WorldWideScience

Sample records for 12-55 mev protons

  1. RF Operation for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Dae Il; Kim, Han Sung; Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The RF systems for the 100MeV linac were constructed. The HPRF system including klystrons, circulators, high power dummy loads, and waveguide components was installed at the klystron gallery, and the LLRF control systems including a commercial FPGA module and a LLRF analog chassis were also installed. The phase stability of the RF reference line was measured with S11 phase under temperature control. The RF systems for 100MeV linac have been operated for a beam commissioning, and the 100MeV proton beam has been supplied to users currently. The RF systems of the 100MeV proton linac for the KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) were installed at the Gyeong-ju site. The 100MeV linac consists of a 3MeV RFQ, a 20MeV DTL with four tanks, two MEBT tanks, and seven 100MeV DTL tanks. For the 100MeV linac, nine sets of LLRF control systems and the HPRF systems including 1MW klystrons, circulators and waveguide components have been installed at the klystron gallery, and four high voltage converter modulators to drive nine klystrons have been installed at the modulator room. A RF reference system distributing 300MHz LO signal to each RF control system has also been installed with a temperature control system at the klystron gallery. The requirement of RF field control is within +/- 1% in RF amplitude and +/- 1 degree in RF phase. The RF systems have been operated for the beam commissioning. The installation and operation of the RF system for the 100MeV proton linac are presented in this paper.

  2. RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, Arno; Heibronn, L.H; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

    2007-11-01

    The use of HTS materials in high radiation environments requires that the superconducting properties remain constant up to a radiation high dose. BSCCO-2223 samples from two manufacturers were irradiated with 50 MeV protons at fluences of up to 5 x 10{sup 17} protons/cm{sup 2}. The samples lost approximately 75% of their pre-irradiation I{sub c}. This compares with Nb{sub 3}Sn, which loses about 50% at the same displacements per atom.

  3. RADIATION DAMAGE TO BSCCO-2223 FROM 50 MEV PROTONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, A.F.; Ronningen, R.M.; Godeke, A.; Heilbronn, L.H.; McMahan-Norris, P.; Gupta, R.

    2007-11-27

    The use of HTS materials in high radiation environmentsrequires that the superconducting properties remain constant up to aradiation high dose. BSCCO-2223 samples from two manufacturers wereirradiated with 50 MeV protons at fluences of up to 5 x 1017 protons/cm2.The samples lost approximately 75 percent of their pre-irradiation Ic.This compares with Nb3Sn, which loses about 50 percent at the samedisplacements per atom.

  4. Shielding measurements for a 230 MeV proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic secondary neutrons produced as protons interact with accelerator components and patients dominate the radiation shielding environment for proton radiotherapy facilities. Due to the scarcity of data describing neutron production, attenuation, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent values, these parameters were measured for 230 MeV proton bombardment of stopping length Al, Fe, and Pb targets at emission angles of 0 degree, 22 degree, 45 degree, and 90 degree in a thick concrete shield. Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters with volumes ranging from 1 cm3 to 1000 cm3 were used to obtain microdosimetric spectra from which absorbed dose and radiation quality are deduced. Does equivalent values and attenuation lengths determined at depth in the shield were found to vary sharply with angle, but were found to be independent of target material. Neutron dose and radiation length values are compared with Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations performed using the Los Alamos High Energy Transport Code (LAHET). Calculations used 230 MeV protons incident upon an Fe target in a shielding geometry similar to that used in the experiment. LAHET calculations overestimated measured attenuation values at 0 degree, 22 degree, and 45 degree, yet correctly predicted the attenuation length at 90 degree. Comparison of the mean radiation quality estimated with the Monte Carlo calculations with measurements suggest that neutron quality factors should be increased by a factor of 1.4. These results are useful for the shielding design of new facilities as well as for testing neutron production and transport calculations

  5. Proton Polarimeter Calibration between 82 and 217 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glister, J; Lee, B; Beck, A; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Choi, S; Dumas, J; Feuerbach, R; Gilman, R; Higinbotham, D W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; May-Tal Beck, S; McCullough, E; Paolone, M; Piasetzky, E; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Sarty, A J; Sawatzky, B; Strauch, S

    2009-07-01

    The proton analyzing power in carbon has been measured for energies of 82 to 217 MeV and proton scattering angles of 5 to 41 degrees. The measurements were carried out using polarized protons from the elastic scattering H(pol. e, pol. p) reaction and the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) in Hall A of Jefferson Lab. A new parameterization of the FPP p-C analyzing power was fit to the data, which is in good agreement with previous parameterizations and provides an extension to lower energies and larger angles. The main conclusions are that all polarimeters to date give consistent measurements of the carbon analyzing power, independently of the details of their construction and that measuring on a larger angular range significantly improves the polarimeter figure of merit at low energies.

  6. The JHP 200-MeV proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takao [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    A 200-MeV proton linear accelerator for the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP) has been designed. It consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole linac (RFQ), a 50-MeV drift tube linac (DTL) and a 200-MeV separated-type drift tube linac (SDTL). A frequency of 324 MHz has been chosen for all of the rf structures. A peak current of 30 mA (H{sup -} ions) of 400 {mu}sec pulse duration will be accelerated at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. A future upgrade plan up to 400 MeV is also presented, in which annular-coupled structures (ACS) of 972 MHz are used in an energy range of above 150 or 200 MeV. One of the design features is its high performance for a beam-loss problem during acceleration. It can be achieved by separating the transition point in the transverse motion from that of the longitudinal motion. The transverse transition at a rather low-energy range decreases the effects of space-charge, while the longitudinal transition at a rather high-energy range decreases the effects of nonlinear problems related to acceleration in the ACS. Coupled envelope equations and equipartitioning theory are used for the focusing design. The adoption of the SDTL structure improves both the effective shunt impedance and difficulties in fabricating drift tubes with focusing magnets. An accurate beam-simulation code on a parallel supercomputer was used for confirming any beam-loss problem during acceleration. (author)

  7. MeV proton flux predictions near Saturn's D ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.

    2015-10-01

    Radiation belts of MeV protons have been observed just outward of Saturn's main rings. During the final stages of the mission, the Cassini spacecraft will pass through the gap between the main rings and the planet. Based on how the known radiation belts of Saturn are formed, it is expected that MeV protons will be present in this gap and also bounce through the tenuous D ring right outside the gap. At least one model has suggested that the intensity of MeV protons near the planet could be much larger than in the known belts. We model this inner radiation belt using a technique developed earlier to understand Saturn's known radiation belts. We find that the inner belt is very different from the outer belts in the sense that its intensity is limited by the densities of the D ring and Saturn's upper atmosphere, not by radial diffusion and satellite absorption. The atmospheric density is relatively well constrained by EUV occultations. Based on that we predict an intensity in the gap region that is well below that of the known belts. It is more difficult to do the same for the region magnetically connected to the D ring since its density is poorly constrained. We find that the intensity in this region can be comparable to the known belts. Such intensities pose no hazard to the mission since Cassini would only experience these fluxes on timescales of minutes but might affect scientific measurements by decreasing the signal-to-contamination ratio of instruments.

  8. Multi-turn injection of 50 MeV protons into the CERN Proton Synchrotron booster

    CERN Document Server

    Raginel, V; Carli, C; Mikulec, B

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, Linac2 produces beams of 50 MeV protons with a current around 160 mA, which are injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) with conventional multi-turn injection using a horizontal septum. It is planned to replace Linac2 during a future long stop with a new H- linac, Linac4, injecting at higher energy (160 MeV) and making use of the modern chargeexchange injection principle. Due to the age of Linac2 and to a delicate vacuum situation the risk of a serious Linac2 breakdown has to be considered. Therefore it is necessary to study if the PSB could produce beams useful for the LHC and other experiments injecting a Linac4 proton beam at 50 MeV with much lower average current compared to Linac2 and without the need for a long installation of the 160 MeV H- injection hardware. Benchmarking of the PSB injection model with the existing injection system with Linac2 using the ORBIT code has been done for a LHC-type beam and then the injection model was used to estimate the brightness for LHC-typ...

  9. Multi-turn injection of 50 MeV protons into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Raginel, V; Carli, C; Mikulec, B

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, Linac2 produces beams of 50 MeV protons with a current around 160 mA, which are injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) with conventional multi-turn injection using a horizontal septum. It is planned to replace Linac2 during a future long stop with a new H- linac, Linac4, injecting at higher energy (160 MeV) and making use of the modern chargeexchange injection principle. Due to the age of Linac2 and to a delicate vacuum situation the risk of a serious Linac2 breakdown has to be considered. Therefore it is necessary to study if the PSB could produce beams useful for the LHC and other experiments injecting a Linac4 proton beam at 50 MeV with much lower average current compared to Linac2 and without the need for a long installation of the 160 MeV H- injection hardware. Benchmarking of the PSB injection model with the existing injection system with Linac2 using the ORBIT code has been done for a LHC-type beam and then the injection model was used to estimate the brightness for LHC-typ...

  10. Recoil proton polarization of neutral pion photoproduction from proton in the energy range between 400 MeV and 1142 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoil proton polarization of the reaction γp → π0p were measured at a C.M. angle of 1000 for incident photon energies between 451 and 1106 MeV, and at an angle of 1300 for energies from 400 MeV to 1142 MeV. One photon decayed from a π0-meson and a recoil proton were detected in coincidence. Two kinds of polarization scatterers were employed. In the range of proton kinetic energy less than 420 MeV and higher than 346 MeV, carbon plates and liquid hydrogen were used for determining the polarization. Results are compared with recent phenomenological analyses. From the Comparison between the present data and the asymmetry data given by the polarized target, the contribution of the invariant amplitudes A3 can be estimated to be small at 1000. (author)

  11. Response of BGO sectors to protons up to 170 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to monoenergetic protons of 24 cm long pyramidal BGO sectors, designed for a 4π spectrometer, was measured up to 173 MeV by scattering 200 MeV protons off a polyethylene target. The experimental results are compared with lower energy results and Monte Carlo calculations performed with a modified version of the GEANT code. (orig.)

  12. Initial Operation Results of the KOMAC 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyungtae; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Daeil; Song, Younggi; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) accelerator facility has a 100-MeV proton linac, five beam lines for 20-MeV beam utilization, and another five beam lines for 100-MeV beam utilization. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. The KOMAC started to provide a proton beam to users on July 2013. A 20-MeV beam line and a 100-MeV beam line have been operated for beam service during the first year. In 2013, the proton linac had been operated for more than 2200 hours and beam service time was 432 hours approximately. The accumulated downtime during the first year in 2013 is 94.7 hours and there were some faults at utilities, high voltage modulators, and RF components. The KOMAC started to provide a proton beam to users on July 2013. The proton linac had been operated for more than 2200 hours and beam service time was 432 hours approximately. Accumulated downtime was 94.7 hours and availability was 82 %. The plan for beam power and operation time in 2014 is 10 kW and 2500 hours respectively.

  13. Performance Results of the Modulator for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Il; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The modulator for the 100MeV proton linac has been installed at KOMAC (Korea of Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) site. The specification of modulator is 5.8MW peak power with 1.5ms pulse width, 60Hz repetition rate. There are total 4 sets of modulator for 100-MeV proton linac including 3-MeV RFQ, 20-MeV DTL and 100-MeV DTL. A modulator drives two or three sets of the klystrons simultaneously. After installation and du mmy test of 4 modulators, it has been operated for 100MeV proton linac. In this paper, the performance results of modulators for the 100MeV proton linac are presented. 4 modulators were installed and tested for the 100MeV proton linac. The modulator was measured to have about less than 1% droops at flat top for 500 us pulse by using pulse frequency modulation droop compensation method. The long term voltage variation measurement showed that the voltage increased up to 0.05% for 8 hours. In future, the voltage droop and variation of modulator should be continuously checked in the high repetition rate.

  14. Design study for a 500 MeV proton synchrotron with CSNS linac as an injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Sheng; Ji, Hong-Fei; Wang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Using the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac as the injector, a 500 MeV proton synchrotron is proposed for multidisciplinary applications, such as biology, material science and proton therapy. The synchrotron will deliver proton beam with energy from 80 MeV to 500 MeV. A compact lattice design has been worked out, and all the important beam dynamics issues have been investigated. The 80 MeV H- beam is stripped and injected into the synchrotron by using multi-turn injection. In order to continuously extraction the proton with small beam loss, an achromatic structure is proposed and a slow extraction method with RF knock-out is adopted and optimized.

  15. Klystron High Power Operation for KOMAC 100-MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Seong-Gu; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) accelerator facility has a 100-MeV proton linac, five beam lines for 20-MeV beam utilization, and another five beam lines for 100-MeV beam utilization. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 50-keV proton injector based on a microwave ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ with a four-vane structure, and a 100-MeV DTL. Nine sets of 1MW klystrons have been operated for the 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was approximately 5700 hours in 2014, and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours. During the high power operation of the klystron, unstable RF waveforms appeared at the klystron output, and we have checked and performed cavity frequency adjustments, magnet and heater current, reflection from a circulator, klystron test without a circulator, and the frequency spectrum measurement. Nine sets of the klystrons have been operated for the KOMAC 100-MeV proton linac. The klystron filament heating time was 5700 hours and RF operation time was 2863.4 hours during the operation in 2014. Some klystrons have unstable RF waveforms at specific power level. We have checked and tested the cavity frequency adjustment, reflection from a circulator, high power test without a circulator, and frequency spectrum at the unstable RF.

  16. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of >100 MeV Protons in Large Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliver, Edward W.

    2016-05-01

    Recently several studies have presented correlative evidence for a significant-to-dominant role for a flare-resident process in the acceleration of high-energy protons in large solar particle events. In one of these investigations, a high correlation between >100 MeV proton fluence and 35 GHz radio fluence is obtained by omitting large proton events associated with relatively weak flares; these outlying events are attributed to proton acceleration by shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We argue that the strong CMEs and associated shocks observed for proton events on the main sequence of the scatter plot are equally likely to accelerate high-energy protons. In addition, we examine ratios of 0.5 MeV electron to >100 MeV proton intensities in large SEP events, associated with both well-connected and poorly-connected solar eruptions, to show that scaled-up versions of the small flares associated with classical impulsive SEP events are not significant accelerators of >100 MeV protons.

  17. A study of proton-induced reactions at 190 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, B.; Bacelar, J.C.S; Beijers, J.P.M.; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Löhner, H.; Mahjour Shafiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Differential cross-sections and proton multiplicities, resulting from the bombardment of Fe-56, Pb-208, and U-238 targets by a 190 MeV proton beam were measured for the first time. Data were taken over two different angular ranges 5degrees-30degrees and 91degrees-160degrees with two different detect

  18. The design study for a 500 MeV proton synchrotron with CSNS linac as an injector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Liang-Sheng; Ji, Hong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Using the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac as the injector, a 500 MeV proton synchrotron is proposed for multidisciplinary application, such as biology, material and proton therapy. The synchrotron will deliver proton beam with energy from 80 MeV to 500 MeV. A compact lattice design was worked out, and all the important beam dynamics issues were investigated. The 80 MeV H- beam is stripped and injected into the synchrotron by using multi-turn injection. In order to continuously extraction the proton with small beam loss, the achromatic structure is proposed and slow extraction method with RF knock-out is adopted and optimized.

  19. Radiation hardness of a single crystal CVD diamond detector for MeV energy protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuki, E-mail: y.sato@riken.jp [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Murakami, Hiroyuki [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Isobe, Mitsutaka; Osakabe, Masaki [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho Toki-city, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsubota, Masakatsu [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We have fabricated a particle detector using single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. The irradiation dose dependence of the output pulse height from the diamond detector was measured using 3 MeV protons. The pulse height of the output signals from the diamond detector decreases as the amount of irradiation increases at count rates of 1.6–8.9 kcps because of polarization effects inside the diamond crystal. The polarization effect can be cancelled by applying a reverse bias voltage, which restores the pulse heights. Additionally, the radiation hardness performance for MeV energy protons was compared with that of a silicon surface barrier detector.

  20. 160 MeV laser-accelerated protons from CH2 nano-targets for proton cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Hegelich, B M; Albright, B J; Cheung, M; Dromey, B; Gautier, D C; Hamilton, C; Letzring, S; Munchhausen, R; Palaniyappan, S; Shah, R; Wu, H -C; Yin, L; Fernández, J C

    2013-01-01

    Proton (and ion) cancer therapy has proven to be an extremely effective even supe-rior method of treatment for some tumors 1-4. A major problem, however, lies in the cost of the particle accelerator facilities; high procurement costs severely limit the availability of ion radiation therapy, with only ~26 centers worldwide. Moreover, high operating costs often prevent economic operation without state subsidies and have led to a shutdown of existing facilities 5,6. Laser-accelerated proton and ion beams have long been thought of as a way out of this dilemma, with the potential to provide the required ion beams at lower cost and smaller facility footprint 7-14. The biggest challenge has been the achievement of sufficient particle energy for therapy, in the 150-250 MeV range for protons 15,16. For the last decade, the maximum exper-imentally observed energy of laser-accelerated protons has remained at ~60 MeV 17. Here we the experimental demonstration of laser-accelerated protons to energies exceeding 150 MeV, re...

  1. PHOTONS IN THE PROTON-INDUCED REACTION WITH IN AT E(P)=50-MEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BALANDA, A; BACELAR, JCS; BETAK, E; BORDEWIJK, JA; KRASZNAHORKA, A; VANDERPLOEG, H; SIEMSSEN, RH; WILSCHUT, HW; VANDERWOUDE, A

    1994-01-01

    Photon emission in proton-induced reactions at 50 MeV with In-115 was studied. Analyses of the measured photon spectrum show that the GDR couples to the compound states as well as to pre-equilibrium states. The centroid and width of the GDR strength function were determined as E(GDR) = 15.4 +/- 0.7

  2. Fixed fluorescent images of an 80 MeV proton pencil beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warman, J. M.; de Haas, M. P.; Luthjens, L. H.; Denkova, A. G.; Kavatsyuk, O.; van Goethem, M. -J.; Kiewiet, H. H.; Brandenburg, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have used an organic radio-fluorogenic gel to make fixed fluorescent images of the track of an 80 MeV proton pencil beam NB this is not a scintillation effect; rather a small fraction of the molecules of the medium are converted permanently from a non-emissive to an emissive form. The spatial res

  3. Positronium formation in helium bubbles in 600 MeV proton-irradiated aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. O.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1985-01-01

    Aluminium samples containing helium bubbles produced by 600 MeV proton irradiation at 430°C were investigated by positron annihilation; both lifetime and angular correlation measurements were made. The angular correlation curves contain an unusually narrow component. This component is associated...

  4. Neutron- and proton-induced evaluated transport library up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evaluated nuclear data library has been created. The library consists of two sub-libraries for neutron and proton incident particles. The neutron sub-library contains nuclear data for transport, heating and shielding applications for 242 nuclides with atomic numbers ranging from 8 to 82 in the energy region of primary neutrons from 10-5 eV to 150 MeV. Data below 20 MeV are taken mainly from ENDF/B-VI (revision 8) and for some nuclides, from the JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0 libraries. The proton sub-library should contain data for the same range of target nuclides and energies. Proton-induced evaluated cross-section files are available for 15 nuclides at the moment. The evaluation of emitted particle energy and angular distributions at energies above 20 MeV (for incident neutrons) and above the reaction threshold (for incident protons) was performed with the help of the ALICE/ASH code and the analysis of available experimental data. The total cross-sections, elastic cross-sections and elastic scattering angular distributions were calculated with the help of the coupled channel model. The results of the calculation were adjusted to the data from ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.3, or JEFF-3.0 at the neutron energy equal to 20 MeV. The library is written in ENDF-6 format using the MF=3/MT=5 and MF=6/MT=5 representations

  5. Proton irradiation of conventional and lithium solar cells - 11-37 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Carter, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Conventional n/p and lithium solar cells were irradiated with 11- to 37-MeV protons. The energy dependence of the solar cell degradation, calculated from electrical parameters and lifetime measurements, is shown to be very slight. Damage coefficients for the n/p cells are calculated. Annealing characteristics of both the lithium cells and the n/p cells are presented.

  6. Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for MeV proton bombardment of beryllium and carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, David D. [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: dcz@ansto.gov.au; Stelcer, Eduard; Siegele, Rainer; Ionescu, Mihail; Prior, Michael [Institute for Environmental Research, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Experimental bremsstrahlung yields for 2, 3 and 4 MeV protons on thin beryllium and carbon targets have been measured. The yields have been corrected for detector efficiency, self-absorption in the target and fitted to 9th order polynomials over the X-ray energy range 1-10 keV for easy comparison with theoretical calculations.

  7. 22 MeV polarized proton scattering from 40Ca and effective NN interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Analyzing powers and differential cross sections have been measured for elastic scattering of 22 MeV polarized protons from 40Ca, 16O and 12C, and diferential cross sections for inelastic scattering of 22 MeV protons from 3- (3.736 MeV)and 5-(4.491 MeV) states of 40Ca have also been measured. The experimental data for polarized proton elastic scattering have been analyzed with a phenomenological optical potential parameters, the experimental data and theoretical values are in good agreement. In the theoretical frame of microscopic single scattering model, transition densities extracted from electron inelastic scattering and M3Y and Halderson’s effective interactions have been utilized to analyze the experimental data of 22 MeV proton inelastic scattering from 40Ca. Overall, it seems that Halderson’s effective interaction can better describe the experimental data than M3Y although the degree of agreement between experimental and theoretical values needs to be improved.

  8. 200 MeV proton radiography studies with a hand phantom using a prototype proton CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Tia; Bashkirov, V; Feng, V; Hurley, F; Johnson, R P; Leary, C; Macafee, S; Plumb, A; Rykalin, V; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Schubert, K; Schulte, R; Schultze, B; Steinberg, D; Witt, M; Zatserklyaniy, A

    2014-04-01

    Proton radiography has applications in patient alignment and verification procedures for proton beam radiation therapy. In this paper, we report an experiment which used 200 MeV protons to generate proton energy-loss and scattering radiographs of a hand phantom. The experiment used the first-generation proton computed tomography (CT) scanner prototype, which was installed on the research beam line of the clinical proton synchrotron at Loma Linda University Medical Center. It was found that while both radiographs displayed anatomical details of the hand phantom, the energy-loss radiograph had a noticeably higher resolution. Nonetheless, scattering radiography may yield more contrast between soft and bone tissue than energy-loss radiography, however, this requires further study. This study contributes to the optimization of the performance of the next-generation of clinical proton CT scanners. Furthermore, it demonstrates the potential of proton imaging (proton radiography and CT), which is now within reach of becoming available as a new, potentially low-dose medical imaging modality.

  9. Dilepton and double-photon production in proton-proton scattering at 190 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplar, R.; Bacelar, J.C.S; Castelijns, R.J.J.; Ermisch, K.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Löhner, H.; Mahjour Shafiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The first high-statistics measurement of dilepton and double-photon yields in proton-proton scattering below the pion threshold has been performed. The data obtained allow a detailed study of off-shell effects in the proton-proton interaction.

  10. A study on the proton beam energy(50 MeV) measurement and diagnosis (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Jong Suh; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Yoo Suk; Park, Chan Won; Lee, Yong Min; Hong, Sung Suk; Lee, Min Yong; Lee, Ji Sub; Hah, Hang Hoh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    The main purpose of this project is the precise ion measurement of proton beam energy extracted at RF 25.89 MHz from the MC-50 cyclotron of SF type. There are several method for particle energy measurement. We measured the 50 MeV proton energy by using the E-{Delta}E method in 1993. And also in our experiment used range, reapproval of energy of extracted proton beam at RF 25.89 MHz was performed, which attained the same energy with the result used elastic scattering within the error range. 10 figs, 2 pix, 3 tabs, 3 refs. (Author).

  11. Preequilibrium proton emission in violent heavy-ion collisions around 30 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protons emitted in coincidence with heavy residues resulting from incomplete fusion processes have been measured, for the reaction 27 MeV per nucleon 40Ar + natAg. From the proton velocity spectra, an anisotropic component was extracted, which shows a broad angular distribution, and a mean velocity larger than the beam velocity. Nevertheless, the average velocity along the beam axis is very close to the beam velocity, in agreement with the standard assumption usually made in order to derive the linear momentum transferred to the target, but the mean energy carried away by these protons is larger than the value commonly assumed

  12. Filamentation control and collimation of laser accelerated MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, B.; Tayyab, M.; Bagchi, S.; Mandal, T.; Upadhyay, A.; Weng, S. M.; Murakami, M.; Cowan, T. E.; Chakera, J. A.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that the proton beam filamentation in dense plasma can be controlled in multi-layered (Al-CH-Al) sandwich targets. We observe up to three-fold reduction in the MeV proton beam divergence (~12°) from these targets as a result of decrease in filamentary structures in the proton beam profile. Strong self-generated resistive magnetic fields in targets with a high-Z transport layer are mainly responsible for this observed effect. Enhancement in the proton flux and energy is also observed from these targets. Supported by a matching 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation and theoretical considerations, we suggest that these targets can be very effectively implemented to collimate proton beams useful for ion oncology applications or advanced fast igniter approach of inertial confinement fusion (ICF).

  13. Epics Support IOC for Monitoring Waveform Data of PEFP 100-MeV Proton LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) is constructing a 100-MeV proton Linear Accelerator (Linac), consisting of a 50-keV proton injector, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 3-MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), a 20-MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), 100-MeV DTL, and beam lines. For PEFP commissioning and operation, remote control and monitoring system of the RF and beam current signals is essential for operators. To monitor and control the RF and beam signals from subsystems of the 100-MeV proton accelerator, VME PMC ADC boards and oscilloscopes are equipped. The measured signals are transmitted and displayed on operator consoles in a control room. The VME baseboard and oscilloscope must support Ethernet based TCP/IP protocol for communication interface and the monitoring systems must be integrated with control systems for PEFP project. To achieve these goals and minimize the development period, the EPICS middleware and extension tools are adopted. The EPICS IOC has been tested to control and monitor the subsystems of PEFP. The EPICS IOC supports to create various database records to access I/O data and setting parameters. One of EPICS database records is the waveform record to acquire array signals of the device and the waveform record can support the remote control and monitoring of control system by using various devices including oscilloscope instrumentations, VME ADC boards, PXI, cPCI, etc. Operators can observe the waveform using some graphic viewers. The implementation of EPICS waveform support for the PEFP is described in this paper

  14. Intensity maps of MeV electrons and protons below the radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global distributions of energetic electrons (0.19 - 3.2 MeV) and protons (0.64 - 35 MeV) are shown in the form of contour maps. The data were obtained by two sets of energetic particle telescopes on board the satellite OHZORA. The observed altitude range is 350 - 850 Km. Ten degress meshes in longitude and latitude were used to obtain the intensity contours. A pitch angle distribution of J(α) = J(90). sinnα with n = 5A is assumed to get the average intensity in each mesh. (author)

  15. New frontier of laser particle acceleration: driving protons to 80 MeV by radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, I Jong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Choi, Il Woo; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Nam, Chang Hee

    2014-01-01

    The radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of charged particles has been considered a challenging task in laser particle acceleration. Laser-driven proton/ion acceleration has attracted considerable interests due to its underlying physics and potential for applications such as high-energy density physics, ultrafast radiography, and cancer therapy. Among critical issues to overcome the biggest challenge is to produce energetic protons using an efficient acceleration mechanism. The proton acceleration by radiation pressure is considerably more efficient than the conventional target normal sheath acceleration driven by expanding hot electrons. Here we report the generation of 80-MeV proton beams achieved by applying 30-fs circularly polarized laser pulses with an intensity of 6.1 x 1020 W/cm2 to ultrathin targets. The radiation pressure acceleration was confirmed from the obtained optimal target thickness, quadratic energy scaling, polarization dependence, and 3D-PIC simulations. We expect this fast energy scalin...

  16. 520 MeV proton irradiation effects on GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Rong; Guo Zeng Liang; Zhang Xin; Zhai Zuo Xu

    2002-01-01

    High-energy proton irradiation effects on GaAs/Ge solar cells for space use are studied. The cells are irradiated by protons with an energy of 5-20 MeV up to a fluence ranging from 1 x 10 sup 9 to 7 x 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2 , and then the change of the photovoltaic performances is measured at AMO. It is shown that the performances of the cells keep no change under 1 x 10 sup 9 cm sup - sup 2 irradiation. Above 1 x 10 sup 9 cm sup - sup 2 irradiation, I sub s sub c , V sub o sub c and P sub m sub a sub x degrade, as proton irradiation fluence increases. But the higher the proton energy, the less the degradation of I sub s sub c , V sub o sub c and P sub m sub a sub x

  17. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on deuterium at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A specific set of spin transfer coefficients has been measured for proton-deuteron elastic scattering at 800 MeV using an unpolarized liquid deuterium target. The experiment was done using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) with a polarized proton beam. The scattered proton spin direction was determined using the Focal Plane Polarimeter (FPP) of the HRS, which employs a carbon analyzer. Some of the spin dependent parameters measured in this experiment are of considerable interest because they provide selective information about the nucleon-nucleon (NN) amplitude. Since the deuteron is the simplest bound nucleus, pd elastic scattering is particularly well suited for testing multiple scattering theories. These measurements will also be used to eventually determine the full pd collision matrix, which contains all possible information about the scattering process. In addition, the experimental setup is described for a polarized proton-polarized deuterium target spin transfer experiment also done at the HRS at 800 MeV incident proton energy. 71 references

  18. Baseline Design of a Solid Neutron Converter Driven by 160 MeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2006-01-01

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL DS) aims at the design of several spallation and fission targets for the production of radioactive isotopes. Namely, direct targets, where high-energy protons interact directly with the fission targets, as well as the design of a Multi-MW proton-to-neutron converter coupled with a fission target. For the later, several options have been proposed, including the use of a relatively low energy (in the hundreds of MeV) high intensity proton beam. In this scope, the neutronic characteristics of a tantalum n-converter/fission-target system have been established (although not yet optimised) for a reference proton energy of 160 MeV. A set of simulations has been carried out for different design requirements and different characteristics of the proton beam. An extensive comparison of the main physical parameters has also been carried out, in order to allow the optimal engineering design of the whole target station.

  19. Planar Channelling Criticalities of MeV Protons in Si Crystal: Simulations, Evaluation and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukhtar Ahmed Rana

    2008-01-01

    We reports a phase-space structure of MeV proton beam planar channelled along {110} planes in Si crystal using simulation results with the help of a computer code FLUX. The aim is to understand channelling conditions suitable for disorder measurement in crystals. Phase-space distribution of a planar channelled proton beam evolutes in a systematic fashion when it travels into the crystal. Planar channelled beam oscillates between phase-like and space-like conditions in which a part of the beam becomes under phase and space criticalities.These criticality conditions in planar channelling axe analysed, explained and discussed with the perspective of defect measurement in crystals.

  20. Measurement of the angular distribution of neutron-proton scattering at 10 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative angular distribution of neutrons scattered from protons was measured at an incident neutron energy of 10 MeV at the Ohio University Accelerator Laboratory. An array of 11 detector telescopes at laboratory angles of 0 to 60 degrees was used to detect recoil protons from neutron interactions with a CH2 (polypropylene) target. Data for 7 of these telescopes were obtained with one set of electronics and are presented here. These data, from 108 to 180 degrees for the center-of-mass scattering angles, have a small slope which agrees better with angular distributions predicted by the Arndt phase shifts than with the ENDF/B-VI angular distribution

  1. Dosimetric characterization of CVD diamonds irradiated with 62 MeV proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as on-line radiation dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have produced material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetry applications. In this work the possibility to use a segmented commercial CVD detector in the dosimetry of proton beams has been investigated. The response as function of dose, dose rate, the priming and the rise time have been investigated thoroughly. This study shows the suitability of CVD diamond for dosimetry of clinical 62 MeV proton beams

  2. Dosimetric characterization of CVD diamonds irradiated with 62 MeV proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: cirrone@lns.infn.it; Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Lo Nigro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Mongelli, V. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); CSFNSM Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della MAteria, Catania (Italy); Raffaele, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Catania (Italy); Valastro, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania (Italy); Scuola di Specializzazione in Fisica Sanitaria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita di Florence (Italy); Onori, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    2005-10-21

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as on-line radiation dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of polycrystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have produced material with electronic properties suitable for dosimetry applications. In this work the possibility to use a segmented commercial CVD detector in the dosimetry of proton beams has been investigated. The response as function of dose, dose rate, the priming and the rise time have been investigated thoroughly. This study shows the suitability of CVD diamond for dosimetry of clinical 62 MeV proton beams.

  3. Measurement of neutron yield by 62 MeV proton beam on a thick Beryllium target

    CERN Document Server

    Alba, R; Boccaccio, P; Celentano, A; Colonna, N; Cosentino, G; Del Zoppo, A; Di Pietro, A; Esposito, J; Figuera, P; Finocchiaro, P; Kostyukov, A; Maiolino, C; Osipenko, M; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Viberti, C M; Santonocito, D; Schillaci, M

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of research on IVth generation reactors and high intensity neutron sources a low-power prototype neutron amplifier was recently proposed by INFN. It is based on a low-energy, high current proton cyclotron, whose beam, impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, produces a fast neutron spectrum. The world database on the neutron yield from thick Beryllium target in the 70 MeV proton energy domain is rather scarce. The new measurement was performed at LNS, covering a wide angular range from 0 to 150 degrees and an almost complete neutron energy interval. In this contribution the preliminary data are discussed together with the proposed ADS facility.

  4. The optimization for the conceptual design of a 300 MeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    An, Yuwen; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Liangsheng

    2016-01-01

    A research complex for aerospace radiation effects research has been proposed in Harbin Institute of Technology. Its core part is a proton accelerator complex, which consists of a 10 MeV injector, a 300 MeV synchrotron and beam transport lines. The proton beam extracted from the synchrotron is utilized for the radiation effects research. Based on the conceptual design [1], the design study for optimizing the synchrotron has been done. A new lattice design was worked out, and the multi-turn injection and slow extraction system were optimized with the new lattice design. In order to improve the time structure of the extracted beam, a RF knock-out method is employed. To meet the requirement of accurate control of dose, the frequency of the RF kicker is well investigated.

  5. Commissioning of the CERN LINAC4 BPM System with 50 Mev Proton Beamns

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, J; Søby, L; Sordet, M; Wendt, M

    2013-01-01

    The new Linac4 at CERN will provide a 160 MeV H- ion beam for charge-exchange injection into the existing CERN accelerator complex. Shorted stripline pick-ups placed in the Linac intertank regions and the transfer lines will measure beam orbit, relative beam current, beam phase, and average beam energy via the time-of-flight between two pickups. A prototype Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system has been installed in the transfer line between the existing Linac2 and the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in order to study and review the complete acquisition chain. This paper presents measurements and performance of this BPM system operating with 50 MeV proton beams, and compares the results with laboratory measurements and electromagnetic simulations.

  6. Variation Tendency of the Align Network for the 100MeV Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daeil; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Kim, Hansung; Seo, Donghyuk; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, the variation tendency of the align networks is checked and the survey results are considered to compensate the position of the accelerator components in the tunnel. Two years ago, the align networks on the tunnel were installed and checked to align the accelerator components. In recent survey of align networks, the displacement by temperature was confirmed according to comparison of the position. When the accelerator components are realigned, the displacement should be used to compensate position of the accelerator components. 100MeV proton linac for KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been operated at the Gyeong-ju. Linac is composed of a 50keV proton injector, a 3MeV RFQ, DTL tanks and a beam dump. The align networks were built to align the accelerator components. The survey work of align networks should be accomplished whenever need the alignment of the accelerator by using the laser tracker.

  7. Reaction cross sections for protons in the energy range 220-570 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton reaction cross sections have been measured for targets of natural isotopic abundance of the following elements and compounds: He, Be, C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ge, Sn, Pb, H/sub 2/O, B/sub 4/C and NaI. Data for proton energies between 220 and 570 MeV have been obtained with two types of transmission-counter assembly. The total errors are of the order of +or-3%. A slight increase of the reaction cross sections with energy is observed for most of the elements studied. The results interpreted in terms of the semi-classical theory of reaction cross section as function of energy clearly demonstrate the onset of pion- production above 250 MeV. (32 refs).

