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Sample records for 12-month hyperpolarized 3he-mri

  1. Linking Ventilation Heterogeneity Quantified via Hyperpolarized 3He MRI to Dynamic Lung Mechanics and Airway Hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Justin K; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Albert, Mitchell S; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI (HP 3He-MRI) have introduced the ability to render and quantify ventilation patterns throughout the anatomic regions of the lung. The goal of this study was to establish how ventilation heterogeneity relates to the dynamic changes in mechanical lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. In four healthy and nine mild-to-moderate asthmatic subjects, we measured dynamic lung resistance and lung elastance from 0.1 to 8 Hz via a broadband ventilation waveform technique. We quantified ventilation heterogeneity using a recently developed coefficient of variation method from HP 3He-MRI imaging. Dynamic lung mechanics and imaging were performed at baseline, post-challenge, and after a series of five deep inspirations. AHR was measured via the concentration of agonist that elicits a 20% decrease in the subject's forced expiratory volume in one second compared to baseline (PC20) dose. The ventilation coefficient of variation was correlated to low-frequency lung resistance (R = 0.647, P ventilation heterogeneity. Also, the degree of AHR appears to be dependent on the degree to which baseline airway constriction creates baseline ventilation heterogeneity. HP 3He-MRI imaging may be a powerful predictor of the degree of AHR and in tracking the efficacy of therapy.

  2. Hyperpolarized 3He MRI and 81mKr SPECT in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, Trine; Søgaard, Lise; Mortensen, J;

    2005-01-01

    was to compare ventilation imaging methods in 26 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and nine lung healthy volunteers. METHODS: HP 3He MRI, 81mKr single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function tests were performed...... visual defect score (r=0.80, ppulmonary function test and HRCT). The defect scores were largest on 81mKr SPECT (the score on HP 3He MRI...... was one-third less than that on 81mKr SPECT), but the difference was reduced after normalisation for different breathing depths (HP 3He MRI at total lung capacity; 81mKr SPECT at tidal breathing at functional residual capacity). CONCLUSION: HP 3He MRI provides detailed ventilation distribution images...

  3. A robust protocol for regional evaluation of methacholine challenge in mouse models of allergic asthma using hyperpolarized 3He MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abraham C; Potts, Erin N; Chen, Ben T; Slipetz, Deborah M; Foster, W Michael; Driehuys, Bastiaan

    2009-06-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He magnetic resonance imaging has been recently used to produce high-resolution images of pulmonary ventilation after methacholine (MCh) challenge in mouse models of allergic inflammation. This capability presents an opportunity to gain new insights about these models and to more sensitively evaluate new drug treatments in the pre-clinical setting. In the current study, we present our initial experience using two-dimensional (2D), time-resolved (3)He MRI of MCh challenge-induced airways hyperreactivity (AHR) to compare ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged (N = 8) mice to controls (N = 8). Imaging demonstrated that ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged animals exhibited many large ventilation defects even prior to MCh challenge (four out of eight) compared to no defects in the control animals. Additionally, the ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged animals experienced a greater number of ventilation defects (4.5 +/- 0.4) following MCh infusion than did controls (3.3 +/- 0.6). However, due to variability in MCh delivery that was specific to the small animal MRI environment, the difference in mean defect number was not statistically significant. These findings are reviewed in detail and a comprehensive solution to the variability problem is presented that has greatly enhanced the magnitude and reproducibility of the MCh response. This has permitted us to develop a new imaging protocol consisting of a baseline 3D image, a time-resolved 2D series during MCh challenge, and a post-MCh 3D image that reveals persistent ventilation defects.

  4. Validity of apparent diffusion coefficient hyperpolarized 3He-MRI using MSCT and pulmonary function tests as references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Sandra; Casselbrant, Ingrid; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2008-01-01

    from MSCT. Both mean ADC and MSCT data were compared to PFT, especially percent of predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (%predicted DLCO), using Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: Mean ADC and standard deviation values were 0.392+/-0.119 cm(2)/s for the established emphysema group and 0....... Correlations between mean ADC and EI and 15th percentile were both r=0.90 and for MLD r=0.59. There was higher correlation between mean ADC and %predicted DLCO (r=0.90) than between EI and %predicted DLCO (r=0.76). CONCLUSION: HP (3)He-MRI correlates well with density measurements from MSCT and agrees better...

  5. Validity of apparent diffusion coefficient hyperpolarized 3He-MRI using MSCT and pulmonary function tests as references

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Sandra; Casselbrant, Ingrid; Piitulainen, Eeva;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements from hyperpolarized (HP) helium ((3)He)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with quantitative data from multislice Computed Tomography (CT) (MSCT) of the whole lungs and pulmonary function tests (PFT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty...... from MSCT. Both mean ADC and MSCT data were compared to PFT, especially percent of predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (%predicted DLCO), using Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: Mean ADC and standard deviation values were 0.392+/-0.119 cm(2)/s for the established emphysema group and 0...

  6. Development and application of methods to quantify spatial and temporal hyperpolarized 3He MRI ventilation dynamics: preliminary results in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miranda; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2010-03-01

    Hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a non-invasive research method for quantifying lung structural and functional changes, enabling direct visualization in vivo at high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we described the development of methods for quantifying ventilation dynamics in response to salbutamol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whole body 3.0 Tesla Excite 12.0 MRI system was used to obtain multi-slice coronal images acquired immediately after subjects inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas. Ventilated volume (VV), ventilation defect volume (VDV) and thoracic cavity volume (TCV) were recorded following segmentation of 3He and 1H images respectively, and used to calculate percent ventilated volume (PVV) and ventilation defect percent (VDP). Manual segmentation and Otsu thresholding were significantly correlated for VV (r=.82, p=.001), VDV (r=.87 p=.0002), PVV (r=.85, p=.0005), and VDP (r=.85, p=.0005). The level of agreement between these segmentation methods was also evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and this showed that manual segmentation was consistently higher for VV (Mean=.22 L, SD=.05) and consistently lower for VDV (Mean=-.13, SD=.05) measurements than Otsu thresholding. To automate the quantification of newly ventilated pixels (NVp) post-bronchodilator, we used translation, rotation, and scaling transformations to register pre-and post-salbutamol images. There was a significant correlation between NVp and VDV (r=-.94 p=.005) and between percent newly ventilated pixels (PNVp) and VDP (r=- .89, p=.02), but not for VV or PVV. Evaluation of 3He MRI ventilation dynamics using Otsu thresholding and landmark-based image registration provides a way to regionally quantify functional changes in COPD subjects after treatment with beta-agonist bronchodilators, a common COPD and asthma therapy.

  7. {sup 3}He-MRI in follow-up of lung transplant recipients

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    Gast, Klaus Kurt; Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Biedermann, Alexander; Knitz, Frank; Eberle, Balthasar; Schmiedeskamp, Joerg; Heussel, Claus-Peter; Mayer, Eckhard; Schreiber, Wolfgang Guenter; Thelen, Manfred; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible contribution of {sup 3}He-MRI to detect obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) in the follow-up of lung transplant recipients. Nine single- and double-lung transplanted patients were studied by an initial and a follow-up {sup 3}He-MRI study. Images were evaluated subjectively by estimation of ventilation defect area and quantitatively by individually adapted threshold segmentation and subsequent calculation of ventilated lung volume. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) was diagnosed using pulmonary function tests. At {sup 3}He-MRI, OB was suspected if ventilated lung volume had decreased by 10% or more at the follow-up MRI study compared with the initial study. General accordance between pulmonary function testing and {sup 3}He-MRI was good, although subjective evaluation of {sup 3}He-MRI underestimated improvement in ventilation as obtained by pulmonary function tests. The {sup 3}He-MRI indicated OB in 6 cases. According to pulmonary function tests, BOS was diagnosed in 5 cases. All diagnoses of BOS were also detected by {sup 3}He-MRI. In 2 of these 5 cases, {sup 3}He-MRI indicated OB earlier than pulmonary function tests. The results support the hypothesis that {sup 3}He-MRI may be sensitive for early detection of OB and emphasize the need for larger prospective follow-up studies. (orig.)

  8. (3)He MRI in healthy volunteers: preliminary correlation with smoking history and lung volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, D; Eberle, B; Hast, J; Lill, J; Markstaller, K; Puderbach, M; Schreiber, W G; Hanisch, G; Heussel, C P; Surkau, R; Grossmann, T; Weiler, N; Thelen, M; Kauczor, H U

    2000-06-01

    MRI with hyperpolarized helium-3 ((3)He) provides high-resolution imaging of ventilated airspaces. The first aim of this (3)He-study was to compare observations of localized signal defects in healthy smokers and non-smokers. A second aim was to describe relationships between parameters of lung function, volume of inspired (3)He and signal-to-noise ratio. With Ethics Committee approval and informed consent, 12 healthy volunteers (seven smokers and five non-smokers) were studied. Imaging was performed in a 1.5 T scanner using a two-dimensional FLASH sequence at 30V transmitter amplitude (TR/TE/alpha = 11 ms/4.2 ms/microprocessor-controlled delivery device and imaged during single breath-holds. Images were evaluated visually, and scored using a prospectively defined 'defect-index'. Signal-to-noise ratio of the images were correlated with localization, (3)He volumes and static lung volumes. Due to poor image quality studies of two smokers were not eligible for the evaluation. Smokers differed from non-smokers in total number and size of defects: the 'defect-index' of smokers ranged between 0.8 and 6.0 (median = 1.1), that of non-smokers between 0.1 and 0.8 (median = 0.4). Intraindividually, an anteroposterior gradient of signal-to-noise ratio was apparent. Signal-to-noise ratio correlated with the estimated amount of hyperpolarization administered (r = 0. 77), but not with static lung volumes. We conclude that (3)He MRI is a sensitive measure to detect regional abnormalities in the distribution of ventilation in clinically healthy persons with normal pulmonary function tests.

  9. Oxygen-sensitive {sup 3}He-MRI in bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation

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    Gast, Klaus K. [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany); Biedermann, Alexander [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 3. Medizinische Klinik, Pulmonologie, Mainz (Germany); Herweling, Annette [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie, Mainz (Germany); Schreiber, Wolfgang G. [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, MR-Physik, Mainz (Germany); Schmiedeskamp, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Mayer, Eckhard [Klinikum der Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Klinik fuer Herz-, Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie, Mainz (Germany); Heussel, Claus P. [Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Markstaller, Klaus; Eberle, Balthasar [Inselspital/Universitaetsspital, Klinik fuer Anaesthesiologie, Bern (Switzerland); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Oxygen-sensitive {sup 3}He-MRI was studied for the detection of differences in intrapulmonary oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) between patients with normal lung transplants and those with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Using software developed in-house, oxygen-sensitive {sup 3}He-MRI datasets from patients with normal lung grafts (n = 8) and with BOS (n = 6) were evaluated quantitatively. Datasets were acquired on a 1.5-T system using a spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence. Underlying diseases were pulmonary emphysema (n = 10 datasets) and fibrosis (n = 4). BOS status was verified by pulmonary function tests. Additionally, {sup 3}He-MRI was assessed blindedly for ventilation defects. Median intrapulmonary pO{sub 2} in patients with normal lung grafts was 146 mbar compared with 108 mbar in patients with BOS. Homogeneity of pO2 distribution was greater in normal grafts (standard deviation pO2 34 versus 43 mbar). Median oxygen decrease rate during breath hold was higher in unaffected patients (-1.75 mbar/s versus -0.38 mbar/s). Normal grafts showed fewer ventilation defects (5% versus 28%, medians). Oxygen-sensitive {sup 3}He-MRI appears capable of demonstrating differences of intrapulmonary pO2 between normal lung grafts and grafts affected by BOS. Oxygen-sensitive {sup 3}He-MRI may add helpful regional information to other diagnostic techniques for the assessment and follow-up of lung transplant recipients. (orig.)

  10. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance ventilation imaging of the lung in cystic fibrosis: comparison with high resolution CT and spirometry

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    McMahon, Colm J.; Dodd, Jonathan D.; Skehan, Stephen J.; Masterson, James B. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Wild, Jim M.; Fichele, Stan [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gallagher, Charles G. [St. Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of National Referral Centre for Adult Cystic Fibrosis, Dublin (Ireland); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, The Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare hyperpolarized {sup 3}helium magnetic resonance imaging ({sup 3}He MRI) of the lungs in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and spirometry. Eight patients with stable CF prospectively underwent {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry within 1 week. Three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence was used during an 18-s breath-hold following inhalation of hyperpolarized {sup 3}He. Each lung was divided into six zones; {sup 3}He MRI was scored as percentage ventilation per lung zone. HRCT was scored using a modified Bhalla scoring system. Univariate (Spearman rank) and multivariate correlations were performed between {sup 3}He MRI, HRCT, and spirometry. Results are expressed as mean{+-}SD (range). Spirometry is expressed as percent predicted. There were four men and four women, mean age=31.9{+-}9 (20-46). Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV){sub 1}=52%{+-}29 (27-93). Mean {sup 3}He MRI score=74%{+-}25 (55-100). Mean HRCT score=48.8{+-}24 (13.5-83). The correlation between {sup 3}He MRI and HRCT was strong (R={+-}0.89, p<0.001). Bronchiectasis was the only independent predictor of {sup 3}He MRI; {sup 3}He MRI correlated better with FEV{sub 1} and forced vital capacity (FVC) (R=0.86 and 0.93, p<0.01, respectively) than HRCT (R={+-}0.72 and {+-}0.81, p<0.05, respectively). This study showed that {sup 3}He MRI correlates strongly with structural HRCT abnormalities and is a stronger correlate of spirometry than HRCT in CF. (orig.)

  11. Your Child's Development: 1 Year (12 Months)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Your Baby's Growth: 12 Months Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 12 Months Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Growth ...

  12. Periodic progress report, 12 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    The work performed during the first 12 months of the project started with the establishment of the cutting theory for the cutting of heavy sections (phase 1). Phase 2 comprises the design of the first laboratory version cutting head with optics, nozzle systems and interfaces for the various machi...

  13. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  14. Senses and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

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    ... TOPIC Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Sleep and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Child's Vision Communication and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Movement, Coordination, and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Baby's Growth: 8 Months Your Child's Growth Learning, Play, and ...

  15. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For ... help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ...

  16. 12-Month-Olds Produce Others' Intended but Unfulfilled Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Following Meltzoff's (1995) behavioral reenactment paradigm, this study investigated the ability of 12-month-olds (N = 44) to reproduce a model's attempted-but-failed actions on objects. Testing was conducted using a novel set of objects designed to enable young infants to readily identify the potential outcome of the model's actions. Infants who…

  17. SURGICAL CROWN LENGTHENING: A 12-MONTH STUDY - RADIOGRAPHIC RESULTS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Daniela Eleutério; Okuda, Kalizia Marcela; Fonseca, Clarissa Ribeiro; Gonzalez, Marly Kimie Sonohara; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; do Valle, Accácio Lins; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. Material and methods Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years) that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. Results Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest. PMID:19089145

  18. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

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    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  19. Surgical crown lengthening: a 12-month study - radiographic results

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    Daniela Eleutério Diniz

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to perform a radiographic follow-up evaluation after a 12-month healing period, following crown lengthening surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-three periodontally healthy subjects (mean age 32.5 years that required crown lengthening surgery in premolars were recruited. In a total of 30 premolars, full thickness flaps, osseous resection, and flap suturing were performed. The restorative margin was defined in the pre-surgical phase and maintained unaltered during the healing period, serving as a reference point. Standardized bitewing radiographs were taken before and after osseous reduction, and at 2, 3, 6, and 12-month healing periods. RESULTS: Intact lamina dura was observed at both mesial and distal alveolar crests only from the 3rd month. At 12-months, all alveolar crests presented lamina dura. The overall mean distance from the restorative margin to the alveolar crest achieved after osseous resection was 3.28±0.87 mm at mesial and 2.81±0.51 mm at distal sites. No significant radiographic changes in the bone crest were observed during a 12-month healing period. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that the radiographic proximal bone level observed on bitewing radiographs following crown lengthening surgery can be used as a reference to predict the future level of the healed alveolar crest.

  20. BRAVISSIMO: 12-month results from a large scale prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Callaert, J; Maene, L; Beelen, R; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Schroë, H; Lauwers, G; Lansink, W; Vanslembroeck, K; D'archambeau, O; Hendriks, J; Lauwers, P; Vermassen, F; Randon, C; Van Herzeele, I; De Ryck, F; De Letter, J; Lanckneus, M; Van Betsbrugge, M; Thomas, B; Deleersnijder, R; Vandekerkhof, J; Baeyens, I; Berghmans, T; Buttiens, J; Van Den Brande, P; Debing, E; Rabbia, C; Ruffino, A; Tealdi, D; Nano, G; Stegher, S; Gasparini, D; Piccoli, G; Coppi, G; Silingardi, R; Cataldi, V; Paroni, G; Palazzo, V; Stella, A; Gargiulo, M; Muccini, N; Nessi, F; Ferrero, E; Pratesi, C; Fargion, A; Chiesa, R; Marone, E; Bertoglio, L; Cremonesi, A; Dozza, L; Galzerano, G; De Donato, G; Setacci, C

    2013-04-01

    The BRAVISSIMO study is a prospective, non-randomized, multi-center, multi-national, monitored trial, conducted at 12 hospitals in Belgium and 11 hospitals in Italy. This manuscript reports the findings up to the 12-month follow-up time point for both the TASC A&B cohort and the TASC C&D cohort. The primary endpoint of the study is primary patency at 12 months, defined as a target lesion without a hemodynamically significant stenosis on Duplex ultrasound (>50%, systolic velocity ratio no greater than 2.0) and without target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 12 months. Between July 2009 and September 2010, 190 patients with TASC A or TASC B aortoiliac lesions and 135 patients with TASC C or TASC D aortoiliac lesions were included. The demographic data were comparable for the TASC A/B cohort and the TASC C/D cohort. The number of claudicants was significantly higher in the TASC A/B cohort, The TASC C/D cohort contains more CLI patients. The primary patency rate for the total patient population was 93.1%. The primary patency rates at 12 months for the TASC A, B, C and D lesions were 94.0%, 96.5%, 91.3% and 90.2% respectively. No statistical significant difference was shown when comparing these groups. Our findings confirm that endovascular therapy, and more specifically primary stenting, is the preferred treatment for patients with TASC A, B, C and D aortoiliac lesions. We notice similar endovascular results compared to surgery, however without the invasive character of surgery.

  1. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  2. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both the alkaloid and the residual solvent impurity profiles of cocaine were evaluated over a period of 12 months under different storage conditions (temperature, purity and weight) using GC-MS and HS-GC-MS, respectively. The sample purity (pprofile. The most significant change was observed in low purity samples stored at 37°C. In contrast, no changes were observed in the residual solvent profile at all storage conditions for the entire 12-month study period. This finding indicates that the residual solvent profile may be more applicable than the corresponding alkaloid profile when cocaine seizures subjected to different storage conditions are compared. Our results clearly demonstrate that cocaine alkaloid profiles change over time and are most susceptible to sample purity and storage temperature. As a consequence, storage conditions and purity should be taken into account when cocaine comparison is conducted in criminal cases.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes Efficacy and Safety at 12 Months: Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Manzoli

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy as a tool of smoking cessation of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, directly comparing users of e-cigarettes only, smokers of tobacco cigarettes only, and smokers of both.Prospective cohort study. Final results are expected in 2019, but given the urgency of data to support policies on electronic smoking, we report the results of the 12-month follow-up.Direct contact and structured questionnaires by phone or via internet.Adults (30-75 years were included if they were smokers of ≥1 tobacco cigarette/day (tobacco smokers, users of any type of e-cigarettes, inhaling ≥50 puffs weekly (e-smokers, or smokers of both tobacco and e-cigarettes (dual smokers. Carbon monoxide levels were tested in a sample of those declaring tobacco smoking abstinence.Sustained smoking abstinence from tobacco smoking at 12 months, reduction in the number of tobacco cigarettes smoked daily.We used linear and logistic regression, with region as cluster unit.Follow-up data were available for 236 e-smokers, 491 tobacco smokers, and 232 dual smokers (overall response rate 70.8%. All e-smokers were tobacco ex-smokers. At 12 months, 61.9% of the e-smokers were still abstinent from tobacco smoking; 20.6% of the tobacco smokers and 22.0% of the dual smokers achieved tobacco abstinence. Adjusting for potential confounders, tobacco smoking abstinence or cessation remained significantly more likely among e-smokers (adjusted OR 5.19; 95% CI: 3.35-8.02, whereas adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not enhance the likelihood of quitting tobacco and did not reduce tobacco cigarette consumption. E-smokers showed a minimal but significantly higher increase in self-rated health than other smokers. Non significant differences were found in self-reported serious adverse events (eleven overall.Adding e-cigarettes to tobacco smoking did not facilitate smoking cessation or reduction. If e-cigarette safety will be confirmed, however, the use of e

  4. Stability of cocaine impurity profiles during 12 months of storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Stride; Villesen, Palle; Lindholst, Christian

    2016-01-01

    During the lifetime of a cocaine batch from production end to consumption, several alterations may occur, leading to possible changes in the original impurity profile. Such profile changes may eventually result in erroneous forensic evaluations. In the present study, the stability of both...... the alkaloid and the residual solvent impurity profiles of cocaine were evaluated over a period of 12 months under different storage conditions (temperature, purity and weight) using GC-MS and HS-GC-MS, respectively. The sample purity (p ... that the residual solvent profile may be more applicable than the corresponding alkaloid profile when cocaine seizures subjected to different storage conditions are compared. Our results clearly demonstrate that cocaine alkaloid profiles change over time and are most susceptible to sample purity and storage...

  5. Hyperpolarized 3He apparent diffusion coefficient MRI of the lung: reproducibility and volume dependency in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, S.; Casselbrant, I.; Piitulainen, E.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He gas using diffusion weighted MRI in healthy volunteers and patients with emphysema and examine the reproducibility and volume dependency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of eight healthy volunteers and 16...... days was good in both healthy volunteers and patients (SD range of 0.003-0.013 cm(2)/second and 0.001-0.009 cm(2)/second at 6% and 15% of TLC for healthy volunteers, and a SD range of 0.001-0.041 cm(2)/second and 0.001-0.011 cm(2)/second, respectively, for patients). A minor but significant increase...... in mean ADC with increased inhaled gas volume was observed in both groups. CONCLUSION: Mean ADC and SD of HP (3)He MRI is reproducible and discriminates well between healthy controls and patients with emphysema at the higher gas volume. This method is robust and may be useful to gain new insights...

  6. Quantitative {sup 1}H and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Comparison in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy never-smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrangi, Amir M., E-mail: aowrangi@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Wang, Jian X., E-mail: jxwang@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Applied Science Laboratories, General Electric Healthcare (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.Mccormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gparraga@robats.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, 100 Perth Drive, London, Canada N6A 5K8 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between short echo time pulmonary {sup 1}H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity (SI) and {sup 3}He MRI apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) measurements of emphysema, and pulmonary function measurements. Materials and methods: Nine healthy never-smokers and 11 COPD subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, short echo time ((TE) = 1.2 ms) {sup 1}H and diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI (b = 1.6 s/cm{sup 2}) at 3.0 T. In addition, for COPD subjects only, CT densitometry was also performed. Results: Mean {sup 1}H SI was significantly greater for never-smokers (12.1 ± 1.1 arbitrary units (AU)) compared to COPD subjects (10.9 ± 1.3 AU, p = 0.04). The {sup 1}H SI AP-gradient was also significantly greater for never-smokers (0.40 AU/cm, R{sup 2} = 0.94) compared to COPD subjects (0.29 AU/cm, R{sup 2} = 0.968, p = 0.05). There was a significant correlation between {sup 1}H SI and {sup 3}He ADC (r = −0.58, p = 0.008) and significant correlations between {sup 1}H MR SI and CT measurements of emphysema (RA{sub 950}, r = −0.69, p = 0.02 and HU{sub 15}, r = 0.66, p = 0.03). Conclusions: The significant and moderately strong relationship between {sup 1}H SI and {sup 3}He ADC, as well as between {sup 1}H SI and CT measurements of emphysema suggests that these imaging methods and measurements may be quantifying similar tissue changes in COPD and that pulmonary {sup 1}H SI may be used to monitor emphysema as a complement to CT and noble gas MRI.

  7. Accuracy of Fall Prediction in Parkinson Disease: Six-Month and 12-Month Prospective Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P. Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We analyzed the ability of four balance assessments to predict falls in people with Parkinson Disease (PD prospectively over six and 12 months. Materials and Methods. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS were administered to 80 participants with idiopathic PD at baseline. Falls were then tracked for 12 months. Ability of each test to predict falls at six and 12 months was assessed using ROC curves and likelihood ratios (LR. Results. Twenty-seven percent of the sample had fallen at six months, and 32% of the sample had fallen at 12 months. At six months, areas under the ROC curve (AUC for the tests ranged from 0.8 (FGA to 0.89 (BESTest with LR+ of 3.4 (FGA to 5.8 (BESTest. At 12 months, AUCs ranged from 0.68 (BESTest, BBS to 0.77 (Mini-BESTest with LR+ of 1.8 (BESTest to 2.4 (BBS, FGA. Discussion. The various balance tests were effective in predicting falls at six months. All tests were relatively ineffective at 12 months. Conclusion. This pilot study suggests that people with PD should be assessed biannually for fall risk.

  8. Hyperpolarized 13C MR angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Magnusson, Peter; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive technology that can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiovascular disease; the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Hyperpolarized imaging agents provide signal enhancement of more than 10, 000 times, which implies large reduction...

  9. Changes over 12 months in eye glances during secondary task engagement among novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G; Ehsani, Johnathon; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    During their first year of driving, crash rates among novice drivers are very high but decline rapidly. However, it is not clear what skills or knowledge they are acquiring in this period. Secondary task engagement while driving is a contributing factor to many traffic collisions and some of the elevated crash risk among novices could be explained by greater prevalence or longer periods of eyes off the road while engaging in these non-driving tasks. The current study looked at the eye glances of novice teen drivers engaging in secondary tasks on a test track at 0 and 12 months of licensure and compared their performance with their parents. Novices improved from 0 to 12 months on their longest single glance off the forward roadway and total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, but parents remained stable. Compared with their parents, the longest single glance off the forward roadway was longer for novices at 0 months, but by 12 months there was no difference between the groups. However, for total percentage of time for eyes off the forward roadway, novices performed the same as their parents at 0 months and actually had shorter times at 12 months. These findings could reflect the combined development of driving skills over 12 months and the relative experience that modern teenagers have with portable electronic devices. The results suggest that novice drivers are particularly poor at engaging with secondary tasks while driving.

  10. Side effect profile of Jadelle implant in Nigerian women during the first 12 months of usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Inyang-Etoh

    2016-05-01

    Results: There was no request for discontinuation of the method and no accidental pregnancy occurred during the period of the study. There was significant disruption of the menstrual pattern of clients over time with 31.1% developing irregular uterine bleeding from 6months of usage, whereas 16.6% of clients became amenorrheic from the 12month of usage. (p= 0.000 Changes in blood pressure and body weight of clients were not significant during the 12month period of the survey. Non menstrual side effects of Jadelle implants, which included headache, breast tenderness, dizziness among clients were noted at 6months of usage but became less prevalent by the 12month of usage. Conclusions: Jadelle implant proved to be highly effective, safe and acceptable to Nigerian clients during the study period, even though the implant had significant impact on their menstrual pattern. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1461-1465

  11. Change in sexual activity 12 months after ART initiation among HIV-positive Mozambicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan; Kurth, Ann E; Montoya, Pablo; Micek, Mark A; Gloyd, Stephen S

    2011-05-01

    We assessed sexual behaviors before and 12-months after ART initiation among 277 Mozambicans attending an HIV clinic. Measured behaviors included the number of sexual partners, condom use, concurrent relationships, disclosure of HIV status, alcohol use, and partners' serostatus. Compared to before ART initiation, increases were seen 12 months after ART in the proportion of participants who were sexually active (48% vs. 64% respondents, P initiation. Although reported correct and consist condom use increased, the number of unprotected sexual relationships remained the same (n = 45). Non-disclosure of HIV-serostatus to sexual partners was the only significant predictor of practicing unprotected sex with partners of HIV-negative or unknown serostatus. Sexual activity among HIV-positive persons on ART increased 12 months after ART initiation. Ongoing secondary transmission prevention programs addressing sexual activity with multiple partners, disclosure to partners and consistent condom use with serodisconcordant partners must be incorporated throughout HIV care programs.

  12. Time-course of exercise and its association with 12-month bone changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainionpää Aki

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on bone density and strength. However, knowledge of the time-course of exercise and bone changes is scarce due to lack of methods to quantify and qualify daily physical activity in long-term. The aim was to evaluate the association between exercise intensity at 3, 6 and 12 month intervals and 12-month changes in upper femur areal bone mineral density (aBMD and mid-femur geometry in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Physical activity was continuously assessed with a waist-worn accelerometer in 35 healthy women (35-40 years participating in progressive high-impact training. To describe exercise intensity, individual average daily numbers of impacts were calculated at five acceleration levels (range 0.3-9.2 g during time intervals of 0-3, 0-6, and 0-12 months. Proximal femur aBMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry and mid-femur geometry was evaluated with quantitative computed tomography at the baseline and after 12 months. Physical activity data were correlated with yearly changes in bone density and geometry, and adjusted for confounding factors and impacts at later months of the trial using multivariate analysis. Results Femoral neck aBMD changes were significantly correlated with 6 and 12 months' impact activity at high intensity levels (> 3.9 g, r being up to 0.42. Trochanteric aBMD changes were associated even with first three months of exercise exceeding 1.1 g (r = 0.39-0.59, p r = 0.38-0.52, p Conclusion The number of high acceleration impacts during 6 months of training was positively associated with 12-month bone changes at the femoral neck, trochanter and mid-femur. These results can be utilized when designing feasible training programs to prevent bone loss in premenopausal women. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT00697957

  13. Unfulfilled rehabilitation needs and dissatisfaction with care 12 months after a stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tistad, Malin; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2012-01-01

    ratio (OR) 7.05) at three months, and associated with hand function (SIS) (OR 4.38) and poor self-rated recovery (SIS) (OR 2.46) at 12 months. Dissatisfaction with care was predicted by SOC (OR 4.18) and participation (SIS) (OR 3.78), and associated with SOC (OR 3.63) and strength (SIS) (OR 3...

  14. Time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder complaints during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K.A. van Selms; F. Lobbezoo; M. Naeije

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the time courses of myofascial temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain and mandibular function impairment (MFI), and to identify predictive factors associated with these time courses. METHODS: During a 12-month period following conservative TMD treatment, the time courses of myofa

  15. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  16. An evaluation of the 18- and 12-month basic postgraduate training programmes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Niels Kristian; Qvesel, Dorte; Kodal, Troels

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It was decided that the Danish 18-month internship training should be replaced by a 12-month postgraduate training period including six months of employment at a hospital ward and six months at a general practice/hospital ward. This study examines how the physicians from the old and...

  17. The Flexibility of 12-Month-Olds' Preferences for Phonologically Appropriate Object Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather K.; Graham, Susan A.; Curtin, Suzanne; Archer, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    We explored 12-month-olds' flexibility in accepting phonotactically illegal or ill-formed word forms in a modified associative-learning task. Sixty-four English-learning infants were presented with a training phase that either clarified the purpose of a sound--object association task or left the task ambiguous. Infants were then habituated to…

  18. 12-Month Follow-Up of Fluoxetine and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wilson, G. Terence; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The longer term efficacy of medication treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED) remains unknown. This study examined the longer term effects of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) either with fluoxetine (CBT + fluoxetine) or with placebo (CBT + placebo) for BED through 12-month follow-up after completing treatments.…

  19. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feehan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45 receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC and the medication possession ratio (MPR. The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001. Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6% down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2% and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%. Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population.

  20. Vowel Production in 7- to 12-Month-Old Infants with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Rebecca; Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Rothpletz, Ann; Sedey, Allison

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine vowel production in 7- to 12-month-old infants with hearing loss. Fifty-four infants were divided into three groups according to degree of hearing loss (mild-to-moderate, moderately severe-to-severe, profound), and their vocalizations were phonetically transcribed from 30-minute videotaped samples. These…

  1. School-Based Interventions for Anxious Children: 3-, 6-, and 12-Month Follow-Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Layne, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The study followed participants aged 7 to 11 years from a previous study that compared three school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions for anxious children to determine long-term post-treatment benefits. Results indicate school-based CBT decreases anxiety symptoms up to 12 months post-treatment.

  2. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feehan, Michael; Munger, Mark A.; Cooper, Daniel K.; Hess, Kyle T.; Durante, Richard; Jones, Gregory J.; Montuoro, Jaime; Morrison, Margaux A.; Clegg, Daniel; Crandall, Alan S.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45) receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total) were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC) and the medication possession ratio (MPR). The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001). Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6%) down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2%) and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%). Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population. PMID:27618115

  3. Metacognitive functioning predicts positive and negative symptoms over 12 months in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew I; Macbeth, Angus; Schwannauer, Matthias; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-07-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are a major source of impairment and distress but both pharmacological and psychological treatment options provide only modest benefit. Developing more effective psychological treatments for negative symptoms will require a more sophisticated understanding of the psychological processes that are implicated in their development and maintenance. We extended previous work by demonstrating that metacognitive functioning is related to negative symptom expression across the first 12 months of first episode psychosis (FEP). Previous studies in this area have either been cross-sectional or have used much older participants with long-standing symptoms. In this study, forty-five FEP participants were assessed three times over 12 months and provided data on PANSS rated symptoms, premorbid adjustment, metacognitive functioning, and DUP. Step-wise linear regression showed that adding metacognition scores to known predictors of negative symptoms (baseline symptom severity, gender, DUP, and premorbid academic and social adjustment) accounted for 62% of the variance in PANSS negative symptom scores at six months and 38% at 12 months. The same predictors also explained 47% of the variance in positive symptoms at both six and 12 months. However, exploration of the simple correlations between PANSS symptom scores and metacognition suggests a stronger univariate relationship between metacognition and negative symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that problems with mental state processing may be important determinants of negative symptom expression from the very early stages of psychosis. These results provide further evidence that metacognitive functioning is a potentially relevant target for psychological interventions.

  4. Case Study Analyses of Play Behaviors of 12-Month-Old Infants Later Diagnosed with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Case study research methodology was used to describe the play behaviors of three infants at 12 months of age, who were later diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Data included standardized test scores, and analyses of video footage of semi-structured play sessions from infants identified as high risk for autism, because of having a sibling…

  5. Class Matters: 12-Month-Olds' Word-Object Associations Privilege Content over Function Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Heather; Curtin, Suzanne; Graham, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel…

  6. Mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a naturalistic 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason C; Shapiro, Shauna L; Manber, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A unique intervention combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to have acute benefits at posttreatment in an open label study. The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of this integrated intervention on measures of sleep and sleep-related distress in an attempt to characterize the natural course of insomnia following this treatment and to identify predictors of poor long-term outcome. Analyses were conducted on 21 participants, who provided follow-up data at six and 12 months posttreatment. At each time point, participants completed one week of sleep and meditation diaries and questionnaires related to mindfulness, sleep, and sleep-related distress, including the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale, the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and the Insomnia Episode Questionnaire. Analyses examining the pattern of change across time (baseline, end of treatment, six months, and 12 months) revealed that several sleep-related benefits were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period. Participants who reported at least one insomnia episode (>or=1 month) during the follow-up period had higher scores on the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (P insomnia episodes. Correlations between mindfulness skills and insomnia symptoms revealed significant negative correlations (P insomnia. These results suggest that most sleep-related benefits of an intervention combining CBT-I and mindfulness meditation were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period, with indications that higher presleep arousal and sleep effort at end of treatment constitute a risk for occurrence of insomnia during the 12 months following treatment.

  7. Nuclear hyperpolarization comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Gunnar; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    The last decade has seen transformative developments and previously unthinkable opportunities opening in the fields of solid-state, solution and imaging NMR, thanks to the advent of methods for hyperpolarizing the nuclear spins. Probably since the introduction of the Fourier Transform, and to some extent for similar reasons, few single concepts have had the potential to affect so many areas of magnetic resonance, as the dissemination of these sensitivity-enhancing methods. The generality of these methods, particularly those based on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), has triggered exciting new research over a wide range of applications ranging from material sciences and structural biology to metabolic analysis, biochemistry, biology and clinical diagnosis. This excitement has been accompanied by concurrent efforts to better understand the physical basis of nuclear hyperpolarization to optimize the instrumentation that will achieve higher levels of nuclear polarization over a wide range of conditions, and with new NMR and MRI sequences and experiments that will better fit the particular demands of these experiments. This concentrated attention has also brought in close synergy the electron and nuclear magnetic resonance communities, particularly as the former showed the latter that electrons could be exploited via DNP to originate nuclear hyperpolarization over a wide range of solution and solid state systems. Such "DNP revolution" also rekindled similar searches based on alternatives such as para-Hydrogen induced polarization and optical pumping. The kind of NMR enhancement that all these techniques could provide would have been unreachable by traditional approaches, for instance further optimizations of the NMR receiving hardware or increasing the NMR/MRI observation fields.

  8. Lifetime and 12-Month Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Academic Performance in College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekens, Glenn; Claes, Laurence; Demyttenaere, Koen; Auerbach, Randy P; Green, Jennifer G; Kessler, Ronald C; Mortier, Philippe; Nock, Matthew K; Bruffaerts, Ronny

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with academic performance in college freshmen, using census-based web surveys (N = 7,527; response = 65.4%). NSSI was assessed with items from the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview and subsequently linked with the administratively recorded academic year percentage (AYP). Freshmen with lifetime and 12-month NSSI showed a reduction in AYP of 3.4% and 5.9%, respectively. The college environment was found to moderate the effect of 12-month NSSI, with more strongly reduced AYPs in departments with higher-than-average mean departmental AYPs. The findings suggest that overall stress and test anxiety are underlying processes between NSSI membership and academic performance.

  9. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Schmidt Morgen, Camilla;

    2015-01-01

    be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 27 821 children born to mothers......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may......-specific body mass index (BMI) z-score and overweight/obesity (BMI ⩾85th percentile based on the World Health Organization classification) at 12 months. We conducted multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examining child care use and weight outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 17 721 (63.7%) children...

  10. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12......-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Between-group differences (paerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min...... to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. CONCLUSION: This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled...

  11. Predictors of pain and physical function at 3 and 12 months after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plews, Sarah; Løvlund Nielsen, Randi; Overgaard, Søren;

    Background: Few studies have combined preoperative patient-reported and objective outcome measures to predict outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose / Aim of Study: to identify predictors of outcome 3 and 12 months after THA Materials and Methods: A cohort of 107 consecutive patients...... with primary hip osteoarthritis responded to Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) questionnaires prior to and 3 and 12 months after THA. Preoperative pain intensity; joint space width (JSW), age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) were used to predict changes in pain and physical function....... Conclusions: Preoperative pain predicted changes in pain and physical function up to one year after THA. Such knowledge should be taken into consideration, when assessing OA patients prior to surgery. This study provides useful insight for clinicians, regarding the overall improvement patients can expect...

  12. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  13. Randomized clinical trial of four adhesion strategies in cervical lesions: 12-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Eloisa Andrade; Tay, Lidia Yileng; Kose, Carlos; Mena-Serrano, Alexandra; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 6- and 12-month clinical performance of four adhesion strategies from the same manufacturer (Kerr) in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) using two evaluation criteria. Thirty-five patients, with at least four NCCLs each, participated in this study. After samplesize calculation, 180 restorations were assigned to one of the following groups: OFL (Optibond FL), OSP (Optibond Solo Plus), XTR (Optibond XTR), and AIO (Optibond All-In-One). The composite resin Filtek Supreme Ultra (3M ESPE) was placed incrementally. The restorations were evaluated at baseline, after 6 months, and after 12 months, using both the FDI and the USPHS-modified criteria. Statistical analyses were performed with Friedman repeated measures, ANOVA by rank, and the McNemar test for significance in each pair (α=0.05). Six restorations (2 for OFL, 1 for OSP, 2 for XTR, and 1 for AIO) were lost at 12 months (P>0.05 for both evaluation criteria). Marginal staining was observed in seven restorations using the FDI criteria (P>0.05) and three restorations using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). Eight restorations (2 for OSP, 3 for XTR, and 3 for AIO) were classified as Bravo for marginal adaptation using the USPHSmodified criteria (P>0.05). However, 62 restorations (14 for OFL, 12 for OSP, 15 for XTR, and 21 for AIO) were classified as Bravo using the FDI criteria (P>0.05). The four adhesion strategies showed similar clinical retention at 6 and 12 months. The FDI evaluation criteria tend to be more sensitive than the USPHS-modified criteria.

  14. Noninvasive Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Children Less Than 12 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetayo Adeleye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives. We identified the associated conditions of patients less than 12 months of age who were referred for polysomnogram (PSG studies. We collated PSG findings and physician interpretation. We determined the correlation between the recommended treatment by the PSG interpreting physician and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects’ physician. We determined adherence with noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP treatment. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study. Participants included children less than 12 months of age referred for PSG studies between 2007 and 2012. Results. 92 patients under the age of 12 months were included in the study analysis. Mean (standard deviation, SD age in days at time of the PSG study was 208.5 (101.2. 35 (38% patients had a diagnosis of Trisomy 21. Seven (8% patients had no prior diagnosis. Median (Q1, Q3 apnea hypopnea index (AHI was 22.5 (11.3–37.0. Agreement between the PSG interpreting physician’s recommendation and actual prescribed treatment by the referring or subjects’ physician was 85.9% [95% CI 77.1–91.6]. Mean (SD percentage days with PAP therapy usage more than 4 hours was 25.2% (32. Conclusions. In our experience, despite consistent physician messaging to families, adherence with noninvasive PAP treatment is low.

  15. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Vital pulpotomy is a single-stage procedure of surgical amputation of the coronal portion of exposed vital pulp, usually as a means of preserving the vitality and function of the remaining radicular portion. Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic success rates for ferric sulfate (FS), electrosurgery (ES) and laser pulpotomy in human primary molars. Materials and methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 30 primary molars indicated for pulpotomy in children aged 4 to 10 years were treated using either a FS (10 teeth), ES technique (10 teeth) and laser (10 teeth). Following the pulpotomy, the teeth were evaluated for clinical and radiographic success at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the basis of the presence of pain, sinus, mobility, internal and external resorption, periapical radiolucency, calcification in the canal and bone loss. Statistical analysis: The data were assessed with Chi-square test. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, both clinical and radiographic success rates were 100% in the laser group but only 80% in both ES and FS groups. There was statistically significant difference between the success rates of three groups (p pulpotomy showed better clinical as well as radiographical results than ES and FS pulpotomy. Laser pulpotomy was also found superior in terms of operating time, patient cooperation, ease of use and pain. Although results of the study showed the failure rates for electrosurgical pulpotomy to be equal to those for FS pulpotomy, electrosurgical pulpotomy being a nonpharmacological technique considered more favorable. Further studies using larger sample size and longer evaluation periods are suggested. How to cite this article: Gupta G, Rana V, Srivastava N, Chandna P. Laser Pulpotomy–An Effective Alternative to Conventional Techniques: A 12 Months Clinicoradiographic Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):18-21. PMID:26124576

  16. Current asthma control predicts future risk of asthma exacerbation: a 12-month prospective cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hua-hua; ZHOU Ting; WANG Lan; ZHANG Hong-ping; FU Juan-juan; WANG Lei; JI Yu-lin; WANG Gang

    2012-01-01

    Background The performance of asthma control test (ACT) at baseline for predicting future risk of asthma exacerbation has not been previously demonstrated.This study was designed to explore the ability of the baseline ACT score to predict future risk of asthma exacerbation during a 12-month follow-up.Methods This post hoc analysis included data from a 12-month prospective cohort study in patients with asthma (n=290).The time to the first asthma exacerbation was analyzed and the association between baseline ACT scores and future risk of asthma exacerbation was calculated as adjusted odds ratio (OR) using Logistic regression models.Further,sensitivity and specificity were estimated at each cut-point of ACT scores for predicting asthma exacerbations.Results The subjects were divided into three groups,which were uncontrolled (U,n=128),partly-controlled (PC,n=111),and well controlled (C,n=51) asthma.After adjustment,the decreased ACT scores at baseline in the U and PC groups were associated with an increased probability of asthma exacerbations (OR 3.65 and OR 5.75,respectively),unplanned visits (OR 8.03 and OR 8.21,respectively) and emergency visits (OR 20.00 and OR 22.60,respectively) over a 12-month follow-up period.The time to the first asthma exacerbation was shorter in the groups with U and PC asthma (all P<0.05).The baseline ACT of 20 identified as the cut-point for screening the patients at high risk of asthma exacerbations had an increased sensitivity of over 90.0% but a lower specificity of about 30.0%.Conclusion Our findings indicate that the baseline ACT score with a high sensitivity could rule out patients at low risk of asthma exacerbations and oredict future risk of asthma exacerbations in clinical practice.

  17. CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G.; Friedman, Matthew J.; Hill, Eric D.; Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Petukhova, Maria; Sampson, Laura; Shahly, Victoria; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Demyttenaere, Koen; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia E.; Haro, Josep Maria; He, Yanling; Karam, Aimee N.; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Posada-Villa, José A.; Shalev, Arieh Y.; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Zarkov, Zahari; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue. Methods Data were analyzed from 20 population surveys in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative (n 51,295 aged 18+). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (3.0) assessed 12-month PTSD and other common DSM-IV disorders. Respondents with 12-month PTSD were assessed for single versus multiple TEs implicated in their symptoms. Associations were examined with age of onset (AOO), functional impairment, comorbidity, and PTSD symptom counts. Results 19.8% of respondents with 12-month PTSD reported that their symptoms were associated with multiple TEs. Cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs had greater functional impairment, an earlier AOO, longer duration, higher comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, elevated hyper-arousal symptoms, higher proportional exposures to partner physical abuse and other types of physical assault, and lower proportional exposure to unexpected death of a loved one than cases with fewer associated TEs. Conclusions A risk threshold was observed in this large-scale cross-national database wherein cases who associated their PTSD with four or more TEs presented a more “complex” clinical picture with substantially greater functional impairment and greater morbidity than other cases of PTSD. PTSD cases associated with four or more TEs may merit specific and targeted intervention strategies. Depression and Anxiety 31:130–142, 2014. PMID:23983056

  18. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  19. 77 FR 57921 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List 14 Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List 14 Aquatic Mollusks as... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List 14 Aquatic Mollusks as... and aquatic Ferry County, WA, and or as 3 to 5 mm long plant growth (Duncan Fish Lake, Chelan...

  20. 76 FR 23649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule To Remove the... Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule To Remove the Morelet's Crocodile From the... the references cited therein) characterized the Mexican populations of Morelet's crocodiles in...

  1. Identification of Infants at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Language Delay Prior to 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole A.; Stapleton, Emily J.; Aliabadi, Farhad; Graw, Robert; Vickers, Rebecca; Haskell, Kathryn; Sadeghin, Teresa; Jameson, Robert; Parmele, Charles L.; Gropman, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown an increased head circumference and the absence of the head tilt reflex as possible risk factors for autism spectrum disorder, allowing for early detection at 12 months in typically developing population of infants. Our aim was to develop a screening tool to identify infants prior to 12 months at risk for autism spectrum…

  2. Predictors of self-rated health: a 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnetz Bengt B

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine health-related risk and salutogenic factors and to use these to construct prediction models for future self-rated health (SRH, i.e. find possible characteristics predicting individuals improving or worsening in SRH over time (0–12 months. Methods A prospective study was conducted with measurements (physiological markers and self-ratings at 0, 6 and 12 months, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23–64 from four information technology and two media companies. Results There were a multitude of statistically significant cross-sectional correlations (Spearman's Rho between SRH and other self-ratings as well as physiological markers. Predictors of future SRH were baseline ratings of SRH, self-esteem and social support (logistic regression, and SRH, sleep quality and sense of coherence (linear regression. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that baseline SRH and other self-ratings are predictive of future SRH. It is cautiously implied that SRH, self-esteem, social support, sleep quality and sense of coherence might be predictors of future SRH and therefore possibly also of various future health outcomes.

  3. Effects of a 12-Month Pedometer-Based Walking Intervention in Women of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M.; Kingsley, J. Derek; Kushnick, Michael R.; Moffatt, Robert J.; Haymes, Emily M.; Miles, Rebecca; Toole, Tonya; Panton, Lynn B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 12-month walking intervention in overweight/obese, low socioeconomic women. Forty-six women (48.2 ± 8.0 years) entered the study. Outcomes included weight, waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood lipids, fibrinogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Both intention-to-treat analyses in all participants and group analyses in study completers only (3K group = increased steps/day by ≥3,000; No Δ group = did not increase steps/day by ≥3,000) were conducted. Group × time ANOVA was used. In study completers, 3K significantly increased steps/day (6,903 ± 3,328 to 12,323 ± 5,736) compared to No Δ (4,926 ± 3,374 to 5,174 ± 3,095) from baseline to 12 months. There was a significant time effect for weight (P = 0.030), BMI (P = 0.029), and hsCRP (P = 0.044). Low socioeconomic women who adhere to a long-term, pedometer-based walking intervention significantly increased steps/day and may improve body weight, BMI, and hsCRP. This could help reduce health disparities in this population over time. PMID:27746679

  4. Changes in knee joint load indices from before to 12 months after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Creaby, M W;

    2016-01-01

    with the contra-lateral leg. METHODS: We estimated indices of knee joint loading (external peak knee adduction moment (KAM), KAM impulse and peak knee flexion moment (KFM)) normalized to body size (i.e., body mass (BM) and height (HT)) using 3D gait analysis in 23 patients (17 men, mean (SD) 46.2 (6.4) years, BMI...... 25.8 (3.4) kg/m(2)) without radiographic knee OA before and 12 months after medial APM. Static alignment was assessed by radiography and self-reported outcomes by Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). RESULTS: Peak KAM and KAM impulse increased in the APM leg compared to the contra......-lateral leg from before to 12 months after surgery (change difference: 0.38 Nm/BM*HT% 95% CI 0.01 to 0.76 (P = 0.049) and 0.20 Nm*s/BM*HT% 95% CI 0.10 to 0.30 (P

  5. Imaging oxygen metabolism with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Marie; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Every tissue in the body critically depends on meeting its energetic demands with sufficient oxygen supply. Oxygen supply/demand imbalances underlie the diseases that inflict the greatest socioeconomic burden globally. The purpose of this review is to examine how hyperpolarized contrast media, used...... in combination with MR data acquisition methods, may advance our ability to assess oxygen metabolism non-invasively and thus improve management of clinical disease. We first introduce the concept of hyperpolarization and how hyperpolarized contrast media have been practically implemented to achieve translational...... and clinical research. We will then analyze how incorporating hyperpolarized contrast media could enable realization of unmet technical needs in clinical practice. We will focus on imaging cardiac and renal oxygen metabolism, as both organs have unique physiological demands to satisfy their requirements...

  6. Hyperpolarized 131Xe NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, Karl F.; Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 131Xe with up to 2.2% spin polarization (i.e., 5000-fold signal enhancement at 9.4 T) was obtained after separation from the rubidium vapor of the spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) process. The SEOP was applied for several minutes in a stopped-flow mode, and the fast, quadrupolar-driven T1 relaxation of this spin I = 3/2 noble gas isotope required a rapid subsequent rubidium removal and swift transfer into the high magnetic field region for NMR detection. Because of the xenon density dependent 131Xe quadrupolar relaxation in the gas phase, the SEOP polarization build-up exhibits an even more pronounced dependence on xenon partial pressure than that observed in 129Xe SEOP. 131Xe is the only stable noble gas isotope with a positive gyromagnetic ratio and shows therefore a different relative phase between hp signal and thermal signal compared to all other noble gases. The gas phase 131Xe NMR spectrum displays a surface and magnetic field dependent quadrupolar splitting that was found to have additional gas pressure and gas composition dependence. The splitting was reduced by the presence of water vapor that presumably influences xenon-surface interactions. The hp 131Xe spectrum shows differential line broadening, suggesting the presence of strong adsorption sites. Beyond hp 131Xe NMR spectroscopy studies, a general equation for the high temperature, thermal spin polarization, P, for spin I⩾1/2 nuclei is presented.

  7. The role of verbal labels on flexible memory retrieval at 12-months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; Liu, Hao; Herbert, Jane S

    2016-11-01

    The provision of verbal labels enhances 12-month-old infants' memory flexibility across a form change in a puppet imitation task (Herbert, 2011), although the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here we investigate whether verbal labels can scaffold flexible memory retrieval when task difficulty increases and consider the mechanism responsible for the effect of language cues on early memory flexibility. Twelve-month-old infants were provided with English, Chinese, or empty language cues during a difficult imitation task, a combined change in the puppet's colour and form at the test (Hayne et al., 1997). Imitation performance by infants in the English language condition only exceeded baseline performance after the 10-min delay. Thus, verbal labels facilitated flexible memory retrieval on this task. There were no correlations between infants' language comprehension and imitation performance. Thus, it is likely that verbal labels facilitate both attention and categorisation during encoding and retrieval.

  8. Outcomes of a Multi-Component Family Enrichment Project: 12-Month Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anne Tompkins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has established that family enrichment programs work with a variety of populations (e.g., Hawkins, Stanley, Blanchard, & Albright, 2012. It is unclear if a multi-component program focusing on a variety of family outcomes can lead to lasting change. This study used growth modeling to examine effects of relationship (i.e., Within My Reach, parenting (i.e., Making Parenting a Pleasure, and financial enrichment (i.e., Spend Some, Save Some, Share Some classes over 12 months. Results revealed improvement in family functioning at one year post for all three programs. Program specific improvements included relationship functioning and parenting alliance. Program participants reported overall satisfaction and gaining of valuable skills. Findings suggest these family enrichment programs can have long-lasting effects; potential reasons for sample success and implications are discussed.

  9. Ospemifene 12-month safety and efficacy in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, S R; Bachmann, G A; Koninckx, P R;

    2014-01-01

    6 : 1 to ospemifene 60 mg/day or placebo. The primary objective was 12-month safety, particularly endometrial; 12-week efficacy was assessed. Safety assessments included endometrial histology and thickness, and breast and gynecological examinations. Efficacy evaluations included changes from...... with ospemifene were considered mild or moderate. Three cases (1.0%) of active proliferation were observed in the ospemifene group. For one, active proliferation was seen at end of study week 52, and diagnosed as simple hyperplasia without atypia on follow-up biopsy 3 months after the last dose. This subsequently...... resolved with progestogen treatment and dilatation and curettage. In six subjects (five ospemifene (1.4%), one placebo (1.6%)) endometrial polyps were found (histopathology); however, only one (ospemifene) was confirmed as a true polyp during additional expert review. Endometrial histology showed...

  10. Gender and discipline in 5-12-month-old infants: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Richard Evan; Fausto-Sterling, Anne; García-Coll, Cynthia; Seifer, Ronald

    2013-04-01

    We examined the effects of infant age and gender on the behaviors of infants and mothers during discipline interactions using longitudinal, naturalistic, home-based, taped observations of 16 mother-infant dyads (eight males and eight females). These observations were conducted between the child ages of 5 and 12 months and used a devised Maternal Discipline Coding System to code for the occurrence of discipline events. During discipline interactions, mothers vocalized longer, used harsher tones, and used more explanations with older compared to younger infants. Male infants were more likely than female infants to cry or whine during discipline events. Mothers of male infants used longer vocalizations, more words, and more affectionate terms than mothers of female infants. Male infants were more difficult during discipline interactions than female infants, but it appeared that mothers of males responded to this difficulty by using milder discipline techniques.

  11. Fish oil affects immune function in 9 to 12 month old infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kjær, Tanja;

    Background - n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to affect immune function and may affect immune maturation in early life. Objective - To examine if fish oil supplementation in late infancy could modify immune function. Design - A 2×2 intervention with fish oil (3.4 ± 1.1 ml....../day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble IL-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine...... production in whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei for 22 h. IgA was measured in feces at 10 months of age. Results - Fish oil supplementation effectively raised RBC n-3 PUFA (p...

  12. Evaluation of Protocol Biopsy Utility 12 Months after Renal Transplantation: A Multicenter Observational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical merit of surveillance kidney graft biopsies remains controversial. A retrospective, multicenter analysis evaluated 12-month surveillance biopsies (SB, 154 patients versus no SB (NSB, 138 patients (11 with diagnostic biopsy in patients >18 months posttransplant with estimated GFR (eGFR ≥30 mL/min. The primary objective was to describe renal function at 18 months post-transplant in patients with or without SB at month 12. Globally, most recipients in both cohorts were at low immunological risk (<10% of patients with PRA ≥30%. The immunosuppressive regimen remained unchanged following more than half of SB that exhibited chronic lesions (18/33, 54.5%. Mean (SD eGFR at month 18 (primary endpoint was 56 (19 mL/min/1.73 m² with SB and 54 (15 mL/min/1.73 m² with NSB (=0.48. In the SB group, slight nonspecific changes were observed in 51 cases, rejection (acute or chronic in 6 cases, CNI-related toxicity in 15 cases, recurrence of initial disease in two cases, and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA in 83 cases (71.6%, of which 35 cases (30.2% were grade II/III lesions. eGFR <50 mL/min/1.73 m² at month 6 predicted IF/TA grade II or III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 1.64, 9.05, <0.002. SB at 12 months posttransplant did not prompt significant modification of immunosuppression, and no renal benefit was observed.

  13. VSRR - Provisional monthly and 12-month ending number of live births, deaths and infant deaths: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly and 12 month-ending provisional counts of births, deaths and infant deaths are provided for the...

  14. African American community members sustain favorable blood pressure outcomes through 12-month telephone motivational interviewing (MI) maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community approaches offer promise for addressing disparities experienced by African Americans in hypertension prevalence, treatment, and control. HUB City Steps, a community-based participatory research lifestyle intervention, tracked participants through a 12-month MI maintenance phase following a...

  15. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  16. Struggling for Independence: A Grounded Theory Study on Convalescence of ICU-survivors 12 Months Post ICU Discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore and explain the challenges, concerns and coping modalities in ICU-survivors living with a partner or spouse during the first 12 months post ICU discharge. Design: Qualitative, longitudinal grounded theory study.Settings: Five ICUs in Denmark, four general, one neurosurgical. Methods: Thirty-five interviews with patients and their partners at three and 12 months post ICU-discharge plus two group interviews with patients only and two with partners only.Findings: The ICU-s...

  17. Placental malaria is associated with attenuated CD4 T-cell responses to tuberculin PPD 12 months after BCG vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placental malaria (PM is associated with prenatal malaise, but many PM+ infants are born without symptoms. As malaria has powerful immunomodulatory effects, we tested the hypothesis that PM predicts reduced T-cell responses to vaccine challenge. Methods We recruited healthy PM+ and PM- infants at birth. At six and 12 months, we stimulated PBMCs with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD and compared expression of CD154, IL-2 and IFNγ by CD4 T-cells to a negative control using flow cytometry. We measured the length, weight and head circumference at birth and 12 months. Results IL-2 and CD154 expression were low in both groups at both timepoints, without discernable differences. Expression of IFNγ was similarly low at 6 months but by 12 months, the median response was higher in PM- than PM + infants (p = 0.026. The PM+ infants also had a lower weight (p = 0.032 and head circumference (p = 0.041 at 12 months, indicating lower growth rates. At birth, the size and weight of the PM+ and PM- infants were equivalent. By 12 months, the PM+ infants had a lower weight and head circumference than the PM- infants. Conclusions Placental malaria was associated with reduced immune responses 12 months after immune challenge in infants apparently healthy at birth.

