 15-minute intervals. The process should be repeated every 3-6 months to observe changes. If waiting times appear long, a more thorough assessment is needed on both a peak and a typical day. An example is given of a completed chart and graph of results with sample data. Managers need to set goals for client flow, streamline client routes, and utilize waiting time wisely by providing educational talks

  19. Regularized Reduced Order Models

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, David; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts forth a regularization approach for the stabilization of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) reduced order models (ROMs) for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. Two regularized ROMs (Reg-ROMs) are proposed: the Leray ROM (L-ROM) and the evolve-then-filter ROM (EF-ROM). These new Reg-ROMs use spatial filtering to smooth (regularize) various terms in the ROMs. Two spatial filters are used: a POD projection onto a POD subspace (Proj) and a new POD differential filter (DF). The four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient and the three-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re = 100). Overall, the most accurate Reg-ROM/filter combination is EF-ROM-DF. Furthermore, the DF generally yields better results than Proj. Finally, the four Reg-ROM/filter combinations are computationally efficient and generally more accurate than the standard Galerkin ROM.

  20. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics.

  1. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  2. Efeitos da raça e da heterozigose sobre características ponderais de bezerros Nelore e mestiços Red Angus x Nelore Breed and heterozygosity effects on body weight traits of Nellore and crossbred Red Angus x Nellore calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Perotto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito direto da raça Red Angus (, computado como desvio a partir do efeito direto Nelore (, e os efeitos das heterozigoses individual ( e materna (, resultantes do cruzamento entre essas duas raças, foram estimados. Foi usado o método da regressão múltipla para analisar os pesos ao nascimento (PNT, à desmama (PDS e aos 12 meses (P12M e os ganhos de peso médios diários do nascimento à desmama (GMD_ND e da desmama aos 12 meses (GMD_DA. Um total de 410 bezerros dos grupos Nelore, 1/2 Red Angus+1/2 Nelore, 3/4 Nelore+1/4 Red Angus e 3/4 Red Angus+1/4 Nelore, nascidos no período de 1985 a 1995, na Estação Experimental Paranavaí, no Noroeste do Estado do Paraná-Brasil, forneceu os dados para estudo. O PDS e o GMD_ND foram corrigidos para 205 dias de idade e o P12M e o GMD_DA, para 365 dias de idade. O efeito direto da raça Angus ( não mostrou significância para qualquer característica analisada. O efeito da heterozigose indivdual ( foi significativo para todas as características, exceto para o PNT. Os coeficientes de regressão parcial do PDS, GMD_ND, P12M e GMD_DA sobre a fração esperada de loci heterozigotos no genótipo do bezerro foram: 31±6 kg, 0,143±0,028 kg, 55±7 kg e 0,126±0,032 kg. O efeito da heterozigose materna ( mostrou significância para PNT, PDS, GMD_ND e P12M. Os correspondentes coeficientes de regressão parcial foram 2,8±0,7 kg, 27±4 kg, 0,117±0,019 kg e 19±5 kg.The direct effect of Red Angus (, computed as deviation from the direct effect of Nellore (, and the effects of individual ( and maternal ( heterozygosity, resulting from crossing these breeds were estimated. The multiple regression method was used to analyze birth weight (PNT, weaning weight (PDS, yearling weight (P12M, and for the daily weight gain from birth to weaning time (GMD_ND and from weaning to 12 months (GMD_DA. A total of 410 calves from the groups of Nellore, 1/2 Red Angus+1/2 Nellore, 3/4 Nellore+1/4 Red Angus and 3/4 Red Angus+1

  3. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  4. Reduced Fhit expression in sporadic and BRCA2-linked breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, S; Agnarsson, B A; Sigbjornsdottir, B I; Kononen, J; Kallioniemi, O P; Barkardottir, R B; Kovatich, A J; Schwarting, R; Hauck, W W; Huebner, K; McCue, P A

    1999-06-01

    Evidence for alteration of the FHIT gene in a significant fraction of breast carcinomas has been reported, in apparent concordance with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosome region 3p14.2 in breast cancer and benign proliferative breast disease. A significantly higher frequency of LOH at the FHIT locus was reported for BRCA2-/- tumors, possibly due to misrepaired double-strand breaks at this common fragile region. To determine whether such genomic alterations lead to Fhit inactivation, we have assessed the level of Fhit expression by immunohistochemical detection in sporadic tumors and cancers occurring in BRCA2 999del5 carriers. To determine whether Fhit inactivation may have prognostic significance, we have also assessed expression of breast cancer markers and clinical features in sporadic tumors relative to Fhit expression. Of 40 consecutive sporadic breast carcinomas studied for tumor markers, 50% showed reduced Fhit expression. In these sporadic cancers, loss of Fhit expression was not correlated significantly with the presence or absence of other tumor markers. In a study of 58 sporadic and 34 BRCA2 999del5 Icelandic invasive cancers, there was a significant association of LOH at 3p14.2 with reduced expression of Fhit (P = 0.001); also the lower expression of Fhit and higher LOH at 3p14.2 in BRCA2 999del5 tumors relative to sporadic cancers was significant (P = 0.002). Thus, genetic alteration at the fragile site within the FHIT gene leads to loss of Fhit protein in a significant fraction of sporadic breast cancers and a much larger fraction of familial breast cancers with an inherited BRCA2 mutation, consistent with the idea that loss of BRCA2 function affects stability of the FHIT/FRA3B locus.

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. Model Reduction via Reducibility Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdalla; Othman Alsmadi

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a new model reduction technique is introduced. The proposed technique is derived using the matrix reducibility concept. The eigenvalues of the reduced model are preserved; that is, the reduced model eigenvalues are a subset of the full order model eigenvalues. This preservation of the eigenvalues makes the mathematical model closer to the physical model. Finally, the outcomes of this method are fully illustrated using simulations of two numeric examples.

  7. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues the

  8. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just;

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is sti...

  9. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  10. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  11. BSP vs MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Matthew Felice

    2012-01-01

    The MapReduce framework has been generating a lot of interest in a wide range of areas. It has been widely adopted in industry and has been used to solve a number of non-trivial problems in academia. Putting MapReduce on strong theoretical foundations is crucial in understanding its capabilities. This work links MapReduce to the BSP model of computation, underlining the relevance of BSP to modern parallel algorithm design and defining a subclass of BSP algorithms that can be efficiently imple...

  12. Reducible braids and Garside theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2010-01-01

    We show that reducible braids which are, in a Garside-theoretical sense, as simple as possible within their conjugacy class, are also as simple as possible in a geometric sense. More precisely, if a braid belongs to a certain subset of its conjugacy class which we call the stabilized set of sliding circuits, and if it is reducible, then its reducibility is geometrically obvious: it has a round or almost round reducing curve. Moreover, for any given braid, an element of its stabilized set of sliding circuits can be found using the well-known cyclic sliding operation. This leads to a polynomial time algorithm for deciding the Nielsen-Thurston type of any braid, modulo one well-known conjecture on the speed of convergence of the cyclic sliding operation.

  13. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  14. Reduced rates for AIP journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The American Institute of Physics (AIP) offers reduced rates for subscriptions of its journals to individual members of affiliated societies. AGU is an A IP-affiliated society. The offer is limited to one subscription per person to each journal.

  15. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  16. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor

    2016-02-12

    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  17. Refined mapping of loss of heterozygosity in Chinese sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... clinical markers in Chinese sporadic gastric cancer. Key words: Gastric .... Examples of microsatellites figures determined by Genemapper 3.2 program. (A) Informative cases .... ocular adnexa and salivary glands.J Pathol ...

  18. Increase of heterozygosity in a growing population of lesser kestrels

    OpenAIRE

    Ortego, Joaquín; Aparicio, José Miguel; Calabuig, Gustau; Cordero, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    The lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) suffered a sharp population decline over much of its European distribution range in the middle of the twentieth century. Still declining in some areas, the species has recently experienced a notable population recovery in certain regions. We examined the genetic diversity variation in a growing population of lesser kestrels from Central Spain over a 6-year period (2000–2005). The population studied showed a rapid demographic expansion, increasing in the num...

  19. BRCA2 Heterozygosity Delays Cytokinesis in Primary Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Björk Jonsdottir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inherited mutations in the tumour suppressor gene BRCA2 greatly increase the risk of developing breast, ovarian and other types of cancers. So far, most studies have focused on the role of BRCA-pathways in the maintenance of genomic stability.

  20. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  1. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  2. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  3. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  4. Power and reduced temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

  5. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  6. Interference, Reduced Action, and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2007-09-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the trajectories of the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function’s trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  7. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, E R

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function's trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  8. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  9. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  10. Six ways to reduce inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, T

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to help you reduce the inventory in your operation. We will accomplish that task by discussing six specific methods that companies have used successfully to reduce their inventory. One common attribute of these successes is that they also build teamwork among the people. Every business operation today is concerned with methods to improve customer service. The real trick is to accomplish that task without increasing inventory. We are all concerned with improving our skills at keeping inventory low.

  11. Reducing bias in population and landscape genetic inferences: the effects of sampling related individuals and multiple life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, William; Brocato, Emily R; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Eggert, Lori S

    2016-01-01

    In population or landscape genetics studies, an unbiased sampling scheme is essential for generating accurate results, but logistics may lead to deviations from the sample design. Such deviations may come in the form of sampling multiple life stages. Presently, it is largely unknown what effect sampling different life stages can have on population or landscape genetic inference, or how mixing life stages can affect the parameters being measured. Additionally, the removal of siblings from a data set is considered best-practice, but direct comparisons of inferences made with and without siblings are limited. In this study, we sampled embryos, larvae, and adult Ambystoma maculatum from five ponds in Missouri, and analyzed them at 15 microsatellite loci. We calculated allelic richness, heterozygosity and effective population sizes for each life stage at each pond and tested for genetic differentiation (F ST and D C ) and isolation-by-distance (IBD) among ponds. We tested for differences in each of these measures between life stages, and in a pooled population of all life stages. All calculations were done with and without sibling pairs to assess the effect of sibling removal. We also assessed the effect of reducing the number of microsatellites used to make inference. No statistically significant differences were found among ponds or life stages for any of the population genetic measures, but patterns of IBD differed among life stages. There was significant IBD when using adult samples, but tests using embryos, larvae, or a combination of the three life stages were not significant. We found that increasing the ratio of larval or embryo samples in the analysis of genetic distance weakened the IBD relationship, and when using D C , the IBD was no longer significant when larvae and embryos exceeded 60% of the population sample. Further, power to detect an IBD relationship was reduced when fewer microsatellites were used in the analysis.

  12. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  13. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  14. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  15. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  16. Synthesis of reduced collagen crosslinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwendijk, A.M.C.H. van den; Benningshof, J.C.J.; Wegmann, V.; Bank, R.A.; Koppele, J.M. te; Brussee, J.; Gen, A. van der

    1999-01-01

    A new synthetic route to reduced collagen crosslinks (LNL and HLNL) is described in this report. It enables an enantioselective synthesis of LNL. HLNL was obtained as a mixture of two diastereoisomers. This method also provides the possibility to introduce radio-labels during the synthesis.

  17. Reduced basis heterogeneous multiscale methods

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2015-01-01

    Numerical methods for partial differential equations with multiple scales that combine numerical homogenization methods with reduced order modeling techniques are discussed. These numerical methods can be applied to a variety of problems including multiscale nonlinear elliptic and parabolic problems or Stokes flow in heterogenenous media.

  18. Synthesis of reduced collagen crosslinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwendijk, A.M.C.H. van den; Benningshof, J.C.J.; Wegmann, V.; Bank, R.A.; Koppele, J.M. te; Brussee, J.; Gen, A. van der

    1999-01-01

    A new synthetic route to reduced collagen crosslinks (LNL and HLNL) is described in this report. It enables an enantioselective synthesis of LNL. HLNL was obtained as a mixture of two diastereoisomers. This method also provides the possibility to introduce radio-labels during the synthesis.

  19. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  20. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  1. Reducing Developing Country Debt Reducing Developing Country Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Krugman

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief primer on the economics of debt reduction for developing countries. It begins by considering the case of unilateral debt forgiveness; such forgiveness is only in the mutual interest of creditors and debtors if the country is on the wrong side of fhe "debt Laffer curve". Current empirical estimafes suggest that problem debtors are in a very flat region of the debt Laffer curve where large changes in face value of debf have only small effcts in expected payments. The paper then considers a variety of market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that the widespread belief that the markt offers a cheap way to reduce debt is incorrect; unless new market instruments can be made credibly senior to existing debt, debt reductions that impose only small costs to creditors would be very expensive if achieved through buy back. Reducing Developing Country Debt

  2. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  3. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  5. Mindfulness reduces the correspondence bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopthrow, Tim; Hooper, Nic; Mahmood, Lynsey; Meier, Brian P; Weger, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The correspondence bias (CB) refers to the idea that people sometimes give undue weight to dispositional rather than situational factors when explaining behaviours and attitudes. Three experiments examined whether mindfulness, a non-judgmental focus on the present moment, could reduce the CB. Participants engaged in a brief mindfulness exercise (the raisin task), a control task, or an attention to detail task before completing a typical CB measure involving an attitude-attribution paradigm. The results indicated that participants in the mindfulness condition experienced a significant reduction in the CB compared to participants in the control or attention to detail conditions. These results suggest that mindfulness training can play a unique role in reducing social biases related to person perception.