  8. Proton-deuteron breakup cross sections in collinear geometry at 28. 6 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchall, J.; Svenne, J.P.; de Jong, M.S.; McKee, J.S.C.; Ramsay, W.D.; Al-Ghazi, M.S.A.L.; Videla, N.

    1979-10-01

    Deuteron breakup cross sections induced by 28.6 MeV protons have been measured in collinear and noncollinear geometry and the results compared with an exact three-body calculation using the Doleschall code. This calculation includes two-body interactions in S and P waves and, in addition, a tensor force. The agreement with experiment in all cases is excellent. No evidence is seen for a collinearity enhancement.

  9. Irradiation Effects of 22 and 240 MeV Protons on Several Transistors and Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulten, W. C.; Honaker, W. C.; Patterson, John L.

    1961-01-01

    The work covered in this report has been directed toward the investigation of the irradiation effects of 22 and 240 MeV protons on several transistors, solar cells, resistors, and condensers to be used in the space radiation environment. The experimental data indicated definite detrimental effects on transistors and solar cells but no apparent effects on the types of resistors and condensers tested. The detrimental effects are of two distinct types: transient and permanent.

  10. RF phase stability in the 100-MeV proton linac operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyung-Tae

    2015-02-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac of the Korea multi-purpose accelerator complex (KOMAC) has been operated to provide a proton beam to users. The 100-MeV linac consists of a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), four 20-MeV drift-tube linac (DTL) tanks, two medium-energy beam-transmitter (MEBT) tanks, and seven 100-MeV DTL tanks. The requirements of the field stability are within ±1% in RF amplitude and ±1 degree in RF phase. The RF phase stability is influenced by a RF reference line, RF transmission lines, and a RF control system. The RF reference signal is chosen to be a 300-MHz local oscillator (LO) signal, and a rigid copper coaxial line with temperature control was installed for an RF reference distribution. A phase stability of ±0.1 degrees was measured under a temperature change of ±0.1 °C. A digital feedback control system with a field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) module was adopted for a high RF stability. The RF phase was maintained within ±0.1 degrees with a dummy cavity and was within ±0.3 degrees at RFQ operation. In the case of the 20-MeV DTL tanks, one klystron drives 4 tanks, and the input phases of 4 tanks were designed to be in phase. The input phases of 4 tanks were fixed within ±1 degree by adjusting a phase shifter in each waveguide.

  11. M-C simulation of shielding effects of PE, LiH and graphite fibers under 1 MeV electrons and 20 MeV protons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shielding effects of different materials under 1 MeV electron and 20 MeV proton beams were simulated with Geant4 code. It was found that shielding effects of polyethylene and graphite fibers are much better than aluminum. Energy depositions in the phantom shielded by the materials are calculated, with the least energy deposition by graphite fiber shielding. The results show that graphite fibers are good radiation shielding material in space programs.

  12. 25 MeV Solar Proton Events in Cycle 24 and Previous Cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Ian G; Cane, Hilary V

    2016-01-01

    We summarize observations of around a thousand solar energetic particle (SEP) events since 1967 that include ~25 MeV protons made by various near-Earth spacecraft (IMPs 4, 5, 7, 8, ISEE 3, SOHO), encompassing solar cycles 20 to the current cycle (24). We also discuss recent observations of similar SEP events in cycle 24 from the STEREO spacecraft. The observations show, for example, that the time distribution of 25 MeV proton events varies from cycle to cycle. In particular, the time evolution of the SEP occurrence rate in cycle 24 is strongly asymmetric between the northern and southern solar hemispheres, and tracks the sunspot number in each hemisphere, whereas cycle 23 was more symmetric. There was also an absence of 25 MeV proton events during the solar minimum preceding cycle 24 (other minima show occasional, often reasonably intense events), and, so far, there have been few exceptionally intense events in cycle 24 compared to cycles 22 and 23, though cycle 21 also apparently lacked such events. We note ...

  13. Mechanical properties testing of several 800 MeV proton irradiated BCC metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spallation neutron source for the 600-MeV proton accelerator facility at the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN) consists of a vertical cylinder filled with molten Pb-Bi. The proton beam enters the cylinder, passing upward through a window in contact with the Pb-Bi eutectic liquid. Investigations are underway at the 800-MeV proton accelerator at LAMPF to test the performance of candidate SIN window materials. Based on considerations of chemical compatibility with molten Pb-Bi, as well as radiation damage mechanisms, Fe, Ta, Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo, and Fe-12Cr-1Mo (Ht-9) were chosen as candidate materials. Sheet tensile samples were sealed inside capsules containing Pb-Bi and were proton-irradiated at LAMPF to two fluences, 4.8 and 54 x 1023 p/m2. The beam current was approximately equal to the 1 mA anticipated for the upgraded SIN accelerator. Yield and ultimate strengths increased upon irradiation in all materials, while the ductility decreased. The pure metals, Ta and Fe, exhibited the greatest radiation hardening and embrittlement. The HT-9 alloy showed the smallest changes in strength and ductility

  14. Modification of radiobiological effects of 171 MeV protons by elements of physical protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulinina, Taisia; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Ivanov, Alexander; Molokanov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation includes protons of various energies. Physical protection is effective in the case of low energy protons (50-100 MeV) and becomes insufficient for radiation with a high part of high-energy protons. In the experiment performed on outbred mice, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the radiobiological effect of 171 MeV protons and protons modified by elements of physical protection of the spacecraft, on a complex of indicators of the functional condition of the system hematopoiesis and the central nervous system in 24 hours after irradiation at 20 cGy dose. The spacecraft radiation protection elements used in the experiment were a construction of wet hygiene wipes called a «protective curtain», and a glass plate imitating an ISS window. Mass thickness of the " protective curtain" in terms of water equivalent was ̴ 6,2 g/cm2. Physical shielding along the path of 171 MeV protons increases their linear energy transfer leading to the absorbed dose elevation and strengthening of the radiobiological effect. In the experiment, the two types of shielding together raised the absorbed dose from 20 to 23.2 cGy. Chemically different materials (glass and water in the wipes) were found to exert unequal modifying effects on physical and biological parameters of the proton-irradiated mice. There was a distinct dose-dependent reduction of bone marrow cellularity within the dose range from 20 cGy to 23.2 cGy in 24 hours after exposure. No modifying effect of the radiation protection elements on spontaneous motor activity was discovered when compared with entrance protons. The group of animals protected by the glass plate exhibited normal orientative-trying reactions and weakened grip with the forelimbs. The effects observed in the experiment indicate the necessity to carry out comprehensive radiobiological researches (physical, biological and mathematical) in assessing the effects of physical protection, that are actual for ensuring radiation safety of crews in

  15. Radiation effects induced in pin photodiodes by 40- and 85-MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.; Reft, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  16. PIN photodiodes irradiated with 40- and 85-MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reft, C. S.; Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current, and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length, and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  17. Impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondhalekar, A. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Korotkov, A.A. [AF Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    A model elucidating the role of carbon and beryllium, the main impurities in JET plasmas, in neutralizing MeV energy protons, which arise during ICRF heating of deuterium plasmas in the hydrogen minority heating mode D(H), and from D-D fusion reactions, is presented. The model establishes charge transfer from hydrogen-like impurity ions to protons as the main process for neutralization. Calculations for deducing the proton energy distribution function from measured hydrogen flux are described. The validity of the model is tested by using it to described the measured flux in different conditions of plasma heating and fueling. Further, it is used to deduce the background thermal deuterium atom density at the plasma center. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Single event upsets calculated from new ENDF/B-VI proton and neutron data up to 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.; Normand, E. [Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Systems, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Single-event upsets (SEU) in microelectronics are calculated from newly-developed silicon nuclear reaction recoil data that extend up to 150 MeV, for incident protons and neutrons. Calculated SEU cross sections are compared with measured data.

  19. Comprehensive Measurement of Neutron Yield Produced by 62 MeV Protons on Beryllium Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-power prototype of neutron amplifier, based on a 70 MeV, high current proton cyclotron being installed at LNL for the SPES RIB facility, was recently proposed within INFN-E project. This prototype uses a thick Beryllium converter to produce a fast neutron spectrum feeding a sub-critical reactor core. To complete the design of such facility the new measurement of neutron yield from a thick Beryllium target was performed at LNS. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range 0.5-62 MeV. To extend the covered neutron energy range 3He detector was used to measure neutrons below 0.5 MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge deposited by the proton beam on the metallic Beryllium target. These techniques allowed to achieve a wide angular coverage from 0 to 150 degrees and to explore almost complete neutron energy interval. (authors)

  20. Shielding calculations for a 250 MeV hospital-based proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Nucleare; Arduini, G. [Fondazione Italiana Ricerca sul Cancro, via Corridoni 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Bodei, G. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Ingegneria Nucleare; Monti, S. [ENEA, ERG-FISS-FIRE, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Padoani, F. [ENEA, ERG-FISS-FIRE, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Silari, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto Tecnologie Biomediche Avanzate, via Ampere 56, I-20131, Milano (Italy); Tinti, R. [ENEA, ERG-FISS-FIRE, via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Tromba, G. [Sincrotrone (``ELETTRA``) Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34012 Trieste (Italy)

    1996-05-21

    The accelerator shields (250 MeV protons, 400 MeV/u {sup 16}O{sup 8+} ions) and treatment rooms of the Hadrontherapy Centre, a hospital-based facility under design in Italy, were determined by means of Monte Carlo calculations. The LCS and FLUKA codes were employed, together with analytical estimates carried out by making use of empirical formulas from the literature, and the results compared. In the case of 250 MeV protons a 250 cm thick concrete wall ensures an annual dose equivalent lower than 2 mSv in the environments adjacent to the accelerator room. The best ceiling thickness was found to be 200 cm for a unitary occupancy factor. The photon dose equivalent beyond the concrete shield was also estimated using the LCS code. In the case of ions the shield thickness was calculated using empirical formulas from the literature; the concrete thicknesses calculated for protons should ensure the required dose equivalent when some local shields are added. Monte Carlo calculations of the treatment room shielding were also carried out using the FLUKA code. (orig.).

  1. Radiation protection studies for a high-power 160 MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Egidio

    2009-01-01

    CERN is presently designing a new chain of accelerators to replace the present Proton Synchrotron (PS) complex: a 160 MeV room-temperature H− linac (Linac4) to replace the present 50 MeV proton linac injector, a 3.5 GeV Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) to replace the 1.4 GeV PS Booster (PSB) and a 50 GeV synchrotron (named PS2) to replace the 26 GeV PS. Linac4 has been funded and the civil engineering work started in October 2008, whilst the SPL is in an advanced stage of design. Beyond injecting into the future 50 GeV PS, the ultimate goal of the SPL is to generate a 4 MW beam for the production of intense neutrino beams. The radiation protection design is driven by the latter requirement. This work summarizes the radiation protection studies conducted for Linac4. FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations, complemented by analytical estimates, were performed to evaluate the propagation of neutrons through the waveguide, ventilation and cable ducts placed along the accelerator, to estimate the radiological impact of ...

  2. Studies of scintillator response to 60 MeV protons in a proton beam imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydygier Marzena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Beam Imaging System (ProBImS is under development at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The ProBImS will be used to optimize beam delivery at IFJ PAN proton therapy facilities, delivering two-dimensional distributions of beam profiles. The system consists of a scintillator, optical tract and a sensitive CCD camera which digitally records the light emitted from the proton-irradiated scintillator. The optical system, imaging data transfer and control software have already been developed. Here, we report preliminary results of an evaluation of the DuPont Hi-speed thick back screen EJ 000128 scintillator to determine its applicability in our imaging system. In order to optimize the light conversion with respect to the dose locally deposited by the proton beam in the scintillation detector, we have studied the response of the DuPont scintillator in terms of linearity of dose response, uniformity of light emission and decay rate of background light after deposition of a high dose in the scintillator. We found a linear dependence of scintillator light output vs. beam intensity by showing the intensity of the recorded images to be proportional to the dose deposited in the scintillator volume.

  3. Degradation of micromorph silicon solar cells after exposure to 65 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzert, Heinz-Christoph [DIIIE, Salerno University, Fisciano (Italy); NanoMates, Salerno University, Fisciano (Italy); Labonia, Laura; Citro, Michele [DIIIE, Salerno University, Fisciano (Italy); Delli Veneri, Paola; Mercaldo, Lucia [ENEA Portici Research Center (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Silicon micromorph tandem solar cells, grown on commercial TCO coated substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, with an initial efficiency higher than 10%, have been degraded, in order to check their stability under space conditions, by irradiation with 65 MeV protons with fluences ranging from 10{sup 12}protons/cm{sup 2} up to 10{sup 14}protons/cm{sup 2}. For low proton fluences we find a stronger decrease of the top amorphous cell photocurrent due to the stronger impact of the proton beam on the glass substrate transparency in the visible wavelength range, as compared to the infrared range. Only for very high fluences a stronger degradation of the photocurrent in the infrared wavelength range where the bottom microcrystalline cell is dominating the spectral response, has been observed. Because the non-irradiated cell has been found to be spectrally mismatched in favour of the top amorphous cell under AM1.5 and even more under AM0 irradiation conditions, for low and intermediate fluences the irradiation decreases the spectral mismatch of the micromorph tandem cells and results consequently in a relative stabilization of the irradiation induced degradation. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Cross Sections from 800 MeV Proton Irradiation of Terbium

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, J W; Bach, H; Couture, A; Jackman, K; Gritzo, R; Ballard, B D; Faßbender, M; Smith, D M; Bitteker, L J; Ullmann, J L; Gulley, M; Pillai, C; John, K D; Birnbaum, E R; Nortier, F M

    2012-01-01

    A single terbium foil was irradiated with 800 MeV protons to ascertain the potential for production of lanthanide isotopes of interest in medical, astrophysical, and basic science research and to contribute to nuclear data repositories. Isotopes produced in the foil were quantified by gamma spectroscopy. Cross sections for 36 isotopes produced in the irradiation are reported and compared with predictions by the MCNP6 transport code using the CEM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA event generators. Our results indicate the need to accurately consider fission and fragmentation of relatively light target nuclei like terbium in the modeling of nuclear reactions at 800 MeV. The predictive power of the code was found to be different for each event generator tested but was satisfactory for most of the product yields in the mass region where spallation reactions dominate. However, none of the event generators' results are in complete agreement with measured data.

  5. Cross sections from proton irradiation of thorium at 800 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan W; Weidner, John W; Wolfsberg, Laura E; Fassbender, Michael E; Jackman, Kevin; Couture, Aaron; Bitteker, Leo J; Ullmann, John L; Gulley, Mark S; Pillai, Chandra; John, Kevin D; Birnbaum, Eva R; Nortier, Francois M

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear formation cross sections are reported for 65 nuclides produced from 800-MeV proton irradiation of thorium foils. These data are useful as benchmarks for computational predictions in the ongoing process of theoretical code development and also to the design of spallation-based radioisotope production currently being considered for multiple radiotherapeutic pharmaceutical agents. Measured data are compared with the predictions of three MCNP6 event generators and used to evaluate the potential for 800-MeV productions of radioisotopes of interest for medical radiotherapy. In only a few instances code predictions are discrepant from measured values by more than a factor of two, demonstrating satisfactory predictive power across a large mass range. Similarly, agreement between measurements presented here and those previously reported is good, lending credibility to predictions of target yields and radioimpurities for high-energy accelerator-produced radionuclides.

  6. Cross sections from 800 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, J.W., E-mail: jwengle@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mashnik, S.G.; Bach, H.; Couture, A.; Jackman, K.; Gritzo, R.; Ballard, B.D.; Fassbender, M.; Smith, D.M.; Bitteker, L.J.; Ullmann, J.L.; Gulley, M.S.; Pillai, C.; John, K.D.; Birnbaum, E.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Nortier, F.M., E-mail: meiring@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Terbium foils were irradiated with 800 MeV protons to ascertain the potential for production of lanthanide isotopes of interest in medical, astrophysical, and basic science research and to contribute to nuclear data repositories. Isotopes produced in the foil were quantified by gamma spectroscopy. Cross sections for 35 isotopes produced in the irradiation are reported and compared with predictions by the MCNP6 transport code using the CEM03.03, Bertini and INCL + ABLA event generators. Our results indicate the need to accurately consider fission and fragmentation of relatively light target nuclei like terbium in the modeling of nuclear reactions at 800 MeV. The predictive power of the code was found to be different for each event generator tested but was satisfactory for most of the product yields in the mass region where spallation reactions dominate. However, none of the event generators' results are in complete agreement with measured data.

  7. An 800-MeV proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, N.S.P.; Adams, K.; Alrick, K.R.; Crow, M.L.; Cushing, S.B.; Eddleman, J.C.; Fife, T.T.; Gallegos, R.A.; Gray, N.T.; Hogan, G.E.; Holmes, V.H.; Knudsson, J.N.; London, R.K.; Lopez, R.R.; McDonald, T.E.; McClelland, J.B.; Merrill, F.E.; Morley, K.B.; Morris, C.L.; Naivar, F.J.; Pazuchanics, P.D.; Pillai, C.; Riedel, C.M.; Sarracino, J.S.; Shelley, F.E. Jr.; Stacy, H.L.; Takala, B.E.; Tucker, H.E.; Yates, G.J.; Ziock, H.-J.; Zumbro, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ables, E. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Balzar, Stephen [Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Barnes, P.D. Jr. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Flores, Paul [Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fujino, D. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hartouni, E.P. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Jaramillo, S.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Parker, E.L. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Park, H.S. [Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Thompson, Richard [Bechtel Nevada, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    1999-11-03

    The capability has successfully been developed at the Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) to utilize a spatially and temporally prepared 800 MeV proton beam to produce proton radiographs. A series of proton bursts are transmitted through a dynamic object and transported, via a unique magnetic lens system, to an image plane. The magnetic lens system permits correcting for the effects of multiple coulomb scattering which would otherwise completely blur the spatially transmitted information at the image plane. The proton radiographs are recorded either on a time integrating film plate or with a recently developed multi-frame electronic imaging camera system. The latter technique permits obtaining a time dependent series of proton radiographs with time intervals (modulo 358 ns) up to many microseconds and variable time intervals between images. One electronically shuttered, intensified, CCD camera is required per image. These cameras can detect single protons interacting with a scintillating fiber optic array in the image plane but also have a dynamic range which permits recording radiographs with better than 5% statistics for observation of detailed density variations in the object. A number of tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the proton radiography system for absolute mass determination, resolution, and dynamic range. Initial dynamic experiments characterized the temporal and spatial behavior of shock propagation in a high explosive sample with up to six images per experiment. Based on experience with the prototype system, a number of upgrades are being implemented including the anticipated capability for enhanced mass discrimination through differential multiple coulomb scattering radiographs and more images with improved imaging techniques.

  8. Nuclear excitation functions from 40-200 MeV proton irradiation of terbium

    CERN Document Server

    Engle, Jonathan W; Parker, Lauren A; Jackman, Kevin R; Bitteker, Leo J; Ullmann, John L; Gulley, Mark S; Pillai, Chandra; John, Kevin D; Birnbaum, Eva R; Nortier, Francois M

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear formation cross sections are reported for 26 radionuclides, measured with 40 to 200 MeV proton irradiations of terbium foils. These data are relevant to the production of medically relevant radionuclides (e.g., 152Tb, 155Tb, 155Eu, and 156Eu) and to ongoing efforts to characterize stellar nucleosynthesis routes passing through long-lived intermediaries (e.g., 153Gd). Computational predictions from the ALICE2011, CEM03.03, Bertini, and INCL+ABLA codes are compared with newly measured data to contribute to the ongoing process of code development, and yields are calculated for selected radionuclides using measured data.

  9. Phenomenological optical potential analysis of proton-carbon elastic scattering at 200 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidasaria, H. B.; Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Differential cross sections for 200 MeV protons elastically scattered from C-12 were analyzed utilizing a local, complex, spin-dependent optical potential with a harmonic well radial dependence. Analyses were performed using the WKB and eikonal approximations. For the latter, first-order corrections to he phase shifts were incorporated to account for the spin-orbit contribution. Large disagreement between theory and experiment was observed when the usual Thomas form for the spin-orbit potential was utilized. Substantial improvement was obtained by allowing the parameters in the central and spin-orbit potential terms to vary independently.

  10. Neutron shielding verification measurements and simulations for a 235-MeV proton therapy center

    CERN Document Server

    Newhauser, W D; Dexheimer, D; Yan, X; Nill, S

    2002-01-01

    The neutron shielding at the Massachusetts General Hospital's 235-MeV proton therapy facility was investigated with measurements, analytical calculations, and realistic three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations. In 37 of 40 cases studied, the analytical calculations predicted higher neutron dose equivalent rates outside the shielding than the measured, typically by more than a factor of 10, and in some cases more than 100. Monte Carlo predictions of dose equivalent at three locations are, on average, 1.1 times the measured values. Except at one location, all of the analytical model predictions and Monte Carlo simulations overestimate neutron dose equivalent.

  11. Stopping power of aluminium for 5-12 MeV protons and deuterons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Hanke, C.C.;

    1966-01-01

    The stopping power of aluminium for 5-12 MeV protons and deuterons has been measured by a thermometric compensation technique working at liquid helium temperature. The experimental method is described and the standard deviation of the results is found to be 0.3%. In order to obtain this accuracy...... one has to apply theoretical corrections for the influence of Coulomb scattering, X-rays and deltarays. Other possible corrections are discussed, but are found to be negligible for this combination of projectiles, energies and target material. The results agree with published experimental results...

  12. Excitation of resonant oscillations in a solid bar by 30-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical response of a metallic bar to pulses of 30-MeV protons has been investigated. It was found that by making the pulse duration short in comparison with the periods of the low-order harmonics of the bar resonant oscillations, vibration amplitudes of the order of 10-11 cm could be measured. The required energy loss by the beam pulses amounted to about 10-5 J, and very simple theoretical considerations suffice to relate quantitatively the deposition of energy in the bar with the amplitudes of its natural vibrational modes

  13. The scattering of 136 MeV protons from 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections have been measured for the elastic scattering of 136 MeV protons from 6Li, and for inelastic scattering to the first two excited states. The optical model fit to the elastic scattering differential cross section gave parameters which were retained for the analysis of the two inelastic transitions. The latter differential cross sections were fairly well fitted in shape, but in both cases there is a discrepancy in absolute magnitude of a factor between 1.5 and 4

  14. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 65 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on gold for production of $^{197m,197g,195m,195g, 193m,193g,192}$Hg, $^{196m,196g(cum),195g(cum),194,191(cum)}$Au, $^{191(cum)}$Pt and $^{192}$Ir were measured up to 65 MeV proton energy, some of them for the first time. The new data are in acceptably good agreement with the recently published earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 (results in TENDL-2015 on-line library) and EMPIRE 3.2 code.

  15. Calculated proton-induced thick-target neutron and radionuclide yields for Ep ≤ 100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier proton-induced thick-target yield calculations have been extended in proton energy range and to additional target elements, using the proton stopping cross section data of Anderson and Ziegler and cross sections modeled with the GNASH code. The targets now described include Be, C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, W, Pb and Bi. Thick-target yields are presented for these thirteen targets, with most extending to 100 MeV. 13 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Target irradiation facility and targetry development at 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuikov, B L; Konyakhin, N A; Vincent, J

    1999-01-01

    A facility has been built and successfully operated with the 160 MeV proton beam of Moscow Meson factory LINAC, Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) of Russian Academy of Science, Troitsk. The facility was created for various isotope production goals as well as for fundamental nuclear investigations at high intensity beam (100 mu A and more). An important part of the facility targetry system is a high-intensity beam monitoring collimator device. Measurements of the temperature distribution between collimator sectors, cooling water flow and temperature, and the beam current, provide an opportunity to compute beam losses and beam position. The target holder design allows easy insertion by manipulator and simultaneous bombardment of several different targets of various types and forms, and variation of proton energy on each target over a wide range below 160 MeV. The main target utilized for commercial sup 8 sup 2 Sr isotope production is metallic rubidium in a stainless-steel container. A regular wet chemistry ...

  17. Neutron spectrum measurements at a 40-MeV proton cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birattari, C.; Salomone, A.

    1985-11-01

    A set of seven activation reactions has been selected for neutron spectral analysis in the environment of a proton-cyclotron target. This choice of reactions: 59Co(n, p) 59Fe, 59Co(n, 2n) 58Co, 59Co(n, 3n) 57Co, 197Au(n, gamma) 198Au, 197Au(n, 2n) 196Au, 197Au(n, 4n) 194Au, 27Al(n, alpha) 24Na, analyzed by means of a Ge(Li) detector, reduces to a minimum of three the number of activation detectors employed, and makes possible convenient and accurate spectral measurements to at least 40 MeV. Criteria for selection of the activation materials from a list of candidates are discussed. A detailed comparison of the unfolding programs LYRA and SAND is made, and reasons are given for our choice of SAND in our application. Spectra of neutrons emitted at 0 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees from thick targets of A1, Fe, Cu, Ta and stainless steel, irradiated by 40-MeV protons at the Milan AVF cyclotron, using the analysis technique described, are given and discussed.

  18. Neutron production for 250 MeV protons bombarding on thick grain-made tungsten target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yanbin; Ma, Fei; Ju, Yongqin; Chen, Liang; Wang, Jianguo; Ge, Honglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Yanyan; Wan, Bo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2015-08-15

    Neutron yield for 250 MeV protons incident on a tungsten target has been measured using the water bath method. The target was made of many randomly placed tungsten grains. Through analyzing the activity of Au foils, the neutron flux distribution in water was obtained. The neutrons slowing down process shows that the neutrons from tungsten have an average energy lower than neutrons from the lead target. The neutron yield was experimentally determined to be 2.02 ± 0.15 neutron/proton. Detailed simulation was also performed with the Geant4 toolkit. Comparison has been made with the experimentally derived neutron yield. It was found that, around 250 MeV, experimental results were described satisfactorily with a combination of high-energy spallation, low-energy neutron reaction and scattering. It was shown that the grain-packed target does not affect much the main neutronic properties, which are of crucial importance for the design of the spallation target. (orig.)

  19. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (107-1010 V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range (δε/ε < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant for medical applications such as

  20. Ultrafast laser driven micro-lens to focus and energy select MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toncian, Toma

    2008-05-15

    A technique for simultaneous focusing and energy selection of high-current, MeV proton beams using radial, transient electric fields (10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} V/m) triggered on the inner wall of a hollow micro-cylinder by an intense, sub-picosecond laser-pulse is presented. Due to the transient nature of the radial focusing field, the proposed method allows selection of a desired range out of the spectrum of the poly-energetic proton beam. This technique addresses current drawbacks of laser-accelerated proton beams, i.e. their broad spectrum and divergence at the source. This thesis presents both experimental and computational studies that led to the understanding of the physical processes driving the micro-lens. After an one side irradiation of a hollow metallic cylinder a radial electric field develops inside the cylinder. Hot electrons generated by the interaction between laser pulse and cylinder wall spread inside the cylinder generating a plasma at the wall. This plasma expands into vacuum and sustains an electric field that acts as a collecting lens on a proton beam propagating axially through the cylinder. Both focusing and the reduction of the intrinsic beam divergence from 20 deg to.3 deg for a narrow spectral range was demonstrated. By sub-aperturing the beam a narrow spectral range ({delta}{epsilon}/{epsilon} < 3%) was selected from the poly-energetic beam. The micro-lens properties are tunable allowing for optimization towards applications. Optical probing techniques and proton imaging were employed to study the spacial and temporal evolution of the field and revealed a complex physical scenario of the rise and decay of the radial electric field. Each aspect studied experimentally is interpreted using 2D PIC and ray tracing simulations. A very good agreement between the experimental and computational data is found. The PIC simulations are used to upscale the demonstrated micro-lens capabilities to the focusing of a 270 MeV proton beam, an energy relevant

  1. Independent isotopic yields in 25 MeV and 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttilae, H.; Gorelov, D.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I.D.; Parkkonen, J.; Pohjalainen, I.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Simutkin, V.; Sonoda, T.; Weber, C.; Voss, A.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskylae (Finland); Peraejaervi, K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Rubchenya, V.A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskylae (Finland); V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    Independent isotopic yields for elements from Zn to La in the 25 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U were determined with the JYFLTRAP facility. In addition, isotopic yields for Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pd and Xe in the 50 MeV proton-induced fission of {sup nat}U were measured. The deduced isotopic yield distributions are compared with a Rubchenya model, the GEF model with universal parameters and the semi-empirical Wahl model. Of these, the Rubchenya model gives the best overall agreement with the obtained data. Combining the isotopic yield data with mass yield data to obtain the absolute independent yields was attempted. The result depends on the mass yield distribution. (orig.)

  2. Recombination characteristics in 2-3 MeV protons irradiated FZ Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, E.; Čeponis, T.; Uleckas, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Raisanen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Combined analysis of the carrier recombination and generation lifetime as well as reverse recovery durations ( τ RR), dependent on proton irradiation fluence in the range of 7×10 12-7×10 14 p/cm 2, has been performed in FZ silicon PIN diodes and wafer structures. A δ-layer and triangle profiles of radiation induced defects were formed by varying energy of protons in the range 2-3 MeV. Carrier decay constituents and values of recombination lifetime have been evaluated by employing a microwave probed photoconductivity transient technique, while deep levels spectra ascribed to generation lifetime variations have been examined by exploiting capacitance deep-level transient (DLTS) spectroscopy. Recombination lifetime decreases from several μs to few ns, while DLTS spectra show an increase in the amplitude of a DLTS peak at 170 K with irradiation fluence. Transforms of DLTS spectra and a decrease in density of the majority carrier traps have been revealed after 24 h isochronal anneals in the range of temperatures of 80-420 °C. Inhomogeneous depth distribution of recombination lifetime in proton irradiated samples has been revealed from the cross-sectional scans of the excess carrier lifetime measured by MW-PC technique and compared for δ-layer and triangle profiles of radiation induced defects. After isochronal anneals, the τ RR changes its behaviour as a function of irradiation fluence.

  3. Near realtime forecasting of MeV protons on the basis of sub relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Johannes; Heber, Bernd; Kuehl, Patrick; Sarlanis, Christos; Malandraki, Olga; Posner, Arik

    2016-04-01

    A major impact on human and robotic space exploration activities is the sudden and prompt occurrence of solar energetic ion events. In order to provide up to an hour warning before these particles arrive at Earth, relativistic electron and below 50 MeV proton data from the Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) on SOHO were used to implement the 'Relativistic Electron Alert System for Exploration (REleASE)'. It has been demonstrated that the analysis of relativistic electron time profiles provides a low miss and false alarm rate. High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis (HESPERIA) is a project funded within the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (PROTEC-1-2014 Call: Space Weather). Within this project the REleASE forecasting scheme was rewritten in the open access programming language PYTHON and will be made public. As a next step, we have analyzed the possibility to also use, along with relativistic electrons (v > 0.9 c) provided by SOHO, near-relativistic (v forecasting scheme to provide reliable SEP forecasts. A comparison of measured and forecast proton intensities by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM will be presented. In addition we investigated the false alarm rate and detection probability of solar ion events. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  4. Factors determining the lifetime damage coefficients and the low-frequency noise in MeV proton irradiated silicon diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of several factors, related to the doping density, the substrate type and the thermal pre-treatment on the proton radiation damage coefficients of Si diodes is discussed and verified experimentally. The diode parameters investigated are the leakage current density, the recombination lifetime and the low-frequency noise current spectral density. Proton irradiations have been performed in the energy range 10 MeV to 100 MeV and in the fluence range of 5 x 109 to 4 x 1011 cm-2, typical for space applications. The obtained coefficients are compared with theoretical NIEL predictions. (author)

  5. Radiation effects on silicon bipolar transistors caused by 3-10 MeV protons and 20-60 MeV bromine ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingji; Geng, Hongbin; Lan, Mujie; Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

    2010-03-01

    The current gain degradation in silicon NPN bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) was examined under irradiation with 3-10 MeV protons and 20-60 MeV bromine (Br) ions with various dose levels. To characterize the radiation damage of the NPN BJTs, the ionizing dose D i and displacement dose D d as a function of chip depth in the NPN BJTs were calculated for both the protons and Br ions with different energies. Based on the irradiation testing and calculated results, it is shown that the current gain degradation of NPN BJTs is sensitive to the ratio of D d/( D d+ D i) in the sensitive region given by protons and Br ions. The irradiation particles (protons and Br ions), which give larger D d/( D d+ D i) at a given total dose, would generate more severe damage to the NPN BJTs. The reciprocal of the gain variation as a function of the displacement dose was compared, showing that the Messenger-Spratt equation becomes relevant to describe the experimental data, when the ratio of the D d/( D d+ D i) are larger and the displacement dose are higher than a certain value.

  6. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium up to 80 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Csikai, J; Hermanne, A; Uddin, S; Baba, M

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium were measured up to 80 MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma ray spectrometry. The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the excitation functions of monitor reactions measured in parallel. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross-sections were measured for the production of ${}^{104m,104g,105}$${}^{g,106m,110m}$Ag, ${}^{100,101}$Pd, ${}^{99m,99g,100,}$${}^{101m}$${}^{,101g,102m,102g,105}$Rh and ${}^{103,}$${}^{97}$Ru radioisotopes. The cross section data were compared with the theoretical predictions of TENDL-2014 and -2015 libraries. For practical applications thick target yields were derived from the measured excitation functions. Application in the field of medical radionuclide production is shortly discussed.

  7. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)], E-mail: kiralyb@atomki.hu; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-01

    Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium were measured up to 70 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the first time for the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 173,172mg,171mg,170,167}Lu, {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 175cum,166cum}Yb and {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 173ind,172ind,168,167cum,165cum}Tm reactions. No earlier experimental cross section data were found in the literature. The experimental data were compared to and analyzed with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Production routes of medical radioisotope {sup 167}Tm are discussed.

  8. Beam dynamics design and electromagnetic analysis of 3 MeV RFQ for TAC Proton Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Caliskan; HF Kisoglu; M Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    A beam dynamics design of 352.2 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) of Turkish Accelerator Cen-ter (TAC) project which accelerates continuous wave (CW) proton beam with 30 mA current from 50 keV to 3 MeV kinetic energy has been performed in this study. Also, it includes error analysis of the RFQ, in which some fluctuations have been introduced to input beam parameters to see how the output beam parameters are affected, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic structural design of the RFQ to obtain optimum cavity paramaters that agree with the ones of the beam dynamics. The beam dynamics and error analysis of the RFQ have been done by using LIDOS.RFQ. Electromagnetic design parameters have been obtained by using SUPERFISH for 2-D cavity geometry and CST Microwave Studio for 3-D cavity geometry.

  9. Improvement RF Control System for the 20 Mev Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Jong C; Kang Heung Sik; Lee Jin Won

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the RF control system for Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing the project named KOMAC. As the 3rd phase of the project, 20 MeV proton accelerating structure is under development. The new design is based on the use of VME based Multi-function modules connected to the specific low level RF Controllers(LLRF) via distributed I/O modules and Serial communication modules. The control system was based on EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) from the end of 2004. Installation and commissioning of the RF module is scheduled on 2005. Control system to integrated the RF System to the KOMAC control system is implemented. Hardware, software and various applications are upgrade to support the operation of RF Control system. In this paper, We describe control structure and scheme of the current RF Control System and upgraded one.

  10. Study on the microwave ion source of 100-MeV proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A microwave ion source is used as an ion source of 100-MeV proton accelerator at Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). The specifications of the ion source are 50 keV in energy and 20 mA in peak current. The plasma is operated in CW mode using magnetron and the pulse beam is extracted using semiconductor switch located in the extraction power supply. The beam characteristics were measured based on the pulse voltage and current. A test stand was also installed to study the beam characteristics of the ion source in off-line. In this paper, the pulse beam characteristics of the ion source are presented and the installation of the test stand is reported.

  11. Prompt γ-rays emitted in fission of 226Ra by 12 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total energy associated with the emission of prompt γ-rays in fission of 226Ra induced by 12 MeV protons was measured in correlation with the fragment mass and kinetic energy. The dependence of the average total γ-ray energy on fragment mass and total kinetic energy resembles the corresponding dependence of the average number of neutrons. Using these results and the results for the average number of neutrons, the excitation energy of the fragments at the scission point was calculated. The results support the view that the scission-point configuration for the symmetric fission mode is more elongated than that for the asymmetric mode. (B.G.)