  18. GLUT4 protein expression in obese and lean 12-month-old rats: insights from different types of data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Seraphim

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available GLUT4 protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT and skeletal muscle (SM was investigated in 2-month-old, 12-month-old spontaneously obese or 12-month-old calorie-restricted lean Wistar rats, by considering different parameters of analysis, such as tissue and body weight, and total protein yield of the tissue. In WAT, a ~70% decrease was observed in plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 protein, expressed as µg protein or g tissue, in both 12-month-old obese and 12-month-old lean rats compared to 2-month-old rats. However, when plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 tissue contents were expressed as g body weight, they were the same. In SM, GLUT4 protein content, expressed as µg protein, was similar in 2-month-old and 12-month-old obese rats, whereas it was reduced in 12-month-old obese rats, when expressed as g tissue or g body weight, which may play an important role in insulin resistance. Weight loss did not change the SM GLUT4 content. These results show that altered insulin sensitivity is accompanied by modulation of GLUT4 protein expression. However, the true role of WAT and SM GLUT4 contents in whole-body or tissue insulin sensitivity should be determined considering not only GLUT4 protein expression, but also the strong morphostructural changes in these tissues, which require different types of data analysis.

  19. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise.

  20. Day Hospital Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa: A 12-Month Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Marzola, Enrica; De-Bacco, Carlotta; Buzzichelli, Sara; Brustolin, Annalisa; Campisi, Stefania; Amianto, Federico; Migliaretti, Giuseppe; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-09-01

    Day hospitals (DHs) represent a treatment option for anorexia nervosa (AN), a mental disorder that is difficult to treat and has no evidence-based treatments available. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of a DH treatment that was specifically focused on the emotions of severe AN patients. Body mass index and eating psychopathology were the primary outcome measures. Fifty-six adult patients with AN were assessed upon admission, at the end of treatment (EOT) and at a 12-month follow-up evaluation (T18) using Eating Disorders Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Brief Social Phobia Scale. All participants received a multidisciplinary treatment programme that focused on psychodynamic psychotherapy. Seventy-eight per cent of participants reported positive outcomes at EOT and 68% at T18. Moreover, 82.1% and 65.4% of long-standing patients showed positive outcomes at EOT and T18, respectively. All measures of psychopathology were significantly improved at EOT and were maintained at follow-up. Our DH was effective at treating severe AN patients; however, further investigations of the processes of change are warranted.

  1. Incidences of new prescribing by British child and adolescent psychiatrists: a prospective study over 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew F

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of pharmacotherapy in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder. This study reports on the systematic prospective collection of instances of new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services serving a population of approximately four million people in North West England. Diagnostic and demographic information regarding new prescribing by child and adolescent mental health services within Greater Manchester and Lancashire was systematically collected prospectively over two 6-month periods between 2000 and 2002. Within the 12 months studied, there were 845 instances of a drug being newly prescribed to a child or adolescent in the treatment of a psychiatric disorder. In total, 48 different drugs were prescribed for 25 different diagnoses. The eight most commonly prescribed drugs were methylphenidate, methylphenidate/placebo trial, paroxetine, fluoxetine, risperidone, imipramine, dexamphetamine and melatonin, accounting for 73% of all prescribing. There was marked variation between services in the amount of prescribing with significant correlation between prescription of stimulants and prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. Prescription of medications in the treatment of child psychiatric disorder has become a significant part of child and adolescent mental health practice. However, the evidence base underpinning this usage remains limited, and further high quality therapeutic clinical trials are urgently needed.

  2. Determinants of return to work 12 months after total hip and knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtenberg, C S; Tilbury, C; Kuijer, Ppfm; Verdegaal, Shm; Wolterbeek, R; Nelissen, Rghh; Frings-Dresen, Mhw; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2016-07-01

    Introduction A substantial number of patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) do not or only partially return to work. This study aimed to identify differences in determinants of return to work in THA and TKA. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of working patients aged return to work 12 months postoperatively. Factors analysed included preoperative sociodemographic and work characteristics, alongside the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS)/Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Oxford Hip and Knee Scores. Results Of 67 THA and 56 TKA patients, 9 (13%) and 10 (19%), respectively, returned partially and 5 (7%) and 6 (11%), respectively, did not return to work 1 year postoperatively. Preoperative factors associated with partial or no return to work in THA patients were self-employment, absence from work and a better HOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscale score, whereas only work absence was relevant in TKA patients. Type of surgery modified the impact of ADL scores on return to work. Conclusions In both THA and TKA, absence from work affected return to work, whereas self-employment and better preoperative ADL subscale scores were also associated in THA patients. The impact of ADL scores on return to work was modified by type of surgery. These results suggest that strategies aiming to influence modifiable factors should consider THA and TKA separately.

  3. UNC-Emory Infant Atlases for Macaque Brain Image Analysis: Postnatal Brain Development through 12 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yundi; Budin, Francois; Yapuncich, Eva; Rumple, Ashley; Young, Jeffrey T.; Payne, Christa; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaoping; Godfrey, Jodi; Howell, Brittany; Sanchez, Mar M.; Styner, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational anatomical atlases have shown to be of immense value in neuroimaging as they provide age appropriate reference spaces alongside ancillary anatomical information for automated analysis such as subcortical structural definitions, cortical parcellations or white fiber tract regions. Standard workflows in neuroimaging necessitate such atlases to be appropriately selected for the subject population of interest. This is especially of importance in early postnatal brain development, where rapid changes in brain shape and appearance render neuroimaging workflows sensitive to the appropriate atlas choice. We present here a set of novel computation atlases for structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging as crucial resource for the analysis of MRI data from non-human primate rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) data in early postnatal brain development. Forty socially-housed infant macaques were scanned longitudinally at ages 2 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months in order to create cross-sectional structural and DTI atlases via unbiased atlas building at each of these ages. Probabilistic spatial prior definitions for the major tissue classes were trained on each atlas with expert manual segmentations. In this article we present the development and use of these atlases with publicly available tools, as well as the atlases themselves, which are publicly disseminated to the scientific community. PMID:28119564

  4. Do twisted laser beams evoke nuclear hyperpolarization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. B.; Andrews, D. L.; Rohrbach, A.; Gohn-Kreuz, C.; Shatokhin, V. N.; Kiselev, V. G.; Hennig, J.; von Elverfeldt, D.; Hövener, J.-B.

    2016-07-01

    The hyperpolarization of nuclear spins promises great advances in chemical analysis and medical diagnosis by substantially increasing the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Current methods to produce a hyperpolarized sample, however, are arduous, time-consuming or costly and require elaborate equipment. Recently, a much simpler approach was introduced that holds the potential, if harnessed appropriately, to revolutionize the production of hyperpolarized spins. It was reported that high levels of hyperpolarization in nuclear spins can be created by irradiation with a laser beam carrying orbital angular momentum (twisted light). Aside from these initial reports however, no further experimental verification has been presented. In addition, this effect has so far evaded a critical theoretical examination. In this contribution, we present the first independent attempt to reproduce the effect. We exposed a sample of immersion oil or a fluorocarbon liquid that was placed within a low-field NMR spectrometer to Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel laser beams at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and various topological charges. We acquired 1H and 19F NMR free induction decay data, either during or alternating with the irradiation that was parallel to B0. We observed an irregular increase in NMR signal in experiments where the sample was exposed to beams with higher values of the topological charge. However, at no time did the effect reach statistical significance of 95%. Given the measured sensitivity of our setup, we estimate that a possible effect did not exceed a hyperpolarization (at 5 mT) of 0.14-6%, depending on the assumed hyperpolarized volume. It should be noted though, that there were some differences between our setup and the previous implementation of the experiment, which may have inhibited the full incidence of this effect. To approach a theoretical description of this effect, we considered the interaction of an electron with a plane wave, which is known to be

  5. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Liliane Dias E Dias; De Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; Soares, Fernanda Cabral; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized - I) or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized - NI). In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old) with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old). Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months) after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4-6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly affected by institutionalization and time, two variables that interacted and reduced these scores. Moreover, I group reduced the Montréal cognitive assessment battery language tests scores 4 months before NI group. It remains to be investigated what mechanisms may explain the earlier and more intense language losses in institutionalized elderly.

  6. Postpartum Varicose Veins: Supplementation with Pycnogenol or Elastic Compression-A 12-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, Gianni; Dugall, Mark; Luzzi, Roberta; Ippolito, Edmondo; Cesarone, M Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    This open registry aimed to evaluate the clinical evolution of postpartum varicose veins (VVs), in healthy women after the second pregnancy, how these veins regain shape and competence, and possible treatments. The registry included two groups of women: (1) those who used elastic compression stockings, and (2) who used an oral venotonic agent (Pycnogenol, 100 mg/d). A total of 12 evaluation targets were established. Minor symptoms were scored in an analogue scale line. A visual analogue scale line evaluated the overall satisfaction relative to elastic compression or Pycnogenol. Overall 133 women completed the registry evaluation with at least 3 months of follow-up. The resulting two registry groups were comparable. At 3 and 6 months in the Pycnogenol group the number of veins and incompetent sites were lower. At 6 months there were 13.3% of patients with edema in controls versus 3.2% in the Pycnogenol group. Spider veins decreased in Pycnogenol patients. Cramps and other minor symptoms were less common in the Pycnogenol group. In both groups there was a significant improvement at 6 months with better results in the Pycnogenol group. The need for treatment was limited with a decreased need for sclerotherapy, surgery, and conservative treatments in the Pycnogenol group. The overall satisfaction was higher among Pycnogenol patients, and compliance was optimal. Re-evaluation at 12 months indicated that the variations in VVs and spider vein clusters and the associated symptoms did not change. Most remodeling appeared to happen within 6 months after the pregnancy. It was concluded that the use of Pycnogenol improves signs/symptoms of postpartum VVs, and venous function and shape seem to return faster to prepartum, physiological pattern with its use.

  7. Unexpected Arrest-Related Deaths in America: 12 Months of Open Source Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho, Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden, unexpected arrest-related death (ARD has been associated with drug abuse, extreme delirium or certain police practices. There is insufficient surveillance and causation data available. We report 12 months of surveillance data using a novel data collection methodology.Methods: We used an open-source, prospective method to collect 12 consecutive months of data, including demographics, behavior, illicit substance use, control methods used, and time of collapse after law enforcement contact. Descriptive analysis and chi-square testing were applied.Results: There were 162 ARD events reported that met inclusion criteria. The majority were male with mean age 36 years, and involved bizarre, agitated behavior and reports of drug abuse just prior to death. Law enforcement control techniques included none (14%; empty-hand techniques (69%; intermediate weapons such as TASER device, impact weapon or chemical irritant spray (52%; and deadly force (12%. Time from contact to subject collapse included instantaneous (13%, within the first hour (53% and 1-48 hours (35%. Significant collapse time associations occurred with the use of certain intermediate weapons.Conclusion: This surveillance report can be a foundation for discussing ARD. These data support the premise that ARDs primarily occur in persons with a certain demographic and behavior profile that includes middle-aged males exhibiting agitated, bizarre behavior generally following illicit drug abuse. Collapse time associations were demonstrated with the use of TASER devices and impact weapons. We recommend further study in this area to validate our data collection method and findings. [WestJEM. 2009;10:68-73.

  8. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie M. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43% participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77% recalled fall(s at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P=0.028. Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P<0.04. Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp. and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%. Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative.

  9. Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate simultaneous hyperpolarization and imaging of three 13C-labeled perfusion MRI contrast agents with dissimilar molecular structures ([13C]urea, [13C]hydroxymethyl cyclopropane, and [13C]t-butanol) and correspondingly variable chemical shifts and physiological characteristic...

  10. The 12-month effects of structured lifestyle advice and pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the 12-month effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a lifestyle advice program in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse stage II-III and the number of women who had sought further treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a 12-month follow up...... of a randomized controlled trial comparing a structured lifestyle advice program alone (lifestyle group) or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training (training and lifestyle group). Both programs consisted of six separate group sessions within 12 weeks. RESULTS: Data were available from 83 (76%) of the 109...... surgery. More severe anterior prolapse and more bladder symptoms at the 3-month follow up were significantly associated with having sought further treatment in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: At 12-month follow up, the effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a structured lifestyle advice program were...

  11. Analysis of correlation between initial alveolar bone density and apical root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment without extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cabrini Scheibel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI and external apical root resorption (EARR after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1 and after 12 months of treatment (T2. ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157. CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction.

  12. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S. Iyer

    2015-07-01

    Results: We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001, clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03, infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03, medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02, information use (+2, p=0.002]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002. Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4 at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions: Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use of limited resources, improve facility readiness, and ensure consistency of facility capacity to provide quality care at the district level.

  13. New perspective for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: Preliminary results at 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vanni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF increased in the last years. Compression fractures promote a progressive spine kyphosis increase, resulting in a weight shift and anterior column overload, with OVF additional risk (domino effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the OVF treatment outcome using Spine Jack ®, a titanium device for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures (PVAPs. Materials and Methods: From February 2010, a prospective randomized study was performed examining 300 patients who underwent PVAP due to OVF type A1 according to Magerl/AO spine classification. Patients enrolled in the study were divided in two homogenous groups with regards to age (65-85 years, sex, and general clinical findings. Group A included 150 patients who underwent PVAP using Spine Jack ® system; the second, group B (control group, included 150 patients treated by conventional balloon kyphoplasty. Patients underwent a clinical (visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index and radiographic follow-up, with post-operative standing plain radiogram of the spine at 1, 6, and 12 months. The radiographic parameters that were taken into account were: Post-operative anterior vertebral body height, pre-operative anterior vertebral body height, cephalic anterior vertebral body height, and caudal anterior vertebral body height. Results: Compared to the Spine Jack ® group, the kyphoplasty group required a little longer operation time (an average of 40 min-group A vs. 45 min-group B, P < 0.05 and a greater amount of polymethylmethacrylate (4.0 mL-group A vs. 5.0 mL-group B, P < 0.05;. The post-operative increase in vertebral body height was greater in the Spine Jack ® group than in the kyphoplasty group (P < 0.05. Discussion: PVAP are based on the cement injection into the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty does not allow the vertebral body height recovery. Balloon kyphoplasty allows a temporary height

  14. Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative in the past 12 months: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Lowford, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Eight years ago Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects launched in EU, Russia, the United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Throughout its duration, NEESPI served and is serving as an umbrella for more than 155 individual international research projects. Currently, the total number of the ongoing NEESPI projects (as on January 2013) is 48 and has changed but slightly compared to its peak (87 in 2008). The past 12 months (from the previous EGU Assembly) were extremely productive in the NEESPI outreach. We organized three Open Science Sessions at the three major Geoscience Unions/Assembly Meetings (JpGU, AGU, and this EGU Session) and three International NEESPI Workshops. The programs of two of these Workshops (in Yoshkar Ola and Irkutsk, Russia) included Summer Schools for early career scientists. More than 150 peer-reviewed papers, books, and/or book chapters were published in 2012 or are in press (this list was still incomplete at the time of preparation of this abstract). In particular, a suite of 25 peer-reviewed NEESPI articles was published in the Forth Special NEESPI Issue of "Environmental Research Letters" (ERL) http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI3 (this is the third ERL Issue). In December 2012, the next Special ERL NEESPI Issue was launched http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/focus/NEESPI4. Northern Eurasia is a large study domain. Therefore, it was decided to describe the latest findings related to its environmental changes in several regional monographs in English. Three books on Environmental Changes in the NEESPI domain were published by the University of Helsinki (Groisman et al. 2012), "Akademperiodyka" (Groisman and Lyalko 2012), and Springer Publishing House (Groisman and Gutman 2013) being devoted to the high latitudes of Eurasia, to Eastern Europe, and to Siberia

  15. 20 CFR 404.251 - Subsequent entitlement to benefits less than 12 months after entitlement to disability benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 12 months after entitlement to disability benefits ended. 404.251 Section 404.251 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Computation Rules for People Who Had A Period of Disability §...

  16. Disruptions in brain networks of older fallers are associated with subsequent cognitive decline: a 12-month prospective exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Liang Hsu

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and impaired mobility are major public health concerns. There is growing recognition that impaired mobility is an early biomarker of cognitive impairment and dementia. The neural basis for this association is currently unclear. We propose disrupted functional connectivity as a potential mechanism. In this 12-month prospective exploratory study, we compared functional connectivity of four brain networks- the default mode network (DMN, fronto-executive network (FEN, fronto-parietal network (FPN, and the primary motor sensory network (SMN--between community-dwelling older adults with ≥ two falls in the last 12 months and their non-falling counterparts (≤ one fall in the last 12 months. Functional connectivity was examined both at rest and during a simple motor tapping task. Compared with non-fallers, fallers showed more connectivity between the DMN and FPN during right finger tapping (p  = 0.04, and significantly less functional connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest (p ≤ 0.05. Less connectivity between the SMN and FPN during rest was significantly associated with greater decline in both cognitive function and mobility over the12-month period (r =  -0.32 and 0.33 respectively; p ≤ 0.04. Thus, a recent history of multiple falls among older adults without a diagnosis of dementia may indicate sub-clinical changes in brain function and increased risk for subsequent decline.

  17. 77 FR 61375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies or Distinct Population... two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as an...

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.

  19. 77 FR 29077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Downlist Three...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... propose to correct the scientific and common names of San Clement Island lotus. We are also announcing our 12-month finding on a petition to reclassify San Clemente Island bush mallow is not warranted at this... (San Clemente Island bush mallow), Acmispon (previously listed as Lotus) dendroideus var....

  20. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  1. Health-related quality of life among Danish patients 3 and 12 months after TIA or mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muus, Ingrid; Petzold, Max; Ringsberg, Karin C

    2010-01-01

    This paper aimed to describe health related quality of life three and 12 months after mild stroke or transient ischemic attack, TIA, to describe the perceived changes from pre to post stroke status and to examine sociodemographic determinants for health related quality of life....

  2. 78 FR 75313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Reclassify...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... address. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen P. Henry, Deputy Field Supervisor, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Reclassify Eriodictyon altissimum as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  3. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  4. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  5. Neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stents 6 months and 12 months after implantation: evaluation by optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhu-hua; Tetsuo Matsubara; Tsuyoshi Inada; Yasuyoshi Suzuki; Takahiko Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT)is a new imaging modality with resolution of approximately 10 μm and can be employed to visualize intracoronary characteristics.Sirolimus-eluting stents(SES)are susceptible to late thrombosis due to delayed re-endothelialization over the stent struts,which may result in acute myocardial infarction or death.This study was designed to evaluate the re-endothelialization and neointimal coverage of SES with OCT 6 months and 12 months after implantation.Methods A total of 36 patients enrolled in the study underwent OCT examination 6 months(17 patients)and 12 months (19 patients)after SES implantation.The strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts were evaluated by OCT.Results Forty-six SES and 6561 struts were analyzed.At 6 months,3041 struts(98.7%)were well-apposed and 39 struts(1.3%)were malapposed.At 12 months,3434 struts(98.6%)were well-apposed and 47 struts(1.4%)were malapposed.Furthermore,only 4 SES at 6 months(18.2%)and 10 SES at 12 months(41.7%)were fully covered by neointimal growth.The average neointimal thicknesses covering the analyzed struts at 6 months and 12 months were (42±28)μm and (88±32) μm,respectively.There were 1989 struts at 6 months(72.1%)and 1461 struts at 12 months (45.6%)with neointimal thickness <100 μm.Conclusions OCT was able to visualize the strut apposition to the vessel wall and neointimal coverage on SES struts.At 6-month and 12-month follow-up examinations most struts were covered with thin neointima,but few of the entire SES showed full coverage.To prevent late-stent thrombosis in the presence of uncovered stent struts,longer dual antiplatelet drugs therapy should be recommended.

  6. Predicting the Onset of Anxiety Syndromes at 12 Months in Primary Care Attendees. The PredictA-Spain Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval = 0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g = 1.17 (95% confidence interval = 1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313

  7. Patterns of mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months among dyads with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Haabrekke, Kristin; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Moe, Vibeke

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of mother-infant interaction patterns from 3 to 12 months among three groups of mother-baby pairs recruited during pregnancy: one group from residential substance abuse treatment (n=28), a second group from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n=22), and a third group from well-baby clinics (n=30). The mother-infant interaction at 3 and 12 months was assessed by the Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment (PCERA), which consists of maternal, child and dyadic subscales (Clark, 2006). Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze group differences and the changes in mother-infant interaction from 3 to 12 months. At 3 months, pairwise comparisons showed that the group with psychiatric problems had significantly more difficulties in the mother-infant interaction than the two other groups. The group with substance abuse problems was not significantly different from the two other groups. At 12 months, the mother-infant pairs in the substance abuse group showed significantly more relational disturbances than the non-clinical pairs, as well as a poorer affective quality of interaction than the dyads in the group with psychiatric problems. Analysis of change from 3 to 12 months showed that difficulties in the interaction increased among the mother-baby pairs in the substance abuse group, while improvements were displayed in the two other groups. These results underline that mother-infant pairs at double risk due to maternal substance abuse and other non-optimal factors, are in need for long-term follow up in order to prevent the development of negative interactional patterns.

  8. Hyperpolarized H2O MR angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Laustsen, Christoffer; Bowen, Sean;

    2014-01-01

    polarization followed by dissolution in D2O. A water 1H signal enhancement of 77 times compared with 4.7 Tesla was obtained. This corresponds to a polarization of 3.5% for the 3.9 mol/L 1H in D2O . Moreover, a T1 in excess of 20 s was achieved. The use of hyperpolarized water as a contrast agent presents a new...

  9. Hyperpolarization in coupled multi-spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchak, Sergey Evgen' evich

    2010-06-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments on multi-spin systems using variation of the external magnetic field were performed with high spectral resolution. The main focus was investigating the behaviour of hyperpolarized nuclear spin states in the coupled spin systems in its dependence on the strength of the magnetic field in order to discriminate field dependent effects from others and to optimize the hyperpolarization (HP) yield. All experiments were done on liquid state solutions, thus, the main interaction between the spins was scalar spin-spin coupling, which is not averaged in low viscosity liquids in contrast to dipolar spin-spin interaction. It was possible to separate the paramagnetic effect from the strong coupling effect. Several methods of hyperpolarization were explored: Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP), Parahydrogen Induced Polarization (PHIP), and Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). Experiments were performed with the aim to manipulate hyperpolarization by control of spin coherences and to exploit the encoded information for analytical purposes. Criteria for the polarization manipulation at variable field were derived and experimentally checked. The DNP experiments were conducted with driving the electronic spins off equilibrium by applying a train of radio-frequency pulses in comparison with cw irradiation. Strong hyperpolarization was obtained in the hydrogenation reaction of styrene with the singlet spin isomer of hydrogen gas (parahydrogen) and studied at variable field. While for the protons originating from parahydrogen the high polarization was observed at all field amplitudes, in low field also polarization of the phenyl ring protons of the product was detected as a result of polarization transfer among strongly coupled spins. CIDNP techniques were applied to amino acids, nucleotides and cycloketones. The most extensive investigation was performed on radical intermediates of the essential amino acid methionine and of

  10. Effects of Miniscalpel-Needle Release on Chronic Neck Pain: A Retrospective Analysis with 12-Month Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Li

    Full Text Available Chronic neck pain is a highly prevalent condition, and is often treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Limited clinical studies with short-term follow-up have shown promising efficacy of acupuncture as well as miniscalpel-needle (MSN release. In this retrospective study, we examined whether MSN release could produce long-lasting relief in patients with chronic neck pain.We retrieved the medical records of all patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain at this institution during a period from May 2012 to December 2013. Only cases with the following information at prior to, and 1, 6, and 12 months after the treatment, were included in the analysis: neck disability index (NDI, numerical pain rating scale (NPRS, and active cervical range of motion (CROM. The primary analysis of interest is comparison of the 12-month measures with the baseline. Patients who took analgesic drugs or massage within 2 weeks prior to assessment were excluded from the analysis. For MSN release, tender points were identified manually by an experienced physician, and did not necessarily follow the traditional acupuncture system. MSN was inserted vertically (parallel to the spine until breaking through resistance and patient reporting of distention, soreness or heaviness. The depth of the needling ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The release was carried out by moving the MSN up and down 3-5 times without rotation.A total of 559 cases (patients receiving weekly MSN release treatment for chronic neck pain were screened. The number of cases with complete information (NDI, NPRS, and CROM at baseline, 1, 6 and 12 months after last treatment was 180. After excluding the cases with analgesic treatment or massage within 2 weeks of assessment (n = 53, a total of 127 cases were included in data analysis. The number of MSN release session was 7 (range: 4-11. At 12 months after the treatment, both NPRS and NDI were significantly lower [3 (0, 9 vs. 7 (5, 10

  11. Struggling for Independence: A Grounded Theory Study on Convalescence of ICU-survivors 12 Months Post ICU Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    of getting well. Conclusion: The study offers new insight into post-ICU convalescence emphasising patients’ motivation for training to recover. The findings may contribute to defining the best supportive measures and timing of rehabilitation interventions in ICU and post ICU that may help ICU......Objectives: To explore and explain the challenges, concerns and coping modalities in ICU-survivors living with a partner or spouse during the first 12 months post ICU discharge. Design: Qualitative, longitudinal grounded theory study. Settings: Five ICUs in Denmark, four general, one neurosurgical....... Methods: Thirty-five interviews with patients and their partners at three and 12 months post ICU-discharge plus two group interviews with patients only and two with partners only. Findings: The ICU-survivors struggled for independence and focused chiefly on ‘recovering physical strength’, ‘regaining...

  12. Psychological and social predictors of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption over 12 months following behavioral and nutrition education counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Rink, Elisabeth; Hilton, Sean; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2004-11-01

    This study assessed psychological and social factors predicting 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption achieved by 271 men and women from a low-income population randomized to brief behavioral and nutrition education counseling. Greater increases in fruit and vegetable intake were achieved in the behavioral than in the nutrition education condition (1.49 vs. 0.87 portions per day, p=.021). Increases were predicted by baseline social support for dietary change but not by baseline psychological measures. However, short-term (8-week) changes in dietary self-efficacy, encouragement, anticipated regret, perceived benefits, and knowledge of recommended intake predicted 12-month changes in fruit and vegetable consumption independently of gender, age, ethnicity, income, and baseline intake. These factors accounted for 51% of the superiority of behavioral counseling over nutrition education.

  13. Development of socio-communicative skills in 9- to 12-month-old individuals with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Sigafoos, Jeff; Urlesberger, Leo; Pokorny, Florian; Didden, Robert; Einspieler, Christa; Kaufmann, Walter E

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the early socio-communicative development of individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) by undertaking a retrospective analysis of family videos. Videos were analyzed to identify existing communicative forms and functions. Analyses were undertaken on seven children who were later diagnosed with FXS. The children were filmed when they were 9-12 months old and before being diagnosed. Fourteen different communicative forms and six different communicative functions were observed. All participants were observed to express the functions of 'Attention to self' and 'Answering', but none indicated 'Requesting action', 'Requesting information', 'Choice making', or 'Imitating'. Results suggest that children with FXS may have a limited range of communicative forms and functions when they are from 9 to 12 months of age. However, further research is necessary to gain a specific developmental profile of socio-communicative forms and functions in FXS.

  14. A comparison of the carcass and meat quality of Martina Franca donkey foals aged 8 or 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Pucciarelli, Stefania; Ariani, Ambra; Polzonetti, Valeria; Vincenzetti, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    The effects of slaughter age (8 vs 12 months) were investigated on meat and carcass quality obtained from Martina Franca donkey foals. Sixteen male foals were used, eight were slaughtered at 8 months of age with a mean (±s.e.) final body weight of 101±18kg and the remaining 8 foals slaughtered at 12 months of age with a mean final body weight of 122±13kg. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were higher (Pdonkeys slaughtered at 8 months of age (54.03N) compared to the same muscle Longissimus Thoracis et Lumborum (LTL) collected in older animals (62.66N). Muscle glycogen content was higher (PDonkey foal meat showed an interesting content of essential amino acids and a notable percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in both groups of animals, giving a high nutritional value to this alternative red meat.

  15. Percutaneous Stabilization System Osseofix® for Treatment of Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures - Clinical and Radiological Results after 12 Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Albrecht Ender

    Full Text Available A prospective consecutive cohort study (follow-up study.Our study investigated whether implantation of an expandable titanium mesh cage (Osseofix® is a successful and safe minimally invasive therapy for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF. Our experiences, clinical and radiological findings after 12 months follow-up are presented. Kypho- and vertebroplasty are well-established minimally invasive procedures for the treatment of osteoporotic VCF. The main complications associated with both procedures are uncontrolled bone cement leakage. Therefore a suitable alternative has been investigated.During June 2010 to May 2011 24 patients were included with 32 osteoporotic VCF (T6 to L4. All of them were stabilized with the Osseofix® system. Preinterventionally we performed X-ray, MRI, and bone density measurements (DXA. Clinical and radiological results were evaluated preop., postop. and after 12 months postop. based on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, X-ray (Beck Index, Cobb-angle and CT.There was a significant improvement in the mean ODI (70,6% to 30,1% as well as a significant reduction in pain intensity (VAS (7,7 to 1,4 after 12 month. The mean kyphotic angle according to Cobb showed significant improvements (11,7° to 10,4° after 12 months. Postinterventional imaging showed only one case of loss of height in a stabilized vertebral body (3.1%. We saw no changes in posterior vertebral wall or adjacent fractures. Except for one pronounced postoperative hematoma we saw no surgical complications including no cement leakage.Stabilization of symptomatic osteoporotic VCF with Osseofix® system is a safe and effective procedure, even in fractures with posterior wall involvement. The clinical mid-term results are good at a very low complication rate. The Osseofix® system is an interesting alternative to the established procedures of cement augmentation.

  16. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 12-Month-Old Infants at 63–66° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birna Thorisdottir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the vitamin D status in healthy 12-month-old infants in relation to quantity and sources of dietary vitamin D, breastfeeding and seasons. Subjects were 76 12-month-old infants. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD ≥ 50 nmol/L were considered indicative of vitamin D sufficiency and 25(OHD < 27.5 nmol/L as being indicative of increased risk for rickets. Additionally, 25(OHD > 125 nmol/L was considered possibly adversely high. Total vitamin D at 9–12 months (eight data collection days included intake from diet and supplements. The mean ± SD of vitamin D intake was 8.8 ± 5.2 μg/day and serum 25(OHD 98.1 ± 32.2 nmol/L (range 39.3–165.5. Ninety-two percent of infants were vitamin D sufficient and none at increased risk for rickets. The 26% infants using fortified products and supplements never/irregularly or in small amounts had lower 25(OHD (76.8 ± 27.1 nmol/L than the 22% using fortified products (100.0 ± 31.4 nmol/L, 18% using supplements (104.6 ± 37.0 nmol/L and 33% using both (110.3 ± 26.6 nmol/L. Five of six infants with 25(OHD < 50 nmol/L had no intake of supplements or fortified products from 0 to 12 months. Supplement use increased the odds of 25(OHD > 125 nmol/L. Breastfeeding and season did not affect vitamin D status. The majority of infants were vitamin D sufficient. Our findings highlight the need for vitamin D supplements or fortified products all year round, regardless of breastfeeding.

  17. Effects of antipsychotics on bone mineral density and prolactin levels \\ud in patients with schizophrenia: a 12-month prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum prolactin levels (PRL) were examined in patients with schizophrenia.\\ud \\ud Methods: One hundred and sixty-three first-episode inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited, to whom one of three conventional antipsychotics (perphenazine, sulpiride, and chlorpromazine) or one of three atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole)\\ud was prescribed for 12 months as appropria...

  18. Intra-individual changes in anxiety and depression during 12-month follow-up in percutaneous coronary intervention patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Pelle, Aline J; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M;

    2011-01-01

    Only a paucity of studies focused on intra-individual changes in anxiety and depression over time and its correlates in cardiac patients, which may contribute to the identification of high-risk patients and point to targets for intervention. We examined changes in anxiety and depression over a 12......-month period and the demographic and clinical correlates of change scores using an intra-individual approach in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  19. Assessment and validation of prognostic models for poor functional recovery 12 months after whiplash injury: a multicentre inception cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Michele; Hendrikz, Joan; Kenardy, Justin; Kristjansson, Eythor; Dumas, Jean-Pierre; Niere, Ken; Cote, Julie; Deserres, Sophie; Rivest, Karine; Jull, Gwendolen

    2012-08-01

    Uncertainty surrounds prognostic factors after whiplash injury. Previously we identified a prognostic model for 6-month pain-related disability in a cohort of 80 participants with acute whiplash. Predictors included initial disability, older age, decreased cold pain thresholds, decreased neck rotation movement, posttraumatic stress symptoms and decreased sympathetic vasoconstriction. The objective of this study was to externally validate this model. In a multicentre inception cohort study, 286 participants with acute whiplash (I, II or III) were assessed at <3 weeks and 12 months after injury. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) was the outcome. Observed and predicted NDI scores were generated using the published equation of the original model. Model discrimination between participants with no or mild disability from those with moderate to severe disability was examined by receiver operating characteristic curves. Initial NDI and cold pain threshold predicted current observed 12-month NDI scores (r(2) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.58). There was a significant site effect, and the estimated marginal mean ± SE of 12-month NDI for Iceland (27.6 ± 1.79%) was higher than the other 3 sites (Melbourne 11.2 ± 5.03%, Canada 16.4 ± 2.36%, Brisbane 16.8 ± 1.17%). After adjusting for site, age and Impact of Events Scale scores regained significance (r(2) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.64). The tested model was not precise in predicting NDI as a continuous variable. However, it found good accuracy to discriminate participants with moderate to severe disability at 12 months (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.89 [95% confidence interval 0.84-0.94], P<.001) which is clinically useful.

  20. Effects of 12 months continuous positive airway pressure on sympathetic activity related brainstem function and structure in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Anthony Henderson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA is greatly elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA during normoxic daytime wakefulness. Increased MSNA is a precursor to hypertension and elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms underlying the high MSNA in OSA are not well understood. In this study we used concurrent microneurography and magnetic resonance imaging to explore MSNA-related brainstem activity changes and anatomical changes in 15 control and 15 subjects with OSA prior to and following 6 and 12 months of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment. We found that 6 and 12 months of CPAP treatment significantly reduced the elevated resting MSNA in individuals with OSA. Furthermore, this MSNA reduction was associated with restoration of MSNA-related activity and structural changes in the medullary raphe, rostral ventrolateral medulla, dorsolateral pons and ventral midbrain. This restoration occurred after 6 months of CPAP treatment and was maintained following 12 months CPAP. These findings show that continual CPAP treatment is an effective long-term treatment for elevated MNSA likely due to its effects on restoring brainstem structure and function.

  1. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulman Dorothy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from  mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( mIU/mL at 12 months to  mIU/mL at 24 months ( in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  2. Differential alterations in striatal acetylcholine function in rats during 12 months' continuous administration of haloperidol, sulpiride, or clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupniak, N M; Briggs, R S; Petersen, M M; Mann, S; Reavill, C; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1986-01-01

    Rats were treated continuously for 12 months with therapeutically equivalent doses of either haloperidol (1.4-1.6 mg/kg/day), sulpiride (102-109 mg/kg/day), or clozapine (24-27 mg/kg/day). After treatment for 3 and 12 months with haloperidol or clozapine but not sulpiride, striatal acetylcholine levels were increased. Striatal choline acetyltransferase activity was not altered by any drug treatment. Vmax for striatal acetylcholinesterase activity during the course of 12 months' treatment with haloperidol or clozapine, but not with sulpiride, tended to increase; Km was not altered by any drug treatment. Bmax for specific striatal [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was not altered by haloperidol or sulpiride treatment but was transiently elevated after 6 months of clozapine treatment, thereafter returning to control levels. Kd was not altered by any drug treatment. These findings indicate that alterations in striatal acetylcholine content caused by chronic treatment with some but not all neuroleptics are due to changes in cholinergic neuronal activity rather than neurotransmitter synthesis or destruction. The effects of haloperidol but not those of clozapine may be related to the emergence of functional striatal dopamine receptor supersensitivity. Since haloperidol (which is associated with a high prevalence of tardive dyskinesias) but not clozapine (which is not) had similar effects on striatal cholinergic function, the latter may not be related to the emergence of tardive dyskinesias during chronic therapy.

  3. Social cognition in schizophrenia, Part 2: 12-month stability and prediction of functional outcome in first-episode patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, William P; Green, Michael F; DeGroot, Michael; Fiske, Alan; Hellemann, Gerhard; Kee, Kimmy; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark J; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Sugar, Catherine A; Ventura, Joseph; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the longitudinal stability and functional correlates of social cognition during the early course of schizophrenia. Fifty-five first-episode schizophrenia patients completed baseline and 12-month follow-up assessments of 3 key domains of social cognition (emotional processing, theory of mind, and social/relationship perception), as well as clinical ratings of real-world functioning and symptoms. Scores on all 3 social cognitive tests demonstrated good longitudinal stability with test-retest correlations exceeding .70. Higher baseline and 12-month social cognition scores were both robustly associated with significantly better work functioning, independent living, and social functioning at the 12-month follow-up assessment. Furthermore, cross-lagged panel analyses were consistent with a causal model in which baseline social cognition drove later functional outcome in the domain of work, above and beyond the contribution of symptoms. Social cognitive impairments are relatively stable, functionally relevant features of early schizophrenia. These results extend findings from a companion study, which showed stable impairments across patients in prodromal, first-episode, and chronic phases of illness on the same measures. Social cognitive impairments may serve as useful vulnerability indicators and early clinical intervention targets.

  4. Hyperpolarization of 29Si by Resonant Nuclear Spin Transfer from Optically Hyperpolarized 31P Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dluhy, Phillip; Salvail, Jeff; Saeedi, Kamyar; Thewalt, Mike; Simons, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    Recent developments in nanomedicine have allowed nanoparticles of silicon containing hyperpolarized 29Si to be imaged in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging. The extremely long relaxation times and isotropy of the Si lattice make polarized 29Si isotopes ideal for these sorts of imaging methods. However, one of the major difficulties standing in the path of widespread adoption of these techniques is the slow rate at which the 29Si is hyperpolarized and the limited maximum hyperpolarization achievable. In this talk, I will describe an effective method for hyperpolarization of the 29Si isotopes using resonant optical pumping of the donor bound exciton transitions to polarize the 31P donor nuclei, and a choice of static magnetic field that conserves energy during spin flip flops between donor nuclear and 29Si spins to facilitate diffusion of this polarization. Using this method, we are able to polarize greater than 10% of the 29Si centers in 64 hours without seeing saturation of the 29Si polarization.

  5. Fast Padé Transform Accelerated CSI for Hyperpolarized MRS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Szocska Søvsø; Kim, Sun; Miller, Jack J

    2016-01-01

    is to show the utility of FPT in reducing of the scan time required for hyperpolarized (13)C chemical shift imaging (CSI) without sacrificing the ability to resolve a full spectrum. Simulations, phantom, and in vivo hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate CSI data were processed with FPT and compared...

  6. Results of a Second Year of Therapy with the 12-Month Histrelin Implant for the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Rahhal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP. The histrelin subcutaneous implant is safe and effective in the treatment of CPP for one year. Objective. The study evaluates a second year of therapy in children with CPP who received a new implant after one year of treatment. Methods. A prospective one-year study following an initial 12-month treatment period was conducted. Results. Thirty-one patients (29 girls aged 7.7±1.5 years received a second implant. Eighteen were naïve to GnRHa therapy at first implantation. Peak LH declined from 0.92±0.58 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.51±0.33 mIU/mL at 24 months (P < .0001 in naïve subjects, and from 0.74±0.50 mIU/mL at 12 months to 0.45±0.35 mIU/mL at 24 months (P=.0081 in previously treated subjects. Predicted adult height increased by 5.1 cm at 24 months (P=.0001. Minor implant site reactions occurred in 61%, while minor difficulties with explantation occurred in 32.2% of subjects. Conclusion. The histrelin implant demonstrates profound hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis suppression when a new implant is placed for a second year of treatment. Prospective follow-up of this therapeutic modality for the treatment of CPP is needed.

  7. Testosterone replacement therapy does not promote priapism in hypogonadal men with sickle cell disease: 12-month safety report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B F; Reid, M; Madden, W; Burnett, A L

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism, which is highly prevalent in men with sickle cell disease (SCD), affects quality of life and causes great morbidity. The safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in SCD in relation to priapism episodes is relatively unknown. Our aim was to monitor the safety of TRT in a cohort of seven hypogonadal men with SCD. Testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) 1 g was administered intramuscularly to adult men with homozygous SCD (Hb SS) having hypogonadism [serum total testosterone ≤12.0 nmol/L (346 ng/dL), reference range 12.5-38.1 nmol/L (360-1098 ng/dL)] for 12 months. Serum total testosterone, haemoglobin, haematocrit, renal and liver function tests, glucose and PSA measurements were done at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Trough serum total testosterone, haemoglobin and haematocrit were measured three monthly. Priapism events and adverse drug events were assessed every 3 months. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Androgen Deficiency in the Ageing Male (ADAM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires were administered at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Seven men with a mean age of 34.4 years were treated. Median total testosterone increased from 10.6 to 11.2 nmol/L (p = 0.46). Median serum lactate dehydrogenase levels decreased from 1445 to 1143.5 IU/L (p testosterone undecanoate with eugonadal intent for hypogonadism appears to be safe in men with SCD. This treatment does not appear to promote priapism occurrences and rather it possibly improves sexual function. Future prospective evaluations in larger groups of hypogonadal men with SCD are necessary to confirm these findings.

  8. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing on Anxiety in Children with Thalassemia in a 12-month follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shahnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and  Objective: Thalassemia is the most common genetic diseases in the world and especially in our country. For many reasons, including chronic disease, health care costs, the expected mortality Ray disease states such as anxiety, psychological and social problems in thalassemia. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR on anxiety of children with thalassemia in a 12-month follow up..  Methods: It was a clinical trial study, which was performed on 60 patients with Thalassemia in 2013-2014. A total of 60 thalassemic patients based on Beck anxiety inventory, selected using sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and Control groups. in experimental group, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy was perfomed in five sessions and The control group received no intervention. In order to collect information on demographic questionnaire and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used. data were gathered on anxiety symptoms at pretreatment, posttreatment and 12 month follow up and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measures and chi square. Results: The average age of the participants was 15.22±1.93  years old. This study shows that the mean or average level of anxiety children with thalassemia in the experimental group before and after intervention and in a 12-month follow up group 34.73 ± 5.62, 19.90 ± 2.48 and 19.23 ± 2.48 respectively; repeated measures ANOVA showed significant statistical difference (p.05 Conclusion: This study shows that Method of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as an alternative method to treat or reduce anxiety, aggressive children with thalassemia .Trained Nurses can use this new method is effective in the treatment of anxiety.

  9. Bridging the Gap across the Transition to Coparenthood: Triadic Interactions and Coparenting Representations from Pregnancy through 12 Months Postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuersten-Hogan, Regina

    2017-01-01

    Most family researchers agree that the coparenting relationship emerges some time during the transition to parenthood, though it is unclear whether it originates in pregnancy. Previous studies demonstrated that couples' positive representations of their future coparenting relationship and harmonious coparenting behaviors observed during prenatal triadic interactions predicted better postpartum functioning. However, previous studies did not simultaneously assess prenatal coparenting behaviors and representations as predictors of postpartum coparenting. If the coparenting relationship originates during pregnancy, these behavioral and cognitive aspects of prenatal coparenting should show associations with their postpartum counterparts. Based on family systems-, attachment-, and social-learning theory, the first aim in this study was to explore whether prenatal coparenting representations and behaviors are associated with postpartum coparenting, which would suggest that both cognitive and behavioral aspects of the coparenting relationship emerge during pregnancy. A second aim was to determine whether parental coparenting representations are consistent with concurrently observed coparenting behaviors. A sample of 55 couples expecting their first child was observed during triadic interactions during pregnancy and at 3- and 12-months postpartum. Observations were coded using the Coparenting and Family Rating System. Composite scores were formed to reflect harmonious and antagonistic coparenting behaviors. Parents' representations of harmonious and antagonistic coparenting were assessed via interviews and questionnaires during pregnancy and at 3- and 12-months postpartum. Results indicated that prenatal representations of harmonious and antagonistic coparenting were associated with and predicted unique variance in respective postpartum coparenting representations. Prenatal coparenting behaviors were also associated with coparenting behaviors observed during 3-months

  10. Kidney function during 12 months of strict metabolic control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Mathiesen, E R; Hegedüs, L

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who had Albustix-negative urine but elevated urinary albumin excretion (30 to 300 mg per 24 hours) were matched in pairs according to their urinary albumin level, blood glycosylated hemoglobin level, and sex and assigned randomly...... to either unchanged conventional treatment or continuous insulin infusion. During the next 12 months a significant improvement in glycemic control was observed in the insulin-infusion group, with a reduction in the mean glycosylated hemoglobin level from 9.5 to 7.3 percent. There was no change...

  11. Health-related quality of life is related to cytokine levels at 12 months in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Schoormans, Dounya;

    2010-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a condition with a high mortality risk. Besides traditional risk factors, poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is also associated with poor prognosis in CHF. Immunological functioning might serve as a biological pathway underlying this association, since pro...... and anti-inflammatory cytokines are independent predictors of prognosis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between HRQoL at inclusion (baseline) and pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels both at baseline and 12months, using a prospective study design. CHF outpatients completed...

  12. Prognosis and Course of Disability in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A 5- and 12-Month Follow-up Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.; Luijsterburg, P.A.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Ronchetti, I.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Miedema, H.S.; Koes, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    There is no strong evidence to support the claim that 80% to 90% of patients with low back pain (LBP) become pain-free within 1 month; on average, 62% (range42%–75%) of the patients still experienced back pain after 12 months.1 Studies following patients over a 12-month period have shown that LBP is

  13. Parental stress and child behavioral outcomes following substance abuse residential treatment. Follow-up at 6 and 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, T; Brady, K T

    2000-07-01

    Residential treatment programs specifically designed for alcohol/drug-addicted women and their children have become a popular treatment modality across the United States. Outcome evaluation of these programs are beginning to show promising results. In this article, outcome data from a study of a residential substance abuse treatment program for women and young children in rural South Carolina will be presented. Data from 35 women and 23 children in the area of addiction severity, parenting and child emotional and behavioral development at 6 and 12 months following discharge from a substance abuse residential treatment program is examined. Results showed that women who completed treatment had better scores on addiction severity and parental stress, and their children had improved behavioral and emotional functioning at 6 and 12 months after discharge from the program. These results suggest that residential treatment has benefits for mothers and their children. This data adds to the growing body of evidence supporting intensive and inclusive care for certain groups of individuals with substance use disorders during critical periods.

  14. Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, Mage=26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes.

  15. Employment-based reinforcement of adherence to oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users: 12-month outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly; DeFulio, Anthony; Everly, Jeffrey J; Donlin, Wendy D; Aklin, Will M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Umbricht, Annie; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Oral naltrexone could be a promising relapse-prevention pharmacotherapy for recently detoxified opioid-dependent patients; however, interventions are often needed to promote adherence with this treatment approach. We recently conducted a study to evaluate a 26-week employment-based reinforcement intervention of oral naltrexone in unemployed injection drug users (Dunn et al., 2013). Participants were randomly assigned into a contingency (n = 35) group required to ingest naltrexone under staff observation to gain entry into a therapeutic workplace or a prescription (n = 32) group given a take-home supply of oral naltrexone and access to the workplace without observed ingestion. Monthly urine samples were collected and analyzed for evidence for naltrexone adherence, opioid use, and cocaine use. As previously reported, contingency participants provided significantly more naltrexone-positive urine samples than prescription participants during the 26-week intervention period. The goal of this current study is to report the 12-month outcomes, which occurred 6 months after the intervention ended. Results at the 12-month visit showed no between-groups differences in naltrexone-positive, opioid-negative, or cocaine-negative urine samples and no participant self-reported using naltrexone at the follow-up visit. These results show that even after a period of successfully reinforced oral naltrexone adherence, longer-term naltrexone use is unlikely to be maintained after reinforcement contingencies are discontinued. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. CT volumetry of intravertebral cement after kyphoplasty. Comparison of polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate in a 12-month follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libicher, M.; Noeldge, G.; Kauffmann, G.W. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Vetter, M.; Wolf, I.; Meinzer, H.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Departments of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kasperk, C.; Grafe, I. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Fonseca, K.D.; Meeder, P.J. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Hillmeier, J. [St. Vincenz Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Limburg (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    This study was intended to measure the volume of intravertebral cement after balloon kyphoplasty with high resolution computed tomography (CT) and dedicated software. Volume changes of biocompatible calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were detected during a follow-up of 12 months. Measurements were compared with a control group of patients treated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Twenty-three vertebrae (14 CPC, 9 PMMA) of 12 patients were examined with CT using an identical imaging protocol. Dedicated software was used to quantify intravertebral cement volume in subvoxel resolution by analyzing each cement implant with a density-weighted algorithm. The mean volume reduction of CPC was 0.08 ml after 12 months, which corresponds to an absorption rate of 2 vol%. However, the difference did not reach significance level (P>0.05). The mean error estimate was 0.005 ml, indicating excellent precision of the method. CT volumetry appears a precise tool for measurement of intravertebral cement volume. CT volumetry offers the possibility of in vivo measurement of CPC resorption. (orig.)

  17. Early Therapeutic Alliance, Treatment Retention, and 12-Month Outcomes in a Healthy Lifestyles Intervention for People with Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Michelle; Baker, Amanda L; Halpin, Sean A; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha L; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M; Clark, Vanessa; Callister, Robin

    2016-12-01

    Engaging and retaining individuals with psychotic disorders in psychosocial treatments is difficult. Early therapeutic alliance, treatment retention, and 12-month outcomes were examined in a subsample of smokers with a psychotic disorder (N = 178) participating in a healthy lifestyles study comparing a telephone versus face-to-face delivered intervention. Therapeutic alliance was assessed using the Agnew Relationship Measure; primary outcomes were treatment retention and changes in symptoms and health behaviors. Contrary to expectations, early alliance did not predict treatment retention. However, elements of both client- and therapist-rated alliance predicted some clinical outcomes (e.g., higher confidence in the therapeutic alliance at session 1 predicted improvements in 12-month depression). Some modest interactions between early alliance and intervention condition were also identified (e.g., clients initially with lower self-perceived initiative, or higher therapist-perceived bonding benefited preferentially from the telephone-delivered intervention), highlighting the need to further examine the interplay between therapeutic alliance and treatment modality.

  18. The precision of 12-month-old infants’ link between language and categorization predicts vocabulary size at 12 and 18 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brock eFerguson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Infants’ initially broad links between language and object categories are increasingly tuned, becoming more precise by the end of their first year. In a longitudinal study, we asked whether individual differences in the precision of infants’ links at 12 months of age are related to vocabulary development. We found that, at 12 months, infants who had already established a precise link between labels and categories understood more words than those whose link was still broad. Six months later, this advantage held: At 18 months, infants who had demonstrated a precise link at 12 months knew more words and produced more words than did infants who had demonstrated a broad link at 12 months. We conclude that individual differences in the precision of 12-month-old infants’ links between language and categories provide a reliable window into their vocabulary development. We consider several causal explanations of this relation.

  19. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  20. Optical hyperpolarization of nitrogen donor spins in bulk diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, M.; Takahashi, H.; Segawa, T. F.; Boss, J. M.; Degen, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    We report hyperpolarization of the electronic spins associated with substitutional nitrogen defects in bulk diamond crystals. Hyperpolarization is achieved by optical pumping of nitrogen vacancy centers followed by rapid cross relaxation at the energy level matching condition in a 51 mT bias field. The maximum observed donor spin polarization is 0.9 % , corresponding to an enhancement of 25 compared to the thermal Boltzmann polarization. A further accumulation of polarization is impeded by an anomalous optical saturation effect that we attribute to charge state conversion processes. Hyperpolarized nitrogen donors may form a useful resource for increasing the efficiency of diamond-based dynamic nuclear polarization devices.

  1. THE FIRST RUSSIAN STRATEGIC STUDY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (REMARCA TRIAL: RESULTS OF 12-MONTH TREATMENT IN 130 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To introduce treat-to-target recommendations is an important task of modern rheumatology; however, there is still a diversity of serious problems relating to a scientific rationale and a clinical one for this strategy and to the possibilities of its implementation in real clinical practice, in the rheumatology service of the Russian Federation in particular, by taking into account the specific features of funding for high-tech medical care.Objective: to determine the efficiency and safety of combined therapy with subcutaneous methotrexate (MT and biological agents (BA when using the treat-to-target strategy in patients with active early and extended-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA who have risk factors for a poor prognosis.Subjects and methods.The results of the REMARCA (Russian InvEstigation of MethotrexAte and biologicals in eaRly aCtive inflammatory Arthritis trial of 130 patients followed up for 12 months or more were given. There was a female preponderance; mean age 48.9±13.9 years, rheumatoid factor positivity (86.9%; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity (89.2%. Seventy patients formed a subgroup of early RA (disease duration ≤6 months (mean 4.17±1.39 months; 60 patients were a subgroup of advanced-stage RA (disease duration >6 months (mean 30.8±32.7 months. In all the patients, therapy was initiated by using subcutaneous MT with its rapid dose escalation up to 20–30 mg/week and the achievement of the treatment goal (low disease activity or remission was checked every 3 months and depending on the result a decision had been taken to add or not to add a biological agent (BA (a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor or abatacept. If the former was insufficiently effective, it was substituted for a BA from another class.Results. Subcutaneous MT monotherapy provided remission or low disease activity in 49 (37.7% patients; a BA was given to 81 (62.3% patients. Following 6 and 12 months, low activity or remission

  2. THE FIRST RUSSIAN STRATEGIC STUDY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (REMARCA TRIAL: RESULTS OF 12-MONTH TREATMENT IN 130 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karatee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To introduce treat-to-target recommendations is an important task of modern rheumatology; however, there is still a diversity of serious problems relating to a scientific rationale and a clinical one for this strategy and to the possibilitiesof its implementation in real clinical practice, in the rheumatology service of the Russian Federation in particular, by taking into account the specific features of funding for high-tech medical care.Objective: to determine the efficiency and safety of combined therapy with subcutaneous methotrexate (MT and biological agents (BA when using the treat-to-target strategy in patients with active early and extended-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA who have risk factors for a poor prognosis.Subjects and methods. The results of the REMARCA (Russian InvEstigation of MethotrexAte and biologicals in eaRly aCtive inflammatory Arthritis trial of 130 patients followed up for 12 months or more were given. There was a female preponderance; mean age 48.9±13.9 years, rheumatoid factor positivity (86.9%; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anti body positivity (89.2%. Seventy patients formed a subgroup of early RA (disease duration ≤6 months (mean 4.17±1.39 months; 60 patients were a subgroup of advanced-stage RA (disease duration >6 months (mean 30.8±32.7 months. In all the patients, therapy was initiated by using subcutaneous MT with its rapid dose escalation up to 20–30 mg/week and the achievement of the treatment goal (low disease activity or remission was checked every 3 months and depending on the result a decision had been taken to add or not to add a biological agent (BA (a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor or abatacept. If the former was insufficientlyeffective, it was substituted for a BA from another class.Results. Subcutaneous MT monotherapy provided remission or low disease activity in 49 (37.7% patients; a BA was given to 81 (62.3% patients. Following 6 and 12 months, low activity or remission according to

  3. THE FIRST RUSSIAN STRATEGIC STUDY OF PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (REMARCA TRIAL: RESULTS OF 12-MONTH TREATMENT IN 130 PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Karateev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To introduce treat-to-target recommendations is an important task of modern rheumatology; however, there is still a diversity of serious problems relating to a scientific rationale and a clinical one for this strategy and to the possibilities of its implementation in real clinical practice, in the rheumatology service of the Russian Federation in particular, by taking into account the specific features of funding for high-tech medical care. Objective: to determine the efficiency and safety of combined therapy with subcutaneous methotrexate (MT and biological agents (BA when using the treat-to-target strategy in patients with active early and extended-stage rheumatoid arthritis (RA who have risk factors for a poor prognosis. Subjects and methods. The results of the REMARCA (Russian InvEstigation of MethotrexAte and biologicals in eaRly aCtive inflammatory Arthritis trial of 130 patients followed up for 12 months or more were given. There was a female preponderance; mean age 48.9±13.9 years, rheumatoid factor positivity (86.9%; anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity (89.2%. Seventy patients formed a subgroup of early RA (disease duration ≤6 months (mean 4.17±1.39 months; 60 patients were a subgroup of advanced-stage RA (disease duration >6 months (mean 30.8±32.7 months. In all the patients, therapy was initiated by using subcutaneous MT with its rapid dose escalation up to 20–30 mg/week and the achievement of the treatment goal (low disease activity or remission was checked every 3 months and depending on the result a decision had been taken to add or not to add a biological agent (BA (a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor or abatacept. If the former was insufficiently effective, it was substituted for a BA from another class. Results. Subcutaneous MT monotherapy provided remission or low disease activity in 49 (37.7% patients; a BA was given to 81 (62.3% patients. Following 6 and 12 months, low activity or remission according

  4. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  5. Effects of a 12-month educational intervention on outpatient clinicians’ attitudes and behaviors concerning spiritual practices with patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G; Perno, Kathleen; Hamilton, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Objective We report here the impact of an educational training program on attitudes and practices of physicians (MDs) and mid-level practitioners (MLPs) toward controversial spiritual practices, such as practitioner-led prayer, sharing personal religious beliefs, and encouraging patients’ religious beliefs. Methods In this single-group experimental study, 427 physicians and 93 MLPs affiliated with the Adventist Health System agreed to complete a questionnaire assessing demographics, practice characteristics, religiosity, and attitudes and behaviors at baseline, 1 month, and 12 months. Changes in attitudes and practices over time were examined and baseline predictors were identified using mixed-effects regression models. Results For the most part, attitudes regarding praying with patients, sharing faith with patients, and encouraging patients’ own religious faith did not change much during the 12-month educational training program. However, significant increases were found in frequency of praying with patients (MDs and MLPs), willingness to pray with patients (MDs), sharing their faith with patients (MDs), and encouraging patient’s own religious faith (MDs and MLPs). Among physicians, predictors of praying with patients across time were older age, Christian affiliation, and importance of religion, and among MLPs, they were older age, non-White race, and importance of religion. No interaction between time and religiosity was found. Conclusion Although attitudes toward these mostly controversial practices were largely unaffected, the frequency of praying with patients, sharing faith, and supporting patient’s own religious faith increased over time in both religious and nonreligious clinicians. Educational programs of this type may be important in changing clinicians’ behaviors regarding appropriate and sensitive engagement in such activities with patients. PMID:28210172

  6. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  7. Association between the number of injuries sustained and 12-month disability outcomes: evidence from the injury-VIBES study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available To determine associations between the number of injuries sustained and three measures of disability 12-months post-injury for hospitalised patients.Data from 27,840 adult (18+ years participants, hospitalised for injury, were extracted for analysis from the Validating and Improving injury Burden Estimates (Injury-VIBES Study. Modified Poisson and linear regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks and mean differences, respectively, for a range of outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended, GOS-E; EQ-5D and 12-item Short Form health survey physical and mental component summary scores, PCS-12 and MCS-12 according to the number of injuries sustained, adjusted for age, sex and contributing study.More than half (54% of patients had an injury to more than one ICD-10 body region and 62% had sustained more than one Global Burden of Disease injury type. The adjusted relative risk of a poor functional recovery (GOS-E<7 and of reporting problems on each of the items of the EQ-5D increased by 5-10% for each additional injury type, or body region, injured. Adjusted mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores worsened with each additional injury type, or body region, injured by 1.3-1.5 points and 0.5 points, respectively.Consistent and strong relationships exist between the number of injury types and body regions injured and 12-month functional and health status outcomes. Existing composite measures of anatomical injury severity such as the NISS or ISS, which use up to three diagnoses only, may be insufficient for characterising or accounting for multiple injuries in disability studies. Future studies should consider the impact of multiple injuries to avoid under-estimation of injury burden.