  6. Medical waste: reducing its generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, N L

    1993-01-01

    1. Materials that can be recycled have yet to be proven to be a more cost-effective means of reducing medical waste. The literature indicates that the efficacy of reusable textiles is at least equal to that of some disposables--and reusable items reduce the generation of blood-contaminated waste. 2. The perioperative nursing community should consider replacing single-use items with materials intended for multiple uses. 3. "Source reduction" entails the replacement of single-use items with reusable items. Successful source-reduction programs require changes in individual and collective behavior patterns. 4. Recycling of materials renders them suitable for another use in a product similar to that in which they were originally used. On the other hand, reprocessing is an all-descriptive term of what must be done to an item to render it suitable for another identical use.

  7. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women. PMID:25642202

  8. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  9. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  11. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  12. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  13. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  14. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  15. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  16. Reduced Vlasov-Maxwell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helluy, Philippe; Navoret, Laurent; Pham, Nhung; Crestetto, Anaïs

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we review two different numerical methods for Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The first method is based on a coupling between a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Maxwell solver and a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Vlasov solver. The second method only uses a DG approach for the Vlasov and Maxwell equations. The Vlasov equation is first reduced to a space-only hyperbolic system thanks to the finite-element method. The two numerical methods are implemented using OpenCL in order to achieve high performance on recent Graphic Processing Units (GPU).

  17. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    at some point if they continued playing. Subjects were stopped after 60 minutes in each condition, and were subsequently asked to rate their gambling experience on a scale from one to ten on different aspects of gambling.   We hypothesized that pathological gamblers would show increased gambling behavior...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  18. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  19. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  20. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  1. Approximate Deconvolution Reduced Order Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Xuping; Wang, Zhu; Iliescu, Traian

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a large eddy simulation reduced order model(LES-ROM) framework for the numerical simulation of realistic flows. In this LES-ROM framework, the proper orthogonal decomposition(POD) is used to define the ROM basis and a POD differential filter is used to define the large ROM structures. An approximate deconvolution(AD) approach is used to solve the ROM closure problem and develop a new AD-ROM. This AD-ROM is tested in the numerical simulation of the one-dimensional Burgers equation with a small diffusion coefficient(10^{-3})

  2. Challenging and Reducing Cultural Stereotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸣

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.Each of us hears or makes stereotypical comments every day,and although sometimes it is necessary to make stereotypes in foreign language teaching and learning,we should always be aware of the negative effects of stereotyping people from other cultures when we use them to interpret behavior.This paper defines stereotypes,discusses how they impede communication and then focuses on some ways to challenge and reduce stereotypes in cross-cultural communication.

  3. Reducing violence in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellani, Karim H

    2014-01-01

    Looking behind the statistics on increases in healthcare violence incidents, the author finds that these incidents directly impact a small percentage of employees. However he sees an opportunity for administrators and security professionals to use this heightened awareness to collaborate on comprehensive plans to manage workplace violence, not only to reduce the direct impact of workplace violence incidents, but also to mitigate the indirect impacts such as employee morale degradation, fear of workplace violence, and costs of workplace violence. In this article he provides the elements of an effective workplace violence management plan.

  4. Empowerment to reduce health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina

    2002-01-01

    This article articulates the theoretical construct of empowerment and its importance for health-enhancing strategies to reduce health disparities. Powerlessness is explored as a risk factor in the context of social determinants, such as poverty, discrimination, workplace hazards, and income inequities. Empowerment is presented and compared with social capital and community capacity as strategies to strengthen social protective factors. A case study of a youth empowerment and policy project in New Mexico illustrates the usefulness of empowerment strategies in both targeting social determinants, such as public policies which are detrimental to youth, and improving community capacities of youth to be advocates for social change. Challenges for future practice and research are articulated.

  5. Reducing Misanthropic Memory Through Self-Awareness: Reducing Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the influence of self-awareness on misanthropic recall. Misanthropic recall is the tendency to recall more negative behaviors dispositionally attributed and positive behaviors situationally attributed than negative behaviors situationally attributed and positive behaviors dispositionally attributed. It was hypothesized that when one is self-aware, more systematic information processing would occur, thereby reducing misanthropic memory and influencing attitudinal judgments. The first experiment used a mirror and the second experiment used a live video to induce self-awareness. Participants were asked to form an impression of a group. The results of both experiments replicated the previously found pattern of misanthropic memory for non-self-aware participants (Ybarra & Stephan, 1996), and revealed less misanthropic recall bias in self-aware participants.

  6. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  7. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a ‘silent’ reformulation strategy, where a retail chain’s private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Methods Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases......, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between −3...

  8. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  9. Quench cooling under reduced gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Chatain, D; Nikolayev, V S; Beysens, D

    2013-01-01

    We report the quench cooling experiments performed with liquid O2 under different levels of gravity simulated with the magnetic gravity compensation. A copper disk is quenched from 270K to 90K. It is found that the cooling time in microgravity is very long in comparison with any other gravity level. This phenomenon is explained by the isolation effect of the gas surrounding the disk. The liquid subcooling is shown to drastically improuve the heat exchange thus reducing the cooling time (about 20 times). The effect of subcooling on the heat transfer is analyzed at different gravity levels. It is shown that such type of experiments cannot be used for the analysis of the critical heat flux (CHF) of the boiling crisis. The minimum heat flux (MHF) of boiling is analyzed instead.

  10. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  11. Reduced rates of gene loss, gene silencing, and gene mutation in Dnmt1-deficient embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, M.F.; van Amerongen, R.; Nijjar, T.; Cuppen, E.; Jones, P.A.; Laird, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene inactivation is a crucial event in oncogenesis. Gene inactivation mechanisms include events resulting in loss of heterozygosity (LOH), gene mutation, and transcriptional silencing. The contribution of each of these different pathways varies among tumor suppressor genes and by c

  12. Regulating environments to reduce obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Cheryl L; Moran, Patricia A; Ford, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity appears to be attributable to environmental conditions that implicitly discourage physical activity while explicitly encouraging the consumption of greater quantities of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods. In the United States food environment, consumers are bombarded with advertising for unhealthy food, and receive inadequate nutritional information, especially at restaurants. In the US school environment children have access to sugary sodas and unhealthy a la carte foods in their cafeterias, at the same time getting inadequate physical activity and nutrition education. In the built environment, sprawl has reduced active living. We describe these environments and explore the potential effects of regulatory measures on these environments. In the United States, regulatory opportunities exist at the national, state and local levels to mandate action and to allocate funds for promising health-promoting strategies. Regulatory approaches, much like litigation, can transform the entire environment in which corporations operate. Even with incomplete enforcement of rules, they send a public message about what is acceptable behavior for corporations and individuals. Additionally, because the United States is party to many multilateral and bilateral trade agreements and is an active participant in the GATT/WTO framework, US regulatory actions promise to have a beneficial impact both domestically and globally.

  13. Reducing power usage on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  14. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  15. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  16. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  17. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  18. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    Danish application procedure, when increasing the animal production, has tried to make the acceptance procedure quicker and dynamic ensuring that new technology is adopted quicker and that the farm is located in the right place. It is concluded that the new application process so far has not lived up......The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... and the article looks at the measures and costs involved. The conclusion is that the costs have been under 3 €/kg NH3-N. The findings suggest that the same measures might be cheaper in the Netherlands and Denmark than in the UK and the USA due to technology advances and stricter regulations in the past. The new...

  19. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩

    2000-01-01

    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  20. Reducing abortion: the Danish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risor, H

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, 20,830 legal abortions were performed in Denmark. 2,845 involved women below the age of 20, and 532 involved women terminating pregnancy after the 12th week. Danish law permits all of its female citizens to have an abortion free-of-charge before the 12th week of pregnancy. After the 12th week, the abortion must be applied for through a committee of 3 members, and all counties in Denmark have a committee. It is felt in Denmark that a woman has a right to an abortion if she decides to have one. It she makes that choice, doctors and nurses are supportive. Since 1970, sex education has been mandatory in Danish schools. Teachers often collaborate closely with school doctors and nurses in this education. All counties are required to have at least 1 clinic that provides contraceptive counselling. It was recently found that the lowest number of pregnancies among teenaged girls was found in a county in Jutland where all 9th grade students visit the county clinic to learn about contraceptives, pregnancy, and abortion. Within 1 year after Copenhagen had adopted this practice, the number of abortions among teenagers declined by 20%. One fourth of all pharmacies also collaborate with schools to promote sex education, instructing students about contraceptives and pregnancy tests. The Danish Family Planning Association has produced a film on abortion, and plans to produce videos on abortion for use in schools. The organization also holds training programs for health care personnel on contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. By means of the practices described above, it is hoped that the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies in Denmark will be reduced.

  1. FGFR4基因单核苷酸多态性和杂合性丢失在胃癌发病中的作用%Roles of single nucleotide polymorphism and loss of heterozygosity of FGFR4 gene in oncogenesis of gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳骅; 沈艳莹; 倪醒之

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP) and loss of heterozygosity ( LOH) of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 ( FGFR4) gene in gastric carcinoma, and explore their roles in oncogenesis, progression and prognosis of gastric carcinoma. Methods The SNP of FGFR4 gene exon 6, 9, 13, 16 and 18 of 50 cases of gastric carcinoma was detected. The LOH of rs351855 of coden 388 in FGFR4 gene exon 9 was determined by SNP technique. The correlation of SNP and LOH of FGFR4 gene with clinicopathology of gastric carcinoma and survival of patients was analysed. Results There was somatic mutation of coden 401 ( R401C, C > T) in FGFR4 gene exon 9 in 1 case, non-synonymous SNP was detected in 34 cases of gastric carcinoma with the percentages of GG genotype, AG genotype and AA genotype being 32%, 52% and 16% respectively, and the frequency of LOH of rs351855 was 92. 31% in 26 case of gastric carcinoma with AG genotype. There was no significant difference in the expression of Arg388 allele and frequency of LOH among different degrees of differentiation, tumor stages, lymph node status, pTNM classification and time of survival (P>0. 05). Conclusion High frequency of LOH of rs351855 of coden 388 in FGFR4 gene in patients with gastric carcinoma suggests that there is absence or inactivation of tumor suppressor gene nearby. The expression of Arg388 allele and LOH of rs351855 in FGFR4 gene are not associated with the progression and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.%目的 研究成纤维细胞生长因子受体4(FGFR4)基因在胃癌患者中的单核苷酸多态性(SNP)情况和杂合性丢失(LOH)的发生频率,探讨其在肿瘤发生发展和患者预后判断中的意义.方法 检测50例胃癌标本中FGFR4基因5个外显子区域6、9、1 3、16、18的SNP情况,并以SNP技术检测FGFR4基因外显子9区域内密码子388位点rs351855的LOH,分析FGFR4基因SNP和LOH与胃癌临床病理特征及患者生存率的关系.结果 FGFR4

  2. 染色体1p/19q杂合性缺失与少突胶质细胞肿瘤临床病理特征的关系%Relationship between the loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 1p/19q and clinicopathologic feature in oligodendroglial tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐姗; 梅金红; 王淳良; 杨玄勇; 王珊珊

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨染色体1p/19q杂合性缺失与少突胶质细胞肿瘤临床病理特征的关系.方法 采用荧光免疫原位杂交技术检测73例少突胶质细胞肿瘤1p/19q杂合性缺失,并随访观察预后.结果 少突胶质细胞肿瘤年轻患者(< 60岁)1p/19q缺失高于老年患者(>60岁,P<0.01);好发部位(额、顶、枕叶)的少突胶质细胞肿瘤1p/19q缺失与其他部位比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),与性别及肿瘤级别均无明显相关(P>0.05);少突胶质细胞肿瘤患者存在1p/19q联合缺失的中位生存时间为74个月,5年总生存率为72%;仅存在1p缺失者中位生存时间为43个月,5年总生存率为29%;而不存在1p/19q缺失者中位生存时间39个月,5年总生存率为18%.1p/19q联合缺失者中位生存时间长于仅存在1p缺失组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且1p/19q缺失组中位生存时间也长于1 p/19q未缺失组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).仅存在1p缺失组中位生存时间虽然长于不存在1p/19q缺失组,但差异无统计学意义(Pp>0.05).结论 少突胶质细胞肿瘤1p/19q缺失与患者年龄明显相关,与患者性别、肿瘤发生部位及肿瘤级别无明显相关;少突胶质细胞肿瘤中染色体1p/19q杂合性缺失对患者的化疗敏感性及预后有关,可以作为分子分型的标准.%Objective To investigate the relationship between the loss of heterozygosity (LOH)on chromosome 1p/19q and clinicopathologic feature in oligodendroglial tumors.Methods The LOH on chromosome 1 p/19q was detected with fluorescence in situ hybridization in 73 patients with oligodendroglial tumors,and the prognosis was followed up.Results The positive rate of the LOH on chromosome 1p/19q in oligodendroglioma in younger patients (< 60 years old) was higher than in older patients (> 60 years old),(P < 0.01).There was no statistically significant difference in the LOH on chromosome 1 p/19q betwcen the oligodendroglial tumors at

  3. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p/19q and p53 protein expression in oligodendroglioma%少突胶质细胞瘤染色体1p/19 q杂合性缺失与p53蛋白表达的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊佶; 刘颖; 李超; 朱静静; 叶诸榕; 毛颖; 汪寅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the status of loss of heterozygosity ( LOH) of chromosome lp/19q and p53 protein expression in oligodendroglioma,as compared to astrocytoma.Methods One hundred and ninety-one cases of glioma of different histologic types and grades,including 116 cases of low-grade of oligodendroglioma ( 86 paraffin-embedded and 30 fresh tissues) ,45 cases of anaplastic oligodendroglioma (all paraffin-embedded tissues) and 30 cases of astrocytoma of various grades ( all paraffin-embedded tissues),were enrolled into the study.The LOH of chromosome lp/19q was investigated by polymerase chain reaction ( PCR) -based microsatellite analysis.The p53 protein expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining.Results The rates of lp loss, 19q loss and lp/19q loss were 69.8% ,64%,and 57.0% respectively in the 86 paraffin-embedded low-grade oligodendroglioma samples,as compared to 71.1%,60.0% and 55.6% respectively in the 45 paraffin-embedded anaplastic oligodendroglioma samples.There was no difference of LOH of lp/19q between low-grade oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (P > 0.05).In the 30 cases of low-grade oligodendroglioma with fresh tissues available,the rates of lp loss,19q loss and lp/19q loss were 70.0%,63.3% and 60.0% respectively.The LOH of lp/19q between paraffin-embedded and fresh samples was not statistically significant (P >0.05).In the 30 cases of astrocytoma,the rates of lp loss,19q loss and lp/19q loss were 23.3%,33.3% and 20.0% respectively,which were significantly less than those in oligodendroglioma (P 0.05).30例WHO Ⅱ级少突胶质细胞瘤新鲜标本染色体1p缺失率为70.0%(21/30)、19q缺失率为63.3%(19/30)、1p/19q联合缺失率为60.0%(18/30),与石蜡标本的缺失率比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).30例星形细胞起源的肿瘤染色体对应三种缺失率分别为23.3%(7/30)、33.3%(10/30)及20.0%(6/30),与少突胶质细胞瘤差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).86例WHO Ⅱ

  4. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  5. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  6. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  7. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  8. Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.