  12. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium up to 80MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Csikai, J; Hermanne, A; Uddin, M S; Baba, M

    2016-08-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium were measured up to 80MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma ray spectrometry. The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the excitation functions of monitor reactions measured in parallel. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross-sections were measured for the production of (104m,104g,105g,106m,110m)Ag, (100,101)Pd, (99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102g,105)Rh and (103,97)Ru radioisotopes. The cross section data were compared with the theoretical predictions of TENDL-2014 and -2015 libraries. For practical applications thick target yields were derived from the measured excitation functions. Application in the field of medical radionuclide production is shortly discussed. PMID:27235887

  13. Measurement of the Z31 contribution to the stopping power using MeV protons and antiprotons: The Barkas effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, L. H.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Möller, S. P.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Uggerhöj, E.; Elsener, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1989-04-01

    The stopping power for antiprotons has been measured for the first time. The antiproton stopping power of silicon is found to be 3%-19% lower than for equivelocity protons over the energy range 3.01 to 0.538 MeV. The ``Z31 contribution'' to the stopping power (the Barkas effect) is deduced by comparing the stopping power for protons and antiprotons.

  14. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  15. Nuclear halo of a 177\\,MeV proton beam in water

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S

    2014-01-01

    The dose distribution of a pencil beam in a water tank consists of a core, a halo and an aura. The core consists of primary protons which suffer multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) and slow down by multiple collisions with atomic electrons (Bethe-Bloch theory). The halo consists of charged secondaries, many of them protons, from elastic interactions with H, elastic and inelastic interactions with O, and nonelastic interactions with O. We show that the halo radius is roughly one third of the beam range. The aura consists of neutral secondaries (neutrons and gamma rays) and the charged particles they set in motion. We have measured the core/halo at 177 MeV using a test beam offset in a water tank. The beam monitor was a plane parallel ionization chamber (IC) and the field IC a dose calibrated Exradin T1. Our dose measurements are absolute. We took depth-dose scans at ten displacements from the beam axis ranging from 0 to 10 cm. The dose spans five orders of magnitude, and the transition from halo to aura is obvio...

  16. Induction of 8-azaguanine resistant mutants in human cultured cells exposed to 31 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrman Conti, A.M.; Francone, G.; Volonte, M.; Gallini, R.E.

    1988-03-01

    The authors report results on the induction of 8-azaguanine (8-AG)-resistant mutants in cultured human cells (EUE) exposed to 31 MeV protons. The spontaneous frequency of mutants was 5.6 +- 0.7 x 10/sup -6/ per viable cell. Gamma rays were taken as reference radiation. Expression times giving the highest frequency of mutants after 31 MeV protons and gamma irradiation were found to be about 10 days for both radiations. The dose-response relationship for mutant induction by protons, as determined at the optimal expression time, was compared to that obtained after gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is 2.4 +- 0.5, this value being higher than the RBE value determined for cell survival.

  17. Production of actinium, thorium and radium isotopes from natural thorium irradiated with protons up to 141 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolaev, S.V.; Zhuikov, B.L.; Kokhanyuk, V.M.; Matushko, V.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Nuclear Research; Kalmykov, S.N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Aliev, R.A. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.N. Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry

    2012-07-01

    Cross sections of {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Ac, {sup 227}Th and {sup 228}Th in thorium-232 targets irradiated with protons in the energy range 21-141 MeV have been measured. Based on these data, production yields of {sup 225}Ac and {sup 223}Ra in thick thorium targets have been calculated. It is possible to produce in proton energy range 60-140 MeV about 96 GBq (2.6 Ci) {sup 225}Ac per 10-d irradiation with 100 {mu}A proton beam current and 10-d decay, and much higher amount of {sup 223}Ra. The impurities of {sup 227}Ac and {sup 224}Ra are important and need to be assessed for further medical applications. (orig.)

  18. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  19. Determination of Magnet Specification of 13 MeV Proton Cyclotron Based on Opera 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnet is one of the main components of a cyclotron, used to form a circular particle beam trajectories and to provide focusing of the beam. To support the mastery of 13-MeV proton cyclotron technologies, cyclotron magnet design must be done to satisfy cyclotron magnet requirements. This research was conducted by studying important parameters in designing the cyclotron magnet which is then used to determine the design requirements. The magnet design was based on the results of a 3D simulation using Opera 3D software. Opera 3D is a software developed by Cobham plc to solve physical problems in 3D such as magnetostatic using finite element methods. The simulation started by drawing a 3D model of the magnet using a modeler, followed by magnetic field calculations by Tosca module in the Opera 3D software. Simulation results were analyzed with the Genspeo software to determine whether the parameters of the cyclotron magnet have met design requirements. The results indicate that the magnet design satisfied the cyclotron magnet design requirement, that B in the median plane of the magnetic pole approached the isochronous curve, providing axial and radial focusing beam, crossing the resonance line at vr = 1 when the particle energy is low and the particle energy is more than 13 MeV, and lead to small enough phase shift of about 13°. The dimension of the cyclotron magnet is 1.96 m × 1.30 m × 1.21 m; its weight is 17.3 ton; its coil current is 88,024 ampere-turn; its center magnetic field is 1.27479 T; its maximum magnetic field is 1.942116 T; its minimum magnetic field is 0.7689 T; its valley gap is 120 mm; its hill gaps are 40 to 50.78 mm; and its hill angles are 35° to 44°.to 44°

  20. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  1. Measurement of the displacement cross-section of copper irradiated with 125 MeV protons at 12 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yoshiie, Toshimasa [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto; Nakamoto, Tatsushi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Sakamoto, Masaaki; Kuriyama, Yasutoshi; Uesugi, Tomonori; Ishi, Yoshihiro; Xu, Qiu; Yashima, Hiroshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Takahashi, Fumiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Mori, Yoshiharu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010 Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Ogitsu, Toru [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To validate Monte Carlo codes for the prediction of radiation damage in metals irradiated by >100 MeV protons, the defect-induced electrical resistivity changes related to the displacement cross-section of copper were measured with 125 MeV proton irradiation at 12 K. The cryogenic irradiation system was developed with a Gifford–McMahon cryocooler to cool the sample via an oxygen-free high-conductivity copper plate by conduction cooling. The sample was a copper wire with a 250-μm diameter and 99.999% purity sandwiched between two aluminum nitride ceramic sheets. The electrical resistivity changes of the copper wire were measured using the four-probe technique. After 125 MeV proton irradiation with 1.45 × 10{sup 18} protons/m{sup 2} at 12 K, the total resistivity increase was 4.94 × 10{sup −13} Ω m (resistance increase: 1.53 μΩ), while the resistivity of copper before irradiation was 9.44 × 10{sup −12} Ω m (resistance: 29.41 μΩ). The resistivity increase did not change during annealing after irradiation below 15 K. The experimental displacement cross-section for 125 MeV irradiation shows similar results to the experimental data for 1.1 and 1.94 GeV. Comparison with the calculated results indicated that the defect production efficiency in Monte Carlo codes gives a good quantitative description of the displacement cross-section in the energy region >100 MeV.

  2. Magnetic fields and beam optics studies of a 250 MeV superconducting proton radiotherapy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Won [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, 809 Madu-dong, Koyang, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jwkim@ncc.re.kr

    2007-11-21

    A 250 MeV superconducting cyclotron for the proton radiation therapy was designed at the Michigan State University (MSU) for use at the Paul Scherrer Institut. This work was based on the conceptual design carried out at the MSU in 1994. The previous design was refined to finalize the magnet configuration and to optimally arrange cyclotron elements for the actual construction. The spiral angle of the pole was reduced, the new hill-edges and valley shims being introduced. The magnetic fields were highly isochronized using a least square fitting routine involving a schematic shimming scheme. The resulting reference field was adequate for the elaborate study of beam optics. The optics simulation predicted that extraction efficiency of above 80% was achievable for a beam with the initial phase width of 20{sup o}. The vertical deflector was investigated located in the central region to control the beam intensity with tracking of beam phase spaces. Some measurement results for the constructed cyclotron were found in a good agreement with those of the optics study.

  3. 15 MeV proton irradiation effects on Bi-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinejad, N.; Sohrabi, D. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Plasma and Nuclear Fusion Research School; Bolori, F. [Karaj Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Nowadays, superconducting magnetic coils are used in some tokamaks such as EAST, KSTAR, JT-60, and T-15 to generate strong magnetic fields and also in ITER magnetic fields of about 13 tesla will be produced with the help of superconductors. The tokamak superconductors are exposed to the variety of radiations (neutron, ions beam, and gamma) from plasma nuclear reactions which will affect some of the superconductor properties. Therefore, study of the irradiation effects on the superconductor structure and properties are very crucial from technological and scientific point of view. One of the superconductor irradiation effects to be investigated under different conditions of energy and dosage is the potential resistance of the material used in tokamak reactor magnetic coils against activation by radiation. In this work, pellets of high T{sub c} Bi-based superconductors have been prepared and after measurement of parameters, a sample of pellet has been irradiated with 15 MeV protons using Karaj cyclotron facility. The sample's parameters have been measured again after irradiation treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns and SEM images of the sample before and after irradiation treatment have been studied.

  4. Proton-induced production of residual radionuclides in natRe up to 2590 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A. M.; Uosif, M. A. M.; Michel, R.; Herpers, U.; Malmborg, P.; Holmqvist, B.

    2013-03-01

    The excitation functions for residual nuclide production by proton reactions on rhenium was investigated using activated targets from irradiation experiments at the cyclotron of the Svedberg Laboratory at Uppsala up to 180 MeV and the higher energies were used at the Laboratoire Saturne at Saclay. The measured experimental results were compared with previous published and theoretical models calculations by the codes TALYS, INCL4+ABLA and Bertini/Dresner. A total of 5252 cross-section was determined covering 54 residual nuclides in the energy range from 78.2 to 2590 MeV.

  5. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  6. Commissioning of a compact laser-based proton beam line for high intensity bunches around 10Â MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, S.; Schumacher, D.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Kroll, F.; Blažević, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Roth, M.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the first results of experiments with a new laser-based proton beam line at the GSI accelerator facility in Darmstadt. It delivers high current bunches at proton energies around 9.6 MeV, containing more than 109 particles in less than 10 ns and with tunable energy spread down to 2.7% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM). A target normal sheath acceleration stage serves as a proton source and a pulsed solenoid provides for beam collimation and energy selection. Finally a synchronous radio frequency (rf) field is applied via a rf cavity for energy compression at a synchronous phase of -90 deg. The proton bunch is characterized at the end of the very compact beam line, only 3 m behind the laser matter interaction point, which defines the particle source.

  7. An integral test of FLUKA nuclear models with 160 MeV proton beams in multi-layer Faraday cups

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Mairani, A

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are useful tools to simulate the complex processes of proton beam interactions with matter. In proton therapy, nuclear reactions influence the dose distribution. Therefore, the validation of nuclear models adopted in MC codes is a critical requisite for their use in this field. A simple integral test can be performed using a multi-layer Faraday cup (MLFC). This method allows separation of the nuclear and atomic interaction processes, which are responsible for secondary particle emission and the finite primary proton range, respectively. In this work, the propagation of 160 MeV protons stopping in two MLFCs made of polyethylene and copper has been simulated by the FLUKA MC code. The calculations have been performed with and without secondary electron emission and transport, as well as charge sharing in the dielectric layers. Previous results with other codes neglected those two effects. The impact of this approximation has been investigated and found to be relevant only in the proximity ...

  8. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, S. K. L., E-mail: sjue@lanl.gov; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  9. Stopping powers of polycarbonate for 0.36-5.94-MeV protons and 1.0-24.0-MeV α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, J.; Trzaska, W. H.; Alanko, T.; Lyapin, V.; Porter, L. E.

    2003-08-01

    The stopping powers of polycarbonate for protons of energy 0.6-5.9 MeV and α particles of energy 2.0-24.0 MeV have been measured in a transmission experiment employing thin-foil targets. The essence of the novel experimental method employed in the present measurements is to record both projectile energy and time of flight while constantly alternating measurements with and without the target foil in place. The accuracies of the proton data and α-particle data range from 2.0% to 3.0% and 2.2% to 2.7%, respectively. All of the resulting measurements were analyzed in terms of modified Bethe-Bloch theory in order to extract values of the target mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b). The composite results for the two projectiles are that I=71.52 eV and b=1.13, the former value lying about one standard deviation below the additivity value and the latter value lying about one standard deviation below the expected value of 1.4±0.1. Previous measurements of the stopping power of polycarbonate for 7Li ions were analyzed by the same method, but with the inclusion of an effective charge parameter (λ). The proton and α-particle data, with a few lower-energy points included, were analyzed for a three-parameter fit, also. Results for the three projectiles studied indicate both internal consistency and agreement with expectations based on modified Bethe-Bloch theory.

  10. Stopping powers of havar for 0.63 5.9 MeV protons and 2.6 24 MeV alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, L. E.; Trzaska, W. H.; Räisänen, J.; Lyapin, V.

    2004-11-01

    A transmission experiment utilizing thin foil targets has been conducted in order to establish the stopping powers of the cobalt-base alloy, havar, for 0.6-5.9 MeV protons and 2.6-24 MeV alpha particles. The basic technique of the novel experimental method used was to record both the projectile energy and the time of flight while alternating measurements with and without the target in place. The uncertainties of the proton and alpha particle data sets ranged from 1.4 to 2.3% and 1.1 to 1.5%, respectively. Modified Bethe-Bloch theory was applied to the measurements in order to ascertain values of the target mean excitation energy (I) and Barkas-effect parameter (b) for each projectile. The extracted values were I = 304.3 ± 2.4 eV and b = 1.37 ± 0.04 for the case of protons, and I = 306.3 ± 2.3 eV and b = 1.47 ± 0.03 for the case of alpha particles. The I-values are somewhat higher than the additivity-based expectation of 295.7 eV, whereas the b-values are clearly consistent with the expected range of 1.4 ± 0.1. The parameter values extracted from the measurements are appraised for compatibility with recently observed trends in values of I and of b with increasing projectile atomic number.

  11. HIE-ISOLDE: Baseline Design of a Solid Neutron Converter Driven by 160 MeV Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Y.Kadi and A.Herrera-Martinez

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Design Study (EURISOL DS) aims at the design of several spallation and fission targets for the production of radioactive isotopes. Namely, direct targets, where high-energy protons interact directly with the fission targets, as well as the design of a Multi-MW proton-to-neutron converter coupled with a fission target. For the later, several options have been proposed, including the use of a relatively low energy (in the hundreds of MeV) high intensity proton beam. In this scope, the neutronic characteristics of a tantalum n-converter/fission-target system have been established (although not yet optimised) for a reference proton energy of 160 MeV. A set of simulations has been carried out for different design requirements and different characteristics of the proton beam. An extensive comparison of the main physical parameters has also been carried out, in order to allow the optimal engineering design of the whole target station.

  12. Search for characteristics of preequilibrium protons emitted in Ar + Ag collisions at E/A = 27 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protons emitted in coincidence with heavy residues have been measured, for the reaction 27 MeV per nucleon 40Ar + natAg. From the proton velocity spectra, an anisotropic component was extracted, which shows a broad angular distribution, and a mean velocity larger than the beam velocity. Multiplicities for this component are low, about 0.8, independent of the violence of the collision. For central collisions, selected via the higher heavy residue velocities, the velocity characteristics of the anisotropic component, seen in this case as a pure preequilibrium component, were compared to semi-classical calculations (Landau-Vlasov)

  13. Proton elastic scattering from tin isotopes at 295 MeV and systematic change of neutron density distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Terashima, S; Takeda, H; Ishikawa, T; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Murakami, T; Uchida, M; Yasuda, Y; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J; Yoshida, H P; Noro, T; Ishida, T; Asaji, S; Yonemura, T

    2008-01-01

    Cross sections and analyzing powers for proton elastic scattering from $^{116,118,120,122,124}$Sn at 295 MeV have been measured for a momentum transfer of up to about 3.5 fm$^{-1}$ to deduce systematic changes of the neutron density distribution. We tuned the relativistic Love-Franey interaction to explain the proton elastic scattering of a nucleus whose density distribution is well known. Then, we applied this interaction to deduce the neutron density distributions of tin isotopes. The result of our analysis shows the clear systematic behavior of a gradual increase in the neutron skin thickness of tin isotopes with mass number.

  14. A study of radiation effects of 9 and 12 MeV protons on Chinese CMOS image sensor degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-Ti; HUANG Qiang; MA Yan-Xiu; ZHENG Yong-Nan; FAN Ping; ZHU Sheng-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The 9 and 12 MeV proton irradiations of the Chinese CMOS Image Sensor in the fluence range from 1×109to 4×1010 cm-2and 1×109 to 2×1012 cm-2 have been carried out respectively. The color pictures and dark output images are captured, and the average brightness of dark output images is calculated. The anti-irradiation fluence thresholds for 9 and 12 MeV protons are about 4×1010 and 2×1012 cm-2, respectively. These can be explained by the change of the concentrations of irradiation-induced electron-hole pairs and vacancies in the various layers of CMOS image sensor calculated by the TRIM simulation program.

  15. Calculation of proton and neutron emission spectra from proton reactions with {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb to 160 MeV with the GNASH code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    A number of modifications have been made to the reaction theory code GNASH in order the accuracy of calculations at incident particle energies up to 200 MeV. Direct reaction a level density models appropriate for higher energy calculations are now used in the code, and most importantly, improved preequilibrium models have been incorporated into the code system. The code has been used to calculate proton-induced reactions on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb for the International Code and Model Intercomparison for Intermediate Energy Reactions organized by the NEA. Calculations were performed with GNASH at incident proton energies of 25, 45, 80, and 160 mev using both the exciton model and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theory for the preequilibrium component. The models and procedures used in the GNASH calculations with the exciton model are described here. The results are compared to experimental data and to results from the GNASH calculations with Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin preequilibrium theory.

  16. Gamma ray production cross sections in proton induced reactions on natural Mg, Si and Fe targets over the proton energy range 30 up to 66 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia-Chérif, W; Kiener, J; Tatischeff, V; Lawrie, E; Lawrie, J J; Belhout, A; Benhabiles, H; Bucher, T D; Chafa, A; Damache, S; Debabi, M; Deloncle, I; Easton, J L; Hamadache, C; Hammache, F; Jones, P; Kheswa, B V; Khumalo, N; Lamula, T; Majola, S T H; Negi, D; Ndayishimye, J; Noncolela, S P; Moussa, D; Nchodu, R; Papka, P; de Sereville, N; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Shirinda, O; Wiedeking, M; Wyngaardt, S

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray excitation functions have been measured for 30, 42, 54 and 66 MeV proton beams accelerated onto C + O (Mylar), Mg, Si, and Fe targets of astrophysical interest at the separate-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS in Somerset West (Cape Town, South Africa). A large solid angle, high energy resolution detection system of the Eurogam type was used to record Gamma-ray energy spectra. Derived preliminary results of Gamma-ray line production cross sections for the Mg, Si and Fe target nuclei are reported and discussed. The current cross section data for known, intense Gamma-ray lines from these nuclei consistently extend to higher proton energies previous experimental data measured up to Ep ~ 25 MeV at the Orsay and Washington tandem accelerators. Data for new Gamma-ray lines observed for the first time in this work are also reported.

  17. Reaction cross sections for protons on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at energies between 80 and 180 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auce, A.; Ingemarsson, A.; Johansson, R. [and others

    2005-04-01

    Results of reaction cross section measurements on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at incident proton energies between 80 and 180 MeV and for {sup 58}Ni at 81 MeV are presented. The experimental procedure is described and the results are compared with earlier measurements and predictions using macroscopic and microscopic models.

  18. Electrophilic FLUORIDE-18 from AN 11 Mev Proton Cyclotron for Radiolabeling of Presynaptic Dopaminergic PET Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, John Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The reliable production of (^{18 }F) F_2 from an 11 MeV proton cyclotron has been achieved through the implementation of two accelerator targets built to exploit the copious ^{18}O(p,n)^ {18}F cross-section. Yields of electrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 from the targets reached deciCurie levels with specific activities approaching 3 Ci/mmole with 75 minute irradiations at 10 muA. Higher specific activities are expected with longer bombardments and increased beam current. The targets, one nickel, the other with a gold -plated target chamber, have been tested for (^ {18}F) F_2 production efficiency under two bombardment protocols. An economic two-step protocol cryogenically reclaims the precious enriched ^{18}O_{2 } target material following ^ {18}F production, followed by a second (^{18}F) F_2 recovery irradiation of Kr + F_2 . Studies of target performance using this protocol under variable irradiation conditions suggest a five compartment model governing the in-target kinetics. Similarly, the (^{18}F) F_2 yields have been tested using a single irradiation protocol consisting of bombardment of ^{18}O_{2} + F _2. Theoretical descriptions of beam induced phenomena in the irradiated target are also presented. The behavior of these targets cannot be judged solely on the amount of reactive ^{18 }F which elutes from the target; successful radiochemical synthesis utilizing this ^ {18}F activity in a model reaction is the true test. Synthesis of 6- (^{18 }F) fluoro-L-DOPA (6-FD) by the fluoro-demercuration method of Luxen served this purpose, testing the eletrophilic (^{18}F) F_2 gas from the two targets and two irradiation protocols. Elution of Kr + (^{18}F) F _2 from the two-step method achieved the expected 12% radiochemical yields from (^ {18}F) F_2, while experience with ^{18}F activity eluted with oxygen from the single irradiation protocol suffered lower yields. Solutions to problems associated with 6-FD studies for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are addressed. A

  19. Measurement of the free neutron-proton analyzing power and spin transfer parameters in the charge exchange region at 790 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransome, R.D.

    1981-07-01

    The free neutron-proton analyzing power and the spin transfer parameters (K/sub NN/, K/sub SS/, K/sub SL/, and K/sub LL/) were measured at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility at 790 MeV between 165/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ center of mass. A 40% polarized neutron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target was used. The recoil protons were momentum analyzed with a magnetic spectrometer to isolate elastic scatters. A large solid angle carbon polarimeter was used to measure the proton polarization. The measurements are the first at this energy and are in basic agreement with pre-existing phase shift solutions. The proton-carbon analyzing power was measured between 500 and 750 MeV. An empirical fit to the proton-carbon analyzing power between 100 and 750 MeV was done.

  20. Properties of the First 1/2+ Excitation State of 13C by 22MeV Proton Inelastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安竹; 陈泉; 程业浩; 沈东军; 郭刚

    2003-01-01

    The differential cross sections of 22 MeV proton inelastic scattering for the first 1/2+ excitation state (Ex =3.09 MeV) of 13C have been measured between 9°and 130°. The broad peak located at~120°, which has beensystematically observed in the 0+ → 0-, 1/2- + 1/2+, and 1+ → 1- transitions for the 16O, 13C, and 14,15N (p, n)charge exchange reactions at Ep = 35 MeV, has been observed for the first time in the present proton inelasticscattering. The present experimental data are analysed by using microscopic distorted-wave Born approximation.From the comparison of present experimental data and theoretical results at forward angles, our analysis indicatesthe existence of neutron halo in the first 1/2+ excitation state of the 13C nucleus. In addition, by reasonablemodification of shell model wavefunction of the first 1/2+ excitation state, we can well describe the experimentalform factors of (e, e') and the experimental differential cross sections of (p, p') at incident energy of 547 Me V.

  1. Depletion voltage studies on n-in-n MCz silicon diodes after irradiation with 70 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Holmkvist, William

    2014-01-01

    Silicon detectors is the main component in the pixel detectors in the ATLAS experiment at CERN in order to detect the particles and recreate their tracks after a proton-proton collision. One criteria on these detectors is to be able to operate in the high radiation field close to the particle collision. The usual behavior of the silicon detectors is that they get type inverted and an increase in the depletion voltage can be seen after exposed to significant amounts of radiation. In contrast n-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon doesn’t follow FZ silicons pattern of getting type inverted when it comes to high energy particle irradiation, in the range of GeV. However it was observed that MCz silicon diodes that had been irradiated with 23 MeV protons followed the FZ silicon behavior and did type invert. The aim of the project is to find out how the depletion voltage of MCz silicon changes after being irradiated by 70 MeV at fluencies of 1E13, 1E14 and 5E14 neq/cm2, to give a further insight of at what en...

  2. Design of 7 MeV drift tube linac as injector of proton accelerator for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 324 MHz drift-tube linac(DTL) is designed for proton cancer therapy. The design demands low power dissipation and short tank. The DTL accelerates beam from 2.5 MeV to 7 MeV, with RF power of 265 kW and total length of 1.9 m. The DTL uses permanent-quadrupole magnet(PQM) inside the drift tubes arranged in an FODO lattice. A new matching method is designed. In stead of the traditional beam transport line, the first four cells in DTL are designed as matching section. It causes the beam ellipse from radio-frequency quadrupole linac(RFQ) to satisfy conditions specified by the DTL periodic structure. The dynamics simulation was performed with PARMILA, and almost no emittance growth has been found. (authors)

  3. Excitation functions of (nat)Zn(p,x) nuclear reactions with proton beam energy below 18 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Ali H; Chan, Sun; Morandeau, Laurence; Cryer, David; Smith, Suzanne V; Price, Roger I

    2014-12-01

    We measured the excitation functions of (nat)Zn (p,x) reactions up to 17.6MeV, using the stacked-foils activation technique. High-purity natural zinc (and copper) foils were irradiated with proton beams generated by an 18MeV isochronous cyclotron. Activated foils were measured using high-purity Ge gamma spectroscopy to quantify the radionuclides (61)Cu, (66)Ga, (67)Ga, and (65)Zn produced from the reactions. Thick-target integral yields were also deduced from the measured excitation functions of the produced radioisotopes. These results were compared with the published literature and were found to be in good agreement with most reports, particularly those most recently compiled.

  4. Proton-induced cross sections relevant to production of 225Ac and 223Ra in natural thorium targets below 200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Weidner, J W; John, K D; Hemez, F; Ballard, B; Bach, H; Birnbaum, E R; Bitteker, L J; Couture, A; Dry, D; Fassbender, M E; Gulley, M S; Jackman, K R; Ullmann, J L; Wolfsberg, L E; Nortier, F M

    2012-01-01

    Cross sections for 223,225Ra, 225Ac and 227Th production by the proton bombardment of natural thorium targets were measured at proton energies below 200 MeV. Our measurements are in good agreement with previously published data and offer a complete excitation function for 223,225Ra in the energy range above 90 MeV. Comparison of theoretical predictions with the experimental data shows reasonable-to-good agreement. Results indicate that accelerator-based production of 225Ac and 223Ra below 200 MeV is a viable production method.

  5. Dosimetric characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in a clinical 62 MeV ocular therapy proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, Marco; Pompili, F. [INFN-Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Prestopino, G., E-mail: giuseppe.prestopino@uniroma2.it [INFN-Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN-Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; La Rosa, R.M.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F. [Laboratori Nazionali del SUD, INFN, Catania (Italy); Tuvè, C. [INFN Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-12-11

    A synthetic single crystal diamond based Schottky photodiode was tested at INFN-LNS on the proton beam line (62 MeV) dedicated to the radiation treatment of ocular disease. The diamond detector response was studied in terms of pre-irradiation dose, linearity with dose and dose rate, and angular dependence. Depth dose curves were measured for the 62 MeV pristine proton beam and for three unmodulated range-shifted proton beams; furthermore, the spread-out Bragg peak was measured for a modulated therapeutic proton beam. Beam parameters, recommended by the ICRU report 78, were evaluated to analyze depth-dose curves from diamond detector. Measured dose distributions were compared with the corresponding dose distributions acquired with reference plane-parallel ionization chambers. Field size dependence of the output factor (dose per monitor unit) in a therapeutic modulated proton beam was measured with the diamond detector over the range of ocular proton therapy collimator diameters (5–30 mm). Output factors measured with the diamond detector were compared to the ones by a Markus ionization chamber, a Scanditronix Hi-p Si stereotactic diode and a radiochromic EBT2 film. Signal stability within 0.5% was demonstrated for the diamond detector with no need of any pre-irradiation dose. Dose and dose rate dependence of the diamond response was measured: deviations from linearity resulted to be within ±0.5% over the investigated ranges of 0.5–40.0 Gy and 0.3–30.0 Gy/min respectively. Output factors from diamond detector measured with the smallest collimator (5 mm in diameter) showed a maximum deviation of about 3% with respect to the high resolution radiochromic EBT2 film. Depth-dose curves measured by diamond for unmodulated and modulated beams were in good agreement with those from the reference plane-parallel Markus chamber, with relative differences lower than ±1% in peak-to-plateau ratios, well within experimental uncertainties. A 2.5% variation in diamond detector

  6. Evaluation of neutron and proton nuclear data of 28Si for energies up to 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron and proton nuclear data of 28Si up to 200 MeV are evaluated for various nuclear engineering applications. The soft rotator model and the coupled-channel method are used to perform a consistent analysis of the collective band structure of 28Si and nucleon scattering from 28Si. The GNASH nuclear model code is used for compound and preequilibrium particle emission calculations, where the emission of 3He is also included. Comparisons show overall good agreement with various experimental data. (author)

  7. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.;

    1986-01-01

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sho...... higher than in the pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure...

  8. Measurement of the Time-Structure of the 72 MeV Proton Beam in the PSI Injector-2 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Dölling, R

    2001-01-01

    The time-structure monitor at the last turn of the 72MeV Injector-2 cyclotron has been improved in order to meet the stringent time-resolution requirement imposed by the short bunch length. Protons scattered by a thin carbon-fibre target pass through a first scintillator-photomultiplier detector and are stopped in a second one. The longitudinal bunch shape is given by the distribution of arrival times measured with respect to the 50 MHz reference signal from the acceleration cavities. From a coincidence measurement, the time resolution of the detectors has been determined to be 51 ps and 31 ps fwhm. Longitudinal and horizontal bunch shapes have been measured at beam currents from 25μA to 1700μA. Approximately circular bunches were observed with diameter increasing with current. The shortest observed proton bunch length was 38 ps fwhm.

  9. Spin polarized induction of quantum correlations_entanglement using a 2 MeV proton beam channeling

    CERN Document Server

    Berec, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    In solid_state hybrid electron_nuclear spin systems quantum entanglement plays vital role in allowing accessible transfer of information between subatomic particles, regardless of the host lattice coordination spatial geometry, revealing the powerful resource for nuclear quantum states engineering. Here we present study of 2 MeV superfocused channeled proton (SCP) beam induced polarization of atom_photon correlated states, established in isotopically purified silicon nanocrystal. Two level entangling interaction which couples an initial quantum state to two possible light_matter states via silicon nanocrystal interface is presented. The anisotropic hyperfine coupling is demonstrated by strong mixing of quantum states within the control mechanism of the coherent proton pulse sequence. Obtained results reveal the mutual predictable correlation of particles of energy_matter, by using the fully broadcastable and precise hybrid electron_nuclear spin qubit manipulations which can be exploited for the speed_superior...

  10. The first SEPServer event catalogue ~68-MeV solar proton events observed at 1 AU in 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gasén Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SEPServer is a three-year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE of the European Union. The objective of the project is to provide access to state-of-the-art observations and analysis tools for the scientific community on solar energetic particle (SEP events and related electromagnetic (EM emissions. The project will eventually lead to better understanding of the particle acceleration and transport processes at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. These processes lead to SEP events that form one of the key elements of space weather. In this paper we present the first results from the systematic analysis work performed on the following datasets: SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, Wind/WAVES and GOES X-rays. A catalogue of SEP events at 1 AU, with complete coverage over solar cycle 23, based on high-energy (~68-MeV protons from SOHO/ERNE and electron recordings of the events by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM are presented. A total of 115 energetic particle events have been identified and analysed using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA for protons and time-shifting analysis (TSA for electrons and protons in order to infer the SEP release times at the Sun. EM observations during the times of the SEP event onset have been gathered and compared to the release time estimates of particles. Data from those events that occurred during the European day-time, i.e., those that also have observations from ground-based observatories included in SEPServer, are listed and a preliminary analysis of their associations is presented. We find that VDA results for protons can be a useful tool for the analysis of proton release times, but if the derived proton path length is out of a range of 1 AU < s ≲ 3 AU, the result of the analysis may be compromised, as indicated by the anti-correlation of the derived path length and release time delay from the associated X-ray flare. The average path length derived from VDA is about 1.9 times

  11. Design of a 10 MeV normal conducting CW proton linac based on equidistant multi-gap CH cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhihui

    2014-01-01

    The continue wave (CW) high current proton linac has wide applications as the front end of the high power proton machines. The low energy part is the most difficult one and there is no widely accepted solution yet. Based on the analysis of the focusing properties of the CW low energy proton linac, a 10 MeV low energy normal conducting proton linac based on equidistant seven-gap Cross-bar H-type (CH) cavities is proposed. The linac is composed of ten 7-gap CH cavities and the transverse focusing is maintained by the quadrupole doublets located between cavities. The total length of the linac is less than 6 meters and the average acceleration gradient is about 1.2 MeV/m. The electromagnetic properties of the cavities are investigated by Microwave Studio. At the nominal acceleration gradient the maximum surface electric field in the cavities is less than 1.3 times Kilpatrick limit, and the Ohmic loss of each cavity is less than 35 kW. The multi-particle beam dynamics simulations are performed with the help of the...

  12. Variations in the Processing of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Along 60-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I.; Currell, Frederick J.; Kacperek, Andrzej; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variations in induction and repair of DNA damage along the proton path, after a previous report on the increasing biological effectiveness along clinically modulated 60-MeV proton beams. Methods and Materials Human skin fibroblast (AG01522) cells were irradiated along a monoenergetic and a modulated spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) proton beam used for treating ocular melanoma at the Douglas Cyclotron, Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, Wirral, Liverpool, United Kingdom. The DNA damage response was studied using the 53BP1 foci formation assay. The linear energy transfer (LET) dependence was studied by irradiating the cells at depths corresponding to entrance, proximal, middle, and distal positions of SOBP and the entrance and peak position for the pristine beam. Results A significant amount of persistent foci was observed at the distal end of the SOBP, suggesting complex residual DNA double-strand break damage induction corresponding to the highest LET values achievable by modulated proton beams. Unlike the directly irradiated, medium-sharing bystander cells did not show any significant increase in residual foci. Conclusions The DNA damage response along the proton beam path was similar to the response of X rays, confirming the low-LET quality of the proton exposure. However, at the distal end of SOBP our data indicate an increased complexity of DNA lesions and slower repair kinetics. A lack of significant induction of 53BP1 foci in the bystander cells suggests a minor role of cell signaling for DNA damage under these conditions. PMID:26452569

  13. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natSm up to 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Proton induced reactions on natural samarium up to 65 MeV. •Stacked foil irradiation technique. •Comparison of experimental results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. •Calculation and comparison of thick target integral yields. -- Abstract: Activation cross sections for proton induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(p,xn)154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146,145Eu, natSm(p,x)153,145Sm, natSm(p,x)151,150,149,148g,148m,146,144,143Pm and natSm(p,x)141Nd up to 65 MeV. The cross sections were measured via activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS (results taken from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the activation products were calculated from the excitation functions

  14. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natural Ni up to 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production cross-sections of the natNi(p,x)60,61Cu, 56,57Ni, 55,56,57,58Co nuclear reactions were measured in five experiments up to 65 MeV by using a stacked foil activation technique. The results were compared with the available literature values, predictions of the nuclear reaction model codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS-1.4, and extracted data from the TENDL-2012 library. Spline fits were made on the basis of selected data, from which physical yields were calculated and compared with the literature values. The applicability of the natNi(p,x)57Ni, 57Co reactions for thin layer activation (TLA) was investigated. The production rate for 55Co was compared for proton and deuteron induced reactions on Ni. - Highlights: • Production cross-sections of natNi(p,x)60,61Cu, 56,57Ni, 55,56,57,58Co reactions up to 65 MeV. • Comparison of results with theoretical codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.4 and TENDL-2012 library. • Calculation and comparison of physical yields with literature experiments. • Thin layer activation (TLA) curves for57Ni and 57Co for industrial applications. • The production rate for 55Co was compared for proton and deuteron induced reactions on Ni

  15. Proton LINAC Using Spiral Wave-guide with Finite Energy of 80 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2016-01-01

    The article considers an opportunity of simultaneous pulsed acceleration of seven proton beams with current one hundred milliamps in each beam. The accelerator consists of two parts. In the first part of the accelerator having the length five meters, the protons are accelerated to the energy of mega electron Volts. Consumption of high-frequency power by this part of the accelerator is equal to mega Watts. In the second part of the accelerator having the length fifty meters, the protons are accelerated to the finite energy eighty mega electron Volts. Consumption of the high frequency power by the second part of the accelerator is seventy fours mega Watts. The radial focus of the proton beam in the first and second parts of the accelerator is carried out with the magnetic field ten Tesla which is generated by a superconducting solenoid.