  8. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Huini Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all. Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  9. Oral hygiene and gingival health in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances--a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, Sladana Milardović; Viskić, Josko; Stefancić, Sanja; Sitar, Ksenija Rener; Vojvodić, Denis; Mehulić, Ketij

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and observe the oral hygiene and gingival condition in patients before and after fixed prosthodontic therapy through a 12-month period in combination with oral hygiene instructions. It was also analysed how factors, such as type of fixed prosthodontic appliance, constructive material, the position of a fixed partial denture (FPD) in the mouth, age and gender influenced oral hygiene. The dental arches were divided into three segments each and teeth and gingiva were examined using the Plaque and Gingiva Index by Silness and Löe, and for the mineralized deposits assessment the Calculus Index by Green and Vermillion was employed. The preliminary examination was conducted before the prosthodontic therapy, and the reexaminations were carried out 14 days, 1, 6 and 12 months after crown and/or FPD placement. A total of 93 subjects from the original study group of 146 patients attended all clinical examinations, while the rest was excluded. The sample consisted of 60 women, 33 men at age between 21 and 95 (average 51.8). A total of 39 patients had single crowns (C), 50 FPDs and 5 C+FPD. The frequency of plaque found during the preliminary visit was higher than that found in the other periods (p oral hygiene levels than patients with FPDs or C+FPDs (p = 0.001). Our results revealed no significant difference in oral hygiene status among patients with FPDs made of different materials (p = 0.083). The worst hygiene levels were found in patients with fixed prosthodontic appliances in both jaws (p = 0.012). Younger patients showed better hygiene levels than the older ones (p = 0.002). Our research showed that appropriate educational and motivational measures can lead to improved oral hygiene, even after FPD placement. Presumably, the oral health in a group of adult patients can be kept acceptable by providing a prophylactic oral hygiene program.

  10. Factors promoting health-related quality of life in people with rheumatic diseases: a 12 month longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases have a significant adverse impact on the individual from physical, mental and social aspects, resulting in a low health-related quality of life (HRQL. There is a lack of longitudinal studies on HRQL in people with rheumatic diseases that focus on factors promoting HRQL instead of risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between suggested health promoting factors at baseline and outcome in HRQL at a 12 month follow-up in people with rheumatic diseases. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in 185 individuals with rheumatic diseases with questionnaires one week and 12 months after rehabilitation in a Swedish rheumatology clinic. HRQL was assessed by SF-36 together with suggested health factors. The associations between SF-36 subscales and the health factors were analysed by multivariable logistic regressions. Results Factors predicting better outcome in HRQL in one or several SF-36 subscales were being younger or middle-aged, feeling painless, having good sleep structure, feeling rested after sleep, performing low effort of exercise more than twice per week, having strong sense of coherence (SOC, emotional support and practical assistance, higher educational level and work capacity. The most important factors were having strong SOC, feeling rested after sleep, having work capacity, being younger or middle-aged, and having good sleep structure. Conclusions This study identified several factors that promoted a good outcome in HRQL to people with rheumatic diseases. These health factors could be important to address in clinical work with rheumatic diseases in order to optimise treatment strategies.

  11. Detection of low-populated reaction intermediates with hyperpolarized NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Meier, Sebastian; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Duus, Jens Ø; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2009-09-14

    Hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy can provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution to detect, identify and quantify low-populated reaction intermediates, thus yielding direct chemical information on reaction mechanisms in real-time assays.

  12. Hyperpolarized nanodiamond with long spin-relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rej, Ewa; Gaebel, Torsten; Boele, Thomas; Waddington, David E. J.; Reilly, David J.

    2015-10-01

    The use of hyperpolarized agents in magnetic resonance, such as 13C-labelled compounds, enables powerful new imaging and detection modalities that stem from a 10,000-fold boost in signal. A major challenge for the future of the hyperpolarization technique is the inherently short spin-relaxation times, typically nanodiamond can be hyperpolarized at cryogenic and room temperature without the use of free radicals, and, owing to their solid-state environment, exhibit relaxation times exceeding 1 h. Combined with the already established applications of nanodiamonds in the life sciences as inexpensive fluorescent markers and non-cytotoxic substrates for gene and drug delivery, these results extend the theranostic capabilities of nanoscale diamonds into the domain of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

  13. LIGHT-SABRE enables efficient in-magnet catalytic hyperpolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Thomas; Truong, Milton; Coffey, Aaron M.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization overcomes the sensitivity limitations of traditional NMR and MRI, but the most general method demonstrated to date (dynamic nuclear polarization) has significant limitations in scalability, cost, and complex apparatus design. As an alternative, signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) of parahydrogen on transition metal catalysts can hyperpolarize a variety of substrates, but to date this scheme has required transfer of the sample to low magnetic field or very strong RF irradiation. Here we demonstrate "Low-Irradiation Generation of High Tesla-SABRE" (LIGHT-SABRE) which works with simple pulse sequences and low power deposition; it should be usable at any magnetic field and for hyperpolarization of many different nuclei. This approach could drastically reduce the cost and complexity of producing hyperpolarized molecules.

  14. 15N Hyperpolarization by Reversible Exchange Using SABRE-SHEATH

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a NMR hyperpolarization technique that enables nuclear spin polarization enhancement of molecules via concurrent chemical exchange of a target substrate and parahydrogen (the source of spin order) on an iridium catalyst. Recently, we demonstrated that conducting SABRE in microtesla fields provided by a magnetic shield enables up to 10% 15N-polarization (Theis, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 1404). Hyperpolarization on 15N (an...

  15. Antiretroviral treatment and quality of life in Africans living with HIV: 12-month follow-up in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Jaquet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has led to a significant improvement in survival of the HIV-positive patient but its effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL are less known and context-dependent. Our aim was to assess the temporal changes and factors associated with HRQOL among HIV-positive adults initiating HAART in Burkina Faso. Methods: HIV-positive people initiating HAART were prospectively included and followed over a one-year period in three HIV clinics of Ouagadougou. HRQOL was assessed at baseline and at each follow-up visit using physical (PHS and mental (MHS summary scores derived from the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item short-form health survey (MOS SF-36 questionnaire. Toxicity related to HAART modification and self-reported symptoms were recorded during follow-up visits. Determinants associated with baseline and changes in both scores over a one-year period were assessed using a mixed linear model. Results: A total of 344 patients were included. Their median age at baseline was 37 years [interquartile range (IQR 30–44] and their median CD4 count was 181 cells/mm3 (IQR 97–269. The mean [standard deviation (SD] PHS score increased from 45.4 (11.1 at baseline to 60.0 (3.1 at 12 months (p < 10−4 and the mean (SD MHS score from 42.2 (8.7 to 43.9 (3.4 (p<10−2. After one year of treatment, patients that experienced on average two symptoms during follow-up presented with significantly lower PHS (63.9 and MHS (43.8 scores compared to patients that presented no symptoms with PHS and MHS of 68.2 (p<10−4 and 45.3 (p<10−3, respectively. Discussion: The use of HAART was associated with a significant increase in both physical and mental aspects of the HRQOL over a 12-month period in this urban African population. Perceived symptoms experienced during follow-up visits were associated with a significant impairment in HRQOL. The appropriate and timely management of reported symptoms during

  16. HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cancer in HIV-infected women in Mumbai, India: 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaakidis P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Petros Isaakidis,1,2 Sharmila Pimple,3 Bhanumati Varghese,1 Samsuddin Khan,1 Homa Mansoor,1 Joanna Ladomirska,1 Neelakumari Sharma,1 Esdras Da Silva,1 Carol Metcalf,4 Severine Caluwaerts,4 Petra Alders,4 Evangelia E Ntzani,2 Tony Reid41Médecins Sans Frontières, Mumbai, India; 2Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece; 3Preventive Oncology Department, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India; 4Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, BelgiumBackground: HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and cancer than women in the general population, partly due to a high prevalence of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The aim of the study was to assess the burden of HPV infection, cervical abnormalities, and cervical cancer among a cohort of HIV-infected women as part of a routine screening in an urban overpopulated slum setting in Mumbai, India.Methods: From May 2010 to October 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières and Tata Memorial Hospital Mumbai offered routine annual Pap smears and HPV DNA testing of women attending an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic and a 12-month follow-up. Women with abnormal test results were offered cervical biopsy and treatment, including treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs.Results: Ninety-five women were screened. Median age was 38 years (IQR: 33–41; median nadir CD4-count 143 cells/µL (IQR: 79–270; and median time on ART 23 months (IQR:10–41. HPV DNA was detected in 30/94 women (32%, and 18/94 (19% showed either low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL/HSIL on Pap smear. Overall, >50% had cervical inflammatory reactions including STIs. Of the 43 women with a cervical biopsy, eight (8.4% had CIN-1, five (5.3% CIN-2, and two (2.1% carcinoma in situ. All but one had HPV DNA detected (risk ratio: 11, 95% confidence interval: 3.3–34. By

  17. Clinical outcomes and immune reconstitution in 103 advanced AIDS patients undergoing 12-month highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yi; QIU Zhi-feng; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang; ZUO Ling-yan; XIE Jing; MA Xiao-jun; LIU Zheng-yin; WANG Ai-xia

    2006-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) roduces profound suppression of HIV replication, substantial increase in CD4+ T cells, and partial reconstitution of the immune system. However, the numbers of subjects were small in previous Chinese studies. This study evaluated the efficacy and side effects of HAART in Chinese advanced AIDS patients.Methods One hundred and three antiretroviral drug naive AIDS patients were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups by their baseline CD4+ count: <100 cells/ μl or ≥ 100 cells/μl. Clinical, virological and immunological outcomes were monitored at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months during the course of treatment with HAART.Results One patient died and another was lost from the follow-up. For the remaining 101 HIV/AIDS patients at the 12th month during the HAART, the plasma viral load (VL) was reduced to (3.2±0.7) lg copies/ml, the CD4+ count increased to (168±51) cells/μl [among which the naive phenotype (CD45RA+CD62L+) increased to (49±27) cells/μl and the memory phenotype (CD45RA ̄) increased to (119±55) cells/μl], and the percentage of CD4+CD28+ cells increased. At the same time, there was a significant reduction of CD8+ T cell activation. In the 69 patients with the baseline CD4+ count <100 cells/μl, 37 had a VL <50 copies/ml; while in the 34 patients with the baseline CD4+ count ≥ 100 cells/μl, 25 had a VL <50 copies/ml, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The CD4+ T cell count showed a two-phase increase during HAART and a significant positive correlation was shown between the change of CD4+ count and plasma VL. Over 12 months of HAART,10 patients had gastrointestinal side effects, 13 peripheral neuritis, 7 hepatic lesions, 8 hematological side effects,8 skin rashes, 10 lipodystrophy and 1 renal calculus.Conclusions Immune reconstitution as well as the significantly improved clinical outcomes is observed in Chinese advanced AIDS

  18. Performance of a pilot scale microbial electrolysis cell fed on domestic wastewater at ambient temperatures for a 12 month period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Elizabeth S; Edwards, Stephen R; Dolfing, Jan; Cotterill, Sarah E; Curtis, Thomas P

    2014-12-01

    A 100-L microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was operated for a 12-month period fed on raw domestic wastewater at temperatures ranging from 1°C to 22°C, producing an average of 0.6 L/day of hydrogen. Gas production was continuous though decreased with time. An average 48.7% of the electrical energy input was recovered, with a Coulombic efficiency of 41.2%. COD removal was inconsistent and below the standards required. Limitations to the cell design, in particular the poor pumping system and large overpotential account for many of the problems. However these are surmountable hurdles that can be addressed in future cycles of pilot scale research. This research has established that the biological process of an MEC will to work at low temperatures with real wastewater for prolonged periods. Testing and demonstrating the robustness and durability of bioelectrochemical systems far beyond that in any previous study, the prospects for developing MEC at full scale are enhanced.

  19. The progression of 102 Brazilian patients with bipolar disorder: outcome of first 12 months of prospective follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Novis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prospective studies have shown that the course of bipolar disorder (BD is characterized by the persistence of symptoms, predominantly depression, along most of the time. However, to our knowledge, no studies in Latin America have investigated it. OBJECTIVES: To replicate international studies using a Brazilian sample to prospectively analyze treatment outcomes in the first year and to determine potential chronicity factors. METHODS: We followed up 102 patients with BD for 12 months and evaluated the number of months with affective episodes and the intensity of manic and depressive symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D17. Sociodemographic and retrospective clinical data were examined to determine possible predictors of outcome. RESULTS: Almost 50% of the patients had symptoms about half of the time, and there was a predominance of depressive episodes. Disease duration and number of depressive episodes were predictors of chronicity. Depressive polarity of the first episode and a higher number of depressive episodes predicted the occurrence of new depressive episodes. CONCLUSION: In general, BD outcome seems to be poor in the first year of monitoring, despite adequate treatment. There is a predominance of depressive symptoms, and previous depressive episodes are a predictor of new depressive episodes and worse outcome.

  20. Advertisements for medicines in leading medical journals in 18 countries: a 12-month survey of information content and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, A; Lundborg, C S; Westerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    The information content of 6,710 advertisements for medicines in medical journals was surveyed to provide a baseline for monitoring the effect of WHO's Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion. The advertisements (ads) appeared during 12 months (1987-1988) in 23 leading national medical journals in 18 countries. Local participants, mostly doctors or pharmacists, examined them. The presence or absence in each ad of important information was noted. In most ads the generic name appeared in smaller type than the brand name. Indications were mentioned more often than the negative effects of medicines. The ads gave less pharmacological than medical information. However, important warnings and precautions were missing in half, and side effects and contraindications in about 40 percent. Prices tended to be given only in countries where a social security system pays for the medicines. The information content of ads in the developing countries differed surprisingly little from that in the industrialized countries. Almost all the ads (96 percent) included one or more pictures; 58 percent of these were considered irrelevant. The authors believe it is a mistake to regard ads as trivial. If they are not considered seriously they will influence the use of medicines as they are intended to do, but read critically they can provide useful information.

  1. Infants Actively Construct and Update Their Representations of Physical Events: Evidence from Change Detection by 12-Month-Olds

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    Su-hua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates the effects of top-down information on 12-month-olds’ representations of physical events, focusing on their ability to detect an object change across different events. Infants this age typically fail to detect height changes in events with tubes even though they successfully do so in events with covers. In Experiment  1, infants who saw a tube event in which objects did not interact successfully detected a change in an object’s height, suggesting that object interaction affects infants’ categorization of physical events. Experiments 2 and 3 examined the fine-grained process of event representation. In Experiment  2, infants detected the change in the tube event if they were led by pretest exposure to believe that the event was conducted with a cover. In Experiment  3, infants who initially believed so updated their representation if shown a tube before object interaction occurred (but not after. Together, these findings provide new evidence that infants, like older children and adults, actively construct physical events. Whether they notice a change depends on their existing knowledge and the current representation of the event.

  2. The Effect(s of Vitamin A on Persistent Wheezing after Bronchiolitis in Infants Aged 1-12 Months

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    S Sharafian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causeS of lower respiratory tract infection and almost responsible for 1-3% of hospitalization among children under one year of age. Post bronchiolitis wheezing is the main risk factor for childhood asthma, and its control can decrease incidence of the disease in future. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin A on persistent wheezing after bronchiolitis. Methods: The present double blind clinical trial was conducted on 84 patients aged 1 to 12 months of age who were admitted in Imam Sajad Hospital of Yasuj from October 2012 to 2013. After viral bronchiolitis diagnosis of patients with history and physical exam, they were divided into two similar groups of control and case randomly. Control group received cold and wet nebulized oxygen and bronchodilator and case group received the same protocol together with 5000 IU/kg Vitamin A intramascularlly. Both groups were examined by the same physician before, one and two weeks after treatment and quality and severity of wheezing was recorded. Data were analyzed by statistical student T – test and chi square test. Results: Intensity and quality of wheezing was similar in both groups before the intervention(85/0 = p=0.858 whereas a significant reduction was observed in the severity of wheezing in the group receiving vitamin A compared with the control group (05/0> p<0.05. Conclusion: A significant decrease was observed in persistent wheezing after intramascular administration of a dose of vitamin A in patients requiring hospitalization due to viral bronchiolitis. Administrating one dose vitamin A intramuscularly in patients who need hospitalization due to bronchiolitis, may decrease post bronchiolitis and persistent wheezing.

  3. Effects of Motor Development Stimulation on Anthropometric Indices of Infants Aged 1-12 Months in Foster Care Homes

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    Arezou NikNezhad Jalali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first three years of life have a pivotal role in growth and development of infants. Extra-uterine environment largely affects brain development of infants during the first year of life.However,no specific programs are available for brain development stimulation in foster homes. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of motor development stimulation package on anthropometric indices of infants staying in foster homes. Method: This experimental study was conducted on 50 infants aged 1-12 months at Ali Asghar foster home of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Infants were randomly divided into two groups of intervention (n=25 and control (n=25. Motor development stimulation packages were used for intervention group three times a week for eight consecutive weeks (24 sessions, two hours each. Anthropometric indices of infants were evaluated using standard instruments before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.11.5 using independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: In this study, mean age of infants in intervention and control groups was 6.04±3.48 and 4.3±3.70 months, respectively. In total, 68% of infants were male, and 32% were female. After intervention, Mann-Whitney test results showed no statistically significant difference in height (P=0.47 and head circumference (P=0.11 of infants between the groups. However, independent T-test showed a statistically significant difference in body weight of infants (P=0.007 between the groups after intervention with the stimulation care package. Implications for Practice: According to the results of this study, use of evidence-based motor development stimulation package for eight weeks resulted in increased weight of infants, while it had no effect on height and head circumference. Therefore, it is recommended that complementary studies be conducted in this regard.

  4. Cardiovascular adaptations to 4 and 12 months of football or strength training in 65- to 75-year-old untrained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Hansen, Peter Riis; Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of 1 year of football or strength training on cardiovascular function in 65- to 75-year-old men. Twenty-six untrained men (age: 68.2 ± 3.2 years) were randomized to football training (FTG; n = 9), strength training (STG; n = 9), or control (CG; n = 8). In FTG, left...... ventricular (LV) internal diastolic diameter, end-diastolic volume, and mass index were 8%, 21%, and 18% higher (P 12 months, with no changes in STG and CG. After 12 months, LV ejection fraction was increased (P ... longitudinal two-dimensional strain by 8% and 6%, whereas right ventricular systolic function improved (P 12%, respectively, after 12 months...

  5. Curative effects of probing alone and probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital duct obstruction of children from 3-12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sun; Sui-Fang Chen; Jing Li; Huan-Huan Zhao; Su-Zhen Xie; Xue-Lin Huang; Shu-Ke Luo

    2016-01-01

    Background: To investigate the 1-time success rate of probing alone and nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal injection of levofloxacin ophthalmic gel on congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) in young children. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on 494 cases (647 eyes) of 3–12 month-old children with CNLDO between July 2014 and July 2015. Material obtained from the lacrimal sac was cultured to isolate infectious agents. Susceptibility testing was done. Children from 3–12 months of age who were found to be sensitive to Levofloxacin (n=493 eyes) were separated into two groups: 3–6 months of age (276 eyes) and 7–12 months of age (217 eyes). Each of the groups were then randomized into group A (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 102 eyes of 7–12 months of age) and group B (138 eyes of 3–6 months of age; 115 eyes of 7–12 months of age). Children in group A underwent nasolacrimal duct probing alone; those in group B underwent nasolacrimal duct probing plus nasolacrimal duct injection of levofloxacin and the efficacy of probing was evaluated. Results: The average detection rate of pathogenic bacteria in dacryocystitis was 75.1%, andStaphylococcus aureuswas found to be the main pathogenic bacteria (42.59%, 106 cases). Among children from 7–12 months of age, the 1-time success rate of nasolacrimal duct probing alone was 88.24% and the 1-time success rate of probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin ophthalmic gel was 96.52% (statistical signiifcance, P=0.02<0.05). Conclusions: Most pathogenic bacteria (96.81%) were sensitive to levofloxacin. Nasolacrimal duct probing combined with nasolacrimal duct injection of levolfoxacin may improve the success rate of probing in children older than 6 months of age.

  6. Traditional Baby Care Practices of Mothers of Children Aged 6-12 Months in The Provincial Centre of Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Kahriman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate traditional baby care practices employed by mothers in the Turkish province of Trabzon. Materials and methods: This descriptive study was planned around babies born in the provincial center of Trabzon between 1 June and 31 December, 2005, and aged 6-12 months at the time of the research. Data were collected in July-September 2006. In order to determine sampling size the prevalence of mothers using traditional practices was calculated at 50%, with a deviation of 0.05, giving a sample size of 384 mothers, the final number being put at 400. The study was performed at six clinics selected on the basis of settlement location and socioeconomic level out of 11 health clinics in the city center of the province of Trabzon. Data in the study are presented as numbers, and percentage distributions as mean±standard deviation. Results: It was determined that 69.8% of mothers breastfed their babies immediately and that 91.3% gave them colostrum. It was also determined that 3.7% of mothers resorted to various practices in order to ensure a male or female baby, 44.5% in order to facilitate labor, 25% in order to avoid puerperal fever, 63.5% in order eliminate postnatal pain, 88% to prevent their babies smelling, 86.2% for the shedding of the umbilical cord, 54.2% to protect their babies against jaundice, 73.7% to protect their babies from the evil eye, 26.2% so their babies would be good-looking and 40.7% to safely complete the first 40 days after childbirth. The main practices having a harmful effect on health in the study were swaddling, salting the baby, waiting for the call to prayer before breastfeeding the baby after birth and not giving colostrum. Conclusions: Traditions were observed to have an impact and to be persisting in child care in Trabzon. This suggests it will be useful for health personnel working in the field of infant care to evaluate the traditional characteristics in the locations where they work and to correct negative

  7. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijsterburg, P.A.; Verhagen, A.P.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Hoogen, H.J.M. van den; Peul, W.C.; Avezaat, C.J.; Koes, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    A randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2)

  8. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: A randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); R.W.J.G. Ostelo (Raymond); H.J. van den Hoogen (Hans); W.C. Peul (Wilco); C.J.J. Avezaat (Cees); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' ca

  9. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  10. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  11. Asthma-like symptoms in the first year of life and health-related quality of life at age 12 months: The Generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohangoo, A.D.; Koning, H.J. de; Jongste, J.C. de; Landgraf, J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Raat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study compares HRQOL among subgroups of infants with asthma-like symptoms to a subgroup without such symptoms and examines independent associations between asthma-like symptoms during the first year of life and HRQOL at age 12 months. Methods: Our study sample included 5,000 infants pa

  12. 12-Month comorbidity patterns and associated factors in Europe : results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J; Angermeyer, M C; Bernert, S; Bruffaerts, R; Brugha, T S; Bryson, H; de Girolamo, G; Graaf, R; Demyttenaere, K; Gasquet, I; Haro, J M; Katz, S J; Kessler, R C; Kovess, V; Lépine, J P; Ormel, J; Polidori, G; Russo, L J; Vilagut, G; Almansa, Josue; Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S; Autonell, J; Bernal, M; Buist-Bouwman, M A; Codony, M; Domingo-Salvany, A; Ferrer, M; Joo, S S; Martínez-Alonso, M; Matschinger, H; Mazzi, F; Morgan, Z; Morosini, P; Palacín, C; Romera, B; Taub, N; Vollebergh, W A M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidity patterns of 12-month mood, anxiety and alcohol disorders and socio-demographic factors associated with comorbidity were studied among the general population of six European countries. Method: Data were derived from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ES

  13. Depression after myocardial infarction is a risk factor for declining health related quality of life and increased disability and cardiac complaints at 12 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Spijkerman, TA; van den Brink, RHS; Ormel, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective effects of post- myocardial infarction (MI) depressive disorder on health status, including self reported cardiac symptoms, disability, and health related quality of life, at 12 months after MI while controlling for cardiac condition and health status at three mon

  14. Description of the Motor Development of 3-12 Month Old Infants with Down Syndrome: The Influence of the Postural Body Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudella, Eloisa; Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the rate of motor development in infants with Down syndrome in the age range of 3-12 months and identify the difficulties both in performance and acquiring motor skills in prone, supine, sitting and standing positions. Nineteen infants with Down syndrome and 25 healthy full term typical infants were…

  15. A Micro-Analysis of Mother-Infant Interaction. Behavior Regulating Social Contact Between a Mother and her 3 1/2 Month-Old Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel N.

    1971-01-01

    An example of controlling" maternal behavior with 3 1/2-month-old twins is studied by a method of frame-by-frame film analysis. Characteristic infant behaviors regulating social contact with the mother are identified and followed through 15 months. (Author)

  16. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  17. Hyperpolarized 2-oxoglutarate as metabolic agent in mr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 1-13C-2-oxoglutarate as contrast agent in13C Magnetic Resonance diagnostic technique (13C-MRI) for use in the diagnosis of cancer. In particular, upon administration of said 1-13C-2-oxoglutarate, signals of 1-13C-glutamate are detected. More in particular, different MR signals from13...

  18. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  19. Long term effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease after 12-months of aerobic exercise intervention - A worksite RCT among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim...... was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12......-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS: Between-group differences (pexercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min...

  20. The efficacy of modified direct lateral versus posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength after primary total hip arthroplasty at 12months follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenlund, Signe; Broeng, Leif; Overgaard, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    -seven patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were randomised to total hip arthroplasty with either posterior or lateral approach and evaluated pre-operatively, 3 and 12months post-operatively using 3-dimensional gait analyses as objective measures of gait function, including Gait Deviation Index, temporo...... in a randomised controlled trial. The aim was to compare the efficacy of total hip arthroplasty performed by lateral or posterior approach on gait function and hip muscle strength up to 12months post-operatively. We hypothesised that posterior approach would be superior to lateral approach. METHODS: Forty......-spatial parameters and range of motion. Isometric maximal hip muscle strength in abduction, flexion and extension was also tested. FINDINGS: Post-operatively, no between-group difference in gait function was observed. However, both hip abductor and flexor muscle strength improved more in the posterior approach group...

  1. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Luijsterburg, Pim; Verhagen, Arianne; Ostelo, Raymond; Hoogen, Hans; Peul, Wilco; Avezaat, Cees; Koes, Bart

    2008-01-01

    textabstractA randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2) the control group with general practitioners' care only. To assess the effectiveness of PT additional to general practitioners' care compared to general practitioners' care alone, in pa...

  2. The use of actigraphy for assessment of the development of sleep/wake patterns in infants during the first 12 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kevin; Adamson, T Michael; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2007-06-01

    Maturation of sleep/wake patterns is one of the most important physiological developments during the first year of life. In this study, we aimed to compare the use of actigraphy and parental sleep diaries (SD) for recording the development of sleep/wake patterns longitudinally in term infants in their own home environments over the first 12 months of life. Twenty healthy term infants (7F/13M) were studied for 3 days each month in their own homes over the first 12 months of life. Sleep/wake patterns were recorded using both SD and actigraphy (AW) (AW64, Mini Mitter Co. Inc., Sunriver, OR, USA). The development of sleep and wake was analysed over 24 h, during the day (08:00-20:00 hours) and during the night (20:00-08:00 hours). A total of 186 studies had complete data sets for both analysis methods. Overall, there was no difference between methods of measurement for determination of the total percentage of sleep or wake over 24 h, or for the total percentage of sleep or wake during the day. However, at night, AW scored less time asleep (73.3 +/- 0.9%) and more time awake (26.7 +/- 0.9%) compared with the SD (80.7 +/- 1.04% and 19 +/- 1.0%, respectively, P sleep during the day decreased from 51% at 1 month to 28% at 12 months with the 1-month values being significantly higher than all other ages, while mean percentage sleep at night was only different between 1 month and 11 and 12 months. In conclusion actigraphy provides a useful tool for assessing the development infant sleep.

  3. Effects of a 12-Month Multicomponent Exercise Program on Physical Performance, Daily Physical Activity, and Quality of Life in Very Elderly People With Minor Disabilities: An Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taguchi, Naoto; Higaki, Yasuki; Inoue, Shinichi; Kimura, Hiromi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although studies suggest that exercise training improves physical performance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among elderly people, most of these studies have investigated relatively healthy persons. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of a 12-month multicomponent exercise program on physical performance, daily physical activity, and HRQOL among very elderly people with minor disabilities. Methods The subjects consisted of 65 elders (median ag...

  4. 12-month follow-up of an exploratory ‘brief intervention’ for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Benedikt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months had previously been assessed and demonstrated. Findings N = 134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N = 72 (54 % of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in ‘deep inhalation/breathholding’ (Q = 13.1; p  Conclusions The results confirm findings from select other studies indicating the potential for longer-term and sustained risk reduction effects of BIs for cannabis use. While further research is needed on the long-term effects of BIs, these may be a valuable – and efficient – intervention tool in a public health approach to high-risk cannabis use.

  5. Effect of 12 months of testosterone replacement therapy on metabolic syndrome components in hypogonadal men: data from the Testim Registry in the US (TRiUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushner Harvey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that there may be a bidirectional, physiological link between hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome (MetS, and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT has been shown to improve some symptoms of MetS in small patient populations. We examined the effect of 12 months of TRT on MetS components in a large cohort of hypogonadal men. Methods Data were obtained from TRiUS (Testim® Registry in the United States, a 12-month, multicenter, prospective observational registry (N = 849 of hypogonadal men prescribed Testim 1% testosterone gel (5-10 g/day. Data analyzed included age, total testosterone (TT, free testosterone (FT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, and MetS components: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol. Results Of evaluable patients (581/849 at baseline, 37% were MetS+ (n = 213 and 63% were MetS- (n = 368. MetS+ patients had significantly lower TT (p Conclusion Hypogonadal MetS+ patients were more likely than their MetS- counterparts to have lower baseline TT levels and present with more comorbid conditions. MetS+ patients and those in the lowest TT quartile showed improvement in some metabolic syndrome components after 12 months of TRT. While it is currently unclear if further cardiometabolic benefit can be seen with longer TRT use in this population, testing for low testosterone may be warranted in MetS+ men with hypogonadal symptoms.

  6. A Case Study Assessing the Auditory and Speech Development of Four Children Implanted with Cochlear Implants by the Chronological Age of 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit May-Mederake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with severe hearing loss most likely receive the greatest benefit from a cochlear implant (CI when implanted at less than 2 years of age. Children with a hearing loss may also benefit greater from binaural sensory stimulation. Four children who received their first CI under 12 months of age were included in this study. Effects on auditory development were determined using the German LittlEARS Auditory Questionnaire, closed- and open-set monosyllabic word tests, aided free-field, the Mainzer and Göttinger speech discrimination tests, Monosyllabic-Trochee-Polysyllabic (MTP, and Listening Progress Profile (LiP. Speech production and grammar development were evaluated using a German language speech development test (SETK, reception of grammar test (TROG-D and active vocabulary test (AWST-R. The data showed that children implanted under 12 months of age reached open-set monosyllabic word discrimination at an age of 24 months. LiP results improved over time, and children recognized 100% of words in the MTP test after 12 months. All children performed as well as or better than their hearing peers in speech production and grammar development. SETK showed that the speech development of these children was in general age appropriate. The data suggests that early hearing loss intervention benefits speech and language development and supports the trend towards early cochlear implantation. Furthermore, the data emphasizes the potential benefits associated with bilateral implantation.

  7. Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: a 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilloway, Sinead; NiMhaille, Grainne; Bywater, Tracey; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Furlong, Mairead; Comiskey, Catherine; O'Neill, Donal; Donnelly, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic parent programme (IYBP) in reducing child conduct problems and improving parent competencies and mental health was examined in a 12-month follow-up. Pre- to post-intervention service use and related costs were also analysed. A total of 103 families and their children (aged 32-88 months), who previously participated in a randomised controlled trial of the IYBP, took part in a 12-month follow-up assessment. Child and parent behaviour and well-being were measured using psychometric and observational measures. An intention-to-treat analysis was carried out using a one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Pairwise comparisons were subsequently conducted to determine whether treatment outcomes were sustained 1 year post-baseline assessment. Results indicate that post-intervention improvements in child conduct problems, parenting behaviour and parental mental health were maintained. Service use and associated costs continued to decline. The results indicate that parent-focused interventions, implemented in the early years, can result in improvements in child and parent behaviour and well-being 12 months later. A reduced reliance on formal services is also indicated.

  8. The influence of maternal optimality and infant temperament on parenting stress at 12 months among mothers with substance abuse and psychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqveland, Torill S; Olafsen, Kåre S; Moe, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    The present prospective longitudinal study aimed to investigate the long-term impact of maternal optimality assessed during pregnancy on parenting stress at infant age 12 months. In this study the concept of optimality was utilized to investigate maternal variations regarding resources during pregnancy in relation to later parenting stress, among three different groups of mothers that were recruited from substance abuse treatment, psychiatric outpatient treatment and well-baby clinics respectively. The influence of infant temperament on parenting stress was also examined. All mothers were interviewed during pregnancy. At 12 months, infant temperament (Colorado Childhood Temperament Inventory; Rowe & Plomin, 1977) and stress in the parent and child domain (Parenting Stress Index; Abidin, 1955) were assessed. Results demonstrated higher levels of parenting stress among mothers in the clinical groups, compared to the non-clinical group. Furthermore, it was the maternal psychiatric optimality index in combination with child temperament characteristics (child emotionality) that contributed uniquely to stress in the parent domain, while stress in the child domain was significantly associated only with child temperament characteristics (both child emotionality and soothability). The association between maternal psychiatric optimality assessed in pregnancy, infant temperament and parenting stress when the infants were 12 months old, points to the importance of simultaneously addressing the mothers' own psychological distress, and to support positive mother-infant interactions. Each woman's individual optimality profile may be used to display needs of follow-up in order to prevent enduring effects of non-optimality on parenting stress.

  9. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p<0.001 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.009, resp.. SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms following SMILE at 1 month (p<0.001 and 3 months (p=0.003 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p<0.001. Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months.

  10. Recent improvements in transport and application of hyperpolarized Xe-129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Maricel; Heil, Werner; Bluemler, Peter [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Duewel, Mathis; Spiess, Hans W.; Muennemann, Kerstin [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) Xe-129 has numerous applications in medicine and fundamental physics. For separating HP Xe-129 from other gases used in the hyperpolarization process, it can be accumulated at 77 K. The conditions of this process must be carefully evaluated in order to minimize polarization losses. Different devices and results for this separation process are presented. Additionally, HP Xe-129 must be transported to other sites (e.g. clinics). Therefore, the relaxation time, T{sub 1}, must be kept as long as possible. Different strategies (e.g. admixing of gases and low-field storage) to achieve this goal are presented together with suitable home-build instrumentation to determine T{sub 1}. Finally, the application to the patient must be realized in a rapid and biocompatible way. Here we found a very elegant solution by using oxygenation membranes, which dissolve Xe instantaneously and without foaming in any suitable carrier liquid or even blood.

  11. Sampling Hyperpolarized Molecules Utilizing a 1 Tesla Permanent Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Sui Seng; Digialleonardo, Valentina; Eskandari, Roozbeh; Jeong, Sangmoo; Granlund, Kristin L.; Miloushev, Vesselin; Poot, Alex J.; Truong, Steven; Alvarez, Julio A.; Aldeborgh, Hannah N.; Keshari, Kayvan R.

    2016-09-01

    Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HP MRS) using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a technique that has greatly enhanced the sensitivity of detecting 13C nuclei. However, the HP MRS polarization decays in the liquid state according to the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the nucleus. Sampling of the signal also destroys polarization, resulting in a limited temporal ability to observe biologically interesting reactions. In this study, we demonstrate that sampling hyperpolarized signals using a permanent magnet at 1 Tesla (1T) is a simple and cost-effective method to increase T1s without sacrificing signal-to-noise. Biologically-relevant information may be obtained with a permanent magnet using enzyme solutions and in whole cells. Of significance, our findings indicate that changes in pyruvate metabolism can also be quantified in a xenograft model at this field strength.

  12. Mechanisms of hyperpolarization in regenerated mature motor axons in cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    We found persistent abnormalities in the recovery of membrane excitability in long-term regenerated motor nerve fibres in the cat as indicated in the companion paper. These abnormalities could partly be explained by membrane hyperpolarization. To further investigate this possibility, we compared...... the changes in excitability in control nerves and long-term regenerated cat nerves (3-5 years after tibial nerve crush) during manoeuvres known to alter axonal membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump function: polarization, cooling to 20 degrees C, reperfusion after 10 min ischaemia, and up to 60 s of repetitive stimulation...... at 200 Hz. The abnormalities in excitability of regenerated nerves were reduced by depolarization and cooling and increased by hyperpolarization and during postischaemia. Moreover, the time course of recovery of excitability from repetitive stimulation and ischaemia was prolonged in regenerated nerves...

  13. Sampling Hyperpolarized Molecules Utilizing a 1 Tesla Permanent Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Sui Seng; DiGialleonardo, Valentina; Eskandari, Roozbeh; Jeong, Sangmoo; Granlund, Kristin L; Miloushev, Vesselin; Poot, Alex J; Truong, Steven; Alvarez, Julio A; Aldeborgh, Hannah N; Keshari, Kayvan R

    2016-09-06

    Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HP MRS) using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a technique that has greatly enhanced the sensitivity of detecting (13)C nuclei. However, the HP MRS polarization decays in the liquid state according to the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the nucleus. Sampling of the signal also destroys polarization, resulting in a limited temporal ability to observe biologically interesting reactions. In this study, we demonstrate that sampling hyperpolarized signals using a permanent magnet at 1 Tesla (1T) is a simple and cost-effective method to increase T1s without sacrificing signal-to-noise. Biologically-relevant information may be obtained with a permanent magnet using enzyme solutions and in whole cells. Of significance, our findings indicate that changes in pyruvate metabolism can also be quantified in a xenograft model at this field strength.

  14. Optical hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in nanodiamond ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q.; Schwarz, I.; Jelezko, F.; Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical nuclear polarization holds the key for orders of magnitude enhancements of nuclear magnetic resonance signals which, in turn, would enable a wide range of novel applications in biomedical sciences. However, current implementations of DNP require cryogenic temperatures and long times for achieving high polarization. Here we propose and analyze in detail protocols that can achieve rapid hyperpolarization of 13C nuclear spins in randomly oriented ensembles of nanodiamonds at room temperature. Our protocols exploit a combination of optical polarization of electron spins in nitrogen-vacancy centers and the transfer of this polarization to 13C nuclei by means of microwave control to overcome the severe challenges that are posed by the random orientation of the nanodiamonds and their nitrogen-vacancy centers. Specifically, these random orientations result in exceedingly large energy variations of the electron spin levels that render the polarization and coherent control of the nitrogen-vacancy center electron spins as well as the control of their coherent interaction with the surrounding 13C nuclear spins highly inefficient. We address these challenges by a combination of an off-resonant microwave double resonance scheme in conjunction with a realization of the integrated solid effect which, together with adiabatic rotations of external magnetic fields or rotations of nanodiamonds, leads to a protocol that achieves high levels of hyperpolarization of the entire nuclear-spin bath in a randomly oriented ensemble of nanodiamonds even at room temperature. This hyperpolarization together with the long nuclear-spin polarization lifetimes in nanodiamonds and the relatively high density of 13C nuclei has the potential to result in a major signal enhancement in 13C nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and suggests functionalized and hyperpolarized nanodiamonds as a unique probe for molecular imaging both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhiddin A. Ozkor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial function refers to a multitude of physiological processes that maintain healthy homeostasis of the vascular wall. Exposure of the endothelium to cardiac risk factors results in endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an alteration in the balance of vasoactive substances produced by endothelial cells. These include a reduction in nitric oxide (NO, an increase in generation of potential vasoconstrictor substances and a potential compensatory increase in other mediators of vasodilation. The latter has been surmised from data demonstrating persistent endothelium-dependent vasodilatation despite complete inhibition of NO and prostaglandins. This remaining non-NO, non-prostaglandin mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilator response has been attributed to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor/s (EDHF. Endothelial hyperpolarization is likely due to several factors that appear to be site and species specific. Experimental studies suggest that the contribution of the EDHFs increase as the vessel size decreases, with a predominance of EDHF activity in the resistance vessels, and a compensatory up-regulation of hyperpolarization in states characterized by reduced NO availability. Since endothelial dysfunction is a precursor for atherosclerosis development and its magnitude is a reflection of future risk, then the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction need to be fully understood, so that adequate therapeutic interventions can be designed.

  16. Reduction in urinary albumin excretion with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimoto H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Tae Sasakabe,2 Hiroyuki Umegaki,3 Kenji Wakai41Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanIntroduction: Urinary albumin excretion (UAE is a marker of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. Although a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD has been shown to effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, its effects on UAE remain unknown.Patients and methods: A total of 124 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.6 ± 9.2 years with T2DM were instructed to consume a moderate LCD (1734 ± 416 kcal/d; % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 38:37:19 for 12 months. We measured the levels of UAE, hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (IRI, and the serum lipid profiles in the patients and recorded their dosages of antidiabetic drugs during this 12-month period.Results: Of the 124 patients, 68 were normoalbuminuric, 50 were microalbuminuric, and six were macroalbuminuric at baseline. The patients had relatively good compliance with the moderate LCD diet. After 12 months, the mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, IRI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, and the body mass index of all participants significantly decreased (P = 0.003 for IRI and P < 0.001 for the other parameters. Among the microalbuminuric patients (n = 50, remission to normoalbuminuria was frequently achieved (52% and the geometric mean UAE significantly decreased by 53% (95% confidence interval: 43, 62 over 12 months (P < 0.001. After patients taking an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker were excluded, the UAE significantly decreased by 41% (n = 26, 95% confidence interval: 25, 54; P < 0.001. Moreover, the reduction in UAE was significantly and

  17. Field dependence of T1 for hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattergoon, N.; Martnez-Santiesteban, F.; Handler, W. B.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo metabolism of hyperpolarized pyruvate has been demonstrated to be an important probe of cellular glycolysis in diseases such as cancer. The usefulness of hyperpolarized 13C imaging is dependent on the relaxation rates of the 13C-enriched substrates, which in turn depend on chemical...... conformation and properties of the dissolution media such as buffer composition, solution pH, temperature and magnetic field. We have measured the magnetic field dependence of the spin–lattice relaxation time of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate using field-cycled relaxometry. [1-13C]pyruvate was hyperpolarized...

  18. Physical therapy plus general practitioners' care versus general practitioners' care alone for sciatica: a randomised clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; van den Hoogen, Hans J M M; Peul, Wilco C; Avezaat, Cees J J; Koes, Bart W

    2008-04-01

    A randomised clinical trial in primary care with a 12-months follow-up period. About 135 patients with acute sciatica (recruited from May 2003 to November 2004) were randomised in two groups: (1) the intervention group received physical therapy (PT) added to the general practitioners' care, and (2) the control group with general practitioners' care only. To assess the effectiveness of PT additional to general practitioners' care compared to general practitioners' care alone, in patients with acute sciatica. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of PT in patients with sciatica. The primary outcome was patients' global perceived effect (GPE). Secondary outcomes were severity of leg and back pain, severity of disability, general health and absence from work. The outcomes were measured at 3, 6, 12 and 52 weeks after randomisation. At 3 months follow-up, 70% of the intervention group and 62% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.5). At 12 months follow-up, 79% of the intervention group and 56% of the control group reported improvement (RR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1; 1.8). No significant differences regarding leg pain, functional status, fear of movement and health status were found at short-term or long-term follow-up. At 12 months follow-up, evidence was found that PT added to general practitioners' care is only more effective regarding GPE, and not more cost-effective in the treatment of patients with acute sciatica than general practitioners' care alone. There are indications that PT is especially effective regarding GPE in patients reporting severe disability at presentation.

  19. Identification of chronic heart failure patients with a high 12-month mortality risk using biomarkers including plasma C-terminal pro-endothelin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa A Jankowska

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that assessment of plasma C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1, a stable endothelin-1 precursor fragment, is of prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, beyond other prognosticators, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. METHODS: We examined 491 patients with systolic CHF (age: 63±11 years, 91% men, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class [I/II/III/IV]: 9%/45%/38%/8%, 69% ischemic etiology. Plasma CT-proET-1 was detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Increasing CT-proET-1 was a predictor of increased cardiovascular mortality at 12-months of follow-up (standardized hazard ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.95, p = 0.03 after adjusting for NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, age, creatinine, NYHA class. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, areas under curve for 12-month follow-up were similar for CT-proET-1 and NT-proBNP (p = 0.40. Both NT-proBNP and CT-proET-1 added prognostic value to a base model that included LVEF, age, creatinine, and NYHA class. Adding CT-proET-1 to the base model had stronger prognostic power (p<0.01 than adding NT-proBNP (p<0.01. Adding CT-proET-1 to NT-proBNP in this model yielded further prognostic information (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CT-proET-1 constitutes a novel predictor of increased 12-month cardiovascular mortality in patients with CHF. High CT-proET-1 together with high NT-proBNP enable to identify patients with CHF and particularly unfavourable outcomes.

  20. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: a 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina B W; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Oernboel, Eva

    2008-01-01

    identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with affected work capacity at the 12-month follow-up were pre-collision unspecified pain condition (OR=2.4, p=0.002) and socio-demographic characteristics: female gender, low educational level, unemployment and blue collar worker...... with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However, no conclusions on causality can be drawn. Personal characteristics before the collision are important for recovery and attention to pre-collision characteristics...... may contribute to the prevention of poor recovery after acute whiplash trauma....

  1. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenić, Andrej; Boltze, Johannes; Deten, Alexander; Peters, Myriam; Andjus, Pavle; Radenović, Lidija

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m)) in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD), OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m), visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m) during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m) negativation. In case no Δψ(m) negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD) induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m) hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen) and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m) during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  2. Astrocytic mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization following extended oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Korenić

    Full Text Available Astrocytes can tolerate longer periods of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD as compared to neurons. The reasons for this reduced vulnerability are not well understood. Particularly, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ(m in astrocytes, an indicator of the cellular redox state, have not been investigated during reperfusion after extended OGD exposure. Here, we subjected primary mouse astrocytes to glucose deprivation (GD, OGD and combinations of both conditions varying in duration and sequence. Changes in Δψ(m, visualized by change in the fluorescence of JC-1, were investigated within one hour after reconstitution of oxygen and glucose supply, intended to model in vivo reperfusion. In all experiments, astrocytes showed resilience to extended periods of OGD, which had little effect on Δψ(m during reperfusion, whereas GD caused a robust Δψ(m negativation. In case no Δψ(m negativation was observed after OGD, subsequent chemical oxygen deprivation (OD induced by sodium azide caused depolarization, which, however, was significantly delayed as compared to normoxic group. When GD preceded OD for 12 h, Δψ(m hyperpolarization was induced by both GD and subsequent OD, but significant interaction between these conditions was not detected. However, when GD was extended to 48 h preceding OGD, hyperpolarization enhanced during reperfusion. This implicates synergistic effects of both conditions in that sequence. These findings provide novel information regarding the role of the two main substrates of electron transport chain (glucose and oxygen and their hyperpolarizing effect on Δψ(m during substrate deprivation, thus shedding new light on mechanisms of astrocyte resilience to prolonged ischemic injury.

  3. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Henrik B; Swift, Peter G F; Holl, Reinhard W;

    2010-01-01

    To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).......To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D)....

  4. Longitudinal study of pesticide residue levels in human milk from Western Australia during 12 months of lactation: Exposure assessment for infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gridneva, Zoya; Gay, Melvin C. L.; Lai, Ching T.; Trengove, Robert D.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of pesticides in human milk (HM) is of great concern due to the potential health effects for the breastfed infant. To determine the relationships between HM pesticides and infant growth and development, a longitudinal study was conducted. HM samples (n = 99) from 16 mothers were collected at 2, 5, 9 and 12 months of lactation. A validated QuEChERS method and Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. Only p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and β-HCH were detected with a mean concentration (±SD) of 52.25 ± 49.88 ng/g fat, 27.67 ± 20.96 ng/g fat and 48.00 ± 22.46 ng/g fat respectively. The concentrations of the detected pesticides decreased significantly throughout the first year of lactation. No significant relationships between HM p,p’-DDE and infant growth outcomes: weight, length, head circumference and percentage fat mass were detected. The actual daily intake (ADI) of total DDTs in this cohort was 14-1000 times lower than the threshold reference and significantly lower than the estimated daily intake (EDI). Further, the ADI decreased significantly throughout the first 12 months of lactation.

  5. Catheter-based renal denervation for resistant hypertension: 12-month results of the EnligHTN I first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Tsioufis, Costas P; Sinhal, Ajay; Chew, Derek P; Meredith, Ian T; Malaiapan, Yuvi; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2014-09-01

    Renal denervation has emerged as a novel approach for the treatment of patients with drug-resistant hypertension. To date, only limited data have been published using multielectrode radiofrequency ablation systems. In this article, we present the 12-month data of EnligHTN I, a first-in-human study using a multielectrode ablation catheter. EnligHTN I enrolled 46 patients (average age, 60±10 years; on average 4.7±1.0 medications) with drug-resistant hypertension. Eligible patients were on ≥3 antihypertensive medications and had a systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥160 mm Hg (≥150 mm Hg for diabetics). Bilateral renal artery ablation was performed using a percutaneous femoral approach and standardized techniques. The average baseline office BP was 176/96 mm Hg, average 24-hour ambulatory BP was 150/83 mm Hg, and average home BP was 158/90 mm Hg. The average reductions (mm Hg) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months were as follows: office: -28/-10, -27/-10, -26/-10, and -27/-11 mm Hg (Phypertension. Home BP measurements parallel measurements obtained with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring.

  6. Glucocorticoids increase impairments in learning and memory due to elevated amyloid precursor protein expression and neuronal apoptosis in 12-month old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Wei-Ping; Yao, Yu-You; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wu, Guo-Cui; Gong, Hui-Ling

    2010-02-25

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder marked by a progressive loss of memory and cognitive function. Stress level glucocorticoids are correlated with dementia progression in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, twelve month old male mice were chronically treated for 21 days with stress-level dexamethasone (5mg/kg). We investigated the pathological consequences of dexamethasone administration on learning and memory impairments, amyloid precursor protein processing and neuronal cell apoptosis in 12-month old male mice. Our results indicate that dexamethasone can induce learning and memory impairments, neuronal cell apoptosis, and mRNA levels of the amyloid precursor protein, beta-secretase and caspase-3 are selectively increased after dexamethasone administration. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that amyloid precursor protein, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in the cortex and CA1, CA3 regions of the hippocampus are significantly increased in 12-month old male mice. Furthermore, dexamethasone treatment induced cortex and hippocampus neuron apoptosis as well as increasing the activity of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These findings suggest that high levels of glucocorticoids, found in Alzheimer's disease, are not merely a consequence of the disease process but rather play a central role in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Stress management or pharmacological reduction of glucocorticoids warrant additional consideration of the regimen used in Alzheimer's disease therapies.

  7. Predictors of outcome after 6 and 12 months following anthroposophic therapy for adult outpatients with chronic disease: a secondary analysis from a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich Stefan N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine is a physician-provided complementary therapy system involving counselling, artistic and physical therapies, and special medications. The purpose of this analysis was to identify predictors of symptom improvement in patients receiving anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases. Methods 913 adult outpatients from Germany participated in a prospective cohort study. Patients were starting anthroposophic treatment for mental (30.4% of patients, n = 278/913, musculoskeletal (20.2%, neurological (7.6%, genitourinary (7.4% or respiratory disorders (7.2% or other chronic indications. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the improvement of Symptom Score (patients' assessment, 0: not present, 10: worst possible after 6 and 12 months as dependent variables. 61 independent variables pertaining to socio-demographics, life style, disease status, co-morbidity, health status (SF-36, depression, and therapy factors were analysed. Results Compared to baseline, Symptom Score improved by average 2.53 points (95% confidence interval 2.39-2.68, p Conclusion In adult outpatients receiving anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases, symptom improvement after 6 and 12 months was predicted by baseline symptoms, health status, disease duration, education, and therapy goal. Other variables were not associated with the outcome. This secondary predictor analysis of data from a pre-post study does not allow for causal conclusions; the results are hypothesis generating and need verification in subsequent studies.

  8. Quality of life changes following inpatient and outpatient treatment in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a study with 12 months follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertenstein Elisabeth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL is increasingly recognized as a critical outcome parameter in mental health studies. The aim of this study was to investigate different domains of the QoL in persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD before and after a multimodal, disorder-specific in- and outpatient treatment. Methods Data of 73 persons with OCD treated in an inpatient setting followed by outpatient treatment were analyzed. The World Health Organization Quality of Life abbreviated (a multidimensional measure of the QoL and the Beck Depression Inventory were administered prior to (baseline and 12 months after the inpatient treatment (follow-up. Results At baseline, participants reported a significantly diminished psychological, social, physical, and global QoL compared to the German general population. Environmental QoL was not impaired in the present sample. The QoL was significantly improved at follow-up, except for social QoL, but remained below norm values. The QoL improvement was predicted by improvements of depressive symptoms. Conclusions The results indicate that persons with OCD suffer from a very low QoL. The QoL was significantly improved after 12 months of intensive state-of-the-art treatment. However, the QoL indices remained considerably lower than population norm values, indicating the need for additional research into novel treatment options for persons with OCD.

  9. Circumcision Complications Associated with the Plastibell Device and Conventional Dissection Surgery: A Trial of 586 Infants of Ages up to 12 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abdollah Mousavi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dissection surgery (CDS or using the Plastibell device (PD is the method most frequently employed for circumcision. The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods in terms of the incidence of complications in infants of ages up to 12 months. In a prospective study, 586 infants equal to or less than 12 months were studied from 2002 to 2008, and complications between the two groups were assessed. The overall rates of complications in CDS and PD groups were 1.95% and 7.08%, respectively. In each group, the rate of complications was not different among children who had a normal weight, compared to those of a lower or upper (10% weight. There was a significant positive correlation between the age and weight of subjects within the time of ring separation (<.001. The results of this study suggest the PD method for neonates and low-weight infants with thin prepuce and the CDS for other infants.

  10. A 12-month clinical investigation with a 24-day regimen containing 15 microg ethinylestradiol plus 60 microg gestodene with respect to hemostasis and cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, F; Genazzani, A R; Ricci, C; De Negri, F; Bersi, C; Carmassi, F

    2001-06-01

    The effects of a 24-day regimen containing 15 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) plus 60 microg gestodene on cycle control and on hemostasis, were evaluated in 58 healthy women (age 19-47 years). All women received the pill for 12 months. Withdrawal bleeding at every cycle during the tablet-free interval was experienced by 84.5% of the women. The overall incidence of irregular bleedings was 19.3%. Hemostasis was evaluated in 20 women. No changes in plasma fibrinogen concentrations, nor in prothrombin fragment F1+2 were observed. A slight increase in thrombin-antithrombin III complexes was observed after 6 and 12 months of oral contraceptive use. Antithrombin III activity significantly increased after one-year of pill intake. The concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor, both antigen and activity, did not change. These results show that very low doses of EE, such as 15 microg, do not impair hemostasis in healthy females. However, the reduction for the EE dose is responsible of some of the effects on cycle control.

  11. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting for Palliation of Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction: Effectiveness and Efficacy on 255 Patients with 12-Month's Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Søren; González-Huix, Ferran; Vandervoort, Jo G.; Repici, Alessandro; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Grund, Karl E.; Goldberg, Paul; Registry Group, The WallFlex Colonic

    2012-01-01

    Background. Self-expanding metal stents can alleviate malignant colonic obstruction in incurable patients and avoid palliative stoma surgery. Objective. Evaluate stent effectiveness and safety on palliation of patients with malignant colorectal strictures. Design. Two prospective, one Spanish and one global, multicenter studies. Settings. 39 centers (22 academic, 17 community hospitals) from 13 countries. Patients. A total of 257 patients were enrolled, and 255 patients were treated with a WallFlex uncovered enteral colonic stent. Follow-up was up to 12 months or until death or retreatment. Interventions(s). Self-expanding metal stent placement. Main Outcome Measures. Procedural success, clinical success, and safety. Results. Procedural success was 98.4% (251). Clinical success rates were 87.8% at 30 days, 89.7% at 3 months, 92.8% at 6 months, and 96% at 12 months. Overall perforation rate was 5.1%. Overall migration rate was 5.5%. Overall death rate during follow-up was 48.6% (124), with 67.7% of deaths related to the patient's colorectal cancer, unrelated in 32.3%. Only 2 deaths were related to the stent or procedure. Limitations. No control group. Conclusions. The primary palliative option for patients with malignant colonic obstruction should be self-expanding metal stent placement due to high rates of technical success and efficacy in symptom palliation and few complications. PMID:22761609

  12. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  13. Age-related differences in memory expression during infancy: using eye-tracking to measure relational memory in 6- and 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jenny L; Power, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    Relational memory, or the ability to bind components of an event into a network of linked representations, is a primary function of the hippocampus. Here we extend eye-tracking research showing that infants are capable of forming memories for the relation between arbitrarily paired scenes and faces, by looking at age-related changes in relational memory over the first year of life. Six- and 12-month-old infants were familiarized with pairs of faces and scenes before being tested with arrays of three familiar faces that were presented on a familiar scene. Preferential looking at the face that matches the scene is typically taken as evidence of relational memory. The results showed that while 6-month-old showed very early preferential looking when face/scene pairs were tested immediately, 12-month-old did not exhibit evidence of relational memory either immediately or after a short delay. Theoretical implications for the functional development of the hippocampus and practical implications for the use of eye tracking to measure memory during early life are discussed.