  9. Parallel Processing of cluster by Map Reduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Vaidya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available MapReduce is a parallel programming model and an associated implementation introduced by Google. In the programming model, a user specifies the computation by two functions, Map and Reduce. The underlying MapReduce library automatically parallelizes the computation, and handles complicated issues like data distribution, load balancing and fault tolerance. Massive input, spread across many machines, need to parallelize. Moves the data, and provides scheduling, fault tolerance. The original MapReduce implementation by Google, as well as its open-source counterpart, Hadoop, is aimed for parallelizing computing in large clusters of commodity machines. Map Reduce has gained a great popularity as it gracefully and automatically achieves fault tolerance. It automatically handles the gathering of results across the multiple nodes and returns a single result or set. This paper gives an overview of MapReduce programming model and its applications. The author has described here the workflow of MapReduce process. Some important issues, like fault tolerance, arestudied in more detail. Even the illustration of working of Map Reduce is given. The data locality issue in heterogeneous environments can noticeably reduce the Map Reduce performance. In this paper, the author has addressed the illustration of data across nodes in a way that each node has a balanced data processing load stored in a parallel manner. Given a data intensive application running on a Hadoop Map Reduce cluster, the auhor has exemplified how data placement is done in Hadoop architecture and the role of Map Reduce in the Hadoop Architecture. The amount of data stored in each node to achieve improved data-processing performance is explained here.

  10. Novel Reduced Parts Online Uninterruptible Power Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Ashrafi; Mehdi Niroomand

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents design consideration and performance analysis of novel reduced parts online three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system. The proposed UPS system is based on reduced switch count dual bridge matrix converter. It employs only six power switches and results in reducing the cost of the system compared to conventional online UPS topologies, while achieving excellent performance. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated through simulation in terms of input/o...

  11. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  12. Iterative solution of the reduced eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, G. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-04-01

    The Guyan method of reducing the stiffness and mass matrices of large linear structures introduces errors in the reduced mass matrix. These errors cannot be completely avoided even if the analysis coordinates are chosen optimally. However, they can be elimiated by iterating on the eigenvectors found from the Guyan reduced matrices. The necessary iteration steps follow directly from the eigenvalue problem. The resulting iteration procedures are presented and applied to two test problems showing that the iterations enable the exact eigensolutions to be extracted. All errors from the Guyan reduced matrices are removed or substantially decreased. (orig.).

  13. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  14. Does beekeeping reduce genetic variability in Melipona scutellaris (Apidae, Meliponini)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Zilse, G A; Costa-Pinto, M F F; Nunes-Silva, C G; Kerr, W E

    2009-06-30

    Many factors have contributed to reductions in wild populations of stingless bees, such as: deforestation, displacement and destruction of nests by honey gatherers, as well as use of insecticides and other agrochemicals. All of these can potentially affect the populational structure of native species. We analyzed genetic variability and populational structure of Melipona scutellaris, based on five microsatellite loci, using heterologous primers of M. bicolor. Samples were taken from 43 meliponaries distributed among 30 sites of four northeastern states of Brazil (Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe, and Bahia). Thirty-one alleles were found to be well distributed among the populations, with sizes ranging from 85 to 146 bp. In general, there was a variable distribution and frequency of alleles among populations, with either exclusive and/or fixed alleles at some sites. The population of Pernambuco was the most polymorphic, followed by Bahia, Alagoas and Sergipe. The heterozygosity was Ho = 0.36 on average, much lower than what has been reported for M. bicolor (Ho = 0.65). Most populations were not under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We found a higher variation within rather than among populations, indicating no genetic structuring in those bees maintained in meliponaries. This apparent homogenization may be due to intense beekeeping activity, including exchange of genetic material among beekeepers. Based on our findings, we recommend more studies of meliponaries and of wild populations in order to help orient management and conservation of these native pollinators.

  15. Two novel mutations in the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-cytochrome b5 reductase gene of a patient with generalized type, hereditary methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, J; Arya, R; Sumimoto, H; Yubisui, T; Bellingham, A J; Layton, D M; Fukumaki, Y

    1996-10-15

    Hereditary methemoglobinemia due to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) deficiency is classified into two types, an erythrocyte (type I) and a generalized (type II). We investigated the b5R gene of a patient with type II from a white United Kingdom (UK) family and found that the patient was a compound heterozygote for two novel mutations. The first mutation was a C-to-A transversion changing codon 42 (TAC: Tyr) to a stop codon in the one allele. From this mutant allele, the product without the catalytic portion of the enzyme is generated. The second one was a missense mutation at codon 95 (CCC-->CAC) in the other allele with the result that Pro changed to His within the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain of the enzyme. To characterize effects of this missense mutation on the enzyme function, we compared glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused b5R with the GST-fused mutant enzyme with the codon 95 missense mutation (P95H) expressed in Escherichia coll. The mutant enzyme showed less catalytic activity, less thermostability, and a greater susceptibility to trypsin than did the normal counterpart. The absorption spectrum of the mutant enzyme in the visual region differed from that of the wild-type. These results suggest that this amino acid substitution influences both secondary structure and catalytic activity of the enzyme. The compound heterozygosity for the nonsense and the missense mutations apparently caused hereditary methemoglobinemia type II in this patient.

  16. Chitosan-supported Borohydride Reducing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new chitosan-supported borohydride reducing reagent (CBER) was prepared by treatment of KBH4 with the resin of chitosan derivative, which was first synthesized fiom the reaction of cross-linked chitosan microsphere with glycidyl trimethylammonium chloride. CBER could reduce aromatic carbonyl compound to corresponding alcohol.

  17. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  18. Reducibility of Covers of AFT shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Teresa; Eilers, Søren; Pask, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that the reducibility structure of several covers of sofic shifts is a flow invariant. In addition, we prove that for an irreducible subshift of almost finite type the left Krieger cover and the past set cover are reducible. We provide an example which shows that there are n...

  19. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  20. 49 CFR 609.23 - Reduced fare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reduced fare. 609.23 Section 609.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION FOR ELDERLY AND HANDICAPPED PERSONS § 609.23 Reduced fare. Applicants for financial assistance under section 5307...

  1. Welfare Reform and Reducing Teen Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2000-01-01

    Most adolescent mothers are unmarried and on welfare. Congress enacted new welfare legislation that emphasizes reducing teen pregnancy and requiring work, but states are reluctant to meet this challenge. Discusses child poverty's new face, public policy and culture wars, welfare reform, and social norms. Concludes that reducing unwed parenthood…

  2. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.

    1994-01-01

    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal c

  3. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1) that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced...

  4. Optimizing Reduced-Order Transfer Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, John T.; Milman, Mark H.; Mingori, D. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    Transfer-function approximations made optimal in special least-squares sense. Algorithm computes reduced-order rational-fraction approximates to single-input/single-output transfer functions. Reduces amount of computation needed for such purposes as numerical simulation of dynamics and design of control subsystems.

  5. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation

  6. Reducing radiation dose in CT enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew J; Fletcher, Joel G; Yu, Lifeng; Paden, Robert G; Spencer, Garrett Clay; Leng, Shuai; Silva, Annelise M; Fidler, Jeff L; Silva, Alvin C; Hara, Amy K

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) enterography is a diagnostic examination that is increasingly being used to evaluate disorders of the small bowel. An undesirable consequence of CT, however, is patient exposure to ionizing radiation. This is of particular concern with CT enterography because patients tend to be young and require numerous follow-up examinations. There are multiple strategies to reduce radiation dose at CT enterography, including adjusting acquisition parameters, reducing scan length, and reducing tube voltage or tube current. The drawback to dose reduction strategies is degradation of image quality due to increased image noise. However, image noise can be reduced with commercial iterative reconstruction and denoising techniques. With a combination of low-dose techniques and noise-control strategies, one can markedly reduce radiation dose at CT enterography while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  7. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream...... the opportunity for engaging mainstream ideologies in order to reduce the rhetorical distance between minority and majority cultures....

  8. Novel Reduced Parts Online Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Ashrafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design consideration and performance analysis of novel reduced parts online three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS system. The proposed UPS system is based on reduced switch count dual bridge matrix converter. It employs only six power switches and results in reducing the cost of the system compared to conventional online UPS topologies, while achieving excellent performance. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated through simulation in terms of input/output waveforms quality and shows the viability of topology.

  9. Reduced Baroclinicity During Martian Global Dust Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battalio, Joseph; Szunyogh, Istvan; Lemmon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The eddy kinetic energy equation is applied to the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset during the pre-winter solstice period for the northern hemisphere of Mars. Traveling waves are triggered by geopotential flux convergence, grow baroclinically, and decay barotropically. Higher optical depth increases the static stability, which reduces vertical and meridional heat fluxes. Traveling waves during a global dust storm year develop a mixed baroclinic/barotropic growth phase before decaying barotropically. Baroclinic energy conversion is reduced during the global dust storm, but eddy intensity is undiminished. Instead, the frequency of storms is reduced due to a stabilized vertical profile.

  10. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...

  11. Normal forms for reduced stochastic climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majda, A.J.; Franzke, C.; Crommelin, D.T.

    The systematic development of reduced low-dimensional stochastic climate models from observations or comprehensive highdimensional climate models is an important topic for atmospheric low-frequency variability, climate sensitivity, and improved extended range forecasting. Here techniques from

  12. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  13. Top Five Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top 5 lifestyle changes to improve your cholesterol Lifestyle changes can help reduce cholesterol, keep you off cholesterol-lowering medications or enhance the effect of your medications. Here are five lifestyle ...

  14. Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among Adolescents in Africa. ... including the provision of appropriate sexuality education and information as well as supportive services to allow adolescents to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  15. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  16. Buprenorphine During Pregnancy Reduces Neonate Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less neonatal distress. Buprenorphine, like methadone, reduces opioid craving and alleviates withdrawal symptoms without the safety and ... her first pregnancy. In each instance, the child born following buprenorphine treatment exhibited milder NAS symptoms than ...

  17. Reducing health inequalities for older LGBTQ+ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ben

    2016-10-26

    The recent LGBTQ+ history exhibition Speak Out London, Diversity City presented a fantastic collection of stories, documents and photographs from LGBTQ+ Londoners. It also provided a reminder of how far we have come in reducing stigma, prejudice and discrimination.

  18. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... function was defined as a GFR ofmodels were compared for their ability to correctly classify renal function as normal or reduced. Cut-off levels were determined so as to give 99 % certainty outside the gray zone...... using two cut-off levels, dividing renal function into normal or reduced, with an intermediate "gray zone" of indeterminable results.Methods Glomerular filtration rate was measured by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (13.7–147.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 119 children (age range 2.3–14.9 years).Reduced renal...

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Murine Atherosclerosis Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frodermann, Vanessa; van Duijn, Janine; van Pel, Melissa; van Santbrink, Peter J.; Bot, Ilze; Kuiper, Johan; de Jager, Saskia C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties, but recently they were also found to have immunomodulatory capacities. We therefore investigated whether MSCs could reduce atherosclerosis, which is determined by dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. We adoptively transferred MSCs into l

  20. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1 that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced rates will result in maximum effects, 2 that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3 that less than maximum effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use of reduced herbicide rates has been linked to the increasing number of cases of non-target resistance in outcrossing grass weed species like Alopecurus myosuroides and Lolium ssp. The underlying hypothesis is that the least susceptible individuals in the population will survive the use of reduced rates and that recombination will lead to a gradual increase in the resistance level in the weed population. This scenario is only valid if the use of reduced herbicide rates is prompted by acceptance of a lower effect but not if a high susceptibility of the weed species present in the field or optimum conditions are the reasons for reducing herbicide rates. This is an aspect that is often overlooked in the on-going discussion on herbicide rates and resistance. Large weed

  1. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  2. Laser welding in a reduced gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results on the effects of reduced gravity on laser welding of stainless steel and other materials are reported. Laser welding experiments using a low power (10-18 watts) Nd-YAG laser have been performed on the NASA KC-135, which flies parabolic maneuvers to simulate reduced gravity conditions. Experiments on 0.005-0.010 inch thick stainless steel samples displayed a pronounced change in weld bead width, depth of penetration and surface ripple with changes in gravity level.