  16. Characterization of radiation damage caused by 23 MeV protons in Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengwei; Xu, Yupeng; Liu, Congzhan; Gu, Yudong; Xie, Fei; Li, Yanguo; Hu, Hongliang; Zhou, Xu; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Xufang; Zhang, Shuo; Chang, Zhi; Zhang, Juan; Xu, Zhenling; Zhang, Yifei; Zhao, Jianling

    2016-06-01

    A automatic gain control system (AGC) is designed to continuously monitor and automatically control the gain of the phoswich detectors onboard the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). It consists of a Am241 radioactive source and a photo-detector. The Am241 radioactive source is tagged within a plastic scintillator (BC440M). The scintillating photons produced by the decayed alpha particles from the radioactive source is readout by the photo-detector. The Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) produced by Hamamatsu is used as the photo-detector for AGC. To verify the feasibility of its application in space environment, four MPPCs (S10362-33-050C) were irradiated by a beam of 23 MeV protons. The integrated proton fluence that exposed to the four MPPC samples are 1.0 ×108 p cm-2 , 2.0 ×108 p cm-2 , 4.0 ×108 p cm-2 and 1.0 ×1010 p cm-2 respectively. It is found that the increment leakage current of the MPPC samples caused by irradiation damage increase linearly with the integrated fluence. The pulse-height resolution of the MPPC has deteriorated hardly after irradiation. When irradiated up to 1.1 ×109cm-2 1 MeV equivalent neutrons, the MPPC completely lost its photon-counting capability but could still work as a photo-detector for AGC. The MPPC fails as a photo-detector for the AGC when the irradiated 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences is up to 2.7 ×1010cm-2 .

  17. Tenfold enhancement of MeV Proton generation by a moderate ultra-short laser interaction with H2O nano-wire targets

    CERN Document Server

    Zigler, A; Bruner, N; Schleifer, E; Eisenmann, S; Henis, Z; Botton, M; Pikuz, S A; Faenov, A Y; Gordon, D; Sprangle, P

    2010-01-01

    Compact sources of high energy protons (50-500MeV) are expected to be key technology in a wide range of scientific applications. Particularly promising is the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme, holding record level of 67MeV protons generated by a peta-Watt laser. In general, laser intensity exceeding 10^18 W/cm2 is required to produce MeV level protons. Enhancing the energy of generated protons using compact laser sources is very attractive task nowadays. Recently, nano-scale targets were used to accelerate ions. Here we report on the first generation of 5.5-7.5MeV protons by modest laser intensities (4.5 x 10^17 W/cm2) interacting with H2O nano-wires (snow) deposited on a Sapphire substrate. In this setup, the plasma near the tip of the nano-wire is subject to locally enhanced laser intensity with high spatial gradients, and confined charge separation is obtained. Electrostatic fields of extremely high intensities are produced, and protons are accelerated to MeV-level energies. Nano-wire engine...

  18. X-ray diffraction studies of 145MeV proton-irradiated AlBeMet 162

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elbakhshwan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AlBeMet 162 (Materion Co., formerly Brush Wellman has been irradiated with 145MeV protons up to 1.2×1020cm−2 fluence, with irradiation temperatures in the range of 100–220°C. Macroscopic post-irradiation evaluation on the evolution of mechanical and thermal properties was integrated with a comprehensive X-ray- diffraction study using high-energy monochromatic and polychromatic X-ray beams, which offered a microscopic view of the irradiation damage effects on AlBeMet. The study confirmed the stability of the metal–matrix composite, its resistance to proton damage, and the continuing separation of the two distinct phases, fcc aluminum and hcp beryllium, following irradiation. Furthermore, based on the absence of inter-planar distance change during proton irradiation, it was confirmed that the stacking faults and clusters on the Al (111 planes are stable, and thus can migrate from the cascade region and be absorbed at various sinks. XRD analysis of the unirradiated AlBeMet 162 showed clear change in the texture of the fcc phase with orientation especially in the Al (111 reflection which exhibits a “non-perfect” six-fold symmetry, implying lack of isotropy in the composite.

  19. Prototype Digital Beam Position and Phase Monitor for the 100-MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Kim, Sung-Chul; Park, In-Soo; Park, Sung-Ju; Tae Kim, Do

    2005-01-01

    The PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) is building a high-power proton linear accelerator aiming to generate 100-MeV proton beams with 20-mA peak current (pulse width and max. repetition rate of 1 ms and 120 Hz respectively). We are developing a prototype digital BPPM (Beam Position and Phase Monitor) for the PEFP linac utilizing the digital technology with field programmable gate array (FPGA). The RF input signals are down converted to 10 MHz and sampled at 40 MHz with 14-bit ADC to produce I and Q data streams. The system is designed to provide a position and phase resolution of 0.1% and 0.1? RMS respectively. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the prototype digital beam position and phase monitor will be described with the performance test results.

  20. Validation of nuclear models in Geant4 using the dose distribution of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David C.; Makarova, Anastasia; Paganetti, Harald; Gottschalk, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A proton pencil beam is associated with a surrounding low-dose envelope, originating from nuclear interactions. It is important for treatment planning systems to accurately model this envelope when performing dose calculations for pencil beam scanning treatments, and Monte Carlo (MC) codes are commonly used for this purpose. This work aims to validate the nuclear models employed by the Geant4 MC code, by comparing the simulated absolute dose distribution to a recent experiment of a 177 MeV proton pencil beam stopping in water. Striking agreement is observed over five orders of magnitude, with both the shape and normalisation well modelled. The normalisations of two depth dose curves are lower than experiment, though this could be explained by an experimental positioning error. The Geant4 neutron production model is also verified in the distal region. The entrance dose is poorly modelled, suggesting an unaccounted upstream source of low-energy protons. Recommendations are given for a follow-up experiment which could resolve these issues.

  1. Investigation of the Deuteron Breakup on Proton Target in the Forward Angular Region at 130 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of differential cross-section data of the 1H(d, pp)n breakup reaction at 130 MeV deuteron beam energy has been measured in the domain of very forward polar angles with the use of the Germanium Wall detector at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The data obtained for over 1000 kinematical points (112 geometries) are compared with the theoretical predictions based on various models of the three-nucleon (3N) dynamics. They comprise: the realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials alone or combined with the three-nucleon force (3NF), the coupled-channel calculations with the explicit treatment of the Δ-isobar excitation and finally, the potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory. In the part of the phase space studied, the Coulomb interaction between protons has a strong impact on the differential cross section of the breakup reaction. The strongest Coulomb effects are found in regions where the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest. In these regions the data are well reproduced exclusively by calculations which include the electromagnetic repulsion between protons. In spite of the dominance of the Coulomb force in the phase space studied, the contribution of 3NF effects is also observed. (author)

  2. Comparisons of high latitude E > 20 MeV proton geomagnetic cutoff observations with predictions of the SEPTR model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ling

    Full Text Available Radiation effects from solar energetic proton (SEP events are a concern when the International Space Station reaches high latitudes accessible to SEPs. We use data from the 20–29 and 29–64 MeV proton channels of the Proton/Electron Telescope on the SAMPEX satellite during nine large SEP events to determine the experimental geographic cutoff latitudes for the two energy ranges. These are compared with calculated cutoff latitudes based on a computer model, SEPTR (solar energetic particle tracer. The observed cutoff latitudes are systematically equatorward of the latitudes calculated by the SEPTR program using a Tsyganenko field model, but that model produces mean values of ~ 2° for latitudinal differences with observations, DLat, which are ~ 3 times smaller than those using the 1995 International Geomagnetic Reference Field model alone. The number distributions of DLat are peaked near 0° and decline toward higher values. With the Tsyganenko model, we find no significant trend in either the DLat or their variances with increasing Kp .Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Magnetospheric physics (polar cap phenomena – Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration

  3. Stopping power of palladium for protons in the energy range 0.300–3.100 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.A., E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Sepúlveda, A.; Morales, J.R.; Rodriguez, T.; Burgos, E.; Fernández, H.

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of palladium for protons has been measured using the transmission method with an overall uncertainty of around 5% over the energy range E{sub p}=(0.300–3.100) MeV. These stopping power data are then compared to stopping power values calculated by the SRIM-2010 code and to those derived from a model based on the dielectric formalism. Subsequently, and within the framework of the modified Bethe–Bloch theory, this stopping power data were used for extracting Pd target mean excitation and ionization potential, (I = 468 ± 5 eV), and Barkas effect parameter, (b = 1.51 ± 0.06). A good agreement is found between the obtained results and values reported in literature. It is worth mentioning that these are the first reported results for protons on palladium over this energy range, which is often used in IBA applications, such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE)

  4. Measurement of eta photoproduction on the proton from threshold to 1500 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Bartalini, O.; Bellini, V.; Bocquet, J.P.; Calvat, P.; Capogni, M.; Casano, L.; Castoldi, M; D'Angelo, A.(Università di Roma Tor Vergata and INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy); Didelez, J. P.; Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A.; Franco, D.(APC, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris, France); Gaulard, C.; Gervino, G.; Ghio, F.

    2007-01-01

    Beam asymmetry and differential cross section for the reaction gamma+p->eta+p were measured from production threshold to 1500 MeV photon laboratory energy. The two dominant neutral decay modes of the eta meson, eta->2g and eta->3pi0, were analyzed. The full set of measurements is in good agreement with previously published results. Our data were compared with three models. They all fit satisfactorily the results but their respective resonance contributions are quite different. The possible ph...

  5. Measurement of eta photoproduction on the proton from threshold to 1500 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bartalini, O; Bocquet, J P; calvat, P; Capogni, M; Casano, L; Castoldi, M; D'Angelo, A; Didelez, J P; Di Salvo, R; Fantini, A; Franco, D; Gaulard, C; Gervino, G; Ghio, F; Giardina, G; Girolami, B; Giusa, A; Guidal, M; Hourany, E; Kunne, Ronald Alexander; Lapik, A; Levi-Sandri, P; Llères, A; Mammoliti, F; Mandaglio, G; Moricciani, D; Mushkarenkov, A N; Nedorezov, V; Nicoletti, L; Perrin, C; Randieri, C; Rebreyend, D; Renard, F; Rudnev, N; Russew, T; Russo, G; Schärf, C; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, M C; Turinge, A; Vegna, V

    2007-01-01

    Beam asymmetry and differential cross section for the reaction gamma+p->eta+p were measured from production threshold to 1500 MeV photon laboratory energy. The two dominant neutral decay modes of the eta meson, eta->2g and eta->3pi0, were analyzed. The full set of measurements is in good agreement with previously published results. Our data were compared with three models. They all fit satisfactorily the results but their respective resonance contributions are quite different. The possible photoexcitation of a narrow state N(1670) was investigated and no evidence was found.

  6. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg (AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si (Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-1000C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably higher than in pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure. (orig.)

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of medium energy (600-800 MeV) proton irradiated commercial aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial AlMg- and AlMgSi-alloys were irradiated with medium energy (600-800 MeV) protons to a nominal fluence of 3.2 x 1024 p/m2 which yields by calculation a displacement damage of 0.2 dpa and helium and hydrogen generation of 67 and 275 appm, respectively. Post-irradiation tensile testing revealed a very marked degree of irradiation-induced softening in the cold-worked AlMg-alloy as well as in the precipitation-hardened AlMgSi-alloy. The TEM examination of the irradiated specimens showed that neither the cold-work microstructure in the AlMg-alloy nor the G.P. zone type precipitates in the AlMgSi-alloy survive under the irradiation conditions used in the present experiment. Results of complimentary investigations (i.e., hardness measurements, optical microscopy and SEM-fractography) are also presented. (author)

  8. Implementation of the networked computer based control system for PEFP 100MeV proton linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The 100MeV Radio Frequency (RF) linac for the pulsed proton source is under development in KAERI. The main systems of the linac, such as the general timing control, the high power RF system, the control system of klystrons, the power supply system of magnets, the vacuum subsystem, and the cooling system, should be integrated into the control system of PEFP. Various subsystems units of the linac are to be made by other manufacturers with different standards. The technical integration will be based upon Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software framework. The network attached computers, such as workstation, server, VME, and embedded system, will be applied as control devices. This paper is discussed on integration and implementation of the distributed control systems using networked computer systems.

  9. Results of 1 MeV proton irradiation of front and back surfaces of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B. E.; Kachare, R.; Weizer, V. G.

    1987-01-01

    Several silicon solar cells with and without back surface fields (BSF), having thicknesses of 200 microns and 63 microns were irradiated with 1 MeV protons having fluences between 1 times 10 to the 10th power and 1 times 10 to the 12th power p/square cm. The irradiation was performed using both normal and isotropic incidence on the front as well as back surfaces of the solar cells. The results of the back surface irradiations are analyzed using a model in which irradiation induced defects across the high-low (BSF) junction are considered. It is concluded that degradation of the high-low junction is responsible for the severe performance loss in thinner cells when irradiated from the rear.

  10. Experimental cross-sections for proton induced nuclear reactions on mercury up to 65 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szücs, Z.; Brezovcsik, K.

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sections for formation of activation products induced by protons on natural mercury targets were measured. Results for 196m,196g,197g(cum), 198m,198g,199g(cum), 200g(cum), 201,202Tl, 194g(cum), 195g(cum), 196g(cum), 198m,199g(cum) Au and 195m,197m,203Hg are presented up to 65 MeV incident particle energy, many of these for the first time. The experimental data are compared with literature values and with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 code (results taken from TENDL-2015 on-line library), thick target yields were derived and possible applications in biomedical sciences are discussed.

  11. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-01-01

    Experimental excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural vanadium in the 37-65 MeV energy range were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. By using high resolution gamma spectrometry cross-section data for the production of $^{51,48}$Cr, $^{48}$V, $^{48,47,46,44m,44g,43}$Sc and $^{43,42}$K were determined. Comparisons with the earlier published data are presented and results predicted by different theoretical codes (EMPIRE and TALYS) are included. Thick target yields were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves and compared with the earlier experimental yield data. Depth distribution curves to be used for thin layer activation (TLA) are also presented.

  12. Stopping power of palladium for protons in the energy range 0.300-3.100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, P. A.; Sepúlveda, A.; Morales, J. R.; Rodriguez, T.; Burgos, E.; Fernández, H.

    2014-01-01

    The stopping power of palladium for protons has been measured using the transmission method with an overall uncertainty of around 5% over the energy range Ep=(0.300-3.100) MeV. These stopping power data are then compared to stopping power values calculated by the SRIM-2010 code and to those derived from a model based on the dielectric formalism. Subsequently, and within the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory, this stopping power data were used for extracting Pd target mean excitation and ionization potential, (I = 468 ± 5 eV), and Barkas effect parameter, (b = 1.51 ± 0.06). A good agreement is found between the obtained results and values reported in literature.

  13. An 800-MeV superconducting LINAC to support megawatt proton operations at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Derwent, Paul; Lebedev, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Active discussion on the high energy physics priorities in the US carried out since summer of 2013 resulted in changes in Fermilab plans for future development of the existing accelerator complex. In particular, the scope of Project X was reduced to the support of the Long Base Neutrino Facility (LBNF) at the project first stage. The name of the facility was changed to the PIP-II (Proton Improvement Plan). This new facility is a logical extension of the existing Proton Improvement Plan aimed at doubling average power of the Fermilab's Booster and Main Injector (MI). Its design and required R&D are closely related to the Project X. The paper discusses the goals of this new facility and changes to the Project X linac introduced to support the goals.

  14. Calculating Variations in Biological Effectiveness for a 62 MeV Proton Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carante, Mario Pietro; Ballarini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of radiation-induced cell death and chromosome aberrations [called BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations (BIANCA)] was further developed and applied to therapeutic protons. The model assumes a pivotal role of DNA cluster damage, which can lead to clonogenic cell death following three main steps: (i) a DNA "cluster lesion" (CL) produces two independent chromosome fragments; (ii) fragment mis-rejoining within a threshold distance d gives rise to chromosome aberrations; (iii) certain aberration types (dicentrics, rings, and large deletions) lead to clonogenic inactivation. The yield of CLs and the probability, f, that a chromosome fragment remains un-rejoined even if other fragment(s) are present within d, were adjustable parameters. The model, implemented as a MC code providing simulated dose-responses directly comparable with experimental data, was applied to pristine and modulated Bragg peaks of the proton beam used to treat eye melanoma at INFN-LNS in Catania, Italy. Experimental survival curves for AG01522 cells exposed to the Catania beam were reproduced, supporting the model assumptions. Furthermore, cell death and chromosome aberrations at different depths along a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) dose profile were predicted. Both endpoints showed an increase along the plateau, and high levels of damage were found also beyond the distal dose fall-off, due to low-energy protons. Cell death and chromosome aberrations were also predicted for V79 cells, in the same irradiation scenario as that used for AG01522 cells. In line with other studies, this work indicated that assuming a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) along a proton SOBP may be sub-optimal. Furthermore, it provided qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the dependence of the beam effectiveness on the considered endpoint and dose. More generally, this work represents an example of therapeutic beam characterization avoiding the use of

  15. A radioisotope production facility using 70-120 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A facility with five target stations for the production of radioisotopes is now available for use by research groups. Four production systems can accept beam intensities from 10 to 100 microamps, with the fifth being under development for proton therapy. The first target is molten LiBr, the second is molten NaI, the third system is for irradiating solid target materials, and the fourth target is molten cesium

  16. Calculating Variations in Biological Effectiveness for a 62 MeV Proton Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carante, Mario Pietro; Ballarini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of radiation-induced cell death and chromosome aberrations [called BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations (BIANCA)] was further developed and applied to therapeutic protons. The model assumes a pivotal role of DNA cluster damage, which can lead to clonogenic cell death following three main steps: (i) a DNA “cluster lesion” (CL) produces two independent chromosome fragments; (ii) fragment mis-rejoining within a threshold distance d gives rise to chromosome aberrations; (iii) certain aberration types (dicentrics, rings, and large deletions) lead to clonogenic inactivation. The yield of CLs and the probability, f, that a chromosome fragment remains un-rejoined even if other fragment(s) are present within d, were adjustable parameters. The model, implemented as a MC code providing simulated dose–responses directly comparable with experimental data, was applied to pristine and modulated Bragg peaks of the proton beam used to treat eye melanoma at INFN-LNS in Catania, Italy. Experimental survival curves for AG01522 cells exposed to the Catania beam were reproduced, supporting the model assumptions. Furthermore, cell death and chromosome aberrations at different depths along a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) dose profile were predicted. Both endpoints showed an increase along the plateau, and high levels of damage were found also beyond the distal dose fall-off, due to low-energy protons. Cell death and chromosome aberrations were also predicted for V79 cells, in the same irradiation scenario as that used for AG01522 cells. In line with other studies, this work indicated that assuming a constant relative biological effectiveness (RBE) along a proton SOBP may be sub-optimal. Furthermore, it provided qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the dependence of the beam effectiveness on the considered endpoint and dose. More generally, this work represents an example of therapeutic beam characterization avoiding the use of

  17. Proton induced nuclear reactions on natural antimony up to 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on natSb target leading to the formation of the radioisotopes 121m,g,123mTe were measured. The experimental excitation functions were compared with the theoretical model calculations using the codes EMPIRE-3.1 and TALYS-1.4. The integral yields of the three radionuclides were calculated and the possibility of their production is discussed.

  18. Proton induced nuclear reactions on natural antimony up to 17 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbinawi, Alaa; Al-abyad, Mogahed; Hassan, Khaled F. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Cyclotron Facility; Abd-Elmageed, Karima E. [Benha Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics; Ditroi, Ferenc [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary). Inst. for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI)

    2016-08-01

    The activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Sb target leading to the formation of the radioisotopes {sup 121m,g,123m}Te were measured. The experimental excitation functions were compared with the theoretical model calculations using the codes EMPIRE-3.1 and TALYS-1.4. The integral yields of the three radionuclides were calculated and the possibility of their production is discussed.

  19. Calculating variations in biological effectiveness for a 62 MeV proton beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pietro Carante

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical model of radiation-induced cell death and chromosome aberrations (called BIANCA, BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations was further developed and applied to therapeutic protons. The model assumes a pivotal role of DNA cluster damage, which can lead to clonogenic cell death following three main steps: i a DNA Cluster Lesion (CL produces two independent chromosome fragments; ii fragment mis-rejoining within a threshold distance d gives rise to chromosome aberrations; iii certain aberration types (dicentrics, rings and large deletions lead to clonogenic inactivation. The yield of CLs and the probability, f, that a chromosome fragment remains un-rejoined even if other fragment(s are present within d, were adjustable parameters. The model, implemented as a MC code providing simulated dose-responses directly comparable with experimental data, was applied to pristine and modulated Bragg peaks of the proton beam used to treat eye melanoma at INFN-LNS in Catania, Italy. Experimental survival curves for AG01522 cells exposed to the Catania beam were reproduced, supporting the model assumptions. Furthermore, cell death and chromosome aberrations at different depths along a SOBP (Spread-Out Bragg Peak dose profile were predicted. Both endpoints showed an increase along the plateau, and high levels of damage were found also beyond the distal dose fall-off, due to low-energy protons. Cell death and chromosome aberrations were also predicted for V79 cells, in the same irradiation scenario as that used for AG01522 cells. In line with other studies, this work indicated that assuming a constant RBE along a proton SOBP may be sub-optimal. Furthermore, it provided qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the dependence of the beam effectiveness on the considered endpoint and dose. More generally, this work represents an example of therapeutic beam characterization avoiding the use of experimental RBE values, which can be

  20. Combined proton-recoil and neutron time-of-flight spectrometer for 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main effort put into this work is the foundation of a reliable physical basis for a 12-16 MeV neutron-spectrometer at JET. The essential problem is the amount of scatterer that can be incorporated without losing resolution. We have found two possible methods, the use of a pure hydrogen scatterer and the use of a polyethylene foil scatterer. The pure hydrogen solution gives a very complicated spectrometer with large detectors. The polyethylene solution is limited by the thickness and the width of the foil. We judge the solution with the polyethylene foil to be the most promising one for a reliable spectrometer. However, a large foil area is needed. This gives a spectrometer design with an annular foil, an annular neutron detection system, and a central proton-detector. An efficiency of 10-6 counts/s per n/cm2,s at the foil can be obtained with a resolution in the order of 100 keV for 14 MeV neutrons. Following the General Requirements given in the contract of this work, we concluded that an instrument with the desired properties can be made. The instruments is able to give useful information about the plasma from plasma temperatures of about 5 keV. (Authors)

  1. Direct measurement of prompt neutrons emitted in fission of 226Ra by 12 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prompt neutron energy distributions were measured at 0 deg and 90 deg with respect to the fission axis, in correlation with the mass-energy distribution of the fragments, for the fission of 226Ra induced by 12 MeV protons. The average number and average kinetic energy of prefission and postfission neutrons were obtained as a function of fragment mass and total kinetic energy. The average number of prefission neutrons emitted is 0.33+-0.15 n/fission (this includes also contributions from scission neutrons). By comparing this result with calculations of the average number of 'true' prefission neutrons, it was found that the number of 'true' prefission neutrons is zero. The average number of postfission neutrons emitted from both fragments is 3,20+-0.20 with an average kinetic energy of 1.33+-0.07 MeV. The dependence of the number of postfission neutrons on the fragment mass can be interpreted as a combination of a saw-tooth structure for the asymmetric mass division and a linearly increasing function for the symmetric mass division. (author)

  2. Measurement of activation reaction rate distributions in a lead assembly bombarded with 500-MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, H; Sasa, T; Tsujimoto, K; Yasuda, H

    2000-01-01

    Reaction rate distributions of various activation detectors such as the /sup nat/Ni(n, x)/sup 58/Co, /sup 197/Au(n,2n)/sup 196/Au, and /sup 197/Au(n,4n)/sup 194/Au reactions were measured to study the production and the transport of spallation neutrons in a lead assembly bombarded with protons of 500 MeV. The measured data were analyzed with the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC/JAERI combined with the MCNP4A code using the nuclide production cross sections based on the JENDL Dosimetry File and those calculated with the ALICE-F code. It was found that the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A calculations agreed well with the experiments for the low-energy-threshold reaction of /sup nat/Ni(n, x)/sup 58/Co. With the increase of threshold energy, however, the calculation underestimated the experiments, especially above 20 MeV. The reason for the disagreement can be attributed to the underestimation of the neutron yield in the tens of mega-electron-volt regions by the NMTC/JAERI code. (32 refs).

  3. Changes of structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes film caused by 3 MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji, E-mail: lxj0218@hit.edu.cn; Liu, Chaoming; Ma, Guoliang

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • 3 MeV protons could lead to evident changes in morphology of the MWCNTs film. • 3 MeV protons damage the structure of the MWCNTs, including increasing the disorder and the formation of functional groups. • With increasing the irradiation fluence, the electrical conductivity of the irradiated MWCNTs film by 3 MeV protons decreases. - Abstract: The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation for fluences of 3.5 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} to 3.1 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} on structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) film were investigated. The pristine and the irradiated MWCNTs films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of irradiation on their structure. Electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs films was characterized before and after irradiation. SEM analysis reveals that the proton irradiation for the high fluence (more than 3.6 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}) leads to evident changes in morphology of the MWCNTs film, such as forming uneven film surface, curve, shrinkage and fragmentation of nanotubes. Based on Raman, XPS, FTIR and EA analyses, it is confirmed that the 3 MeV protons with high fluence (more than 3.6 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2}) can damage the structure of the MWCNTs, including increase of the disorder and the formation of functional groups. EPR spectroscopy shows that the electrons delocalized over carbon nanotubes increase with increasing irradiation fluence, implying that the MWCNTs film might be sensitive to ionizing radiation to some extent. With increasing the irradiation fluence, the electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs film decreases due to the structural and morphological damage.

  4. Proton Inelastic Mean Free Path in a Group of Organic Materials in 0.05-10 MeV Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhen-Yu; XIA Yue-Yuan; ZHAO Ming-Wen; LIU Xiang-Dong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inelastic mean free paths (MFPs) of 0.05-10 MeV protons in a group of 10 organic compounds are systematically calculated.The calculations are based on the method newly derived from the Ashley optical-data model and from the higher-order correction terms in stopping power calculations.Especially,in this method the new and empirical Bloch correction for the inelastic MFP is given.An evaluation for the optical energy loss function is incorporated into the present calculatious because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the considered organic compounds expect for kapton.The proton inelastic MFPs for these 10 organic compounds in the energy range from 0.05 to 10 Me V are presented here for the first time,and the combination of these inelastic MFP data and our previous data of stopping power calculation for these bioorganic compounds may form a useful database for Monte Carlo track-structure studies of various radiation effects on these materials.

  5. –, – and deep level transient spectroscopy study of 24 MeV proton-irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Madhu; S R Kulkarni; R Damle

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of 24 MeV proton irradiation on the electrical characteristics of a pnp bipolar junction transistor 2N 2905A. –, – and DLTS measurements are carried out to characterize the transistor before and after irradiation. The properties of deep level defects observed in the bulk of the transistor are investigated by analysing the DLTS data. Two minority carrier levels, C – 0.27 eV and C – 0.58 eV and one majority carrier level, V + 0.18 eV are observed in the base collector junction of the transistor. The irradiated transistor is subjected to isochronal annealing. The influence of isochronal annealing on –, – and DLTS characteristics are monitored. Most of the deep level defects seem to anneal out above 400° C. It appears that the deep level defects generated in the bulk of the transistor lead to transistor gain degradation. A comparison of proton- and electron-induced gain degradation is made to assess the vulnerability of pnp transistor as against npn transistors.

  6. Cross-field diffusion of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons in interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jr, Edio da [Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais-IFMG, Ouro Preto, MG, 35400-000 (Brazil); Tsurutani, Bruce T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alves, Maria Virgínia; Echer, Ezequiel [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Lakhina, Gurbax S., E-mail: edio.junior@ifmg.edu.br, E-mail: costajr.e@gmail.com [Indian Institute for Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai 410 218 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field magnitude decreases (MDs) are observed in several regions of the interplanetary medium. In this paper, we characterize MDs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft instrumentation over the solar south pole by using magnetic field data to obtain the empirical size, magnetic field MD, and frequency of occurrence distribution functions. The interaction of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons with these MDs is investigated. Charged particle and MD interactions can be described by a geometrical model allowing the calculation of the guiding center shift after each interaction. Using the distribution functions for the MD characteristics, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the cross-field diffusion coefficients as a function of particle kinetic energy. It is found that the protons under consideration cross-field diffuse at a rate of up to ≈11% of the Bohm rate. The same method used in this paper can be applied to other space regions where MDs are observed, once their local features are well known.

  7. PIXE analysis of Middle Age objects using 68 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, A. E-mail: denker@hmi.de; Blaich, M.C

    2002-04-01

    PIXE with high-energy protons is particularly suited for the analysis of thick objects, especially for heavy elements behind layers that may be several mm thick. A typical application, namely the analysis of brooches from the early Middle Ages, is presented. These objects were covered with a plastic varnish of several mm thickness to prevent further corrosion. Now an analysis of the elements in the brooches was requested. The protective layer could not be removed for any standard analysis without destroying the objects. Therefore high-energy PIXE was used. The measurements and the results are presented.

  8. Tensile properties in zircaloy-II after 590 MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Y. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Victoria, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate radiation potential damage effects on the SINQ Zircaloy-rod target, four Zircaloy-II tensile specimens were irradiated at the PIREX facility in 1995 to a proton fluence about 3x10{sup 20} p/cm{sup 2}, which produced a radiation damage of about 1.35 displacements per atom (dpa). Tensile test results show that, although there is some reduction in tensile elongation, substantial ductility still exists after such irradiation dose which corresponds to the peak value obtained in the SINQ target for 23 days operation at 1 mA. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  9. Neutron- and proton-induced nuclear data evaluation of thorium, uranium and curium isotopes for energies up to 250 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Ouk Lee; Jonghwa, Chang; Konobeyev, A Yu

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of neutron- and proton nuclear data for thorium-232, U-233,234,236, and Cm-243,244,245,246 isotopes have been performed at energies up to 250 MeV. Neutron data was evaluated at energies from 20 MeV to 250 MeV, and combined with the JENDL-3.3 data at 20 MeV while proton data was obtained for energies from 1 to 250 MeV. Nuclear model parameters are largely based on the IAEA-RIPL recommendation, and adjusted to better reproduce the available measurements. The coupled channel optical model was applied to calculate the total, reaction, elastic, and direct inelastic cross sections, and to obtain the transmission coefficients. Decay of excited nuclei was described with the Hauser-Feshbach and exciton models using the GNASH code to simultaneously handle neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3, alpha , gamma emissions and fissions. Special attention was paid on the fission cross sections for energies where experimental data are scant, using appropriate systematics and fittings. Particles and gamma e...

  10. Degradation of the charge collection efficiency of an n-type Fz silicon diode subjected to MeV proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, Nicolò; Forneris, Jacopo [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy); Grilj, Veljko; Jakšić, Milko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Räisänen, Jyrki [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Simon, Aliz [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Skukan, Natko [Department for Experimental Physics, Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vittone, Ettore, E-mail: ettore.vittone@unito.it [Physics Department, NIS Research Centre and CNISM, University of Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10250 Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: •Study of charge collection efficiency degradation (CCE) in Si diode due to MeV H irradiation. •CCE evaluated by micro-IBIC using 4.5 MeV Li ions to probe the damaged region. •Generation of H-donors, which perturb the electrostatic properties of the diode. -- Abstract: We present the analysis of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) degradation of float zone grown n-type silicon detectors irradiated with 1.3, 2.0 and 3.0 MeV protons. The analysis was carried out by irradiating small regions (50 × 50 μm{sup 2}) with a proton microbeam at fluences ranging from 10{sup 11} to 4·10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2} and probing the effect of irradiation by measuring the 4.5 MeV Li ion induced charge in full depletion conditions. The CCE degradation as function of the proton fluence shows an unexpected deviation from the linear behavior predicted by the Shockley–Read–Hall model of carrier recombination. The build-up of excess hydrogen related donors due to proton irradiations is suggested to be the cause of a significant perturbation of the electrostatic properties of the diode, which drastically change the electron trajectories and hence the induced charge mechanism.

  11. Oxidation of SO2 and formation of water droplets under irradiation of 20MeV protons in N2/H2O/SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, Shigeo; Nakai, Yoichi; Funada, Shuhei;

    2015-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on charged droplet formation in a humidified N2 gas with trace SO2 concentration and induced by 20MeV proton irradiation. It is thought that SO2 reacts with the chemical species, such as OH radicals, generated through the reactions triggered by N2+ production. Both...

  12. Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvestijn, MC; Koning, AJ; Beijers, JPM; Gastal, M; van Klinken, J; Ostendorf, RW

    1999-01-01

    Proton-induced fission at 190 MeV of W-nat, Au-197, Pb-nat, Pb-208, and Th-232 is studied by means of an innovative method based on activation analysis. The fission-product mass distribution is reconstructed from the fission-product yields, which are obtained from off-line observed gamma-ray spectra

  13. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA.

  14. Evaporation residues produced in spallation of 208Pb by protons at 500A MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Audouin, L; Armbruster, P; Benlliure, J; Bernas, M; Boudard, A; Casarejos, E; Czajkowski, S; Enqvist, T; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Jurado, B; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Mustapha, B; Pereira, J; Pravikoff, M; Rejmund, F; Ricciardi, M V; Schmidt, K H; Stéphan, C; Taieb, J; Volant, C; Wlazlo, W

    2006-01-01

    The production cross sections of fragmentation-evaporation residues in the reaction Pb+p at 500A MeV have been measured using the inverse-kinematics method and the FRS spectrometer (GSI). Fragments were identified in nuclear charge using ionisation chambers. The mass identification was performed event-by-event using the B-rho - TOF - Delta-E technique. Although partially-unresolved ionic charge states induced an ambiguity on the mass of some heavy fragments, production rates could be obtained with a high accuracy by systematically accounting for the polluting ionic charge states. The contribution of multiple reactions in the target was subtracted using a new, partly self-consistent code. The isobaric distributions are found to have a shape very close to the one observed in experiments at higher energy. Kinematic properties of the fragments were also measured. The total and the isotopic cross sections, including charge-pickup cross sections, are in good agreement with previous measurements. The data are discus...

  15. Nuclear halo of a 177 MeV proton beam in water: theory, measurement and parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Gottschalk, Bernard; Daartz, Juliane; Wagner, Miles S

    2014-01-01

    The dose distribution of a monoenergetic pencil beam in water consists of an electromagnetic "core", a "halo" from charged nuclear secondaries, and a much larger "aura" from neutral secondaries. These regions overlap, but each has distinct spatial characteristics. We have measured the core/halo using a 177MeV test beam offset in a water tank. The beam monitor was a fluence calibrated plane parallel ionization chamber (IC) and the field chamber, a dose calibrated Exradin T1, so the dose measurements are absolute (MeV/g/p). We performed depth-dose scans at ten displacements from the beam axis ranging from 0 to 10cm. The dose spans five orders of magnitude, and the transition from halo to aura is clearly visible. We have performed model-dependent (MD) and model-independent (MI) fits to the data. The MD fit separates the dose into core, elastic/inelastic nuclear, nonelastic nuclear and aura terms, and achieves a global rms measurement/fit ratio of 15%. The MI fit uses cubic splines and the same ratio is 9%. We re...