  14. Self-Expanding Metal Stenting for Palliation of Patients with Malignant Colonic Obstruction: Effectiveness and Efficacy on 255 Patients with 12-Month's Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Meisner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Self-expanding metal stents can alleviate malignant colonic obstruction in incurable patients and avoid palliative stoma surgery. Objective. Evaluate stent effectiveness and safety on palliation of patients with malignant colorectal strictures. Design. Two prospective, one Spanish and one global, multicenter studies. Settings. 39 centers (22 academic, 17 community hospitals from 13 countries. Patients. A total of 257 patients were enrolled, and 255 patients were treated with a WallFlex uncovered enteral colonic stent. Follow-up was up to 12 months or until death or retreatment. Interventions(s. Self-expanding metal stent placement. Main Outcome Measures. Procedural success, clinical success, and safety. Results. Procedural success was 98.4% (251. Clinical success rates were 87.8% at 30 days, 89.7% at 3 months, 92.8% at 6 months, and 96% at 12 months. Overall perforation rate was 5.1%. Overall migration rate was 5.5%. Overall death rate during follow-up was 48.6% (124, with 67.7% of deaths related to the patient’s colorectal cancer, unrelated in 32.3%. Only 2 deaths were related to the stent or procedure. Limitations. No control group. Conclusions. The primary palliative option for patients with malignant colonic obstruction should be self-expanding metal stent placement due to high rates of technical success and efficacy in symptom palliation and few complications.

  15. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H.B.; Swift, P.G.F.; Holl, R.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal......-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally. Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12...... months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p 12 months was predicted by younger age (p

  16. The role of level anti-crossings in nuclear spin hyperpolarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Vieth, Hans Martin; Kaptein, R

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization is an important resource for increasing the sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy and MRI. Signal enhancements can be as large as 3-4 orders of magnitude. In hyperpolarization experiments, it is often desirable to transfer the initial polarization to other nuclei of choice,

  17. Metabolic imaging of patients with prostate cancer using hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Sarah J; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B;

    2013-01-01

    This first-in-man imaging study evaluated the safety and feasibility of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate as an agent for noninvasively characterizing alterations in tumor metabolism for patients with prostate cancer. Imaging living systems with hyperpolarized agents can result in more than 10,000-f...

  18. Retrofit Weight-Loss Outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 Months and Characteristics of 12-Month High Performers: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Nicholas Buck; Kachin, Kevin; Berger, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death costing the health care system billions of dollars. Combining self-monitoring technology with personalized behavior change strategies results in clinically significant weight loss. However, there is a lack of real-world outcomes in commercial weight-loss program research. Objective Retrofit is a personalized weight management and disease-prevention solution. This study aimed to report Retrofit’s weight-loss outcomes at 6, 12, and 24 months and characterize behaviors, age, and sex of high-performing participants who achieved weight loss of 10% or greater at 12 months. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed from 2011 to 2014 using 2720 participants enrolled in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants had a starting body mass index (BMI) of >25 kg/m² and were at least 18 years of age. Weight measurements were assessed at 6, 12, and 24 months in the program to evaluate change in body weight, BMI, and percentage of participants who achieved 5% or greater weight loss. A secondary analysis characterized high-performing participants who lost ≥10% of their starting weight (n=238). Characterized behaviors were evaluated, including self-monitoring through weigh-ins, number of days wearing an activity tracker, daily step count average, and engagement through coaching conversations via Web-based messages, and number of coaching sessions attended. Results Average weight loss at 6 months was −5.55% for male and −4.86% for female participants. Male and female participants had an average weight loss of −6.28% and −5.37% at 12 months, respectively. Average weight loss at 24 months was −5.03% and −3.15% for males and females, respectively. Behaviors of high-performing participants were assessed at 12 months. Number of weigh-ins were greater in high-performing male (197.3 times vs 165.4 times, P=.001) and female participants (222 times vs 167 times, P<.001) compared with remaining participants

  19. Differential Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on Clinical Responses and Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month, Randomized, and Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Shimizu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study evaluated the differences in treatment outcomes and brain perfusion changes among 3 types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs, i.e. donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, randomized, open-label, 3-arm (donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine, parallel-group, 12-month clinical trial carried out in 55 patients with AD. Results: At 6 months, the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Trail Making Test (TMT-Part A showed an improvement versus baseline in the donepezil treatment group. All groups showed a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, mainly in the frontal lobe. Significant rCBF reduction was observed in the temporal lobe and cingulate gyrus in all 3 groups. Conclusion: AchEI treatment prevents the progression of cognitive impairment and increases the relative rCBF in the frontal lobe.

  20. Non-carious cervical lesions associated with multiple gingival recessions in the maxillary arch. A restorative-periodontal effort for esthetic success. A 12-month case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, Mario Alessio; Landi, Luca; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Restoration of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) represents a major challenge for resin materials due to the different adhesive properties of the tooth structure, the biomechanical aspects of the cervical area, and the difficulties in the access and isolation of the operative field. Furthermore, NCCLs should be approached with a complete understanding of the role played by the marginal periodontal tissue. Whenever a cervical lesion is associated with a gingival recession, the interplay between restorative dentistry and periodontology is decisive for full esthetic and long-term success. A case report is presented dealing with the treatment of NCCLs associated with multiple gingival recessions using a combined restorative and periodontal treatment with a 12-month follow-up.

  1. Equilíbrio corporal em idosos 12 meses após tratamento para VPPB Body balance in elderly patients, 12 months after treatment for BPPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Martiliano Lança

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A Vertigem Posicional Paroxística Benigna (VPPB apresenta grande prevalência na população geriátrica, desencadeando alterações no equilíbrio corporal. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados obtidos na posturografia estática em idosos antes e após as manobras de reposição otolítica e após um intervalo de 12 meses do tratamento inicial. Tipo de estudo: longitudinal, descritivo, analítico. MÉTODO: Pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com diagnóstico clínico de VPPB, foram submetidos à posturografia estática por meio da Balance Rehabilitation Unit em 10 condições sensoriais em três momentos: pré e pós-MRO e após 12 meses do tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 23 idosos com média etária de 68,74 anos. A posturografia revelou que o limite de estabilidade não apresentou diferença significante quando comparado nos três momentos de avaliação (p = 0,405. O centro de pressão (CoP apresentou alteração significativa na condição 2 (superfície firme e olhos fechados, pois o CoP no momento pós manobra de reposicionamento diferiu significativamente dos momentos pré e pós 12 meses do tratamento (p = 0,003. Os valores da velocidade de oscilação corporal (VOC demonstraram diferença significante em seis condições sensoriais nos três momentos avaliados. CONCLUSÃO: A posturografia estática após 12 meses do tratamento para VPPB apresentou as alterações do equilíbrio corporal semelhantes ao momento pré-tratamento.Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is highly prevalent in the elderly population, triggering major changes in body balance. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results obtained from static posturography in the elderly before and after otoliths repositioning maneuvers and 12 months after treatment onset. Design: longitudinal, descriptive and analytical study. METHOD: Elderly patients with clinical diagnosis of BPPV submitted to Balance Rehabilitation Unit static posturography in 10 sensory conditions at three time

  2. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  3. Distress after a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation course. Main effects and effect modification in a randomised trial at 12 months of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Rottmann, Nina; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2002, the Danish Cancer Society opened a rehabilitation centre in which cancer patients were offered a free, six-day, multidimensional residential course. Our previous studies of the effects of this course at one and six months of follow-up showed no positive effect on distress. We...... investigated long-term effects at 12 months of follow-up and whether subgroups with fewer psychosocial resources received more benefit from the intervention than patients with better resources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In two Danish counties, 507 patients with breast, prostate, colon or rectum cancer diagnosed...... programmes may not be effective in the treatment of distress. During the past few decades, studies of psychotherapy or psycho-education in cancer patients have shown small to moderate effects. More focused rehabilitation programmes may be more effective....

  4. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina

    2008-01-01

    identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with affected work capacity at the 12-month follow-up were pre-collision unspecified pain condition (OR=2.4, p=0.002) and socio-demographic characteristics: female gender, low educational level, unemployment and blue collar worker...... were not associated with poor outcome. In conclusion unspecified as opposed to specified pain (neck pain) before the collision is associated with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However, no conclusions...... on causality can be drawn. Personal characteristics before the collision are important for recovery and attention to pre-collision characteristics may contribute to the prevention of poor recovery after acute whiplash trauma....

  5. Post-trauma ratings of pre-collision pain and psychological distress predict poor outcome following acute whiplash trauma: A 12-month follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Tina; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva

    2008-01-01

    identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with affected work capacity at the 12-month follow-up were pre-collision unspecified pain condition (OR = 2.4, p = 0.002) and socio-demographic characteristics: female gender, low educational level, unemployment and blue collar worker...... of accident were not associated with poor outcome. In conclusion unspecified as opposed to specified pain (neck pain) before the collision is associated with poor recovery and high accumulation of pre-collision psychological distress is associated with considerable neck pain at follow-up. However......, no conclusions on causality can be drawn. Personal characteristics before the collision are important for recovery and attention to pre-collision characteristics may contribute to the prevention of poor recovery after acute whiplash trauma....

  6. Clinical evaluation of autologous platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects: a 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalι, Mustafa; Özdemir, Hakan; Arabacι, Taner; Gürbüzer, Bahadir; Pikdöken, Levent; Firatli, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) belongs to a new generation of platelet concentrates. There are limited numbers of studies focused on the use of L-PRF in gingival recession defects. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of using L-PRF membranes as a substitute for free connective tissue grafts (CTGs) as a treatment method for gingival recession defects. A total of 44 Miller Class I/II gingival recessions that were bilateral, adjacent, and greater than 3 mm in size were selected. Each recession site was randomly assigned to the test group (L-PRF) or the control group (CTG). After 12 months, root coverage was 76.63% and 77.36% in the L-PRF and CTG groups, respectively. It is suggested that L-PRF membrane may be an alternative graft material for treating multiple adjacent recessions greater than 3 mm in size without a requirement for additional surgery.

  7. Integrating a Career Planning and Development Program into the Baccalaureate Nursing Curriculum. Part II. Outcomes for New Graduate Nurses 12 Months Post-Graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Janice; Spalding, Karen; Navarro, Justine; Jancar, Sonya; Canizares, Genevieve

    2015-11-28

    New graduate nurses' (NGNs) transition into the nursing workforce is characterized as stressful and challenging. Consequently, a high percentage of them leave their first place of employment or the profession entirely within one year of graduation. Nursing literature describes this complicated shift from student to registered nurse, however, limited attention has focused on strategies that could be implemented during students' academic programs to prepare them for this difficult transition period. Therefore, a longitudinal intervention study was conducted to examine the influence of a career planning and development (CPD) program on the development of career resilience in baccalaureate nursing students and at 12 months post-graduation (NGN). The findings support including structured and progressive curriculum-based CPD opportunities in academic programs, not only for the positive outcomes that accrue to students, but also because of the benefits they extend to NGNs as they make the transition to their first professional nursing role.

  8. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  9. 3-D analysis of breast morphology changes after inverted T-scar and vertical-scar reduction mammaplasty over 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Maximilian; Klöppel, Markus; Müller, Daniel; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2013-06-01

    One major objective of all types of breast reduction procedures is to achieve a long-lasting, stable and aesthetically pleasing three-dimensional (3-D) breast shape, but current surgical outcome evaluation is limited. This study compares the extent of soft-tissue oedema and breast tissue migration related to 3-D breast morphology changes after inverted T-scar and vertical-scar breast reduction over 12 months. 3-D breast surface scans of patients undergoing inverted T-scar (n=52 breasts) and vertical-scar (n=44 breasts) reduction mammaplasty were obtained preoperatively and 2-3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months postoperatively. 3-D images were analysed at each time point comparing distances, 3-D breast contour deviations (%), breast surface (cm2) and volume (cc) measurements including volumetric distribution between the upper portion (UP) and the lower portion (LP) of the breast (%). Total postoperative breast volume decreased by 11.7% (T-scar) and by 7.8% (vertical-scar) during the first 3 months (both pscar (vertical-scar) group showed a preoperative UP to LP volumetric distribution of 43:57% (45:55%) versus 86:14% (91:9%) immediately after surgery. Breast tissue significantly redistributes (both p=0.001) from the UP to the LP during the first postoperative year by 16.5% (T-scar) and 21% (vertical-scar), resulting in a final UP to LP ratio of 70:30% for both techniques, without further breast contour deviations (both p>0.05) after 6 months (T-scar) and 9 months (vertical-scar). Breast morphological changes after reduction mammaplasty are completed after a period of 3-6 months in the T-scar group and 6-9 months in the vertical-scar group.

  10. The B-cell response to a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM₁₉₇ vaccine administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Rohner, Geraldine; Snape, Matthew D; Kelly, Dominic F; O'Connor, Daniel; John, Tessa; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Ohene-Kena, Brigitte; Klinger, Chaam L; Odrljin, Tatjana; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-05-07

    A quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM197 (MenACWY-CRM197) is immunogenic in young infants. We assessed the memory B-cell and antibody responses after a primary and booster course of MenACWY-CRM197 in children. At 5 months of age, following primary immunisation, serogroup-specific memory B-cells were detectable in fewer than 25% of children, although protective antibody titres (hSBA ≥ 4) were detectable in 69% of children against serogroup A and more than 95% against the other serogroups. At 12 months, before booster immunisation the percentages with hSBA ≥ 4 were 5% for serogroup A, and between 44 and 70% for the other serogroups. One month after booster immunisation with MenACWY-CRM197 over 50% of children had detectable memory B-cells, and 91% had hSBA ≥ 4 against serogroup A and more than 99% against the other serogroups. These data show that few antigen-specific anticapsular memory B-cells can be detected after two-doses priming with MenACWY-CRM197. For MenC and CRM197, the antigens with the highest number of B-cells at 5 months, there was a definite (p ≤0 .02) but weak correlation with antibody persistence at 12 months. Although previous studies suggest that measuring memory B-cell responses after priming immunisations in infancy can be used to predict antibody persistence and memory responses, this may not be suitable for all antigens in young children.

  11. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  12. Effect of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) supplementation for 12 months on the indices of vitamin K status and bone health in adult patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Grealy, Geraldine; McCarthy, Jane; Desmond, Alan; Craig, Orla; Shanahan, Fergus; Cashman, Kevin D

    2014-10-14

    Although epidemiological findings support a role for vitamin K status in the improvement of bone indices in adult patients with Crohn's disease (CD), this needs to be confirmed in double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCT) with phylloquinone (vitamin K1). By conducting two RCT, the present study aimed to first establish whether supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily near-maximally suppresses the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in serum (%ucOC; marker of vitamin K status) in adult patients with CD currently in remission as it does in healthy adults and second determine the effect of supplementation with phylloquinone at this dose for 12 months on the indices of bone turnover and bone mass. The initial dose-ranging RCT was conducted in adult patients with CD (n 10 per group) using 0 (placebo), 1000 or 2000 μg of phylloquinone daily for 2 weeks. In the main RCT, the effect of placebo v. 1000 μg vitamin K/d (both co-administered with Ca (500 mg/d) and vitamin D3 (10 μg/d)) for 12 months (n 43 per group) on the biochemical indices of bone turnover (determined by enzyme immunoassay) and bone mass (determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were investigated. At baseline, the mean %ucOC was 47 %, and this was suppressed upon supplementation with 1000 μg of phylloquinone daily ( - 81 %; P0·1) on bone turnover markers or on the bone mass of the lumbar spine or femur, but modestly increased (Pvitamin D3) had no effect on the indices of bone health in adult CD patients with likely vitamin K insufficiency.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Pig using Hyperpolarized Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    , the acquisition time is several minutes, and conventional MRA methods thus fail to image within a single respiration or heartbeat and therefore suffers from motion artefacts. We demonstrate that hyperpolarized (HP) water can be used as an imaging agent to provide subsecond angiographies in pigs. Previous work...... sequence with 5 ° flip angle, slice thickness of 40 mm, TR = 3.4 ms, TE = 0.9840 ms, 256x256 matrix, FOV = (140 mm)2. The acquisition time is 870 ms. 15 mL HP substance is injected over 5 s, initiated 15 s after dissolution through a catheter in the right renal artery of a 40 kg pig. Results The protons...

  14. Diffusion Pore Imaging by Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Windschuh, Johannes; Laun, Frederik Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements are widely used to derive parameters indirectly related to the microstructure of biological tissues and porous media. However, a direct imaging of cell or pore shapes and sizes would be of high interest. For a long time, determining pore shapes by NMR diffusion acquisitions seemed impossible, because the necessary phase information could not be preserved. Here we demonstrate experimentally using the measurement technique which we have recently proposed theoretically that the shape of arbitrary closed pores can be imaged by diffusion acquisitions, which yield the phase information. For this purpose, we use hyperpolarized xenon gas in well-defined geometries. The signal can be collected from the whole sample which mainly eliminates the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution of conventional NMR imaging. This could be used to non-invasively gain structural information inaccessible so far such as pore or cell shapes, cell density or axon integri...

  15. Mechanisms of long-lasting hyperpolarizations underlying slow sleep oscillations in cat corticothalamic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, D; Timofeev, I; Steriade, M

    1996-01-01

    1. To explore the nature of the long-lasting hyperpolarizations that characterize slow oscillations in corticothalamic circuits in vivo, intracellular recordings were obtained under ketamine-xylazine anaesthesia from cortical (Cx) cells of the cat precruciate motor cortex, thalamic reticular (RE) cells from the rostrolateral sector, and thalamocortical (TC) cells from the ventrolateral (VL) nucleus. 2. Measurements in the three cell types showed input resistance (Rin) to be highest during the long-lasting hyperpolarizations that correspond to depth-positive waves of the cortical EEG. Rin was lowest during the early phase of high-amplitude depth-negative EEG waves and increased thereafter until the next cycle of the slow oscillation. 3. Spontaneous long-lasting hyperpolarizations were compared with those evoked by dorsal thalamic stimulation. Voltage versus current (V-I) plots showed similar membrane potential (Vm) ranges and slopes for spontaneous and evoked hyperpolarizations in both Cx and RE cells. V-I plots from TC cells had similar slopes, but Vm during evoked hyperpolarizations was displaced towards more negative values. 4. Intracellular injection of constant hyperpolarizing current in Cx cells increased the amplitude of the initial part of the depolarizing plateau of the slow oscillation, but decreased the amplitude of the last part. 5. These results suggest disfacilitation to be the dominant mechanism in the membrane of cortical and thalamic cells during the spontaneous long-lasting hyperpolarizations, which shape and synchronize slow oscillations in corticothalamic networks. In Cx and RE cells, the same mechanism underlies thalamically evoked long-lasting hyperpolarizations. By contrast, evoked responses in TC cells show a strong additional hyperpolarizing factor. We propose that GABAB processes are stronger in TC than in Cx neurones, thus rendering the thalamus an easier target for absence-type epileptic phenomena through potentiation of thalamic rebound

  16. Prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials precede spindle oscillations in the thalamic reticular nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    The thalamic reticular (RE) nucleus is a key structure in the generation of spindles, a hallmark bioelectrical oscillation during early stages of sleep. Intracellular recordings of RE neurons in vivo revealed the presence of prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials preceding spindles in a subgroup (30%) of neurons. These hyperpolarizations (6-10 mV) lasted for 200-300 ms and were present just before the onset of spontaneously occurring spindle waves. Corticothalamic volleys also were effective in generating such hyperpolarizations followed by spindles in RE neurons. A drop of up to 40% in the apparent input resistance (Rin) was associated with these hyperpolarizing potentials, suggesting an active process rather than disfacilitation. Accordingly, the reversal potential was approximately -100 mV for both spontaneous and cortically elicited hyperpolarizations, consistent with the activation of slow K+ conductances. QX-314 in the recording pipettes decreased both the amplitude and incidence of prolonged hyperpolarizations, suggesting the participation of G protein-dependent K+ currents in the generation of hyperpolarizations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings in the RE nucleus demonstrated that some RE neurons discharged during the hyperpolarizations and, thus, may be implicated in their generation. The prolonged hyperpolarizations preceding spindles may play a role in the transition from tonic to bursting firing of RE neurons within a range of membrane potential (-60 to -65 mV) at which they set favorable conditions for the generation of low-threshold spike bursts that initiate spindle sequences. These data are further arguments for the generation of spindles within the thalamic RE nucleus. PMID:15210981

  17. Apparatus for preparing a solution of a hyperpolarized noble gas for NMR and MRI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Budinger, Thomas; Navon, Gil; Song, Yi-Qiao; Appelt, Stephan; Bifone, Angelo; Taylor, Rebecca; Goodson, Boyd; Seydoux, Roberto; Room, Toomas; Pietrass, Tanja

    2008-06-10

    The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

  18. Application of balanced scorecard in the evaluation of a complex health system intervention: 12 months post intervention findings from the BHOMA intervention: a cluster randomised trial in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Mutale

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. METHODS: The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. RESULTS: The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I and control (C sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031, adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be

  19. Type of sport is related to injury profile: a study on cross country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. A retrospective 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristolainen, L; Heinonen, A; Turunen, H; Mannström, H; Waller, B; Kettunen, J A; Kujala, U M

    2010-06-01

    This 12-month retrospective questionnaire compared the occurrence of sports injuries in 149 cross country skiers, 154 swimmers, 143 long-distance runners and 128 soccer players aged 15-35 years. Soccer had significantly more injuries (5.1 injuries/1000 exposure hour) than other sports (2.1-2.8, Psoccer players reported overuse injuries (59% vs 42%, P=0.005), locating typically in the foot in runners, soccer players and skiers. Swimmers reported overuse injuries in the shoulder more commonly than skiers (40% vs 1%, Psoccer and running the absence time from sport because of injuries was significantly longer than in skiing and swimming. No severe permanent disabilities occurred due to injury but seven women quit sports because of injury. In conclusion, type of loading is strictly associated with the anatomical location of an overuse injury as shown by the difference in shoulder injury incidence between swimmers and cross country skiers. In some sports, a significant proportion of acute injuries occur in other than the main event.

  20. Retention of HIV-Infected Children in the First 12 Months of Anti-Retroviral Therapy and Predictors of Attrition in Resource Limited Settings: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuogi, Lisa L; Smith, Christiana; McFarland, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Current UNAIDS goals aimed to end the AIDS epidemic set out to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV know their status, 90% initiate and continue life-long anti-retroviral therapy (ART), and 90% achieve viral load suppression. In 2014 there were an estimated 2.6 million children under 15 years of age living with HIV, of which only one-third were receiving ART. Little literature exists describing retention of HIV-infected children in the first year on ART. We conducted a systematic search for English language publications reporting on retention of children with median age at ART initiation less than ten years in resource limited settings. The proportion of children retained in care on ART and predictors of attrition were identified. Twelve studies documented retention at one year ranging from 71-95% amongst 31877 African children. Among the 5558 children not retained, 4082 (73%) were reported as lost to follow up (LFU) and 1476 (27%) were confirmed to have died. No studies confirmed the outcomes of children LFU. Predictors of attrition included younger age, shorter duration of time on ART, and severe immunosuppression. In conclusion, significant attrition occurs in children in the first 12 months after ART initiation, the majority attributed to LFU, although true outcomes of children labeled as LFU are unknown. Focused efforts to ensure retention and minimize early mortality are needed as universal ART for children is scaled up.

  1. Is selective attention the basis for selective imitation in infants? An eye-tracking study of deferred imitation with 12-month-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Thorsten; Oturai, Gabriella; Knopf, Monika

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children do not blindly copy every action they observe during imitation tasks. Research demonstrated that infants are efficient selective imitators. The impact of selective perceptual processes (selective attention) for selective deferred imitation, however, is still poorly described. The current study, therefore, analyzed 12-month-old infants' looking behavior during demonstration of two types of target actions: arbitrary versus functional actions. A fully automated remote eye tracker was used to assess infants' looking behavior during action demonstration. After a 30-min delay, infants' deferred imitation performance was assessed. Next to replicating a memory effect, results demonstrate that infants do imitate significantly more functional actions than arbitrary actions (functionality effect). Eye-tracking data show that whereas infants do not fixate significantly longer on functional actions than on arbitrary actions, amount of fixations and amount of saccades differ between functional and arbitrary actions, indicating different encoding mechanisms. In addition, item-level findings differ from overall findings, indicating that perceptual and conceptual item features influence looking behavior. Looking behavior on both the overall and item levels, however, does not relate to deferred imitation performance. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that, on the one hand, selective imitation is not explainable merely by selective attention processes. On the other hand, notwithstanding this reasoning, attention processes on the item level are important for encoding processes during target action demonstration. Limitations and future studies are discussed.

  2. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  3. [Intestinal parasites in children aged 4-12 months attending day-care centers of Federal University-Uberlândia-MG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbert-Ferreira, M; Costa-Cruz, J M

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to search for the presence of intestinal parasites in 56 suckling babies, ranging from 4 to 12 months in age hosted during the year of 1989 at the nursery kept by the "Universidade Federal de Uberlândia", at Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. From each child a foecal sample was collected and preserved in 10% formalin until processed, what was done by the Hoffman, Pons and Janer's method, in which the sediment is stained by lugol solution. For each sample 6 slides were prepared and examined, what added up to a total of 336 slides. The percentual of positivity was 23.21%, including 17.85% Ancylostomidae eggs, 5.36% Giardia lamblia and 1.78% Endolimax nana. Only one child presented the associated infections of Ancylostomidae and Giardia lamblia. In what host age is concerned, one child was shown to be infected by Ancylostomidae after it reached 6 months; generally speaking there was evidence of an increase of parasitic infections of hosts beyond the age of 9 months. The above results point out to the necessity of searching for the presence of parasitic intestinal infections covering suckling babies in public nurseries, by means of foecal semestral examinations,even when such babies do not manifest clinical signs of parasitism, in order that adequate treatment and preventive sanitary measures may be adopted to avoid or suppress ambiental contamination with the causative organisms.

  4. Usefulness and limitation of DDD and PDD analyses. 12 months of solid oral antipsychotics prescribing data for the NHS-reimbursed treatment of schizophrenia in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pradelli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of real-world pharmaceutical costs in a given setting is one of the crucial steps in pharmacoeconomic comparisons among drugs used in that setting. For the purpose of this estimation, information regarding available pharmaceutical forms, alongside price and market share, for every considered drug is needed. Furthermore, it’s necessary to know, at least approximately, drug quantities averagely consumed in each episode, in the case of acute therapies, or on a daily basis in chronic therapies. This data is difficult to measure in non-experimental settings, and is generally approximated using the statistical average of the drug quantity prescribed by physicians for a given condition. This paper will briefly review definitions and appropriate uses of DDDs (defined daily dose, and PDDs (prescribed daily dose, and then illustrate the expressed concepts on the basis of a practical example constructed on the analysis of last available 12 months of solid oral antipsychotics prescribing data for the NHS-reimbursed treatment of schizophrenia in Italy.

  5. Efficacy and safety of porcine collagen filler for nasolabial fold correction in Asians: a prospective multicenter, 12 months follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ho; Choi, Yong Sung; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin; Rhie, Jong Won; Jun, Young Joon

    2014-11-01

    Recently, injectable dermal fillers have become important alternatives to surgical procedures for the correction of facial wrinkles. Bovine collagen is the first approved material for filler injection, and several studies have shown its efficacy. However, the risk of developing an allergic reaction and xenogenic transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy remain among its disadvantages. In this randomized, double-blinded, split-face study, we compared the efficacy and safety of a porcine collagen filler (TheraFill®) with that of a bovine collagen filler (KOKEN®) for nasolabial fold correction. A total of sixty one patients with mild to severe nasolabial fold were randomized to receive TheraFill® and KOKEN® on contralateral sides of the face. During the 12-month follow-up period, improvement in the Wrinkle-Severity Rating Scale score was slightly higher in TheraFill® group than KOKEN® group, although the difference was not statistically significant. No serious adverse reactions were observed and both materials were tolerable in most cases. In conclusion, the long-term effect of TheraFill® on nasolabial fold correction was comparable to that of KOKEN®, and it may be a good alternative to bovine collagen filler.

  6. Imaging cerebral 2-ketoisocaproate metabolism with hyperpolarized (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Sadia Asghar; Søgaard, Lise Vejby-Christensen; Magnusson, Peter O.;

    2012-01-01

    The branched chain amino acid transaminase (BCAT) has an important role in nitrogen shuttling and glutamate metabolism in the brain. The purpose of this study was to describe the cerebral distribution and metabolism of hyperpolarized 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate (KIC) in the normal rat using magnetic...... resonance modalities. Hyperpolarized KIC is metabolized to [1-(13)C]leucine (leucine) by BCAT. The results show that KIC and its metabolic product, leucine, are present at imageable quantities 20 seconds after end of KIC administration throughout the brain. Further, significantly higher metabolism...... was observed in hippocampal regions compared with the muscle tissue. In conclusion, the cerebral metabolism of hyperpolarized KIC is imaged and hyperpolarized KIC may be a promising substrate for evaluation of cerebral BCAT activity in conjunction with neurodegenerative disease.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow...

  7. Synthesis of long T silicon nanoparticles for hyperpolarized Si magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, T.M.; Ganguly, S.; Kauzlarich, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the synthesis, materials characterization, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of amorphous and crystalline silicon nanoparticles for use as hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents. The particles were synthesized by means of a metathesis reaction between sodium silic...

  8. Pulmonary MRI contrast using Surface Quadrupolar Relaxation (SQUARE) of hyperpolarized (83)Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Joseph S; Hughes-Riley, Theodore; Lilburn, David M L; Dorkes, Alan C; Stupic, Karl F; Shaw, Dominick E; Morris, Peter G; Hall, Ian P; Pavlovskaya, Galina E; Meersmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarized (83)Kr has previously been demonstrated to enable MRI contrast that is sensitive to the chemical composition of the surface in a porous model system. Methodological advances have lead to a substantial increase in the (83)Kr hyperpolarization and the resulting signal intensity. Using the improved methodology for spin exchange optical pumping of isotopically enriched (83)Kr, internal anatomical details of ex vivo rodent lung were resolved with hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI after krypton inhalation. Different (83)Kr relaxation times were found between the main bronchi and the parenchymal regions in ex vivo rat lungs. The T1 weighted hyperpolarized (83)Kr MRI provided a first demonstration of surface quadrupolar relaxation (SQUARE) pulmonary MRI contrast.

  9. Toward microtesla MRI of hyperpolarized carbon-13 for real-time metabolic imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, V S; Savukov, I M; Matlashov, A N; Gómez, J J; Espy, M A

    2009-01-01

    Hyperpolarization of carbon-13 is a promising technique that has enabled MR angiography, perfusion mapping, and real-time metabolic imaging of C-13 labeled organic substances with unprecedented signal-to-noise levels. Because the hyperpolarization is performed outside an MRI scanner (using a special NMR-style hyperpolarizer), high magnetic fields of conventional MRI systems offer little advantage in terms of achievable C-13 polarization. Here we propose an ultimate low-field MRI scanner for imaging hyperpolarized C-13. It uses only microtesla-range magnetic fields and employs SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) sensors for broadband reception of MRI signals. We present the first images acquired by SQUID-based microtesla MRI with dynamic nuclear polarization (Overhauser enhancement). We also report the first NMR spectra of C-13 at microtesla fields, including spectra of metabolically relevant sodium pyruvate, bicarbonate, and alanine. Our results demonstrate feasibility and potential of the pro...

  10. Real-time assessment of Krebs cycle metabolism using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Marie A; Atherton, Helen J.; Ball, Daniel R.; Cole, Mark A; Heather, Lisa C.; Griffin, Julian L.; Clarke, Kieran; Radda, George K; Tyler, Damian J.

    2009-01-01

    The Krebs cycle plays a fundamental role in cardiac energy production and is often implicated in the energetic imbalance characteristic of heart disease. In this study, we measured Krebs cycle flux in real time in perfused rat hearts using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). [2-13C]Pyruvate was hyperpolarized and infused into isolated perfused hearts in both healthy and postischemic metabolic states. We followed the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetylcarnitin...

  11. Vascular hyperpolarization in human physiology and cardiovascular risk conditions and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, F; Tesauro, M; Cardillo, C

    2017-01-01

    Hyperpolarization causing smooth muscle relaxation contributes to the maintenance of vascular homeostasis, particularly in small-calibre arteries and arterioles. It may also become a compensatory vasodilator mechanism upregulated in states with impaired nitric oxide (NO) availability. Bioassay of vascular hyperpolarization in the human circulation has been hampered by the complexity of mechanisms involved and the limited availability of investigational tools. Firm evidence, however, supports the notion that hyperpolarization participates in the regulation of resting vasodilator tone and vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. In addition, an enhanced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization contributes to both resting and agonist-stimulated vasodilation in a variety of cardiovascular risk conditions and disease. Thus, hyperpolarization mediated by epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and H2 O2 has been observed in coronary arterioles of patients with coronary artery disease. Similarly, ouabain-sensitive and EETs-mediated hyperpolarization has been observed to compensate for NO deficiency in patients with essential hypertension. Moreover, in non-hypertensive patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and in hypercholesterolaemia, KCa channel-mediated vasodilation appears to be activated. A novel paradigm establishes that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is an additional regulator of vascular tone/function and endothelium is not the only agent in vascular hyperpolarization. Indeed, some PVAT-derived relaxing substances, such as adiponectin and angiotensin 1-7, may exert anticontractile and vasodilator actions by the opening of KCa channels in smooth muscle cells. Conversely, PVAT-derived factors impair coronary vasodilation via differential inhibition of some K(+) channels. In view of adipose tissue abnormalities occurring in human obesity, changes in PVAT-dependent hyperpolarization may be relevant for vascular dysfunction also in this condition.

  12. Discovery of Hyperpolarized Molecular Imaging Biomarkers in a Novel Prostate Tissue Slice Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    compatible bioreactor optimized in year 1 to identify hyperpolarized metabolic biomarkers of prostate cancer presence and aggressiveness. To...accomplish this goal my group finished the engineering of a 5 mm bioreactor and acquired hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate data indicating that similar signal...to noise and quality data can be achieved with 4 to 5 prostate tissue slices in the 5 mm bioreactor as was acquired from 30-40 tissue slices in the

  13. Renal MR angiography and perfusion in the pig using hyperpolarized water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling;

    2016-01-01

    at 3 Tesla (T). Approximately 15 mL of hyperpolar-ized water was injected in the renal artery by hand over 4–5 s.Results: A liquid state polarization of 5.3 6 0.9% of 3.8 M pro-tons in 15 mL of deuterium oxide was achieved with a T1of24 6 1 s. This allowed injection through an arterial catheterinto...

  14. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  15. Brain reorganization as a function of walking experience in 12-month-old infants: implications for the development of manual laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbetta, Daniela; Friedman, Denise R; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Hand preference in infancy is marked by many developmental shifts in hand use and arm coupling as infants reach for and manipulate objects. Research has linked these early shifts in hand use to the emergence of fundamental postural-locomotor milestones. Specifically, it was found that bimanual reaching declines when infants learn to sit; increases if infants begin to scoot in a sitting posture; declines when infants begin to crawl on hands and knees; and increases again when infants start walking upright. Why such pattern fluctuations during periods of postural-locomotor learning? One proposed hypothesis is that arm use practiced for the specific purpose of controlling posture and achieving locomotion transfers to reaching via brain functional reorganization. There has been scientific support for functional cortical reorganization and change in neural connectivity in response to motor practice in adults and animals, and as a function of crawling experience in human infants. In this research, we examined whether changes in neural connectivity also occurred as infants coupled their arms when learning to walk and whether such coupling mapped onto reaching laterality. Electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence data were collected from 43 12-month-old infants with varied levels of walking experience. EEG was recorded during quiet, attentive baseline. Walking proficiency was laboratory assessed and reaching responses were captured using small toys presented at mid-line while infants were sitting. Results revealed greater EEG coherence at homologous prefrontal/central scalp locations for the novice walkers compared to the prewalkers or more experienced walkers. In addition, reaching laterality was low in prewalkers and early walkers but high in experienced walkers. These results are consistent with the interpretation that arm coupling practiced during early walking transferred to reaching via brain functional reorganization, leading to the observed developmental changes in

  16. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, lumbar spine surgery have significant impact on the short-term PROs. Patients with complications, however, do eventually achieve clinically meaningful outcomes and report satisfaction equivalent to those without major complications. This information allows a physician to

  17. Development of rotational movements, hand shaping, and accuracy in advance and withdrawal for the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    The reach-to-eat movement, transport of a hand to grasp an object that is withdrawn and placed in the mouth, is amongst the earliest developing functional movements of human infants. The present longitudinal study is the first description of the maturation of hand-rotation, hand shaping, and accuracy associated with the advance and withdrawal phases of the movement. Eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and eight adults, were video recorded as they reached for familiar objects or food items. Hand, arm, and trunk movements were assessed frame-by-frame with the Skilled Reaching Rating Scale, previously developed for the assessment of adult reaching, and supplementary kinematic analysis. Reach-to-eat maturation was characterized by three changes. First, for advance, a simple open hand transport gradually matured to a movement associated with pronation and hand shaping of the digits for precision grasping. Second, for withdrawal to the mouth, a direct withdrawal movement gradually became associated with hand supination that oriented the target object to the mouth. Third, associated with the maturation of rotational movements, inaccurate and fragmented hand transport and withdrawal movements developed into precise targeting of the hand-to-object and object-to-mouth. Across the age range, there was a decrease in bimanual reaching and an increase in right handed reaching. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that the maturation of the reach-to-eat movement involves the development of rotational and shaping movements of the hand and visual and somatosensory guidance of a preferred hand.

  18. Survival analysis of banding and bonding molar tubes in adult patients over a 12-month period: a split-mouth randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeiras, Valéria Jacques; Silva, Valéria Assis Almeida E; Azevedo, Leidiana Aguiar; Lobato, Vanessa Soares; Normando, David

    2016-12-22

    This split-mouth randomized clinical trial aimed to compare the survival rate of bonding and banding molar tubes in adult orthodontic patients. Eligibility criteria included adults (aged >18 years), no active caries, restorations, or fractures in the upper and lower molars. The main outcome was any type of first-time failure in molar tubes. A computer-generated randomization scheme was used in a 1:1 ratio. The survival rate was estimated for 32 adult patients, in whom a tube was bonded to a molar tooth using composite resin on one side and a band was cemented with glass ionomer onto the same tooth in the contralateral arch. A total of 59 banded and 59 bonded molars were followed up for 12 months. Blinding was not applicable. Survival analysis including Cox regression was used at p < 0.05. The survival rate of bonded molars was not statistically different from that of banded molars (log-rank test, p = 0.97). Hazard ratio (HR) was 0.72 (95%CI, 0.38-1.31). Bonded upper molars yielded a survival rate of 81.25% (26 out of 32) compared to 71.87% (23 out of 32) for banded upper molars. The survival rate was 66.66% (18 out of 27) for banded lower molars and 59.25% for bonded lower molars (16 out of 27). The HR for lower vs. upper arch was 2.16 (95%CI, 1.18-3.98). No serious problem was observed other than gingivitis associated with plaque accumulation. In contrast to previous studies in young patients, in adults, bonding orthodontic tubes to molars is similar to molar banding. However, both procedures had a high failure rate in the lower arch.

  19. Non-clinical immuno-toxicological evaluation of HER1 cancer vaccine in non-human primates: a 12-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barro, Ana M Bada; Rivero, Arianna Iglesias; Goñi, Avelina León; Navarro, Bárbara O González; Angarica, Meilis Mesa; Ramírez, Belinda Sánchez; Bedoya, Darel Martínez; Triana, Consuelo González; Rodríguez, Axel Mancebo; Parada, Ángel Casacó

    2012-12-17

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1) constitutes a tumor associated antigen. Its overexpression in many epithelial tumors has been associated with bad prognosis and poor survival. Cancer vaccine based on the extracellular domain (ECD) of HER1 and adjuvated in very small sized proteoliposomes (VSSP) and Montanide ISA 51-VG is a new and complementary approach for the treatment of epithelial tumors. The present study deals with the immunogenicity of this vaccine in Macaca fascicularis monkeys and evaluation of its toxicity during 12 months. Twelve monkeys were randomized into two groups of 3 animals per sex: control and vaccinated. Treated monkeys received 9 doses of vaccination and were daily inspected for clinical signs. Body weight, rectal temperature, cardiac and respiratory rates were measured during the study. Humoral immune response, clinical pathology parameters and delayed type hypensensitivity were analyzed. Skin biopsy was performed at the end of the study in all animals. Animal's survival in the study was 100% (n=12). Local reactions were observed at the administration site of four treated animals (n=6), with two showing slight inflammatory cutaneous damage. Clinical pathology parameters were not affected. HER1 vaccine induced high IgG antibodies titers in the treated animals even when DTH was not observed. The induced antibodies recognized HER1+ tumor cell lines, decreased HER1 phosphorylation and showed anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in H125 cells. In general the present study showed that HER1 vaccine induced specific immune response in M. fascicularis monkeys and was well tolerated, suggesting it could be safely used in clinical studies in epithelial cancer patients.

  20. Brain reorganization as a function of walking experience in 12 month-old infants: Implications for the development of manual laterality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eCorbetta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference in infancy is marked by many developmental shifts in hand use and arm coupling as infants reach for and manipulate objects. Research has linked these early shifts in hand use to the emergence of fundamental postural-locomotor milestones. Specifically, it was found that bimanual reaching declines when infants learn to sit; increases if infants begin to scoot in a sitting posture; declines when infants begin to crawl on hands-and-knees; and increases again when infants start walking upright. Why such pattern fluctuations during periods of postural-locomotor learning? One proposed hypothesis is that arm use practiced for the specific purpose of controlling posture and achieving locomotion transfers to reaching via brain functional reorganization. There has been scientific support for functional cortical reorganization and change in neural connectivity in response to motor practice in adults and animals, and as a function of crawling experience in human infants. In this research, we examined whether changes in neural connectivity also occurred as infants coupled their arms when learning to walk and whether such coupling mapped onto reaching laterality. EEG coherence data were collected from 43 12-month-olds infants with varied levels of walking experience. EEG was recorded during quiet, attentive baseline. Walking proficiency was laboratory assessed and reaching responses were captured using small toys presented at midline while infants were sitting. Results revealed greater EEG coherence at homologous prefrontal/central scalp locations for the novice walkers compared to the pre-walkers or more experienced walkers. In addition, reaching laterality was low in pre-walkers and early walkers, but high in experienced walkers. These results are consistent with the interpretation that arm coupling practiced during early walking transferred to reaching via brain functional reorganization, leading to the observed developmental changes in

  1. Exploring hyperpolarized 83Kr by remotely detected NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Stupic, Karl F.; LeNoir, Catherine F.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    For the first time, a hyperpolarized (hp) noble gas with a nuclear electric quadrupole moment is available for high-field nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic-resonance imaging. Hp Kr83 (I=9/2) is generated by spin-exchange optical pumping and separated from the rubidium vapor used in the pumping process. Optical pumping occurs under the previously unstudied condition of high krypton gas densities. Signal enhancements of more than three orders of magnitude compared to the thermal equilibrium Kr83 signal at 9.4T magnetic-field strength are obtained. The spin-lattice relaxation of Kr83 is caused primarly by quadrupolar couplings during the brief adsorption periods of the krypton atoms on the surrounding container walls and significantly limits the currently obtained spin polarization. Measurements in macroscopic glass containers and in desiccated canine lung tissue at field strengths between 0.05 and 3T using remotely detected hp Kr83 NMR spectroscopy reveal that the longitudinal relaxation dramatically accelerates as the magnetic-field strength decreases.

  2. EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT as tobacco cigarettes substitute: a prospective 12-month randomized control design study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Caponnetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are based on science. Methods ECLAT is a prospective 12-month randomized, controlled trial that evaluates smoking reduction/abstinence in 300 smokers not intending to quit experimenting two different nicotine strengths of a popular e-cigarette model ('Categoria'; Arbi Group Srl, Italy compared to its non-nicotine choice. GroupA (n = 100 received 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks; GroupB (n = 100, a 6-week 7.2 mg nicotine cartridges followed by a further 6-week 5.4 mg nicotine cartridges; GroupC (n = 100 received no-nicotine cartridges for 12 weeks. The study consisted of nine visits during which cig/day use and exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO levels were measured. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events and product preferences were also reviewed. RESULTS: Declines in cig/day use and eCO levels were observed at each study visits in all three study groups (p<0.001 vs baseline, with no consistent differences among study groups. Smoking reduction was documented in 22.3% and 10.3% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. Complete abstinence from tobacco smoking was documented in 10.7% and 8.7% at week-12 and week-52 respectively. A substantial decrease in adverse events from baseline was observed and withdrawal symptoms were infrequently reported during the study. Participants' perception and acceptance of the product under investigation was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption

  3. Estabilidade da polpa do bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. congelada por 12 meses Stability of the bacuri pulp (Platonia insignis Mart. frozen for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virlane Kelly Lima da Silva

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de realizar o processamento e avaliar a estabilidade da polpa de bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. submetida ao congelamento durante 12 meses. Durante o período de armazenamento não ocorreram alterações significativas nas características físico-químicas da polpa quanto aos teores de sólidos solúveis, pH, atividade de água, açúcares totais e redutores, vitamina C, compostos fenólicos poliméricos e oligoméricos, pectina total e solúvel e cor L, a* , b*, enquanto que a acidez total e relação SST/AT variaram com o tempo de armazenamento. Os compostos fenólicos dímeros apresentaram aumento em função do tempo. Pelos resultados obtidos, a polpa de bacuri não pode ser considerada uma boa fonte de vitamina C. Por outro lado, apresenta baixos teores de compostos fenólicos caracterizando a polpa como, potencialmente pouco adstringente e com potencial para o processamento. A qualidade microbiológica não foi alterada durante o período de armazenamento. Os resultados apontam a eficiência do congelamento na manutenção das características físico-químicas e microbiológicas da polpa de bacuri.The objective of this work was to process and evaluate the stability of the bacuri (Platonia insignis Mart. pulp submitted to freezing for 12 months. During the storage period there were significant changes in the physiochemical characteristics of the pulp as for the content of total soluble solids, pH, water activity, total and reducing sugars, vitamin C, polimer and oligomeric phenolic compounds , total and soluble pectin and color L, the a*, b *,while total acidity and soluble solids varied with the storange period. The dimers phenolic compounds incresead with the time. According to the results, the bacuri pulp cannot be considered a good source of vitamin C, but it presents low contents of phenolic compounds characterizing the pulp as little astringent, thus showing potential for the processing

  4. A 12-month follow-up of an influenza vaccination campaign based on voluntary adherence: report on upper-respiratory symptoms among volunteers and non-volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Páris Ali Ramadan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Routine immunization of groups at high risk for influenza has been progressively implemented as a matter of Brazilian public health policy. Although the benefits of the vaccination for healthy young adults are still controversial, it has been offered yearly to hundreds of thousands of Brazilian workers, generally as part of wellness initiatives in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of subjects that accepted or refused to be vaccinated against influenza and to report on respiratory symptoms in both groups, one year after the campaign date. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: Workers at a subsidiary of an international bank in São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 124 persons that did not accept and 145 that voluntarily accepted the vaccine completed 12 months of follow-up. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Data concerning gender, age, tobacco use, and any history of chronic respiratory illness such as asthma, bronchitis, rhinitis, and repetitive upper-respiratory infections, were recorded at the time of vaccination. After that, workers were asked monthly by questionnaire or telephone about respiratory symptoms, days of work lost and medical consultations. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences regarding age (P = 0.004 with the vaccinated group (V being younger than the non-vaccinated (NV one, and with reference to previous repetitive upper-respiratory infections being higher among the V group (P < 0.0001. During the follow-up, the V group reported more occurrences of upper respiratory symptoms (P < 0.0001, due to both non-influenza (P < 0.0001 and influenza-like illness (P = 0.045. Differences were also found between V and NV groups concerning days off work and number of medical consultations due to upper-respiratory symptoms and non-influenza illness. Gender and history of repetitive upper-respiratory infections were the best predictors of influenza-like illness-related events. CONCLUSIONS

  5. Multinational study in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes: Association of age, ketoacidosis, HLA status, and autoantibodies on residual beta-cell function and glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mortensen, H. B.; Swift, P G; Holl, R. W.; Hougaard, P; Hansen, L; Bjoerndalen, H.; de Beaufort, Carine; Knip, M

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).Subjects and Methods: Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.Results: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate

  6. Development of sleep/wake patterns in infants during the first 12 months of life%婴儿期睡眠/觉醒时间的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小娜; 王惠珊; 刘玺诚; 蒋竞雄; 安琳

    2009-01-01

    Objective This was a nationwide study of sleep circadian in term infants.The aim was to understand the development characteristics of infants'sleep/wake patterns longitudinally in their own home envimnments over the first 12 months of life.Method Totally 524 healthy term infants from 9 urban districts took part in this project.Their sleep/wake patterns over 24 h were recorded using parental sleep diaries,from the 2nd day to 12 months old Result The results showed that infant daytime sleep changed significantly at 0-2,3-4,5-6,and 8-9 months after birth,and the change was the fastest in the first month,the mean percentage of daytime sleep decreased from 82.4% at Day 2 to 62.8%at 1 month old.Also,the average number of naps reduced from 3.7 to 2 across the infancy.The ability of contnuous sleep throughout the night gradually enhanced from 1 month old,and the nocturnal longest sleep time extended to 6.8 h at 4 months of age as well as the nighttime awakening frequency less than 0.5 over 6 months old.Additionally,the nighttime sleep increased significantly at 4 and 9 months after birth,where the proportion of nighttime sleep inereased from 55.8%at Day 2 to 64.3% of 4 months and 71.2% of 9 months respectively.In general,the total sleep time over a 24 h period presented a downward trend ag the infant aged.Conclusion The periods 0-6 and 8-9 months after birth were the key periods for the development of infant sleep.%目的 本研究在家庭自然环境下,通过对婴儿生后第一年睡眠/觉醒行为的纵向随访,探索婴儿期睡眠、觉醒时间的发展变化过程.方法 研究对象来自全国9个城市,共52A名足月健康新生儿,自婴儿生后2 d始,通过家长睡眠日记采集新生儿期每周连续3 d,2~12月龄连续7 d婴儿睡眠/觉醒行为的相关信息.结果 婴儿白天睡眠时间在0~2、3~4、5~6和8~9月龄变化显著,其中生后第1个月发展速率最快,白天睡眠时间构成比从生后2 d的82.4%下降至1

  7. Systematic T1 improvement for hyperpolarized 129xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Maricel; Babcock, Earl; Blümler, Peter; Heil, Werner; Karpuk, Sergei; Tullney, Kathlynne

    2015-03-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-(129)Xe was improved at typical storage conditions (i.e. low and homogeneous magnetic fields). Very long wall relaxation times T(1)(wall) of about 18 h were observed in uncoated, spherical GE180 glass cells of ∅=10 cm which were free of rubidium and not permanently sealed but attached to a standard glass stopcock. An "aging" process of the wall relaxation was identified by repeating measurements on the same cell. This effect could be easily removed by repeating the initial cleaning procedure. In this way, a constant wall relaxation was ensured. The Xe nuclear spin-relaxation rate 1/T1(Xe-Xe) due to van der Waals molecules was investigated too, by admixing three different buffer gases (N(2), SF(6) and CO(2)). Especially CO(2) exhibited an unexpected high efficiency (r) in shortening the lifetime of the Xe-Xe dimers and hence prolonging the total T1 relaxation even further. These measurements also yielded an improved accuracy for the van der Waals relaxation for pure Xe (with 85% (129)Xe) of T(1)(Xe-Xe)=(4.6±0.1)h. Repeating the measurements with HP (129)Xe in natural abundance in mixtures with SF6, a strong dependence of T(1)(Xe-Xe) and r on the isotopic enrichment was observed, uncovering a shorter T(1)(Xe-Xe) relaxation for the (129)Xe in natural composition as compared to the 85% isotopically enriched gas.

  8. Modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels hyperpolarizes the voltage threshold for activation in spinal motoneurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Kevin E; Carlin, Kevin P; Fedirchuk, Brent

    2012-03-01

    Previous work has shown that motoneurone excitability is enhanced by a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential at which an action potential is initiated (V(th)) at the onset, and throughout brainstem-evoked fictive locomotion in the adult decerebrate cat and neonatal rat. Modeling work has suggested the modulation of Na(+) conductance as a putative mechanism underlying this state-dependent change in excitability. This study sought to determine whether modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels could induce V(th) hyperpolarization. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from antidromically identified lumbar spinal motoneurones in an isolated neonatal rat spinal cord preparation. Recordings were made with and without the bath application of veratridine, a plant alkaloid neurotoxin that acts as a sodium channel modulator. As seen in HEK 293 cells expressing Nav1.2 channels, veratridine-modified channels demonstrated a hyperpolarizing shift in their voltage-dependence of activation and a slowing of inactivation that resulted in an enhanced inward current in response to voltage ramp stimulations. In the native rat motoneurones, veratridine-modified sodium channels induced a hyperpolarization of V(th) in all 29 neonatal rat motoneurones examined (mean hyperpolarization: -6.6 ± 4.3 mV). V(th) hyperpolarization was not due to the effects on Ca(2+) and/or K(+) channels as blockade of these currents did not alter V(th). Veratridine also significantly increased the amplitude of persistent inward currents (PICs; mean increase: 72.5 ± 98.5 pA) evoked in response to slow depolarizing current ramps. However, the enhancement of the PIC amplitude had a slower time course than the hyperpolarization of V(th), and the PIC onset voltage could be either depolarized or hyperpolarized, suggesting that PIC facilitation did not mediate the V(th) hyperpolarization. We therefore suggest that central neuronal circuitry in mammals could affect V(th) in a mechanism similar to that of

  9. Cortical hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current takes part in the generation of focal paroxysmal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence; Steriade, Mircea

    2002-01-01

    During paroxysmal neocortical oscillations, sudden depolarization leading to the next cycle occurs when the majority of cortical neurons are hyperpolarized. Both the Ca2+-dependent K+ currents (IK(Ca)) and disfacilitation play critical roles in the generation of hyperpolarizing potentials. In vivo experiments and computational models are used here to investigate whether the hyperpolarization-activated depolarizing current (Ih) in cortical neurons also contributes to the generation of paroxysmal onsets. Hyperpolarizing current pulses revealed a depolarizing sag in ≈20% of cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings from glial cells indirectly indicated an increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) during paroxysmal activities, leading to a positive shift in the reversal potential of K+-mediated currents, including Ih. In the paroxysmal neocortex, ≈20% of neurons show repolarizing potentials originating from hyperpolarizations associated with depth-electroencephalogram positive waves of spike-wave complexes. The onset of these repolarizing potentials corresponds to maximal [K+]o as estimated from dual simultaneous impalements from neurons and glial cells. Computational models showed how, after the increased [K+]o, the interplay between Ih, IK(Ca), and a persistent Na+ current, INa(P), could organize paroxysmal oscillations at a frequency of 2–3 Hz. PMID:12089324

  10. Irreversible catalyst activation enables hyperpolarization and water solubility for NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Shi, Fan; He, Ping; Yuan, Bingxin; Plunkett, Kyle N; Coffey, Aaron M; Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Koptyug, Igor V; Waddell, Kevin W; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-12-04

    Activation of a catalyst [IrCl(COD)(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene; COD = cyclooctadiene)] for signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) was monitored by in situ hyperpolarized proton NMR at 9.4 T. During the catalyst-activation process, the COD moiety undergoes hydrogenation that leads to its complete removal from the Ir complex. A transient hydride intermediate of the catalyst is observed via its hyperpolarized signatures, which could not be detected using conventional nonhyperpolarized solution NMR. SABRE enhancement of the pyridine substrate can be fully rendered only after removal of the COD moiety; failure to properly activate the catalyst in the presence of sufficient substrate can lead to irreversible deactivation consistent with oligomerization of the catalyst molecules. Following catalyst activation, results from selective RF-saturation studies support the hypothesis that substrate polarization at high field arises from nuclear cross-relaxation with hyperpolarized (1)H spins of the hydride/orthohydrogen spin bath. Importantly, the chemical changes that accompanied the catalyst's full activation were also found to endow the catalyst with water solubility, here used to demonstrate SABRE hyperpolarization of nicotinamide in water without the need for any organic cosolvent--paving the way to various biomedical applications of SABRE hyperpolarization methods.

  11. Accommodation to hyperpolarizing currents: differences between motor and sensory nerves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Rutkove, Seward B

    2012-06-19

    Peripheral motor nerves have revealed variability in excitability by hyperpolarizing current at specific target response levels, likely reflecting differences in the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih). Whether such variability in Ih exists in sensory axons is yet to be established. We performed nerve excitability testing in mouse tail motor and sensory nerves at 3 target response levels (20, 40, and 60% of the maximum amplitudes). Target-level dependent variability was present by long hyperpolarizing currents in motor and sensory nerves in which the recording at the low target level showed smaller threshold changes than at the high target level. Other excitability measures, however, showed no variability. Furthermore, the accommodation by long, strong hyperpolarization revealed smaller S3 accommodation (threshold change between the maximum and at the end of the 200 ms conditioning pulse) at the low target response level in sensory axons, but not in motor axons. Variation in the kinetics of the subtypes of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in motor and sensory axons is the most likely explanation for these findings. The present study has proposed that nerve excitability testing may provide a non-invasive means for the assessment of the different types of Ih in neurological disorders where HCN subtypes play unique pathophysiological roles.

  12. Hospital-based comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care among patients with congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease, or high risk of ischemic heart disease: 12-month results of a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines broadly recommend comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR), although evidence for this is still limited. We investigated the 12-month effect of hospital-based CCR versus usual care (UC) for a broadly defined group of cardiac patients within the modern therapeutic ...

  13. Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study examined three-year-olds’ verbal and non-verbal memory for a person met only once after a 28 month interval. Children in the Test group (N=50) had participated in an earlier experiment at our lab at the age of 12 months where they met one of two possible experimenters. At this past event...

  14. Prognostic factors and course for successful clinical outcome quality of life and patients' perceived effect after a cognitive behavior therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-months prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, K.; Luijsterburg, P.A.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Ronchetti, I.; Miedema, H.S.; Koes, B.W.; Pool-Goudzwaard, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical course of and prognostic factors for quality of life (Short Form 36 items Health survey (SF-36)) and global perceived effect (GPE) in patients treated for chronic nonspecific low back pain at 5 and 12-months follow-up. Data from a prospective cohort (n ¼ 1760) of

  15. Hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate mouse brain metabolism with absorptive-mode EPSI at 1 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloushev, Vesselin Z.; Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Salamanca-Cardona, Lucia; Correa, Fabian; Granlund, Kristin L.; Keshari, Kayvan R.

    2017-02-01

    The expected signal in echo-planar spectroscopic imaging experiments was explicitly modeled jointly in spatial and spectral dimensions. Using this as a basis, absorptive-mode type detection can be achieved by appropriate choice of spectral delays and post-processing techniques. We discuss the effects of gradient imperfections and demonstrate the implementation of this sequence at low field (1.05 T), with application to hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate imaging of the mouse brain. The sequence achieves sufficient signal-to-noise to monitor the conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate to lactate in the mouse brain. Hyperpolarized pyruvate imaging of mouse brain metabolism using an absorptive-mode EPSI sequence can be applied to more sophisticated murine disease and treatment models. The simple modifications presented in this work, which permit absorptive-mode detection, are directly translatable to human clinical imaging and generate improved absorptive-mode spectra without the need for refocusing pulses.