  3. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  4. Isomonodromic quantization of dimensionally reduced gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Korotkin, D.; Nicolai, H.

    1996-01-01

    We present a detailed account of the isomonodromic quantization of dimensionally reduced Einstein gravity with two commuting Killing vectors. This theory constitutes an integrable ``midi-superspace" version of quantum gravity with infinitely many interacting physical degrees of freedom. The canonical treatment is based on the complete separation of variables in the isomonodromic sectors of the model. The Wheeler-DeWitt and diffeomorphism constraints are thereby reduced to the Knizhnik-Zamolod...

  5. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  6. New approaches to reduce radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin D; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with a long-term risk of health effects, including cancer. Radiation exposure to the U.S. population from cardiac imaging has increased markedly over the past three decades. Initiatives to reduce radiation exposure have focused on the tenets of appropriate study "justification" and "optimization" of imaging protocols. This article reviews ways to optimally reduce radiation dose across the spectrum of cardiac imaging.

  7. Reduced basis techniques for stochastic problems

    OpenAIRE

    Boyaval, Sébastien; Bris, Claude Le; Lelièvre, Tony; Maday, Yvon; Nguyen, Ngoc Cuong; Patera, Anthony T.

    2010-01-01

    We report here on the recent application of a now classical general reduction technique, the Reduced-Basis approach initiated in [C. Prud'homme, D. Rovas, K. Veroy, Y. Maday, A. T. Patera, and G. Turinici. Reliable real-time solution of parametrized partial differential equations: Reduced-basis output bounds methods. Journal of Fluids Engineering, 124(1):7080, 2002.], to the specific context of differential equations with random coefficients. After an elementary presentation of the approach, ...

  8. Interventions to Reduce Myopia Progression in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Su Ann; Farzavandi, Sonal; Tan, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.

  9. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, C J; Cremer, M A; Heap, M P; Chen, J -Y; Westbrook, C K; Maurice, L Q

    1999-12-10

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay.

  10. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  11. LLMapReduce: Multi-Level Map-Reduce for High Performance Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    since the 1990s. Popularized by Google [36] and Apache Hadoop [37], map-reduce has become a staple technology of the ever- growing big data community...Lexington, MA, U.S.A Abstract— The map-reduce parallel programming model has become extremely popular in the big data community. Many big data ...to big data users running on a supercomputer. LLMapReduce dramatically simplifies map-reduce programming by providing simple parallel programming

  12. Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: Review of Risk Factors and Risk-Reducing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy have increased substantially over the last decade. Surgical oncologists are often in the frontline, dealing with requests for this procedure. This paper reviews the current evidence base regarding contralateral breast cancer, assesses the various risk-reducing strategies, and evaluates the cost-effectiveness of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy.

  13. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  14. Advanced flow noise reducing acoustic sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Kevin; Drzymkowski, Mark; Cleckler, Jay

    2009-05-01

    SARA, Inc. has developed microphone arrays that are as effective at reducing flow noise as foam windscreens and sufficiently rugged for tough battlefield environments. These flow noise reducing (FNR) sensors have a metal body and are flat and conformally mounted so they can be attached to the roofs of land vehicles and are resistant to scrapes from branches. Flow noise at low Mach numbers is created by turbulent eddies moving with the fluid flow and inducing pressure variations on microphones. Our FNR sensors average the pressure over the diameter (~20 cm) of their apertures, reducing the noise created by all but the very largest eddies. This is in contrast to the acoustic wave which has negligible variation over the aperture at the frequencies of interest (f less or equal than 400 Hz). We have also post-processed the signals to further reduce the flow noise. Two microphones separated along the flow direction exhibit highly correlated noise. The time shift of the correlation corresponds to the time for the eddies in the flow to travel between the microphones. We have created linear microphone arrays parallel to the flow and have reduced flow noise as much as 10 to 15 dB by subtracting time-shifted signals.

  15. The LMNA mutation p.Arg321Ter associated with dilated cardiomyopathy leads to reduced expression and a skewed ratio of lamin A and lamin C proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saaidi, Rasha [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Rasmussen, Torsten B. [Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Palmfeldt, Johan [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Nissen, Peter H. [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Beqqali, Abdelaziz [Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hansen, Jakob [Department of Forensic Medicine, Bioanalytical Unit, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Pinto, Yigal M. [Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boesen, Thomas [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Mogensen, Jens [Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense (Denmark); Bross, Peter, E-mail: peter.bross@ki.au.dk [Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by cardiac chamber enlargement and reduced systolic function of the left ventricle. Mutations in the LMNA gene represent the most frequent known genetic cause of DCM associated with disease of the conduction systems. The LMNA gene generates two major transcripts encoding the nuclear lamina major components lamin A and lamin C by alternative splicing. Both haploinsuffiency and dominant negative effects have been proposed as disease mechanism for premature termination codon (PTC) mutations in LMNA. These mechanisms however are still not clearly established. In this study, we used a representative LMNA nonsense mutation, p.Arg321Ter, to shed light on the molecular disease mechanisms. Cultured fibroblasts from three DCM patients carrying this mutation were analyzed. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing of these PCR products indicated that transcripts from the mutant allele were degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mechanism. The fact that no truncated mutant protein was detectable in western blot (WB) analysis strengthens the notion that the mutant transcript is efficiently degraded. Furthermore, WB analysis showed that the expression of lamin C protein was reduced by the expected approximately 50%. Clearly decreased lamin A and lamin C levels were also observed by immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. However, results from both WB and nano-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that the levels of lamin A protein were more reduced suggesting an effect on expression of lamin A from the wild type allele. PCR analysis of the ratio of lamin A to lamin C transcripts showed unchanged relative amounts of lamin A transcript suggesting that the effect on the wild type allele was operative at the protein level. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed no abnormal nuclear morphology of patient fibroblast cells. Based on these data, we propose that

  16. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  17. The QSE-reduced $\\alpha$ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hix, W R; Wheeler, J C; Thielemann, F K

    1998-01-01

    Examination of the process of silicon burning, the burning stage that leads to the production of the iron peak nuclei, reveals that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. These quasi-equilibrium (QSE) groups form well in advance of the global Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium (NSE). We present an improved ``minimal'' nuclear network, which takes advantage of quasi-equilibrium in order to calculate the nuclear evolution and energy generation while further reducing the computational cost compared to a conventional \\alpha-chain network. During silicon burning, the resultant \\emph{QSE-reduced} \\alpha network is twice as fast as the full \\alpha network it replaces and requires the tracking of only half as many abundance variables, without significant loss of accuracy. When the QSE-reduced \\alpha network is used in combination with a conventional an accurate approximation for all of the burning stages from He burning to NSE, while tracking only 7 abundances. These reductio...

  18. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  19. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    Hypothetical bias in stated preference studies is an essential problem which reduces the validity of the obtained welfare estimates for non-market goods. In the attempt to mitigate hypothetical bias, a type of reminder known as Cheap Talk, has been applied in previous studies and found to overall...... eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Hamid R; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻) and ammonium (NH₄⁺) loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less) via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  2. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  3. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  4. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  5. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Rosager, Sara; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  6. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  7. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  8. Muon Ionisation Cooling in Reduced RF

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, G

    2010-01-01

    In Muon Ionisation Cooling, closely packed high-field RF cavities are interspersed with energy-absorbing material in order to reduce particle beam emittance. Transverse focussing of the muon beams is achieved by superconducting magnets. This results in the RF cavities sitting in intense magnetic fields. Recent studies have shown that this may limit the peak gradient that can be achieved in the RF cavities. In this paper, we study the effect that a reduced RF gradient may have on the cooling performance of the Neutrino Factory lattice and examine methods to mitigate the effect.

  9. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  10. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Guillermo

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  11. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Guillermo

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  12. Reduced Multiplicative Tolerance Ranking and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sitarz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a reduced multiplicative tolerance - a measure of sensitivity analysis in multi-objective linear programming (MOLP is presented. By using this new measure a method for ranking the set of efficient extreme solutions is proposed. The idea is to rank these solutions by values of the reduced tolerance. This approach can be applied to many MOLP problems, where sensitivity analysis is important for a decision maker. In the paper, applications of the presented methodology are shown in the market model and the transportation problem.

  13. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  14. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  15. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  16. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains belo

  17. Reducing Skin Picking via Competing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Thompson, Ada; Reske, Cara L.; Gable, Lauren M.; Barton-Arwood, Sally

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a competing activities intervention to decrease skin picking exhibited by a 9-year-old student with comorbid diagnoses. Results of an ABCBAB design revealed that the use of student-selected manipulatives resulted in reduced skin picking. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Novel tactile feedback to reduce overt stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Dwight E; Goggans, Paul M; Snyder, Gregory J

    2012-08-22

    Stuttering is generally considered to be a speech disorder that affects ∼1% of the global population. Various forms of speech feedback have been shown to reduce overt stuttered speaking, and in particular, second speech signal through speech feedback has drastically reduced utterances of stuttered speech in adults with persistent stuttering. This study reports data for increased overt fluency of speech in an adult stuttering population, whereby the vocalization of the speaker is captured by a microphone or an accelerometer, signal processed, and returned as mechanical tactile speech feedback to the speaker's skin. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to show that both the microphone and the accelerometer speaking conditions were significantly more fluent than a control (no feedback) condition, with the microphone-driven tactile feedback reducing instances of stuttering by 71% and the accelerometer-driven tactile feedback reducing instances of stuttering by 80%. It is apparent that self-generated tactile feedback can be used to enhance fluency significantly in those who stutter.

  19. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  20. HOW TO REDUCE NEEDLE INSERTION INDUCED PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 董莉

    2001-01-01

    Acupuncture needle insertion always results in pain in the local area due to stimulating the free nerve endings—algesireceptors of the skin. In spite of mildness, this pain may induce many patients' fright, and thus, hinders more extensive application of acupuncture. In the present paper, the author introduces some methods for reducing needle insertion induced pain.

  1. Reduced complexity MASH delta-sigma modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhipeng; Kennedy, Michael Peter

    2007-01-01

    A reduced complexity digital multi-stage noise shaping (MASH) delta-sigma modulator for fractional-N frequency synthesizer applications is proposed. A long word is used for the first modulator in a MASH structure; the sequence length is maximized by setting the least significant bit of the input to 1; shorter words are used in subsequent stages. Experimental results confirm simulations

  2. Incentives to reduce groundwater consumption in Yemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.; Al-Aulaqi, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper options for changing the incentive structure to reduce unsustainable groundwater consumption in Yemen are evaluated. Special attention is paid to incentives that decrease the profitability of irrigation water use and subsidies on improved irrigation technology. Although the literature

  3. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  4. Reducing Thrusts In Solid-Fuel Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1989-01-01

    Thrust-terminating system conceived to reduce thrust of solid-propellant rocket motor in controlled manner such that thrust loads not increased or decreased beyond predictable levels. Concept involves explosively cutting opposing venting pairs in case of rocket motor above nozzles to initiate venting of chamber and reduction of thrust. Vents sized and numbered to control amount and rate of reduction in thrust.

  5. MIREX: MapReduce Information Retrieval Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Hauff, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    We propose to use MapReduce to quickly test new retrieval approaches on a cluster of machines by sequentially scanning all documents. We present a small case study in which we use a cluster of 15 low cost machines to search a web crawl of 0.5 billion pages showing that sequential scanning is a viabl

  6. Reduced-dimension clustering for vegetation segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Nettleton, D.; Tang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimensionclustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels

  7. Does physical training reduce fatigue in sarcoidosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcellis, R. G. J.; van der Veeke, M.A.F.; Mesters, I.; Drent, M.; Bie, R.A.; de Vries, Jolanda; Lenssen, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis patients frequently experience fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness, resulting in reduced quality of life (QOL). Scientific studies on the benefits of physical training in sarcoidosis have been scarce, so the aim of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a

  8. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  9. Legislation analysis on reducing GHG in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqi Mao; Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    ‘Greenhouse Effect’ derived from human activities has caused many concerns. This dissertation mainly analysis existing GHG reduction regulations in Australia, the relationship between those regulations, and the effectiveness of the regulatory framework to see whether the CPR Scheme and other complementary strategies can effectively improve the regulatory outcomes, namely reduces GHG emissions.

  10. Reducing cardiovascular risk : protecting the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), measured by a reduced glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), most

  11. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  12. Reducing grain storage losses in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the use of insecticide-treated material and modified atmosphere storage for reducing insect damage in stored maize. Results showed that insecticide treated netting and insecticide treated seed bags protected grain from insect damage for up to nine months if the grain was free from i...

  13. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  14. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  15. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  16. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  17. Reducing Children's Littering on a Nature Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHart, David E.; Bailey, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    This study compared incentives and educational methods to motivate children to pick up litter and to prevent littering. Incentives did aid in getting litter picked up. One-sentence anti-litter statements, educational materials, and lectures reduced littering, but incentives did not. (MR)

  18. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction compan

  19. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction

  20. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...

  1. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  2. Reduced graphene oxide by chemical graphitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, In Kyu; Lee, Junghyun; Ruoff, Rodney S; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2010-09-21

    Reduced graphene oxides (RG-Os) have attracted considerable interest, given their potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits. However, very little is known regarding the chemically induced reduction method of graphene oxide (G-O) in both solution and gas phases, with the exception of the hydrazine-reducing agent, even though it is essential to use the vapour phase for the patterning of hydrophilic G-Os on prepatterned substrates and in situ reduction to hydrophobic RG-Os. In this paper, we report a novel reducing agent system (hydriodic acid with acetic acid (HI-AcOH)) that allows for an efficient, one-pot reduction of a solution-phased RG-O powder and vapour-phased RG-O (VRG-O) paper and thin film. The reducing agent system provided highly qualified RG-Os by mass production, resulting in highly conducting RG-O(HI-AcOH). Moreover, VRG-O(HI-AcOH) paper and thin films were prepared at low temperatures (40 °C) and were found to be applicable to flexible devices. This one-pot method is expected to advance research on highly conducting graphene platelets.