  16. Energy loss of MeV protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juaristi, J.I. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia de Abajo, F.J. [Departamento Ciencias de la Computacion e Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informatica, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 649, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P.M. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibersitatea, Apartado Postal 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)

    1996-05-01

    A parameter-free model is presented to study the energy loss of fast protons specularly reflected from metal surfaces. The contributions to the energy loss from excitation of valence-band electrons and ionization of localized target-atom electronic states are calculated separately. The former is calculated from the induced surface wake potential using linear response theory and the specular-reflection model, while the latter is calculated in the first Born approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with available experimental data. However, the experimental qualitative trend of the energy loss as a function of the angle of incidence is obtained when the valence-band electron model is replaced by localized target atom electron states, though with a worse quantitative agreement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  18. The Digital Feedback RF Control System of the RFQ and DTL1 for 100 MeV Proton Linac of PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Yu In Ha; Cho, Yong-Sub; Han, Yeung-Jin; Kang Heung Sik; Kim, Sung-Chul; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, In-Soo; Tae Kim, Do; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100 MeV Proton linear accelerator (Linac) for the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) will include 1 RFQ and 1 DTL1 at 350 MHz as well as 7 DTL2 cavities at 700 MHz. The low level RF system with the digital feedback RF control provides the field control to accelerate a 20mA proton beam from 50 keV to 20 MeV with a RFQ and a DTL1 at 350M Hz. The FPGA-based digital feedback RF control system has been built and is used to control cavity field amplitude within ± 1% and relative phase within ± 1°. The fast digital processing is networked to the EPICS-based control system with an embedded processor (Blackfin). In this paper, the detailed description of the digital feedback RF control system will be described with the performance test results.

  19. Investigation of total ionizing dose effect and displacement damage in 65 nm CMOS transistors exposed to 3 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lili, E-mail: lili03.ding@gmail.com [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Gerardin, Simone [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bagatin, Marta [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bisello, Dario [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mattiazzo, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Paccagnella, Alessandro [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The paper reports the 65 nm CMOS transistors exposed to 3 MeV protons to study the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and displacement damage (DD). The proton fluence of 7×10{sup 14} p/cm{sup 2} is equivalent to 9.5 MGy(SiO{sub 2}) total dose and 7.7×10{sup 15} n/cm{sup 2} 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence. Under this unprecedented hostile environment, we observed that the degradation of 65 nm CMOS transistors was mainly due to TID effect. Additional results from 10 keV X-ray irradiation implied no visible DD-induced degradation could be observed even for this extremely high proton fluence.

  20. The Elemental Analysis of Biological and Environmental Materials Using a 2MEV Proton Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshed, Waheed

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A programme has been developed to simulate the proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectra and its uses have been described. The PIXE technique has been applied to the analysis of new biological reference materials which consist of IAEA human diet samples and NIST leaf samples. Homogeneity of these and two existing reference materials, IAEA soil -7 and Bowen's kale, has also been determined at the mug scale. A subsample representative of a material is ascertained by determination of sampling factors for the elements detected in the material. Proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis in conjunction with PIXE has been employed to investigate F and other elemental concentrations found in human teeth samples. The mean F concentration in enamel and dentine parts of teeth followed an age dependent model. Concentrations of Ca and P were found to be higher in the enamel than in the dentine. Analysis of blood and its components in the study of elemental models in sickle cell disease in Nigerians has been carried out. Comparisons revealed that Cl, Ca and Cu were at higher levels whereas K, Fe, Zn and Rb were at lower levels in the whole blood of the sicklers compared to controls. Similar results were obtained for the erythrocytes except that Br was found at higher concentration in erythrocytes of the sicklers. Higher concentrations of Cl, K, Fe and Cu were also observed in plasma of the sicklers compared to controls. PIXE and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in the characterization of the Harmattan dust particulates collected at Kano and Ife. Most of the elements were found to be at higher concentrations as compared to those found in Recife (Brazil) and Toronto (Canada). The value of total suspended particulate was above the relevant national air quality standards. PIXE in conjunction with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed in the

  1. Mechanical properties and microstructures of copper, gold and palladium single crystals irradiated with 600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the defect microstructures and hardening effects produced by 600 MeV proton irradiation in Cu, Pd and Au single crystals have been studied at room temperature. The defect microstructures in the irradiated Cu have been investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a dose range from 9.7x10-4 to 4.6x10-2 dpa. It has been observed that about 90% of the total defect clusters are stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT's). This fraction is independent of the thickness of the foil up to about 130 nm. The irradiation defect cluster densities obtained are in agreement with previous published results of high energy proton irradiation. With the present data at medium doses, the dose dependence of the defect cluster density, in high energy proton irradiated Cu, has been well established. A comparison between the results of Cu irradiated with high energy protons, fusion neutrons and fission neutrons indicates that there is no difference in defect cluster densities produced by these particle irradiations when the results are compared on the basis of dpa. The data compiled can be fitted within a band which shows that the defect cluster density starts to saturate at a value of about 4x1023 m-3. A large transition dose range between the linear dependence to the saturation is located between 3x10-3 and 1x10-1 dpa. The defect cluster size distribution measured under weak beam dark field (WBDF) imaging conditions with (g,6g) (WBDF(g,6g)), g=200, shows that the most probable size is between 1.5 and 2 nm and the mean size is about 2 nm independent of the dose. This result is also in agreement with published results. The defect structure in Au at dose of 1.1x10-1 dpa has been observed. It shows that about 85% of the total defect clusters are SFT's. There are no grouped defect clusters, which may probably be due to the fact that the defect cluster density (5.1x1023) has already saturated at this high dose. The most probable defect cluster size is between 2

  2. Attenuation analysis of neutrons and photons generated by 52-MeV protons transmitted through shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation of neutrons and photons transmitted through grahite, iron, water and ordinary concrete assemblies were studied using gold foils for thermal neutron and an NE-213 organic scintillation detector with an (n-γ) discrimination technique for spectral measurements. Source neutrons and photons were produced by 52-MeV proton bombardment of a 21.4-mm-thick graphite target placed in front of the assembly. The distributions of the light output from the scintillator were unfolded by the revised FERDO code. These experimental results were used as benchmark data on neutron and photon penetration by neutrons energy above 15MeV. Multigroup Monte Carlo, one-dimensional ANISN and two-dimensional DOT-3.5 transport calculations were performed with the DLC-58/HELLO group cross sections to compare with the measurement and to evaluate the cross sections. The DOT code was also used for the estimation of room-scattered neutron and photon contribution to the measured spectra. The results of the ANISN calculation of neutrons and the three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation agreed with the experimental values except for high energy neutrons transmitted through water and graphite. The agreement of both calculations was well within the accuracy of 7% in the measured attenuation coefficients. For photons, the ANISN calculation gave >20% overestimation of the attenuation coefficients in the case of deep penetration through the medium for which the photon mean-free-path is shorter than that of neutrons, such as in iron and concrete. The result of the DOT calculation of neutrons down to thermal energy agreed well with the gold foil measurement in the absolute value. (author)

  3. Stopping of 236 keV - 3.019 MeV protons in mylar and polypropylene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damache, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Belhout, A.; Medouni, A.; Toumert, I.

    2004-10-01

    The stopping powers of polypropylene and mylar polymers for protons have been accurately measured over the energy intervals Ep=(0.352-3.009) MeV and Ep=(0.236-3.019) MeV, respectively. Ab initio calculations using the Sigmund-Schinner binary collision theory for electronic stopping yielded S( E) values fairly consistent with the measured data that show no noticeable deviations from the Bragg-Kleeman additivity rule. The data have also been analyzed in the framework of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory assuming additivity. Values of the mean excitation and ionization potential, I, and of the Barkas parameter, b, have been deduced for the two polymers and for their (C, O) atomic constituents by adopting values of these parameters recommended in the ICRU-49 report for the H element. Thus, the respective I-values {(56.90 ± 0.72) eV, (79.92 ± 1.30) eV} for the two polymers and the same b-value 1.39 for their (C, O) atomic constituents have been determined by adopting for H the value b=1.8, while the I-values {(81.73 ± 1.38) eV, (109.46 ± 6.55) eV} have been deduced for the (C, O) constituents by adopting for H the value I=19.2 eV. Priorily, the shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections to the calculated S( E) values have been evaluated for both polymers over the explored respective energy ranges. The obtained results are discussed in comparison with previous ones when reported in the literature to our knowledge.

  4. Evaluation of 10MeV proton irradiation on 5.5 Mpixel scientific CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Paul; Fowler, Boyd; Rodricks, Brian; Balicki, Janusz; Mims, Steve..; Li, Wang

    2010-10-01

    We evaluate the effects of 10 MeV proton irradiation on the performance of a 5.5 Mpixel scientific grade CMOS image sensor based on a 5T pixel architecture with pinned photodiode and transfer gate. The sensor has on-chip dual column level amplifiers and 11-bit single slope analog to digital converters (ADC) for high speed readout and wide dynamic range. The operation of the sensor is programmable and controlled by on-chip digital control modules. Since the image sensor features two identical halves capable of operating independently, we used a mask to expose only one half of the sensor to the proton beam, leaving the other half intact to serve as a reference. In addition, the pixel array and the digital logic control section were irradiated separately, at dose rates varying from 4 rad/s to 367 rad/s, for a total accumulated dose of 146 krad(Si) to assess the radiation effects on these key components of the image sensor. We report the resulting damage effects on the performance of the sensor including increase in dark current, temporal noise, dark spikes, transient effects and latch-up. The dark signal increased by about 55 e-/pixel after exposure to 14 krad (Si) and the dark noise increased from about 2.75e- to 6.5e-. While the number of hot pixels increased by 6 percent and the dark signal non uniformity degraded, no catastrophic failure mechanisms were observed during the tests, and the sensor did not suffer from functional failures.

  5. The depth-dependent radiation response of human melanoma cells exposed to 65 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy with positively charged particles implies that the Bragg peak be spread out ot deliver a homogeneous dose to the tumour. The spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) has a higher linear energy transfer (LET) than the entrance beam. In addition, there is an LET gradient from proximal to distal SOBP. The aim of this study is to find out whether these small LET variations lead to differences in radiation response. Human melanoma cells (CAL4) were exposed to 65 MeV proton beams produced by the cyclotron Medicyc at five different positions: 2mm depth corresponding to the entrance, 15, 20, 25 and 26.8mm depth corresponding to four different positions in the half-modulated SOBP. Survival differences were observed at high doses; they were statistically significant at a dose of 8 Gy. With respect to the entrance position (2mm), the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) at 1% survival was 1.09, 1.12, 1.19 and 1.27 at 15, 20, 25 and 26.8mm in the SOBP, respectively. Whereas RBE values in the SOBP greater than 1.0 relative to the entrance beam represent a small biological advantage to be added to the well-known physical advantage of high energy proton beams; the RBE gradient along the SOBP would imply that the distal end of the tumour would receive a higher biologically equivalent dose than the proximal end, despite a homogeneous physical dose, especially at the high doses per fraction given in ocular melanomas. (author)

  6. [BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF FISSION SPECTRUM NEUTRONS AND PROTONS WITH ENERGIES OF 60-126 MEV DURING ACUTE AND PROLONGED IRRADIATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafirkin, A V

    2015-01-01

    Neutrons of the fission spectrum are characterized by relatively high values of linear energy transfer (LET). Data about their effects on biological objects are used to evaluate the risk of delayed effects of accelerated ions within the same LET range that serve as an experimental model of the nuclei component of galactic cosmic rays (GCR). Additionally, risks of delayed consequences to cosmonaut's health and average lifetime from certain GCR fluxes and secondary neutrons can be also prognosticated. The article deals with comparative analysis of the literature on reduction of average lifespan (ALS) of animals exposed to neutron reactor spectrum, 60-126 MeV protons, and X- and γ-rays in a broad range of radiation intensity and duration. It was shown that a minimal lifespan reduction by 5% occurs due to a brief exposure to neutrons with the absorbed dose of 5 cGy, whereas same lifespan reduction due to hard X- and γ-radiation occurs after absorption of a minimal dose of 100 cGy. Therefore, according to the estimated minimal ALS reduction in mice, neutron effectiveness is 20-fold higher. Biological effectiveness of protons as regards ALS reduction is virtually equal to that of standard types of radiation. Exposure to X- and γ-radiation with decreasing daily doses, and increasing number of fractions and duration gives rise to an apparent trend toward a less dramatic ALS reduction in mice; on the contrary, exposure to neutrons of varying duration had no effect on threshold doses for the specified ALS reductions. Factors of relative biological effectiveness of neutrons reached 40. PMID:26934784

  7. Generation of energetic (>15 MeV) neutron beams from proton- and deuteron-driven nuclear reactions using short pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A roadmap is proposed for the production of high-energy (>15 MeV) neutrons using short pulse lasers. Different approaches are suggested for the two limiting cases of small (E1 ≪ Q) and large (E1 ≫ Q) projectile energies E1 depending on the Q-value of the nuclear reaction. The neutron fluence from many converter materials is evaluated for two projectiles: protons and deuterons. We found profound differences between proton- and deuteron-driven reactions with regard to both converter material and generated neutron fluence. The optimum converter material for deuteron-driven reactions is low-Z elements such as Li and Be, while for proton-driven reactions the converter material is not critical. For a projectile energy of 50 MeV the deuteron-driven reactions are two orders of magnitude more efficient compared to the proton-driven reactions. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been performed for laser pulses with peak intensity 3 × 1020 W cm−2, pulse duration 40 fs, spot size 5 µm and energy 3 J interacting with ultrathin (0.1 µm) CD foil. The calculated deuteron beam is highly directional along the laser propagation direction with maximum energy of 45 MeV. The interaction of the deuteron beam with a lithium converter and the production of neutrons is modeled using a Monte Carlo code. The computed neutron spectra show that a forward directed neutron beam is generated with an opening angle of ∼1 sr, maximum energy of 60 MeV and a fluence in the forward direction 1.8 × 108 n sr−1, ∼20% of which are with energy above 15 MeV. (paper)

  8. Generation of energetic (>15 MeV) neutron beams from proton- and deuteron-driven nuclear reactions using short pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, G. M.; Higginson, D. P.; Davis, J.; Petrova, Tz B.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Beg, F. N.

    2013-10-01

    A roadmap is proposed for the production of high-energy (>15 MeV) neutrons using short pulse lasers. Different approaches are suggested for the two limiting cases of small (E1 ≪ Q) and large (E1 ≫ Q) projectile energies E1 depending on the Q-value of the nuclear reaction. The neutron fluence from many converter materials is evaluated for two projectiles: protons and deuterons. We found profound differences between proton- and deuteron-driven reactions with regard to both converter material and generated neutron fluence. The optimum converter material for deuteron-driven reactions is low-Z elements such as Li and Be, while for proton-driven reactions the converter material is not critical. For a projectile energy of 50 MeV the deuteron-driven reactions are two orders of magnitude more efficient compared to the proton-driven reactions. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been performed for laser pulses with peak intensity 3 × 1020 W cm-2, pulse duration 40 fs, spot size 5 µm and energy 3 J interacting with ultrathin (0.1 µm) CD foil. The calculated deuteron beam is highly directional along the laser propagation direction with maximum energy of 45 MeV. The interaction of the deuteron beam with a lithium converter and the production of neutrons is modeled using a Monte Carlo code. The computed neutron spectra show that a forward directed neutron beam is generated with an opening angle of ˜1 sr, maximum energy of 60 MeV and a fluence in the forward direction 1.8 × 108 n sr-1, ˜20% of which are with energy above 15 MeV.

  9. Gamma strength function and level densities of $^{208}$Pb from forward-angle proton scattering at 295 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Bassauer, S; Tamii, A

    2016-01-01

    Gamma strength functions (GSFs) and level densities (LDs) are essential ingredients of statistical nuclear reaction theory with many applications in astrophysics, reactor design, and waste transmutation. The aim of the present work is a test of systematic parametrizations of the GSF recommended by the RIPL-3 data base for the case of $^{208}$Pb. The upward GSF and LDs in $^{208}$Pb are compared to gamma decay data from an Oslo-type experiment to examine the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis. The E1 and M1 parts of the total GSF are determined from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at 295 MeV at RCNP, Osaka, Japan. Total LDs in $^{208}$Pb are derived from $1^-$ LDs extracted with a fluctuation analysis in the energy region of the isovector giant dipole resonance. The E1 GSF is compared to parametrizations recommended by the RIPL-3 data base showing systematic deficiencies of all models in the energy region around neutron threshold. The new data for the poorly known s...

  10. Annealing characteristics of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells irradiated with 1.00 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz, Salman S.; Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous Si:H and amorphous Si sub x, Ge sub (1-x):H solar cells were irradiated with 1.00 MeV proton fluences in the range of 1.00E14 to 1.25E15 cm (exp -2). Annealing of the short circuit current density was studied at 0, 22, 50, 100, and 150 C. Annealing times ranged from an hour to several days. The measurements confirmed that annealing occurs at 0 C and the initial characteristics of the cells are restored by annealing at 200 C. The rate of annealing does not appear to follow a simple nth order reaction rate model. Calculations of the short-circuit current density using quantum efficiency measurements and the standard AM1.5 global spectrum compare favorably with measured values. It is proposed that the degradation in J sub sc with irradiation is due to carrier recombination through the fraction of D (o) states bounded by the quasi-Fermi energies. The time dependence of the rate of annealing of J sub sc does appear to be consistent with the interpretation that there is a thermally activated dispersive transport mechanism which leads to the passivation of the irradiation induced defects.

  11. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, E.; Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2016-09-01

    New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  12. Production of 81Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators with 60-MeV protons at BLIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bombarding natural krypton gas with approx. 63 MeV protons, 81Rb is formed by (p,4n) reaction from high abundance 84Kr (57%) as well as some additional contribution from 83Kr (11.5%) and 82Kr (11.6%) by (p,3n) and (p,2n) reactions, respectively. The production rate of 81Rb is typically 1.5 mCi/μAh. This production rate is sufficient to create up to several hundred millicuries per run if necessary, enough for several high activity 81Rb/sup 81m/Kr generators. Presently generators that deliver 10 to 20 mCi to the lungs are produced weekly for on-site use. The only other important activity in the solution is Rb-82m (6.4 hr). Small amounts of Br-76 (16.1 hr), Br-77 (57 hr), Br-82 (35.5 hr), Rb-83 (86.2 d), and Rb-84 (33 d) were also present. The bromine impurities pose no problem since they are not trapped on the generator. Rb-82m and Rb-84 decay to stable Kr-82 and Kr-84 in the generator and do not interfere with Kr-81m studies

  13. Study of radiation damage caused by 23MeV protons on Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic gain control system (AGC) is designed to continuously monitor and automatically control the gain of the phoswich detectors of the Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT). It consists of a 241Am radioactive source distributed within a plastic scintillator (BC408) viewed by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC). To verify the feasibility of application in space experiments, four MPPCs (S10362-33-050C) from Hamamatsu were irradiated using a beam of 23MeV protons with flux 1.0×108pcm-2, 2.0×108pcm-2, 4.0×108pcm-2 and 1.0×1010pcm-2. The leakage current of irradiated MPPC samples is found to increase linearly with total dose due to radiation damage. The device has completely lost its photon-counting capability when irradiated up to 13.6Gy. The pulse-height resolution has deteriorated hardly after irradiation and couldn't work with more than 450Gy, where the measured sample has been illuminated with a few hundred photons by the 241Am radioactive source. (author)

  14. A comparison of 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation induced degradation in the electrical characteristics of N-channel MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Arshiya; Vinayakprasanna, N. H.; Pradeep, T. M.; Pushpa, N.; Krishna, J. B. M.; Gnana Prakash, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    N-channel depletion MOSFETs were irradiated with 4 MeV Proton and Co-60 gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad(Si) to 100 Mrad(Si). The electrical characteristics of MOSFET such as threshold voltage (Vth), density of interface trapped charges (ΔNit), density of oxide trapped charges (ΔNot), transconductance (gm), mobility (μ), leakage current (IL) and drain saturation current (ID Sat) were studied as a function of dose. A considerable increase in ΔNit and ΔNot and decrease in Vth,gm, μ, and ID Sat was observed after irradiation. The results of 4 MeV Proton irradiation were compared with that of Co-60 gamma radiation and it is found that the degradation is more for the devices irradiated with 4 MeV Protons when compared with the Co-60 gamma radiation. This indicates that Protons induce more trapped charges in the field oxide region when compared to the gamma radiation.

  15. Neutron spectra produced by 30, 35 and 40 MeV proton beams at KIRAMS MC-50 cyclotron with a thick beryllium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Won; Bak, Sang-In; Ham, Cheolmin; In, Eun Jin; Kim, Do Yoon; Min, Kyung Joo; Zhou, Yujie; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2015-10-01

    Neutrons over a wide range of energies are produced by bombarding a 1.05 cm thick beryllium target with protons of different energies delivered by the MC-50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The neutron flux Φ(En) versus neutron energy En, produced by protons of 30, 35, and 40 MeV energies, was obtained by using the GEANT4 code with a data-based hadronic model. For the experimental validation of the simulated neutron spectra, a number of pure aluminum and iron oxide samples were irradiated with the neutrons produced by 30, 35, and 40 MeV protons at 20 μA beam current. The gamma-ray activities of 24Na and 56Mn produced, respectively, through 27Al(n,α)24Na and 56Fe(n,p)56Mn reactions were measured by a HPGe detector. The neutron flux Φ(En) at each neutron energy from the simulation was multiplied with the evaluated cross-sections σ(En) of the respective nuclear reaction, and the summation ∑ Φ(En) σ(En) was calculated over the neutron spectrum for each proton energy of 30, 35, and 40 MeV. The measured gamma-ray activities of 24Na and 56Mn were found in good agreement with the activities estimated by using the summed values of ∑ Φ(En) σ(En) along with other parameters in a neutron activation method.

  16. Investigation of the Stability and 1.0 MeV Proton Radiation Resistance of Commercially Produced Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Alloy Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Kenneth R., II; Walters, Michael R.; Woodyard, James R.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation resistance of commercial solar cells fabricated from hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys is reported. A number of different device structures were irradiated with 1.0 MeV protons. The cells were insensitive to proton fluences below 1E12 sq cm. The parameters of the irradiated cells were restored with annealing at 200 C. The annealing time was dependent on proton fluence. Annealing devices for one hour restores cell parameters for fluences below 1E14 sq cm fluences above 1E14 sq cm require longer annealing times. A parametric fitting model was used to characterize current mechanisms observed In dark I-V measurements. The current mechanism were explored with irradiation fluence, and voltage and light soaking times. The thermal generation current density and quality factor increased with proton fluence. Device simulation shows the degradation in cell characteristics may be explained by the reduction of the electric field in the intrinsic layer.

  17. Off-the-energy-shell pp scattering in the exclusive proton knockout 12C(p,2p) reaction at 392 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sumi, T T

    2008-01-01

    The triple differential cross section (TDX) for the 12C(p,2p) proton knockout reaction from the 1p3/2 single-particle state measured at 392 MeV is investigated by nonrelativistic distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) with accurate treatment of the kinematics of the colliding two protons and effects of in-medium modification to the matrix elements of the proton-proton (pp) effective interaction. Some simplifying approximations made in previous studies with DWIA are examined. The off-the-energy-shell matrix elements of the pp effective interaction are shown to play an essential role in describing the asymmetric two peaks of the measured TDX corresponding to the kinematics in which the momentum transfer is fixed.

  18. Measurement of LET (linear energy transfer) spectra using CR-39 at different depths of water irradiated by 171 MeV protons: A comparison with Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. S.; Tripathy, S. P.; Molokanov, A. G.; Aleynikov, V. E.; Sharma, S. D.; Bandyopadhyay, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have used CR-39 detectors to estimate the LET (linear energy transfer) spectrum of secondary particles due to 171 MeV proton beam at different depths of water including the Bragg peak region. The measured LET spectra were compared with those obtained from FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation. The absorbed dose (DLET), dose equivalent (HLET) were estimated using the LET spectra. The values of DLET and HLET per incident proton fluence were found to increase with the increase in depth of water and were maximum at Bragg peak.

  19. Nanoparticle formation in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar mixtures under irradiation by 20 MeV protons and positive corona discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imanaka, M.; Tomita, S.; Kanda, S.;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of ions to gas nucleation, we have performed experiments on the formation of water droplets in H2O/N-2 and H2O/Ar gas mixtures by irradiation with a 20 MeV proton beam and by positive corona discharge. The size of the formed nanoparticles was measured using...... a differential mobility analyzer equipped with a Faraday cup electrometer. Using the proton beam, droplets around 10 nm in diameter were observed for both positively and negatively charged particles, but none were found when the corona discharge was used. This implies the importance of the presence of both...

  20. Maximum Proton Energy above 85 MeV from the Relativistic Interaction of Laser Pulses with Micrometer Thick CH2 Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F.; Deppert, O.; Brabetz, C.; Fiala, P.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Poth, P.; Schanz, V. A.; Tebartz, A.; Zielbauer, B.; Roth, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Bagnoud, V.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study of laser-driven ion acceleration with micrometer and submicrometer thick plastic targets. Using laser pulses with high temporal contrast and an intensity of the order of 1020 W /cm2 we observe proton beams with cutoff energies in excess of 85 MeV and particle numbers of 109 in an energy bin of 1 MeV around this maximum. We show that applying the target normal sheath acceleration mechanism with submicrometer thick targets is a very robust way to achieve such high ion energies and particle fluxes. Our results are backed with 2D particle in cell simulations furthermore predicting cutoff energies above 200 MeV for acceleration based on relativistic transparency. This predicted regime can be probed after a few technically feasible adjustments of the laser and target parameters.

  1. Effects of 600 MeV proton irradiation on nucleation and growth of precipitates and helium bubbles in a high-purity Al-Mg-Si alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Leffers, Torben; Victoria, M.;

    1986-01-01

    Solution treated specimens of a high-purity Al-0.75%Mg-0.42%Si alloy were irradiated with 600 MeV protons at 150 and 240°C to a dose level of 0.47 and 0.55 dpa, respectively. Mg2Si-type precipitates formed during irradiation at 150 and 240°C; at 240°C, however, a large number of precipitates seem...

  2. Measurements of proton induced γ-ray emission cross-sections on Mg from 1.0 to 3.0 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, N.; Kakuee, O.; Mohammadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    Differential cross-section of proton induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 24Mg(p,p‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV), 25Mg(p,p‧γ)25Mg (Eγ = 390, 585, 975 keV) and 26Mg(p,γ)27Al (Eγ = 1014 keV) were measured for proton energies from 1 to 3 MeV using a 60 μg/cm2 Mg target evaporated on a 40 μg/cm2 Ag thin film. The γ-rays were collected by a 50% relative efficiency HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction, while the backscattered protons were collected by an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165°. Simultaneous collection of γ-ray and RBS spectra is a great advantage of this approach which makes differential cross-section measurements independent on the collected beam charge. Measured cross-section values were compared with the previously reported data in the literature. Absolute γ-ray differential cross-sections were obtained with an overall systematic uncertainty of about ±6% and statistical uncertainty of less than ±5% for proton energies higher than 2.24 MeV.

  3. Characterization of the energy distribution of neutrons generated by 5 MeV protons on a thick beryllium target at different emission angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P., E-mail: paolo.colautti@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@tin.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Fazzi, A.; Introini, M.V.; Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Neutron energy spectra at different emission angles, between 0 Degree-Sign and 120 Degree-Sign from the Be(p,xn) reaction generated by a beryllium thick-target bombarded with 5 MeV protons, have been measured at the Legnaro Laboratories (LNL) of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics research (INFN). A new and quite compact recoil-proton spectrometer, based on a monolithic silicon telescope, coupled to a polyethylene converter, was efficiently used with respect to the traditional Time-of-Flight (TOF) technique. The measured distributions of recoil-protons were processed through an iterative unfolding algorithm in order to determine the neutron energy spectra at all the angles accounted for. The neutron energy spectrum measured at 0 Degree-Sign resulted to be in good agreement with the only one so far available at the requested energy and measured years ago with TOF technique. Moreover, the results obtained at different emission angles resulted to be consistent with detailed past measurements performed at 4 MeV protons at the same angles by TOF techniques.

  4. Evidence of the Coulomb force effects in the cross sections of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kistryn, S; Bodek, K; Ciepal, I; Deltuva, A; Fonseca, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kis, M; Klos, B; Kozela, A; Mahjour-Shafiei, M; Micherdzinska, A; Sauer, P U; Stephan, E; Sworst, R; Zejma, J; Zipper, W; Kistryn, St.

    2006-01-01

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV deuteron energy are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained with a coupled-channel extension of the CD Bonn potential with virtual Delta-isobar excitation, without and with inclusion of the long-range Coulomb force. The Coulomb effect is studied on the basis of the cross-section data set, extended in this work to about 1500 data points by including breakup geometries characterized by small polar angles of the two protons. The experimental data clearly prefer predictions obtained with the Coulomb interaction included. The strongest effects are observed in regions in which the relative energy of the two protons is the smallest.

  5. Radiation tolerance characterization of dual band InAs/GaSb type-II strain-layer superlattice pBp detectors using 63 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, V. M.; Morath, C. P.; Hubbs, J. E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave. SE, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 (United States); Myers, S.; Plis, E.; Krishna, S. [Center for High Technology Materials, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 (United States)

    2012-12-17

    The radiation tolerance characterization of dual band InAs/GaSb type-II strain-layer superlattice pBp detectors of varying size using 63 MeV proton irradiation is presented. The detectors' mid-wave infrared performance degraded with increasing proton fluence {Phi}{sub P} up to 3.75 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} or, equivalently, a total ionizing dose = 500 kRad (Si). At this {Phi}{sub P}, an {approx}31% drop in quantum efficiency {eta}, {approx}2 order increase in dark current density J{sub D}, and consequently, >1 order drop in calculated detectivity D* were observed. Proton damage factors were determined for {eta} and D*. Arrhenius-analysis of temperature-dependent J{sub D} measurements reflected significant changes in the activation energies following irradiation.

  6. Radiation tolerance characterization of dual band InAs/GaSb type-II strain-layer superlattice pBp detectors using 63 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, V. M.; Morath, C. P.; Hubbs, J. E.; Myers, S.; Plis, E.; Krishna, S.

    2012-12-01

    The radiation tolerance characterization of dual band InAs/GaSb type-II strain-layer superlattice pBp detectors of varying size using 63 MeV proton irradiation is presented. The detectors' mid-wave infrared performance degraded with increasing proton fluence ΦP up to 3.75 × 1012 cm-2 or, equivalently, a total ionizing dose = 500 kRad (Si). At this ΦP, an ˜31% drop in quantum efficiency η, ˜2 order increase in dark current density JD, and consequently, >1 order drop in calculated detectivity D* were observed. Proton damage factors were determined for η and D*. Arrhenius-analysis of temperature-dependent JD measurements reflected significant changes in the activation energies following irradiation.

  7. Analyses of stopping power measurements for 0.90-2.50 MeV protons and deuterons traversing Al 2O 3 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, L. E.

    2000-09-01

    Recently reported measurements of the stopping power of Al 2O 3 for 0.90-2.50 MeV protons and deuterons have been analyzed in terms of modified Bethe-Bloch theory. Values of the mean excitation energy ( I) and Barkas-effect parameter ( b) have been extracted from the data, yielding results for I and b, respectively, of 176.8 eV and 0.83 for protons, and of 182.7 eV and 1.02 for deuterons. These values of I exceed the additivity-based value by 32% for proton data and by 36% for deuteron data. Moreover, both extracted values of b lie well below the expected interval of 1.3-1.5.

  8. Response of human lymphocytes to proton radiation of 60 MeV compared to 250 kV X-rays by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle radiotherapy such as protons provides a new promising treatment modality to cancer. However, studies on its efficacy and risks are relatively sparse. Using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay, we characterized response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, obtained from health donors irradiated in vitro in the dose range: 0–4. 0 Gy, to therapeutic proton radiation of 60 MeV from AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron, by studying nuclear division index and DNA damage and compared them with X-rays. Peripheral blood lymphocytes show decreased ability to proliferate with increasing radiation doses for both radiation types, however, in contrast to X-rays, irradiation with protons resulted in a higher proliferation index at lower doses of 0.75 and 1.0 Gy. Protons are more effective in producing MN at doses above 1.75 Gy compared to X-rays. Dose–response curves for micronucleus incidence can be best described by a cubic model for protons, while for X-rays the response was linear. The differences in the energy spectrum and intracellular distribution of energy between radiation types are also apparent at the intracellular distribution of cytogenetic damage as seen by the distribution of various numbers of micronuclei in binucleated cells. Our studies, although preliminary, further contribute to the understanding of the mechanistic differences in the response of HPBL in terms of cellular proliferation and cytogenetic damage induced by protons and X-rays as well as intra-cellular distribution of energy and thus radiobiological effectiveness

  9. 5.5-MeV proton irradiation of a strained quantum-well laser diode and a multiple quantum-well broad-band LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation under 5.5-MeV proton irradiation of two classes of quantum-well-based fiber-optic light sources was evaluated for satellite applications. The first was an InGaAs/GaAs strained-layer quantum-well (QW) laser; the second was a broad-band light-emitting diode (LED) based on dual asymmetric quantum wells in the InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs system. In contrast to earlier reports comparing bulk active-region heterostructure LEDs with similarly structured laser diodes, these QW LEDs were more tolerant of proton irradiation (-3dB power at ∼3x1013 protons/cm2) than the QW lasers (-3dB power at ∼3x1012 protons/cm2). The LEDs were operated far into gain saturation with a high-loss cavity structure, while the lasers were operated in a region where gain was more sensitive to current density. Therefore atomic displacement-related recombination sites had a greater detrimental effect upon the lasers than the LEDs. The lasers held constant slope efficiency, and current thresholds increased linearly with proton fluence, while both LED power and slope efficiency decreased with proton fluence. Similar damage factors were found to those predicted from a universal damage factor versus non-ionizing energy deposition relation reported by others, and appears to extend that relation to include these QW photonic devices

  10. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of neutron beams produced by 50 Mev deuterons and 34, 45, 65, 75 MeV protons in Vicia faba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variation of neutron RBE and OER, as a function of energy, was determined for differrent neutron beams produced at the cyclotron ''Cyclone'' of Louvain-la-Neuve. The biological system was growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots. RBE of neutron beams produced by bombarding a beryllium target by 34, 45, 65 and 75 MeV proton (2 cm thick polythene additional filter) was found equal to 1.15 +- 0.13, 1.02 +- 0.10, 0.85 +- 0.08 and 0.83 +- 0.09, for absorbed doses of 0.39 Gy, 0.44 Gy, 0.53 Gy and 0.54 Gy respectively. These doses correspond to 50 % growth inhibition. Neutrons produced by 50 MeV deuterons on beryllium are taken as reference. For the same beams, OER value are equal to 1.55 +- 0.13, 1.38 +- 0.12, 1.29 +- 0.12 and 1.41 +- 0.11 respectively. OER is equal to 1.60 +- 0.15 for neutrons produced by 50 MeV deuterons (P = 0.05)

  11. The effects of 800 MeV proton irradiation on the corrosion of tungsten, tantalum, stainless steel, and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Kanner, G.; Daemen, L.

    1997-12-01

    Real time electrochemical data were acquired for tungsten, tantalum, stainless steel 304L, and gold targets during proton irradiation at the LANSCE Weapons Neutron Research Facility. The goal of this research was to establish a better understanding of the corrosion properties of materials as a function of proton irradiation and gain insight into the mechanism of the observed phenomena. The following electrochemical observations were made during proton irradiation of W, Ta, SS304, and Au: (1) the open circuit potential of all materials increased with increasing proton fluence; (2) the corrosion rate (at the OCP) of W and SS304 increased with increasing proton fluence; (3) the passive dissolution rate for SS304 and Ta decreased with increasing proton fluence; (4) the anodic dissolution rate for W increased with increasing proton fluence; (5) the pitting potential for SS304 increased with proton fluence, which is an indication that the material is less susceptible to pitting attack during irradiation.