  16. Real-time assessment of Krebs cycle metabolism using hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Marie A; Atherton, Helen J; Ball, Daniel R; Cole, Mark A; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran; Radda, George K; Tyler, Damian J

    2009-08-01

    The Krebs cycle plays a fundamental role in cardiac energy production and is often implicated in the energetic imbalance characteristic of heart disease. In this study, we measured Krebs cycle flux in real time in perfused rat hearts using hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). [2-(13)C]Pyruvate was hyperpolarized and infused into isolated perfused hearts in both healthy and postischemic metabolic states. We followed the enzymatic conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetylcarnitine, citrate, and glutamate with 1 s temporal resolution. The appearance of (13)C-labeled glutamate was delayed compared with that of other metabolites, indicating that Krebs cycle flux can be measured directly. The production of (13)C-labeled citrate and glutamate was decreased postischemia, as opposed to lactate, which was significantly elevated. These results showed that the control and fluxes of the Krebs cycle in heart disease can be studied using hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate.

  17. Hyperpolarized metabolic MR in the study of cardiac function and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M. H.; Søgaard, L. V.; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    signal from a biological molecule of interest by more than 10,000 times, making it possible to measure its cellular uptake and conversion in specific enzymatic pathways in real time. We review the role of hyperpolarized MR in identifying changes in cardiac metabolism in vivo, and present the extensive...... literature on hyperpolarized pyruvate that has been used to characterize cardiac disease in various in vivo models, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and heart failure. The technical aspects of the technique are presented as well as the challenges of translating...... the technique into clinical practice. Hyperpolarized MR has the prospect of transforming diagnostic cardiology by offering new insights into cardiac disease and potentially even to contribute to personalized therapy based on a thorough understanding of the individual intracellular metabolism....

  18. Hyperpolarized Metabolic MR in the Study of Cardiac Function and Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M H; Sogaard, L V; Madsen, P L;

    2014-01-01

    signal from a biological molecule of interest by more than 10,000 times, making it possible to measure its cellular uptake and conversion in specific enzymatic pathways in real time. We review the role of hyperpolarized MR in identifying changes in cardiac metabolism in vivo, and present the extensive...... literature on hyperpolarized pyruvate that has been used to characterize cardiac disease in various in vivo models, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and heart failure. The technical aspects of the technique are presented as well as the challenges of translating...... the technique into clinical practice. Hyperpolarized MR has the prospect of transforming diagnostic cardiology by offering new insights into cardiac disease and potentially even to contribute to personalized therapy based on a thorough understanding of the individual intracellular metabolism....

  19. Effect of low and zero magnetic field on the hyperpolarization lifetime in parahydrogenated perdeuterated molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineri, Francesca; Santelia, Daniela; Gobetto, Roberto; Aime, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Hyperpolarization can be kept for times longer than T(1) if it is maintained in a singlet state, from which transitions are not allowed. Another, more direct, way to slower the relaxation process consists in the use of perdeuterated molecules. Here both methods have been applied and the hyperpolarization (induced by para-H(2)) decay rate has been measured at two different magnetic fields: earth field and zero field. While relaxation is very slow at earth field, it becomes faster at zero field: this rather unexpected finding has been explained on the basis of isotropic mixing between (1)H and (2)H.

  20. Effect of ionic interaction between a hyperpolarized magnetic resonance chemical probe and a gadolinium contrast agent for the hyperpolarized lifetime after dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakusagi, Yoichi; Inoue, Kaori; Naganuma, Tatsuya; Hyodo, Fuminori; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    In hyperpolarization of 13C-enriched magnetic resonance chemical probes in the solid-state, a trace amount of gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent can be used to maximize polarization of the 13C nuclear spins. Here, we report systematic measurement of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and enhancement level of 13C-enriched chemical probes in the presence of various Gd contrast agents in the liquid-state after dissolution. Using two different 13C probes having opposite electric charges at neutral pH, we clearly show the T1 of hyperpolarized 13C was barely affected by the use of a Gd complex that displays repulsive interaction with the 13C probe in solution, whilst T1 was drastically shortened when there was ionic attraction between probe and complex.

  1. Cystatin C, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptides and outcomes in acute heart failure with acute kidney injury in a 12-month follow-up: Insights into the cardiorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-bao Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C (Cys C has been implicated as a prognostic marker in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of Cys C as a marker of acute kidney injury (AKI in acute heart failure (AHF, the impact of Cys C and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptides (NT-proBNP on in-hospital and 12 months mortality were also investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 162 patients with AHF were enrolled. NT-proBNP, Cys C, serum creatinine (Scr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and parameters of echocardiography were measured for analyze. The in-hospital and 12 months mortality was analyzed. Results: There was 28 (17% of all AHF patients with AKI. Compared with no-AKI patients, the levels of Cys C (1.51 ± 0.34 vs. 1.32 ± 0.29, P = 0.003 and NT-proBNP (8163.87 ± 898.06 vs. 5922.45 ± 576.73, P = 0.001 were higher in AKI patients. Higher levels of NT-proBNP (odds ratio (OR = 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.19-10.98, P = 0.018, OR = 4.31, 95% CI: 2.35-9.82, P = 0.002, respectively and Cys C (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.75-4.16, P = 0.027, OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.92-4.28, P = 0.017, respectively were independent association with the in-hospital and 12 months mortality. Cys C was positively correlated with NT-proBNP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001. Combining tertiles of Cys C and NT-proBNP improved risk stratification further. Compared with patients without AKI cysC , patients with AKI cysC was associated with higher in-hospital (7/28 vs. 10/134, P = 0.002 and 12-month mortality (13/28 vs. 32/134, P = 0.001. Conclusion: Cys C was not only a promising risk marker in patients hospitalized for AHF, but also an independent predictor of 12-month mortality. Combining tertiles of Cys C and NT-proBNP could be used to distinguish the mortality risk identification of patients with AHF. AKI was an independent predictor of in-hospital and 12-month mortality.

  2. Large dose hyperpolarized water with dissolution-DNP at high magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsø, Hans Kasper Wigh; Bowen, Sean; Rybalko, Oleksandr;

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of hyperpolarized water by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at high magnetic field. Protons were polarized at 6.7T and 1.1K to >70% with frequency modulated microwave irradiation at 188GHz. 97.2±0.7% of the radical was extracted from the sample ...

  3. Apparent rate constant mapping using hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khegai, O.; Schulte, R. F.; Janich, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperpolarization of [1-13C]pyruvate in solution allows real-time measurement of uptake and metabolism using MR spectroscopic methods. After injection and perfusion, pyruvate is taken up by the cells and enzymatically metabolized into downstream metabolites such as lactate, alanine, and bicarbona...

  4. A hyperpolarization-activated inward current alters swim frequency of the pteropod mollusk Clione limacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirtle, Thomas J; Willingham, Kyle; Satterlie, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    The pteropod mollusk, Clione limacina, exhibits behaviorally relevant swim speed changes that occur within the context of the animal's ecology. Modulation of C. limacina swimming speed involves changes that occur at the network and cellular levels. Intracellular recordings from interneurons of the swim central pattern generator show the presence of a sag potential that is indicative of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)). Here we provide evidence that I(h) in primary swim interneurons plays a role in C. limacina swimming speed control and may be a modulatory target. Recordings from central pattern generator swim interneurons show that hyperpolarizing current injection produces a sag potential that lasts for the duration of the hyperpolarization, a characteristic of cells possessing I(h). Following the hyperpolarizing current injection, swim interneurons also exhibit postinhibitory rebound (PIR). Serotonin enhances the sag potential of C. limacina swim interneurons while the I(h) blocker, ZD7288, reduces the sag potential. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between the amplitude of the sag potential and latency to PIR. Because latency to PIR was previously shown to influence swimming speed, we hypothesize that I(h) has an effect on swimming speed. The I(h) blocker, ZD7288, suppresses swimming in C. limacina and inhibits serotonin-induced acceleration, evidence that supports our hypothesis.

  5. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Galen D.; von Morze, Cornelius; Verkman, Alan S.; Koelsch, Bertram L.; Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Lustig, Michael; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Bok, Robert A.; Sands, Jeff M.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Wang, Zhen J.; Larsen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo spin spin relaxation time (T2) heterogeneity of hyperpolarized [13C,15N2]urea in the rat kidney was investigated. Selective quenching of the vascular hyperpolarized 13C signal with a macromolecular relaxation agent revealed that a long-T2 component of the [13C,15N2]urea signal originated from the renal extravascular space, thus allowing the vascular and renal filtrate contrast agent pools of the [13C,15N2]urea to be distinguished via multi-exponential analysis. The T2 response to induced diuresis and antidiuresis was performed with two imaging agents: hyperpolarized [13C,15N2]urea and a control agent hyperpolarized bis-1,1-(hydroxymethyl)-1-13C-cyclopropane-2H8. Large T2 increases in the inner-medullar and papilla were observed with the former agent and not the latter during antidiuresis. Therefore, [13C,15N2]urea relaxometry is sensitive to two steps of the renal urea handling process: glomerular filtration and the inner-medullary urea transporter (UT)-A1 and UT-A3 mediated urea concentrating process. Simple motion correction and subspace denoising algorithms are presented to aid in the multi exponential data analysis. Furthermore, a T2-edited, ultra long echo time sequence was developed for sub-2 mm3 resolution 3D encoding of urea by exploiting relaxation differences in the vascular and filtrate pools. PMID:27570835

  6. HP-Xe to go: Storage and Transportation of Hyperpolarized 129-Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Almendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J.O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhaeusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-01-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxat

  7. Milli-tesla NMR and spectrophotometry of liquids hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Chen, Chia-Hsiu; Wilson, Zechariah; Savukov, Igor; Hilty, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Hyperpolarization methods offer a unique means of improving low signal strength obtained in low-field NMR. Here, simultaneous measurements of NMR at a field of 0.7 mT and laser optical absorption from samples hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP) are reported. The NMR measurement field closely corresponds to a typical field encountered during sample injection in a D-DNP experiment. The optical spectroscopy allows determination of the concentration of the free radical required for DNP. Correlation of radical concentration to NMR measurement of spin polarization and spin-lattice relaxation time allows determination of relaxivity and can be used for optimization of the D-DNP process. Further, the observation of the nuclear Overhauser effect originating from hyperpolarized spins is demonstrated. Signals from 1H and 19F in a mixture of trifluoroethanol and water are detected in a single spectrum, while different atoms of the same type are distinguished by J-coupling patterns. The resulting signal changes of individual peaks are indicative of molecular contact, suggesting a new application area of hyperpolarized low-field NMR for the determination of intermolecular interactions.

  8. Hyperpolarized metabolic MR in the study of cardiac function and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M. H.; Søgaard, L. V.; Madsen, Pia Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    literature on hyperpolarized pyruvate that has been used to characterize cardiac disease in various in vivo models, such as myocardial ischemia, hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism and heart failure. The technical aspects of the technique are presented as well as the challenges of translating...

  9. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Galen D; von Morze, Cornelius; Verkman, Alan S

    2016-01-01

    originated from the renal extravascular space, thus allowing the vascular and renal filtrate contrast agent pools of the [(13)C,(15)N2]urea to be distinguished via multi-exponential analysis. The T2 response to induced diuresis and antidiuresis was performed with two imaging agents: hyperpolarized [(13)C,(15...

  10. Imaging Renal Urea Handling in Rats at Millimeter Resolution using Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Relaxometry

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Galen D; Verkman, Alan S; Koelsch, Bertram L; Chaumeil, Myriam M; Lustig, Michael; Ronen, Sabrina M; Sands, Jeff M; Larson, Peder E Z; Wang, Zhen J; Larsen, Jan Henrik Ardenkjær; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2015-01-01

    \\textit{In vivo} spin spin relaxation time ($T_2$) heterogeneity of hyperpolarized \\textsuperscript{13}C urea in the rat kidney was investigated. Selective quenching of the vascular hyperpolarized \\textsuperscript{13}C signal with a macromolecular relaxation agent revealed that a long-$T_2$ component of the \\textsuperscript{13}C urea signal originated from the renal extravascular space, thus allowing the vascular and renal filtrate contrast agent pools of the \\textsuperscript{13}C urea to be distinguished via multi-exponential analysis. The $T_2$ response to induced diuresis and antidiuresis was performed with two imaging agents: hyperpolarized \\textsuperscript{13}C urea and a control agent hyperpolarized bis-1,1-(hydroxymethyl)-1-\\textsuperscript{13}C-cyclopropane-$^2\\textrm{H}_8$. Large $T_2$ increases in the inner-medullar and papilla were observed with the former agent and not the latter during antidiuresis suggesting that $T_2$ relaxometry may be used to monitor the inner-medullary urea transporter (UT)-...

  11. Assessment of lung microstructure with magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized Helium-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Wolfgang G.; Morbach, Andreas E; Stavngaard, Trine;

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized Helium-3 is a new technique for probing pulmonary microstructure in vivo. The aim of this study was the assessment of potential sources of systematic errors of the ADC measurement. The influence of macroscopic...

  12. In vivo single-shot 13C spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized metabolites by spatiotemporal encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rita; Laustsen, Christoffer; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Serrao, Eva M.; Marco-Rius, Irene; Brindle, Kevin M.; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-03-01

    Hyperpolarized metabolic imaging is a growing field that has provided a new tool for analyzing metabolism, particularly in cancer. Given the short life times of the hyperpolarized signal, fast and effective spectroscopic imaging methods compatible with dynamic metabolic characterizations are necessary. Several approaches have been customized for hyperpolarized 13C MRI, including CSI with a center-out k-space encoding, EPSI, and spectrally selective pulses in combination with spiral EPI acquisitions. Recent studies have described the potential of single-shot alternatives based on spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) principles, to derive chemical-shift images within a sub-second period. By contrast to EPSI, SPEN does not require oscillating acquisition gradients to deliver chemical-shift information: its signal encodes both spatial as well as chemical shift information, at no extra cost in experimental complexity. SPEN MRI sequences with slice-selection and arbitrary excitation pulses can also be devised, endowing SPEN with the potential to deliver single-shot multi-slice chemical shift images, with a temporal resolution required for hyperpolarized dynamic metabolic imaging. The present work demonstrates this with initial in vivo results obtained from SPEN-based imaging of pyruvate and its metabolic products, after injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. Multi-slice chemical-shift images of healthy rats were obtained at 4.7 T in the region of the kidney, and 4D (2D spatial, 1D spectral, 1D temporal) data sets were obtained at 7 T from a murine lymphoma tumor model.

  13. Robust hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging with selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Way Cherng; Teo, Xing Qi; Lee, Man Ying; Radda, George K; Lee, Philip

    2015-08-01

    In vivo metabolic imaging using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate provides localized biochemical information and is particularly useful in detecting early disease changes, as well as monitoring disease progression and treatment response. However, a major limitation of hyperpolarized magnetization is its unrecoverable decay, due not only to T1 relaxation but also to radio-frequency (RF) excitation. RF excitation schemes used in metabolic imaging must therefore be able to utilize available hyperpolarized magnetization efficiently and robustly for the optimal detection of substrate and metabolite activities. In this work, a novel RF excitation scheme called selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP) is presented. This excitation scheme involves the use of a spectral selective RF pulse to specifically exclude the excitation of [1-(13)C]pyruvate, while uniformly exciting the key metabolites of interest (namely [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine) and [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate. By eliminating the loss of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetization due to RF excitation, the signal from downstream metabolite pools is increased together with enhanced dynamic range. Simulation results, together with phantom measurements and in vivo experiments, demonstrated the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the extension of the lifetime of the [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine pools when compared with conventional non-spectral selective (NS) excitation. SNEP has also been shown to perform comparably well with multi-band (MB) excitation, yet SNEP possesses distinct advantages, including ease of implementation, less stringent demands on gradient performance, increased robustness to frequency drifts and B0 inhomogeneity as well as easier quantification involving the use of [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate as a proxy for the actual [1-(13)C] pyruvate signal. SNEP is therefore a promising alternative for robust hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate metabolic imaging with high

  14. Production of Hyperpolarized 129Xe Gas Without Nitrogen by Optical Pumping at 133Cs D2 line in Flow System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xin; SUN Xian-Ping; LUO Jun; ZENG Xi-Zhi; LIU Mai-Li; ZHAN Ming-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We report production of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas via spin-exchange with optically pumped Cs atoms at the D2 line, achieved at low magnetic field in a flow system and in the absence of nitrogen gas. The nuclear spin polarization of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas is enhanced by a factor of 10000 compared to that without optical pumping under the same condition, which corresponds to polarization of about 2.66%. Due to the high spin polarization, the radiation damping of hyperpolarized 129Xe gas has also been observed in the flow system.

  15. Protective effects of pinacidil hyperpolarizing cardioplegia on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury by mitochondrial KATP channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Tian; FU Xiao-yun; LIU Xing-kui; YU Zhi-hao

    2011-01-01

    Background Many studies have indicated that hyperpolarizing cardioplegia is responsible for myocardial preservation and researchers have suggested that the adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) were the end effectors of cardio-protection.But whether mitochondrial KATP plays an important role in hyperpolarizing cardioplegia is not apparent.The present study investigated the effect of hyperpolarizing cardioplegia containing pinacidil (a nonselective KATP opener) on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hearts,especially the role of mitochondrial KATP in pinacidil hyperpolarizing cardioplegia.Methods Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were Langendorff-perfused for 20 minutes with Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37℃before equilibration.Cardiac arrest was then induced in different treatments:there was no arrest and ischemia in the normal group,the control group were arrested by clamping the aorta,depolarizing caidioplegia (St.Thomas solution containing 16 mmol/L KCI) and hyperpolarizing cardioplegia groups used St.Thomas solution containing 0.05 mmol/L pinacidil and 5 mmol/L KCI to induce cardiac arrest in group hyperkalemic and group pinacidil,in group hyperkalemic + 5-hydroxydecanote (5HD) and Pinacidil + 5HD,5HD (0.1 mmol/L) was added to the above two solutions to block mitochondria KATP channels.Global ischemia was then administrated for 40 minutes at 37℃,followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion.At the end of equilibration and reperfusion,hemodynamics,ultrastructure,and mitochondrial function were measured.Results In the control group,ischemia/reperfusion decreased the left ventricular developed pressure,heart rate,coronary flow,mitochondrial membrane potential,impaired mitochondrial respiratory function,increased reactive oxygen species and left ventricular end diastolic pressure.Damage to myocardial ultrastructure was also evident.Both depolarized arrest and especially hyperpolarized cardioplegia significantly reduced these lesions.5HD partially blocked the

  16. Manipulating spin hyper-polarization by means of adiabatic switching of a spin-locking RF-field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryutin, Alexey S; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Lukzen, Nikita N

    2013-09-14

    We propose a technique for transferring the multiplet spin polarization (CIDNP or PHIP, or one created by any other method), which is the mutual entanglement of spins, into net hyper-polarization with respect to the direction of a high magnetic field by slowly (adiabatically) switching-off a strong external RF-field with a specially selected frequency. The net hyper-polarized molecules can then be used in NMR spectroscopy or imaging for strong signal enhancement.

  17. Prognostic factors and course for successful clinical outcome quality of life and patients' perceived effect after a cognitive behavior therapy for chronic non-specific low back pain: A 12-months prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Karin; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Heymans, Martijn W; Ronchetti, Inge; Miedema, Harald S; Koes, Bart W; Pool-Goudzwaard, Annelies

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical course of and prognostic factors for quality of life (Short Form 36 items Health survey (SF-36)) and global perceived effect (GPE) in patients treated for chronic non-specific low back pain at 5 and 12-months follow-up. Data from a prospective cohort (n = 1760) of a rehabilitation center were used, where patients followed a 2-months cognitive behavior treatment. The outcome 'improvement in quality of life (SF-36)' was defined as a 10% increase in score on the SF-36 at follow-up compared with baseline. On the GPE scale, patients who indicated to be 'much improved' were coded as 'clinically improved'. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 23 baseline characteristics. At 5-months follow-up, scores on the SF-36 Mental Component Scale (SF-36; MCS) and the Physical Component Scale (SF-36; PCS) had increased from 46.6 (SD 10.3) to 50.4 (SD 9.8) and from 31.9 (SD 7.1) to 46.6 (SD 10.3), respectively. At 5-months follow-up, 53.0% of the patients reported clinical improvement (GPE) which increased to 60.3% at 12-months follow-up. The 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 MCS) at 5-months follow-up was associated with patient characteristics and psychological factors. At 5-months follow-up, the 10% improvement in quality of life (SF-36 PCS) and GPE was associated with patient characteristics, physical examination, work-related factors and psychological factors; for GPE, an association was also found with clinical status. At 12-months follow-up GPE was associated with patient characteristics, clinical status, physical examination and work-related factors. The next phase in this prognostic research is external validation of these results.

  18. Effects of repetitive loading on the growth-induced changes in bone mass and cortical bone geometry: a 12-month study in pre/peri- and postmenarcheal tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, Gaele; Bass, Shona L; Saxon, Leanne; Daly, Robin M

    2011-06-01

    Pre- and early puberty may be the most opportune time to strengthen the female skeleton, but there are few longitudinal data to support this claim. Competitive female premenarcheal (pre/peri, n = 13) and postmenarcheal (post, n = 32) tennis players aged 10 to 17 years were followed over 12 months. The osteogenic response to loading was studied by comparing the playing and nonplaying humeri for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone mineral content (BMC) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) total bone area (ToA), medullary area (MedA), cortical area (CoA), and muscle area (MCSA) at the humerus. Over 12 months, growth-induced gains (nonplaying arm) in BMC, ToA, and CoA were greater in pre/peri (10% to 19%, p < .001) than in post (3% to 5%, p < .05 to .001) players. At baseline, BMC, ToA, CoA, and MCSA were 8% to 18% greater in the playing versus nonplaying arms in pre/peri and post players (all p < .001); MedA was smaller in the playing versus nonplaying arms in post only players (p < .05). When comparing the annual gains in the playing arm relative to changes in the nonplaying arm, the increases in ToA and CoA were greater in pre/peri than post players (all p < .05). The smaller the side-to-side differences in BMC and CoA at baseline, the larger the exercise benefits at 12 months (r = -0.39 to -0.48, p < .01). The exercise-induced change in MCSA was predictive of the exercise benefits in BMC in pre/peri players only (p < .05). In conclusion, both pre/peri- and postmenarcheal tennis players showed significant exercise-induced skeletal benefits within a year, with greater benefits in cortical bone geometry in pre/perimenarcheal girls.

  19. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  20. 12-month mortality and loss-to-program in antiretroviral-treated children: The IeDEA pediatric West African Database to evaluate AIDS (pWADA, 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The IeDEA West Africa Pediatric Working Group (pWADA was established in January 2007 to study the care and treatment of HIV-infected children in this region. We describe here the characteristics at antiretroviral treatment (ART initiation and study the 12-month mortality and loss-to-program of HIV-infected children followed in ART programs in West Africa. Methods Standardized data from HIV-infected children followed-up in ART programs were included. Nine clinical centers from six countries contributed to the dataset (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mali and Senegal. Inclusion criteria were the followings: age 0-15 years and initiated triple antiretroviral drug regimens. Baseline time was the date of ART initiation. WHO criteria was used to define severe immunosuppression based on CD4 count by age or CD4 percent 6 months after ART initiation and factors associated with these two outcomes. Results Between June 2000 and December 2007, 2170 children were included. Characteristics at ART initiation were the following: median age of 5 years (Interquartile range (IQR: 2-9 and median CD4 percentage of 13% (IQR: 7-19. The most frequent drug regimen consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (62%. During the first 12 months, 169 (7.8% children died and 461(21.2% were lost-to-program. Overall, in HIV-infected children on ART, the 12-month probability of death was 8.3% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 7.2-9.6%, and of loss-to-program was 23.1% (95% CI: 21.3-25.0%. Both mortality and loss-to program were associated with advanced clinical stage, CD4 percentage 2005 of ART initiation. Conclusion Innovative and sustainable approaches are needed to better document causes of death and increase retention in HIV pediatric clinics in West Africa.

  1. Local and bulk 13C hyperpolarization in NV-centered diamonds at variable fields and orientations

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Gonzalo A; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Kanda, Hisao; Onoda, Shinobu; Isoya, Junichi; Gershoni, David; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Polarizing nuclear spins is of fundamental importance in biology, chemistry and physics. Methods for hyperpolarizing 13C nuclei from free electrons in bulk, usually demand operation at cryogenic temperatures. Room-temperature approaches targeting diamonds with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers could alleviate this need, but hitherto proposed strategies lack generality as they demand stringent conditions on the strength and/or alignment of the magnetic field. We report here an approach for achieving efficient electron->13C spin alignment transfers, compatible with a broad range of magnetic field strengths and field orientations with respect to the diamond crystal. This versatility results from combining coherent microwave- and incoherent laser-induced transitions between selected energy states of the coupled electron-nuclear spin manifold. 13C-detected Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments demonstrate that this hyperpolarization can be transferred via first-shell or via distant 13Cs, throughout the nuclear ...

  2. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current, , in Mathematical Models of Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical feature of sinoatrial (SA node pacemaker cells is the presence of an ionic current that activates upon hyperpolarization. The role of this hyperpolarization-activated current, , which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” in the spontaneous pacemaker activity of SA nodal cells remains a matter of intense debate. Whereas some conclude that plays a fundamental role in the generation of pacemaker activity and its rate control, others conclude that the role of is limited to a modest contribution to rate control. The ongoing debate is often accompanied with arguments from computer simulations, either to support one's personal view or to invalidate that of the antagonist. In the present paper, we review the various mathematical descriptions of that have been used in computer simulations and compare their strikingly different characteristics with our experimental data. We identify caveats and propose a novel model for based on our experimental data.

  3. Liquid-state carbon-13 hyperpolarization generated in an MRI system for fast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. B.; Berner, S.; Schimpf, W.; Müller, C.; Lickert, T.; Schwaderlapp, N.; Knecht, S.; Skinner, J. G.; Dost, A.; Rovedo, P.; Hennig, J.; von Elverfeldt, D.; Hövener, J.-B.

    2017-03-01

    Hyperpolarized (HP) tracers dramatically increase the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to monitor metabolism non-invasively and in vivo. Their production, however, requires an extra polarizing device (polarizer) whose complexity, operation and cost can exceed that of an MRI system itself. Furthermore, the lifetime of HP tracers is short and some of the enhancement is lost during transfer to the application site. Here, we present the production of HP tracers in water without an external polarizer: by Synthesis Amid the Magnet Bore, A Dramatically Enhanced Nuclear Alignment (SAMBADENA) is achieved within seconds, corresponding to a hyperpolarization of ~20%. As transfer of the tracer is no longer required, SAMBADENA may permit a higher polarization at the time of detection at a fraction of the cost and complexity of external polarizers. This development is particularly promising in light of the recently extended portfolio of biomedically relevant para-hydrogen-tracers and may lead to new diagnostic applications.

  4. Optically detected NMR of optically hyperpolarized 31P neutral donors in 28Si

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, M; Yang, A; Saeedi, K; Hayden, M E; Thewalt, M L W; Itoh, K M; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Becker, P; Pohl, H -J

    2010-01-01

    The electron and nuclear spins of the shallow donor 31P are promising qubit candidates invoked in many proposed Si-based quantum computing schemes. We have recently shown that the near-elimination of inhomogeneous broadening in highly isotopically enriched 28Si enables an optical readout of both the donor electron and nuclear spins by resolving the donor hyperfine splitting in the near-gap donor bound exciton transitions. We have also shown that pumping these same transitions can very quickly produce large electron and nuclear hyperpolarizations at low magnetic fields, where the equilibrium electron and nuclear polarizations are near zero. Here we show preliminary results of the measurement of 31P neutral donor NMR parameters using this optical nuclear hyperpolarization mechanism for preparation of the 31P nuclear spin system, followed by optical readout of the resulting nuclear spin population after manipulation with NMR pulse sequences. This allows for the observation of single-shot NMR signals with very hi...

  5. Assessment of early diabetic renal changes with hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Lauritzen, Mette Hauge;

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores a novel magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopic (MRI/MRS) method that measures changes in renal metabolism in a diabetic rat model. This hyperpolarized metabolic MRI/MRS method allows monitoring of metabolic processes in seconds by >10 000‐fold enhancement...... of the MR signal. The method has shown that the conversion of pyruvate to bicarbonate, i.e. pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, is significantly altered in the myocardium already at the onset of diabetes, and the predominant Warburg effect is a valuable cancer maker via the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH......) activity. We hypothesize that a similar change in PDH and LDH could be found in the early diabetic kidney. In a streptozotocin rat model of type 1 diabetes, hyperpolarized 13C‐MRI and blood oxygenation level‐dependent 1H‐MRI was employed to investigate the changes in renal metabolism in the diabetic...

  6. Dysfunctional Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Ion Channels in Cardiac Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqi Zhao

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are reverse voltage-dependent, and their activation depends on the hyperpolarization of the membrane and may be directly or indirectly regulated by the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP or other signal-transduction cascades. The distribution, quantity and activation states of HCN channels differ in tissues throughout the body. Evidence exhibits that HCN channels play critical roles in the generation and conduction of the electrical impulse and the physiopathological process of some cardiac diseases. They may constitute promising drug targets in the treatment of these cardiac diseases. Pharmacological treatment targeting HCN channels is of benefit to these cardiac conditions.

  7. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  8. Safety and efficacy of a novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent for the treatment of de novo coronary lesions: 12-month results from the TARGET Ⅱ trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bo; Zhao Yelin; Yang Yuejin; Zhang Ruiyan; Li Hui; Ma Changsheng; Chen Shaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Background In the TARGET I randomized controlled trial,the novel abluminal groove-filled biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent FIREHAWK proved non-inferior to the everolimus-eluting stent in nine-month in-stent late loss in single de novo coronary lesions.This study was aimed at evaluating clinical safety and effectiveness of FIREHAWK in a moderately complex population (including patients with small vessels,long lesions and multi-vessels),and at validating the ability of the SYNTAX score (SS) to predict clinical outcomes in patients treated with this latest generation drug-eluting stent.Methods TARGET Ⅱ was a prospective,multicenter,single-arm study with primary outcome of 12-month target lesion failure (TLF),including cardiac death,target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI) and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR).Stent thrombosis was defined according to the Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definition.Patients were grouped by tertiles of SS (≤6,>6 to ≤12,and >12).All patients were exclusively treated with the FIREHAWK stent and were followed up at 1,6,and 12 months,and annually thereafter up to five years.Results A total of 730 patients were included in this registry study.The 12-month incidence of TLF was 4.4% and the incidence of TLF components were,cardiac death 0.5%,TV-MI 3.2%,and TLR 2.2%.One definite/probable stent thrombosis was observed at 12-month follow-up.Mean SS was 10.87±6.87.Patients in the SS >12 tertile had significantly higher TLF (P=0.02) and TLR (P <0.01) rates than those in lower SS groups.In COX proportional-hazards regression analyses,TLF incidence was strongly related to lesion length (long lesion vs.non-long lesion patients; HR 3.416,95% CI,1.622-7.195),but unrelated to diabetic,small vessel,and multivessel subgroups.Conclusions The low TLF incidence in this study indicates that FIREHAWK is safe and effective in the treatment of moderately complex coronary disease.SS is also able to

  9. Niflumic acid reduces the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in rod photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, T O; Yamada, M

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in newt rod photoreceptors. At 100 microM, NFA delayed the activation of I(h) induced by hyperpolarizing voltage pulses to -83 mV from a holding potential of -43 mV, and reduced the steady-state current. However, reduction by NFA was weakened when I(h) was activated by hyperpolarizing steps to -123 mV, suggesting that these effects were voltage-dependent. The suppressive effects of NFA on I(h) were accompanied by a negative shift in activation voltage. NFA also delayed the relaxation of I(h) tail currents, showing that this drug also inhibited deactivation of the current. The reversal potential and the fully activated conductance were not affected. These observations suggest that NFA reduces I(h) by modifying the gating kinetics of the underlying channels. The suppressive actions of NFA remained when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated, and the failure of suppression by NFA in inside-out patches suggests that the agent may act on the I(h) channel from the extracellular side. These results, obtained in rod photoreceptors, are consistent with similar effects of NFA on I(f) in cardiac myocytes, suggesting that both currents share similar pharmacological properties.

  10. Protective Effects of Hyperpolarizing Cardioplegia with Pinacidil on Myocardium in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志伟; 张凯伦; 汪文东

    2002-01-01

    Whether the ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener pinacidil can provide myocardial protective effects in prolonged isolated global ischemic rat heart was investigated. On modified isolated rat working heart model, 40 hearts were divided into four groups randomly: Hyperpolarized arrest H-K solution containing pinacidil (50 tmol/L) (P1 and P2) and depolarized arrest St. Thomas' solution (S1 and S2) subjected to 15 C hypothermia, 60 min (P1 and S1) or 120 min (P1 and S2) of ischemia and 30 min reperfusion. The experimental indices included cardioplegic efficiency, cardiac function, coronary blood flow, myocardial enzyme release, myocardial water and ATP content. Hyperpolarized arrest provided significantly better recovery of cardiac function than depolarized arrest.Postischemic coronary flow and myocardial ATP content were higher. The arrest time of electro-mechanical activities were longer than depolarized arrest. There were no differences among the groups in myocardial water contents. The hyperpolarized arrest solution containing pinacidil can provide a marked myocardial protective effect during prolonged hypothermic myocardial ischemia.

  11. Imaging of branched chain amino acid metabolism in tumors with hyperpolarized 13C ketoisocaproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille R; in 't Zandt, René; Gisselsson, Anna; Hansson, Georg; Duus, Jens Ø; Meier, Sebastian; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2010-08-01

    Powerful analytical tools are vital for characterizing the complex molecular changes underlying oncogenesis and cancer treatment. This is particularly true, if information is to be collected in vivo by noninvasive approaches. In the recent past, hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy has been employed to quickly collect detailed spectral information on the chemical fate of tracer molecules in different tissues at high sensitivity. Here, we report a preclinical study showing that alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) can be used to assess molecular signatures of tumors with hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy. KIC is metabolized to leucine by the enzyme branched chain amino acid transferase (BCAT), which is found upregulated in some tumors. BCAT is a putative marker for metastasis and a target of the proto-oncogene c-myc. Very different fluxes through the BCAT-catalyzed reaction can be detected for murine lymphoma (EL4) and rat mammary adenocarcinoma (R3230AC) tumors in vivo. EL4 tumors show a more than 7-fold higher hyperpolarized (13)C leucine signal relative to the surrounding healthy tissue. In R3230AC tumor on the other hand branched chain amino acid metabolism is not enhanced relative to surrounding tissues. The distinct molecular signatures of branched chain amino acid metabolism in EL4 and R3230AC tumors correlate well with ex vivo assays of BCAT activity.

  12. High field hyperpolarization-EXSY experiment for fast determination of dissociation rates in SABRE complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermkens, Niels K. J.; Feiters, Martin C.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Tessari, Marco

    2017-03-01

    SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) is a nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique based on the reversible concurrent binding of small molecules and para-hydrogen (p-H2) to an iridium metal complex in solution. At low magnetic field, spontaneous conversion of p-H2 spin order to enhanced longitudinal magnetization of the nuclear spins of the other ligands occurs. Subsequent complex dissociation results in hyperpolarized substrate molecules in solution. The lifetime of this complex plays a crucial role in attained SABRE NMR signal enhancements. Depending on the ligands, vastly different dissociation rates have been previously measured using EXSY or selective inversion experiments. However, both these approaches are generally time-consuming due to the long recycle delays (up to 2 min) necessary to reach thermal equilibrium for the nuclear spins of interest. In the cases of dilute solutions, signal averaging aggravates the problem, further extending the experimental time. Here, a new approach is proposed based on coherent hyperpolarization transfer to substrate protons in asymmetric complexes at high magnetic field. We have previously shown that such asymmetric complexes are important for application of SABRE to dilute substrates. Our results demonstrate that a series of high sensitivity EXSY spectra can be collected in a short experimental time thanks to the NMR signal enhancement and much shorter recycle delay.

  13. High field hyperpolarization-EXSY experiment for fast determination of dissociation rates in SABRE complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermkens, Niels K J; Feiters, Martin C; Rutjes, Floris P J T; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

    2017-03-01

    SABRE (Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange) is a nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique based on the reversible concurrent binding of small molecules and para-hydrogen (p-H2) to an iridium metal complex in solution. At low magnetic field, spontaneous conversion of p-H2 spin order to enhanced longitudinal magnetization of the nuclear spins of the other ligands occurs. Subsequent complex dissociation results in hyperpolarized substrate molecules in solution. The lifetime of this complex plays a crucial role in attained SABRE NMR signal enhancements. Depending on the ligands, vastly different dissociation rates have been previously measured using EXSY or selective inversion experiments. However, both these approaches are generally time-consuming due to the long recycle delays (up to 2min) necessary to reach thermal equilibrium for the nuclear spins of interest. In the cases of dilute solutions, signal averaging aggravates the problem, further extending the experimental time. Here, a new approach is proposed based on coherent hyperpolarization transfer to substrate protons in asymmetric complexes at high magnetic field. We have previously shown that such asymmetric complexes are important for application of SABRE to dilute substrates. Our results demonstrate that a series of high sensitivity EXSY spectra can be collected in a short experimental time thanks to the NMR signal enhancement and much shorter recycle delay.

  14. Analyses of the rate of decline in stimulated c-peptide 12 months after diagnosis in children with newly diag-nosed type 1 diabetes. results from the Hvidoere study group on childhood diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Porksen, S.; Nielsen, L.B.;

    2010-01-01

    as assessed by stimulated C-peptide the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with new onset T1D in two independent cohorts collected over a time interval of 6 years. Furthermore the purpose was to assess whether the natural history of disease has changed over time. Materials and methods......: The International Hvidoere cohort, year 1999–2000: 275 children from 22 paediatric centers; the Danish cohort, year 2005–2006: 130 children from 4 paediatric centers. All patients went through a 90-minutes Boost-test 1, 3 (only the Danish cohort), 6, 12 months to characterize the residual betacell function. All...... months. Thereafter there was a linear decline in stimulated C-peptide for all age groups above 5 years in both cohorts. The mean value for the disappearance rate in stimulated C-peptide was 7.2 ± 0.9%/month for the Hvidoere and 9.4 ± 0.8%/month for the Danish cohort (NS, P = 0.12). The combined slope...

  15. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralf [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany); Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

  16. Analysis of neuropsychological development on the overweight and obesity in 12 months old infants%12月龄超重和肥胖婴儿88例神经心理发育分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊淑英; 黄旭丽; 钟赛如

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨超重和肥胖对12月龄婴儿神经心理发育的影响,为婴儿肥胖的预防和干预提供理论依据.[方法]采用上海复旦大学儿科医院0~6岁发育筛查测验(Developmental Screening Test for children under six,DST),对88例12月龄超重和肥胖婴儿和88例正常体质量婴儿进行对照研究,比较两组发育商(development quotient,DQ)的异常率和在运动、社会适应、智力能区的差异. [结果]1)超重和肥胖组中DQ值可疑和异常的婴儿比例明显高于正常体重组;超重和肥胖组DQ值>100的婴儿比例明显低于正常体重组(P<0.05);2)在运动能区、社会适应能区分量表和总DQ值得分中,超重和肥胖组均低于正常体重组(P<0.05). [结论]超重和肥胖对12月龄婴儿神经心理发育有不良影响.%[Objective] To explore the effect of overweight and obesity in 12 months old infants on the development of neuropsychology,and provide theory basis for precaution and intervention.[Methods] Neuropsychological development of 88 overweight and obese infants aged 12 months and 88 normal weight infants were assessed with Developmental Screening Test for children under six (DST),an intellectual developmental screening test developed by Pediatric Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai,and the differences of developmental quotient (DQ),exercise capacity,social adaptation,intelligence were compared between two groups.[Results] 1)The proportion of suspicious and abnormal values of DQ in the overweight and obese infants were higher than those of normal weight,and more than 100 was lower than those of normal weight (P<0.05).2)The values of the exercise capacity,social adaptation and DQ in the overweight and obese infants were lower than those of normal weight(P%0.05).[Conclusion] There are shortcomings in neuropsychological development on the overweight and obesity in infants aged 12 months old.

  17. SUMOylation of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel 2 Increases Surface Expression and the Maximal Conductance of the Hyperpolarization-Activated Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Anna R.; Welch, Meghyn A.; Forster, Lori A.; Tasneem, Sarah M.; Dubhashi, Janhavi A.; Baro, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) is a ∼10 kDa peptide that can be post-translationally added to a lysine (K) on a target protein to facilitate protein–protein interactions. Recent studies have found that SUMOylation can be regulated in an activity-dependent manner and that ion channel SUMOylation can alter the biophysical properties and surface expression of the channel. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel surface expression can be regulated in an activity-dependent manner through unknown processes. We hypothesized that SUMOylation might influence the surface expression of HCN2 channels. In this manuscript, we show that HCN2 channels are SUMOylated in the mouse brain. Baseline levels of SUMOylation were also observed for a GFP-tagged HCN2 channel stably expressed in Human embryonic kidney (Hek) cells. Elevating GFP-HCN2 channel SUMOylation above baseline in Hek cells led to an increase in surface expression that augmented the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) mediated by these channels. Increased SUMOylation did not alter Ih voltage-dependence or kinetics of activation. There are five predicted intracellular SUMOylation sites on HCN2. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that more than one K on the GFP-HCN2 channel was SUMOylated. Enhancing SUMOylation at one of the five predicted sites, K669, led to the increase in surface expression and Ih Gmax. The role of SUMOylation at additional sites is currently unknown. The SUMOylation site at K669 is also conserved in HCN1 channels. Aberrant SUMOylation has been linked to neurological diseases that also display alterations in HCN1 and HCN2 channel expression, such as seizures and Parkinson’s disease. This work is the first report that HCN channels can be SUMOylated and that this can regulate surface expression and Ih. PMID:28127275

  18. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation at birth on measles incidence during the first 12 months of life in boys and girls: an unplanned study within a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diness, Birgitte R; Martins, Cesário L; Balé, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine S

    2011-06-28

    Vitamin A treatment reduces mortality during acute measles infection, and vitamin A supplementation (VAS) to children above 6 months of age may reduce the incidence of measles infection. The effect of VAS at birth on measles incidence is unknown. In a randomised placebo-controlled trial in Guinea-Bissau, normal-birth-weight newborns were randomised to 50 000 IU (15 mg) VAS or placebo. During the trial, a measles epidemic occurred. We linked data from the trial with data from the measles infection surveillance and studied the effect of VAS on the measles incidence before 12 months of age in both sexes. A total of 165 measles cases were identified among the 4183 children followed from 28 d of age. Up to 6 months of age, the incidence rate ratio of measles for VAS compared with placebo was 0·54 (95 % CI 0·25, 1·15) among boys and 1·57 (95 % CI 0·80, 3·08) among girls (test of interaction, P = 0·04). The corresponding figures at 12 months were 0·67 (95 % CI 0·43, 1·05) and 1·17 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·79) (test of interaction, P = 0·08). VAS compared with placebo tended to be associated with less measles hospitalisation or death during the first 6 months of life in boys (P = 0·06), but not in girls. VAS at birth may affect the susceptibility to measles infection during the first 6 months of life in a sex-differential manner.

  19. Inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current (if) of rabbit SA node myocytes by niflumic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accili, E A; DiFrancesco, D

    1996-03-01

    The effects of the amphiphilic substance niflumic acid (NFA) were examined in myocytes isolated from the sino-atrial node of the rabbit heart. NFA (50 and 500 microM), for 30-60 s, produced a reversible negative chronotropic effect by reducing the rate of diastolic depolarization, suggesting an inhibitory effect on the hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (if). NFA (from 0.05 to 500 microM) inhibited if by modifying the current kinetics, without alteration of the conductance. This was shown by evidence indicating that: (1) NFA inhibited if during hyperpolarizing pulses to the mid-point of if activation but not at fully activating voltages; (2) the slope and reversal potential of the fully activated current/voltage (I/V) relation were not altered by NFA, indicating no change in slope conductance or ion selectivity; and (3) hyperpolarizing ramp protocols confirmed the lack of action of 50 microM NFA on the fully activated current and a shift of approximately -8 mV. Although similar to inhibition by acetylcholine (ACh), inhibition by NFA was only partly additive with the action of ACh and was not altered by atropine or pertussis toxin, both of which eliminated the action of ACh. The effect of NFA was present after stimulation of adenylate cyclase by forskolin and after inhibition of phosphodiesterase by isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX). In cell-attached patch measurements, NFA applied externally did not affect if measured in the patch. Finally, application of NFA to the cytoplasmic side of excised patches did not alter the current in the absence or presence of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). These results suggest an external, membrane-delimited action of NFA on if.

  20. Hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging of a rat model of transient Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walvick, Ronn P.; Bastan, Birgul; Reno, Austin; Mansour, Joey; Sun, Yanping; Zhou, Xin; Mazzani, Mary; Fisher, Marc; Sotak, Christopher H.; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2009-02-01

    Ischemic stroke accounts for nearly 80% of all stroke cases. Although proton diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the gold standards in ischemic stroke diagnostics, the use of hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI has a potential role to contribute to the diagnostic picture. The highly lipophilic hyperpolarized 129Xe can be non-invasively delivered via inhalation into the lungs where it is dissolved into the blood and delivered to other organs such as the brain. As such, we expect hyperpolarized 129Xe to act as a perfusion tracer which will result in a signal deficit in areas of blood deprived tissue. In this work, we present imaging results from an animal model of transient ischemic stroke characterized through 129Xe MRI. In this model, a suture is used to occlude the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the rat brain, thus causing an ischemic event. After a period of MCA occlusion, the suture can then be removed to reperfuse the ischemic area. During the ischemic phase of the stroke, a signal void was observed in the MCA territory; which was subsequently restored by normal 129Xe MRI signal once perfusion was reinstated. Further, a higher resolution one-dimensional chemical shift image shows a sharp signal drop in the area of ischemia. Validation of ischemic damage was shown through both proton diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazoliumchloride (TTC) staining. The results show the potential of 129Xe to act as a perfusion tracer; information that may add to the diagnostic and prognostic utility of the clinical picture of stroke.

  1. Nuclear spin imaging with hyperpolarized nuclei created by brute force method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masayoshi; Kunimatsu, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Kohri, Hideki; Ohta, Takeshi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Yosoi, Masaru; Ono, Satoshi; Fukuda, Kohji; Takamatsu, Kunihiko; Ueda, Kunihiro; Didelez, Jean-P.; Prossati, Giorgio; de Waard, Arlette

    2011-05-01

    We have been developing a polarized HD target for particle physics at the SPring-8 under the leadership of the RCNP, Osaka University for the past 5 years. Nuclear polarizaton is created by means of the brute force method which uses a high magnetic field (~17 T) and a low temperature (~ 10 mK). As one of the promising applications of the brute force method to life sciences we started a new project, "NSI" (Nuclear Spin Imaging), where hyperpolarized nuclei are used for the MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The candidate nuclei with spin ½hslash are 3He, 13C, 15N, 19F, 29Si, and 31P, which are important elements for the composition of the biomolecules. Since the NMR signals from these isotopes are enhanced by orders of magnitudes, the spacial resolution in the imaging would be much more improved compared to the practical MRI used so far. Another advantage of hyperpolarized MRI is that the MRI is basically free from the radiation, while the problems of radiation exposure caused by the X-ray CT or PET (Positron Emission Tomography) cannot be neglected. In fact, the risk of cancer for Japanese due to the radiation exposure through these diagnoses is exceptionally high among the advanced countries. As the first step of the NSI project, we are developing a system to produce hyperpolarized 3He gas for the diagnosis of serious lung diseases, for example, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The system employs the same 3He/4He dilution refrigerator and superconducting solenoidal coil as those used for the polarized HD target with some modification allowing the 3He Pomeranchuk cooling and the following rapid melting of the polarized solid 3He to avoid the depolarization. In this report, the present and future steps of our project will be outlined with some latest experimental results.

  2. Ovariectomy increases the participation of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the relaxation of rat aorta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sagredo

    Full Text Available This study examines the downstream NO release pathway and the contribution of different vasodilator mediators in the acetylcholine-induced response in rat aorta 5-months after the loss of ovarian function. Aortic segments from ovariectomized and control female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to measure: the levels of superoxide anion, the superoxide dismutases (SODs activity, the cGMP formation, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG activity and the involvement of NO, cGMP, hydrogen peroxide and hyperpolarizing mechanisms in the ACh-induced relaxation. The results showed that ovariectomy did not alter ACh-induced relaxation; incubation with L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor, decreased the ACh-induced response to a lesser extent in aorta from ovariectomized than from control rats, while ODQ, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, decreased that response to a similar extent; the blockade of hyperpolarizing mechanisms, by precontracting arteries with KCl, decreased the ACh-induced response to a greater extent in aortas from ovariectomized than those from control rats; catalase, that decomposes hydrogen peroxide, decreased the ACh-induced response only in aorta from ovariectomized rats. In addition, ovariectomy increased superoxide anion levels and SODs activity, decreased cGMP formation and increased PKG activity. Despite the increased superoxide anion and decreased cGMP in aorta from ovariectomized rats, ACh-induced relaxation is maintained by the existence of hyperpolarizing mechanisms in which hydrogen peroxide participates. The greater contribution of hydrogen peroxide in ACh-induced relaxation is due to increased SOD activity, in an attempt to compensate for increased superoxide anion formation. Increased PKG activity could represent a redundant mechanism to ensure vasodilator function in the aorta of ovariectomized rats.

  3. Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe MRI: A viable functional lung imaging modality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, Samuel [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)], E-mail: patz@bwh.harvard.edu; Hersman, F. William [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, 131 Main Street, Nesmith Hall, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Muradian, Iga [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hrovat, Mirko I. [Mirtech, Inc., 452 Ash Street, Brockton, MA 02301 (United States); Ruset, Iulian C.; Ketel, Stephen [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, 131 Main Street, Nesmith Hall, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Jacobson, Francine [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Topulos, George P. [Department of Anesthesiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Butler, James P. [Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The majority of researchers investigating hyperpolarized gas MRI as a candidate functional lung imaging modality have used {sup 3}He as their imaging agent of choice rather than {sup 129}Xe. This preference has been predominantly due to, {sup 3}He providing stronger signals due to higher levels of polarization and higher gyromagnetic ratio, as well as its being easily available to more researchers due to availability of polarizers (USA) or ease of gas transport (Europe). Most researchers agree, however, that hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe will ultimately emerge as the imaging agent of choice due to its unlimited supply in nature and its falling cost. Our recent polarizer technology delivers vast improvements in hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe output. Using this polarizer, we have demonstrated the unique property of xenon to measure alveolar surface area noninvasively. In this article, we describe our human protocols and their safety, and our results for the measurement of the partial pressure of pulmonary oxygen (pO{sub 2}) by observation of {sup 129}Xe signal decay. We note that the measurement of pO{sub 2} by observation of {sup 129}Xe signal decay is more complex than that for {sup 3}He because of an additional signal loss mechanism due to interphase diffusion of {sup 129}Xe from alveolar gas spaces to septal tissue. This results in measurements of an equivalent pO{sub 2} that accounts for both traditional T{sub 1} decay from pO{sub 2} and that from interphase diffusion. We also provide an update on new technological advancements that form the foundation for an improved compact design polarizer as well as improvements that provide another order-of-magnitude scale-up in xenon polarizer output.

  4. Long storage times for hyperpolarized 129Xe and precise measurement of its absolute polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repetto, Maricel; Zimmer, Stefan; Karpuk, Sergei; Bluemler, Peter; Heil, Werner [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik. Staudingerweg 7 55099, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Applications of hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe in medical research and fundamental physics experiments increased significantly in recent years. All uses profit from high degrees of polarization (PXe) which not only needs to be generated but also preserved during transport and storage. PXe is usually determined via comparison of the NMR signals from HP Xe with the NMR signal of thermally polarized H2O or Xe. All these procedures have experimental errors which are hard to eliminate. We present a simple method for the measurement of absolute PXe which best resolution is 0.6 % together with wall storage times > 12 hs using a homebuilt, mobile Xe polarizer.

  5. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E.; Henriksen, Sarah T.;

    2015-01-01

    between causes of increased glucose uptake. We propose that this new concept of simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRSI and PET may be highly valuable for image-based non-invasive phenotyping of tumors. This methods may be useful for treatment planning and therapy monitoring.......In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have...... named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in an increase of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13CCO2 (13C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use...

  6. In vivo detection of cucurbit[6]uril, a hyperpolarized xenon contrast agent for a xenon magnetic resonance imaging biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis T.; Li, Tao; Smylie, Peter; Pellizzari, Raiili M.; Plata, Jennifer A.; DeBoef, Brenton; Albert, Mitchell S.

    2017-01-01

    The Hyperpolarized gas Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (HyperCEST) Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique has the potential to increase the sensitivity of a hyperpolarized xenon-129 MRI contrast agent. Signal enhancement is accomplished by selectively depolarizing the xenon within a cage molecule which, upon exchange, reduces the signal in the dissolved phase pool. Herein we demonstrate the in vivo detection of the cucurbit[6]uril (CB6) contrast agent within the vasculature of a living rat. Our work may be used as a stepping stone towards using the HyperCEST technique as a molecular imaging modality. PMID:28106110

  7. Hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in cardiomyocyte tissue slices by the synchronization modulation electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that a specially designed, so-called synchronization modulation electric field can entrain active transporter Na/K pumps in the cell membrane. This approach was previously developed in a study of single cells using a voltage clamp to monitor the pump currents. We are now expanding our study from isolated single cells to aggregated cells in a 3-dimensional cell matrix, through the use of a tissue slice from the rat heart. The slice is about 150 μm in thickness, meaning the slices contain many cell layers, resulting in a simplified 3-dimensional system. A fluorescent probe was used to identify the membrane potential and the ionic concentration gradients across the cell membrane. In spite of intrinsic cell-to-cell interactions and the difficulty in stimulating cell aggregation in the tissue slice, the oscillating electric field increased the intracellular fluorescent intensity, indicating elevation of the cell ionic concentration and hyperpolarization of the cell membrane. Blockage of these changes by ouabain confirmed that the results are directly related to Na/K pumps. These results along with the backward modulation indicate that the synchronization modulation electric field can influence the Na/K pumps in tissue cells of a 3-dimensional matrix and therefore hyperpolarize the cell membrane.

  8. Optimizing water hyperpolarization and dissolution for sensitivity-enhanced 2D biomolecular NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Greg; Markhasin, Evgeny; Szekely, Or; Bretschneider, Christian; Frydman, Lucio

    2016-03-01

    A recent study explored the use of hyperpolarized water, to enhance the sensitivity of nuclei in biomolecules thanks to rapid proton exchanges with labile amide backbone and sidechain groups. Further optimizations of this approach have now allowed us to achieve proton polarizations approaching 25% in the water transferred into the NMR spectrometer, effective water T1 times approaching 40 s, and a reduction in the dilution demanded for the cryogenic dissolution process. Further hardware developments have allowed us to perform these experiments, repeatedly and reliably, in 5 mm NMR tubes. All these ingredients - particularly the ⩾3000× 1H polarization enhancements over 11.7 T thermal counterparts, long T1 times and a compatibility with high-resolution biomolecular NMR setups - augur well for hyperpolarized 2D NMR studies of peptides, unfolded proteins and intrinsically disordered systems undergoing fast exchanges of their protons with the solvent. This hypothesis is here explored by detailing the provisions that lead to these significant improvements over previous reports, and demonstrating 1D coherence transfer experiments and 2D biomolecular HMQC acquisitions delivering NMR spectral enhancements of 100-500× over their optimized, thermally-polarized, counterparts.

  9. Molecular MRI in the Earth's Magnetic Field Using Continuous Hyperpolarization of a Biomolecule in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovedo, Philipp; Knecht, Stephan; Bäumlisberger, Tim; Cremer, Anna Lena; Duckett, Simon B; Mewis, Ryan E; Green, Gary G R; Burns, Michael; Rayner, Peter J; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G; Hennig, Jürgen; Pütz, Gerhard; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hövener, Jan-Bernd

    2016-06-30

    In this work, we illustrate a method to continuously hyperpolarize a biomolecule, nicotinamide, in water using parahydrogen and signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE). Building on the preparation procedure described recently by Truong et al. [ J. Phys. Chem. B , 2014 , 118 , 13882 - 13889 ], aqueous solutions of nicotinamide and an Ir-IMes catalyst were prepared for low-field NMR and MRI. The (1)H-polarization was continuously renewed and monitored by NMR experiments at 5.9 mT for more than 1000 s. The polarization achieved corresponds to that induced by a 46 T magnet (P = 1.6 × 10(-4)) or an enhancement of 10(4). The polarization persisted, although reduced, if cell culture medium (DPBS with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) or human cells (HL-60) were added, but was no longer observable after the addition of human blood. Using a portable MRI unit, fast (1)H-MRI was enabled by cycling the magnetic field between 5 mT and the Earth's field for hyperpolarization and imaging, respectively. A model describing the underlying spin physics was developed that revealed a polarization pattern depending on both contact time and magnetic field. Furthermore, the model predicts an opposite phase of the dihydrogen and substrate signal after one exchange, which is likely to result in the cancelation of some signal at low field.

  10. A Molecular Imaging Approach to Mercury Sensing Based on Hyperpolarized (129)Xe Molecular Clamp Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianni; Zeng, Qingbin; Jiang, Weiping; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Qing; Zhang, Xu; Bouchard, Louis-S; Liu, Maili; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-14

    Mercury pollution, in the form of mercury ions (Hg(2+)), is a major health and environmental hazard. Commonly used sensors are invasive and limited to point measurements. Fluorescence-based sensors do not provide depth resolution needed to image spatial distributions. Herein we report a novel sensor capable of yielding spatial distributions by MRI using hyperpolarized (129)Xe. A molecular clamp probe was developed consisting of dipyrrolylquinoxaline (DPQ) derivatives and twocryptophane-A cages. The DPQ derivatives act as cation receptors whereas cryptophane-A acts as a suitable host molecule for xenon. When the DPQ moiety interacts with mercury ions, the molecular clamp closes on the ion. Due to overlap of the electron clouds of the two cryptophane-A cages, the shielding effect on the encapsulated Xe becomes important. This leads to an upfield change of the chemical shift of the encapsulated Xe. This sensor exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity toward the mercury ion. This mercury-activated hyperpolarized (129)Xe-based chemosensor is a new concept method for monitoring Hg(2+) ion distributions by MRI.

  11. Correlation of measures of regional lung ventilation from 4DCT vs. hyperpolarized helium-3 MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Miller, Wilson; Christensen, Gary; Reinhardt, Joseph; Benedict, Stanley; Libby, Bruce; Sheng, Ke

    2012-03-01

    Radiation induced pulmonary diseases can change the tissue material properties of lung parenchyma and the mechanics of the respiratory system. Recent advances in multi-detector-row CT (MDCT), 4DCT respiratory gating methods, and image processing techniques enable us to follow and measure those changes noninvasively during radiation therapy at a regional level. This study compares the 4DCT based ventilation measurement with the results from hyperpolarized helium-3 MR using the cumulative distribution function maps and the relative overlap (RO) statistic. We show that the similarity between the two measurements increases as the increase of the B-Spline grid spacing and Laplacian weighting which result a smoother ventilation map. The best similarity is found with weighting of 0.5 for linear elasticity and B-Spline grid spacing of 32 mm. Future work is to improve the lung image registration algorithm by incorporating hyperpolarized helium-3 MR information so as to improve its physiological modeling of the lung tissue deformation.