  3. 77 FR 47328 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process... businesses and the public. Agencies consider low-cost approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility...-regulatory-system . The Department is committed to maintaining a consistent culture of retrospective...

  4. 77 FR 28518 - Reducing Regulatory Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity). The regulatory process encourages public..., simplify, and harmonize regulations to reduce costs and promote certainty for businesses and the public... culture of retrospective review and analysis. DOE will continually engage in review of its rules...

  5. Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic Equations in Toroidal Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Shen-Ming; YU Guo-Yang

    2001-01-01

    By applying a new assumption of density, I.e. R2 p = const, the continuity equation is satisfied to the order ofe2`+with e being the inverse aspect ratio. In the case of large aspect ratio, a set of reduced magnetohydrodynamicequations in toroidal geometry are obtained. The new assumption about the density is supported by experimentalobservation to some extent.

  6. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  7. Microwave Oscillator Would Have Reduced Phase Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Microwave oscillators of proposed new type incorporate suppressed-carrier/negative-feedback feature to reduce phase noise near their carrier frequencies. Concept results in phase noise less than achievable by cryogenically stabilized microwave components or by room-temperature oscillators stabilized by quartz crystals. Implemented in three different versions.

  8. Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浙; 鲁世杰

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.

  9. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.

    1982-01-01

    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  10. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  11. Reducing Alcohol Consumption through Television Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed impact of television commercial based on controlled-drinking principles. Measures were taken 12 months prior to start of campaign and 3 weeks after campaign from regular drinkers of general public whose drinking behavior was known to be unaffected by previous antidrug advertising campaign. Found that advertisement reduced intake provided…

  12. Nonlinear Acoustics Used To Reduce Leakage Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Leakage and wear are two fundamental problems in all traditional turbine seals that contribute to an engine's inefficiency. The solutions to seal leakage and wear conflict in the conventional design space. Reducing the clearance between the seal and rotating shaft reduces leakage but increases wear because of increased contact incidents. Increasing the clearance to reduce the contact between parts reduces wear but increases parasitic leakage. The goal of this effort is to develop a seal that restricts leakage flow using acoustic pressure while operating in a noncontacting manner, thereby increasing life. In 1996, Dr. Timothy Lucas announced his discovery of a method to produce shock-free high-amplitude pressure waves. For the first time, the formation of large acoustic pressures was possible using dissonant resonators. A pre-prototype acoustic seal developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center exploits this fundamental acoustic discovery: a specially shaped cavity oscillated at the contained fluid's resonant frequency produces high-amplitude acoustic pressure waves of a magnitude approaching those required of today's seals. While the original researchers are continuing their development of acoustic pumps, refrigeration compressors, and electronic thermal management systems using this technology, the goal of researchers at Glenn is to apply these acoustic principles to a revolutionary sealing device. When the acoustic resonator shape is optimized for the sealing device, the flow from a high-pressure cavity to a low-pressure cavity will be restricted by a series of high-amplitude standing pressure waves of higher pressure than the pressure to be sealed. Since the sealing resonator cavity will not touch the adjacent sealing structures, seal wear will be eliminated, improving system life. Under a cooperative agreement between Glenn and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI), an acoustic-based pre-prototype seal was demonstrated for the first time. A pressurized cavity was

  13. Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Heinrichs, Markus; Aerni, Amanda; Maroni, Caroline; Schelling, Gustav; Ehlert, Ulrike; Roozendaal, Benno; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2006-04-04

    Phobias are characterized by excessive fear, cued by the presence or anticipation of a fearful situation. Whereas it is well established that glucocorticoids are released in fearful situations, it is not known whether these hormones, in turn, modulate perceived fear. As extensive evidence indicates that elevated glucocorticoid levels impair the retrieval of emotionally arousing information, they might also inhibit retrieval of fear memory associated with phobia and, thereby, reduce phobic fear. Here, we investigated whether acutely administrated glucocorticoids reduced phobic fear in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 40 subjects with social phobia and 20 subjects with spider phobia. In the social phobia study, cortisone (25 mg) administered orally 1 h before a socio-evaluative stressor significantly reduced self-reported fear during the anticipation, exposure, and recovery phase of the stressor. Moreover, the stress-induced release of cortisol in placebo-treated subjects correlated negatively with fear ratings, suggesting that endogenously released cortisol in the context of a phobic situation buffers fear symptoms. In the spider phobia study, repeated oral administration of cortisol (10 mg), but not placebo, 1 h before exposure to a spider photograph induced a progressive reduction of stimulus-induced fear. This effect was maintained when subjects were exposed to the stimulus again 2 days after the last cortisol administration, suggesting that cortisol may also have facilitated the extinction of phobic fear. Cortisol treatment did not reduce general, phobia-unrelated anxiety. In conclusion, the present findings in two distinct types of phobias indicate that glucocorticoid administration reduces phobic fear.

  14. Phenylthiourea specifically reduces zebrafish eye size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeran; Ptak, Devon; Zhang, Liyun; Walls, Elwood K; Zhong, Wenxuan; Leung, Yuk Fai

    2012-01-01

    Phenylthiourea (PTU) is commonly used for inhibiting melanization of zebrafish embryos. In this study, the standard treatment with 0.2 mM PTU was demonstrated to specifically reduce eye size in larval fish starting at three days post-fertilization. This effect is likely the result of a reduction in retinal and lens size of PTU-treated eyes and is not related to melanization inhibition. This is because the eye size of tyr, a genetic mutant of tyrosinase whose activity is inhibited in PTU treatment, was not reduced. As PTU contains a thiocarbamide group which is presented in many goitrogens, suppressing thyroid hormone production is a possible mechanism by which PTU treatment may reduce eye size. Despite the fact that thyroxine level was found to be reduced in PTU-treated larvae, thyroid hormone supplements did not rescue the eye size reduction. Instead, treating embryos with six goitrogens, including inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), suggested an alternative possibility. Specifically, three TPO inhibitors, including those that do not possess thiocarbamide, specifically reduced eye size; whereas none of the NIS inhibitors could elicit this effect. These observations indicate that TPO inhibition rather than a general suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis is likely the underlying cause of PTU-induced eye size reduction. Furthermore, the tissue-specific effect of PTU treatment might be mediated by an eye-specific TPO expression. Compared with treatment with other tyrosinase inhibitors or bleaching to remove melanization, PTU treatment remains the most effective approach. Thus, one should use caution when interpreting results that are obtained from PTU-treated embryos.

  15. Phenylthiourea specifically reduces zebrafish eye size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeran Li

    Full Text Available Phenylthiourea (PTU is commonly used for inhibiting melanization of zebrafish embryos. In this study, the standard treatment with 0.2 mM PTU was demonstrated to specifically reduce eye size in larval fish starting at three days post-fertilization. This effect is likely the result of a reduction in retinal and lens size of PTU-treated eyes and is not related to melanization inhibition. This is because the eye size of tyr, a genetic mutant of tyrosinase whose activity is inhibited in PTU treatment, was not reduced. As PTU contains a thiocarbamide group which is presented in many goitrogens, suppressing thyroid hormone production is a possible mechanism by which PTU treatment may reduce eye size. Despite the fact that thyroxine level was found to be reduced in PTU-treated larvae, thyroid hormone supplements did not rescue the eye size reduction. Instead, treating embryos with six goitrogens, including inhibitors of thyroid peroxidase (TPO and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS, suggested an alternative possibility. Specifically, three TPO inhibitors, including those that do not possess thiocarbamide, specifically reduced eye size; whereas none of the NIS inhibitors could elicit this effect. These observations indicate that TPO inhibition rather than a general suppression of thyroid hormone synthesis is likely the underlying cause of PTU-induced eye size reduction. Furthermore, the tissue-specific effect of PTU treatment might be mediated by an eye-specific TPO expression. Compared with treatment with other tyrosinase inhibitors or bleaching to remove melanization, PTU treatment remains the most effective approach. Thus, one should use caution when interpreting results that are obtained from PTU-treated embryos.

  16. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  17. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  18. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  19. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  20. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, S J

    1996-09-01

    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  1. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  2. Behavioral Simulations in MapReduce

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guozhang; Sowell, Benjamin; Wang, Xun; Cao, Tuan; Demers, Alan; Gehrke, Johannes; White, Walker

    2010-01-01

    In many scientific domains, researchers are turning to large-scale behavioral simulations to better understand important real-world phenomena. While there has been a great deal of work on simulation tools from the high-performance computing community, behavioral simulations remain challenging to program and automatically scale in parallel environments. In this paper we present BRACE (Big Red Agent-based Computation Engine), which extends the MapReduce framework to process these simulations efficiently across a cluster. We can leverage spatial locality to treat behavioral simulations as iterated spatial joins and greatly reduce the communication between nodes. In our experiments we achieve nearly linear scale-up on several realistic simulations. Though processing behavioral simulations in parallel as iterated spatial joins can be very efficient, it can be much simpler for the domain scientists to program the behavior of a single agent. Furthermore, many simulations include a considerable amount of complex comp...

  3. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus......The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... surplus. The measures in the Plan will have to be supplemented by more measures to meet the targets in the EU's Water Framework Directive....

  4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  5. Pressure control for reduced microbubble formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braggin, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Microbubbles in leading-edge photoresist materials create a challenge to the demanding yield requirements of today's shrinking circuit designs. When microbubbles are dispensed onto a wafer surface, they can act as an additional lens in the exposure path, ultimately distorting the pattern and affecting yield. Proper filter selection, filter priming, and dispense settings chosen during process startup are critical to reducing microbubbles, but certain chemistries can continue to cause problems even if the process has been optimized. This paper presents the results of applying a small amount of positive pressure on the chemistry before the dispense nozzle to reduce microbubbles in top anti-reflective coating (TARC). A two-stage technology dispense system was utilized to adjust the pressure on the chemistry in the dispense line while an in-line optical particle counter monitored the microbubbles generated during the dispense process.

  6. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  7. Rapamycin reduces Drosophila longevity under low nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Fan, Frances; Rand, David M

    2014-08-01

    Rapamycin treatment is considered a pharmacological intervention with the potential to mimic the longevity benefits of dietary manipulations. However, how rapamycin interacts with nutrition is not fully understood. Here we studied the effect of rapamycin on the longevity of Drosophila under a range of dietary conditions. In diets low in nutrients, rapamycin reduced longevity in a dosage-dependent manner. This dosage effect requires some nutrients as rapamycin has no impact on survival under starvation conditions. Under a balanced diet of yeast and sugar, rapamycin had no repeatable beneficial effect on organismal longevity. These results show that the effect of rapamycin on longevity is sensitive to the nutritional environment and it can reduce lifespan when nutrients are limited.

  8. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight......,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin...

  9. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  10. Gratitude: a tool for reducing economic impatience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Li, Ye; Dickens, Leah; Lerner, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    The human mind tends to excessively discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones, and it is thought that "hot" affective processes drive desires for short-term gratification. Supporting this view, recent findings demonstrate that sadness exacerbates financial impatience even when the sadness is unrelated to the economic decision at hand. Such findings might reinforce the view that emotions must always be suppressed to combat impatience. But if emotions serve adaptive functions, then certain emotions might be capable of reducing excessive impatience for delayed rewards. We found evidence supporting this alternative view. Specifically, we found that (a) the emotion gratitude reduces impatience even when real money is at stake, and (b) the effects of gratitude are differentiable from those of the more general positive state of happiness. These findings challenge the view that individuals must tamp down affective responses through effortful self-regulation to reach more patient and adaptive economic decisions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101

    2010-01-01

    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  12. Activity of Reducing Steel Slag of EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chinhsiang; HWANG Chaolung; LIN Tingyi

    2011-01-01

    Reducing steel slag (RSS) was mainly acquired from five electric-arc furnace (EAF)steelmaking plants (among them, the products of two plants were carbon steel and those of other plants were stainless steel) for research tests. The chemical properties, compound compositions, activities and contents of main expansive compounds were tested. The results showed that the field sampled RSS had a very high crystallinity and hydraulicity with main chemical compositions close to those of Portland cement. It can be known from the study that in case of C/S ratio higher than 2.0, the main compound compositions are C2S, C3S, C2F and f-CaO. However, after the RSS was stored for six months, an obvious variation occurred with potential pre-hydration in RSS, where the SO3 content was slightly reduced and the compressive activity index was obviously higher than that at the 28th day.

  13. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP...... production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate...

  14. A New Reducing Regent: Dichloroindium Hydride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. BABA; I. SHIBATA; N. HAYASHI

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Among the hydride derivatives of group 13 elements, various types of aluminum hydrides and boron hydrides have been employed as powerful reduction tools. Indium hydrides have not received much attention,whereas the synthesis of indium trihydride (InH3) was reported several decades ago[1]. There have been no precedents for monometallic indium hydrides having practical reactivity, while activated hydrides such as an ate complex LiPhn InH4-n (n = 0- 2) and phosphine-coordinated indium hydrides readily reduce carbonyl compounds. In view of this background, we focused on the development of dichloroindium hydrides (Cl2InH) as novel reducing agents that bear characteristic features in both ionic and radical reactions.