  12. The effects of 800 MeV proton irradiation on the corrosion of tungsten, tantalum, stainless steel, and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real time electrochemical data were acquired for tungsten, tantalum, stainless steel 304L, and gold targets during proton irradiation at the LANSCE Weapons Neutron Research Facility. The goal of this research was to establish a better understanding of the corrosion properties of materials as a function of proton irradiation and gain insight into the mechanism of the observed phenomena. The following electrochemical observations were made during proton irradiation of W, Ta, SS304, and Au: (1) the open circuit potential of all materials increased with increasing proton fluence; (2) the corrosion rate (at the OCP) of W and SS304 increased with increasing proton fluence; (3) the passive dissolution rate for SS304 and Ta decreased with increasing proton fluence; (4) the anodic dissolution rate for W increased with increasing proton fluence; (5) the pitting potential for SS304 increased with proton fluence, which is an indication that the material is less susceptible to pitting attack during irradiation

  13. Cross sections for proton induced high energy γ -ray emission (PIGE) in reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanelas, P.; Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Henriques, A.; Lourenço, F.; Luís, H.; Machado, J.; Pires Ribeiro, J.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Teubig, P.; Velho, P.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Galaviz, D.; Jesus, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF2/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130° with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base expanding the existing set of data. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  14. Changes of structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes film caused by 3 MeV proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Liu, Chaoming; Ma, Guoliang

    2015-01-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation for fluences of 3.5 × 1010 cm-2 to 3.1 × 1012 cm-2 on structure and electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) film were investigated. The pristine and the irradiated MWCNTs films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), elemental analysis (EA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in order to investigate the effects of irradiation on their structure. Electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs films was characterized before and after irradiation. SEM analysis reveals that the proton irradiation for the high fluence (more than 3.6 × 1011 cm-2) leads to evident changes in morphology of the MWCNTs film, such as forming uneven film surface, curve, shrinkage and fragmentation of nanotubes. Based on Raman, XPS, FTIR and EA analyses, it is confirmed that the 3 MeV protons with high fluence (more than 3.6 × 1011 cm-2) can damage the structure of the MWCNTs, including increase of the disorder and the formation of functional groups. EPR spectroscopy shows that the electrons delocalized over carbon nanotubes increase with increasing irradiation fluence, implying that the MWCNTs film might be sensitive to ionizing radiation to some extent. With increasing the irradiation fluence, the electrical conductivity of the MWCNTs film decreases due to the structural and morphological damage.

  15. Measurements of attenuation lengths through concrete and iron for neutrons produced by 800-MeV proton on tantalum target at ISIS

    CERN Document Server

    Nunomiya, T; Wright, P; Nakamura, T; Kim, E; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, S; Sasaki, M; Iwase, H; Uwamino, Y; Shibata, T; Ito, S; Perry, D R

    2002-01-01

    A deep penetration experiment through a thick bulk shield was performed at an intense spallation neutron source facility, ISIS, of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), United Kingdom. ISIS is a 800 MeV-200 mu A proton accelerator facility. Neutrons are produced from a tantalum target, and are shielded with approximately 3-m thick steel and 1-m thick ordinary concrete. On top of the shield, we measured the neutron flux attenuation through concrete and iron shields, which were additionally placed up to 120-cm and 60-cm thickness, respectively, using activation detectors of graphite and bismuth. The attenuation lengths of concrete and iron for high-energy neutrons above 20 MeV were obtained from the sup 1 sup 2 C(n, 2n) sup 1 sup 1 C reaction of graphite.

  16. Relative biological effectiveness of the 60-MeV therapeutic proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Słonina, Dorota; Biesaga, Beata; Swakoń, Jan; Kabat, Damian; Grzanka, Leszek; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Sowa, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a 60-MeV proton radiotherapy beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, the first one to operate in Poland. RBE was assessed at the surviving fractions (SFs) of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.37, for normal human fibroblasts from three cancer patients. The cells were irradiated near the Bragg peak of the pristine beam and at three depths within a 28.4-mm spread-out Br...

  17. Characterization techniques for fixed-field alternating gradient accelerators and beam studies using the KURRI 150 MeV proton FFAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, S. L.; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.; Rogers, C.; Prior, C. R.; Volat, L.; Haj Tahar, M.; Ishi, Y.; Kuriyama, Y.; Sakamoto, M.; Uesugi, T.; Mori, Y.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe the methods and tools used to characterize a 150 MeV proton scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Many of the techniques used are unique to this class of machine and are thus of relevance to any future FFAG accelerator. For the first time we detail systematic studies undertaken to improve the beam quality of the FFAG. The control of beam quality in this manner is crucial to demonstrating high power operation of FFAG accelerators in future.

  18. Production of neutron-rich copper isotopes in 30-MeV proton-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglov, K; Bruyneel, B; Dean, S S; Franchoo, S; Huyse, M; Kudryavtsev, Y; Müller, W F; Prasad, N V S; Raabe, R; Reusen, I; Schmidt, K H; Van De Vel, K; Van Duppen, P; Van Roosbroeck, J; Weissman, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron-rich isotopes sup 7 sup 0 sup - sup 7 sup 6 Cu have been produced in 30-MeV proton-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U using the Ion Guide Laser Ion Source (IGLIS) at LISOL. The production rates of the copper isotopes, and of the nickel and cobalt isotopes that were measured earlier, are compared to cross section calculations. Based on these new results an estimate for the cross section of sup 7 sup 8 Ni is given.

  19. Comparison of the (p,xn) cross sections from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Y.Y.; Zhou, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured absolute cross sections for (p,xn) reactions (x ranges from 0 to 8) from /sup 238/U, /sup 235/U, and /sup 232/Th targets irradiated with 200-MeV protons at the Brookhaven AGS Linac injector. Chemical yields were determined by using /sup 239/Np and /sup 233/Pa as tracers. Yield patterns obtained in this work can be compared to the experimental results and theoretical calculations from earlier work, and they are consistent within the framework of intranuclear cascade followed by neutron evaporation and fission competition.

  20. Complete determination of neutron yield from 62 MeV protons on 9Be for the design of a low – power ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillaci Maria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the European Partitioning & Transmutation research programs, infrastructures specifically dedicated to the study of fundamental reactor physics of future fast neutron-based reactors are very important. In this respect, an Accelerator Driven System low-power prototype, based on a 70 MeV proton beam impinging on a thick Beryllium converter, was recently proposed and designed within the INFN-E project. The world data on neutron yield from Be target are scarce in this proton energy range. This lack of data calls for a dedicated measurement which was performed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, covering a wide angular range, from 0 to 150 degrees, and an almost complete neutron energy interval, from thermal up to the beam energy. In this contribution the results are discussed together with the description of the proposed ADS facility.

  1. Measurement of proton induced γ-ray emission cross sections on Al from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M., E-mail: chiari@fi.infn.it [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence I-50019 (Italy); Melon, B.; Salvestrini, L. [INFN-Florence and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence I-50019 (Italy); Fonseca, M. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [IST/ITN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, E.N. 10, 2866-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Jesus, A.P. [Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-08-01

    Differential cross section for proton induced γ-ray emission from the reaction {sup 27}Al(p,p′γ){sup 27}Al (E{sub γ} = 844 and 1014 keV) were measured for proton energies from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV, at 90° and 45°, using a 29 μg/cm{sup 2} Al target evaporated on a self-supporting thin Ag film. The γ-rays were detected by two HPGe detectors with nominal 50% and 25% relative efficiency, respectively for the detector placed at 90° and at 45°. Absolute γ-ray differential cross sections were obtained with a method not dependent on the absolute values of the collected beam charge; the overall uncertainty was estimated to be better than 8%, at both angles and at all the beam energies.

  2. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natTl up to 42 MeV: review, new data and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Adam-Rebeles, R; Walravens, N; Cichelli, O; Ignatyuk, A V

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural thallium have been studied for investigation of the production of the medical important 201Tl diagnostic radioisotope. The excitation functions of 204mPb, 203Pb, 202mPb, 201Pb, 200Pb, 199Pb, 202Tl (direct, cumulative), 201Tl (direct, cumulative), 200Tl(direct), and 203Hg were measured up to 42 MeV proton energy by stacked foil technique and activation method. The experimental data were compared with the critically analyzed experimental data in the literature, with the IAEA recommended data and with the results of model calculations by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes.

  3. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  4. Dose response curve for tumor induction with single and split doses of 10 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of rat skin to proton irradiation shows a rapid form of recovery of both sublethal and suboncogenic injury and RBE values between 2 and 3. The combination of RBE values greater than one, and recovery indicates that while protons induce injury more efficiently per unit absorbed dose than electrons, there is still a reversible component to the injury process

  5. Stopping powers and energy loss straggling for (0.9-3.4) MeV protons in a kapton polyimide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damache, S.; Djaroum, S.; Ouichaoui, S.; Amari, L.; Moussa, D.

    2016-09-01

    The energy loss and energy loss straggling widths have been measured in transmission for Ep ≈ (0.9-3.4) MeV protons traversing a thin kapton polyimide foil. In a prior step, the thickness and non-uniformity of the target foil were carefully investigated. The overall relative uncertainties in the stopping power and energy loss straggling variance data amount, respectively, to less than 2% and 8%. The S(E) experimental data show to be in excellent agreement with available previous ones and with those compiled in the ICRU-49 report. They are fully consistent with the predictions of Sigmund-Schinner's binary collision theory of electronic stopping over the whole proton energy range explored. An average deviation of ∼2.5% relative to values calculated by the SRIM-2008 code, likely due to effects of valence electrons involving the Csbnd H, Cdbnd C and Cdbnd O bonds, is however observed at low proton velocities. The measured energy loss straggling data, which are unique to our knowledge, are found to be in good agreement with values derived by the classical Bohr formula for Ep ≳ 1300 keV but they significantly exceed Bohr's collisional energy loss straggling at lower proton velocities where target electrons can no longer be considered as free. They also show to be consistent with the predictions of the Bethe-Livingston and Sigmund-Schinner theories over the low proton velocity region (Ep 1300 keV, while deviations above the latter amounting up to ∼18% are observed at lower proton velocities.

  6. Effect of irradiation with MeV protons and electrons on the conductivity compensation and photoluminescence of moderately doped p-4H-SiC (CVD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlovski, V. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (Russian Federation); Lebedev, A. A., E-mail: shura.lebe@mail.ioffe.ru; Bogdanova, E. V.; Seredova, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The compensation of moderately doped p-4H-SiC samples grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under irradiation with 0.9-MeV electrons and 15-MeV protons is studied. The experimentally measured carrier removal rates are 1.2–1.6 cm{sup –1} for electrons and 240–260 cm{sup –1} for protons. The dependence of the concentration of uncompensated acceptors and donors, measured in the study, demonstrates a linear decrease with increasing irradiation dose to the point of complete compensation. This run of the dependence shows that compensation of the samples is due to the transition of carriers to deep centers formed by primary radiation-induced defects. It is demonstrated that, in contrast to n-SiC (CVD), primary defects in the carbon sublattice of moderately doped p-SiC (CVD) only cannot account for the compensation process. In p-SiC, either primary defects in the silicon sublattice, or defects in both sublattices are responsible for conductivity compensation. Also, photoluminescence spectra are examined in relation to the irradiation dose.

  7. Activation cross-sections of longer lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on manganese up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Highlights: •Experimental excitation function of proton induced reactions on manganese up to 70 MeV. •Model code calculations with EMPIRE-3 and TALYS (TENDL-2012). •Integral production yield calculation. •Thin Layer Activation (TLA) curves for {sup 54}Mn and {sup 51}Cr. •Tabulated experimental results. -- Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of the proton induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the {sup 55}Mn(p,x){sup 54,52g}Mn, {sup 51}Cr and {sup 48}V were measured up to 70 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using the stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to the earlier results and to the prediction of the EMPIRE-3 as well as the TALYS theoretical model code in the TENDL-2012 library. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated. Practical applications of the cross-sections e.g. for thin layer activation are discussed.

  8. Some Relevant Aspects in the Design and Construction of a 30-62 MeV Linac Booster for Proton Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, V G

    2004-01-01

    Recent results in accelerator physics showed the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. This suggested to design a linac booster able to increase the proton energy up to 62 MeV as required for treating tumours like the ocular ones. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project; we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3 GHz SCL (Side Coupled Linac) with a new approach to the linac cavities. Among the many challenges of such a project one of the most interesting is the tuning of the cavities. Because the tuning can be done only after assembling the system, it is difficult to detect which cavities are responsible for the detuning: indeed the resonant behavior of single cavity is lost since the resonances merge into the resonant modes of the whole system. It is shown how, from the measured mode frequencies of the...

  9. Excitation functions of the proton induced nuclear reactions on {sup nat}Zn up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, GPO Box No. 3787, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Khandaker, M.U. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G.N. [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyok-dong, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr

    2007-05-15

    We measured the excitation functions of the {sup nat}Zn(p,xn){sup 66,67}Ga, {sup nat}Zn(p,pxn){sup 62,65,69m}Zn, and {sup nat}Zn(p,{alpha}xn){sup 61}Cu nuclear processes up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported experimental data and theoretical calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. We have given new data points for the formation of the above radionuclides. The present values are in good agreement with some well-measured literature values. Integral yields were also deduced from the measured cross-sections. The reported direct measured thick target yields for the formation of the {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga radionuclides at 22 MeV support our deduced yields. The optimum formation of the {sup 66}Ga and {sup 61}Cu radionuclides with minimum impurities can be obtained at 8-15 MeV and 10-20 MeV energy range, respectively. The yields and decay characteristics of the nuclide {sup 65}Zn are suitable for thin layer activation analysis.

  10. Production of (28)Mg by bombardment of (nat)Cl with 200MeV protons: Proof-of-concept study for a stacked LiCl target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, N P; Steyn, G F; Vermeulen, C; van Rooyen, T J

    2016-09-01

    A stacked target consisting of ten Al-encapsulated LiCl discs, for producing (28)Mg via the (nat)Cl(p,X)(28)Mg process in the energy region 50-200MeV, is described. This target was irradiated with a 200MeV beam at an intensity of 100nA, providing information on both yield and outscattering losses. Results of a Monte Carlo modelling of the beam and target, by means of the code MCNPX, are also presented. Similar Al-encapsulated LiCl discs were individually irradiated with 66MeV proton beams of 65 and 90μA, respectively, to study their behaviour under high-intensity bombardment. Once removed from the Al encapsulation, the (28)Mg can be separated from the LiCl target material efficiently, using a 12.5cm x 1cm(2) column containing Purolite S950 chelating resin. The eluate contains (7)Be but no other measurable radio-contaminants. The removal of the (7)Be contaminant is performed by cation exchange chromatography in malate media, with (28)Mg being retained by the resin and (7)Be eluted. PMID:27372806

  11. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV. At energies up to 100MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for neutrons incident for on 238U, 233-236U, 238-242Pu, 237Np, 232Th, 241-243Am and 242-247Cm. At energies from 100MeV to 1GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233U, 235U, 238U, 232Th, 232Pa, 237Np, 238Np, 239Pu, 241Am, 242Am and 242-248Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was placed upon a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nuclei considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or for other incident particles. Comparisons with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicate that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the measurements data. (author) 82 refs

  12. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of forward-angle secondary-neutron-production cross-sections for 137 and 200 MeV proton-induced reactions in carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, tokai, naka Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hagiwara, Masayuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Masuda, Akihiko [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Iwase, Hiroshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Yashima, Hiroshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Shima, Tatsushi; Tamii, Atsushi [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Institute of Technology, Shimizu Corporation (Japan)

    2012-10-21

    Secondary neutron-production double-differential cross-sections (DDXs) have been measured from interactions of 137 MeV and 200 MeV protons in a natural carbon target. The data were measured between 0 Degree-Sign and 25 Degree-Sign in the laboratory. DDXs were obtained with high energy resolution in the energy region from 3 MeV up to the maximum energy. The experimental data of 137 MeV protons at 10 Degree-Sign and 25 Degree-Sign were in good agreement with that of 113 MeV protons at 7.5 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign at LANSCE/WNR in the energy region below 80 MeV. Benchmark calculations were carried out with the PHITS code using the evaluated nuclear data files of JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VII, and the theoretical models of Bertini-GEM and ISOBAR-GEM. For the 137 MeV proton incidence, calculations using JENDL/HE-2007 generally reproduced the shape and the intensity of experimental spectra well including the ground state of the {sup 12}N state produced by the {sup 12}C(p,n){sup 12}N reaction. For the 200 MeV proton incidence, all calculated results underestimated the experimental data by the factor of two except for the calculated result using ISOBAR model. ISOBAR predicts the nucleon emission to the forward angles qualitatively better than the Bertini model. These experimental data will be useful to evaluate the carbon data and as benchmark data for investigating the validity of the Monte Carlo simulation for the shielding design of accelerator facilities.

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; Marshall, Thomas I. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Perozziello, Francesca M.; Manti, Lorenzo [Department of Physics, University of Naples Federico II and INFN Naples Section University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); McMahon, Stephen J.; Kavanagh, Joy N. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, LNS, Catania (Italy); Prise, Kevin M., E-mail: k.prise@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Schettino, Giuseppe [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); National Physical Laboratory, Teddington (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: The biological optimization of proton therapy can be achieved only through a detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the full range of the Bragg curve. The clinically used RBE value of 1.1 represents a broad average, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). With particular attention to the key endpoint of cell survival, our work presents a comparative investigation of cell killing RBE variations along monoenergetic (pristine) and modulated (SOBP) beams using human normal and radioresistant cells with the aim to investigate the RBE dependence on LET and intrinsic radiosensitvity. Methods and Materials: Human fibroblasts (AG01522) and glioma (U87) cells were irradiated at 6 depth positions along pristine and modulated 62-MeV proton beams at the INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy). Cell killing RBE variations were measured using standard clonogenic assays and were further validated using Monte Carlo simulations and the local effect model (LEM). Results: We observed significant cell killing RBE variations along the proton beam path, particularly in the distal region showing strong dose dependence. Experimental RBE values were in excellent agreement with the LEM predicted values, indicating dose-averaged LET as a suitable predictor of proton biological effectiveness. Data were also used to validate a parameterized RBE model. Conclusions: The predicted biological dose delivered to a tumor region, based on the variable RBE inferred from the data, varies significantly with respect to the clinically used constant RBE of 1.1. The significant RBE increase at the distal end suggests also a potential to enhance optimization of treatment modalities such as LET painting of hypoxic tumors. The study highlights the limitation of adoption of a constant RBE for proton therapy and suggests approaches for fast implementation of RBE models in treatment planning.

  14. Excitation modes of $^{11}$Li at E$_x \\sim$ 1.3 MeV from proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo, R; Korsheninnikov, A A

    2002-01-01

    The cross section for p-$^{11}$Li inelastic scattering at 68 MeV/u is evaluated using the Multiple Scattering expansion of the total Transition amplitude (MST) formalism, and compared with the breakup in the shakeoff approximation. Three different potential models for $^{11}$Li are used to calculate the $^{11}$Li(p,p$'$) continuum excitations, and all show peaks below 3 MeV of excitation energy, both in resonant and some non-resonant channels. In the most realistic model of $^{11}$Li, there is a strong dipole contribution associated with attractive but not a fully-fledged resonant phase shifts, and some evidence for a J$_{nn}^\\pi = 0_2^+$ resonant contribution. These together form a pronounced peak at around 1--2 MeV excitation, in agreement with experiment, and this supports the use of the MST as an adequate formalism to study excited modes of two-neutron nuclear halos.

  15. Correlated analysis of 2 MeV proton-induced radiation damage in CdZnTe crystals using photoluminescence and thermally stimulated current techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yaxu; Jie, Wanqi; Rong, Caicai; Wang, Yuhan; Xu, Lingyan; Xu, Yadong; Lv, Haoyan; Shen, Hao; Du, Guanghua; Fu, Xu; Guo, Na; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    Radiation damage induced by 2 MeV protons in CdZnTe crystals has been studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and thermally stimulated current (TSC) techniques. A notable quenching of PL intensity is observed in the regions irradiated with a fluence of 6 × 1013 p/cm2, suggesting the increase of non-radiative recombination centers. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak Dcomplex centered at 1.48 eV dominates in the PL spectrum obtained from irradiated regions, ascribed to the increase of interstitial dislocation loops and A centers. The intensity of TSC spectra in irradiated regions decreases compared to the virgin regions, resulting from the charge collection inefficiency caused by proton-induced recombination centers. By comparing the intensity of identified traps obtained from numerical fitting using simultaneous multiple peak analysis (SIMPA) method, it suggests that proton irradiation under such dose can introduce high density of dislocation and A-centers in CdZnTe crystals, consistent with PL results.

  16. Optical spectroscopy and imaging of colour centres in lithium fluoride crystals and thin films irradiated by 3 MeV proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinini, M., E-mail: massimo.piccinini@enea.it; Ambrosini, F.; Ampollini, A.; Carpanese, M.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M.A.; Montereali, R.M.

    2014-05-01

    Lithium fluoride is a well-known dosimeter material and it is currently under investigation also for high-resolution radiation imaging detectors based on colour centre photoluminescence. In order to extend their applications, proton beams of 3 MeV energy, produced by a linear accelerator, were used to irradiate LiF crystals and thin films in the fluence range of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation induces the formation of colour centres, mainly the primary F centre and the aggregate F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} defects, which are stable at room temperature. By optical pumping in the blue spectral region, the F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} centres emit broad photoluminescence bands in the visible spectral range. By conventional fluorescence microscopy, the integrated photoluminescence intensity was carefully measured in LiF crystals and thin films as a function of the irradiation fluence: a linear optical response was obtained in a large range of fluence, which is dependent on the used LiF samples. Colour centres concentrations were estimated in LiF crystals by optical absorption spectroscopy. It was possible to record the transversal proton beam intensity profile by acquiring the photoluminescence image of the irradiated spots on LiF films.

  17. Impact of the divacancy (?) on the generation-recombination properties of 10 MeV proton irradiated Float-Zone silicon diodes

    CERN Document Server

    Simoen, E; Gaubas, E; Ohyama, H

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the correlation between the microscopic damage parameters and the macroscopic device performance degradation is investigated for 10 MeV proton-irradiated Float-Zone (FZ) silicon diodes, with n- and p-type doping density in the 10 sup 1 sup 4 cm sup - sup 3 range. It is shown that the radiation-induced deep-level concentrations, obtained from deep-level transient spectroscopy show a proportional increase with the proton fluence, for the dominant traps and this both in n- and p-type substrates. The same applies for the increase in the reverse diode current and the reduction of the inverse carrier recombination lifetime. The obtained spectroscopic information is substituted in the Shockley-Read-Hall model for the diode reverse current and recombination lifetime. From the comparison between calculated and measured parameters, it is concluded that in proton-irradiated diodes fabricated in FZ p- and n-type substrates, the divacancy related deep-level centres at E sub c -0.42 eV play a dominant role i...

  18. An empirical formula for L line X-ray production cross-section of elements from Ag to U for protons below 3.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When computing element concentration from proton induced X-ray emission analysis, an important parameter is the X-ray production cross-section. There have been numerous experimental and theoretical works in this field. Nonetheless, although there is a simple analytical formula to compute K X-ray cross-sections, there is no such ones for the L lines. We present here analytical formulas for the cross-section of the three main X-ray lines Lα, Lβ and Lγ based on experimental data. So far, nearly 3000 values of cross-sections for elements from Ag to U and proton energy ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 MeV have been collected from various references. This experimental data set has been fitted for each X-ray line with an exponential function depending on the proton energy and on the element atomic number. These fitted values have then been compared to the experimental data and with theoretical values obtained by the ECPSSR theory and Coster-Kronig fluorescence yields

  19. SU-E-T-554: Monte Carlo Calculation of Source Terms and Attenuation Lengths for Neutrons Produced by 50–200 MeV Protons On Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Mendez, J; Faddegon, B [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used TOPAS (TOPAS wraps and extends Geant4 for medical physicists) to compare Geant4 physics models with published data for neutron shielding calculations. Subsequently, we calculated the source terms and attenuation lengths (shielding data) of the total ambient dose equivalent (TADE) in concrete for neutrons produced by protons in brass. Methods: Stage1: The Bertini and Binary nuclear models available in Geant4 were compared with published attenuation at depth of the TADE in concrete and iron. Stage2: Shielding data of the TADE in concrete was calculated for 50– 200 MeV proton beams on brass. Stage3: Shielding data from Stage2 was extrapolated for 235 MeV proton beams. This data was used in a point-line-source analytical model to calculate the ambient dose per unit therapeutic dose at two locations inside one treatment room at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center. Finally, we compared these results with experimental data and full TOPAS simulations. Results: At larger angles (∼130o) the TADE in concrete calculated with the Bertini model was about 9 times larger than that calculated with the Binary model. The attenuation length in concrete calculated with the Binary model agreed with published data within 7%±0.4% (statistical uncertainty) for the deepest regions and 5%±0.1% for shallower regions. For iron the agreement was within 3%±0.1%. The ambient dose per therapeutic dose calculated with the Binary model, relative to the experimental data, was a ratio of 0.93±0.16 and 1.23±0.24 for two locations. The analytical model overestimated the dose by four orders of magnitude. These differences are attributed to the complexity of the geometry. Conclusion: The Binary and Bertini models gave comparable results, with the Binary model giving the best agreement with published data at large angle. Shielding data we calculated using the Binary model is useful for fast shielding calculations with other analytical models. This work was supported by

  20. Production yield of produced radioisotopes from 100 MeV proton beam on lead target for shielding analysis of large accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Oh, Joo Hee; Jung, Nam Suk; Bae, O Ryun; Lee, Hee Seock [Div. of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the production yield of major shielding material, a lead, was investigated using 100 MeV protons of KOMAC accelerator facility. For the analysis of the experimental data, the activity has been calculated using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and analytical methods. The cross section data and the stopping power in the irradiated assembly were calculated by TALYS and SRIM codes in the analytical method, respectively. Consequently, the experimental production yield of produced radioisotopes was compared with the data that are based on Monte Carlo calculations and analytical studies. In this research, the {sup nat}Pb(p, x) reaction was studied using experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations and analytical methods. Rereading to the experimental measurements, we demonstrate that both Monte Carlo simulation and analytical methods could be useful tools for the estimation of production yield of this reaction.

  1. Production of carrier-free {sup 28}Mg by 50-200 MeV protons on {sup nat}Cl: excitation function and target optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyna, G.F.; Van der Meulen, N.P.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Vermeulen, C. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    Thick-target production rates and excitation function data are presented for {sup 28}Mg formed in the proton irradiation of {sup nat}Cl up to 200 MeV. The results are compared with previous literature experimental data, where available. Various compounds were investigated for their suitability as target materials. Solid frozen chlorine is the best choice in terms of yield but it is quite unpractical as a target. The next best choice in terms of yield is BeCl{sub 2}, however, this particular salt has less favorable thermal properties than simple chlorides. In our opinion, LiCl is the target material of a choice as it has an excellent thermal stability as well as a yield of about 80% of the {sup nat}Cl + p theoretical maximum. A practical target geometry utilizing encapsulated LiCl discs is suggested.

  2. Measurement of the total photoabsorption cross section on a proton in the energy range 600-1500 MeV at the GRAAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartalini, O. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Bellini, V. [Universita di Catania (Italy); Bocquet, J. P.; Calvat, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3 (France); D' Angelo, A. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Didelez, J.-P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Di Salvo, R.; Fantini, A. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Ghio, F.; Girolami, B. [INFN Sezione di Roma I (Italy); Guidal, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Giusa, A. [Universita di Catania (Italy); Hourany, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Ignatov, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kunne, R. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay, IN2P3 (France); Lapik, A. M.; Sandri, P. Levi [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lleres, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3 (France); Moricciani, D. [Universita di Roma II Tor Vergata (Italy); Mushkarenkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); and others

    2008-01-15

    The total photoabsorption cross section on a free proton was measured at the GRAAL facility in the energy range E{sub {gamma}} = 600-1500 MeV. The large-aperture LAGRAN{gamma}E detector and a liquid hydrogen target were used in the experiment performed with a back-scattered Compton gamma beam. To improve the accuracy, two alternative methods were employed. First, a subtraction method of using empty-target measurements allowed the cross section {sigma}{sub tot} to be evaluated directly because of a low level of the electromagnetic background. Second, an algorithm for evaluating {sigma}{sub tot} on the basis of summing the dominating partial cross sections was developed. Experimental results obtained for {sigma}{sub tot} by the two methods are compared with existing data.

  3. Response of metallic glasses Fe40Ni40P14B6 and Fe80B20 to irradiation with 800-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic glasses with compositions of Fe40Ni40P14B6 and Fe80B20 were irradiated in the 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility while the electrical resistance and length changes were monitored. The resistance and the length of the first alloy were both found to increase and saturate with dose to ΔR/R approx. = 5 x 10-3 and ΔL/L approx. = 2 x 10-3. For the second alloy the total dose of 1.1 x 1019 p/cm2, which was calculated to give roughly 0.12 dpa, was slightly less than that required for saturation. No annealing of these increases was observed for anneals from room temperature to 2500C. These results are interpreted in terms of a model in which collision cascades create small regions of increased atomic disorder which fully overlap each other at saturation

  4. Production cross sections of products in the proton induced reactions on natNd in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; Kim, Kwangsoo; Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk; Kim, Guinyun

    2015-11-01

    The production cross sections of 141,143,144,146,148m,148g,149,150Pm, 139m,147,149Nd, 138m,142gPr, and 139gCe in the natNd(p,x) reactions were determined by a stacked-foil activation technique for the proton energy range up to 45 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured cross sections were compared with literature data as well as data from the TENDL-2014 library based on TALYS 1.6. The production cross sections of the above radionuclides are slightly higher than the literature data but are in general agreement with values in TENDL-2014 library except for 148mPm, 148gPm, 139mNd, and 142gPr. The thick target integral yields of the produced radionuclides were also deducted from the measured cross sections.

  5. Relative biological effectiveness of the 60-MeV therapeutic proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słonina, Dorota; Biesaga, Beata; Swakoń, Jan; Kabat, Damian; Grzanka, Leszek; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Sowa, Urszula

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a 60-MeV proton radiotherapy beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, the first one to operate in Poland. RBE was assessed at the surviving fractions (SFs) of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.37, for normal human fibroblasts from three cancer patients. The cells were irradiated near the Bragg peak of the pristine beam and at three depths within a 28.4-mm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). Reference radiation was provided by 6-MV X-rays. The mean RBE value at SF = 0.01 for fibroblasts irradiated near the Bragg peak of pristine beam ranged between 1.06 and 1.15. The mean RBE values at SF = 0.01 for these cells exposed at depths of 2, 15, and 27 mm of the SOBP ranged between 0.95-1.00, 0.97-1.02, and 1.05-1.11, respectively. A trend was observed for RBE values to increase with survival level and with depth in the SOBP: at SF = 0.37 and at the depth of 27 mm, RBE values attained their maximum (1.19-1.24). The RBE values estimated at SF = 0.01 using normal human fibroblasts for the 60-MeV proton radiotherapy beam at the IFJ PAN in Kraków are close to values of 1.0 and 1.1, used in clinical practice. PMID:25037857

  6. Use of 70 MeV Proton Beam for Medical Applications at INFN-LNS: CATANA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabini, M.G.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Barone Tonghi, L.; Bartolotta, A.; Brai, M.; Cuttone, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Marano, F.; Nicoletti, G.A.; Privitera, G.; Raffaele, L.; Reibaldi, A.; Romeo, N.; Rovelli, A.; Salamone, V.; Teri, G.

    2000-12-31

    The project CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) is a collaboration between the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Physics Department, Ophthalmology Institute and Radiology Institute of the Catania University and CSFNSM Catania. The main goal of CATANA is the study and the application of proton therapy for the treatment of shallow tumors (4 cm max) like uveal melanomas and subfoveal macular degenerations.

  7. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Os up to 65 MeV: Experiments and comparison with results from theoretical codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1090 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-02-15

    Activation of thin {sup nat}Os targets, electrodeposited on Ni backings, was investigated for the first time in stacked foil irradiations with 65 MeV and 34 MeV proton beams. Assessments of the produced radionuclides by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy yielded excitation functions for formation of {sup 184,} {sup 185,} {sup 186m,m+g,} {sup 187m+g,} {sup 188m+g,} {sup 189m2+m1+g,} {sup 190m2,m1+g,} {sup 192m1+g}Ir and {sup 185cum,} {sup 191m+g}Os, {sup 183m+g}Re. Where available comparisons with the reaction cross sections obtained in 2 earlier studies on enriched {sup 192}Os were made. Reduced uncertainty on cross sections is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup 27}Al(p,x){sup 22,24}Na, {sup nat}Ni(p,x){sup 57}Ni and {sup nat}Ti(p,x){sup 48}V monitor reactions over wide relevant energy ranges. Confirmation of monitoring took place by assessment of excitation functions of {sup 61}Cu, {sup 56}Ni, {sup 55,56,57,58}Co and {sup 52}Mn induced in the Ni backings and comparison with a recent compilation for most of these radionuclides. Contributing reactions and overall cross sections are discussed and were evaluated in comparison with the results of the theoretical code TALYS 1.6 (values from the on-line library TENDL-2013)

  8. Radiation damage and recovery of medium heavy and light inorganic crystalline, glass and glass ceramics materials after irradiation with 150 MeV protons and 1.2 MeV gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, K.T.; Dormenev, V.; Novotny, R.W.; Zaunick, H.G. [II. Physikalisches Institut, JLU Giessen (Germany); Borisevich, A.; Korjik, M.; Kozlov, D. [INP BSU, Minsk (Belarus); Kalinov, V.; Voitovich, A. [Institute of Physics of National Academy of Science, Minsk (Belarus); Kavatsyuk, M. [KVI-CART, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Further concepts of the detectors at HEP experiments will require using cheap, capable for a mass production and radiation hard materials, especially for application at collider experiments. A set of samples with volume 1-2 cm{sup 3} of the middle light and light materials: crystalline BaF{sub 2}, Y{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Ce, Y{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Pr, Lu{sub 3}A{sub l5}O{sub 12}:Ce, LiF and newly developed glass and glass ceramics DSB:Ce and DSL:Ce were irradiated with gamma-quanta with absorbed dose 100 Gy and 150 MeV protons up to fluence 5 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. Here we report results of the comparison of the optical transmission damage and recovery after different types of irradiation. A significant acceleration of the induced absorption recovery is observed at the DSB:Ce samples illuminated with visible and IR light. This effect is similar to one observed by us in PWO. It indicates that radiation induced absorption in DSB: Ce scintillation material can be retained at the acceptable level by stimulation with light at the conditions of a strong irradiation environment of the collider experiments.

  9. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amgarou, K. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Domingo, C. [Grup de Recerca en Radiacions Ionitzants, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Russo, S. [INFN-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to E<20 MeV if only polyethylene spheres are used, but can be extended to hundreds of MeV by including metal-loaded spheres (extended range BSS, indicated with ERBSS). With the aim of providing useful data to the scientific community involved in neutron measurements at hadron therapy facilities, an ERBSS experiment was carried out at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) of INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud), where a proton beam routinely used for ophthalmic cancer treatments is available. The 62 MeV beam was directed towards a PMMA phantom, simulating the patient, and two neutron measurement points were established at 0{sup o} and 90{sup o} with respect to the beam-line. Here the ERBSS of UAB (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona-Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the 'forward' and 'sideward' proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and

  10. Stopping power and energy loss straggling of thin Formvar foil for 0.3-2.7 MeV protons and alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammeri, S.; Ammi, H.; Dib, A.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Ourabah, S.; Msimanga, M.; Chekirine, M.; Guesmia, A.