  12. Large dose hyperpolarized water with dissolution-DNP at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsø, Kasper Wigh; Bowen, Sean; Rybalko, Oleksandr; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for the preparation of hyperpolarized water by dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at high magnetic field. Protons were polarized at 6.7 T and 1.1 K to >70% with frequency modulated microwave irradiation at 188G Hz. 97.2 ± 0.7% of the radical was extracted from the sample in the dissolution in a two-phase system. 16 ± 1 mL of 5.0 M 1H in D2O with a polarization of 13.0 ± 0.9% in the liquid state was obtained, corresponding to an enhancement factor of 4000 ± 300 compared to the thermal equilibrium at 9.4 T and 293 K. A longitudinal relaxation time constant of 16 ± 1 s was measured. The sample was polarized and dissolved in a fluid path compatible with clinical polarizers. The volume of hyperpolarized water produced by this method enables angiography and perfusion measurements in large animals, as well as NMR experiments for studies of e.g. proton exchange and polarization transfer to other nuclei.

  13. Sensory deprivation regulates the development of the hyperpolarization-activated current in auditory brainstem neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassfurth, Benjamin; Magnusson, Anna K; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2009-10-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the superior olivary complex, the primary locus for binaural information processing. This hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) regulates the excitability of neurons and enhances the temporally precise analysis of the binaural acoustic cues. By using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we examined the properties of I(h) current in neurons of the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) before and after hearing onset. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that I(h) currents are actively regulated by sensory input activity by performing bilateral and unilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, resulting in a chronic auditory deprivation. The results show that after hearing onset, I(h) currents are rapidly upregulated in LSO neurons, but change only marginally in neurons of the MNTB. We also found a striking difference in maximal current density, voltage dependence and activation time constant between the LSO and the MNTB in mature-like animals. Following bilateral cochlear ablations before hearing onset, the I(h) currents were scaled up in the LSO and scaled down in the MNTB. Consequently, in the LSO this resulted in a depolarized resting membrane potential and a lower input resistance of these neurons. This type of activity-dependent homeostatic change could thus result in an augmented response to the remaining inputs.

  14. Effects of Different Feeding Patterns on Growth and Development of 7-12 Months Infants%不同喂养方式对7-12个月婴儿生长发育影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓霞; 肖绪武

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of different feeding patterns on growth and development of 7-12 months infants. Method:According to the feeding way,100 cases of infants who were admitted into Dalian city maternity hospital were divided into breast feeding group and artificial feeding group,each group had 50 cases. Result:9,12 months after birth, analyzed the height,weight in the breast feeding group were significantly higher than those in the artificial feeding group,the result had a significant difference(P<0.05). Moreover,the hemoglobin levels of infants in the breastfed feeding group was (120.1±7.2)g/L and the anemia rate was 7.8%,both of them were better than these in the artificial feeding group,the result had a significant difference(P<0.05). In addition,the parameters related to intellectual level in the breast feeding group was also higher than that in the artificial feeding group(P<0.05). Conclusion:Breast feeding can significantly improve the growth and mental development level in 7-12 months infants. It is a feeding patterns has the worthy to be promoted.%目的:探讨不同喂养方式对7-12个月婴儿生长发育影响。方法:选取大连市妇产医院出生的100例婴儿为研究对象,并根据其出生前后7个月的喂养方式分为母乳喂养和人工组,每组各50例。在生后9、12个月对婴儿的身长、体重、血红蛋白水平、智力发展水平进行对比分析。结果:母乳喂养组的婴儿在出生后9、12个月的身长、体重明显的高于人工喂养组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);母乳喂养组婴儿的血红蛋白水平高达(120.1±7.2)g/L,而其贫血率仅为7.8%,远远高于人工喂养组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);此外母乳喂养组与婴儿智力水平相关的各项参数也显著高于人工喂养组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:母乳喂养能显著提高婴儿12个月以前的生长发育和智力发育水平,是一种值得提倡的婴儿喂养方式。

  15. The 'Walking for Wellbeing in the West' randomised controlled trial of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation with 12 month follow-up: rationale and study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie David

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland has a policy aimed at increasing physical activity levels in the population, but evidence on how to achieve this is still developing. Studies that focus on encouraging real world participants to start physical activity in their settings are needed. The Walking for Well-being in the West study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a pedometer-based walking programme in combination with physical activity consultation. The study was multi-disciplinary and based in the community. Walking for Well-being in the West investigated whether Scottish men and women, who were not achieving the current physical activity recommendation, increased and maintained walking behaviour over a 12 month period. This paper outlines the rationale and design of this innovative and pragmatic study. Methods Participants were randomised into two groups: Group 1: Intervention (pedometer-based walking programme combined with a series of physical activity consultations; Group 2: Waiting list control for 12 weeks (followed by minimal pedometer-based intervention. Physical activity (primary outcome was measured using pedometer step counts (7 day and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version. Psychological processes were measured using questionnaires relating to the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change, mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D instrument. Physiological measures included anthropometric and metabolic outcomes. Environmental influences were assessed subjectively (Neighbourhood Quality of Life Survey and objectively (neighbourhood audit tool and GIS mapping. The qualitative evaluation employed observation, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. A supplementary study undertook an economic evaluation. Discussion Data analysis is on-going. Walking for Well-being in the West will demonstrate if a pedometer based walking programme, in combination with physical

  16. Improvement of large-joint ultrasonographic synovitis is delayed in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis: results of a 12-month clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up study of a local cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Halil; Tekeoğlu, İbrahim; Takçı, Sibel; Kamanlı, Ayhan; Nas, Kemal; Harman, Sibel

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the longitudinal changes in gray-scale ultrasonography (GSUS) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS) parameters and correlated them with clinical, functional, and radiologic outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). GSUS and PDUS examinations, 44-joint disease activity score (DAS44) calculations, measurements of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels were performed in 68 RA patients at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Metacarpophalangeal joints, wrist, elbow, knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal joints, and wrist and ankle tendons were examined by GSUS and PDUS. The laboratory and clinical findings began to decrease significantly at 1 month (P US) variables began at 3 months. After 6 months, all of the joint synovitis scores, except those of the knee, elbow, and ankle joints, showed a statistically significant reduction compared to baseline scores (P US synovitis at large joints such as the knee, elbow, and ankle tended to be delayed compared to that at small joints. PD synovitis that is persistent despite disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy may cause radiographic bone erosions.

  17. Efficacy and safety of nimesulide long term administration in patients with osteoarthritis: results of 12-months open controlled study DINAMO (long term administration of nimesulide in osteoarthritis multifactor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L I Alexeeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare efficacy and safety of nimesulide and paracetamol in treatment of patients with osteoarthritis (OA during 12 months. Material and methods. 40 women (mean age 66,8±5,1 years with knee osteoarthritis (II-III stage according to Kellgren-Lawrence having intensive pain (>40 mm on VAS were included. Group 1 pts (n=20 received nimesulide 200-100 mg/day. Group 2 pts were treated with paracetamol till 3 g/day. WOMAC was used as efficacy measure. Safety was assessed with endoscopic examination of upper gastrointestinal tract, ECG, blood pressure and ECG Holter monitoring, clinical and biochemical blood parameters. Statistical significance of differences was assessed with Student’s t-test, χ2 and Fisher exact test Results. WOMAC index decreased during treatment from 1182,7±345,9 to 698,4±351,1 for nimesulide and from 1136,4±313,8 to 1031,6±21 for paracetamol (p<0,05. There were 6 cases of gastrointestinal complications and 4 cases of hypertension development or deterioration in each group. Coronary heart disease developed or deteriorated in 4 patients receiving nimesulide but not in control group. Liver function tests did not deteriorated during treatment with nimesulide. Conclusion. Nimesulide was more effective than paracetamol in treatment of OA. But risk of cardiovascular complications development during treatment with NSAIDs requires serious attention. Nimesulide did not induced liver damage during long term treatment.

  18. A Bloch-McConnell simulator with pharmacokinetic modeling to explore accuracy and reproducibility in the measurement of hyperpolarized pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M.; Bankson, James A.

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized (HP) agents has the potential to probe in-vivo metabolism with sensitivity and specificity that was not previously possible. Biological conversion of HP agents specifically for cancer has been shown to correlate to presence of disease, stage and response to therapy. For such metabolic biomarkers derived from MRI of hyperpolarized agents to be clinically impactful, they need to be validated and well characterized. However, imaging of HP substrates is distinct from conventional MRI, due to the non-renewable nature of transient HP magnetization. Moreover, due to current practical limitations in generation and evolution of hyperpolarized agents, it is not feasible to fully experimentally characterize measurement and processing strategies. In this work we use a custom Bloch-McConnell simulator with pharmacokinetic modeling to characterize the performance of specific magnetic resonance spectroscopy sequences over a range of biological conditions. We performed numerical simulations to evaluate the effect of sequence parameters over a range of chemical conversion rates. Each simulation was analyzed repeatedly with the addition of noise in order to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements. Results indicate that under both closed and perfused conditions, acquisition parameters can affect measurements in a tissue dependent manner, suggesting that great care needs to be taken when designing studies involving hyperpolarized agents. More modeling studies will be needed to determine what effect sequence parameters have on more advanced acquisitions and processing methods.

  19. Hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -Urea MRI for assessment of the urea gradient in the porcine kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben S S; Stewart, Neil J; Wild, Jim M;

    2016-01-01

    function in healthy porcine kidneys resembling the human physiology. METHODS: Five healthy female Danish domestic pigs (weight 30 kg) were scanned at 3 Tesla (T) using a (13) C 3D balanced steady-state MR pulse sequence following injection of hyperpolarized (13) C,(15) N2 -urea via a femoral vein catheter...

  20. Ex vivo hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy on isolated renal tubular cells: A novel technique for cell energy phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Troels; Palm, Fredrik; Nielsen, Per Mose;

    2016-01-01

    ) C MR is suitable for cells isolated from kidney tissue, without prior cell culture. METHODS: Isolation of tubular cells from freshly excised kidney tissue and treatment with either ouabain or antimycin A was investigated with hyperpolarized MR spectroscopy on a 9.4 Tesla preclinical imaging system...

  1. Hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate is a novel diagnostic metabolic marker of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Serra, Sonia Colombo; Miragoli, Luigi; Karlsson, Magnus; Cabella, Claudia; Poggi, Luisa; Venturi, Luca; Tedoldi, Fabio; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2015-02-15

    An increased prevalence of liver diseases such as hepatitis C and nonalcoholic fatty liver results in an augmented incidence of the most common form of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is most often found in the cirrhotic liver and it can therefore be challenging to rely on anatomical information alone when diagnosing HCC. Valuable information on specific cellular metabolism can be obtained with high sensitivity thanks to an emerging magnetic resonance (MR) technique that uses 13C labeled hyperpolarized molecules. Our interest was to explore potential new high contrast metabolic markers of HCC using hyperpolarized 13C-MR. This work led to the identification of a class of substrates, low molecular weight ethyl-esters, which showed high specificity for carboxyl esterases and proved in many cases to possess good properties for signal enhancement. In particular, hyperpolarized [1,3-13C2 ]ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) was shown to provide a metabolic fingerprint of HCC. Using this substrate a liver cancer implanted in rats was diagnosed as a consequence of an ∼4 times higher metabolic substrate-to-product ratio than in the surrounding healthy tissue, (p=0.009). Unregulated cellular uptake as well as cosubstrate independent enzymatic conversion of EAA, made this substrate highly useful as a hyperpolarized 13C-MR marker. This could be appreciated by the signal-to-noise (SNR) obtained from EAA, which was comparable to the SNR reported in a literature liver cancer study with state-of-the-art hyperpolarized substrate, [1-13C]pyruvate. Also, the contrast-to-noise (CNR) in the EAA based metabolic ratio images was significantly improved compared with the CNR in equivalent images reported using [1-13C]pyruvate.

  2. Pulmonary hyperpolarized noble gas MRI: Recent advances and perspectives in clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zaiyi [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences (China); Araki, Tetsuro, E-mail: taraki@partners.org [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Okajima, Yuka [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States); Albert, Mitchell [Hyperpolarized Gas MRI Laboratory, Thunder Bay Regional Research Institute, Lakehead University (Canada); Hatabu, Hiroto [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The invention of hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI using helium-3 ({sup 3}He) or xenon-129 ({sup 129}Xe) has provided a new method to evaluate lung function. Using HP {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe for inhalation into the lung air spaces as an MRI contrast agent significantly increases MR signal and makes pulmonary ventilation imaging feasible. This review focuses on important aspects of pulmonary HP noble gas MRI, including the following: (1) functional imaging types, (2) applications for major pulmonary diseases, (3) safety considerations, and (4) future directions. Although it is still challenging to use pulmonary HP noble gas MRI clinically, the technology offers promise for the investigation of the microstructure and function of the lungs.

  3. In vivo detection of brain Krebs cycle intermediate by hyperpolarized magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkovsky, Mor; Comment, Arnaud; Gruetter, Rolf

    2012-12-01

    The Krebs (or tricarboxylic acid (TCA)) cycle has a central role in the regulation of brain energy regulation and metabolism, yet brain TCA cycle intermediates have never been directly detected in vivo. This study reports the first direct in vivo observation of a TCA cycle intermediate in intact brain, namely, 2-oxoglutarate, a key biomolecule connecting metabolism to neuronal activity. Our observation reveals important information about in vivo biochemical processes hitherto considered undetectable. In particular, it provides direct evidence that transport across the inner mitochondria membrane is rate limiting in the brain. The hyperpolarized magnetic resonance protocol designed for this study opens the way to direct and real-time studies of TCA cycle kinetics.

  4. Hyperpolarized 13C Urea Relaxation Mechanism Reveals Renal Changes in Diabetic Nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Christoffer; Stokholm Nørlinger, Thomas; Christoffer Hansen, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to assess a novel 13C radial fast spin echo golden ratio single shot method for interrogating early renal changes in the diabetic kidney, using hyperpolarized (HP) [13C,15N2]urea as a T2 relaxation based contrast bio-probe. Methods: A novel HP 13C MR contrast experiment...... was conducted in a group of streptozotocin type-1 diabetic rat model and age matched controls. Results: A significantly different relaxation time (P=0.004) was found in the diabetic kidney (0.49±0.03 s) compared with the controls (0.64±0.02 s) and secondly, a strong correlation between the blood oxygen...

  5. Design of a quadrature surface coil for hyperpolarized 13C MRS cardiac metabolism studies in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.;

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the design of a quadrature surface coil constituted by a circular loop and a butterfly coil, employed in transmit/receive (TX/RX) mode for hyperpolarized 13C studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. The coil characterization is performed by developing an SNR model...... for coil performance evaluation in terms of coil resistance, sample-induced resistance and magnetic field pattern. Experimental SNR-vs.-depth profiles, extracted from the [1-13C]acetate phantom chemical shift image (CSI), showed good agreement with the theoretical SNR-vs.-depth profiles. Moreover......, the performance of the quadrature coil was compared with the single TX/RX circular and TX/RX butterfly coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the single coils throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Finally, the quadrature surface coil was tested...

  6. Magnetic resonance butterfly coils: Design and application for hyperpolarized 13C studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Frijia, Francesca; Attanasio, Simona

    2013-01-01

    of dedicated coils capable of providing large field of view with high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) data is of fundamental importance. This work presents magnetostatic simulations and tests of two butterfly coils with different geometries, both designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical...... 3T scanner. In particular, the paper provides details of the design, modeling, construction and application of the butterfly style coils. While both coils could be successfully employed in single configuration (linear mode), the second prototype was used to design a quadrature surface coil...... constituted by the butterfly and a circular loop both in receive (RX) mode while using a birdcage coil as transmitter (TX). The performance of this coils configuration was compared with the single TX/RX birdcage coil, in order to verify the advantage of the proposed configuration over the volume coil...

  7. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor contributes to hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle vasodilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilk, Samson; Herr, Michael D; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Leuenberger, Urs A

    2013-12-01

    Systemic hypoxia causes skeletal muscle vasodilation, thereby preserving O2 delivery to active tissues. Nitric oxide (NO), adenosine, and prostaglandins contribute to this vasodilation, but other factors may also play a role. We tested the hypothesis that regional inhibition of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor with the cytochrome P-450 2C9 antagonist fluconazole, alone or combined with the NO synthase antagonist N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), attenuates hypoxia-induced vasodilation. We compared forearm blood flow (FBF) and skin blood flow before and during brachial artery infusion of fluconazole (0.3 mg/min; trial 1) or fluconazole + L-NMMA (50 mg over 10 min; trial 2) and during systemic hypoxia (10 min, arterial Po2 ~37 mmHg) in infused (experimental) and control forearms of 12 healthy humans. During normoxia, fluconazole and fluconazole + L-NMMA reduced (P vasodilation and could be particularly relevant when other vasodilator systems are impaired.

  8. Contribution of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor to exercise-induced vasodilation in health and hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkor, Muhiddin A; Hayek, Salim S; Rahman, Ayaz M; Murrow, Jonathan R; Kavtaradze, Nino; Lin, Ji; Manatunga, Amita; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    The role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in either the healthy circulation or in those with hypercholesterolemia is unknown. In healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects, we measured forearm blood flow (FBF) using strain-gauge plethysmography at rest, during graded handgrip exercise, and after sodium nitroprusside infusion. Measurements were repeated after l-NMMA, tetraethylammonium (TEA), and combined infusions. At rest, l-NMMA infusion reduced FBF in healthy but not hypercholesterolemic subjects. At peak exercise, vasodilation was lower in hypercholesterolemic compared to healthy subjects (274% vs 438% increase in FBF, p=0.017). TEA infusion reduced exercise-induced vasodilation in both healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects (27%, pvasodilation in hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, exercise-induced vasodilation is impaired and predominantly mediated by EDHF in hypercholesterolemic subjects. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION IDENTIFIER NCT00166166:

  9. Optical hyperpolarization and NMR detection of $^{129}$Xe on a microfluidic chip

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez-Martinez, Ricardo; Rosenbluh, Michael; Donley, Elizabeth A; Knappe, Svenja; Seltzer, Scott J; Ring, Hattie L; Bajaj, Vikram S; Kitching, John

    2014-01-01

    Optically hyperpolarized $^{129}$Xe gas has become a powerful contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging, with applications ranging from studies of the human lung to the targeted detection of biomolecules. Equally attractive is its potential use to enhance the sensitivity of microfluidic NMR experiments, in which small sample volumes yield poor sensitivity. Unfortunately, most $^{129}$Xe polarization systems are large and non-portable. Here we present a microfabricated chip that optically polarizes $^{129}$Xe gas. We have achieved $^{129}$Xe polarizations greater than 0.5$\\%$ at flow rates of several microliters per second, compatible with typical microfluidic applications. We employ in situ optical magnetometry to sensitively detect and characterize the $^{129}$Xe polarization at magnetic fields of 1 $\\mu$T. We construct the device using standard microfabrication techniques, which will facilitate its integration with existing microfluidic platforms. This device may enable the...

  10. Reaction monitoring using hyperpolarized NMR with scaling of heteronuclear couplings by optimal tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Schilling, Franz; Glaser, Steffen J.; Hilty, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Off-resonance decoupling using the method of Scaling of Heteronuclear Couplings by Optimal Tracking (SHOT) enables determination of heteronuclear correlations of chemical shifts in single scan NMR spectra. Through modulation of J-coupling evolution by shaped radio frequency pulses, off resonance decoupling using SHOT pulses causes a user-defined dependence of the observed J-splitting, such as the splitting of 13C peaks, on the chemical shift offset of coupled nuclei, such as 1H. Because a decoupling experiment requires only a single scan, this method is suitable for characterizing on-going chemical reactions using hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). We demonstrate the calculation of [13C, 1H] chemical shift correlations of the carbanionic active sites from hyperpolarized styrene polymerized using sodium naphthalene as an initiator. While off resonance decoupling by SHOT pulses does not enhance the resolution in the same way as a 2D NMR spectrum would, the ability to obtain the correlations in single scans makes this method ideal for determination of chemical shifts in on-going reactions on the second time scale. In addition, we present a novel SHOT pulse that allows to scale J-splittings 50% larger than the respective J-coupling constant. This feature can be used to enhance the resolution of the indirectly detected chemical shift and reduce peak overlap, as demonstrated in a model reaction between p-anisaldehyde and isobutylamine. For both pulses, the accuracy is evaluated under changing signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the peaks from reactants and reaction products, with an overall standard deviation of chemical shift differences compared to reference spectra of 0.02 ppm when measured on a 400 MHz NMR spectrometer. Notably, the appearance of decoupling side-bands, which scale with peak intensity, appears to be of secondary importance.

  11. Hyperpolarized functional magnetic resonance of murine skeletal muscle enabled by multiple tracer-paradigm synchronizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftin, Avigdor; Roussel, Tangi; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Measuring metabolism's time- and space-dependent responses upon stimulation lies at the core of functional magnetic resonance imaging. While focusing on water's sole resonance, further insight could arise from monitoring the temporal responses arising from the metabolites themselves, in what is known as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Performing these measurements in real time, however, is severely challenged by the short functional timescales and low concentrations of natural metabolites. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique that can potentially alleviate this, as it provides a massive sensitivity enhancement allowing one to probe low-concentration tracers and products in a single-scan. Still, conventional implementations of this hyperpolarization approach are not immediately amenable to the repeated acquisitions needed in real-time functional settings. This work proposes a strategy for functional magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized metabolites that bypasses this limitation, and enables the observation of real-time metabolic changes through the synchronization of stimuli-triggered, multiple-bolus injections of the metabolic tracer 13C1-pyruvate. This new approach is demonstrated with paradigms tailored to reveal in vivo thresholds of murine hind-limb skeletal muscle activation, involving the conversion of 13C1-pyruvate to 13C1-lactate and 13C1-alanine. These functional hind-limb studies revealed that graded skeletal muscle stimulation causes commensurate increases in glycolytic metabolism in a frequency- and amplitude-dependent fashion, that can be monitored on the seconds/minutes timescale using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. Spectroscopic imaging further allowed the in vivo visualization of uptake, transformation and distribution of the tracer and products, in fast-twitch glycolytic and in slow-twitch oxidative muscle fiber groups. While these studies open vistas in time and sensitivity for metabolic

  12. Hyperpolarized functional magnetic resonance of murine skeletal muscle enabled by multiple tracer-paradigm synchronizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avigdor Leftin

    Full Text Available Measuring metabolism's time- and space-dependent responses upon stimulation lies at the core of functional magnetic resonance imaging. While focusing on water's sole resonance, further insight could arise from monitoring the temporal responses arising from the metabolites themselves, in what is known as functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Performing these measurements in real time, however, is severely challenged by the short functional timescales and low concentrations of natural metabolites. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is an emerging technique that can potentially alleviate this, as it provides a massive sensitivity enhancement allowing one to probe low-concentration tracers and products in a single-scan. Still, conventional implementations of this hyperpolarization approach are not immediately amenable to the repeated acquisitions needed in real-time functional settings. This work proposes a strategy for functional magnetic resonance of hyperpolarized metabolites that bypasses this limitation, and enables the observation of real-time metabolic changes through the synchronization of stimuli-triggered, multiple-bolus injections of the metabolic tracer 13C1-pyruvate. This new approach is demonstrated with paradigms tailored to reveal in vivo thresholds of murine hind-limb skeletal muscle activation, involving the conversion of 13C1-pyruvate to 13C1-lactate and 13C1-alanine. These functional hind-limb studies revealed that graded skeletal muscle stimulation causes commensurate increases in glycolytic metabolism in a frequency- and amplitude-dependent fashion, that can be monitored on the seconds/minutes timescale using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. Spectroscopic imaging further allowed the in vivo visualization of uptake, transformation and distribution of the tracer and products, in fast-twitch glycolytic and in slow-twitch oxidative muscle fiber groups. While these studies open vistas in time and sensitivity for

  13. Research report on 2407 cases 7~12 month children Hepatitis B antibody titer%2407例7月~12月龄儿童乙肝抗体滴度水平研究报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘耀珍; 陈建琳; 唐兆武; 顾永洋; 李赟

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate local newbron Hepatitis B vaccine inoculation, observe the immunity effect, to timely offer the reliable data to Ministry of Health in formulating immunity strategy. Methods: Draw out local 7 - 12month children at random, adopt the questionnaire to review and investigate the newbron birth, hepatitis B vaccine inoculation, parents' hepatitis B.Take 3 ml vein blood from the informant to test its serum HBsAb titer with America Abbott reagent, so as to qualitatively test HBsAg. Results: Totally 2407 cases, inwhich 3cases HBsAg positive ( positive rate 0. 147% ), other total effective rate: 2323 cases antibody titer higher than 10 IU, excluding HBsAg positive children, total response rate 96.63%. HBsAb titer ≥ 10 IU/ml and ≥ 1000 IU/m 7 ~ 12 month children distribution, with month age increasing, the difference has the statistic significance. The HBsAb tier ≥10 IU/ml difference is not significant in different months children. It has significant meaning of titer ≥1000 IU/ml between 8 month and 9 month children, 10 month and 11 month children. Conclusion: The Hepatitis B vaccine immunity is effective in the investigated area, HBsAg positive rate is lower than countrywide 0.96%. With month - age increase, HBsAb titer is decreasing. Low titer ( < 10 IU/ml) children occupy certain percentage (3.37%), they need strengthen immunity timely.%目的:为调查本地区新生儿乙肝疫苗接种情况,观察免疫效果,及时为卫生部计划免疫策略提供可靠数据.方法:随机抽取本地7月~12月龄新生儿,采用调查表回顾调查新生儿出生情况、乙肝疫苗接种情况、父、母亲乙型肝炎病毒感染情况;采取调查对象静脉血3 ml,血清样品用美国雅培试剂测定乙肝表面抗体(HBsAb)滴度,定性测定表面抗原.结果:共调查2407例,其中3例为乙肝表面抗原阳性(阳性率0.147%),其余总有效率:抗体滴度大于10IU2323人,除去表面抗原阳性儿童,

  14. Use of localized human growth hormone and testosterone injections in addition to manual therapy and exercise for lower back pain: a case series with 12-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubick MN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marc N Dubick,1 Thomas H Ravin,2 Yvonne Michel,3 David C Morrisette4 1Interventional Pain Management, Division of Anesthesiology, Bon Secours St Francis Hospital, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Musculoskeletal Medicine, Val d'Isere Health Clinic, Denver, CO, USA; 3Statistical Consultant, Private Practice, Daniel Island, SC, USA; 4Division of Physical Therapy, Medical University of South Carolina, SC, USA Objective: The objective of this case series was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel method for the management of chronic lower back pain. Injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone to the painful and dysfunctional areas in individuals with chronic lower back pain were used. In addition, the participants received manual therapies and exercise addressing physical impairments such as motor control, strength, endurance, pain, and loss of movement. Pain ratings and self-rated functional outcomes were assessed.Study design: This is a case series involving consecutive patients with chronic lower back pain who received the intervention of injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone, and attended chiropractic and/or physical therapy. Outcomes were measured at 12 months from the time of injection.Setting: A community based hospital affiliated office, and a private practice block suite.Participants: A total of 60 consecutive patients attending a pain management practice for chronic lower back pain were recruited for the experimental treatment. Most participants were private pay.Interventions: Participants who provided informed consent and were determined not to have radicular pain received diagnostic blocks. Those who responded favorably to the diagnostic blocks received injections of recombinant human growth hormone and testosterone in the areas treated with the blocks. Participants also received manipulation- and impairment-based exercises.Outcome measures: Outcomes were assessed at 12 months through pain

  15. Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellakis, Spyridon; Moschonis, George; Tenta, Roxane; Schaafsma, Anne; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Lyritis, George; Manios, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D(3), and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K(2)) on parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention. Postmenopausal women were divided into three intervention groups and a control group (CG). All three intervention groups attended biweekly sessions and received fortified dairy products providing daily 800 mg of calcium and 10 μg of vitamin D(3) (CaD). Furthermore, in two of the three intervention groups the dairy products were also enriched with vitamin K, providing daily 100 μg of either phylloquinone (CaDK1) or menaquinone-7 (CaDK2). The increase observed for serum 25(OH)D levels in all intervention groups and the increase observed for serum IGF-I levels in the CaDK2 group differed significantly compared to the changes observed in CG (P = 0.010 and P = 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, both the CaDK1 and CaDK2 groups had a significantly lower mean serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin to osteocalcin ratio and urine deoxypyridinoline levels at follow-up compared to the CaD and CG groups (P = 0.001 and P = 0.047, respectively). Significant increases in total-body BMD were observed in all intervention groups compared to CG (P vitamin K-supplemented groups, mainly reflected in the suppression of serum levels of bone remodeling indices and in the more positive changes in lumbar spine BMD for these two study groups.

  16. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS): rationale and design of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with 12 month follow up of self- versus clinician-administered CBT for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M; Keefer, Laurie; Jaccard, James; Firth, Rebecca; Brenner, Darren; Bratten, Jason; Dunlap, Laura J; Ma, Changxing; Byroads, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, oftentimes disabling, gastrointestinal disorder whose full range of symptoms has no satisfactory medical or dietary treatment. One of the few empirically validated treatments includes a specific psychological therapy called cognitive behavior therapy which, if available, is typically administered over several months by trained practitioners in tertiary care settings. There is an urgent need to develop more efficient versions of CBT that require minimal professional assistance but retain the efficacy profile of clinic based CBT. The Irritable Bowel Syndrome Outcome Study (IBSOS) is a multicenter, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate whether a self-administered version of CBT is, at least as efficacious as standard CBT and more efficacious than an attention control in reducing core GI symptoms of IBS and its burden (e.g. distress, quality of life impairment, etc.) in moderately to severely affected IBS patients. Additional goals are to assess, at quarterly intervals, the durability of treatment response over a 12 month period; to identify clinically useful patient characteristics associated with outcome as a way of gaining an understanding of subgroups of participants for whom CBT is most beneficial; to identify theory-based change mechanisms (active ingredients) that explain how and why CBT works; and evaluate the economic costs and benefits of CBT. Between August 2010 when IBSOS began recruiting subjects and February 2012, the IBSOS randomized 171 of 480 patients. Findings have the potential to improve the health of IBS patients, reduce its social and economic costs, conserve scarce health care resources, and inform evidence-based practice guidelines.

  17. Symmetry effects during nuclear-spin hyperpolarization induced by spin isomers; Symmetrieeffekte bei der durch Spinisomere erzeugten Kernspinhyperpolarisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonischkeit, T.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrogenation reactions conducted with molecular hydrogen enriched in its nuclear singlet state (i.e., enriched in parahydrogen) can lead to strongly enhanced absorption and emission signals in the NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of reaction intermediates or products if they are recorded during or shortly after the reaction. This hyperpolarization phenomenon has been termed PHIP (parahydrogen induced polarization) and is recurrently used to study reaction mechanisms and kinetics of catalytic hydrogenations. A similar effect has been observed with hydrogen enriched in its nuclear triplet state (enriched in orthohydrogen). In this thesis, it is shown both theoretically and experimentally that not only enriched hydrogen samples (ortho- or parahydrogen) but also hydrogen without isomer enrichment (thermal hydrogen) is able to induce NMR hyperpolarization. This new twist to the PHIP phenomenon is utilized for of a sensitive method to measure spin-isomer ratios in hydrogen gas samples. Both line shape of PHIP signals and relaxation of hyperpolarized spin systems depend on the external magnetic field. Because some of the recent PHIP research is aimed at contrast enhancement in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), line shape and relaxation studies were conducted, which are particularly useful for the advancement of MRI diagnostics. Like hydrogen, other molecules with C2 symmetry are also composed of ortho- and para-isomers. Consequently, the concept of nuclear-spin hyperpolarization was extended to reactions with {sup 2}H{sub 2} molecules (i.e., deuterations) and {sup 17}O{sub 2} molecules (peroxidations). Experimental studies conducted with samples enriched in orthodeuterium show signal patterns similar to PHIP. These patterns and their signal enhancements were investigated depending on particular experimental conditions such as conducting the reaction in a high magnetic field (PASADENA) or in a low magnetic field (ALTADENA) before recording the NMR spectrum. The

  18. Variations in food and drink advertising in UK monthly women's magazines according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers: a descriptive study of publications over 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are recognised nationally and internationally as key public health challenges. Food and drink advertising is one of the array of factors that influence both diet and physical activity choices and, hence, body weight and obesity. Little previous work has focused on food and drink advertising in magazines. We studied food and drink advertising in a wide range of popular UK monthly women's magazines published over a full year. We explored differences in the prevalence of food and drink advertising and the type of food and drinks advertised according to season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Methods All advertisements in all issues of 18 popular UK monthly women's magazines published over 12 months were identified. For each food or drink advertisement, branded food and drinks were noted and categorised into one of seven food groups. All analyses were at the level of the individual advertisement. Results A total of 35 053 advertisements were identified; 1380 (3.9% of these were for food or drink. The most common food group represented was 'food and drinks high in fat and/or sugar' (28.0% of food advertisements, the least common group was 'fruits & vegetables' (2.0% of food advertisements. Advertisements for alcohol accounted for 10.1% of all food advertisements. Food and drink advertisements were most common in summer, general interest magazines, and those with the most affluent readerships. There were some differences in the type of food and drink advertised across season, magazine type and socio-economic profile of readers. Conclusions Food and drink advertisements represented only a small proportion of advertisements in UK women's monthly magazines. Food and drink advertisements in these magazines feature a high proportion of 'less healthy' foods. There were a number of differences across season, magazine type and according to the socio-economic profile of readers in the prevalence

  19. 12月龄以下婴儿人工耳蜗植入的可行性分析与手术技巧%Feasibility analysis and surgical highlight of cochlear implantation in infants under 12 months of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治华; 黄琦; 汪照炎; 杨军; 吴皓

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析12月龄以下婴儿人工耳蜗植入的可行性和相关手术技巧.方法 14例12月龄以下婴儿及63例13~24月龄幼儿在上海交通大学附属新华医院耳鼻咽喉头颈外科植入单侧人工耳蜗.记录分析内容分为两部分,手术相关部分包括手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间、手术并发症,听力学部分包括声场啭音听阈、听力表现指数、言语发育商、咿呀学语发生及爆发月龄.结果 婴儿组与幼儿组的住院时间((-x)±s,下同)分别为(5.1±0.5)d和(5.8±1.1)d,差异有统计学意义(t=-3.17,P0.05). The surgical highlights and experience, strictly restricted operation duration, intimate cooperation among the treatment team members and reduction of intraoperative bleeding are key points to ensure safety and success of the operation. The warble tone average aided in free field and language behavior developmental quotient of younger infants were both improved during follow-up and showed no significant difference compared with older group( t =4.6 and 3.8 ,P > 0.05 ). 80% of infants who finished 24 months follow-up had a CAP score of 6 or 7. The babbling onset in younger group occurred at (14.1 ± 0. 9) months of life, which was better than that in older group [(22.6 ± 3.0) months of life]. Conclusions It is feasible to put cochlear implantation in infants under 12 months of age. And the earlier cochlear implantation could shorten auditory deprivation for children with bilateral congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. Considering the high requirement of surgical highlights and experience, the suggest was that only experienced otologists challenge this domain cautiously.

  20. Changes in self-reported and parent-reported health-related quality of life in overweight children and adolescents participating in an outpatient training: findings from a 12-month follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finne Emily

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL was found to improve in participants of weight management interventions. However, information on moderately overweight youth as well as on maintaining HRQoL improvements following treatment is sparse. We studied the HRQoL of 74 overweight, but not obese participants (32.4% male, mean age = 11.61 ± 1.70 SD of a comprehensive and effective six-month outpatient training at four time-points up to 12 months after end of treatment. Methods HRQoL was measured by self-report and proxy-report versions of the generic German KINDL-R, including six sub domains, and an obesity-specific additional module. Changes in original and z-standardized scores were analyzed by (2×4 doubly multivariate analysis of variance. This was done separately for self- and proxy-reported HRQoL, taking into account further socio-demographic background variables and social desirability. Additionally, correlations between changes in HRQoL scores and changes in zBMI were examined. Results There were significant multivariate time effects for self-reported and proxy-reported HRQoL and a significant time-gender interaction in self-reports revealed (p 2 = 0.14-0.19. Generic HRQoL further increased after end of treatment. The largest effects were found on the dimension self-esteem (partial η2 = 0.08-0.09 for proxy- and self-reported z-scores, respectively. Correlations with changes in weight were gender-specific, and weight reduction was only associated with HRQoL improvements in girls. Conclusions Positive effects of outpatient training on generic and weight-specific HRQoL of moderately overweight (not obese children and adolescents could be demonstrated. Improvements in HRQoL were not consistently bound to weight reduction. While changes in weight-specific HRQoL were more immediate, generic HRQoL further increased after treatment ended. An extended follow-up may therefore be needed to scrutinize HRQo

  1. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  2. Detecting response of rat C6 glioma tumors to radiotherapy using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Sam E.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Cherkuri, Murali Krishna; James B Mitchell; Lizak, Martin J.; Morris, H. Douglas; Koretsky, Alan P.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    13C chemical shift images acquired following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate into rats with implanted C6 gliomas showed significant labeling of lactate within the tumors but not in surrounding brain tissue. Signal from pyruvate was observed in blood vessels above the brain and from other major vessels elsewhere in the rat head. Pyruvate was largely undetectable within the tumor or surrounding normal brain tissue. The ratio of hyperpolarized 13C label in the injected py...

  3. Facilitated Anion Transport Induces Hyperpolarization of the Cell Membrane That Triggers Differentiation and Cell Death in Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cerrato, Vanessa; Manuel-Manresa, Pilar; Hernando, Elsa; Calabuig-Fariñas, Silvia; Martínez-Romero, Alicia; Fernández-Dueñas, Víctor; Sahlholm, Kristoffer; Knöpfel, Thomas; García-Valverde, María; Rodilla, Ananda M; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloisa; Farràs, Rosa; Ciruela, Francisco; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

    2015-12-23

    Facilitated anion transport potentially represents a powerful tool to modulate various cellular functions. However, research into the biological effects of small molecule anionophores is still at an early stage. Here we have used two potent anionophore molecules inspired in the structure of marine metabolites tambjamines to gain insight into the effect induced by these compounds at the cellular level. We show how active anionophores, capable of facilitating the transmembrane transport of chloride and bicarbonate in model phospholipid liposomes, induce acidification of the cytosol and hyperpolarization of plasma cell membranes. We demonstrate how this combined effect can be used against cancer stem cells (CSCs). Hyperpolarization of cell membrane induces cell differentiation and loss of stemness of CSCs leading to effective elimination of this cancer cell subpopulation.

  4. Fast volumetric imaging of ethanol metabolism in rat liver with hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josan, Sonal; Spielman, Daniel; Yen, Yi-Fen; Hurd, Ralph; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Mayer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized 13C compounds allows the real time measurement of metabolic activity and can be useful in distinguishing between normal and diseased tissues. This work extends a fast 2D under-sampled spiral magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence to provide volumetric coverage, acquiring a 16×16×12 matrix with a nominal 5 mm isotropic resolution in 4.5 s. The rapid acquisition enables a high temporal resolution for dynamic imaging. This dynamic 3D MRSI method was used to investigate hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate metabolism modulated by the administration of ethanol in rat liver. A significant increase in the pyruvate to lactate conversion was observed in the liver due to the greater availability of NADH from ethanol metabolism. PMID:22331837

  5. HYPERPOLARIZED 13C MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND ITS USE IN METABOLIC ASSESSMENT OF CULTURED CELLS AND PERFUSED ORGANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumata, Lloyd; Yang, Chendong; Ragavan, Mukundan; Carpenter, Nicholas; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Merritt, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    Diseased tissue is often characterized by abnormalities in intermediary metabolism. Observing these alterations in situ may lead to an improved understanding of pathological processes and novel ways to monitor these processes non-invasively in human patients. Although 13C is a stable isotope safe for use in animal models of disease as well as human subjects, its utility as a metabolic tracer has largely been limited to ex vivo analyses employing analytical techniques like mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neither of these techniques is suitable for non-invasive metabolic monitoring, and the low abundance and poor gyromagnetic ratio of conventional 13C make it a poor nucleus for imaging. However, the recent advent of hyperpolarization methods, particularly dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), make it possible to enhance the spin polarization state of 13C by many orders of magnitude, resulting in a temporary amplification of the signal sufficient for monitoring kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living tissue through magnetic resonance spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging. Here we review DNP techniques to monitor metabolism in cultured cells, perfused hearts, and perfused livers, focusing on our experiences with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. We present detailed approaches to optimize the DNP procedure, streamline biological sample preparation, and maximize detection of specific metabolic activities. We also discuss practical aspects in the choice of metabolic substrates for hyperpolarization studies, and outline some of the current technical and conceptual challenges in the field, including efforts to use hyperpolarization to quantify metabolic rates in vivo. PMID:26358902

  6. Modulation of Hyperpolarization-Activated Cation Currents (Ih) by Ethanol in Rat Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Licheri, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that ethanol (EtOH), through the interaction with several membrane proteins, as well as intracellular pathways, is capable to modulate many neuronal function. Recent reports show that EtOH increases the firing rate of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons through the positive modulation of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) cation channels. This effect might be consistent with the increase of GABA release from presynaptic terminals...

  7. Hyperpolarized [1,4-13C]-Diethylsuccinate: A Potential DNP Substrate for In Vivo Metabolic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Billingsley, Kelvin L.; Josan, Sonal; Park, Jae Mo; Tee, Sui Seng; Spielman-Sun, Eleanor; Hurd, Ralph; Mayer, Dirk; Spielman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) performs an essential role in the regulation of energy and metabolism, and deficiencies in this pathway are commonly correlated with various diseases. However, the development of non-invasive techniques for the assessment of the cycle in vivo has remained challenging. In this work, the applicability of a novel imaging agent, [1,4-13C]-diethylsuccinate, for hyperpolarized 13C metabolic imaging of the TCA cycle was explored. In vivo spectroscopic studies were ...

  8. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  9. SU-E-J-120: Comparing 4D CT Computed Ventilation to Lung Function Measured with Hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, B; Chen, Q [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To correlate ventilation parameters computed from 4D CT to ventilation, profusion, and gas exchange measured with hyperpolarized Xenon-129 MRI for a set of lung cancer patients. Methods: Hyperpolarized Xe-129 MRI lung scans were acquired for lung cancer patients, before and after radiation therapy, measuring ventilation, perfusion, and gas exchange. In the standard clinical workflow, these patients also received 4D CT scans before treatment. Ventilation was computed from 4D CT using deformable image registration (DIR). All phases of the 4D CT scan were registered using a B-spline deformable registration. Ventilation at the voxel level was then computed for each phase based on a Jacobian volume expansion metric, yielding phase sorted ventilation images. Ventilation based upon 4D CT and Xe-129 MRI were co-registered, allowing qualitative visual comparison and qualitative comparison via the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Analysis shows a weak correlation between hyperpolarized Xe-129 MRI and 4D CT DIR ventilation, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.17 to 0.22. Further work will refine the DIR parameters to optimize the correlation. The weak correlation could be due to the limitations of 4D CT, registration algorithms, or the Xe-129 MRI imaging. Continued development will refine parameters to optimize correlation. Conclusion: Current analysis yields a minimal correlation between 4D CT DIR and Xe-129 MRI ventilation. Funding provided by the 2014 George Amorino Pilot Grant in Radiation Oncology at the University of Virginia.

  10. Transmit-Only/Receive-Only Radiofrequency System for Hyperpolarized 13C MRS Cardiac Metabolism Studies in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannetti, G.; Frijia, F.; Hartwig, V.;

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables metabolic activity mapping, providing a powerful tool for the study of the heart physiology, but requires the development of dedicated radiofrequency coils, capable of providing large field of view with high signal-to-noise ......Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pig models enables metabolic activity mapping, providing a powerful tool for the study of the heart physiology, but requires the development of dedicated radiofrequency coils, capable of providing large field of view with high signal......-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. This work describes the simulations and the tests of a transmit-only (TX) volume coil/receive-only (RX) surface coil both designed for hyperpolarized studies of pig heart with a clinical 3T scanner. The coil characterization is performed by developing an SNR model for coil performance...... chemical shift image, showed good agreement with the theoretical SNR-vs-depth profiles and highlighted the advantage of the novel configuration over the single transmit–receive coils throughout the volume of interest for cardiac imaging in pig. Finally, the TX-birdcage/RX-circular configuration was tested...

  11. Hydrogen sulfide induces hyperpolarization and decreases the exocytosis of secretory granules of rat GH3 pituitary tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafina, Alsu N; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Gaifullina, Aisylu Sh; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2015-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the membrane potential, action potential discharge and exocytosis of secretory granules in neurosecretory pituitary tumor cells (GH3). The H2S donor - sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) induced membrane hyperpolarization, followed by truncation of spontaneous electrical activity and decrease of the membrane resistance. The NaHS effect was dose-dependent with an EC50 of 152 μM (equals effective H2S of 16-19 μM). NaHS effects were not altered after inhibition of maxi conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels by tetraethylammonium or paxilline, but were significantly reduced after inhibition or activation of ATP-dependent potassium channels (KATP) by glibenclamide or by diazoxide, respectively. In whole-cell recordings NaHS increased the amplitude of KATP currents, induced by hyperpolarizing pulses and subsequent application of glibenclamide decreased currents to control levels. Using the fluorescent dye FM 1-43 exocytosis of secretory granules was analyzed in basal and stimulated conditions (high K(+) external solution). Prior application of NaHS decreased the fluorescence of the cell membrane in both conditions which links with activation of KATP currents (basal secretion) and activation of KATP currents and BK-currents (stimulated exocytosis). We suggest that H2S induces hyperpolarization of GH3 cells by activation of KATP channels which results in a truncation of spontaneous action potentials and a decrease of hormone release.

  12. Real-Time MRI-Guided Catheter Tracking Using Hyperpolarized Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Nicholas; Hu, Jingzhe; Shah, Jay V.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Cressman, Erik; Zacharias Millward, Niki; Menter, David G.; Marcus, Charles M.; Bhattacharya, Pratip K.

    2015-08-01

    Visualizing the movement of angiocatheters during endovascular interventions is typically accomplished using x-ray fluoroscopy. There are many potential advantages to developing magnetic resonance imaging-based approaches that will allow three-dimensional imaging of the tissue/vasculature interface while monitoring other physiologically-relevant criteria, without exposing the patient or clinician team to ionizing radiation. Here we introduce a proof-of-concept development of a magnetic resonance imaging-guided catheter tracking method that utilizes hyperpolarized silicon particles. The increased signal of the silicon particles is generated via low-temperature, solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization, and the particles retain their enhanced signal for ≥40 minutes—allowing imaging experiments over extended time durations. The particles are affixed to the tip of standard medical-grade catheters and are used to track passage under set distal and temporal points in phantoms and live mouse models. With continued development, this method has the potential to supplement x-ray fluoroscopy and other MRI-guided catheter tracking methods as a zero-background, positive contrast agent that does not require ionizing radiation.

  13. Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Induces Period-Doubling Cascades and Chaos in a Cold Thermoreceptor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kesheng; Maidana, Jean P.; Caviedes, Mauricio; Quero, Daniel; Aguirre, Pablo; Orio, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe and analyze the chaotic behavior of a conductance-based neuronal bursting model. This is a model with a reduced number of variables, yet it retains biophysical plausibility. Inspired by the activity of cold thermoreceptors, the model contains a persistent Sodium current, a Calcium-activated Potassium current and a hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) that drive a slow subthreshold oscillation. Driven by this oscillation, a fast subsystem (fast Sodium and Potassium currents) fires action potentials in a periodic fashion. Depending on the parameters, this model can generate a variety of firing patterns that includes bursting, regular tonic and polymodal firing. Here we show that the transitions between different firing patterns are often accompanied by a range of chaotic firing, as suggested by an irregular, non-periodic firing pattern. To confirm this, we measure the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the voltage trajectories, and the Lyapunov exponent and Lempel-Ziv's complexity of the ISI time series. The four-variable slow system (without spiking) also generates chaotic behavior, and bifurcation analysis shows that this is often originated by period doubling cascades. Either with or without spikes, chaos is no longer generated when the Ih is removed from the system. As the model is biologically plausible with biophysically meaningful parameters, we propose it as a useful tool to understand chaotic dynamics in neurons. PMID:28344550

  14. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h in ganglion-cell photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Van Hook

    Full Text Available Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs express the photopigment melanopsin and serve as the primary retinal drivers of non-image-forming visual functions such as circadian photoentrainment, the pupillary light reflex, and suppression of melatonin production in the pineal. Past electrophysiological studies of these cells have focused on their intrinsic photosensitivity and synaptic inputs. Much less is known about their voltage-gated channels and how these might shape their output to non-image-forming visual centers. Here, we show that rat ipRGCs retrolabeled from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN express a hyperpolarization-activated inwardly-rectifying current (I(h. This current is blocked by the known I(h blockers ZD7288 and extracellular cesium. As in other systems, including other retinal ganglion cells, I(h in ipRGCs is characterized by slow kinetics and a slightly greater permeability for K(+ than for Na(+. Unlike in other systems, however, I(h in ipRGCs apparently does not actively contribute to resting membrane potential. We also explore non-specific effects of the common I(h blocker ZD7288 on rebound depolarization and evoked spiking and discuss possible functional roles of I(h in non-image-forming vision. This study is the first to characterize I(h in a well-defined population of retinal ganglion cells, namely SCN-projecting ipRGCs.

  15. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized (129)Xenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, M; Zimmer, S; Allmendinger, F; Blümler, P; Doll, M; Grasdijk, J O; Heil, W; Jungmann, K; Karpuk, S; Krause, H-J; Offenhäusser, A; Schmidt, U; Sobolev, Y; Willmann, L

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-(129)Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1≈9 h (for T1(wall)=(34±9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car.

  16. Membrane potential hyperpolarization in Mammalian cardiac cells by synchronization modulation of Na/K pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Dando, Robin

    2008-02-01

    In previously reported work, we developed a new technique, synchronization modulation, to electrically activate Na/K pump molecules. The fundamental mechanism involved in this technique is a dynamic entrainment procedure of the pump molecules, carried out in a stepwise pattern. The entrainment procedure consists of two steps: synchronization and modulation. We theoretically predicted that the pump functions can be activated exponentially as a function of the membrane potential. We have experimentally demonstrated synchronization of the Na/K pump molecules and acceleration of their pumping rates by many fold through use of voltage-clamp techniques, directly monitoring the pump currents. We further applied this technique to intact skeletal muscle fibers from amphibians and found significant effects on the membrane resting potential. Here, we extend our study to intact mammalian cardiomyocytes. We employed a noninvasive confocal microscopic fluorescent imaging technique to monitor electric field-induced changes in ionic concentration gradient and membrane resting potential. Our results further confirm that the well-designed synchronization modulation electric field can effectively accelerate the Na/K pumping rate, increasing the ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane and hyperpolarizing the membrane resting potential.

  17. Is neural hyperpolarization by cathodal stimulation always detrimental at the behavioral level?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia ePirulli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS is usually considered an inhibitory stimulation. From a physiological perspective, c-tDCS stimulation induces hyperpolarization at the neural level. However, from a behavioral perspective, c-tDCS application does not always result in performance deterioration. In this work, we investigated the role of several important stimulation parameters (i.e., timing, presence of pauses, duration and intensity in shaping the behavioral effects of c-tDCS over the primary visual cortex.In Experiment 1, we applied c-tDCS at two different times (before or during an orientation discrimination task. We also studied the effects of pauses during the stimulation. In Experiments 2 and 3, we compared different durations (9 minutes vs. 22 minutes and intensities (0.75 mA vs. 1.5 mA of stimulation.c-tDCS applied before task execution induced an improvement of performance, highlighting the importance of the activation state of the cortex. However, this result depended on the duration and intensity of stimulation.We suggest that the application of c-tDCS induces depression of cortical activity over a specific stimulated area; but to keep reactivity within given limits, the brain react in order to restore the equilibrium and this might result in increased sensitivity in visual performance. This is a further example of how the nervous system dynamically maintains a condition that permits adequate performance in different environments.

  18. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A.; Köllisch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method‐based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo 13C mapping were performed...... for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral‐spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction....... After optimizing the signal to noise ratio of the hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate, error estimation of the spectral‐spatial excited spectrum reveals that the method covers the biologically relevant pH range of 6 to 8 with low pH error (pH maps shows negligible impact...

  19. Práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses e fatores maternos associados Feeding habits of children aged 6 to 12 months and associated maternal factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina D. M. Saldiva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar as práticas alimentares de crianças de 6 a 12 meses de idade e sua associação com fatores maternos. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo de delineamento transversal, no qual foram analisados os dados do Projeto Amamentação e Municípios de 2004, conduzido em 136 municípios do estado de São Paulo com 24.448 crianças. O padrão de consumo de alimentos foi avaliado segundo a freqüência de crianças que receberam leite materno e outros alimentos nas últimas 24 horas, e a probabilidade de consumo dos alimentos, nas faixas de idade, foi estimada por meio da análise de probitos. RESULTADOS: O consumo de alimentos revelou que 50% receberam leite materno, 77% outros tipos de leite, 63% mingau, 87% frutas, 78% sopas, 64% comida de panela, 58% comida com feijão e 36% sopa ou comida com carne. A probabilidade de a criança, aos 6 meses de idade, consumir sopas é elevada (78%, comida de panela é baixa (39%, e a probabilidade dela receber leite materno é de 59%, inferior aos outros leites (70% e mingau (63%. Encontrou-se associação entre consumo de refeições lácteas e mães primíparas, que trabalhavam fora e com maior escolaridade. Semelhantes achados foram observados para consumo de sopas, acrescido à idade da mãe superior a 20 anos. O consumo de comida de panela associou-se a mães com menos de 20 anos, que não trabalhavam fora, com menor escolaridade e multíparas. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se consumo excessivo de alimentos líquidos e semi-sólidos e a necessidade do aconselhamento adequado em alimentação complementar, considerando idade, primiparidade, escolaridade e trabalho materno.OBJECTIVE: To identify the feeding practices of children aged 6 to 12 months of age and associated maternal factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the 2004 Breastfeeding and the Municipalities Project, which was implemented in 136 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 24,448 children

  20. Lung MRI Using Hyperpolarized Gases%超极化气体肺部磁共振成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海东; 张智颖; 韩叶清; 孙献平; 周欣

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonradioactive and noninvasive medical imaging technique, and it has been widely applied in the clinical diagnosis. However, using conventional proton MRI to obtain lung images is difficult, because the proton density in the lungs is about three orders of magnitude lower than that in other organs/tissues due to air cavities in the lungs. Hyperpolarized noble gases can be used as contrast agents for lung MRI. Spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) is a technique that can be used to enhance the nuclear spin polarizations of noble gases more than 10 000 folds, which makes noble gas lung MRI feasible. In this paper, the recent developments of hyperpolarized gases lung MRI were reviewed. Topics covered include comparison of different hyperpolarized noble gases used for lung MRI, unconventional methods for measuring quantitative parameters in hyperpolarized gas MRI, and the most updated applications of hyperpolarized gas MRI in assessing pulmonary structure and function.%磁共振成像(MRI)技术具有非侵入、无放射性的特点,在临床疾病诊断中具有独特的优势,但是肺部空腔的特殊结构使传统质子 MRI无法对其直接成像。自旋交换光抽运(SEOP)方法可以使惰性气体原子的极化度增强4个量级以上,从而使肺部的气体MRI成为可能。该文介绍了超极化惰性气体肺部MRI的最新研究进展,包括超极化气体磁共振相关参数的测量方法、肺部通气结构成像、肺部气体交换功能成像,同时比较了常用于肺部MRI气体的优点和缺点。

  1. Action potential repolarization and a fast after-hyperpolarization in rat hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, J F

    1987-04-01

    1. The repolarization of the action potential, and a fast after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) were studied in CA1 pyramidal cells (n = 76) in rat hippocampal slices (28-37 degrees C). Single spikes were elicited by brief (1-3 ms) current pulses, at membrane potentials close to rest (-60 to -70 mV). 2. Each action potential was followed by four after-potentials: (a) the fast a.h.p., lasting 2-5 ms; (b) an after-depolarization; (c) a medium a.h.p., (50-100 ms); and (d) a slow a.h.p. (1-2 s). Both the fast a.h.p. and the slow a.h.p. (but not the medium a.h.p.) were inhibited by Ca2+-free medium or Ca2+-channel blockers (Co2+, Mn2+ or Cd2+); but tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.5-2 nM) blocked only the fast a.h.p., and noradrenaline (2-5 microM) only the slow a.h.p. This suggests that two Ca2+-activated K+ currents were involved: a fast, TEA-sensitive one (IC) underlying the fast a.h.p., and a slow noradrenaline-sensitive one (IAHP) underlying the slow a.h.p. 3. Like the fast a.h.p., spike repolarization seems to depend on a Ca2+-dependent K+ current of the fast, TEA-sensitive kind (IC). The repolarization was slowed by Ca2+-free medium, Co2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, or TEA, but not by noradrenaline. Charybdotoxin (CTX; 30 nM), a scorpion toxin which blocks the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in muscle, had a similar effect to TEA. The effects of TEA and Cd2+ (or Mn2+) showed mutual occlusion. Raising the external K+ concentration reduced the fast a.h.p. and slowed the spike repolarization, whereas Cl- loading of the cell was ineffective. 4. The transient K+ current, IA, seems also to contribute to spike repolarization, because: (a) 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 0.1 mM), which blocks IA, slowed the spike repolarization; (b) depolarizing pre-pulses, which inactivate IA, had a similar effect; (c) hyperpolarizing pre-pulses speeded up the spike repolarization; (d) the effects of 4-AP and pre-pulses persisted during Ca2+ blockade (like IA); and (e) depolarizing pre-pulses reduced the

  2. Strategies for the hyperpolarization of acetonitrile and related ligands by SABRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, Ryan E; Green, Richard A; Cockett, Martin C R; Cowley, Michael J; Duckett, Simon B; Green, Gary G R; John, Richard O; Rayner, Peter J; Williamson, David C

    2015-01-29

    We report on a strategy for using SABRE (signal amplification by reversible exchange) for polarizing (1)H and (13)C nuclei of weakly interacting ligands which possess biologically relevant and nonaromatic motifs. We first demonstrate this via the polarization of acetonitrile, using Ir(IMes)(COD)Cl as the catalyst precursor, and confirm that the route to hyperpolarization transfer is via the J-coupling network. We extend this work to the polarization of propionitrile, benzylnitrile, benzonitrile, and trans-3-hexenedinitrile in order to assess its generality. In the (1)H NMR spectrum, the signal for acetonitrile is enhanced 8-fold over its thermal counterpart when [Ir(H)2(IMes)(MeCN)3](+) is the catalyst. Upon addition of pyridine or pyridine-d5, the active catalyst changes to [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)2(MeCN)](+) and the resulting acetonitrile (1)H signal enhancement increases to 20- and 60-fold, respectively. In (13)C NMR studies, polarization transfers optimally to the quaternary (13)C nucleus of MeCN while the methyl (13)C is hardly polarized. Transfer to (13)C is shown to occur first via the (1)H-(1)H coupling between the hydrides and the methyl protons and then via either the (2)J or (1)J couplings to the respective (13)Cs, of which the (2)J route is more efficient. These experimental results are rationalized through a theoretical treatment which shows excellent agreement with experiment. In the case of MeCN, longitudinal two-spin orders between pairs of (1)H nuclei in the three-spin methyl group are created. Two-spin order states, between the (1)H and (13)C nuclei, are also created, and their existence is confirmed for Me(13)CN in both the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra using the Only Parahydrogen Spectroscopy protocol.