  15. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Braduţanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to present an original reducing resistance to change model. After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers implement more smoothly an organizational change process and at the same time, reduce effectively employees’ resistance. The proposed model is very helpful for managers and change agents who are confronted with a high degree of resistance when trying to implement a new change, as well as for researches. The key contribution of this paper is that resistance is not necessarily bad and if used appropriately, it can actually represent an asset. Managers must use employees’ resistance.

  16. COMPUTER SIMULATION SYSTEM OF STRETCH REDUCING MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Y. Sun; S.J. Yuan

    2007-01-01

    The principle of the stretch reducing process is analyzed and three models of pass design areestablished. The simulations are done about variables, such as, stress, strain, the stretches betweenthe stands, the size parameters of the steel tube, and the roll force parameters. According to itsproduct catalogs the system can automatically divide the pass series, formulate the rolling table,and simulate the basic technological parameters in the stretch reducing process. All modules areintegrated based on the developing environment of VB6. The system can draw simulation curvesand pass pictures. Three kinds of database including the material database, pass design database,and product database are devised using Microsoft Access, which can be directly edited, corrected,and searched.

  17. Summer jobs reduce violence among disadvantaged youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Sara B

    2014-12-05

    Every day, acts of violence injure more than 6000 people in the United States. Despite decades of social science arguing that joblessness among disadvantaged youth is a key cause of violent offending, programs to remedy youth unemployment do not consistently reduce delinquency. This study tests whether summer jobs, which shift focus from remediation to prevention, can reduce crime. In a randomized controlled trial among 1634 disadvantaged high school youth in Chicago, assignment to a summer jobs program decreases violence by 43% over 16 months (3.95 fewer violent-crime arrests per 100 youth). The decline occurs largely after the 8-week intervention ends. The results suggest the promise of using low-cost, well-targeted programs to generate meaningful behavioral change, even with a problem as complex as youth violence.

  18. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-10-01

    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in employing lasers in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of 5. A general, fluid-model based analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations. However, in identifying the source of the backscatter reduction, it is difficult to disentangle the rotating polarization from the frequency separation based approach used to engineer the beam's polarization. Although the backscatter reduction arises similarly to other approaches that employ frequency separation, in the case here, the intensity remains constant in time.

  19. Designing reduced beacon trajectory for sensor localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Localization is one of the substantial issues in wireless sensor networks. The key problem for the mobile beacon localization is how to choose the appropriate beacon trajectory. However, little research has been done on it. In this paper, firstly,we deduce the number of positions for a beacon to send a packet according to the acreage of ROI (region of interest); and next we present a novel method based on virtual force to arrange the positions in arbitrary ROI; then we apply TSP (travelling salesman problem) algorithm to the positions sequence to obtain the optimal touring path, i.e. the reduced beacon trajectory. When a mobile beacon moves along the touring path, sending RF signals at every position, the sensors in ROI can work out their position with trilateration. Experimental results demonstrate that the localization method, based on the beacon reduced path, is efficient and has flexible accuracy.

  20. Preoperative antiseptic skin preparations and reducing SSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maqbali, Mohammed Abdullah

    Surgical site infection (SSI) can affect the quality of care and increase the morbidity and mortality rate in after-surgical procedure. The use of an antiseptic skin preparation agent before the procedure can reduce the pathogens in the skin surface around the incision. Indicating the type of skin antiseptic preparation could prevent the infection and contamination of the wound. The most commonly used types of skin preparations are chlorhexidine and povidone iodine. However, the antiseptic solutions of both agents are strengthened with alcohol to prevent postoperative wound infection. The aim of this paper is to identify the best antiseptic agent in terms of skin preparation by evaluating the evidence in the literature. The factors associated with choosing the antiseptic skin agent, such as patients' allergies, skin condition and environmental risk, are also taken into account. This review suggests that cholorhexdine with alcohol may be the most effective in terms of reducing SSI.

  1. Sertraline reduces glutamate uptake in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Débora Olmedo; Bristot, Ivi Juliana; Klamt, Fábio; Frizzo, Marcos Emílio

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage and declines in ATP levels have been recently attributed to sertraline. The effects of sertraline on different parameters were investigated in washed platelets from 18 healthy male volunteers, after 24h of drug exposure. Sertraline toxicity was observed only at the highest concentrations, 30 and 100 μM, which significantly reduced platelet viability to 76 ± 3% and 20 ± 2%, respectively. The same concentrations significantly decreased total ATP to 73 ± 3% and 13 ± 2%, respectively. Basal values of glycogen were not significantly affected by sertraline treatment. Glutamate uptake was significantly reduced after treatment with 3, 30 and 100 μM, by 28 ± 6%, 32 ± 5% and 54 ± 4%, respectively. Our data showed that sertraline at therapeutic concentrations does not compromise platelet viability and ATP levels, but they suggest that in a situation where extracellular glutamate levels are potentially increased, sertraline might aggravate an excitotoxic condition.

  2. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  3. Hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide as a supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johra, Fatima Tuz; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2015-12-01

    The supercapacitance behavior of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was investigated for the first time. The capacitive behavior of RGO was characterized by using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. The specific capacitance of hydrothermally reduced RGO at 1 A/g was 367 F/g in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte, which was higher than that of RGO synthesized via the hydrazine reduction method. The RGO-modified glassy carbon electrode showed excellent stability. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitance was 107.7% of that achieved in the 1st cycle, which suggests that RGO has excellent electrochemical stability as a supercapacitor electrode material. The energy density of hydrothermal RGO reached 44.4 W h/kg at a power density of 40 kW/kg.

  4. Reducing Air Force Fighter Pilot Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    experienced flight leaders. New fighter pilots coming directly out of SUPT and IFF require 500 flying hours to become designated as experienced. In...rated officers—an imperfect match of human capital to requirements. Further Reductions Options to reduce requirements, listed in Chapter Two, include...progress. The hours required for OCO support are typically additive and funded by the Transportation Working Capital Fund (TWCF) rather than by Air Force

  5. Reflections on reducing insulin to lose weigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Val

    Diabulimia is not a recognised medical condition, although it is thought to affect one-third of women with type 1 diabetes. Diabulimia involves deliberately omitting or reducing insulin dosages to lose weight. This article reports the reflections of women with long-duration type 1 diabetes who said that they had manipulated their insulin in the past to lose weight. Many were now dealing with serious heart and neuropathic complications, which they felt were a result of their diabulimia.

  6. Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for Titan Entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Savajano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduced chemical kinetic model for Titan's atmosphere has been developed. This new model with 18 species and 28 reactions includes the mainfeatures of a more complete scheme, respecting the radiative fluxes. It has been verified against three key elements: a sensitivity analysis, the equilibrium chemical composition using shock tube simulations in CHEMKIN, and the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFDs simulations.

  7. [Hybrid interpolation for CT metal artifact reducing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-e; Li, Chan-juan; Chen, Wu-fan

    2009-01-01

    Numerous interpolation-based methods have been described for reducing metal artifacts in CT images, but due to the limit of the interpolation methods, interpolation alone often fails to meet the clinical demands. In this paper, we describe the use of quartic polynomial interpolation in reconstruction of the images of the metal implant followed by linear interpolation to eliminate the streaks. The two interpolation methods are combined according to their given weights to achieve good results.

  8. Proposed production test for reducing minimum downtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaklevick, J.F.

    1961-11-29

    The object of the production test described in this report is to evaluate the operational aspects of a proposed method for reducing minimum downtime. The excess xenon poisoning, which occurs during the first 32--38 hours after the shutdown of a reactor from present equilibrium levels, will be partially overridden by a central enriched zone whose added reactivity contribution would be compensated during normal operation by means of poison splines.

  9. Reducing the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushov, G. G.; Zakharevich, A. M.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Koshuro, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is established that a decrease in the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon, a pyrolytic glassy composite material of interest for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), can be achieved via impregnation of articles with an alcohol solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and subsequent thermal treatment. The maximum roughness height and linear size of open pores on the surface of PHV parts made of pyroboroncarbon can additionally be reduced by final mechanical processing of a silicon oxide film formed on the surface.

  10. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  11. BF topological theories and infinitely reducible systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caicedo, M I; Bol, S; Bol, Simon

    1996-01-01

    We present a rigurous disscusion for abelian BF theories in which the base manifold of the U(1) bundle is homeomorphic to a Hilbert space. The theory has an infinte number of stages of reducibility. We specify conditions on the base manifold under which the covarinat quantization of the system can be performed unambiguously. Applications of the formulation to the superparticle and the supertstring are also discussed.

  12. Do workplace interventions reduce disability rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, T I; Nielsen, R A

    2016-12-01

    Increasing life expectancy and decreasing fertility have led to a shift in the workforce age structure towards older age groups. Deteriorating health and reduced work capacity are among the challenges to retaining older workers in the labour force. To examine whether workplace interventions to facilitate work among employees with health problems or reduced work capacity affect disability rates among employees aged 50 years and older. Data from a survey of Norwegian companies (n = 713) were linked with registry data on their employees aged 50-61 years (n = 30771). By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compared change in likelihood of receiving a full disability pension among employees in companies with and without workplace interventions. Employees in companies reporting to have workplace interventions in 2005 had a higher risk of receiving full disability pension during the period 2001-03 compared with employees in companies without such interventions [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.45]. During the period 2005-07, there was an overall reduction in disability rates (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.96) in both the intervention and control group. However, employees in companies reporting to have interventions in 2005 experienced an additional reduction in an employee's likelihood of receiving a full disability pension (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.64-0.99) compared with employees in companies without interventions. Interventions to facilitate work among employees with health problems or reduced work capacity have reduced disability rates among employees aged 50-61. This suggests that companies' preventive interventions are an effective means to retain older workers with deteriorating health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  14. Reducing workplace bullying in healthcare organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Jacqueline; Stevenson, Keith; Grayling, Ian

    Workplace bullying in the NHS is an important issue that is growing in significance as it becomes clear that bullying is not just a personal matter but also an organisational one. It may be that healthcare organisations, such as the NHS, foster or sustain workplace bullying. This article provides an overview of the key issues in workplace bullying and suggests individual, team and organisational solutions to reduce its incidence.

  15. Forewarning reduces fraud susceptibility in vulnerable consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Susanne; Notthoff, Nanna; Menkin, Josephine; Ross, Lee; Shadel, Doug; Deevy, Martha; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past. A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam. Both warnings reduc...

  16. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  17. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  18. On Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    We prove that Nakhleh's metric for reduced phylogenetic networks is also a metric on the classes of tree-child phylogenetic networks, semibinary tree-sibling time consistent phylogenetic networks, and multilabeled phylogenetic trees. We also prove that it separates distinguishable phylogenetic networks. In this way, it becomes the strongest dissimilarity measure for phylogenetic networks available so far. Furthermore, we propose a generalization of that metric that separates arbitrary phylogenetic networks.

  19. Fast Clustering using MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Ene, Alina; Im, Sungjin; Moseley, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Clustering problems have numerous applications and are becoming more challenging as the size of the data increases. In this paper, we consider designing clustering algorithms that can be used in MapReduce, the most popular programming environment for processing large datasets. We focus on the practical and popular clustering problems, $k$-center and $k$-median. We develop fast clustering algorithms with constant factor approximation guarantees. From a theoretical perspective, we give the firs...

  20. Reducing or enhancing chaos using periodic orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, R; Chandre, C; Leoncini, X

    2006-06-01

    A method to reduce or enhance chaos in Hamiltonian flows with two degrees of freedom is discussed. This method is based on finding a suitable perturbation of the system such that the stability of a set of periodic orbits changes (local bifurcations). Depending on the values of the residues, reflecting their linear stability properties, a set of invariant tori is destroyed or created in the neighborhood of the chosen periodic orbits. An application on a paradigmatic system, a forced pendulum, illustrates the method.

  1. Reduced particle settling speed in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fornari, Walter; Sardina, Gaetano; Brandt, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We study the settling of finite-size rigid spheres in sustained homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT) using Direct Numerical Simulations. In particular, an immersed boundary method is used to account for the dispersed solid phase. We study semi-dilute suspensions of spheres at different Galileo numbers, Ga. The Galileo number is the ratio between buoyancy and viscous forces, and is here varied via the solid-to-fluid density ratio. The focus is on particles that are slightly heavier than the fluid. We find that in HIT, the mean settling speed is less than in quiescent fluid and it reduces by 6 to 60\\% with respect to the terminal velocity of an isolated sphere in quiescent fluid "Vt", as the ratio between "Vt" and the turbulent velocity fluctuations u' is decreased. Analysing the fluid-particle relative motion, we find that the mean settling speed is progressively reduced while reducing due to the increase of the vertical drag induced by the particle cross-flow velocity. Unsteady effects contribute to the mea...

  2. PCATool-ADULT-BRAZIL: a reduced version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Maria Celestina de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The reorganization of the Brazilian health system brings the need for on-going evaluation of the services offered to the population. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCATool-Brazil version for adult users, validated for the Brazilian context, adequately measures the presence and extent of attributes of primary health care (PHC services. A reduced version of this instrument is required to optimize the process of implementation and use of the results in strategic actions. This article aims to present a reduced version of the PCATool-Brazil for adult users and analyze its suitability. The instrument was applied to 2404 adult residents of areas covered by primary health care (PHC units in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul state. By the two-parameter logistic model of Item Response Theory (ML-2, 23 items that presented discrimination classified as moderate to strong, contemplating the seven attributes of PHC, were selected. As a measure of consistency, the results obtained with this version were compared with the complete version, revealing consistent PHC scores. These findings indicate that the PCATool-Brazil reduced version for adult users presents adequate validity and reliability, and it can be adopted as a rapid assessment tool to evaluate PHC in Brazilian services, permitting decision making guided by evidence in the development of actions to improve the quality of care offered to the population.