    2012-12-01

    Stopping power and energy loss straggling data for protons (1H+) and alpha particles (4He+) crossing Formvar thin polymeric foils (thickness of ˜0.3 μm) have been measured in the energy range (0.3-2.7) MeV by using the indirect transmission technique. The determined stopping power data were compared to SRIM-2010, PSTAR or ASTAR calculation codes and then analyzed in term of the modified Bethe-Bloch theory to extract the target mean excitation and ionization potential . A resulting value of ≈(69.2±1.8) eV was deduced from proton stopping data. The measured straggling data were corrected from surface roughness effects due to target thickness inhomogeneity observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique. The obtained data were then compared to derived straggling values by Bohr's and Bethe-Livingston's classical theories or by Yang's empirical formula. A deviation of ˜40%-80% from the Bohr's straggling value has been observed for all reported energies, suggesting that the Bohr theory cannot be correctly applied to describe the electronic energy loss straggling process with the used low thickness of Formvar foil. The inner-shell contribution of target electrons to energy loss process is also advanced to explain the observed deviation from experiment in case of He+ ions. Finally, the reliability of Bragg's additivity rule was discussed in case of stopping power and straggling results.

  11. The Influence of Crystallinity Degree on the Glycine Decomposition Induced by 1 MeV Proton Bombardment in Space Analog Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, Sergio; Bordalo, Vinicius; Guaman, Christian F M; Ponciano, Cassia R; da Silveira, Enio F; 10.1089/ast.2012.0877

    2012-01-01

    Glycine is the simplest proteinaceous amino acid and is present in all life-forms on Earth. In aqueous solutions, it appears mainly as zwitterion glycine (+NH3CH2COO-); however, in solid phase, it may be found in amorphous or crystalline (alpha, beta, and gamma) forms. This molecular species has been extensively detected in carbonaceous meteorites and was recently observed in the cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft. We present an experimental study on the destruction of zwitterionic glycine crystals at room temperature by 1 MeV protons, in which the dependence of the destruction rates of the alpha-glycine and beta-glycine crystals on bombardment fluence is investigated. The samples were analyzed in situ by FTIR spectrometry at different proton fluences at under ultrahigh vacuum conditions at the Van de Graaff accelerator lab at PUC-Rio, Brazil. The dissociation cross section of alpha-glycine was observed to be 2.5E-14 cm^-2, a value roughly 5 times higher than the dissociation cro...

  12. Study of the Dynamics in a Linac Booster for Proton Therapy in the 30-62 MeV Energy Range

    CERN Document Server

    Vaccaro, Vittorio G; De Martinis, Carlo; Giove, Dario; Lanzone, S; Masullo, Maria R; Mauri, Marco; Rainò, Antonio; Variale, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    Recent results in accelerator physics have shown the feasibility of a coupling scheme between a cyclotron and a linac for proton acceleration. Cyclotrons with energies up to 30 MeV, mainly devoted to radioisotopes production, are available in a large number of medical centres. These two evidences have suggested the idea to study and design a linac booster able to increase the initial proton energy up to the values required for the treatment of tumors, like the ocular ones. Among the challenges in such a project one of the main ones is related to meet the requirement of having sufficient mean current for therapy from a given injection current coming from the cyclotron. In this paper we will review the rationale of the project in order to optimize the transmittance and to minimize the duty-cycle. In this frame we will discuss the basic design of a compact 3GHz linac with a new approach to the cavities used in a SCL (Side Coupled Linac) structure.

  13. Measurement of proton induced thick target γ-ray yields on B, N, Na, Al and Si from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, M.; Ferraccioli, G.; Melon, B.; Nannini, A.; Perego, A.; Salvestrini, L.; Lagoyannis, A.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Thick target yields for proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) on low-Z nuclei, namely B, N, Na, Al and Si, were measured for proton energies from 2.5 to 4.1 MeV and emission angles of 0°, 45° and 90°, at the 3 MV Tandetron laboratory of INFN-LABEC in Florence. The studied reactions were: 10B(p,α‧γ)7Be (Eγ = 429 keV), 10B(p,p‧γ)10B (Eγ = 718 keV) and 11B(p,p‧γ)11B (Eγ = 2125 keV) for boron; 14N(p,p‧γ)14N (Eγ = 2313 keV) for nitrogen; 23Na(p,p‧γ)23Na (Eγ = 441 and 1636 keV) and 23Na(p,α‧γ)20Ne (Eγ = 1634 keV) for sodium; 27Al(p,p‧γ)27Al (Eγ = 844 and 1014 keV) and 27Al(p,α‧γ)24Mg (Eγ = 1369 keV) for aluminum; 28Si(p,p‧γ)28Si (Eγ = 1779 keV) and 29Si(p,p‧γ)29Si (Eγ = 1273 keV) for silicon. The PIGE thick target yields have been measured with an overall uncertainty typically better than 10%. The use of the measured thick target yield to benchmark and validate experimental cross sections available in the literature is demonstrated.

  14. Experimental study performed with Diogene detector on the proton-proton and fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momentum, in the Ne + nucleus and Ar + nucleus collisions, between 200 and 1000 MeV per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this thesis is to present experimental results obtained with the Diogene detector concerning the study of proton-proton and fragment-fragment correlations at small relative momentum in Ne-Nucleus and Ar-Nucleus collisions between 200 and 1000 MeV per nucleon incident energy on different targets. This study takes place in the yield of relativistic heavy ions collisions, from which we hope to obtain detailed informations about the equation of state of the nuclear matter at high density and high temperature. The interferometry technics allows to measure the dimension of the emitting system of the two coincident particles and also the density of this zone knowing the number of participant proton-like. We have displayed the necessity to take into account the experimental bias of the detector to correctly compare experimental to theoretical data. We have also showed that the approximation of the vanishing lifetime of the source seems to be well-founded. The different values of the source size are in good agreement with the participants spectators model. All the corresponding densities are typical of the expansion stage of the fireball. Nevertheless, informations concerning a possible compression of the nuclear matter could be deduced. However, these valuesclearly show that interferometry does not use strong variables, sensitive to the very first stage of the reaction. In conclusion we give the required conditions to obtain better informations about the equation of state of the nuclear matter out of his fundamental state

  15. Calculation of proton-induced reactions on Tellurium isotopes below 60 MeV for medical radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 123Te(p,n)123I, 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(p,2n)123I reactions, among the many reaction channels opened, are the major reactions under consideration from a diagnostic purpose because reaction residuals as the gamma emitters are used for most radiopharmaceutical applications involving radioiodine. Based on the available experimental data, the absorption cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions of the proton-induced nuclear reaction on Te isotopes below 60 NeV are calculated using the optical model code APMNK. The transmission coefficients of neutron, proton, deuteron, trition and alpha particles are calculated by CUNF code and are fed into the GNASH code. By adjusting level density parameters and the pair correction values of some reaction channels, as well as the composite nucleus state density constants of the pre-equilibrium model, the production cross sections and energy-angle correlated spectra of the secondary light particles, as well as production cross sections and energy distributions of heavy recoils and gamma rays are calculated by the statistical plus pre-equilibrium model code GNAH. The calculated results are analysed and compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR. The optimized global optical model parameters give overall agreement with the experimental data over both the entire energy range and all tellurium isotopes. (author)

  16. Measurement of transmission efficiency for 400 MeV proton beam through collimator at Fermilab MuCool Test Area using Chromox-6 scintillation screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, M R; Chung, M; Freemire, B; Hanlet, P; Leonova, M; Moretti, A; Palmer, M; Schwarz, T; Tollestrup, A; Torun, Y; Yonehara, K

    2013-06-01

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab is a facility to develop the technology required for ionization cooling for a future Muon Collider and∕or Neutrino Factory. As part of this research program, feasibility studies of various types of RF cavities in a high magnetic field environment are in progress. As a unique approach, we have tested a RF cavity filled with a high pressure hydrogen gas with a 400 MeV proton beam in an external magnetic field (B = 3 T). Quantitative information about the number of protons passing through this cavity is an essential requirement of the beam test. The MTA is a flammable gas (hydrogen) hazard zone. Due to safety reasons, no active (energized) beam diagnostic instrument can be used. Moreover, when the magnetic field is on, current transformers (toroids) used for beam intensity measurements do not work due to the saturation of the ferrite material of the transformer. Based on these requirements, we have developed a passive beam diagnostic instrumentation using a combination of a Chromox-6 scintillation screen and CCD camera. This paper describes details of the beam profile and position obtained from the CCD image with B = 0 T and B = 3 T, and for high and low intensity proton beams. A comparison is made with beam size obtained from multi-wires detector. Beam transmission efficiency through a collimator with a 4 mm diameter hole is measured by the toroids and CCD image of the scintillation screen. Results show that the transmission efficiency estimated from the CCD image is consistent with the toroid measurement, which enables us to monitor the beam transmission efficiency even in a high magnetic field environment.

  17. Comparison of human chordoma cell-kill for 290 MeV/n carbon ions versus 70 MeV protons in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the pace of commissioning of new charged particle radiation therapy facilities is accelerating worldwide, biological data pertaining to chordomas, theoretically and clinically optimally suited targets for particle radiotherapy, are still lacking. In spite of the numerous clinical reports of successful treatment of these malignancies with this modality, the characterization of this malignancy remains hampered by its characteristic slow cell growth, particularly in vitro. Cellular lethality of U-CH1-N cells in response to different qualities of radiation was compared with immediate plating after radiation or as previously reported using the multilayered OptiCell™ system. The OptiCell™ system was used to evaluate cellular lethality over a broad dose-depth deposition range of particle radiation to anatomically mimic the clinical setting. Cells were irradiated with either 290 MeV/n accelerated carbon ions or 70 MeV accelerated protons and photons and evaluated through colony formation assays at a single position or at each depth, depending on the system. There was a cell killing of approximately 20–40% for all radiation qualities in the OptiCell™ system in which chordoma cells are herein described as more radiation sensitive than regular colony formation assay. The relative biological effectiveness values were, however, similar in both in vitro systems for any given radiation quality. Relative biological effectiveness values of proton was 0.89, of 13–20 keV/μm carbon ions was 0.85, of 20–30 keV/μm carbon ions was 1.27, and >30 keV/μm carbon ions was 1.69. Carbon-ions killed cells depending on both the dose and the LET, while protons depended on the dose alone in the condition of our study. This is the first report and characterization of a direct comparison between the effects of charged particle carbon ions versus protons for a chordoma cell line in vitro. Our results support a potentially superior therapeutic value of carbon particle irradiation

  18. Test Measurements of Prototype Counters for CLAS12 Central Time-of-Flight System using 45 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, V; Dho, H S; Jang, J; Kim, A; Kim, W

    2009-01-01

    A comparative measurement of timing properties of magnetic-resistant fine mesh R7761-70 and ordinary fast R2083 photomultipliers is presented together with preliminary results on the operation of R7761-70 PMs in magnetic field up to 1100 Gauss. The results were obtained using the proton beam of the MC50 Cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radilogical and Medical Sciences. The ratio of the effective R7761-70 and R2083 TOF (or timing) resolutions was extracted by using two different methods. The results are $1.05\\pm 0.066$ and $1.07\\pm 0.062$. The gain of R7761-70 PMs is not affected by magnetic field. The R7761-70 TOF/timing resolution becomes $\\sim 8%$ better at 1100 Gauss if the external field is oriented parallel to the PM axis. The results prove the advantages of the design of the CLAS12 Central Time-of-flight system with fine-mesh photomultipliers in comparison with the "conservative" design based on ordinary R2083 PMs and long bent light guides.

  19. Annual Cosmic Ray Spectra from 250 MeV up to 1.6 GeV from 1995 - 2014 Measured With the Electron Proton Helium Instrument onboard SOHO

    CERN Document Server

    Kühl, P; Heber, B

    2016-01-01

    The solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) can be studied in detail by examining long-term variations of the GCR energy spectrum (e.g. on the scales of a solar cycle). With almost 20 years of data, the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) onboard the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is well suited for this kind of investigation. Although the design of the instrument is optimized to measure proton and helium isotope spectra up to 50 MeV nucleon$^{-1}$ , the capability exists to determine proton energy spectra from 250 MeV up to above 1.6 GeV. Therefore we developed a sophisticated inversion method to calculate such proton spectra. The method relies on a GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation of the instrument and a simplified spacecraft model that calculates the energy-response function of EPHIN for electrons, protons and heavier ions. For validation purposes, proton spectra based on this method are compared to various balloon missions and space instrumentation. As a result we present annual galac...

  20. Systematic study of three-nucleon force effects in the cross section of the deuteron-proton breakup at 130 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Kistryn, S; Bodek, K; Deltuva, A; Epelbaum, E; Ermisch, K; Glöckle, W; Golak, J; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kamada, H; Kis, M; Klos, B; Kozela, A; Kuros-Zolnierczuk, J; Mahjour-Shafiei, M; Meißner, Ulf G; Micherdzinska, A; Nogga, A; Sauer, P U; Skibinski, R; Stephan, E; Sworst, R; Witala, H; Zejma, J; Zipper, W

    2005-01-01

    High precision cross-section data of the deuteron-proton breakup reaction at 130 MeV are presented for 72 kinematically complete configurations. The data cover a large region of the available phase space, divided into a systematic grid of kinematical variables. They are compared with theoretical predictions, in which the full dynamics of the three-nucleon (3N) system is obtained in three different ways: realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials are combined with model 3N forces (3NF's) or with an effective 3NF resulting from explicit treatment of the Delta-isobar excitation. Alternatively, the chiral perturbation theory approach is used at the next-to-next-to-leading order with all relevant NN and 3N contributions taken into account. The generated dynamics is then applied to calculate cross-section values by rigorous solution of the 3N Faddeev equations. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the experimental data shows a clear prefernce for the predictions in which the 3NF's are included. The m...

  1. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  2. North/south hemispheric periodicities in the >25 MeV solar proton event rate during the rising and peak phases of solar cycle 24

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Ian; Cane, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    We present evidence that >25 MeV solar proton events show a clustering in time at intervals of ~6 months that persisted during the rising and peak phases of solar cycle 24. This phenomenon is most clearly demonstrated by considering events originating in the northern or southern solar hemispheres separately. We examine how these variations in the solar energetic particle (SEP) event rate are related to other phenomena, such as hemispheric sunspot numbers and areas, rates of coronal mass ejections, and the mean solar magnetic field. Most obviously, the SEP event rate closely follows the sunspot number and area in the same hemisphere. The ~6 month variations are associated with features in many of the other parameters we examine, indicating that they are just one signature of the episodic development of cycle 24. They may be related to the "~150 day" periodicities reported in various solar and interplanetary phenomena during previous solar cycles. The clear presence of ~6 month periodicities in cycle 24 that ev...

  3. 1.00 MeV proton radiation resistance studies of single-junction and single gap dual-junction amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulaziz, Salman; Payson, J. S.; Li, Yang; Woodyard, James R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation resistance of a-Si:H and a-SiGe:H single-junction and a-Si:H dual-junction solar cells was conducted. The cells were irradiated with 1.00-MeV protons with fluences of 1.0 x 10 to the 14th, 5.0 x 10 to the 14th and 1.0 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm and characterized using I-V and quantum efficiency measurements. The radiation resistance of single-junction cells cannot be used to explain the behavior of dual-junction cells at a fluence of 1.0 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm. The a-Si H single-junction cells degraded the least of the three cells; a-SiGe:H single-junction cells showed the largest reduction in short-circuit current, while a-Si:H dual-junction cells exhibited the largest degradation in the open-circuit voltage. The quantum efficiency of the cells degraded more in the red part of the spectrum; the bottom junction degrades first in dual-junction cells.

  4. Effect of the energy of recoil atoms on conductivity compensation in moderately doped n-Si and n-SiC under irradiation with MeV electrons and protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovski, V. V.; Lebedev, A. A.; Emtsev, V. V.; Oganesyan, G. A.

    2016-10-01

    Processes of radiation defect formation and conductivity compensation in silicon and silicon carbide irradiated with 0.9 MeV electrons are considered in comparison with the electron irradiation at higher energies. The experimental values of the carrier removal rate at the electron energy of 0.9 MeV are nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the similar values of the parameter for higher energy electrons (6-9 MeV). At the same time, the formation cross-section of primary radiation defects (Frenkel pairs, FPs) is nearly energy-independent in this range. It is assumed that these differences are due to the influence exerted by the energy of primary knocked-on atoms (PKAs). As the PKA energy increases, the average distance between the genetically related FPs grows and, as a consequence, the fraction of FPs unrecombined under irradiation becomes larger. The FP recombination radius is estimated (∼1.1 nm), which makes it possible to ascertain the charge state of the recombining components. Second, the increase in the PKA energy enables formation of new, more complex secondary radiation defects. At electron energies exceeding 15 MeV, the average PKA energies are closer to the values obtained under irradiation with 1 MeV protons, compared with an electron irradiation at the same energy. As for the radiation-induced defect formation, the irradiation of silicon with MeV protons can be, in principle, regarded as a superposition of the irradiation with 1 MeV electrons and that with silicon ions having energy of ∼1 keV, with the "source" of silicon ions generating these ions uniformly across the sample thickness.

  5. Double differential cross sections for (p,n) reactions of 18 and 25 MeV protons with isotopes of Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Y, Zr, Mo, Pd and Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the inclusive production of neutrons from reactions of 25 MeV protons with 505253Cr, 545658Fe, 59Co, 60Ni, 63Cu, 89Y, 90919294Zr, 929495969798100Mo, 110Pd and 159Tb and of 18 MeV protons with 90919294Zr have been measured with time-of-flight techniques for 16 angles between 3.50 less than or equal to theta/sub lab/ less than or equal to 159.00. After a short presentation of the motivations for these measurements, the experimental set up is discussed with emphasis on the systematic and statistical error sources pertinent to this work, in particular the question of background correction in the continuous parts of the spectra. The main purpose of this report is to make the experimental results of this work (angle integrated spectra, angular distributions) available for distribution, reducing thereby the data required in publication of the results of these experiments. 20 references

  6. 800-MeV magnetic-focused flash proton radiography for high-contrast imaging of low-density biologically-relevant targets using an inverse-scatter collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew S.; Allison, Jason; Espinoza, Camilo; Goett, John Jerome; Hogan, Gary; Hollander, Brian; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E.; Morley, Deborah; Morris, Chris; Murray, Matthew; Nedrow, Paul; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Sisneros, Thomas; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Wilde, Carl

    2016-03-01

    Proton radiography shows great promise as a tool to guide proton beam therapy (PBT) in real time. Here, we demonstrate two ways in which the technology may progress towards that goal. Firstly, with a proton beam that is 800 MeV in energy, target tissue receives a dose of radiation with very tight lateral constraint. This could present a benefit over the traditional treatment energies of ~200 MeV, where up to 1 cm of lateral tissue receives scattered radiation at the target. At 800 MeV, the beam travels completely through the object with minimal deflection, thus constraining lateral dose to a smaller area. The second novelty of this system is the utilization of magnetic quadrupole refocusing lenses that mitigate the blur caused by multiple Coulomb scattering within an object, enabling high resolution imaging of thick objects, such as the human body. This system is demonstrated on ex vivo salamander and zebrafish specimens, as well as on a realistic hand phantom. The resulting images provide contrast sufficient to visualize thin tissue, as well as fine detail within the target volumes, and the ability to measure small changes in density. Such a system, combined with PBT, would enable the delivery of a highly specific dose of radiation that is monitored and guided in real time.

  7. Involvement of the Artemis Protein in the Relative Biological Efficiency Observed With the 76-MeV Proton Beam Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calugaru, Valentin [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Nauraye, Catherine [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Cordelières, Fabrice P. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Biard, Denis [Centre d' Etude Atomique, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut des Maladies Emergentes et des Thérapies Innovantes, Service d' Etude des Prions et des Infections Atypiques, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); De Marzi, Ludovic [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Hall, Janet; Favaudon, Vincent [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Mégnin-Chanet, Frédérique, E-mail: frederique.megnin@inserm.fr [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Previously we showed that the relative biological efficiency for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay increased with depth throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). To investigate the repair pathways underlying this increase, we used an isogenic human cell model in which individual DNA repair proteins have been depleted, and techniques dedicated to precise measurements of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: The 3-Gy surviving fractions of HeLa cells individually depleted of Ogg1, XRCC1, and PARP1 (the base excision repair/SSB repair pathway) or of ATM, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, and Artemis (nonhomologous end-joining pathway) were determined at the 3 positions previously defined in the SOBP. Quantification of incident SSBs and DSBs by the alkaline elution technique and 3-dimensional (3D) immunofluorescence of γ-H2AX foci, respectively, was performed in SQ20 B cells. Results: We showed that the amount of SSBs and DSBs depends directly on the particle fluence and that the increase in relative biological efficiency observed in the distal part of the SOBP is due to a subset of lesions generated under these conditions, leading to cell death via a pathway in which the Artemis protein plays a central role. Conclusions: Because therapies like proton or carbon beams are now being used to treat cancer, it is even more important to dissect the mechanisms implicated in the repair of the lesions generated by these particles. Additionally, alteration of the expression or activity of the Artemis protein could be a novel therapeutic tool before high linear energy transfer irradiation treatment.

  8. Preliminary design of high-power wave-guide/transmission system for multimegawatt CW requirements of 100 MeV proton LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purushottam Shrivastava; Y D Wanmode; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    Development of a 100 MeV CW proton LINAC has been planned at CAT. This LINAC will be needing CW rf power in the frequency ranges of 350 MHz and 700 MHz for its RFQ and DTL/CCDTL/SFDTL structures respectively. The power to the accelerating structures will be produced by either 1 MW CW or 250 kW CW klystrons/inductive output tubes (HOM IOTs). The power needed by respective feed points in the structure is max. 250 kW which will be powered by splitting the power from 1 MW klystron/klystrode into four channels by using a wave-guide system. In case of using 250 kW tubes the power to the structures will be provided directly from each tube. Two types of wave-guide transmission system have been considered, viz, WR 2300 for 350 MHz rf needs and WR 1500 for 700 MHz rf needs. The typical wave-guide system has been designed using the 1 MW CW klystron followed by wave-guide filter, dual directional coupler, high-power circulator, three 3 dB magic TEE power dividers to split the main channel into four equal channels of 250 kW each. Each individual channel has dual directional couplers, flexible wave-guide sections and high power ceramic vacuum window. The circulator and each power divider is terminated into the isolated ports by high power CW loads. Out of the four channels three channels have phase shifters. Present paper describes the technological aspects and design specifications-considerations for these stringent requirements.

  9. Cross-sections measurements of the residual nuclei in the spallation of {sup 136}Xe on proton at 500 A. MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giot, L. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Alcantara-Nunez, J.; Benlliure, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, La Coruna (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Interactions between relativistic light projectiles and heavy target nuclei, so called spallation reactions, have gained in the last decade new interest due to the their applications as neutron or radioactive ion beam sources, but also for their implications in understanding the dynamics of nuclear matter [1]. In this work we have measured the isotopic production cross sections of the residual nuclei issued in collisions of {sup 136}Xe projectiles at 500 A MeV onto a proton target. The comparison of these results to previously measured cross sections in {sup 136}Xe+p at 1 GeV per nucleon [2] and other systems at different energies, will allow us to better understand the role that neutrons play in spallation reactions as well as the energy dissipation mechanism. More than 400 fragmentation residues produced in this reaction have been identified using inverse kinematics in the Fragment Separator (FRS) [3] at the GSI facility in Darmstadt (Germany). The momentum distribution of all reaction products was measured in different magnetic settings of the spectrometer in order to determine their velocities. The production cross sections were determined from the normalization of the production yields by the beam intensity and the target thickness. The measured results will allow us to benchmark fragmentation codes like EPAX [4] and COFRA[5]. [1] J. Benlliure , Lect Notes Phys,700,191 (2006). [2] P. Napolitani, et al., Phys. Rev. C76, 064609 (2007). [3] H. Geissel, et al., Nucl. Instrum Methods B70, 286 (1992). [4] K. Suemmerer and B. Blank, Phys. Rev. C61, 034607 (2000) [5] J. Benlliure, et. al., Nucl. Phys. A660, 87 (1999). (author)

  10. Characteristics of Protons Exiting from a Polyethylene Converter Irradiated by Neutrons with Energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezic, D.; Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Krstic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo method has been used to determine the efficiency for proton production and to study the energy and angular distributions of the generated protons. The ENDF library of cross sections is used to simulate the interactions between the neutrons and the atoms in a polyethylene (PE) layer, while the ranges of protons with different energies in PE are determined using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) computer code. The efficiency of proton production increases with the PE layer thickness. However the proton escaping from a certain polyethylene volume is highly dependent on the neutron energy and target thickness, except for a very thin PE layer. The energy and angular distributions of protons are also estimated in the present paper, showing that, for the range of energy and thickness considered, the proton flux escaping is dependent on the PE layer thickness, with the presence of an optimal thickness for a fixed primary neutron energy. PMID:27362656

  11. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65 MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides $^{159}$Dy, $^{157}$Dy, $^{155}$Dy, $^{161}$Tb, $^{160}$Tb, $^{156}$Tb, $^{155}$Tb, $^{154m2}$Tb, $^{154m1}$Tb, $^{154g}$Tb, $^{153}$Tb, $^{152}$Tb and $^{151}$Tb are reported in the 36-65 MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  12. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013.

  13. The correlation of the 10 to 30 MeV proton flux from the NOAA satellites and the Thule 30 MHz riometer. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a requirement for realtime specification of riometer absorption in the polar cap region using proton flux measured with satellite-borne detectors. The proton flux data from the NOAA series of satellites and the Thule 30 MHz riometer data satisfy this requirement. A study was done to correlate these two parameters within state-of-the-art theoretical reasoning

  14. Excitation functions of proton-induced reactions on natural Nd in the 10-30 MeV energy range, and production of radionuclides relevant for double-{\\beta} decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lebeda, O; Schrock, P; Štursa, J; Zuber, K; 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.014602

    2012-01-01

    A preferred candidate for neutrinoless double-{\\beta} decay, 150Nd, is present in natural neodymium at an abundance level of 5.64%. However, neodymium could be activated by cosmic rays during the period it spends on the Earth's surface. Its activation by protons is therefore of interest when it comes to estimating the possible disturbance effects and increased background during neutrinoless double-{\\beta}-decay experiments like Sudbury Neutrino Observatory plus liquid scintillator (SNO+). In most cases, we lack experimental data on proton-induced reactions on neodymium. Therefore, a measurement of cross sections has been performed for the formation of 141Pm, 143Pm, 144Pm, 146Pm, 148Pm, 148Pmm, 149Pm, 150Pm, 140Nd, 141Nd, 147Nd, 149Nd, 138Prm, 139Pr, 142Pr, and 139Ce by 10-30 MeV protons. Oxidation-protected metal foil targets of natural isotopic abundance were irradiated by the usual stacked-foil technique on the external proton beam of the isochronous cyclotron U-120M at the Nuclear Physics Institute at \\v{R...

  15. Measurements of the spin observables DNN' and P in inelastic proton scattering from 12C and 16O at 200 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of polarization transfer observable for (rvec p, rvec p') reactions in intermediate energies provides a rich source of information on both the effective nucleon-nucleus interaction and the nuclear structure. The primary motivation for this work was to exploit the increased sensitivity predicted for these polarization transfer observable to the spin-dependent terms of the effective interaction used to describe nucleon-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies. To carry out this work the author has designed, built, and calibrated a polarimeter for the focal plane of the high resolution K600 Spectrometer. By using a low-energy beamline polarimeter and this Focal Plane Polarimeter, he has measured the normal-component spin observables DNN', P, and Ay at 200 MeV for the 1+, T = 0 (12.71 MeV) and T = 1 (15.11 MeV) states in 12C and for the 4-, T = 0 (17.79 and 19.80 MeV) and T = 1 (18.98 MeV) states in 16O. Measurements were made at five angles for the 12C transitions, at momentum transfers between 80 and 250 MeV/c, and at three angles for 16O, at momentum transfers of 225 to 400 MeV/c. The transitions chosen for this work have fairly well-determined nuclear structure and unnatural parity which maximizes the predicted sensitivity to the spin-dependent terms of the effective interaction. The results from this work will be used to address questions concerning the need for a relativistic interaction and how to incorporate corrections to the nuclear interaction due to the nuclear medium

  16. Parity Violation in Proton-Proton Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    van Oers, W. T. H.; collaboration, for E497

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of parity-violating longitudinal analyzing powers (normalized asymmetries) in polarized proton-proton scattering provide a unique window on the interplay between the weak and strong interactions between and within hadrons. Several new proton-proton parity violation experiments are presently either being performed or are being prepared for execution in the near future: at TRIUMF at 221 MeV and 450 MeV and at COSY (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich) at 230 MeV and near 1.3 GeV. These ex...

  17. THERMAL EXCITATION-ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF 475 MEV AND 2 GEV PROTON AND HE-3 INDUCED REACTIONS IN HEAVY-NUCLEI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PIENKOWSKI, L; LERAY, S; GALIN, J; GUERREAU, D; LEDOUX, [No Value; LOTT, B; MORJEAN, M; PEGHAIRE, A; BOHLEN, HG; FUCHS, H; GEBAUER, B; HILSCHER, D; JAHNKE, U; ROSCHERT, G; ROSSNER, H; GATTY, B; JACQUET, D; STEPHAN, C; SIEMSSEN, R; CUGNON, J

    1994-01-01

    The 4pi neutron detector ORION was installed at SATURNE laboratory to perform experiments with high energy light- and heavy- ion beams. The first preliminary results are now available. The thermal excitation energy distribution of nuclei produced in high energy proton induced reactions was measured

  18. Radiative capture and charge exchange of negative pions on protons at 26.4 and 39.3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The π-p->γn and π-p->π0n reactions were studied at laboratory pion kinetic energies of 27.4 and 39.3 MeV for 9 angles. The differential cross sections of the π-p->γn reaction are compared with previous data and with several calculations. The π-p->π0n differential cross sections were obtained by unfolding the energy spectra of the π0 γ-ray decays. Pion-nucleon phase shifts and scattering lengths are deduced and good agreement is obtained with the elastic channels, supporting isospin invariance. (orig.)

  19. Radiative capture and charge exchange of negative pions on protons at 27.4 and 39.3 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The π-p → γn and π-p → π0n reactions were studied at laboratory pion kinetic energies of 27.4 and 39.3 MeV for 9 angles. The differential cross-sections of the π-p → γn reaction are compared with previous data and with several calculations. The π-p → π0n differential cross-sections were obtained by unfolding the energy spectra of the π0 γ-ray decays. Pion-nucleon phase shifts and scattering lengths are deduced and good agreement is obtained with the elastic channels, supporting isospin invariance

  20. New measurements and evaluation of excitation functions for (p,xn), (p,pxn) and (p,2pxn) reactions on {sup 133}Cs up to 70 MeV proton energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)], E-mail: kiralyb@atomki.hu; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Cross sections for production of the therapeutic radioisotope {sup 131}Cs via the {sup 133}Cs(p,3n){sup 131}Ba{yields}{sup 131}Cs route were investigated at cyclotrons. Excitation functions of the {sup 133}Cs(p,x){sup 133m,133mg,131mg,129g,129m,128}Ba, {sup 132,129cum,127cum}Cs and {sup 129m(ind),127cum,125cum}Xe nuclear reactions were measured up to 70 MeV proton energy. The experimental data were compared to the results of model calculations performed by means of ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS computer codes. Good overall agreement was observed. On the basis of the measured excitation functions integral yields were deduced. Charged particle production routes of {sup 131}Cs are discussed.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin targets irradiated by 100-2600 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Y E; Karpikhin, E I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the project is measurements and computer simulations of independent and cumulative yields of residual product nuclei in thin targets relevant as target materials and structure materials for hybrid accelerator-driven systems coupled to high-energy proton accelerators. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, target 'poisoning', buildup of long-lived nuclides that, in turn, are to be transmuted, product nuclide (Po) alpha-activity, content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), content of chemically-active nuclides that spoil drastically the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, radioactive product nuclide yields from targets and structure materials were determined by an experiment using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 51 irradiation runs for different thin targets: sup 1 sup 8 sup 2 sup , sup 1 sup 8 ...

  2. Relative Biological Effectiveness Variation Along Monoenergetic and Modulated Bragg Peaks of a 62-MeV Therapeutic Proton Beam: A Preclinical Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Pankaj; I Marshall, Thomas; Perozziello, Francesca M; Manti, Lorenzo; Currell, Frederick J.; Hanton, Fiona; McMahon, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Joy N.; Cirrone, Giuseppe Antonio Pablo; Romano, Francesco; Prise, Kevin M.; SCHETTINO, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    iological optimization of proton therapy critically depends on detailed evaluation of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) variations along the Bragg curve. The clinically accepted RBE value of 1.1 is an oversimplification, which disregards the steep rise of linear energy transfer (LET) at the distal end of the spread-out Bragg peak. We observed significant cell killing RBE variations dependent on beam modulation, intrinsic radiosensitivity, and LET in agreement with the LEM predicted valu...

  3. Excitation functions of residual nuclei production from 40–2600 MeV proton-irradiated 206,207,208,natPb and 209Bi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu E Titarenko; V F Batyaev; V M Zhivun; V O Kudryashov; K A Lipatov; A V Ignatyuk; S G Mashnik

    2007-02-01

    The work is aimed at experimental determination of the independent and cumulative yields of radioactive residual nuclei produced in intermediate-energy proton-irradiated thin targets made of highly isotopic enriched and natural lead (206,207,208,natPb) and 209Bi. 5972 radioactive product nuclide yields have been measured in 55 thin targets induced by 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 and 2.6 GeV protons extracted from the ITEP U-10 proton synchrotron. The measured data have been compared with data obtained at other laboratories as well as with theoretical simulations by seven codes. We found that the predictive power of the tested codes is different but is satisfactory for most of the nuclides in the spallation region, though none of the codes agree well with the data in the whole mass region of product nuclides and all should be improved further.

  4. Nonequilibrium effects in the proton neutral fraction emerging from solids bombarded with MeV H0, H+, H2+ and H3+ beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-equilibrated neutral fractions have been investigated in hydrogen beams transmitted through carbon foils bombarded with H0, H2+ and H3+ projectiles having energies from 0.5 to 2.4MeV/amu. Measurements with neutral projectiles provide a direct determination of the charge exchange cross sections for fast protons in solids. The fact that the solid cross sections have been found close to the corresponding gas cross sections is discussed and confronted with existing theories. For very short dwell times the role played by projectile electrons in the neutral atom production is demonstrated and it is shown that the approach to equilibrium follows essentially the same law for H0, H2+ and H3+ projectiles. An overproduction of neutrals has also been observed with molecular ion projectiles for longer dwell times. An explanation of this effect is suggested in terms of a multi-step process in which an electron gains correlation with one proton and is finally captured by another proton of the same cluster. Angular distributions of neutrals produced from incident molecular beams indicate the possible formulation of a repulsive molecular state on emergence from the foil

  5. Study of some quasi-free reactions induced by 58 MeV protons on 9Be, 12C and 14N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (p,pd) (p,pt) and (p,p3H) quasi-free scattering have been studied at 58 MeV, together with some quasi-free reactions, on three 1 p shell nuclei: 9Be, 12C and 14N by detecting two outgoing particles. A good energy resolution permitted the observation of several low-lying levels of the residual nuclei. Experimental results have been analyzed in the frame of the distorded wave impulse approximation. If such a model is able to reproduce most of the results and gives clear evidence of the quasi-free process, it is not always possible to obtain good quantitative results. However, informations concerning nuclear structure and reaction mechanism are discussed and some spectroscopic informations extracted

  6. Experimental and theoretical studies of the yields of residual product nuclei produced in thin Pb and Bi targets irradiated by 40 - 2600 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project is aimed at experimental determining and computer-aided theoretical simulating the independent and cumulative yields of residual radioactive product nuclei in high-energy protonirradiated thin targets made of high-isotopic and natural lead (206Pb, 207Pb, 208PB, natPb) and bismuth (209Bi) that are the most probable choice to be the target materials in the acceleratordriven (hybrid) systems (ADS) coupled to a high-current proton accelerator. The yields of residual product nuclei are of great importance when estimating such basic radiation-technology characteristics of the hybrid facility targets as the total target activity, the target 'poisoning', the buildup of long-lived nuclides, the α-activity, the content of low-pressure evaporated nuclides (Hg), the content of the chemically-active nuclides that drastically spoil the corrosion resistance of the facility structure materials, etc. In view of the above, the radioactive product nuclide yields from targets materials were experimentally determined using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator in 55 measurement runs using the monoisotopic and natural lead (206Pb, 207Pb, 208PB, natPb) and bismuth (209Bi) targets within the proton energy range fractionated minutely, namely at 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.6 GeV to cover the entire range of the internuclear hadron cascading. As a result, 5972 cumulative and independent yields of residual radioactive product nuclei, whose lifetimes range from 8 minutes to 32 years, have been measured. Besides, the cross sections for the 27Al(p,x)24Na and 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reactions have been measured at the same proton energies together with the 27Al(n,p)27Mg reaction rate that characterizes the neutron background contributions in each experiment. The experimental nuclide yields are determined by the direct γ-spectrometry method. The γ-spectrometer resolution is 1.8 keV in the 1332 keV 60Co γ-line. The experimental γ-spectra are processed by the GENIE2000 code

  7. Dose-rate influence on the defect production in MeV proton-implanted float-zone and epitaxial n-type silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of stable vacancy-related point defects in proton-implanted float-zone and epitaxial silicon has been studied in the low dose range (≤1010/cm2) as a function of dose-rate. The well-known 'inverse dose-rate' effect has been observed in both types of materials with a decrease in the concentration of vacancy-related defects as the dose-rate increases. The effect is less pronounced in oxygen lean epitaxial silicon. Moreover, a continuous decrease of the vacancy-related defect concentration as a function of the flux was measured while a threshold was expected according to previous studies. Both of these results can be explained by a simple calculation, taking into account the influence of the oxygen concentration as well as the influence of the diffusion coefficient of point defects on the 'inverse dose-rate' effect

  8. Dose-rate influence on the defect production in MeV proton-implanted float-zone and epitaxial n-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, P.; Hallén, A.; Pellegrino, P.; Svensson, B. G.; Privitera, V.