  3. In vivo lung morphometry with hyperpolarized 3He diffusion MRI: theoretical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukstanskii, A L; Yablonskiy, D A

    2008-02-01

    MRI-based study of (3)He gas diffusion in lungs may provide important information on lung microstructure. Lung acinar airways can be described in terms of cylinders covered with alveolar sleeve [Haefeli-Bleuer, Weibel, Anat. Rec. 220 (1988) 401]. For relatively short diffusion times (on the order of a few ms) this geometry allows description of the (3)He diffusion attenuated MR signal in lungs in terms of two diffusion coefficients-longitudinal (D(L)) and transverse (D(T)) with respect to the individual acinar airway axis [Yablonskiy et al., PNAS 99 (2002) 3111]. In this paper, empirical relationships between D(L) and D(T) and the geometrical parameters of airways and alveoli are found by means of computer Monte Carlo simulations. The effects of non-Gaussian signal behavior (dependence of D(L) and D(T) on b-value) are also taken into account. The results obtained are quantitatively valid in the physiologically important range of airway parameters characteristic of healthy lungs and lungs with mild emphysema. In lungs with advanced emphysema, the results provide only "apparent" characteristics but still could potentially be used to evaluate emphysema progression. This creates a basis for in vivo lung morphometry-evaluation of the geometrical parameters of acinar airways from hyperpolarized (3)He diffusion MRI, despite the airways being too small to be resolved by direct imaging. These results also predict a rather substantial dependence of (3)He ADC on the experimentally-controllable diffusion time, Delta. If Delta is decreased from 3 ms to 1 ms, the ADC in normal human lungs may increase by almost 50%. This effect should be taken into account when comparing experimental data obtained with different pulse sequences.

  4. Observing and preventing rubidium runaway in a direct-infusion xenon-spin hyperpolarizer optimized for high-resolution hyper-CEST (chemical exchange saturation transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei) NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, C.; Kunth, M.; Rossella, F.; Schröder, L.

    2014-02-01

    Xenon is well known to undergo host-guest interactions with proteins and synthetic molecules. As xenon can also be hyperpolarized by spin exchange optical pumping, allowing the investigation of highly dilute systems, it makes an ideal nuclear magnetic resonance probe for such host molecules. The utility of xenon as a probe can be further improved using Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer using hyperpolarized nuclei (Hyper-CEST), but for highly accurate experiments requires a polarizer and xenon infusion system optimized for such measurements. We present the design of a hyperpolarizer and xenon infusion system specifically designed to meet the requirements of Hyper-CEST measurements. One key element of this design is preventing rubidium runaway, a chain reaction induced by laser heating that prevents efficient utilization of high photon densities. Using thermocouples positioned along the pumping cell we identify the sources of heating and conditions for rubidium runaway to occur. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of actively cooling the optical cell to prevent rubidium runaway in a compact setup. This results in a 2-3-fold higher polarization than without cooling, allowing us to achieve a polarization of 25% at continuous flow rates of 9 ml/min of 129Xe. The simplicity of this design also allows it to be retrofitted to many existing polarizers. Combined with a direction infusion system that reduces shot-to-shot noise down to 0.56% we have captured Hyper-CEST spectra in unprecedented detail, allowing us to completely resolve peaks separated by just 1.62 ppm. Due to its high polarization and excellent stability, our design allows the comparison of underlying theories of host-guest systems with experiment at low concentrations, something extremely difficult with previous polarizers.

  5. Acetylcholine- and sodium hydrosulfide-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation and hyperpolarization in cerebral vessels of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Wu; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the role of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in the cerebral vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh) in global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) rats. CIR was induced by occlusion of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries. Isolated arterial segments from the cerebral basilar (CBA) and middle artery (MCA) of CIR rats were studied in a pressurized chamber. Transmembrane potential was recorded using glass microelectrodes to evaluate hyperpolarization. In the CIR CBAs and MCAs preconstricted by 30 mM KCl, ACh induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization that were partially attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 30 μM) and l-NAME plus indomethacin (10 μM). The residual responses were abolished by the H2S inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG, 100 μM). The H2S donor NaHS and l-Cys, the substrate of endogenous H2S synthase, elicited similar responses to ACh and was inhibited by tetraethylamonine (1 mM) or PPG. ACh induces EDHF-mediated vasorelaxation and hyperpolarization in rat cerebral arteries. These responses are up-regulated by ischemia-reperfusion while NO-mediated responses are down-regulated. Further, the ACh-induced, EDHF-mediated relaxation, and hyperpolarization and the inhibition of these responses are similar to the H2S-induced responses, suggesting that H2S is a possible candidate for EDHF in rat cerebral vessels.

  6. Niflumic acid hyperpolarizes smooth muscle cells via calcium-activated potassium channel in spiral modiolar artery of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LI; Ke-tao MA; Lei ZHAO; Jun-qiang SI; Zhong-shuang ZHANG; He ZHU; Jing LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The influence of niflumic acid (NFA), a C1- channel antagonist, on the mem-brane potentials in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the cochlear spiral modiolar artery (SMA) in guinea pigs was examined. Methods: The intracellular recording and whole-cell recording technique were used to record the NFA-induced re-sponse on the acutely-isolated SMA preparation. Results: The SMC had 2 stable but mutually convertible levels of resting potentials (RP), that is, one was near-45 mV and the other was approximately -75 mV, termed as low and high RP, respectively. The bath application of NFA could cause a hyperpolarization in all the low RP cells, but had little effect on high RP cells. The induced responses were concentration-dependent. Large concentrations of NFA (≥100 μmol/L) often in-duced a shift of a low RP to high RP in cells with an initial RP at low level, and NFA (up to 100 μmol/L) had little effect on the membrane potentials of the high RP cells. However, when the high RP cells were depolarized to a level beyond -45 mV by barium and ouabain, NFA hyperpolarized these cells with the similar effect on those cells initially being the low RP. The NFA-induced response was almost completely blocked by charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin, tetraethylammonium, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N,N,N,-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester, but not by 4-aminopyridine, barium, glipizide, apamin, ouabain, and CdC12. Conclusion: NFA induces a concentration-dependent reversible hyperpolarization in SMC in the cochlear SMA via activation of the Ca2+-activated potassium channels.

  7. Molecular hydrogen and catalytic combustion in the production of hyperpolarized 83Kr and 129Xe MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Nicola J.; Hill-Casey, Fraser; Stupic, Karl F.; Six, Joseph S.; Lesbats, Clémentine; Rigby, Sean P.; Fraissard, Jacques; Pavlovskaya, Galina E.; Meersmann, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Hyperpolarized (hp) 83Kr is a promising MRI contrast agent for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases affecting the surface of the respiratory zone. However, the distinct physical properties of 83Kr that enable unique MRI contrast also complicate the production of hp 83Kr. This work presents a previously unexplored approach in the generation of hp 83Kr that can likewise be used for the production of hp 129Xe. Molecular nitrogen, typically used as buffer gas in spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP), was replaced by molecular hydrogen without penalty for the achievable hyperpolarization. In this particular study, the highest obtained nuclear spin polarizations were P = 29% for 83Kr and P = 63% for 129Xe. The results were reproduced over many SEOP cycles despite the laser-induced on-resonance formation of rubidium hydride (RbH). Following SEOP, the H2 was reactively removed via catalytic combustion without measurable losses in hyperpolarized spin state of either 83Kr or 129Xe. Highly spin-polarized 83Kr can now be purified for the first time, to our knowledge, to provide high signal intensity for the advancement of in vivo hp 83Kr MRI. More generally, a chemical reaction appears as a viable alternative to the cryogenic separation process, the primary purification method of hp 129Xe for the past 2 1/2 decades. The inherent simplicity of the combustion process will facilitate hp 129Xe production and should allow for on-demand continuous flow of purified and highly spin-polarized 129Xe.

  8. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel subtypes differentially modulate the excitability of murine small intestinal afferents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ping Wang; Bi-Ying Sun; Qian Li; Li Dong; Guo-Hua Zhang; David Grundy; Wei-Fang Rong

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels in regulating the excitability of vagal and spinal gut afferents.METHODS: The mechanosensory response of mesen-teric afferent activity was measured in an ex vivo murine jejunum preparation. HCN channel activity was recorded through voltage and current clamp in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and nodose ganglia (NG) neurons retrogradely labeled from the small intestine through injection of a fluorescent marker (DiI). The isoforms of HCN channels expressed in DRG and NG neurons were examined by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Ramp distension of the small intestine evoked biphasic increases in the afferent nerve activity, reflecting the activation of low- and high-threshold fibers.HCN blocker CsCl (5 mmol/L) preferentially inhibited the responses of low-threshold fibers to distension and showed no significant effects on the high-threshold responses. The effect of CsCl was mimicked by the more selective HCN blocker ZD7288 (10 ?mol/L). In 71.4% of DiI labeled DRG neurons (n = 20) and 90.9% of DiI labeled NG neurons (n = 10), an inward current (Ih current) was evoked by hyperpolarization pulses which was fully eliminated by extracellular CsCl. In neurons expressing Ih current, a typical "sag" was observed upon injection of hyperpolarizing current pulses in current-clamp recordings. CsCl abolished the sag entirely. In some DiI labeled DRG neurons, the Ih current was potentiated by 8-Br-cAMP, which had no effect on the Ih current of DiI labeled NG neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed differential expression of HCN isoforms in vagal and spinal afferents, and HCN2 and HCN3 seemed to be the dominant isoform in DRG and NG, respectively.CONCLUSION: HCNs differentially regulate the excitability of vagal and spinal afferent of murine small intestine.

  9. Saturation-recovery metabolic‐exchange rate imaging with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate using spectral‐spatial excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Rolf F.; Sperl, Jonathan I.; Weidl, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Within the last decade hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate chemical‐shift imaging has demonstrated impressive potential for metabolic MR imaging for a wide range of applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. In this work, a highly efficient pulse sequence is described for time......‐recovery” scheme with the detected signal content being determined by forward conversion of the available pyruvate. In case of repetitive excitations, the polarization is preserved using smaller flip angles for pyruvate. Metabolic exchange rates are determined spatially resolved from the metabolite images using...

  10. Developing hyperpolarized krypton-83 for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Zackary I.

    This dissertation discusses the production of highly nonequilibrium nuclear spin polarization, referred to as hyperpolarization or hp, in the nuclear spin I = 9/2 noble gas isotope krypton-83 using spin exchange optical pumping (SEOP). This nonequilibrium polarization yields nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals that are enhanced three or more orders of magnitude above those of thermally polarized krypton and enables experiments that would otherwise be impossible. Krypton-83 possesses a nuclear electric quadrupole moment that dominates the longitudinal (T1) relaxation due to coupling of the quadrupole moment to fluctuating electric field gradients generated by distortions to the spherical symmetry of the electronic environment. Relaxation slows polarization buildup and limits the maximum signal intensity but makes krypton-83 a sensitive probe of its environment. The gas-phase krypton-83 longitudinal relaxation rate increases linearly with total gas density due to binary collisions. Density independent relaxation, caused by the formation of krypton-krypton van der Waals molecules and surface adsorption, also contributes to the observed rate. Buffer gases suppress van der Waals molecule mediated relaxation by breaking apart the weakly bound krypton dimers. Surface relaxation is gas composition independent and therefore more difficult to suppress. However, this relaxation mechanism makes hp krypton-83 sensitive to important surface properties including surface-to-volume ratio, surface chemistry, and surface temperature. The presence of surfaces with high krypton adsorption affinities (i.e. hydrophobic surfaces) accelerates the relaxation times and can produce T1 contrast in hp krypton-83 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tobacco smoke deposited on surfaces generates strong T1 contrast allowing the observation of smoke deposition with spatial resolution. Conversely, water adsorption on surfaces significantly lengths the T1 times due competitive surface adsorption

  11. Calcium-activated hyperpolarizations in rat locus coeruleus neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanović, S S; Shefner, S A

    1993-09-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in completely submerged brain slices. Trains of action potentials in LC neurons were followed by a prolonged post-stimulus hyperpolarization (PSH). If trains were elicited with depolarizing current pulses of sufficient intensity, PSH was composed of a fast, early component (PSHE) and a slow, late component (PSHL). PSH which followed trains elicited with lower intensity depolarizing current pulses consisted only of PSHL. 2. Both PSHE and PSHL were augmented by increasing the number of action potentials in the train and both were associated with an increase in membrane conductance. The reversal potential for PSHE was -108 mV and for PSHL it was -114 mV. 3. When a hybrid voltage clamp protocol was used, the current underlying PSH (IPSH) was observed to consist of an early, rapidly decaying component, IE, followed by a late, slower decaying component, IL. The time course of decay of IPSH was biexponential with the time constant of decay of IL more than one order of magnitude larger than the time constant of decay of IE. An increase in the concentration of external K+ shifted the reversal potentials for IE and IL in the depolarizing direction; the mean value of shift per tenfold increase in external K+ concentration was 57.1 mV for IE and 57.6 mV for IL. 4. Both PSHE and PSHL were inhibited by lowering the external Ca2+ concentration or by application of the Ca2+ channel blockers Cd2+ (200-500 microM) or nifedipine (100 microM). Intracellular injection of EGTA abolished both components of PSH. Increasing the external Ca2+ concentration augmented both PSH components. 5. Superfusion of dantrolene (25 microM) or ryanodine (20 microM) decreased the amplitude and duration of PSHL with much less effect on PSHE. 6. d-Tubocurarine (20-200 microM) selectively blocked PSHE with no effect on PSHL; this effect is the same as that of apamin which we have previously described. Superfusion with charybdotoxin

  12. Pharmacological and physiological properties of the after-hyperpolarization current of bullfrog ganglion neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J W; Pennefather, P S

    1987-12-01

    1. The slowly decaying, calcium-dependent after-hyperpolarization (a.h.p.) that follows action potentials in bullfrog ganglion B cells has previously been shown to be generated by a potassium current called IAHP. We have recorded IAHP using a switched, single-electrode hybrid clamp where current-clamp mode was changed to voltage-clamp mode immediately after repolarization of a spike or the last spike of a train. 2. Reduction of extracellular calcium reduced the decay time of IAHP following a single spike. At all levels of extracellular calcium tested (0.5-4 mM), the decay time of IAHP was longer following a train of action potentials than following a single action potential. Thus, the time course of IAHP evoked by action potentials is a function of the calcium load induced by the action potentials. Conversely, agents that reduce the amount of IAHP activated without affecting its rate of decay, probably do not affect calcium influx. 3. Muscarine (2 or 10 microM) inhibits IAHP following an action potential by at most 30% and has no effect on decay rate of IAHP. These results suggest that muscarine has little or no effect on either calcium influx or sequestration. Decay of the a.h.p. is accelerated by muscarine but this effect is due to an increased leak conductance. 4. Charybdotoxin (CTX) between 4 and 20 nM, prolongs action potential duration in a manner consistent with blockade of the voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium current (Ic) involved in spike repolarization in these cells. This action is consistent with its reported action on analogous channels in other systems. However, CTX also reduces IAHP. Thus, in bullfrog ganglion neurones, two distinct calcium-dependent potassium currents exhibit a comparable sensitivity to CTX. This cannot be due to a decreased influx of calcium because the decay rate of IAHP following an action potential is unchanged. The action of CTX was observed with both crude and purified preparations of CTX. 5. Apamin (25 nM) and

  13. HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Norman

    Full Text Available Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS, and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR, followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS.

  14. Bacterial spore detection and analysis using hyperpolarized (129)Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yubin; Wang, Yanfei; Goulian, Mark; Driks, Adam; Dmochowski, Ivan J

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we reported hyperpolarized (129)Xe chemical exchange saturation transfer (Hyper-CEST) NMR techniques for the ultrasensitive (i.e., 1 picomolar) detection of xenon host molecules known as cryptophane. Here, we demonstrate a more general role for Hyper-CEST NMR as a spectroscopic method for probing nanoporous structures, without the requirement for cryptophane or engineered xenon-binding sites. Hyper-CEST (129)Xe NMR spectroscopy was employed to detect Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores in solution, and interrogate the layers that comprise their structures. (129)Xe-spore samples were selectively irradiated with radiofrequency pulses; the depolarized (129)Xe returned to aqueous solution and depleted the (129)Xe-water signal, providing measurable contrast. Removal of the outermost spore layers in B. anthracis and B. subtilis (the exosporium and coat, respectively) enhanced (129)Xe exchange with the spore interior. Notably, the spores were invisible to hyperpolarized (129)Xe NMR direct detection methods, highlighting the lack of high-affinity xenon-binding sites, and the potential for extending Hyper-CEST NMR structural analysis to other biological and synthetic nanoporous structures.

  15. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte Borgwardt, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We...... have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization...... (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified...

  16. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Gandini, Maria A; Black, Stefanie A; Zhang, Zizhen; Souza, Ivana A; Chen, Lina; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been linked to increased neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in the hippocampus. We have previously shown that synaptic activity in hippocampi of PrP-null mice is increased due to enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Here, we focused on the effect of PRNP gene knock-out (KO) on intrinsic neuronal excitability, and in particular, the underlying ionic mechanism in hippocampal neurons cultured from P0 mouse pups. We found that the absence of PrP(C) profoundly affected the firing properties of cultured hippocampal neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers. The membrane impedance was greater in PrP-null neurons, and this difference was abolished by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker ZD7288 (100 μM). HCN channel activity appeared to be functionally regulated by PrP(C). The amplitude of voltage sag, a characteristic of activating HCN channel current (I h), was decreased in null mice. Moreover, I h peak current was reduced, along with a hyperpolarizing shift in activation gating and slower kinetics. However, neither HCN1 nor HCN2 formed a biochemical complex with PrP(C). These results suggest that the absence of PrP downregulates the activity of HCN channels through activation of a cell signaling pathway rather than through direct interactions. This in turn contributes to an increase in membrane impedance to potentiate neuronal excitability.

  17. Noninvasive biomarkers for acute hepatotoxicity induced by 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol: hyperpolarized 13C dynamic MR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Oh, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Choon; Yoon, Woong; Jeong, Yong-Yeon; Kim, Yun-Hyeon; Kim, Jae-Kyu; Park, Jin-Gyoon; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular metabolite change for acute hepatotoxicity induced by 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) in rats and its correlations with the enzyme levels. In order to induce acute hepatotoxicity, a single subcutaneous injection of 1,3-DCP (80 mg/kg) was given to six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hyperpolarized (13)C dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on rat liver following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate. The levels of serum aspartate am inotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1,3-DCP treated rats were significantly increased as compared with those in normal rats. In the dynamic (13)C MR spectra, the ratios of [1-(13)C] lactate to the total carbon and [1-(13)C] alanine to the total carbon in the 1,3-DCP treated rats were significantly increased, and there were positive correlations between cellular metabolic changes and enzyme levels. The levels of [1-(13)C] lactate and [1-(13)C] alanine are potentially considered as important biomarkers for the 1,3-DCP-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

  18. Enhancing the [13C]bicarbonate signal in cardiac hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate MRS studies by infusion of glucose, insulin and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Laustsen, Christoffer; Butt, Sadia Asghar

    2013-01-01

    A change in myocardial metabolism is a known effect of several diseases. MRS with hyperpolarized 13C‐labelled pyruvate is a technique capable of detecting changes in myocardial pyruvate metabolism, and has proven to be useful for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in vivo. However, during fas...

  19. Investigating tumor perfusion by hyperpolarized (13) C MRI with comparison to conventional gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and pathology in orthotopic human GBM xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Ilwoo; von Morze, Cornelius; Lupo, Janine M

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enables the acquisition of (13) C magnetic resonance data with a high sensitivity. Recently, metabolically inactive hyperpolarized (13) C-labeled compounds have shown to be potentially useful for perfusion imaging. The purpose of this study was to va...

  20. Dissolution Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Non-Self-Glassing Agents: Spectroscopy and Relaxation of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Bowen, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic physicochemical properties of the sample formulation are the key factors for efficient hyperpolarization through dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dissolution-DNP). We provide a comprehensive characterization of the DNP process for Na-[1-13C]acetate selected as a model for non...

  1. Hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) in vestibular calyx terminals: characterization and role in shaping postsynaptic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Frances L; Benke, Tim A; Rennie, Katherine J

    2012-12-01

    Calyx afferent terminals engulf the basolateral region of type I vestibular hair cells, and synaptic transmission across the vestibular type I hair cell/calyx is not well understood. Calyces express several ionic conductances, which may shape postsynaptic potentials. These include previously described tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward Na(+) currents, voltage-dependent outward K(+) currents and a K(Ca) current. Here, we characterize an inwardly rectifying conductance in gerbil semicircular canal calyx terminals (postnatal days 3-45), sensitive to voltage and to cyclic nucleotides. Using whole-cell patch clamp, we recorded from isolated calyx terminals still attached to their type I hair cells. A slowly activating, noninactivating current (I(h)) was seen with hyperpolarizing voltage steps negative to the resting potential. External Cs(+) (1-5 mM) and ZD7288 (100 μM) blocked the inward current by 97 and 83 %, respectively, confirming that I(h) was carried by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated channels. Mean half-activation voltage of I(h) was -123 mV, which shifted to -114 mV in the presence of cAMP. Activation of I(h) was well described with a third order exponential fit to the current (mean time constant of activation, τ, was 190 ms at -139 mV). Activation speeded up significantly (τ=136 and 127 ms, respectively) when intracellular cAMP and cGMP were present, suggesting that in vivo I(h) could be subject to efferent modulation via cyclic nucleotide-dependent mechanisms. In current clamp, hyperpolarizing current steps produced a time-dependent depolarizing sag followed by either a rebound afterdepolarization or an action potential. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) became larger and wider when I(h) was blocked with ZD7288. In a three-dimensional mathematical model of the calyx terminal based on Hodgkin-Huxley type ionic conductances, removal of I(h) similarly increased the EPSP, whereas cAMP slightly decreased simulated EPSP size

  2. GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Parra, Héctor; Treviño, Mario; Heinemann, Uwe; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) activation leads to depolarization of pyramidal cells during the first postnatal week and produces hyperpolarization from the second week. However, immunohistochemical evidence has suggested that during the second and third postnatal weeks the NKCC1 cotransporter relocates from the soma to the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. We hypothesized that this leads to depolarizing responses in apical dendrites. Here we show that the activation of GABA(A)-R in the distal dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells at P15 by restricted application of muscimol or synaptic activation by stimulation of interneurons in stratum radiatum (SR) causes depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs), which are blocked by NKCC1 cotransporter antagonists. By contrast, activation of proximal GABA(A)-R by muscimol application or by stimulation of interneurons in s. oriens (SO) leads to hyperpolarizing PSPs. Activation of the dentate gyrus (DG) in the presence of glutamatergic blockers evokes hyperpolarizing responses during the second postnatal week; however, the reversal potential of the DG-evoked inhibitory (I)PSPs is more depolarized than that of IPSPs evoked by activation of SO interneurons. Despite the shift of GABA action from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing, DG-evoked field potentials (f-PSPs) recorded in s. lucidum/radiatum (SL/R) do not change in polarity until the third week. Current source density analysis yielded results consistent with depolarizing actions of GABA in the dendritic compartment. Our data suggest that GABAergic input to apical dendrites of pyramidal cells of CA3 evokes depolarizing PSPs long after synaptic inhibition has become hyperpolarizing in the somata, in the axon initial segments and in basal dendrites.

  3. The hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cation current (In ) adjusts the membrane properties, excitability, and activity pattern of the giant cells in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Pál, Balázs; Kőszeghy, Aron; Fu, Yuhong; Szücs, Géza; Paxinos, George

    2013-03-01

    Giant cells of the cochlear nucleus are thought to integrate multimodal sensory inputs and participate in monaural sound source localization. Our aim was to explore the significance of a hyperpolarization-activated current in determining the activity of giant neurones in slices prepared from 10 to 14-day-old rats. When subjected to hyperpolarizing stimuli, giant cells produced a 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (ZD7288)-sensitive inward current with a reversal potential and half-activation voltage of -36 and -88 mV, respectively. Consequently, the current was identified as the hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cationic current (Ih ). At the resting membrane potential, 3.5% of the maximum Ih conductance was available. Immunohistochemistry experiments suggested that hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective (HCN)1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits contribute to the assembly of the functional channels. Inhibition of Ih hyperpolarized the membrane by 6 mV and impeded spontaneous firing. The frequencies of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents reaching the giant cell bodies were reduced but no significant change was observed when evoked postsynaptic currents were recorded. Giant cells are affected by biphasic postsynaptic currents consisting of an excitatory and a subsequent inhibitory component. Inhibition of Ih reduced the frequency of these biphasic events by 65% and increased the decay time constants of the inhibitory component. We conclude that Ih adjusts the resting membrane potential, contributes to spontaneous action potential firing, and may participate in the dendritic integration of the synaptic inputs of the giant neurones. Because its amplitude was higher in young than in adult rats, Ih of the giant cells may be especially important during the postnatal maturation of the auditory system.

  4. Investigation of metabolic changes in STZ-induced diabetic rats with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koellisch, Ulrich; Laustsen, Christoffer; Nørlinger, Thomas S;

    2015-01-01

    in diabetes patients. Acetylcarnitine is a metabolic product of acetate, which enables its transport into the mitochondria for energy production. This study investigates whether the ratio of acetylcarnitine to acetate, measured by noninvasive hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]acetate magnetic resonance spectroscopy......In the metabolism of acetate several enzymes are involved, which play an important role in free fatty acid oxidation. Fatty acid metabolism is altered in diabetes patients and therefore acetate might serve as a marker for pathological changes in the fuel selection of cells, as these changes occur......, could serve as a marker for myocardial, hepatic, and renal metabolic changes in rats with Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in vivo. We demonstrate that the conversion of acetate to acetylcarnitine could be detected and quantified in all three organs of interest. More interestingly, we found...

  5. Real-time cardiac metabolism assessed with hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate in a large-animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flori, Alessandra; Liserani, Matteo; Frijia, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    to 3 mmol. The Na[1-13C]acetate formulation was characterized by a liquid-state polarization of 14.2% and a T1Eff in vivo of 17.6 ± 1.7 s. In vivo Na[1-13C]acetate kinetics displayed a bimodal shape: [1-13C]acetyl carnitine (AcC) was detected in a slice covering the cardiac volume, and the signal of 13...... relaxation rate (r1). Our study proved the feasibility and the limitations of administration of large doses of hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate to study the myocardial conversion of [1-13C]acetate in [1-13C]acetyl-carnitine generated by acetyltransferase in healthy pigs...

  6. 16-Channel surface coil for 13C-hyperpolarized spectroscopic imaging of cardiac metabolism in pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijia, Francesca; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Koellisch, Ulrich;

    2016-01-01

    both targets. In this study, a 16-channel receive surface coil was designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of the pig heart with a clinical 3-T scanner. The coil performance was characterized by phantom experiments and compared with that of a birdcage coil used in transmit/receive mode. Segmental...... limitation due to the low molar concentration of certain metabolites as well as the low flux of conversion. Since 13C-MRS is essentially a semi-quantitative technique, the SNR of the spectra acquired in different myocardial segments should be homogeneous. MRS coil design plays an important role in achieving...... signal distribution in the left ventricle (LV) was assessed by experiments on six healthy mini pigs. The proposed coil showed a significant increase in SNR for the LV wall close to the coil surface with respect to that for the birdcage but also significant segmental inhomogeneity. Hence, the use...

  7. Real-time detection of hepatic gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic states using hyperpolarized [2-13C]dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Karlos X; Satapati, Santhosh; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Merritt, Matthew E

    2014-12-26

    Glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis are sensitive to nutritional state, and the net direction of flux is controlled by multiple enzymatic steps. This delicate balance in the liver is disrupted by a variety of pathological states including cancer and diabetes mellitus. Hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance is a new metabolic imaging technique that can probe intermediary metabolism nondestructively. There are currently no methods to rapidly distinguish livers in a gluconeogenic from glycogenolytic state. Here we use the gluconeogenic precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to deliver hyperpolarized carbon-13 to the perfused mouse liver. DHA enters gluconeogenesis at the level of the trioses. Perfusion conditions were designed to establish either a gluconeogenic or a glycogenolytic state. Unexpectedly, we found that [2-(13)C]DHA was metabolized within a few seconds to the common intermediates and end products of both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis under both conditions, including [2,5-(13)C]glucose, [2-(13)C]glycerol 3-phosphate, [2-(13)C]phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), [2-(13)C]pyruvate, [2-(13)C]alanine, and [2-(13)C]lactate. [2-(13)C]Phosphoenolpyruvate, a key branch point in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, was monitored in functioning tissue for the first time. Observation of [2-(13)C]PEP was not anticipated as the free energy difference between PEP and pyruvate is large. Pyruvate kinase is the only regulatory step of the common glycolytic-gluconeogenic pathway that appears to exert significant control over the kinetics of any metabolites of DHA. A ratio of glycolytic to gluconeogenic products distinguished the gluconeogenic from glycogenolytic state in these functioning livers.

  8. Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Study of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid Combination Diphtheria–Tetanus Toxoid–Five-Component Acellular Pertussis (DTaP5), Inactivated Poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib Vaccine Administered at 3, 5, and 12 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria–tetanus toxoid–five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP5-IPV-Hib) and DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP5-IPV-Hib to DTaP3-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP5-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.) PMID:23966556

  9. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  10. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stand? Pick up small objects? Say mama and dada? Enjoy games like peek-a-boo? Your doctor ... children: have said their first single word (mama, dada) use gestures (wave bye-bye, shake head no) ...

  11. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.

  12. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which will help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ... or turn away from the breast or the bottle. With solid foods, your baby may ... you do the actual feeding. This is good preparation for the toddler years ...

  13. Topiramate-induced psychosis: the picture at 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Anna; Alam, Faouzi; Javed, Qaiser

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old white British man, not previously known to psychiatric services, presented with acute onset of florid psychotic symptoms. His symptoms included auditory hallucinations, misidentification of family members, thought interference and delusions of control. His level of distress was high and did not respond to verbal or medical de-escalation; therefore, he required nursing in seclusion. It was noted that he recently had an increase of his anti-epileptic medication to 100 mg topiramate twice per day. Topiramate was thought to be the cause of his psychosis and, consequently, was changed to phenytoin. Since discontinuation of the topiramate, his psychotic symptoms settled within 4 days and he was discharged shortly afterwards. He was monitored by the Early Intervention services. At 15-months post-discharge, there was no recurrence of any symptoms despite not receiving antipsychotic medication. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the progress of a patient past the initial psychotic episode. Therefore, we believe this is an important finding to report.

  14. Developmental delay at 12 months in children born extremely preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ane; Klamer, Anja; Jonsbo, Finn

    2005-01-01

    , Copenhagen, were interviewed by telephone when their child was 1 y of age, corrected for preterm birth. A fully structured questionnaire on psychomotor function was used (Revised Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire (R-PDQ)). The parents of 30 children born at term without complications were interviewed......AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and validity of a structured telephone interview to assess the development of children born extremely preterm. METHODS: The parents of 88 children born with a gestational age below 28 wk admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Rigshospitalet...... for comparison. The interview was conducted by NICU staff. To validate the R-PDQ, parents of 22 children in the preterm group and parents of 19 children in the reference group conducted an Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children had reached the age of 3-3(1/2) y. RESULTS: The R-PDQ was easy...

  15. Medical Care and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where they live and the potential risk of tuberculosis , sometimes babies at about 1 year of age ... developing meningococcal disease, which can lead to bacterial meningitis and other serious conditions This immunization schedule can ...

  16. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  17. Monitoring tumor response of prostate cancer to radiation therapy by multi-parametric 1H and hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Vickie Yi

    Radiation therapy is one of the most common curative therapies for patients with localized prostate cancer, but despite excellent success rates, a significant number of patients suffer post- treatment cancer recurrence. The accurate characterization of early tumor response remains a major challenge for the clinical management of these patients. Multi-parametric MRI/1H MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) has been shown to increase the diagnostic performance in evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy. 1H MRSI can detect altered metabolic profiles in cancerous tissue. In this project, the concentrations of prostate metabolites from snap-frozen biopsies of recurrent cancer after failed radiation therapy were correlated with histopathological findings to identify quantitative biomarkers that predict for residual aggressive versus indolent cancer. The total choline to creatine ratio was significantly higher in recurrent aggressive versus indolent cancer, suggesting that use of a higher threshold tCho/Cr ratio in future in vivo 1H MRSI studies could improve the selection and therapeutic planning for patients after failed radiation therapy. Varying radiation doses may cause a diverse effect on prostate cancer micro-environment and metabolism, which could hold the key to improving treatment protocols for individual patients. The recent development and clinical translation of hyperpolarized 13C MRI have provided the ability to monitor both changes in the tumor micro-environment and its metabolism using a multi-probe approach, [1-13C]pyruvate and 13C urea, combined with 1H Multi-parametric MRI. In this thesis, hyperpolarized 13C MRI, 1H dynamic contrast enhancement, and diffusion weighted imaging were used to identify early radiation dose response in a transgenic prostate cancer model. Hyperpolarized pyruvate to lactate metabolism significantly decreased in a dose dependent fashion by 1 day after radiation therapy, prior to any changes observed using 1H DCE and diffusion

  18. Storage of hydrogen spin polarization in long-lived 13C2 singlet order and implications for hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yesu; Theis, Thomas; Liang, Xiaofei; Wang, Qiu; Zhou, Pei; Warren, Warren S

    2013-07-03

    Hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique enabling real-time monitoring of metabolites at concentration levels not accessible by standard MRI techniques. A considerable challenge this technique faces is the T1 decay of the hyperpolarization upon injection into the system under study. Here we show that A(n)A'(n)XX' spin systems such as (13)C2-1,2-diphenylacetylene ((13)C2-DPA) sustain long-lived polarization for both (13)C and (1)H spins with decay constants of almost 4.5 min at high magnetic fields of up to 16.44 T without spin-locking; the T1 of proton polarization is only 3.8 s. Therefore, storage of the proton polarization in a (13)C2-singlet state causes a 69-fold extension of the spin lifetime. Notably, this extension is demonstrated with proton-only pulse sequences, which can be readily implemented on standard clinical scanners.

  19. Niflumic acid hyperpolarizes the smooth muscle cells by opening BK(Ca) channels through ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) release in spiral modiolar artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Ma, Ke-Tao; Zhao, Lei; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2008-12-25

    The mechanism by which niflumic acid (NFA), a Cl(-) channel antagonist, hyperpolarizes the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of cochlear spiral modiolar artery (SMA) was explored. Guinea pigs were used as subjects and perforated patch clamp and intracellular recording technique were used to observe NFA-induced response of SMC in the acutely isolated SMA preparation. The results showed that bath application of NFA, indanyloxyacetic acid 94 (IAA-94) and disodium 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DIDS) caused hyperpolarization and evoked outward currents in all cells at low resting potential (RP), but had no effects in cells at high RP. In the low RP SMCs, the average RP was about (-42.47+/-1.38) mV (n=24). Application of NFA (100 mumol/L), IAA-94 (10 mumol/L) and DIDS (200 mumol/L) shifted the RP to (13.7+/-4.3) mV (n=9, P<0.01), (11.4+/-4.2) mV (n=7, P<0.01) and (12.3+/-3.7) mV (n=8, P<0.01), respectively. These drug-induced responses were in a concentration-dependent manner. NFA-induced hyperpolarization and outward current were almost blocked by charybdotoxin (100 nmol/L), iberiotoxin (100 nmol/L), tetraethylammonium (10 mmol/L), BAPTA-AM (50 mumol/L), ryanodine (10 mumol/L) and caffeine (0.1-10 mmol/L), respectively, but not by nifedipine (100 mumol/L), CdCl2 (100 mumol/L) and Ca(2+)-free medium. It is concluded that NFA induces a release of intracellular calcium from the Ca(2+) stores and the released intracellular calcium in turn causes concentration-dependent and reversible hyperpolarization and evokes outward currents in the SMCs of the cochlear SMA via activation of the Ca(2+)-activated potassium channels.

  20. Lys-[Leu8,des-Arg9]-bradykinin blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced SHR aorta hyperpolarization by inhibition of Ca(++)- and ATP-dependent K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Nelson C; Feres, Teresa; Paiva, Antonio C M; Paiva, Therezinha B

    2004-09-13

    The mediators involved in the hyperpolarizing effects of lipopolysaccharide and of the bradykinin B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin on the rat aorta were investigated by comparing the responses of aortic rings of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar rats. Endothelized rings from hypertensive rats were hyperpolarized by des-Arg9-bradykinin and lipopolysaccharide, whereas de-endothelized rings responded to lipopolysaccharide but not to des-Arg9-bradykinin. In endothelized preparations, the responses to des-Arg9-bradykinin were inhibited by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine and iberiotoxin. De-endothelized ring responses to lipopolysaccharide were inhibited by iberiotoxin, glibenclamide and B1 antagonist Lys-[Leu8,des-Arg9]-bradykinin. This antagonist also inhibited hyperpolarization by des-Arg9-bradykinin and by the á2-adrenoceptor agonist, brimonidine. Our results indicate that Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels are the final mediators of the responses to des-Arg9-bradykinin, whereas both Ca(2+)- and ATP-sensitive K+ channels mediate the responses to lipopolysaccharide. The inhibitory effects of Lys-[Leu8,des-Arg9]-bradykinin is due to a direct action on Ca(2+)- and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

  1. In vivo measurement of ethanol metabolism in the rat liver using magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, Daniel M.; Mayer, Dirk; Yen, Yi-Fen; Tropp, James; Hurd, Ralph E.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    [1-13C]pyruvate is readily polarizable substrate that has been the subject of numerous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of in vivo metabolism. In this work, 13C-MRS of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate is used to interrogate a metabolic pathway involved in neither aerobic nor anaerobic metabolism. In particular, ethanol consumption leads to altered liver metabolism, which when excessive is associated with adverse medical conditions including fatty liver disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer. Here we present a method for noninvasively monitoring this important process in vivo. Following the bolus injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, we demonstrate a significantly increased rat liver lactate production rate with the co-administration of ethanol (P = 0.0016 unpaired t-test). The affect is attributable to increased liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) associated with ethanol metabolism in combination with NADH's role as a coenzyme in pyruvate to lactate conversion. Beyond studies of liver metabolism, this novel in vivo assay of changes in NADH levels makes hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate a potentially viable substrate for studying the multiple in vivo metabolic pathways that use NADH (or NAD+) as a coenzyme, thus broadening the range of applications that have been discussed in the literature to date. PMID:19526498

  2. To Observe the Effects of Different Feeding Methods on 0-12 Month Infants Intelligence Development%不同喂养方式对0~12个月婴儿智能发育影响的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉; 罗婷

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different feeding methods on 0-12 month infant’s intelligence development provides data support for the improvement of population quality. Method The routine care infants 0-12 months into breast feeding group and artificial feeding group, the Beijing Children's Research Institute for children aged 0-6 years old neuropsychological development scale of intelligence test on infant feeding patterns, were selected in June December of two groups were compared, the results of intelligence tests. Results Breast feeding group and artificial feeding developmental quotient DQ mean to compare;breast feeding group in 6 months, 12 months DQ respectively higher than the artificial feeding value of 3.08, 7.82, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The comparison of two groups of DQ classification, breast feeding group in 6 months, 12 months, the proportion of good critical state level and number were higher, lower than the artificial feeding, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01 or P<0.01). Breast feeding group and artificial feeding group was not a person with mental retardation. Conclusion The milk on infant intelligence development has a good role in promoting.%目的:探讨不同喂养方式对0~12个月婴儿智能发育的影响,为提高人口素质提供数据支持。方法把常规保健0~12个月婴儿分为母乳喂养组和人工喂养组,采用北京儿童研究所0~6岁小儿神经心理发育量表对不同喂养方式婴儿进行智能测试,分别选取两组6个月、12个月智能测试结果进行比较。结果母乳喂养组与人工喂养发育商DQ均值进行比较;母乳喂养组6个月、12个月DQ分别高出人工喂养值3.08、7.82分,差异有统计意义(P<0.05或P<0.01)。再把两组DQ分级比较,母乳喂养组6个月、12个月良好、临界状态水平的比例和人数分别高于、低于人工喂养,差异有统计意义(P<0.05

  3. Model free approach to kinetic analysis of real-time hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K Hill

    Full Text Available Real-time detection of the rates of metabolic flux, or exchange rates of endogenous enzymatic reactions, is now feasible in biological systems using Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Magnetic Resonance. Derivation of reaction rate kinetics from this technique typically requires multi-compartmental modeling of dynamic data, and results are therefore model-dependent and prone to misinterpretation. We present a model-free formulism based on the ratio of total areas under the curve (AUC of the injected and product metabolite, for example pyruvate and lactate. A theoretical framework to support this novel analysis approach is described, and demonstrates that the AUC ratio is proportional to the forward rate constant k. We show that the model-free approach strongly correlates with k for whole cell in vitro experiments across a range of cancer cell lines, and detects response in cells treated with the pan-class I PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 with comparable or greater sensitivity. The same result is seen in vivo with tumor xenograft-bearing mice, in control tumors and following drug treatment with dichloroacetate. An important finding is that the area under the curve is independent of both the input function and of any other metabolic pathways arising from the injected metabolite. This model-free approach provides a robust and clinically relevant alternative to kinetic model-based rate measurements in the clinical translation of hyperpolarized (13C metabolic imaging in humans, where measurement of the input function can be problematic.

  4. Effect of stimulation and hyperpolarization on non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in perfused axons of squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; Latorre, R

    1970-11-01

    1. The permeability for micro-injected [(3)H]ethylene glycol was measured in resting state and during stimulation at 100/sec in squid giant axons. No detectable changes during electrical activity were observed.2. The influxes of urethane, tritiated water, ethylene glycol, urea and sodium were measured in internally perfused squid axons. Ethylene glycol and urea influxes were determined simultaneously with sodium influxes. The electrical stimulation of the fibre produced an increase in the influx of sodium but did not alter the influxes of the non-electrolytes listed above.3. Experiments were done with the combined voltage clamp-perfusion technique. The influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were simultaneously measured in resting state and during maximum sodium current under stimulation at 10/sec. The influx of sodium increased in these conditions but the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant. In some experiments, the fibre was hyperpolarized to 10 or 20 mV, above the resting potential and the influxes of ethylene glycol and sodium were measured. The sodium influx decreased to 60% at 20 mV above the resting potential whereas the influx of ethylene glycol remained constant.4. These results indicate that in the giant axons of the squid Dosidicus gigas, sodium and non-electrolytes fluxes are not coupled.

  5. Saturation-recovery metabolic-exchange rate imaging with hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate using spectral-spatial excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Rolf F; Sperl, Jonathan I; Weidl, Eliane; Menzel, Marion I; Janich, Martin A; Khegai, Oleksandr; Durst, Markus; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Glaser, Steffen J; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Wiesinger, Florian

    2013-05-01

    Within the last decade hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate chemical-shift imaging has demonstrated impressive potential for metabolic MR imaging for a wide range of applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. In this work, a highly efficient pulse sequence is described for time-resolved, multislice chemical shift imaging of the injected substrate and obtained downstream metabolites. Using spectral-spatial excitation in combination with single-shot spiral data acquisition, the overall encoding is evenly distributed between excitation and signal reception, allowing the encoding of one full two-dimensional metabolite image per excitation. The signal-to-noise ratio can be flexibly adjusted and optimized using lower flip angles for the pyruvate substrate and larger ones for the downstream metabolites. Selectively adjusting the excitation of the down-stream metabolites to 90° leads to a so-called "saturation-recovery" scheme with the detected signal content being determined by forward conversion of the available pyruvate. In case of repetitive excitations, the polarization is preserved using smaller flip angles for pyruvate. Metabolic exchange rates are determined spatially resolved from the metabolite images using a simplified two-site exchange model. This novel contrast is an important step toward more quantitative metabolic imaging. Goal of this work was to derive, analyze, and implement this "saturation-recovery metabolic exchange rate imaging" and demonstrate its capabilities in four rats bearing subcutaneous tumors.

  6. Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated relaxations in pig coronary arteries do not involve Gi/o proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok Fu Jacobus NG; Susan Wai Sum LEUNG; Picky Ying Keung MAN; Paul M VANHOUTTE

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Endothelium-dependent relaxations to certain neurohumoral substances are mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o protein. Our experiments were designed to determine the role, if any, of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins in relaxations attributed to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Methods: Pig coronary arterial rings with endothelia were suspended in organ chambers filled with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution maintained at 37℃ and continuously aerated with 95%O2 and 5% CO2. Isometric tension was measured during contractions to prostaglandin F2, in the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Results: Thrombin, the thrombin re-ceptor-activating peptide SFLLRN, bradykinin, substance P, and calcimycin pro-duced dose-dependent relaxations. These relaxations were not inhibited by prior incubation with pertussis toxin, but were abolished upon the addition of charyb-dotoxin plus apamin. Relaxations to the α2-adrenergic agonist UK14304 and those to serotonin were abolished in the presence of indomethacin and L-NAME. Conclusion: Unlike nitric oxide-mediated relaxations, EDHF-mediated relax-ations of pig coronary arteries do not involve pertussis toxin-sensitive pathways and are Gi/o protein independent.

  7. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrádka, Jaromír; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extrudes K(+) cations even when potassium is only present in scarce amounts in the environment. Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems. If the Trk transporters are absent or nonfunctional, the efflux of potassium is significantly diminished. A series of experiments with strains lacking various combinations of potassium efflux and uptake systems revealed that all three potassium-exporting systems the Nha1 antiporter, Ena ATPase and Tok1 channel contribute to potassium homeostasis and are active upon potassium limitation in wild-type cells. In trk1Δ trk2Δ mutants, the potassium efflux via potassium exporters Nha1 and Ena1 is diminished and can be restored either by the expression of TRK1 or deletion of TOK1. In both cases, the relative hyperpolarization of trk1Δ trk2Δ cells is decreased. Thus, it is the plasma-membrane potential which serves as the common mechanism regulating the activity of K(+) exporting systems. There is a continuous uptake and efflux of potassium in yeast cells to regulate their membrane potential and thereby other physiological parameters, and the cells are able to quickly and efficiently compensate for a malfunction of potassium transport in one direction by diminishing the transport in the other direction.

  8. ZD7288, a selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel blocker, inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xue Zhang; Xiao-chun Min; Xu-lin Xu; Min Zheng; Lian-jun Guo

    2016-01-01

    The selective hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimeth-yl-6-(methylamino) pyrimidinium chloride (ZD7288) blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in the perforant path–CA3 region in rat hippocampusin vivo. To explore the mechanisms underlying the action of ZD7288, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials in perforant path–CA3 synapses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We measured glutamate content in the hippocampus and in cultured hip-pocampal neurons using high performance liquid chromatography, and determined intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using Fura-2. ZD7288 inhibited the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation, and these effects were mirrored by the nonspeciifc HCN channel blocker cesium. ZD7288 also decreased glutamate release in hippocampal tissue and in cultured hippocampal neurons. Further-more, ZD7288 attenuated glutamate-induced rises in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner and reversed 8-Br-cAMP-mediated facilitation of these glutamate-induced [Ca2+]i rises. Our results suggest that ZD7288 inhibits hippocampal synaptic plasticity both gluta-mate release and resultant [Ca2+]i increases in rat hippocampal neurons.

  9. A rapid method for direct detection of metabolic conversion and magnetization exchange with application to hyperpolarized substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Leon Swisher, Christine; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present a new MR spectroscopy approach for directly observing nuclear spins that undergo exchange, metabolic conversion, or, generally, any frequency shift during a mixing time. Unlike conventional approaches to observe these processes, such as exchange spectroscopy (EXSY), this rapid approach requires only a single encoding step and thus is readily applicable to hyperpolarized MR in which the magnetization is not replenished after T1 decay and RF excitations. This method is based on stimulated-echoes and uses phase-sensitive detection in conjunction with precisely chosen echo times in order to separate spins generated during the mixing time from those present prior to mixing. We are calling the method Metabolic Activity Decomposition Stimulated-echo Acquisition Mode or MAD-STEAM. We have validated this approach as well as applied it in vivo to normal mice and a transgenic prostate cancer mouse model for observing pyruvate-lactate conversion, which has been shown to be elevated in numerous tumor types. In this application, it provides an improved measure of cellular metabolism by separating [1-13C]-lactate produced in tissue by metabolic conversion from [1-13C]-lactate that has flowed into the tissue or is in the blood. Generally, MAD-STEAM can be applied to any system in which spins undergo a frequency shift.

  10. Synchronization modulation of Na/K pump molecules can hyperpolarize the membrane resting potential in intact fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Dando, Robin

    2007-02-01

    Previously, we have theoretically studied the possibility of electrical rhythmic entrainment of carrier-mediated ion transporters, and experimentally realized synchronization and acceleration of the Na/K pumping rate in the cell membrane of skeletal muscle fibers by a specially designed synchronization modulation electric field. In these studies we either used cut fibers under a voltage clamp or intact fibers, but in the presence of ion channels blockers. A question remained as to whether the field-induced activation observed in the pump molecules could effectively increase the intracellular ionic concentration and the membrane potential at physiological conditions. In this paper, we studied the effects of the field on intact fibers without any channel blockers. We monitored the field-induced changes in the ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane and the membrane potential non-invasively by using a fluorescent probe and confocal microscopic imaging techniques. The results clearly show that the entrainment of the pump molecules by the synchronization modulation electric field can effectively increase the ionic concentration gradient, and hence, hyperpolarize the membrane potential.

  11. Differences in Vascular Nitric Oxide and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor Bioavailability in African Americans and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkor, Muhiddin A; Rahman, Ayaz M; Murrow, Jonathan R; Kavtaradze, Nino; Lin, Ji; Manatunga, Amita; Hayek, Salim; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Abnormalities in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability have been reported in African Americans. Whether there are differences in endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in addition to NO between African Americans and whites, and how these affect physiologic vasodilation remains unknown. We hypothesized that the bioavailability of vascular NO and EDHF, at rest and with pharmacologic and physiologic vasodilation, varies between white and African Americans. Approach and Results In 74 white and 86 African American subjects without known cardiovascular disease risk factors, forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using plethysmography at rest and during inhibition of NO with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and/or of K+Ca channels (EDHF) with tetraethylammonium (TEA). The reduction in resting FBF was greater with L-NMMA (p=0.019) and similar with TEA in whites compared to African Americans. Vasodilation with bradykinin, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside was lower in African Americans compared to whites (all p<0.0001). Inhibition with L-NMMA was greater in whites compared to African Americans with bradykinin, acetylcholine, and exercise. Inhibition with TEA was lower in African Americans with bradykinin, but greater during exercise and with acetylcholine. Conclusions The contribution to both resting and stimulus-mediated vasodilator tone of NO is greater in whites compared to African Americans. EDHF partly compensates for the reduced NO release in exercise and acetylcholine-mediated vasodilation in African Americans. Preserved EDHF but reduced NO bioavailability and sensitivity characterizes the vasculature in healthy African Americans. PMID:24675657

  12. Evaluation of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]-pyruvate by magnetic resonance to detect ionizing radiation effects in real time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad C Sandulache

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR cytotoxicity is primarily mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS. Since tumor cells neutralize ROS by utilizing reducing equivalents, we hypothesized that measurements of reducing potential using real-time hyperpolarized (HP magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and spectroscopic imaging (MRSI can serve as a surrogate marker of IR induced ROS. This hypothesis was tested in a pre-clinical model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC, an aggressive head and neck malignancy. Human ATC cell lines were utilized to test IR effects on ROS and reducing potential in vitro and [1-¹³C] pyruvate HP-MRS/MRSI imaging of ATC orthotopic xenografts was used to study in vivo effects of IR. IR increased ATC intra-cellular ROS levels resulting in a corresponding decrease in reducing equivalent levels. Exogenous manipulation of cellular ROS and reducing equivalent levels altered ATC radiosensitivity in a predictable manner. Irradiation of ATC xenografts resulted in an acute drop in reducing potential measured using HP-MRS, reflecting the shunting of reducing equivalents towards ROS neutralization. Residual tumor tissue post irradiation demonstrated heterogeneous viability. We have adapted HP-MRS/MRSI to non-invasively measure IR mediated changes in tumor reducing potential in real time. Continued development of this technology could facilitate the development of an adaptive clinical algorithm based on real-time adjustments in IR dose and dose mapping.

  13. Role of metabolic modulator Bet-CA in altering mitochondrial hyperpolarization to suppress cancer associated angiogenesis and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suchandrima; Ghosh, Monisankar; Dutta, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors characteristically reflect a metabolic switching from glucose oxidation to glycolysis that plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis and metastasis to facilitate aggressive tumor outcomes. Hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential is a manifestation of malignant cells that compromise the intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and confer a suitable niche to promote the cancer associated hallmark traits. We have previously reported that co-drug Bet-CA selectively targets cancer cells by inducing metabolic catastrophe without a manifest in toxicity. Here we report that the same molecule at a relatively lower concentration deregulates the cardinal phenotypes associated with angiogenesis and metastasis. In mice syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer model, Bet-CA exhibited effective abrogation of angiogenesis and concomitantly obliterated lung metastasis consistent with altered mitochondrial bioenergetics. Furthermore, Bet-CA significantly lowered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and obviated matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2/9) production directly to the criterion where abrogation of autocrine VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling loop was documented. In vitro studies anticipatedly documented the role of Bet-CA in inhibiting actin remodeling, lamellipodia formation and cell membrane ruffling to constitutively suppress cell motility and invasion. Results comprehensively postulate that Bet-CA, a mitochondria targeting metabolic modulator may serve as an excellent candidate for combating angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:27003027

  14. The therapeutic efficacy and occurrence of drug resistance among patients in Xinjiang during the first 12 months of antiretroviral treatment%新疆部分艾滋病病人抗病毒治疗效果和耐药变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佐合拉·吐尔地; 邵一鸣; 廖玲洁; 董永慧; 邢辉; 孙峰; 阮玉华; 马祥荣; 开赛尔; 地力努尔

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate immune reconstitution, viral suppression and the occurrence of drug resistance among patients during the first 12 months of first-line antiretroviral treatment in Xinjiang. Methods Risk factors for failure of viral suppression and HIV drug resistance were analyzed in Logistic regression models. Results At baseline, 5.1 % of the patients had a viral load less than 1 000 copies/ml, the rates of viral suppression (<1 000 copies/ml) at 6 and 12 months of treatment were 71.1 % (69/97) and 70. 8% (80/113) respectively. The average CD4+ T cell counts were 191,324 and 327 cells/μl at 0, 6 and 12 months of treatment respectively. At 6 months, five patients (5.2% ,5/97) were detected to harbor drug resistance virus; the number was increased to 12(10. 6%, 12/113) at 12 months of treatment; none of the HIV strains from these patients revealed resistance to any antiretroviral drugs at baseline; viruses from seven patients were resistant to both NRTI and NNRTI drugs at different levels. At 12 months of treatment, the risk factor for failure of viral suppression was missingg doses in the previous month (AOR =12. 6,P=0. 0002). Having a low baseline CD4 count (<100 cells/μl) was associated with increased incidence of HIV drug resistance (Adjusted OR:AOR = 6.6, P= 0. 0026), but transmission routes other than intravenous drug using decreased the possibility of HIV drug resistance (AOR=0. 2,P=0. 0244). Conclusions A large proportion of the patients investigated had successfully suppressed HIV viral replication and had a significant increase of CD4+ T cell counts, while the rate of drug resistance was raised during the first year of treatment. It is essential to take measures to reduce the occurrence of drug resistance.%目的 观察接受中国现行一线抗病毒药物治疗的艾滋病病人,在治疗1年内免疫功能恢复、病毒抑制效果,以及耐药性产生和发展情况0方法 采用Logistic回归分析病毒抑制失败和耐

  15. 震后12个月都江堰地区青少年焦虑性情绪变化及影响因素的追踪研究%Changes of Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders and Correlates among Adolescents 12 Months After Exposed to Wenchuan Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岚; 范方; 耿富磊

    2011-01-01

    目的:追踪研究汶川地震12个月后都江堰地区青少年焦虑性情绪的变化,并探究变化的影响因素.方法:选取都江堰市区规模较大、生源来自城镇和农村的初中和高中各一所,整群抽取7-10年级学生2250人,在震后6个月和12个月用儿童焦虑性情绪筛查量表(SCARED)、青少年生活事件量表(ASLEC)、青少年社会支持量表(SSRSCA),自编一般人口学及地震暴露情况调查表进行调查.结果:都江堰地区青少年焦虑性情绪障碍两次测评的检出率分别为40.9%、42.7%,两次焦虑性情绪的总分差异不显著.年龄较大(>14岁)、居住在农村、母亲文化程度较低(初中及以下)的青少年具有较高的焦虑性情绪,且随时间变化相对稳定.灾后继发的负性生活事件和社会支持对焦虑性情绪有显著预测作用.结论:减少继发的负性生活事件和提供有效社会支持有利于其焦虑性情绪的降低.%Objective: To explore the longitudinal changes and correlates of anxiety and related emotional disorders among adolescents in Dujiangyan 6 months and 12 months after 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Methods: 2250 students(893 from grade 7-9, 1357 from grade 10 ) from two middle schools with large number of enrollments from both rural and urban areas were selected, and were sampled to fill out the Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Adolescent Self-rating Life Event Checklist, Social Support Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents and general demographics and earthquake exposure questionnaires. Results: The detectable rates of anxiety and related emotional disorders in 6 months and 12 months after 2008 Wenchuan were 40.9%, 42.7% respectively; The total scores of anxiety and related emotional disorders had no significant difference between two surveys; adolescents of 14 to 17 years old, from rural areas,and with lower mother's educational level (≤8 years) had higher initial anxiety scores and the

  16. 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A receptor-activation hyperpolarizes pyramidal cells and suppresses hippocampal gamma oscillations via Kir3 channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, April; McBain, Chris J; Fisahn, André

    2014-10-01

    Rhythmic cortical neuronal oscillations in the gamma frequency band (30-80 Hz, gamma oscillations) have been associated with cognitive processes such as sensory perception and integration, attention, learning, and memory. Gamma oscillations are disrupted in disorders for which cognitive deficits are hallmark symptoms such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease.In vitro, various neurotransmitters have been found to modulate gamma oscillations. Serotonin(5-HT) has long been known to be important for both behavioural and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes are expressed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and high doses of 5-HT reduce the power of induced gamma oscillations.Hypothesizing that 5-HT may have cell- and receptor subtype-specific modulatory effects, we investigated the receptor subtypes, cell types and cellular mechanisms engaged by 5-HT in the modulation of gamma oscillations in mice and rats. We found that 5-HT decreases the power of kainate-induced hippocampal gamma oscillations in both species via the 5-HT1A receptor subtype. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings demonstrated that this decrease was caused by a hyperpolarization of CA3 pyramidal cells and a reduction of their firing frequency, but not by alteration of inhibitory neurotransmission. Finally, our results show that the effect on pyramidal cells is mediated via the G protein-coupled receptor inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir3.Our findings suggest this novel cellular mechanism as a potential target for therapies that are aimed at alleviating cognitive decline by helping the brain to maintain or re-establish normal gamma oscillation levels in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Voxel-by-voxel correlations of perfusion, substrate, and metabolite signals in dynamic hyperpolarized (13) C imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Justin Y C; Chen, Albert P; Gu, Yi-Ping; Cunningham, Charles H

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a mixture of pyruvic acid and the perfusion agent HP001 was co-polarized for simultaneous assessment of perfusion and metabolism in vivo. The pre-polarized mixture was administered to rats with subcutaneous MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenografts and imaged using an interleaved sequence with designed spectral-spatial pulses and flyback echo-planar readouts. Voxel-by-voxel signal correlations from 10 animals (15 data sets) were analyzed for tumour, kidney, and muscle regions of interest. The relationship between perfusion and hyperpolarized signal was explored on a voxel-by-voxel basis in various metabolically active tissues, including tumour, healthy kidneys, and skeletal muscle. Positive pairwise correlations between lactate, pyruvate, and HP001 observed in all 10 tumours suggested that substrate delivery was the dominant factor limiting the conversion of pyruvate to lactate in the tumour model used in this study. On the other hand, in cases where conversion is the limiting factor, such as in healthy kidneys, both pyruvate and lactate can act as excellent perfusion markers. In intermediate cases between the two limits, such as in skeletal muscle, some perfusion information may be inferred from the (pyruvate + lactate) signal distribution. Co-administration of pyruvate with a dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) perfusion agent is an effective approach for distinguishing between slow metabolism and poor perfusion and a practical strategy for lactate signal normalization to account for substrate delivery, especially in cases of rapid pyruvate-to-lactate conversion and in poorly perfused regions with inadequate pyruvate signal-to-noise ratio for reliable determination of the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Delayed effects of corticosterone on slow after-hyperpolarization potentials in mouse hippocampal versus prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup G Pillai

    Full Text Available The rodent stress hormone corticosterone changes neuronal activity in a slow and persistent manner through transcriptional regulation. In the rat dorsal hippocampus, corticosterone enhances the amplitude of calcium-dependent potassium currents that cause a lingering slow after-hyperpolarization (sAHP at the end of depolarizing events. In this study we compared the putative region-dependency of the delayed effects of corticosterone (approximately 5 hrs after treatment on sAHP as well as other active and passive properties of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from three prefrontal areas, i.e. the lateral orbitofrontal, prelimbic and infralimbic cortex, with the hippocampus of adult mice. In agreement with previous studies, corticosterone increased sAHP amplitude in the dorsal hippocampus with depolarizing steps of increasing amplitude. However, in the lateral orbitofrontal, prelimbic and infralimbic cortices we did not observe any modifications of sAHP amplitude after corticosterone treatment. Properties of single action potentials or % ratio of the last spike interval with respect to the first spike interval, an indicator of accommodation in an action potential train, were not significantly affected by corticosterone in all brain regions examined. Lastly, corticosterone treatment did not induce any lasting changes in passive membrane properties of hippocampal or cortical neurons. Overall, the data indicate that corticosterone slowly and very persistently increases the sAHP amplitude in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, while this is not the case in the cortical regions examined. This implies that changes in excitability across brain regions reached by corticosterone may vary over a prolonged period of time after stress.