  3. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  4. Laser reduced graphene for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Bock, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Graphene was prepared by excimer laser irradiation reduction of graphite oxide dissolved in an aqueous solution at different laser energies and irradiation time. The morphologies and structure of the laser reduced graphene were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The XRD results confirm that the deoxygenation of the graphite oxide sheets occurred almost completely for all laser irradiation conditions used. The graphene fabricated by laser irradiation reduction appears to be randomly aggregated, crumpled, disordered and small sheet solid material. The total amount of oxygen functional groups reduced significantly and the CC/CO intensity ratio increased, however, the atomic percentages of the Cdbnd O double bond were increased after laser reduction. The laser reduced graphene was used as the electrode active material for supercapacitors and its specific capacitance was evaluated in a two electrode cell in either a 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous or a 1 M Tetraethylammoniumtetrafluoroborate acetonitrile based electrolyte. The specific capacitance of the laser fabricated graphene was found to depend on the energy and irradiation time of the laser. The highest specific capacitance was determined to be 141 F/g at 1.04 A/g and 84 F/g at 1.46 A/g in the aqueous and ACN electrolytes, respectively.

  5. Tyramine pharmacokinetics and reduced bioavailability with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Chad M; Blob, Lawrence F; Kemper, Eva M; Azzaro, Albert J

    2003-06-01

    Tyramine challenge studies have demonstrated that it requires approximately twice the amount of tyramine administered with a meal compared to administration after a fast to elicit the same effect, suggesting a reduction in bioavailability of tyramine when administered with food. The pharmacokinetics of tyramine when administered in a fasted versus a fed state were studied. A single 200-mg dose of tyramine was administered orally to healthy subjects both after an overnight fast and during a meal. Systemic exposure to tyramine was reduced by 53% (p tyramine was reduced by 72% (p Tyramine maximum serum concentration was observed between 20 minutes and 1 hour when the dose was administered after an overnight fast and appeared to be delayed and/or prolonged by administration during a meal. Tyramine oral clearance was 135 +/- 55.4 L/min, maximum observed serum concentration was 37.7 +/- 26.01 ng/mL, and tyramine elimination half-life was 0.533 (range: 0.330-0.668) hours after administration to fasted subjects. Tyramine bioavailability was significantly reduced when administered with a meal compared to after a fast. The results suggest that larger amounts of dietary tyramine will be required to induce a pressor response equivalent to that following encapsulated tyramine administered in the fasted state.

  6. Reducing CO2 emission from bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John

    2011-07-15

    The treatment of sand oil can result in significant CO2 emission. Ceramatec Inc. has developed a technology to reduce the emission of CO2 during the upgrading of feedstocks bearing heteroatoms. This technology can be applied to kerogen derived oil (shale oil) and heavy oil as well as to bitumen from oil sands. Metallic sodium is used as the reducing and heteroatom scavenging agent. Hydrogen, methane or other hydrocarbons may be used to cap radicals formed in the process. But using methane can lead to lower material and capital costs, greater product yield, and lower CO2 emission. During the upgrading process, the aromatic constituents remain in the product, after treatment with sodium and removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals. Aromatic saturation is not required with sodium, so less hydrogen is needed which leads to reduced CO2 emission. The reason is that CO2 is emitted in the steam methane reforming (SMR) process where hydrogen is produced. An example is introduced to demonstrate the reduction of CO2 emission from hydrogen production. Another advantage of the sodium/methane upgrading process is the incorporation of methane into the fuel. In addition, the total acid number, TAN, becomes negligible in the sodium upgrading processes. Ceramatec has also developed a process for the recovery of sodium from the sodium salts generated in the sodium/methane upgrading process.

  7. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  8. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  9. New pharmaceuticals reduce cost of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R W

    1986-06-01

    The cost of illness includes not only the funds required to treat illness, but also the effect on the patient's quality of life. Recent concern about rising health costs have focused on the direct expenditures without noting that the cost of illness in terms of mortality and morbidity has declined significantly. Pharmaceuticals have played a major role in reducing the total cost of illness. Several studies of the cost-effectiveness of past introductions of vaccines and pharmaceuticals reveal large cost savings. Although the focus of most studies has been on major advances, the continuing process of less dramatic therapeutic improvements has significantly trimmed the cost of illness. Cost-benefit studies of new drugs or changes in drug use, while more difficult to perform, make it possible to influence the selection of therapy. Since pharmaceuticals represent less than 10% of total treatment costs, reduction in the cost of pharmaceutical products can only have a minor impact on the total cost of illness. Pharmaceuticals can reduce the cost of illness by providing alternative therapies that reduce direct treatment cost or improve the public health.

  10. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R; Huang, K

    2011-07-01

    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  11. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories.

  12. Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.

  13. Breast Cancer Detection with Reduced Feature Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Ahmet; Kılıç, Niyazi; Bilgili, Erdem; Akan, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores feature reduction properties of independent component analysis (ICA) on breast cancer decision support system. Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer (WDBC) dataset is reduced to one-dimensional feature vector computing an independent component (IC). The original data with 30 features and reduced one feature (IC) are used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of the classifiers such as k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), artificial neural network (ANN), radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), and support vector machine (SVM). The comparison of the proposed classification using the IC with original feature set is also tested on different validation (5/10-fold cross-validations) and partitioning (20%-40%) methods. These classifiers are evaluated how to effectively categorize tumors as benign and malignant in terms of specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, F-score, Youden's index, discriminant power, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with its criterion values including area under curve (AUC) and 95% confidential interval (CI). This represents an improvement in diagnostic decision support system, while reducing computational complexity.

  14. Breast Cancer Detection with Reduced Feature Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Mert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores feature reduction properties of independent component analysis (ICA on breast cancer decision support system. Wisconsin diagnostic breast cancer (WDBC dataset is reduced to one-dimensional feature vector computing an independent component (IC. The original data with 30 features and reduced one feature (IC are used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of the classifiers such as k-nearest neighbor (k-NN, artificial neural network (ANN, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, and support vector machine (SVM. The comparison of the proposed classification using the IC with original feature set is also tested on different validation (5/10-fold cross-validations and partitioning (20%–40% methods. These classifiers are evaluated how to effectively categorize tumors as benign and malignant in terms of specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, F-score, Youden’s index, discriminant power, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve with its criterion values including area under curve (AUC and 95% confidential interval (CI. This represents an improvement in diagnostic decision support system, while reducing computational complexity.

  15. Reducing the stigmatization of teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee I

    2013-01-01

    Teen mothers are stigmatized by stereotypes that they are unmotivated, irresponsible, and incompetent parents. In spite of the pervasiveness of these stereotypes, stigma is rarely described as a contributing factor to teen mothers' difficulties and their health and social disparities. After tracing how teen mothers have been misrepresented and stereotyped over the last half century, I describe what is known about the stigma associated with teen mothering, reasons for its persistence, efforts to reduce it, and its potentially harmful effects. Stigma should be of concern to nurses because stigmatizing practices impede effective clinical care, contribute to teen mothers' many challenges, and violate the nursing ethic that patients be treated with respect and dignity. Recommendations for restoring dignity and reducing stigma in healthcare focus on developing recognition practices that are predicated on respect and concern for the teen's well-being and her capacity as a mother. Nurses are also urged to advocate for services and policies that reduce the stigmatization and marginalization of teen mothers.

  16. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  17. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  18. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V

    2002-06-01

    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  19. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  20. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  1. Microhabitats reduce animal's exposure to climate extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffers, Brett R; Edwards, David P; Diesmos, Arvin; Williams, Stephen E; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-02-01

    Extreme weather events, such as unusually hot or dry conditions, can cause death by exceeding physiological limits, and so cause loss of population. Survival will depend on whether or not susceptible organisms can find refuges that buffer extreme conditions. Microhabitats offer different microclimates to those found within the wider ecosystem, but do these microhabitats effectively buffer extreme climate events relative to the physiological requirements of the animals that frequent them? We collected temperature data from four common microhabitats (soil, tree holes, epiphytes, and vegetation) located from the ground to canopy in primary rainforests in the Philippines. Ambient temperatures were monitored from outside of each microhabitat and from the upper forest canopy, which represent our macrohabitat controls. We measured the critical thermal maxima (CTmax ) of frog and lizard species, which are thermally sensitive and inhabit our microhabitats. Microhabitats reduced mean temperature by 1-2 °C and reduced the duration of extreme temperature exposure by 14-31 times. Microhabitat temperatures were below the CTmax of inhabitant frogs and lizards, whereas macrohabitats consistently contained lethal temperatures. Microhabitat temperatures increased by 0.11-0.66 °C for every 1 °C increase in macrohabitat temperature, and this nonuniformity in temperature change influenced our forecasts of vulnerability for animal communities under climate change. Assuming uniform increases of 6 °C, microhabitats decreased the vulnerability of communities by up to 32-fold, whereas under nonuniform increases of 0.66 to 3.96 °C, microhabitats decreased the vulnerability of communities by up to 108-fold. Microhabitats have extraordinary potential to buffer climate and likely reduce mortality during extreme climate events. These results suggest that predicted changes in distribution due to mortality and habitat shifts that are derived from macroclimatic samples and that assume

  2. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio...... in the optical field causes spatial hole-burning and thus filamentation. To reduce filamentation we propose a new, relatively simple design based on inhomogeneous pumping in which the injected current has a gradual transverse profile. We confirm the improved laser performance theoretically and experimentally...

  3. Reducing hazards for animals from humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Pierre Pastoret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available If animals may be a source of hazards for humans, the reverse is equally true. The main sources of hazards from humans to animals, are the impact of human introduction of transboundary animal diseases, climate change, globalisation, introduction of invasive species and reduction of biodiversity.There is also a trend toward reducing genetic diversity in domestic animals, such as cattle; there are presently around 700 different breeds of cattle many of which at the verge of extinction (less than 100 reproductive females. The impact of humans is also indirect through detrimental effects on the environment. It is therefore urgent to implement the new concept of “one health"....

  4. Lubrication System with Tolerance for Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor); McCune, Michael E. (Inventor); Dobek, Louis J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A lubrication system includes an auxiliary lubricant tank 48, a supply conduit 58 extending from a source of lubricant 26 to the auxiliary lubricant tank. A reduced-G bypass line 108 branches from the conduit and enters the auxiliary tank at a first elevation E.sub.1. The system also includes an auxiliary tank discharge conduit 116, a portion of which resides within the tank. The resident portion has an opening 122 at least partially at a second elevation E.sub.2 higher than the first elevation.

  5. Reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lu, MingZhe; Gao, Daqi

    2015-02-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) is demonstrated to be flexible and effective in depicting heterogeneous data sources since MKL can introduce multiple kernels rather than a single fixed kernel into applications. However, MKL would get a high time and space complexity in contrast to single kernel learning, which is not expected in real-world applications. Meanwhile, it is known that the kernel mapping ways of MKL generally have two forms including implicit kernel mapping and empirical kernel mapping (EKM), where the latter is less attracted. In this paper, we focus on the MKL with the EKM, and propose a reduced multiple empirical kernel learning machine named RMEKLM for short. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first to reduce both time and space complexity of the MKL with EKM. Different from the existing MKL, the proposed RMEKLM adopts the Gauss Elimination technique to extract a set of feature vectors, which is validated that doing so does not lose much information of the original feature space. Then RMEKLM adopts the extracted feature vectors to span a reduced orthonormal subspace of the feature space, which is visualized in terms of the geometry structure. It can be demonstrated that the spanned subspace is isomorphic to the original feature space, which means that the dot product of two vectors in the original feature space is equal to that of the two corresponding vectors in the generated orthonormal subspace. More importantly, the proposed RMEKLM brings a simpler computation and meanwhile needs a less storage space, especially in the processing of testing. Finally, the experimental results show that RMEKLM owns a much efficient and effective performance in terms of both complexity and classification. The contributions of this paper can be given as follows: (1) by mapping the input space into an orthonormal subspace, the geometry of the generated subspace is visualized; (2) this paper first reduces both the time and space complexity of the EKM-based MKL; (3

  6. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    analysis shows that ordinary and subsidized employment is positively correlated, i.e. employment of subsidized labour does not reduce ordinary employment. But an underlying similar movement in production levels might cause the correlation. Simple inclusion of a production level proxy in OLS estimations...... does not sufficiently control for the underlying correlation, but additional control for the size of the change of production indicates that subsidized labour to some extent substitutes non-subsidized labour. But the substitution depends on the applied econometric specification, i.e. a cumulative logit...

  7. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  8. Hadoop MapReduce v2 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gunarathne, Thilina

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Big Data enthusiast and wish to use Hadoop v2 to solve your problems, then this book is for you. This book is for Java programmers with little to moderate knowledge of Hadoop MapReduce. This is also a one-stop reference for developers and system admins who want to quickly get up to speed with using Hadoop v2. It would be helpful to have a basic knowledge of software development using Java and a basic working knowledge of Linux.

  9. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  10. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...... toward the cost attribute. If economic values are to be elicited, this problem is difficult to remedy. In a split sample framework we test a novel ex-ante entreaty aimed specifically at the cost attribute and find that it effectively reduces status quo bias and improves the internal validity...

  11. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  12. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  13. Automatic differentiation for reduced sequential quadratic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Liangcai; Li Jin; Tan Yuejin

    2007-01-01

    In order to slove the large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP) problems efficiently, an efficient optimization algorithm based on reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) and automatic differentiation (AD) is presented in this paper. With the characteristics of sparseness, relatively low degrees of freedom and equality constraints utilized, the nonlinear programming problem is solved by improved rSQP solver. In the solving process, AD technology is used to obtain accurate gradient information. The numerical results show that the combined algorithm, which is suitable for large-scale process optimization problems, can calculate more efficiently than rSQP itself.

  14. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  15. Reducing background neutron rates in NERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Eric

    2003-10-01

    The experimental study of neutron rich nuclei can provide important data to better model the production and abundances of heavy elements from the r-process. In order to measure low emission rates of neutrons in certain nuclei, efforts have been made to reduce background rates in NERO (1). Simulations were done to calculate effective passive shielding and testing was carried out to evaluate it. Also, an active shielding system was designed to detect cosmic ray muons in an effort to create a veto in the data acquisition. The results of these efforts are presented here. 1. http://www.nscl.msu.edu/tech/devices/nero/

  16. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.

    2017-06-19

    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  17. Improving Realism in Reduced Gravity Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvil, Lauren; Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Since man was first determined to walk on the moon, simulating the lunar environment became a priority. Providing an accurate reduced gravity environment is crucial for astronaut training and hardware testing. This presentation will follow the development of reduced gravity simulators to a final comparison of environments between the currently used systems. During the Apollo program era, multiple systems were built and tested, with several NASA centers having their own unique device. These systems ranged from marionette-like suspension devices where the subject laid on his side, to pneumatically driven offloading harnesses, to parabolic flights. However, only token comparisons, if any, were made between systems. Parabolic flight allows the entire body to fall at the same rate, giving an excellent simulation of reduced gravity as far as the biomechanics and physical perceptions are concerned. While the effects are accurate, there is limited workspace, limited time, and high cost associated with these tests. With all mechanical offload systems only the parts of the body that are actively offloaded feel any reduced gravity effects. The rest of the body still feels the full effect of gravity. The Partial Gravity System (Pogo) is the current ground-based offload system used to training and testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Pogo is a pneumatic type system that allows for offloaded motion in the z-axis and free movement in the x-axis, but has limited motion in the y-axis. The pneumatic system itself is limited by cylinder stroke length and response time. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is a next generation groundbased offload system, currently in development, that is based on modern robotic manufacturing lines. This system is projected to provide more z-axis travel and full freedom in both the x and y-axes. Current characterization tests are underway to determine how the ground-based offloading systems perform, how they compare to parabolic

  18. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman

    2009-04-01

    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  19. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: sudhakerupadhyay@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016, Kanpur (India)

    2015-12-14

    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin–Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR.

  20. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)

    2015-12-15

    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)

  1. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.;

    1999-01-01

    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...... and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  2. Novel Reduced-Feedback Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad Obaidah

    2011-11-20

    Modern communication systems apply channel-aware adaptive transmission techniques and dynamic resource allocation in order to exploit the peak conditions of the fading wireless links and to enable significant performance gains. However, conveying the channel state information among the users’ mobile terminals into the access points of the network consumes a significant portion of the scarce air-link resources and depletes the battery resources of the mobile terminals rapidly. Despite its evident drawbacks, the channel information feedback cannot be eliminated in modern wireless networks because blind communication technologies cannot support the ever-increasing transmission rates and high quality of experience demands of current ubiquitous services. Developing new transmission technologies with reduced-feedback requirements is sought. Network operators will benefit from releasing the bandwidth resources reserved for the feedback communications and the clients will enjoy the extended battery life of their mobile devices. The main technical challenge is to preserve the prospected transmission rates over the network despite decreasing the channel information feedback significantly. This is a noteworthy research theme especially that there is no mature theory for feedback communication in the existing literature despite the growing number of publications about the topic in the last few years. More research efforts are needed to characterize the trade-off between the achievable rate and the required channel information and to design new reduced-feedback schemes that can be flexibly controlled based on the operator preferences. Such schemes can be then introduced into the standardization bodies for consideration in next generation broadband systems. We have recently contributed to this field and published several journal and conference papers. We are the pioneers to propose a novel reduced-feedback opportunistic scheduling scheme that combines many desired features

  3. Reduced Quantum General Relativity in Higher Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Glinka, Lukasz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The higher dimensional Quantum General Relativity of a Riemannian manifold being an embedded space in a space-time being a Lorentzian manifold is investigated. The model of quantum geometrodynamics, based on the Wheeler-DeWitt equation reduced to a first order functional quantum evolution supplemented through an additional eigenequation for the scalar curvature, is formulated. Furthermore, making use of the objective quantum gravity and global one-dimensional conjecture, the general wave function beyond the Feynman path integral technique is derived. The resulting quantum gravity model creates the opportunity of potentially new theoretical and phenomenological applications for astrophysics, cosmology, and physics.

  4. Reduced MHD and Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arter, Wayne

    2011-08-01

    Recent work has shown a relationship between between the equations of Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), used to model magnetic fusion laboratory experiments, and incompressible magnetoconvection (IMC), employed in the simulation of astrophysical fluid dynamics (AFD), which means that the two systems are mathematically equivalent in certain geometries. Limitations on the modelling of RMHD, which were found over twenty years ago, are reviewed for an AFD audience, together with hitherto unpublished material on the role of finite-time singularities in the discrete equations used to model fluid dynamical systems. Possible implications for turbulence modelling are mentioned.

  5. Approaches to reduce bullying in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Fisker, Tine Basse

    2015-01-01

    In this article, recent research literature on bullying in schools is discussed. The authors approach the discussion from a critical angle, distinguishing between first-order perspectives (bullying as part of individuals’ dysfunction) and second-order perspectives (bullying as part of social...... processes) to embrace the different understandings of bullying and to discuss these critically. The purpose is to present important knowledge to reduce bullying and to engage in a discussion of different perspectives on bullying. This article contributes to the existing knowledge of the field by discussing...

  6. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  7. MIREX: MapReduce Information Retrieval Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2010-01-01

    We propose to use MapReduce to quickly test new retrieval approaches on a cluster of machines by sequentially scanning all documents. We present a small case study in which we use a cluster of 15 low cost ma- chines to search a web crawl of 0.5 billion pages showing that sequential scanning is a viable approach to running large-scale information retrieval experiments with little effort. The code is available to other researchers at: http://mirex.sourceforge.net

  8. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  9. Reduced graphite oxide in supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Belén; Vretenár, Viliam; Kotrusz, Peter; Hulman, Martin; Centeno, Teresa A

    2015-05-15

    The current energy needs have put the focus on highly efficient energy storage systems such as supercapacitors. At present, much attention focuses on graphene-like materials as promising supercapacitor electrodes. Here we show that reduced graphite oxide offers a very interesting potential. Materials obtained by oxidation of natural graphite and subsequent sonication and reduction by hydrazine achieve specific capacitances as high as 170 F/g in H2SO4 and 84F/g in (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile. Although the particle size of the raw graphite has no significant effect on the physico-chemical characteristics of the reduced materials, that exfoliated from smaller particles (<75 μm) result more advantageous for the release of the stored electrical energy. This effect is particularly evident in the aqueous electrolyte. Graphene-like materials may suffer from a drop in their specific surface area upon fabrication of electrodes with features of the existing commercial devices. This should be taken into account for a reliable interpretation of their performance in supercapacitors.

  10. Reduced intensity transplantation for primary immunodeficiency disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Veys

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies so far indicate that reduced intensity transplantation (RIT may have an important role in treating patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID. Unlike more standard approaches, such regimens can be used without severe toxicity in patients with severe pulmonary or hepatic disease. RIT also offers the advantage that long-term sequelae such as infertility or growth retardation may be avoided or reduced. RIT appears to be most appropriate for those patients with significant co-morbidities (eg T cell deficiencies and those undergoing unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation. More studies are required using pharmacokinetic monitoring (eg busulphan, treosulfan and alemtuzumab and varying stem cell sources to optimise graft vs marrow reactions and minimise graft vs host disease. In certain PID patients RIT will be the “first step” towards establishing donor cell engraftment; second infusions of donor stem cells, donor lymphocyte infusions, or a second myeloablative HCT, which appears to be well tolerated, may be required in some patients with low level donor chimerism or graft rejection.

  11. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  12. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  13. Isochoric Heating of Reduced Mass Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akli, Kramer [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report summarizes the experimental results of a study aimed at achieving star-like plasmas in the laboratory by isochrically heating solid-density targets with intense lasers. Of special interest is the investigation of spatial/temporal temperature and density gradients and their dependence on the target geometry and mass. The investigation was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, solid targets with variable transverse and longitudinal dimensions were investigated. We found that electron beam recirculation is enhanced for reduced mass targets. As a result, the temperature gradients are minimized for these targets yielding more uniform temperature hot plasmas. In the second phase, reduced mass targets were irradiated with intense ultra-short laser pulses. Bright monochromatic x-rays and broadband Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) emissions were achieved by optimizing the electrostatic sheath fields surrounding the target. The study also revealed that this laser-driven source of radiation has a small source size, short duration, and high photon fluxes suitable for point projection radiography and for probing matter under extreme environments.

  14. Balancing Opposing Views to Reduce Controversy

    CERN Document Server

    Garimella, Kiran; Gionis, Aristides; Mathioudakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Society is often polarized by controversial issues, that split the population into groups of opposing views. When such issues emerge on social media, we often observe the creation of 'echo chambers', i.e., situations where like-minded people reinforce each other's opinion, but do not get exposed to the views of the opposing side. In this paper we study algorithmic techniques for bridging these chambers, and thus, reducing controversy. Specifically, we represent the discussion on a controversial issue with an endorsement graph, and cast our problem as an edge-recommendation problem on this graph. The goal of the recommendation is to reduce the controversy score of the graph, which is measured by a recently-developed metric based on random walks. At the same time, we take into account the acceptance probability of the recommended edge, which represents how likely the edge is to materialize in the endorsement graph. We propose a simple model based on a recently-developed user-level controversy score, that is com...

  15. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  16. Moving your head reduces perisaccadic compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matziridi, Maria; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2016-10-01

    Flashes presented around the time of a saccade appear to be closer to the saccade endpoint than they really are. The resulting compression of perceived positions has been found to increase with the amplitude of the saccade. In most studies on perisaccadic compression the head is static, so the eye-in-head movement is equal to the change in gaze. What if moving the head causes part of the change in gaze? Does decreasing the eye-in-head rotation by moving the head decrease the compression of perceived positions? To find out, we asked participants to shift their gaze between two positions, either without moving their head or with the head contributing to the change in gaze. Around the time of the saccades we flashed bars that participants had to localize. When the head contributed to the change in gaze, the duration of the saccade was shorter and compression was reduced. We interpret this reduction in compression as being caused by a reduction in uncertainty about gaze position at the time of the flash. We conclude that moving one's head can reduce the systematic mislocalization of flashes presented around the time of saccades.

  17. Methyl Jasmonate Reduces Water Stress in Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang

    1999-11-01

    The effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) on changes of oxygen-scavenging enzyme activities and membrane lipid composition was studied in strawberry leaves under water stress. Under water stress, MJ treatment reduced the increase of peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7; POD) activity, maintained higher catalase (EC 1.11.1.6; CAT) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD) activities, and ascorbic acid content. In addition, MJ treatment reduced transpiration and membrane-lipid peroxidation as expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lessened the reduction of membrane lipids, glycolipids [monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG)], and phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinositol (PI)]. In water-deficit conditions, MJ treatment also alleviated the decline in the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and the ratio of linolenic (18:3) to linoleic acid (18:2). These results indicate that MJ treatment appears to alter the metabolism of strawberry plants rendering the tissue better able to withstand water stress.

  18. Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

  19. Reducing violent injuries: priorities for pediatrician advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolins, J C; Christoffel, K K

    1994-10-01

    A basic framework for developing an advocacy plan must systematically break down the large task of policy development implementation into manageable components. The basic framework described in detail in this paper includes three steps: Setting policy objectives by narrowing the scope of policy, by reviewing policy options, and by examining options against selected criteria. Developing strategies for educating the public and for approaching legislative/regulatory bodies. Evaluating the effectiveness of the advocacy action plan as a process and as an agent for change. To illustrate the variety of ways in which pediatricians can be involved in the policy process to reduce violent injuries among children and adolescents, we apply this systematic approach to three priority areas. Prohibiting the use of corporal punishment in schools is intended to curb the institutionalized legitimacy of violence that has been associated with future use of violence. Efforts to remove handguns from the environments of children and adolescents are aimed at reducing the numbers of firearm injuries inflicted upon and by minors. Comprehensive treatment of adolescent victims of assault is intended to decrease the reoccurrence of violent injuries.

  20. Chiral metamaterials reduce the attractive Casimir force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Koschny, Th.; Economou, E. N.; Soukoulis, C. M.

    2010-08-01

    In our previous work [R. Zhao, J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103602 (2009)], we demonstrated theoretically that one can obtain repulsive Casimir forces and stable nanolevitations by using chiral metamaterials if the chirality is strong enough. In our recent work [R. Zhao, Th. Koschny, E.N. Economou, and C.M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 81, 235126 (2010)], we checked some chiral metamaterial designs and found that the artificial chiral metamaterials constructed by passive materials is very difficult to reach the critical chirality to realize repulsive Casimir force. Therefore, in this paper, we give a four-folded rotated Ω-particle chiral metamaterial as an example, use the effective medium approximation to retrieval the constitutive parameters, and take the same procedure as we did before to see how much the chiral metamaterial can reduce the attractive force. It shows that this un-optimized chiral metamaterial can reduce the Casimir attraction by 70%.