  19. Learning-induced reduction in post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) is mediated by activation of PKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroussi, Yaron; Brosh, Inbar; Barkai, Edi

    2002-09-01

    We studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) in mediating learning-related long lasting reduction of the post-burst after-hyperpolarization (AHP) in cortical pyramidal neurons. We have shown previously that pyramidal neurons in the rat piriform (olfactory) cortex from trained (TR) rats have reduced post-burst AHP for 3 days after odour-discrimination learning, and that this reduction is due to decreased conductance of calcium-dependent potassium current. In the present study, we examined whether this long-lasting reduction in AHP is mediated by second messenger systems. The broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor, H7, increased the AHP in neurons from TR rats, but not in neurons from pseudo-trained (pseudo-TR) and naive rats. Consequently, the difference in AHP amplitude between neurons from TR and control animals was diminished. This effect was also obtained by application of the specific PKC inhibitor, GF-109203x. The PKC activator, 1-Oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG), significantly reduced the AHP in neurons from naive and pseudo-TR rats, but not in neurons from TR rats, so that the difference between the groups was abolished. The PKA-specific inhibitor, H-89, increased the AHP in neurons from all groups to a similar extent, and the difference in AHP amplitude between neurons from TR rats and neurons from controls was maintained. We suggest that while the post-burst AHP in piriform cortex pyramidal neurons is modulated by both PKC and PKA, a PKC-dependent process maintains the learning-related reduction of the AHP in these cells.

  20. Effect of ivaradine on hyperpolarization activated cation current in canine pulmonary vein sleeve cardiomyocytes with atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Li; Yan Huang; Zongbin Li; Hao Wang; Jianguo Song; Yuqi Liu; Lei Gao; Shiwen Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of ivabradine on hyperpolarization activated cation current in canine pulmonary vein(PY) sleeve cardiomyocytes with atrial fibrillation.Methods Dissociation of PVs yielded single cardiomyocytes from a Landengorff column without or with pacemaker activity from long-term rapidly atrial pacing (RAP) canines.If current was measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.Results Compared with the control group,the rapidly atrial pacing canine PV cardiomyocytes had spontaneous diastolic depolarization and had larger If densities.Ivabradine (Iva,1 μM),a selective inhibitor of the If current,markedly reduced If currents in the RAP from -2.66±0.4 pA/pF to -1.58±0.1 pA/pF at the test potential of-120 mV (P<0.01,n=12).Inhibition effect of Iva of If current showed concentration-dependent range from 0.1 to 10.0μM,with IC50 of 2.2 μ M ( 1.8-2.9 μM,95% CL).Furthermore,V1/ of steady-state activated curve was shifted from -84.3±4.9 mV to -106.9±3.4 mV and k value of steady-state activated curve was changed from 12.1+2.6 mV to 9.9±3.4 mV by the application of.1.0 μM Iva ( P<0.01,n=12).Conclusions Our study revealed that Ivarbadine may significantly decrease If of rapidly atrial pacing pulmonary vein sleeve ceUs with atrial fibdllation.(J Geriatr Cardiol 2008;5:39-42)

  1. Depressão pós-parto e alterações de sono aos 12 meses em bebês nascidos na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas/RS Postpartum depression and sleep disorders in 12 month-old babies born in the urban area of Pelotas city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rozales Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre as alterações no sono dos bebês aos 12 meses de vida e a depressão pós-parto materna. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal aninhado a uma coorte. A amostra foi constituída por mulheres que realizaram o acompanhamento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, nas unidades básicas de saúde do município de Pelotas, e que tiveram seus partos a partir de junho/2006. Os bebês de 12 meses oriundos dessa gestação também fazem parte da amostra. Para avaliar a presença de sintomas depressivos nas mães, foi utilizada a Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS e foram investigados os seguintes comportamentos do sono dos bebês: horas de sono por dia, regularidade do horário para dormir e acordar, sono agitado e despertar noturno. Para análise, foi utilizada Regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: 35,7% dos bebês possuem alteração no padrão de sono. Após o ajuste ao modelo hierárquico proposto, a alteração no sono infantil manteve associação com a sintomatologia depressiva da mãe (p OBJECTIVE: Verify whether there is association between sleep disorders in babies at 12 months of age and postpartum depression in motherhood. METHODS:Cross sectional study. The sample was made up of women who had done their prenatal medical care at the National Health System (SUS, at the health basic units in Pelotas and who had their deliveries from June, 2006. The 12 month old babies from these women are also part of the sample. In order to assess depressive symptoms in the mothers, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used and the following sleeping behaviors of the babies were investigated: hours of sleep per day, regularity of sleep and wake up time, disturbed sleep and night awakening. Poisson Regression was used for the analysis. RESULTS: 35.7% of the babies showed alterations in their sleeping patterns. After adjusting for the proposed hierarchal model, sleep alteration of the babies was still

  2. Comparação entre as curvas de crescimento do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention e da Organização Mundial da Saúde para lactentes com idade de seis a 12 meses Comparison between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization growth curves for six to 12 months old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Sant'Anna Pires

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o estado nutricional de lactentes de ambos os sexos de acordo com a curva proposta pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-2000 e com a nova curva de crescimento proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS-2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal no qual foram acompanhadas crianças de ambos os sexos, nascidas a termo, com idade entre seis meses e um ano, em aleitamento materno predominante ou exclusivo. Os dados foram coletados por um único pesquisador por meio de ficha de atendimento nutricional composta por dados demográficos, antropométricos e sobre a alimentação da criança. Foram realizados testes de Wilcoxon e Friedman para comparar cada medida das curvas e analisar a variância, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Da amostra final de 55 crianças, 51% (n=28 eram do sexo masculino. Os percentuais de eutrofia dos índices de peso por idade e de estatura adequada para idade de ambos os sexos apresentaram-se acima de 80%. Não houve diferença significante na classificação do estado nutricional, segundo as curvas utilizadas. A porcentagem de concordância das duas curvas em relação ao peso e à estatura foi de 98,2 e 96,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As curvas de crescimento da OMS-2006 e do CDC-2000 foram similares para classificar o estado nutricional de lactentes entre 6-12 meses em aleitamento materno.OBJECTIVE: Compare the nutritional status of male and female infants classified according to the growth curve proposed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-2000 and the new growth curve proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO-2006. METHODS: This longitudinal study enrolled children of 6-12 months old of both genders. They were born at term and exclusively or predominantly breastfed. A single researcher collected demographic, anthropometric and nutritional data. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare curves and the Friedman test was used to analyze the variance. RESULTS: Among the

  3. Risk factors for iron deifciency anemia in infants aged 6 to 12 months and its effects on neuropsychological development%6~12月龄婴儿缺铁性贫血的危险因素分析及对神经心理发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康; 张翠梅; 黄连红; 付四毛; 刘玉玲; 陈昂; 欧俊斌

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the risk factors for moderate and severe iron deifciency anemia (IDA) in infants aged 6-12 months, and to preliminarily investigate the effects of IDA on the neuromotor development and temperament characteristics of infants.MethodsA total of 326 infants aged 6-12 months with IDA were classiifed into three groups: mild IDA (n=176), moderate IDA (n=111), and severe IDA (n=39) according to the severity of anemia. The risk factors for moderate or severe IDA were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Three hundred and forty-six infants without IDA who showed matched age, sex, and other backgrounds were selected as the control group. The Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale was used to evaluate children’s mental development. The Temperament Scale for infants was used for evaluating children's temperament.ResultsThe univariate analysis showed that the severity of IDA was associated with sex, birth weight, gestational age, multiple birth, maternal anemia during pregnancy, and mother's lack of knowledge about IDA (P1;P1;P1,P1,P<0.05)。IDA组Gesell总发育商、大运动、适应行为、精细动作得分较对照组低(P<0.05)。IDA组难养型及中间偏难养型气质的比例较高(P<0.05)。IDA组活动水平、节律性、适应性、坚持性维度得分较对照组高(P<0.05)。结论早产、多胎、低出生体重、喂养方式、母亲孕期贫血及母亲缺乏IDA相关知识与6~12月龄婴儿IDA贫血程度相关。IDA患儿神经运动发育落后,消极气质类型居多,需加强对患儿心理行为问题的重视,指导家长选择恰当的喂养及教育方式。

  4. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements with hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate can be used to detect the expression of transgenic pyruvate decarboxylase activity in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzien, Piotr; Tee, Sui‐Seng; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Lyons, Scott K.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De‐En; Wright, Alan; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Serrao, Eva M.; Marco‐Rius, Irene; Mannion, Elizabeth; D'Santos, Paula; Kennedy, Brett W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can increase the sensitivity of the 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiment by at least four orders of magnitude and offers a novel approach to the development of MRI gene reporters based on enzymes that metabolize 13C‐labeled tracers. We describe here a gene reporter based on the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. Methods Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis (zmPDC) and a mutant that lacked enzyme activity were expressed using an inducible promoter in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells. Enzyme activity was measured in the cells and in xenografts derived from the cells using 13C MRS measurements of the conversion of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate to H13 CO3–. Results Induction of zmPDC expression in the cells and in the xenografts derived from them resulted in an approximately two‐fold increase in the H13 CO3–/[1‐13C] pyruvate signal ratio following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility of using zmPDC as an in vivo reporter gene for use with hyperpolarized 13C MRS. Magn Reson Med 76:391–401, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26388418

  5. The magnitudes of hyperpolarization-activated and low-voltage-activated potassium currents co-vary in neurons of the ventral cochlear nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-Jie; Oertel, Donata

    2011-08-01

    In the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), neurons have hyperpolarization-activated conductances, which in some cells are enormous, that contribute to the ability of neurons to convey acoustic information in the timing of their firing by decreasing the input resistance and speeding-up voltage changes. Comparisons of the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the VCN of mutant mice that lack the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel α subunit 1 (HCN1(-/-)) (Nolan et al. 2003) with wild-type controls (HCN1(+/+)) and with outbred ICR mice reveal that octopus, T stellate, and bushy cells maintain their electrophysiological distinctions in all strains. Hyperpolarization-activated (I(h)) currents were smaller and slower, input resistances were higher, and membrane time constants were longer in HCN1(-/-) than in HCN1(+/+) in octopus, bushy, and T stellate cells. There were significant differences in the average magnitudes of I(h), input resistances, and time constants between HCN1(+/+) and ICR mice, but the resting potentials did not differ between strains. I(h) is opposed by a low-voltage-activated potassium (I(KL)) current in bushy and octopus cells, whose magnitudes varied widely between neuronal types and between strains. The magnitudes of I(h) and I(KL) were correlated across neuronal types and across mouse strains. Furthermore, these currents balanced one another at the resting potential in individual cells. The magnitude of I(h) and I(KL) is linked in bushy and octopus cells and varies not only between HCN1(-/-) and HCN1(+/+) but also between "wild-type" strains of mice, raising the question to what extent the wild-type strains reflect normal mice.

  6. Time-course metabolic changes in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats: A pilot study using hyperpolarized (13)C dynamic MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Ahn, Kyu-Youn; Kim, Yun-Hyeon; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the time-course metabolic changes based on hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity rats and the correlation between metabolic and serum enzyme levels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either HFD (60% fat) or normal diet (10% fat) for 6weeks. A HyperSense DNP was used to hyperpolarize [1-(13)C] pyruvic acid and the hyperpolarized (13)C MRS was examined every 2weeks in the course of 6weeks using a 3T GE MR750 scanner. The body weight of HFD-induced obese rats was significantly increased compared to normal rats at the 6th week after the onset of feeding (p=0.05). Simultaneously, the HFD-induced obese rats showed significantly increased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol compared to normal rats (p≤0.05). In the dynamic (13)C MR spectra acquired at the 6th week, the obese rats showed significantly increased ratios of [1-(13)C] lactate/[1-(13)C] pyruvate and [1-(13)C] alanine/[1-(13)C] pyruvate (p=0.05). The (13)C spectral outcomes are positively correlated with the enzyme levels of ALT and LDH in the HFD-induced obesity. The [1-(13)C] lactate and [1-(13)C] alanine are potentially considered as noninvasive biomarkers for the HFD-induced obesity.

  7. Assessing Oxidative Stress in Tumors by Measuring the Rate of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]Dehydroascorbic Acid Reduction Using 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Kerstin N.; Hu, De-En; Williams, Michael; Wright, Alan J.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Kennedy, Brett W. C.; Larkin, Timothy J.; Dzien, Piotr; Marco-Rius, Irene; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid cancer cell proliferation promotes the production of reducing equivalents, which counteract the effects of relatively high levels of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species levels increase in response to chemotherapy and cell death, whereas an increase in antioxidant capacity can confer resistance to chemotherapy and is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major site of NADPH production in the cell, which is used to maintain the main intracellular antioxidant, glutathione, in its reduced state. Previous studies have shown that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) reduction, which can be measured in vivo using non-invasive 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, is increased in tumors and that this is correlated with the levels of reduced glutathione. We show here that the rate of hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA reduction is increased in tumors that have been oxidatively prestressed by depleting the glutathione pool by buthionine sulfoximine treatment. This increase was associated with a corresponding increase in pentose phosphate pathway flux, assessed using 13C-labeled glucose, and an increase in glutaredoxin activity, which catalyzes the glutathione-dependent reduction of DHA. These results show that the rate of DHA reduction depends not only on the level of reduced glutathione, but also on the rate of NADPH production, contradicting the conclusions of some previous studies. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]DHA can be used, therefore, to assess the capacity of tumor cells to resist oxidative stress in vivo. However, DHA administration resulted in transient respiratory arrest and cardiac depression, which may prevent translation to the clinic. PMID:27994059

  8. Ratiometric analysis in hyperpolarized NMR (I): test of the two-site exchange model and the quantification of reaction rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin Z; Kadlececk, Stephen; Xu, He N; Daye, Dania; Pullinger, Benjamin; Profka, Harrilla; Chodosh, Lewis; Rizi, Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Conventional methods for the analysis of in vivo hyperpolarized (13) C NMR data from the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction usually make assumptions on the stability of rate constants and/or the validity of the two-site exchange model. In this study, we developed a framework to test the validity of the assumption of stable reaction rate constants and the two-site exchange model in vivo via ratiometric fitting of the time courses of the signal ratio L(t)/P(t). Our analysis provided evidence that the LDH enzymatic kinetics observed by hyperpolarized NMR are in near-equilibrium and satisfy the two-site exchange model for only a specific time window. In addition, we quantified both the forward and reverse exchange rate constants of the LDH reaction for the transgenic and mouse xenograft models of breast cancer using the ratio fitting method developed, which includes only two modeling parameters and is less sensitive to the influence of instrument settings/protocols, such as flip angles, degree of polarization and tracer dosage. We further compared the ratio fitting method with a conventional two-site exchange modeling method, i.e. the differential equation fitting method, using both the experimental and simulated hyperpolarized NMR data. The ratio fitting method appeared to fit better than the differential equation fitting method for the reverse rate constant on the mouse tumor data, with less relative errors on average, whereas the differential equation fitting method also resulted in a negative reverse rate constant for one tumor. The simulation results indicated that the accuracy of both methods depends on the width of the transport function, noise level and rate constant ratio; one method may be more accurate than the other based on the experimental/biological conditions aforementioned. We were able to categorize our tumor models into specific conditions of the computer simulation and to estimate the errors of rate quantification. We also discussed possible

  9. Current status of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel%超极化激活环核苷酸门控阳离子通道的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严慧; 黄裕新; 王景杰

    2009-01-01

    @@ 0 引言 超极化激活环核苷酸门控的超极化阳离子通道(hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation chan-nel,HCN)的研究起源于Ih的发现,Noma和Irisawa已经在研究窦房结起搏活动时发现这一离子流并命名为Ih(hyperpolar-ization-activated current),20世纪80年代初Di Francesco和Irisawa等

  10. The effects of rises in external K+ on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU ZhengQing; WU WenJie; ZHOU YuFen

    2009-01-01

    The effects of rises in external K+ (Kent) were examined on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (4,) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique.The results showed that Kext,increased Ih in a certain concentration and voltage-dependent manner.At the basal Kext level (4 mmol/L),4,had a maximal amplitude of 1085 ±340 pA which was enhanced by~45% and~92% at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively.The midpoint activation voltage was significantly shifted from-98 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 8 and 12 mV at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively with alteration of the activation course of Ih.The short time constants of activation became longer with the increasing amplitude of the command potential upon rises in Kext.The long time constants became shorter.The reversal potentials were shifted in the positive direction without significant alterations upon rises in Kext.According to the functional role of 4,,Kext increased Ih resulting in an enhanced neuronal excitability,which might produce activation potential abnormality and perhaps neuropathic pain involved.

  11. The effects of rises in external K~+ on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current I_h in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of rises in external K+(Kext) were examined on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current(Ih) in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp technique.The results showed that Kext increased Ih in a certain concentration and voltage-dependent manner.At the basal Kext level(4 mmol/L),Ih had a maximal amplitude of 1085 ± 340 pA which was enhanced by ~45% and ~92% at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively.The midpoint activation voltage was significantly shifted from -98 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction by 8 and 12 mV at 8 and 16 mmol/L Kext,respectively with alteration of the activation course of Ih.The short time constants of activation became longer with the increasing amplitude of the command potential upon rises in Kext.The long time constants became shorter.The reversal potentials were shifted in the positive direction without significant alterations upon rises in Kext.According to the functional role of Ih,Kext increased Ih,resulting in an enhanced neuronal excitability,which might produce activation potential abnormality and perhaps neuropathic pain involved.

  12. Real-time tracking of dissociation of hyperpolarized 89Y-DTPA: a model for degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah; Niedbalski, Peter; Parish, Christopher; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lumata, Lloyd

    Gadolinium (Gd) complexes are widely used relaxation-based clinical contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gd-based MRI contrast agents with open-chain ligand such as Gd-DTPA, commercially known as magnevist, are less stable compared to Gd complexes with macrocyclic ligands such as GdDOTA (Dotarem). The dissociation of Gd-DPTA into Gd ion and DTPA ligand under certain biological conditions such as high zinc levels can potentially cause kidney damage. Since Gd is paramagnetic, direct NMR detection of the Gd-DTPA dissociation is quite challenging due to ultra-short relaxation times. In this work, we have investigated Y-DTPA as a model for Gd-DPTA dissociation under high zinc content solutions. Using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), the 89Y NMR signal is amplified by several thousand-fold. Due to the the relatively long T1 relaxation time of 89Y which translates to hyperpolarization lifetime of several minutes, the dissociation of Y-DTPA can be tracked in real-time by hyperpolarized 89Y NMR spectroscopy. Dissociation kinetic rates and implications on the degradation of open-chain Gd3+ MRI contrast agents will be discussed. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Award Number W81XWH-14-1-0048 and by the Robert A. Welch Foundation research Grant Number AT-1877.

  13. The role of hyperpolarization-activated cationic current in spike-time precision and intrinsic resonance in cortical neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrein, Philippe; Campanac, Emilie; Gasselin, Célia; Cudmore, Robert H; Bialowas, Andrzej; Carlier, Edmond; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Ankri, Norbert; Debanne, Dominique

    2011-08-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide modulated current (I(h)) sets resonance frequency within the θ-range (5–12 Hz) in pyramidal neurons. However, its precise contribution to the temporal fidelity of spike generation in response to stimulation of excitatory or inhibitory synapses remains unclear. In conditions where pharmacological blockade of I(h) does not affect synaptic transmission, we show that postsynaptic h-channels improve spike time precision in CA1 pyramidal neurons through two main mechanisms. I(h) enhances precision of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)--spike coupling because I(h) reduces peak EPSP duration. I(h) improves the precision of rebound spiking following inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons and sets pacemaker activity in stratum oriens interneurons because I(h) accelerates the decay of both IPSPs and after-hyperpolarizing potentials (AHPs). The contribution of h-channels to intrinsic resonance and EPSP waveform was comparatively much smaller in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Our results indicate that the elementary mechanisms by which postsynaptic h-channels control fidelity of spike timing at the scale of individual neurons may account for the decreased theta-activity observed in hippocampal and neocortical networks when h-channel activity is pharmacologically reduced.

  14. Zn(2+) induces hyperpolarization by activation of a K(+) channel and increases intracellular Ca(2+) and pH in sea urchin spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Carmen; Rodríguez-Miranda, Esmeralda; Granados-González, Gisela; García de De la Torre, Lucia; Nishigaki, Takuya; Darszon, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) has been recently recognized as a crucial element for male gamete function in many species although its detailed mechanism of action is poorly understood. In sea urchin spermatozoa, Zn(2+) was reported as an essential trace ion for efficient sperm motility initiation and the acrosome reaction by modulating intracellular pH (pHi). In this study we found that submicromolar concentrations of free Zn(2+) change membrane potential (Em) and increase the concentration of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and cAMP in Lytechinus pictus sperm. Our results indicate that the Zn(2+) response in sperm of this species mainly involves an Em hyperpolarization caused by K(+) channel activation. The pharmacological profile of the Zn(2+)-induced hyperpolarization indicates that the cGMP-gated K(+) selective channel (tetraKCNG/CNGK), which is crucial for speract signaling, is likely a main target for Zn(2+). Considering that Zn(2+) also induces [Ca(2+)]i fluctuations, our observations suggest that Zn(2+) activates the signaling cascade of speract, except for an increase in cGMP, and facilitates sperm motility initiation upon spawning. These findings provide new insights about the role of Zn(2+) in male gamete function.

  15. Study on the sleep quality and associated factors of infants aged 6-12 months in Qingdao%青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠质量及影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔秀英; 张风华; 傅平

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠质量及影响因素,为开展婴儿睡眠问题防治提供依据.方法 采用自行设计的6~12个月对2012年7至8月来青岛市儿童医院儿保科健康体检的6~12个月婴儿进行调查,在严格质量控制下由婴儿母亲进行问卷填写,应用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠总时间为(12.57±1.29)小时,比我国婴儿睡眠时间需求标准少约1小时,睡眠时间的减少主要由夜间睡眠时间减少引起,且男、女间无显著性差异(t=-0.810,P=0.420).随着年龄的增长,白天睡眠次数及夜间觉醒次数逐渐减少,但总睡眠时间无显著变化.睡眠问题检出率为31.7%,常见的睡眠问题为夜醒、入睡困难及睡眠节律紊乱,发生率分别为9.9%、8.9%、7.9%,不同年龄组睡眠问题检出率比较无显著性差异(χ2=0.830,P=0.480).婴儿白天睡眠时光线的强度、入睡前的情绪、睡床的情况为睡眠问题的主要影响因素.结论 青岛市6~12个月婴儿睡眠问题发生率较高,有必要及早为家长提供婴儿睡眠健康知识,预防睡眠问题的发生.%Objective To understand the sleep quality and associated factors of infants aged 6-12 months in Qingdao and provide basis for carrying out prevention and treatment of sleep problems. Methods A survey with self-designed Infant Sleep Health Questionnaire was conducted strictly among the mothers of infants aged 6-12 months who took healthy physical examination in child health care department of the Affiliated Women and Children Hospital of Qingdao University from July to August 2012. All of the data were analyzed with SPSS 17. 0 statistical software. Results The overall sleep time was 12. 57 ± 1. 29 hours, which was one hour less than that required by Child Health Care. The reducing of sleep time was mainly caused by shortening of nocturnal sleep time. There was no significant difference between boys and girls ( t = -0

  16. Detection of radiation induced lung injury in rats using dynamic hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matthew S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Ouriadov, Alexei; Hegarty, Elaine [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Thind, Kundan [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Wong, Eugene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada and London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario, N6C 2R6 (Canada); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada and Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 2M9 (Canada); Santyr, Giles E., E-mail: gsantyr@robarts.ca [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Radiation induced lung injury (RILI) is a common side effect for patients undergoing thoracic radiation therapy (RT). RILI can lead to temporary or permanent loss of lung function and in extreme cases, death. Combining functional lung imaging information with conventional radiation treatment plans may lead to more desirable treatment plans that reduce lung toxicity and improve the quality of life for lung cancer survivors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the lung following inhalation of hyperpolarized{sup 129}Xe may provide a useful nonionizing approach for probing changes in lung function and structure associated with RILI before, during, or after RT (early and late time-points). Methods: In this study, dynamic{sup 129}Xe MR spectroscopy was used to measure whole-lung gas transfer time constants for lung tissue and red blood cells (RBC), respectively (T{sub Tr-tissue} and T{sub Tr-RBC}) in groups of rats at two weeks and six weeks following 14 Gy whole-lung exposure to radiation from a {sup 60}Co source. A separate group of six healthy age-matched rats served as a control group. Results: T{sub Tr-tissue} values at two weeks post-irradiation (51.6 ± 6.8 ms) were found to be significantly elevated (p < 0.05) with respect to the healthy control group (37.2 ± 4.8 ms). T{sub Tr-RBC} did not show any significant changes between groups. T{sub Tr-tissue} was strongly correlated with T{sub Tr-RBC} in the control group (r = 0.9601 p < 0.05) and uncorrelated in the irradiated groups. Measurements of arterial partial pressure of oxygen obtained by arterial blood sampling were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the two-week group (54.2 ± 12.3 mm Hg) compared to those from a representative control group (85.0 ± 10.0 mm Hg). Histology of a separate group of similarly irradiated animals confirmed the presence of inflammation due to radiation exposure with alveolar wall thicknesses that were significantly different (p < 0.05). At six weeks post

  17. Protective Effect and Mechanism of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch on Endothelium-Dependent Dilatation and Hyperpolarization in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion and Correlation to Hydrogen Sulphide Release in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We for the first time investigated the effect and mechanism of the total flavones of Rhododendron simsii Planch (TFR, a widely-used Chinese herb for a thousand years, on vasodilatation and hyperpolarization in middle cerebral artery (MCA of rats subject to global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR. TFR (11~2700 mg/L evoked dose-dependent vasodilation and hyperpolarization in MCA of both sham and CIR that were partially inhibited by 30 μM N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester and 10 μM indomethacin and further attenuated by endogenous H2S synthese-CSE inhibitor PPG (100 μM or Ca2+-activated potassium channel (Kca inhibitor TEA (1 mM. In whole-cell patch clamp recording, TFR remarkably enhanced the outward current that was inhibited by TEA. CIR increased CSE mRNA expression and the contents of H2S that were further increased by TFR. We conclude that, in MCA of CIR rats, TFR induces non-NO and non-PGI2-mediated effects of vasodilatation and hyperpolarization involving Kca and increases CSE mRNA expression level in endothelial cells and H2S content in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that the response induced by TFR is potentially related to endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor mediated by the endogenous H2S and promote the use of TFR in protection of brain from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. Progression of emphysema evaluated by MRI using hyperpolarized (3)He (HP (3)He) measurements in patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency compared with CT and lung function tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavngaard, T; Søgaard, L Vejby; Batz, M

    2009-01-01

    as compared to yearly decline. PURPOSE: To investigate the progression of emphysema over a period of 2 years using diffusion-weighted hyperpolarized (HP) (3)He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine patients with severe A1AT...

  19. Feasibility, tolerability and safety of pediatric hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers and children with cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkup, Laura L.; Watters, Erin; Ruppert, Kai [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomen, Robert P.; Woods, Jason C. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Physics, St. Louis, MO (United States); Akinyi, Teckla G.; Cleveland, Zackary I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Center for Pulmonary Imaging Research, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati, Biomedical Engineering Program, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Clancy, John P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe is a promising contrast agent for MRI of pediatric lung function, but its safety and tolerability in children have not been rigorously assessed. To assess the feasibility, safety and tolerability of hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe gas as an inhaled contrast agent for pediatric pulmonary MRI in healthy control subjects and in children with cystic fibrosis. Seventeen healthy control subjects (ages 6-15 years, 11 boys) and 11 children with cystic fibrosis (ages 8-16 years, 4 boys) underwent {sup 129}Xe MRI, receiving up to three doses of {sup 129}Xe gas prepared by either a commercially available or a homebuilt {sup 129}Xe polarizer. Subject heart rate and SpO{sub 2} were monitored for 2 min post inhalation and compared to resting baseline values. Adverse events were reported via follow-up phone call at days 1 and 30 (range ±7 days) post-MRI. All children tolerated multiple doses of {sup 129}Xe, and no children withdrew from the study. Relative to baseline, most children who received a full dose of gas for imaging (10 of 12 controls and 8 of 11 children with cystic fibrosis) experienced a nadir in SpO{sub 2} (mean -6.0 ± standard deviation 7.2%, P≤0.001); however within 2 min post inhalation SpO{sub 2} values showed no significant difference from baseline (P=0.11). There was a slight elevation in heart rate (mean +6.6 ± 13.9 beats per minute [bpm], P=0.021), which returned from baseline within 2 min post inhalation (P=0.35). Brief side effects related to the anesthetic properties of xenon were mild and quickly resolved without intervention. No serious or severe adverse events were observed; in total, four minor adverse events (14.3%) were reported following {sup 129}Xe MRI, but all were deemed unrelated to the study. The feasibility, safety and tolerability of {sup 129}Xe MRI has been assessed in a small group of children as young as 6 years. SpO{sub 2} changes were consistent with the expected physiological effects of a short anoxic breath

  20. 数字化快速成型牙种植导板辅助修复上前牙种植:12个月随访%Digital rapid prototyping implant template assists anterior tooth restoration in maxillary esthetic zone:a follow-up of 12 months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁治; 陈一晖

    2016-01-01

    背景:前牙区种植的难度较大,以往常规种植无法获得理想的效果。  目的:观察数字化快速成型种植导板修复上前牙种植的可行性。  方法:纳入需接受上前牙种植修复的患者80例,按照患者意愿选择治疗方案,分为2组,每组40例,分别实施常规种植修复治疗和数字化快速成型种植导板辅助修复治疗。测量植入后两组X,Y,Z 轴误差情况进行,随访12个月。  结果与结论:①植入后两组 X,Y,Z 轴误差情况测量和比较:观察组在 X,Y,Z 轴的误差均显著小于对照组(P OBJECTIVE:To observe the feasibility of digital rapid prototyping implant template for anterior implantation. METHODS: Eighty patients scheduled to receive anterior implant treatment were enroled. According to the wishes of patients, they were divided into two groups, with 40 cases in each group, and were given routine implant treatment (control group) and digital rapid prototyping template-aided dental restoration (observation group). After implantation, the X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis errors of the two groups were measured, and the patients were folowed up for 12 months. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:After implantation, the errors of X, Y and Z axes in the observation group was significantly lower than those in the control group (P< 0.05); at 24 hours after implantation, patients in the two groups showed good appearance of the anterior tooth with no dental prosthesis loosing. Imaging examinations in the two groups showed no obvious bone resorption. These findings indicate that the aid therapy using digital rapid prototyping can obtain satisfactory therapeutic effect on anterior tooth restoration in the maxilary esthetic zone and precisely localize the dental implantation site.

  1. Anemia ferropriva em crianças de 6 a 12 meses atendidas na rede pública de saúde do município de Viçosa, Minas Gerais Iron deficiency anemia in 6 to 12-month-old infants attended at the public health service of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Góes da SILVA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos verificar a prevalência de anemia em lactentes de 6 a 12 meses atendidos na rede pública de saúde do município de Viçosa, MG e analisar alguns possíveis fatores de risco. As informações foram obtidas através de questionário aplicado aos responsáveis pela criança e através da verificação de medidas antropométricas e da dosagem de hemoglobina por hemoglobinômetro portátil. No diagnóstico de anemia, utilizou-se o ponto de corte de 11 g/dL. A prevalência de anemia ferropriva nas 204 crianças estudadas foi 60,8%, e 55,6% dos casos de anemia eram graves. A média da hemoglobina foi 9,28±1,07 nos anêmicos e 12,07±0,89 mg/dL nos não-anêmicos. A baixa escolaridade paterna e a idade materna mostraram associação estatística com a anemia (pThis study aimed at verifying the prevalence of anemia in 6 to 12-month-old infantsattended at the public health service of the city of Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, and analyzing some possible risk factors. Information was obtained through questionnaire applied to those responsible for the infants and through the verification of the anthropometric measures and the hemoglobin dosage by portable hemoglobinometer. In diagnosing anemia, a 11g/dL cutoff point was used. The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in a total of 204 infants reached 60.8%, and 55.6% of the cases of anemia were serious. The hemoglobin average was 9.28±1.07 mg/dL in anemic infants, and 12.07± 0.89 mg/dL in non-anemic ones. The father's low school level and the mother's age showed statistical association with anemia (p<0.05. A high prevalence and severity of the anemia was found, emphasizing the need for prevention and control of this disease in the city of Viçosa.

  2. Genetic variation in Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and its relationship with neuroticism, cognition and risk of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mark Mcintosh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels are encoded by four genes (HCN1-4 and, through activation by cyclic AMP (cAMP, represent a point of convergence for several psychosis risk genes. On the basis of positive preliminary data, we sought to test whether genetic variation in HCN1-4 conferred risk of depression or cognitive impairment in the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study. HCN1, HCN2, HCN3 and HCN4 were genotyped for 43 haplotype-tagging SNPs and tested for association with DSM-IV depression, neuroticism and a battery of cognitive tests assessing cognitive ability, memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor performance. No association was found between any HCN channel gene SNP and risk of depression, neuroticism or on any cognitive measure. The current study does not support a genetic role for HCN channels in conferring risk of depression or cognitive impairment in human subjects within the Scottish population.

  3. GABA agonist induced changes in ultrastructure and GABA receptor expression in cerebellar granule cells is linked to hyperpolarization of the neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Schousboe, A

    1990-01-01

    GABA has been shown to exert a neurotrophic like activity by enhancing the morphological and functional maturation of neurons. Mechanisms involved in this effect of GABA are largely unknown but since GABA has been shown to mediate a hyperpolarizing action on neurons it can be assumed...... that this action might be important. In order to investigate this possibility, the ability to mimic the trophic actions of GABA of different agents known to influence the membrane potential or the GABA gated chloride channels was studied. Hence, GABA receptor expression as well as the ultrastructure of cerebellar...... granule cells were monitored after exposure of the cells in culture to either bromide, valinomycin or picrotoxin. It was found that cells which at early developmental stages (4 days in culture) were exposed to bromide or valinomycin expressed low affinity GABA receptors similar to cells treated...

  4. Difference between Extra- and IntracellularT1Values of Carboxylic Acids Affects the Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Kinetics by Hyperpolarized NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete knowledge of the longitudinal relaxationtime constant (T1) leads to incorrect assumptions in quantita-tive kinetic models of cellular systems, studied by hyper-polarized real-time NMR. Using an assay that measures theintracellular signal of small carboxylic acids in living cells......, theintracellular T1of the carboxylic acid moiety of acetate, keto-isocaproate, pyruvate, and butyrate was determined. Theintracellular T1is shown to be up to four-fold shorter thanthe extracellular T1. Such a large difference in T1valuesbetween the inside and the outside of the cell has significantinfluence...... on the quantification of intracellular metabolicactivity. It is expected that the significantly shorter T1valueof the carboxylic moieties inside cells is a result of macro-molecular crowding. An artificial cytosol has been preparedand applied to predict the T1of other carboxylic acids. Wedemonstrate the value...

  5. Difference between Extra- and Intracellular T1 Values of Carboxylic Acids Affects the Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Kinetics by Hyperpolarized NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    Incomplete knowledge of the longitudinal relaxation time constant (T1) leads to incorrect assumptions in quantitative kinetic models of cellular systems, studied by hyperpolarized real-time NMR. Using an assay that measures the intracellular signal of small carboxylic acids in living cells......, the intracellular T1 of the carboxylic acid moiety of acetate, ketoisocaproate, pyruvate, and butyrate was determined. The intracellular T1 is shown to be up to four-fold shorter than the extracellular T1. Such a large difference in T1 values between the inside and the outside of the cell has significant influence...... on the quantification of intracellular metabolic activity. It is expected that the significantly shorter T1 value of the carboxylic moieties inside cells is a result of macromolecular crowding. An artificial cytosol has been prepared and applied to predict the T1 of other carboxylic acids. We demonstrate the value...

  6. Difference between Extra- and Intracellular T1 Values of Carboxylic Acids Affects the Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Kinetics by Hyperpolarized NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Magnus; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2016-10-17

    Incomplete knowledge of the longitudinal relaxation time constant (T1 ) leads to incorrect assumptions in quantitative kinetic models of cellular systems, studied by hyperpolarized real-time NMR. Using an assay that measures the intracellular signal of small carboxylic acids in living cells, the intracellular T1 of the carboxylic acid moiety of acetate, keto-isocaproate, pyruvate, and butyrate was determined. The intracellular T1 is shown to be up to four-fold shorter than the extracellular T1 . Such a large difference in T1 values between the inside and the outside of the cell has significant influence on the quantification of intracellular metabolic activity. It is expected that the significantly shorter T1 value of the carboxylic moieties inside cells is a result of macromolecular crowding. An artificial cytosol has been prepared and applied to predict the T1 of other carboxylic acids. We demonstrate the value of this prediction tool.

  7. Assessment of real-time myocardial uptake and enzymatic conversion of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in pigs using slice selective magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichetti, Luca; Frijia, Francesca; Flori, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    . We applied a numerical approach for spectral analysis and kinetic fitting (LSFIT/KIMOfit), making a comparison with a well-known jMRUI/AMARES analysis and γ-variate function, and we estimated the apparent conversion rate of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate into its downstream metabolites [1-¹³C......]lactate, [1-¹³C]alanine and [¹³C]bicarbonate in a 3 T MR scanner. We detected an increase in the apparent kinetic constants (k(PX) ) for bicarbonate and lactate of two-fold during dobutamine infusion. These data correlate with the double product (rate-pressure product), an indirect parameter of cardiac oxygen...

  8. Non-invasive in-cell determination of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios using hyperpolarized glucose show large variations in metabolic phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Caspar Elo; Karlsson, Magnus; Winther, Jakob R.;

    2014-01-01

    a magnetic enhancement technique (hyperpolarization) with cellular glycolytic activity. The bioprobe reports free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] ratios based on dynamically measured in-cell [pyruvate]/ [lactate] ratios. We demonstrate its utility in breast and prostate cancer cells. The free cytosolic [NAD......+]/[NADH] ratio determined in prostate cancer cells was 4 times higher than in breast cancer cells. This higher ratio reflects a distinct metabolic phenotype of prostate cancer cells consistent with previously reported alterations in the energy metabolism of these cells. As a reporter on free cytosolic [NAD...... death and oxidative stress. It has been suggested that changes in the ratio of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] reflects metabolic alterations leading to, or correlating with, pathological states. We have designed an isotopically labelled metabolic bioprobe of free cytosolic [NAD+]/[NADH] by combining...

  9. A mechanism for the auto-inhibition of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel opening and its relief by cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Madoka; Zhang, Zaiyong; Boulton, Stephen; Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; VanSchouwen, Bryan; Gloyd, Melanie; Accili, Eric A; Lange, Oliver F; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) ion channels control neuronal and cardiac electrical rhythmicity. There are four homologous isoforms (HCN1-4) sharing a common multidomain architecture that includes an N-terminal transmembrane tetrameric ion channel followed by a cytoplasmic "C-linker," which connects a more distal cAMP-binding domain (CBD) to the inner pore. Channel opening is primarily stimulated by transmembrane elements that sense membrane hyperpolarization, although cAMP reduces the voltage required for HCN activation by promoting tetramerization of the intracellular C-linker, which in turn relieves auto-inhibition of the inner pore gate. Although binding of cAMP has been proposed to relieve auto-inhibition by affecting the structure of the C-linker and CBD, the nature and extent of these cAMP-dependent changes remain limitedly explored. Here, we used NMR to probe the changes caused by the binding of cAMP and of cCMP, a partial agonist, to the apo-CBD of HCN4. Our data indicate that the CBD exists in a dynamic two-state equilibrium, whose position as gauged by NMR chemical shifts correlates with the V½ voltage measured through electrophysiology. In the absence of cAMP, the most populated CBD state leads to steric clashes with the activated or "tetrameric" C-linker, which becomes energetically unfavored. The steric clashes of the apo tetramer are eliminated either by cAMP binding, which selects for a CBD state devoid of steric clashes with the tetrameric C-linker and facilitates channel opening, or by a transition of apo-HCN to monomers or dimer of dimers, in which the C-linker becomes less structured, and channel opening is not facilitated.

  10. Ascorbic acid prolongs the viability and stability of isolated perfused lungs: A mechanistic study using 31P and hyperpolarized 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghi, Hoora; Kadlecek, Stephen; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Hamedani, Hooman; Clapp, Justin; Profka, Harrilla; Rizi, Rahim

    2015-12-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has recently shown promise as a means of more accurately gauging the health of lung grafts and improving graft performance post-transplant. However, reperfusion of ischemic lung promotes the depletion of high-energy compounds and a progressive loss of normal mitochondrial function, and it remains unclear how and to what extent the EVLP approach contributes to this metabolic decline. Although ascorbate has been used to mitigate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion injury, the nature of its effects during EVLP are also not clear. To address these uncertainties, this study monitored the energy status of lungs during EVLP and after the administration of ascorbate using (31)P and hyperpolarized (13)C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Our experiments demonstrated that the oxidative phosphorylation capacity and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux of lungs decline during ex vivo perfusion. The addition of ascorbate to the perfusate prolonged lung viability by 80% and increased the hyperpolarized (13)C bicarbonate signal by a factor of 2.7. The effect of ascorbate is apparently due not to its antioxidant quality but rather to its ability to energize cellular respiration given that it increased the lung's energy charge significantly, whereas other antioxidants (glutathione and α-lipoic acid) did not alter energy metabolism. During ascorbate administration, inhibition of mitochondrial complex I with rotenone depressed energy charge and shifted the metabolic state of the lung toward glycolysis; reenergizing the electron transport chain with TMPD (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine) recovered metabolic activity. This indicates that ascorbate slows the decline of the ex vivo perfused lung's mitochondrial activity through an independent interaction with the electron transport chain complexes.

  11. Voltage-dependent gating of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated pacemaker channels: molecular coupling between the S4-S5 and C-linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, Niels; Chen, Jun; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2004-04-02

    Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels have a transmembrane topology that is highly similar to voltage-gated K(+) channels, yet HCN channels open in response to membrane hyperpolarization instead of depolarization. The structural basis for the "inverted" voltage dependence of HCN gating and how voltage sensing by the S1-S4 domains is coupled to the opening of the intracellular gate formed by the S6 domain are unknown. Coupling could arise from interaction between specific residues or entire transmembrane domains. We previously reported that the mutation of specific residues in the S4-S5 linker of HCN2 (i.e. Tyr-331 and Arg-339) prevented normal channel closure presumably by disruption of a crucial interaction with the activation gate. Here we hypothesized that the C-linker, a carboxyl terminus segment that connects S6 to the cyclic nucleotide binding domain, interacts with specific residues of the S4-S5 linker to mediate coupling. The recently solved structure of the C-linker of HCN2 indicates that an alpha-helix (the A'-helix) is located near the end of each S6 domain, the presumed location of the activation gate. Ala-scanning mutagenesis of the end of S6 and the A'-helix identified five residues that were important for normal gating as mutations disrupted channel closure. However, partial deletion of the C-linker indicated that the presence of only two of these residues was required for normal coupling. Further mutation analyses suggested that a specific electrostatic interaction between Arg-339 of the S4-S5 linker and Asp-443 of the C-linker stabilizes the closed state and thus participates in the coupling of voltage sensing and activation gating in HCN channels.

  12. Small-fiber neuropathy Nav1.8 mutation shifts activation to hyperpolarized potentials and increases excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianying; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Peng; Gerrits, Monique M; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Bekelaar, Kim; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-08-28

    Idiopathic small-fiber neuropathy (I-SFN), clinically characterized by burning pain in distal extremities and autonomic dysfunction, is a disorder of small-caliber nerve fibers of unknown etiology with limited treatment options. Functional variants of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7, encoded by SCN9A, have been identified in approximately one-third of I-SFN patients. These variants render dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons hyperexcitable. Sodium channel Nav1.8, encoded by SCN10A, is preferentially expressed in small-diameter DRG neurons, and produces most of the current underlying the upstroke of action potentials in these neurons. We previously demonstrated two functional variants of Nav1.8 that either enhance ramp current or shift activation in a hyperpolarizing direction, and render DRG neurons hyperexcitable, in I-SFN patients with no mutations of SCN9A. We have now evaluated additional I-SFN patients with no mutations in SCN9A, and report a novel I-SFN-related Nav1.8 mutation I1706V in a patient with painful I-SFN. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in small DRG neurons demonstrate that the mutation hyperpolarizes activation and the response to slow ramp depolarizations. However, it decreases fractional channels resistant to fast inactivation and reduces persistent currents. Current-clamp studies reveal that mutant channels decrease current threshold and increase the firing frequency of evoked action potentials within small DRG neurons. These observations suggest that the effects of this mutation on activation and ramp current are dominant over the reduced persistent current, and show that these pro-excitatory gating changes confer hyperexcitability on peripheral sensory neurons, which may contribute to pain in this individual with I-SFN.

  13. Regulation of KCa2.3 and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH in the rat middle cerebral artery: the role of lipoxygenase metabolites and isoprostanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Gauthier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. In rat middle cerebral arteries, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH is mediated by activation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels specifically KCa2.3 and KCa3.1. Lipoxygenase (LOX products function as endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs in rabbit arteries by stimulating KCa2.3. We investigated if LOX products contribute to EDH in rat cerebral arteries.Methods. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites produced in middle cerebral arteries were measured using HPLC and LC/MS. Vascular tension and membrane potential responses to SLIGRL were simultaneously recorded using wire myography and intracellular microelectrodes.Results. SLIGRL, an agonist at PAR2 receptors, caused EDH that was inhibited by a combination of KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 blockade. Non-selective LOX-inhibition reduced EDH, whereas inhibition of 12-LOX had no effect. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH inhibition enhanced the KCa2.3 component of EDH. Following NO synthase (NOS inhibition, the KCa2.3 component of EDH was absent. Using HPLC, middle cerebral arteries metabolized 14C-AA to 15- and 12-LOX products under control conditions. With NOS inhibition, there was little change in LOX metabolites, but increased F-type isoprostanes. 8-iso-PGF2α inhibited the KCa2.3 component of EDH.Conclusions. LOX metabolites mediate EDH in rat middle cerebral arteries. Inhibition of sEH increases the KCa2.3 component of EDH. Following NOS inhibition, loss of KCa2.3 function is independent of changes in LOX production or sEH inhibition but due to increased isoprostane production and subsequent stimulation of TP receptors. These findings have important implications in diseases associated with loss of NO signaling such as stroke; where inhibition of sEH and/or isoprostane formation may of benefit.

  14. Effects of different feeding patterns during 0-6 months after birth on dietary energy intake and physical growth in infants at 7-12 months old%生后0~6月不同喂养方式对7~12月龄婴儿能量摄入和体格发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子一; 宁一冰; 马德福; 郑迎东; 赵艾; 杨晓光; 李文军; 张玉梅; 王培玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different early feeding patterns in the first six months after birth on 7-12-month-old infant's dietary energy,macronutrients intake and physical growth.Methods Data of 418 infants at 7-12 months old were selected from Maternal,Infants,Nutrition,Growth Study (MING Study),a study of eight Chinese cities with systematic cluster random sampling method.Children were classified into three groups according to their breast feeding patterns at 0-6 months after birth,i.e.exclusive artificial feeding,mixed feeding and exclusive breastfeeding.The caregivers of those infants were investigated by questionnaires for relative information.And a 24-hour recall was conducted to acquire the children's food intake during the day before.Rank test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis.Results Birth weight of male infants showed no statistical difference between the three groups (P > 0.05),but there was statistical difference on the median birth weight of female infants among exclusive artificial feeding,mixed feeding and exclusive breastfeeding group (3.10 kg,3.30 kg vs 3.40 kg,H=12.76,P<0.05).There were significant differences among the three groups on intake of energy,protein,fat and carbohydrate (P<0.01 or 0.05),regardless of gender,except for carbohydrate intake among female infants (P>0.05).The highest value appeared in artificial feeding group (the median of energy,protein,fat and carbohydrate intake for boys were 768.61 kJ,24.86 g,27.20 g and 106.59 g,respectively; for girls were 884.71 kJ,35.95 g,35.45 g and 110.85 g),followed by the mixed feeding group (boys:656.68 kJ,21.84 g,26.03 g and 84.54 g;girls:696.38 kJ,20.03 g,26.68 g and 77.28 g,respectively).The lowest value appeared in the breast feeding group (boys:455.88 kJ,17.35 g,15.69gand71.57g; girls:562.90kJ,18.78g,20.62gand72.00g,respectively).There was no significant difference in energy intake from protein,fat or carbohydrate of boys among the three groups

  15. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Germanno Lima de Araújo

    2007-03-01

    Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, unpulped, the pulp was storaged in polietilin bags (100 g, frozen, kept in a freezer at -20 °C, and evaluated every 30 days for 12 months. The experiment was carried out with experimental delineament totally casualized in a factorial scheme 6 x 13 (clones x time, with 3 repetitions. The concentration of beta-carotene in the Cereja clone was stable, while the other ones were decreased during the whole time of the experiment. There was a small decrease in the ascorbic acid level in all the clones in the study during the storage, probably due to the high acidity of the pulp, which helps maintain its nutrient. The total anthocyanins level were stable in the Frutacor and Sertaneja clones, however, it decreased in the other ones. The II 47/1 clone was, among all the studied clones, the one that presented the highest levels of ascorbic acid C and total anthocyanins, keeping these characteristics during the whole storage. In conclusion, the clones that presented the lowest level of beta-carotene, showed the highest concentrations of total anthocyanins.

  16. Observation on clinical effects of immediate application of three kinds of intrauterine device at abortion for 12 months%人工流产即时放置3种宫内节育器12个月临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴健; 马文侠; 吴延红; 张军喜; 马颖辉; 蒋丽芳

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察Tcu380A、宫型200、活性γ型3种宫内节育器(IUD)人工流产即时放置的临床效果.方法:选择在医院门诊就诊、符合研究标准、自愿参加研究的人工流产妇女150例为观察对象,随即分为3组各50例,采用生存分析软件进行分析.结果:12个月随访率为93.33%,无1例人工流产术并发症发生.Tcu380A脱落终止率为4.21/每百妇女年,宫型200和活性r型为0,3组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);宫型200、γ型活性两组因症取出率分别为4.00和2.00/每百妇女年,高于Tcu380A组,3组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:人工流产即时放置宫内节育器不增加子宫穿孔、盆腔感染等并发症发生.Tcu380A、宫型200、活性γ型3种IUD安全、有效,适宜人工流产后即时放置.%Objective; To observe the clinical effects of immediate application of Tcu380A intrauterine device (IUD) , uterine -shape IUD, and active γ - shape IUD at abortion. Methods; A total of 150 women who underwent artificial abortion in outpatient department in the hospital, met the criteria, and participated in the study of their own were selected as observation objects, then they were divided into three groups, 50 women in each group, survival analysis software was used for analysis. Results; The follow - up rate at 12 months was 93. 33% . No complications of artificial abortion occurred. The removal rate of Tcu380A IUD was 4. 21% per year, no IUD removal occurred in uterine - shape IUD and active -γ - shape IUD, there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . The medical removal rates of uterine - shape IUD and active -γ - shape IUD were 4. 00% per year and 2. 00% per year, respectively, which were higher than that of Tcu380A IUD, there was no statistically significant difference among the three groups (P >0. 05 ) . Conclusion; Immediate application of IUD at abortion cant increase the complications, such as uterine

  17. Fatores determinantes dos níveis de hemoglobina em crianças aos 12 meses de vida na Zona da Mata Meridional de Pernambuco Determinant factors of haemoglobin levels in 12 months old infants in the South of the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia V. M. de S. Lima

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar os fatores determinantes dos níveis de hemoglobina de crianças aos 12 meses de vida, em quatro municípios da Zona da Mata Meridional de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, realizado em uma sub-amostra de 245 lactentes, pertencentes a uma coorte de 652 crianças. A coleta de dados foi realizada no período de janeiro a agosto de 1999. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de anemia foi de 73,2%, sendo a média de hemoglobina de 9,8 g/dL (DP = 1,6 g/dL. A análise de variância apresentou uma associação estatisticamente significante entre níveis de hemoglobina e escolaridade materna, posse de televisão no domicílio, peso ao nascer, duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo, ocorrência de diarréia e estado nutricional segundo os índices peso/idade e comprimento/idade. A análise de regressão linear múltipla mostrou que as condições socioeconômicas, o peso ao nascer, a duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo e a ocorrência de diarréia tiveram um impacto significante na variação dos níveis de hemoglobina. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados confirmam ser a anemia um relevante problema de saúde pública, especialmente em lactentes, tendo múltiplos fatores que contribuem para o seu surgimento, sendo necessário, portanto, identificar os mais importantes para serem levados em consideração nos programas de saúde da criança.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate factors determining hemoglobin levels in 12 months old infants living in four small towns located in the South of Pernambuco. METHODS: a cross-sectional study conducted in a sub-sample of 245 infants belonging to a cohort of 652 children. Data collection was performed from January to August 1999. RESULTS: the prevalence of anemia was 73.2% and mean hemoglobin level 9.8 g/dL (SD = 1.6 g/dL. Variance analysis indicated a significant association between hemoglobin levels and maternal education, absence of a television set at home, birth weight, duration of exclusive breast

  18. Monitoring mammary tumor progression and effect of tamoxifen treatment in MMTV-PymT using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy with hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar Butt, Sadia; Søgaard, Lise V.; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    MRI by measuring tumor volumes. Dynamic MRS of hyperpolarized 13C was used to measure an "apparent" pyruvate-to-lactate rate constant (kp) of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in vivo. Further, ex vivo pathology and in vitro LDH initial reaction velocity were evaluated. Results: Tamoxifen significantly...... halted the tumor growth measured as tumor volume by MRI. In the untreated animals, kp correlated with tumor growth. The kP was somewhat but not significantly lower in the treated group. Studies in vitro confirmed the effects of tamoxifen on tumor growth, and here the LDH reaction velocity was reduced...... significantly in the treated group. Conclusion: These hyperpolarized 13C MRS findings indicate that tumor metabolic changes affects kP. The measured kp did not relate to treatment response to the same extent as did tumor growth, histological evaluation, and in vitro determination of LDH activity. © 2014 Wiley...

  19. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N. J.

    2014-02-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate constants. Modeling and physiological parameter estimation can be made more robust by consistent and reproducible injections through automation. An injection system previously developed by us was limited in the injectable volume to between 0.6 and 2.4 ml and injection was delayed due to a required syringe filling step. An improved MR-compatible injector system has been developed that measures the pH of injected substrate, uses flow control to reduce dead volume within the injection cannula and can be operated over a larger volume range. The delay time to injection has been minimized by removing the syringe filling step by use of a peristaltic pump. For 100 μl to 10.000 ml, the volume range typically used for mice to rabbits, the average delivered volume was 97.8% of the demand volume. The standard deviation of delivered volumes was 7 μl for 100 μl and 20 μl for 10.000 ml demand volumes (mean S.D. was 9 ul in this range). In three repeat injections through a fixed 0.96 mm O.D. tube the coefficient of variation for the area under the curve was 2%. For in vivo injections of hyperpolarized pyruvate in tumor-bearing rats, signal was first detected in the input femoral vein cannula at 3-4 s post-injection trigger signal and at 9-12 s in tumor tissue. The pH of the injected pyruvate was 7.1 ± 0.3 (mean ± S.D., n = 10). For small injection volumes, e.g. less than 100 μl, the internal diameter of the tubing contained within the peristaltic pump could be reduced to improve accuracy. Larger injection volumes are limited only by the size of the receiving vessel connected to the pump.

  20. A system for accurate and automated injection of hyperpolarized substrate with minimal dead time and scalable volumes over a large range☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven; Bucur, Adriana; Port, Michael; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Paley, Martyn N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years hyperpolarization by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization has become an established technique for studying metabolism in vivo in animal models. Temporal signal plots obtained from the injected metabolite and daughter products, e.g. pyruvate and lactate, can be fitted to compartmental models to estimate kinetic rate