    2002-01-01

    The production of stable vacancy-related point defects in proton-implanted float-zone and epitaxial silicon has been studied in the low dose range (⩽10 10/cm 2) as a function of dose-rate. The well-known "inverse dose-rate" effect has been observed in both types of materials with a decrease in the concentration of vacancy-related defects as the dose-rate increases. The effect is less pronounced in oxygen lean epitaxial silicon. Moreover, a continuous decrease of the vacancy-related defect concentration as a function of the flux was measured while a threshold was expected according to previous studies. Both of these results can be explained by a simple calculation, taking into account the influence of the oxygen concentration as well as the influence of the diffusion coefficient of point defects on the "inverse dose-rate" effect.

  9. Fission coincident neutrons from the reactions p + sup(235,236,238)U with protons between 12,7 and 25.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the proton beam of the Hamburg isochronous cyclotron (HAIZY) thin uranium targets with the mass numbers 235, 236, and 238 were bombarded. Both fragments from the fission of the Np reaction systems and the neutrons coincident with the fragments were detected in the plane perpendicular to the beam direction. Measured and stored event by event were for all particles the times of flight. The detection of the neutron succeeded in conventional time-of-flight technique with NE213 liquid scintillators. A fission detector system with plastic scintillator foils was developed. It permits high event rates over long measuring times and allows the choice of so long neutron flight paths that a neutron energy resolution between 2% and 4% could be reached. The determination of the fragment masses is in spite of the short flight paths of 15 respectively 21 cm possible to +-2 amu. The isotropic component das discussed under the assumption that it is composed of prefission and scission neutrons which were emitted befor fission respectively during the fragmentation. From the post fission results the distribution of the excitation energy to both fragments was determined in dependence of Esup(*) and the fragment mass. (orig./HSI)

  10. Measurement of the neutron fields produced by a 62 MeV proton beam on a PMMA phantom using extended range Bonner sphere spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgarou, K.; Bedogni, R.; Domingo, C.; Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Carinci, G.; Russo, S.

    2011-10-01

    The experimental characterization of the neutron fields produced as parasitic effect in medical accelerators is assuming an increased importance for either the patient protection or the facility design aspects. Medical accelerators are diverse in terms of particle type (electrons or hadrons) and energy, but the radiation fields around them have in common (provided that a given threshold energy is reached) the presence of neutrons with energy span over several orders of magnitude. Due to the large variability of neutron energy, field or dosimetry measurements in these workplaces are very complex, and in general, cannot be performed with ready-to-use commercial instruments. In spite of its poor energy resolution, the Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS) is the only instrument able to simultaneously determine all spectral components in such workplaces. The energy range of this instrument is limited to EFisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati) were exposed to characterize the "forward" and "sideward" proton-induced neutron fields. The use of two ERBSS characterized by different set of spheres, central detectors, and independently established and calibrated, is important for guaranteeing the robustness of the measured spectra and estimating their overall uncertainties.

  11. An annealing study of charge collection efficiency on Float-Zone p-on-n ministrip sensors irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons and 20 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Float-Zone n-bulk p-readout silicon sensors are currently operated in the tracking layers of many High Energy Physics experiments, where they are exposed to moderate to high fluences of hadrons. Though n-readout sensors, either with p or n bulk, are available and are offering an improved radiation hardness, p-on-n sensors are still widely used and are e.g. installed in the present ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN. Their radiation hardness and long-term performance are therefore of high interest to the detector community. We present here a study performed on these sensors after irradiation with 24 GeV/c protons and 20 MeV neutrons to fluences ranging from 1⋅1014 to 1⋅1015 neq/cm2. The sensors were then investigated for charge collection efficiency after different isothermal annealing steps in order to understand the performance evolution of the sensor with annealing time. Additional measurements were performed for the highest neutron fluence by means of the Edge-TCT technique, to assess the electric field configuration within the sensor. The irradiation and the annealing scenarios were chosen to represent the radiation damage scenario over the expected lifetime of the LHC detectors (and even further) and to assess the effect of unplanned annealing due to potentially longer warm shutdowns or cooling problems

  12. Fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    A 100MeV proton accelerator has been developed at PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) as a 21C Frontier Project. The goal of the first stage of the project is to develop a 20MeV accelerator. The 20MeV accelerator consists of ion source, LEBT, 3MeV RFQ and 20MeV DTL. The 3MeV RFQ was already installed and being tested. During preliminary test, some problems, such as the resonant frequency and field profile tuning, sharp edge in the vane end, inadequate RF seals have been found out. Therefore, it was decided to fabricate another RFQ. The RFQ upgrade includes some characteristics such as constant voltage profile, adoption of transition cell which are different from present one. In this paper, the fabrication of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ upgrade are presented.

  13. Parity Violation in Proton-Proton Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Van Oers, W T H

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of parity-violating longitudinal analyzing powers (normalized asymmetries) in polarized proton-proton scattering provide a unique window on the interplay between the weak and strong interactions between and within hadrons. Several new proton-proton parity violation experiments are presently either being performed or are being prepared for execution in the near future: at TRIUMF at 221 MeV and 450 MeV and at COSY (Kernforschungsanlage Jülich) at 230 MeV and near 1.3 GeV. These experiments are intended to provide stringent constraints on the set of six effective weak meson-nucleon coupling constants, which characterize the weak interaction between hadrons in the energy domain where meson exchange models provide an appropriate description. The 221 MeV is unique in that it selects a single transition amplitude (3P2-1D2) and consequently constrains the weak meson-nucleon coupling constant h_rho{pp}. The TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton parity violation experiment is described in some detail. A preliminar...

  14. Status of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    CERN Document Server

    Choi Byung Ho

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002 includes a 100MeV proton linear accelerator development and a program for its utilization. The first phase of the project, running from 2002 to 2005, was the design of a 100MeV proton linear accelerator and a part of development to 20 MeV. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and the 3 MeV RFQ has been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled and tuned for beam tests. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The status and progress of the project are reported in detail.

  15. Experiments on n-p scattering with 260-Mev neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.; Segre, E.; Leith, C.; Wiegand, C.

    1950-03-06

    Neutrons produced by 350 Mev protons impinging on beryllium are scattered by hydrogen. The authors measure the differential scattering cross section as a function of the scattering angle. Results are summarized here.

  16. EXPERIMENTS ON N-P SCATTERING WITH 260 MEV NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, E.; Leith, C.; Segre, E.; Wiegand, C.

    1950-03-06

    Neutrons produced by 350 Mev protons impinging on beryllium are scattered by hydrogen. We measure the differential scattering cross section as a function of the scattering angle. Results are summarized in Fig. 3 of the paper.

  17. 150 MeV fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, J

    2002-01-01

    150 MeV FFAG accelerator is prototype for practical use. Fundamental development of FFAG, research of FFAG accelerator and its application for therapy are investigated. 150 MeV ring consists of 12 sector magnets. The distribution of magnetic field of 12 sector magnets is almost same. 12 MeV proton beam is generated by cyclotron and injection to 150 MeV FFAG. The injection system consists of 2 bump magnets, kicker magnet and septum electrode. RF accelerating cavity system using high-permeability magnetic substance with high magnetic permeability accelerates proton beam to 150 MeV, then the first operation aims at 250 Hz. Return Yoke Free magnet was developed for adjustment. 150 MeV FFAG magnet is constructed and 12 MeV proton beam acceleration is conformed. The final state of 150 MeV FFAG magnet is explained by calculation results. On cancer therapy by proton beam, the three dimensions spot scan method is proposed. (S.Y.)

  18. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  19. Pulsed SC Proton Linac

    OpenAIRE

    Ouchi, N.; Chishiro, E.; Tsukishima, C.; Mukugi, K.

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) proton linac is proposed in the JAERI/KEK Joint Project for a high-intensity proton accelerator in the energy region from 400 to 600 MeV. Highly stable fields in the SC cavities are required under the dynamic Lorentz force detuning. A new model describing the dynamic Lorentz detuning has been developed and the validity has been confirmed experimentally. The model has been applied successfully to the rf control simulation of the SC proton linac.

  20. Proton beam writing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Watt; Breese, Mark B H; Bettiol, Andrew A; Jeroen A. van Kan

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam (p-beam) writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth side...

  1. Spin-flip (p,n) reactions on 26Mg, 54Fe, and 56Fe at selected proton bombarding energies in the range of 17 to 25 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data are presented for the 26Mg(p,n)26Al reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.97 MeV, for the 54Fe(p,n)54Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 17.20, 18.60, and 24.60 MeV, and for the 56Fe(p,n)56Co reaction at E/sub p/ = 19.12 and 24.59 MeV. Data were taken with the LLNL Cyclograaff at 16 angles from 3.50 to 159.00. A large detector at 23.80 with a long neutron flight path collected high resolution spectra. This large detector also collected separate 00 high resolution data on the 26Mg and 56Fe(p,n) reactions at E/sub p/ = 19 MeV. Absolute differential (p,n) cross sections were extracted for 1+ states in 26Al, 54Co, and 56Co, for the 0+ isobaric analong state (IAS) in 54Co and 56Co, for a 2+ state in each residual nucleus, and for the 0.199 MeV 7+ state of 54Co. No new experimental states were identified. Only relative cross sections were extracted at 00. Experimental angle-integrated cross sections were obtained for all but one state. DWBA79 was used, with the G-matrix effective nucleon-nucleon interaction of Bertsch et al. (with the central triplet-odd component V/sub to/ = O) and the Livermore shell model wave functions to calculate differential (p,n) cross sections to 1+ states and to the 54Co and 56Co IAS. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the 54Co and 56Co IAS (at E/sub p/ = 24.6 MeV) yielded the renormalized V/sub tau/ = 21.4 +- 2.1 MeV. Normalization of the DWBA angle-integrated cross sections to measurements for the 24.6 MeV 54Co and 56Co 1+ states, coupled with the normalization of the wave functions to previously experimentally determined GT strength, yield the renormalized V/sub sigmatau/ = 12.3 +- 1.2 MeV. The experimental Gamow-Teller strength B(GT)/sub exp./ of the T = 1 26Al state at 9.44 MeV was found to be 0.69; B(GT)/sub exp/ of the T = 1 26Al state at 10.47 MeV was found to be 0.39

  2. Dreidimensionale Wasserstoffmikroskopie mittels Proton-Proton-Streuung

    OpenAIRE

    Reichart, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Mit der Methode der Proton-Proton-Streuung zum Wasserstoffnachweis wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, um unter Einsatz eines fokussierten 17 MeV Protonenstrahls Wasserstoffverteilungen auf mikroskopischer Skala quantitativ mit einer sub-ppm Nachweisgrenze dreidimensional abzubilden. Die Realisierung am Rasterionenmikroskop SNAKE am Münchener 14 MV Tandembeschleuniger mit einem großen ringförmigen, segmentierten Detektor und einem komplexen Analysesystem ermöglicht eine Nachweisgrenze von 0.08 at...

  3. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  4. Study of proton radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  5. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  6. Survey and Alignment of the 100MeV Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Bumsik; Kwon, Hyeokjung; Jang, Jiho; Kim, Hansung; Kim, Daeil; Cho, Yongsub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The 100MeV linear accelerator was installed and under commissioning at the Gyeongju site. The 100MeV proton linac was developed by the KOMAC according to the survey work and the alignment process. 100MeV proton beam will be supplied to the users after the beam commissioning. KOMAC is developing a 100MeV high-duty-factor proton linac. Linac is composed with a 50keV proton injector, a 3MeV RFQ, DTL tanks and a beam dump. In this paper, the survey and alignment scheme are described. To install the accelerator, the align network was built and the survey work was accomplished. On the basis of the survey result, all of the accelerator components were installed in the tunnel with two laser trackers.

  7. Proton radiation effect of NPN-input operational amplifier under different bias conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPN-input bipolar operational amplifiers LM741 were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray, 3 MeV protons and 10 MeV protons respectively at different biases to investigating the proton radiation response of the NPN-input operational amplifier. The comparison of protons with 60Co γ-rays showed that the proton radiation mainly induced ionization damage in LM741. Under different bias conditions, the radiation sensitivity is different; zero biased devices show more radiation sensitivity in the input biased current than forward biased devices. Supply current (±Icc) is another parameter that is sensitive to proton radiation, 60Co γ-ray, 3 MeV and 10 MeV proton irradiation would induce a different irradiation response in ±Icc, which is caused by different ionization energy deposition and displacement energy deposition of 60Co γ-ray, 3 MeV and 10 MeV proton irradiation. (paper)

  8. Field Flatness Tuning for PEFP 100 MeV DTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A conventional 100 MeV drift tube linac is under development for Proton Engineering Frontier Project. Currently the proton linac up to 20 MeV, which consists of injector, 3 MeV RFQ and 20 MeV DTL is completed. To accelerate the proton beam up to 100 MeV additional 7 DTL tanks are required. The DTL should be tuned after fabrication and alignment of the drift tube inside the tank to meet the requirements from the beam dynamics. Tuning process includes the resonant frequency tuning, field flatness tuning and tilt sensitivity tuning. The tuning goal for the field flatness tuning is less than {+-}2% in field uniformity throughout the DTL tank with less than {+-}% standard deviation. A non-uniform field profile caused by the machining errors and alignment errors can be made uniform through the slug tuner adjustment. This procedure requires the field profile measurements and several iterations between the field profile measurements and adjustment. The methods and the results of the DTL field flatness tuning will be reported in this presentation.

  9. History of the ZGS 500 MeV booster.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; Martin; R.; Kustom, R.

    2006-05-09

    The history of the design and construction of the Argonne 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron from 1969 to 1982 is described. This accelerator has since been in steady use for the past 25 years to power the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS).

  10. Measurements of {sup 67}Ga production cross section induced by protons on {sup nat}Zn in the low energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J.A., E-mail: javier.wachter@utem.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile); Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Correa, R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Matemática y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago 7800002 (Chile)

    2015-02-01

    The experimental production cross section for the reaction {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga has been measured in the energy range from 1.678 to 2.444 MeV. The methodology used in this work is based on characteristic X-ray emitted after irradiation by the daughter nuclei that decays by electron capture (EC) and the use of a complementary PIXE experiment. By doing so, expressions needed to determine cross section values are simplified since experimental factors such as geometric setup and an detector efficiency are avoided. {sup 67}Ga is a radionuclide particularly suited for this method since it decays by electron capture in 100% and the subsequent characteristic X-ray emission is easily detected. Natural zinc targets were fabricated by PVD technique and afterwards their thicknesses were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Cross sections measurements were carried out by using the Van de Graaff accelerator located at Faculty of Sciences, University of Chile. It was found that our data for the {sup nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga reaction are, in general, in good agreement when compared to existing experimental data and to those calculated ALICE/ASH nuclear code. On the other hand, values predicted by Talys-1.6 are showing systematically lower magnitudes than our measured data.

  11. Low energy proton induced SEE in memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duzellier, S.; Falguere, D.; Nuns, T.; Guibert, L. [ONERA-CERT/DERTS, Toulouse (France); Ecoffet, R. [CNES, Toulouse (France); Hajdas, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland); Calvet, M.C. [Aerospatiale, Les Mureaux (France)

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents proton sensitivity curves obtained on memories from various generations. Highlight is set on components response at very low energy (down to 5MeV) and implications on the calculated SEE rates are discussed.

  12. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  13. Recovery of 150-250 MeV Cosmic Ray Proton Intensities Between 2004-2010 as Measured Near the Earth, at Voyager 2 and also in the Heliosheath at Voyager 1 - A Two Zone Heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, W R; Higbie, P R; Heikkila, B

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of cosmic ray protons of energy ~150-250 MeV/nuc in solar cycle #23 from 2004 to 2010 has been followed at the Earth using IMP, ACE and balloon data and also at V2 between 74-92 AU and at V1 beyond the heliospheric termination shock (91-113 AU). The correlation coefficient between the intensities the Earth and V1 during this time period, is 0.936, allowing for a ~0.9 year delay due to the solar wind propagation time from the Earth to the outer heliosphere. To describe these intensity changes and to predict the absolute intensities measured at all three locations we have used a simple spherically symmetric (no drift) two-zone heliospheric transport model with specific values for the diffusion coefficient in both the inner and outer zones. The diffusion coefficient in the outer zone, from about 90 to 120 (130) AU, is determined to be ~5-10 times smaller than that in the inner zone out to 90 AU. This means that the outer zone acts much like a diffusing barrier in this model. The absolute magnitude o...

  14. Proton irradiation energy dependence of defect formation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sanggeun; Seo, Jungmok; Hong, Juree [Nanobio Device Laboratory, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seul Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee [Space Science Research Team, Aerospace Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, 169-87 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Wook [Microwave Integrated Circuits and Systems Laboratory, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taeyoon, E-mail: taeyoon.lee@yonsei.ac.kr [Nanobio Device Laboratory, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • We irradiated graphene with 5, 10, and 15 MeV protons at a fixed dose rate of 2 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. • Different characteristics were observed when irradiated with 5/10 and 15 MeV protons. • More energy is transferred to graphene at lower irradiated proton energy in MeV range. - Abstract: Graphene transistors on SiO{sub 2}/Si were irradiated with 5, 10, and 15 MeV protons at a dose rate of 2 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}. The effect of proton irradiation on the structural defects and electrical characteristics of graphene was measured using Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Raman spectra exhibited high intensity peaks induced by defects after 5 and 10 MeV proton irradiation, whereas no significant defect-induced peaks were observed after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The drain current of graphene transistors decreased and the Dirac point shifted after proton irradiation; however, a flattening in the Dirac point occurred after 15 MeV proton irradiation. The variations in characteristics were attributed to different types of graphene defects, which were closely related to the irradiation energy dependency of the transferred energy. Our observation results were in good agreement with the Bethe formula as well as the stopping and range of ions in matter simulation results.

  15. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  16. The proton engineering frontier project: accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since launched in 2002 to establish an advanced research facility to promote and support core R and D programs by utilizing highly-characterized proton beams, the Proton Engineering Frontier Project has been devoted to developing a high-current 100-MeV, 20 mA proton linac. The upstream part of the proton linac, up to 20 MeV, has been successfully developed, integrated, and commissioned and has delivered proton beams to users under a limited operation license. The high-energy part of the accelerator and beamlines are under development. The architectural and radiation shielding design of the accelerator building and beam experimental hall has been completed. The site preparation and construction works are in progress in cooperation with the municipal government of Gyeongju city. When the project is completed in 2012, as scheduled, the proton accelerator facility will be capable of delivering highly-characterized proton beams to multiple users by satisfying their dedicated requirements.

  17. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Proton Therapy Proton therapy delivers radiation to tumor tissue ... feel during and after the procedure? What is proton therapy and how is it used? Protons are ...

  18. Earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszler, A. M.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    We report the measurement of the energy and angular distributions of earth albedo neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV at 40 deg N geomagnetic latitude from a balloon at 120,000 ft, below 4.65 g/sq cm. The albedo-neutron omnidirectional energy distribution is flat to 50 MeV, then decreases with energy. The absolute neutron energy distribution is of the correct strength and shape for the albedo neutrons to be the source of the protons trapped in earth's inner radiation belt.

  19. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  20. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C., E-mail: cinzia.talamonti@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Reggioli, V. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  1. Consistent analysis of proton elastic scattering from sup 4 sup , sup 6 sup , sup 8 He and sup 6 sup , sup 7 sup , sup 9 sup , sup 1 sup 1 Li in the energy range of 25-75 A MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, D; Kanungo, R

    2000-01-01

    While sup 1 sup 1 Li is known to be a halo nucleus with two neutrons around a sup 9 Li core, the neutrons in sup 6 He are predicted to form a skin around its sup 4 He core. Both nuclei have very low breakup thresholds. To understand the structure and reaction dynamics of these nuclei, a consistent analysis of the available low energy (25-75 A MeV) proton elastic scattering data on sup 4 sup , sup 6 sup , sup 8 He and sup 6 sup , sup 7 sup , sup 9 sup , sup 1 sup 1 Li nuclei is carried out in a folding model framework. A finite-range, momentum, density and isospin dependent NN interaction (SBM) is folded with realistic densities of different nuclei. To fit the elastic angular distribution, the real part of the folded potentials are multiplied by a renormalization factor ( N sub R ). Except for the p+ sup 4 He scattering at low incident energy, the N sub R values are found to be significantly different from 1.0, indicating appreciable channel coupling effects in the energy region considered. Variation of N sub ...

  2. Cross-sections for nuclide production in 56Fe target irradiated by 300, 500,750, 1000, 1500, and 2600 MeV protons compared with data on hydrogen target irradiation by 300, 500, 750, 1000, and 1500 MeV/nucleon 56Fe ions

    CERN Document Server

    Titarenko, Yu E; Titarenko, A Yu; Butko, M A; Pavlov, K V; Florya, S N; Tikhonov, R S; Mashnik, S G; Ignatyuk, A V; Titarenko, N N; Gudowsky, W; Tesinsky, M; Persson, C -M L; Abderrahim, H Ait; Kumawat, H; Duarte, H

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sections for radioactive nuclide production in 56Fe(p,x) reactions at 300, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and 2600 MeV were measured using the ITEP U-10 proton accelerator. In total, 221 independent and cumulative yields of products of half-lives from 6.6 min to 312 days have been obtained via the direct-spectrometry method. The measured data have been compared with the experimental data obtained elsewhere by the direct and inverse kinematics methods and with calculations by 15 codes, namely: MCNPX (INCL, CEM2k, BERTINI, ISABEL), LAHET (BERTINI, ISABEL), CEM03 (.01, .G1, .S1), LAQGSM03 (.01, .G1, >.S1), CASCADE-2004, LAHETO, and BRIEFF. Most of our data are in a good agreement with the inverse kinematics results and disprove the results of some earlier activation measurements that were quite different from the inverse kinematics measurements. The most significant calculation-to-experiment differences are observed in the yields of the A<30 light nuclei, indicating that further improvements in nuclear reaction ...

  3. Low-energy cosmic ray protons from nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    The intensity of low-energy (less than 100 MeV) protons from nuclear interactions of higher-energy (above 100 MeV) cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is calculated. The resultant intensity in the 10- to 100-MeV range is larger by a factor of 3-5 than the observed proton intensity near earth. The calculated intensity from nuclear interactions constitutes a lower limit on the actual proton intensity in interstellar space.

  4. Compact proton spectrometers for measurements of shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Zylstra, A; Frenje, J A; Seguin, F H; Rosenberg, M J; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Casey, D T; Sinenian, N; Manuel, M; Waugh, C J; Sio, H W; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Friedrich, S; Knittel, K; Bionta, R; McKernan, M; Callahan, D; Collins, G; Dewald, E; Doeppner, T; Edwards, M J; Glenzer, S H; Hicks, D; Landen, O L; London, R; Meezan, N B

    2012-05-02

    The compact Wedge Range Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer was developed for OMEGA and transferred to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign (NIC) diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum of protons from D-{sup 3}He reactions in tuning-campaign implosions containing D and {sup 3}He gas; in this work we report on the first proton spectroscopy measurement on the NIF using WRFs. The energy downshift of the 14.7-MeV proton is directly related to the total {rho}R through the plasma stopping power. Additionally, the shock proton yield is measured, which is a metric of the final merged shock strength.

  5. Electret dosemeter response to electrons with energy of 3 Mev, 7 Mev, 11 Mev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary results obtained when electret ionization chambers are irradiated with electron of 3, 7, 11 Mev, from 12 mevatron accelerators using a external cop of polyethylene and nylon are presented. (C.G.C.)

  6. The Pb-208(n,p)Tl-208 reaction at E-n=97 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringbom, A; Hakansson, A; Tibell, G; Zorro, R; Blomgren, J; Conde, H; Rahm, J; Olsson, N; Ramstrom, E; Ronnqvist, T; Jonsson, O; Nilsson, L; Renberg, PU; vanderWerf, SY; Lenske, H

    1997-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections of the Pb-208(n,p) reaction have been measured at 97 MeV in the angular range 0 degrees-30 degrees for excitation energies up to 40 MeV. The experimental proton spectra have been compared with calculated spectra obtained with a statistical multistep direct reaction

  7. Test Results of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Mi-Young; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    A 3MeV RFQ upgrade for 100MeV proton accelerator has been fabricated at PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project). The tuning of the cavity was carried out before and after the brazing to meet the condition that the quadrupole field profile is within 1% of design value and dipole component is less than 1% of quadrupole one. The ancillary system such as high power RF including klystron power supply and cooling system were already tested up to operating level. Therefore, the main issues of the tests were cavity conditioning up to full power level and low duty beam test. After the completion of the beam test of RFQ itself, the 20MeV DTL which has been tested independently will be carried out. In this paper, the test results of the PEFP 3MeV RFQ upgrade including high power conditioning and low duty beam acceleration are presented.

  8. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  9. Output beam energy measurement of a 100-MeV KOMAC drift tube linac by using a stripline beam position monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) is composed of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The precise measurement of the proton-beam's energy at the output of each DTL tank is important for the longitudinal beam dynamics and can be performed by using a time-of-flight method with a BPM (beam position monitor), which is installed between each DTL tank. The details of the output beam energy measurement of the KOMAC DTL with stripline-type BPM and BPM signal processing, along with a comparison with the simulation results, will be presented in this paper.

  10. Compton Scattering by the Proton

    CERN Document Server

    Galler, G; Kondratev, R; Massone, A M; Wolf, S; Ahrens, J; Arends, H J; Beck, R; Camen, M; Capitani, G P; Grabmayr, P; Hall, S J; Härter, F; Hehl, T; Jennewein, P; Kossert, K; Lvov, A I; Molinari, C; Ottonello, P; Peise, J; Preobrajenskij, I; Proff, S; Robbiano, A; Sanzone, M; Schumacher, M; Schmitz, M; Wissmann, F

    2001-01-01

    Compton scattering by the proton has been measured over a wide range covering photon energies 250 MeV < E_\\gamma < 800 MeV and photon scattering angles 30^0 < \\theta^{lab}_\\gamma < 150^0, using the tagged-photon facility at MAMI (Mainz) and the large-acceptance arrangement LARA. The data are in good agreement with the dispersion theory based on the SAID-SM99K parameterization of photo-meson amplitudes. From the subset of data between 280 and 360 MeV the resonance pion-photoproduction amplitudes were evaluated leading to the multipole E2/M1 ratio EMR(340 MeV) =(-1.6 \\pm 0.4(stat+syst) \\pm 0.2(model)%. From all data below 455 MeV the proton's backward spin polarizability was determined to be \\gamma_\\pi=(-37.9 \\pm 0.6(stat+syst) \\pm 3.5(model))x10^{-4}fm^4.

  11. Isospin effects on two-particle correlation functions in E/A=61 MeV Ar-36+Sn-112,Sn-124 reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghetti, R; Avdeichikov, [No Value; Jakobsson, B; Golubev, P; Helgesson, J; Colonna, N; Tagliente, G; Wilschut, HW; Kopecky, S; Kravchuk, VL; Anderson, EW; Nadel-Turonski, P; Westerberg, L; Bellini, [No Value; Sperduto, ML; Sutera, C

    2004-01-01

    Small-angle, two-particle correlation functions have been measured for Ar-36+Sn-112,Sn-124 collisions at E/A=61 MeV. Total momentum gated neutron-proton (np) and proton-proton (pp) correlations are stronger for the Sn-124 target. Some of the correlation functions for particle pairs involving deutero

  12. First experimental research of low energy proton radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tao; Long, Jidong; He, Xiaozhong; Li, Yiding; Zhang, Xiaoding; Ma, Chaofan; Zhao, Liangchao; Shi, Jinshui

    2013-01-01

    Proton radiography is a new scatheless diagnostic tool, and which provides a potential development direction for advanced hydrotesting. Recently a low energy proton radiography system has been developed at CAEP. This system has been designed to use 11MeV proton beam to radiograph thin static objects. This system consists of a proton cyclotron coupled to an imaging beamline. The design features and commissioning results of this radiography system are presented.

  13. Two body photodisintegration of the deuteron from 100 to 800 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, R.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anthony, I. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ahrens, J.; Beck, R. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy)]|[Pavia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Nucleare; Audit, G.; D`Hose, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee] [and others

    1996-01-01

    The total and the differential cross sections for the D({gamma},p)n reaction have been measured over the photon energy range 100-800 MeV at the 855 MeV MAMI Microtron in Mainz. The data are presented in the form of thirty-five angular distributions at c.m. proton angles between 30 deg-160 deg in 10 deg intervals and at photon energies in steps of 20 MeV. Previous experimental work is reassessed in the light of the present results and the results compared with some recent theoretical calculations. (author). Submitted to Nuclear Physics, B (NL); 23 refs.

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  16. Properties of defects in Cu(In,Ga)Se sub 2 after electron and proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Jasenek, A

    2002-01-01

    A model developed in this thesis describes the degradation of CIGS solar cells after irradiation. The measurement of the admittance and the capacitance transient of the irradiated CIGS solar cells identifies the defect generated by 1-MeV electron irradiation as acceptor with an activation energy of 300 meV meV above the valence band edge in CIGS. The results of the irradiation with 4- and 10-MeV protons as well as with 0.5-, 1-, and 3-MeV electrons allow the prediction of the degradation of CIGS solar cells by irradiation with arbitrary-energy electrons and protons.

  17. Linac4 crosses the 100 MeV threshold

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    The new linear accelerator, which from 2020 will be the first link in the accelerator chain, has entered a new stage of its commissioning.   Members of the team in charge of the commissioning of Linac4 in the accelerator’s control room. A few hours earlier, Linac4 accelerated a beam to 107 MeV for the first time. We couldn’t have imagined a more appropriate date: on 1 July (1.07), Linac4 reached an energy of 107 MeV. Having crossed the 100 MeV barrier, the linear accelerator is now on the home straight of its commissioning. “This stage was very quick – it took less than two weeks,” says Alessandra Lombardi, deputy project leader of Linac4, in charge of the commissioning. In 2020, Linac4 will replace the existing Linac2 as the first link in the accelerator chain. It will accelerate beams of H- ions (protons surrounded by two electrons) to 160 MeV, compared to 50 MeV with Linac2. The new machine is particularly sophisticated as it comprises...

  18. Successful Registration of Proton Tracks With Bubble Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.Doke; J.Kikuchi; M.Komiyama

    2001-01-01

    A study of registration of proton tracks with T-15 type of bubble detectors is carried out. The bubble detectors are made in China Institute of Atomic Energy. 210 MeV proton beam used to irradiate the bubble detectors is accelerated by the cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research(RIKEN) in Wako, Japan. The study shows that T-15 type of bubble detectors can be used to record proton tracks directly. A proton track is composed of a few bubbles because of the short recordable range of proton in the detectors, Successful registration of proton tracks will extend the

  19. Initial Test of the PEFP 20MeV DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Han-Sung; Han, Sang-Hyo; Hwang, Yong-Suk; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Park, Mi-Young; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    A conventional 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL) for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) has been developed as a low energy section of 100MeV accelerator. The machine consists of four tanks with 152 cells supplied with 900kW RF power from 350MHz klystron through the ridge-loaded waveguide coupler. We assembled the fabricated accelerator components and aligned each part with care. We have also prepared the subsystems for the test of the DTL such as RF power delivery system, high voltage DC power supply, vacuum system, cooling system, measurements and control system and so on. The detailed description of the initial test setup and preliminary test results will be given in this paper.

  20. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greene, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hogan, Gary E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makela, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milner, Edward C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murray, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spaulding, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waters, Laurie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wysocki, Frederick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  1. Proton Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the status of supersymmetric grand unified theories [SUSY GUTs] with regards to the observation of proton decay. In this talk we focus on SUSY GUTs in 4 dimensions. We outline the major theoretical uncertainties present in the calculation of the proton lifetime and then present our best estimate of an absolute upper bound on the predicted proton lifetime. Towards the end, we consider some new results in higher dimensional GUTs and the ramifications for proton decay.

  2. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  3. Polarization Observables in Deuteron Photodisintegration below 360 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Glister, J; Lee, B W; Gilman, R; Sarty, A J; Strauch, S; Higinbotham, D W; Piasetzky, E; Allada, K; Armstrong, W; Arrington, J; Beck, A; Benmokhtar, F; Berman, B L; Boeglin, W; Brash, E; Camsonne, A; Calarco, J; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Coman, L; Craver, B; Cusanno, F; Dumas, J; Dutta, C; Feuerbach, R; Freyberger, A; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Hansen, J -0; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H; Ilieva, Y; de Jager, C W; Jiang, X; Jones, M K; Kang, H; Kelleher, A; Khrosinkova, E; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Markowitz, P; Beck, S May-Tal; McCullough, E; Meekins, D; Meziane, M; Meziani, Z -E; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Norum, B E; Oh, Y; Olson, M; Paolone, M; Paschke, K; Perdrisat, C F; Potokar, M; Pomatsalyuk, R; Pomerantz, I; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Qiang, Y; Ransome, R; Reyhan, M; Roche, J; Rousseau, Y; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Schulte, E; Shabestari, M; Shahinyan, A; Shneor, R; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Song, J; Sparks, R; Subedi, R; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yan, X; Yao, H; Zhan, X; Zhu, X

    2010-01-01

    High precision measurements of induced and transferred recoil proton polarization in d(polarized gamma, polarized p})n have been performed for photon energies of 277--357 MeV and theta_cm = 20 degrees -- 120 degrees. The measurements were motivated by a longstanding discrepancy between meson-baryon model calculations and data at higher energies. At the low energies of this experiment, theory continues to fail to reproduce the data, indicating that either something is missing in the calculations and/or there is a problem with the accuracy of the nucleon-nucleon potential being used.

  4. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  5. The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermod, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects.

  6. The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects

  7. Resonance frequency control for the KOMAC 100-MeV drift tube linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung

    2015-02-01

    A 100-MeV proton accelerator has been developed, and the operation and beam service started at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) in July 2013. The accelerator consists of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a 100-MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The resonance frequencies of the DTL tanks are controlled by using the resonance frequency control cooling system (RCCS), installed at every DTL tank. Until now, the RCCS has been operating in the constant temperature mode. If the system is to be stabilized better, the RCCS must be operated in the frequency control mode. For this purpose, studies, including the relation between the resonance frequency and RCCS operation temperature, were done under various conditions. In this paper, the preparations for the frequency control loop of the RCCS are described.

  8. Matching a laser driven proton injector to a CH-drift tube linacs

    OpenAIRE

    Almomani, Ali; Droba, Martin; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Hofmann, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results and theoretical predictions in laser acceleration of protons achieved energies of ten to several tens of MeV. The LIGHT project (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) is proposed to use the PHELIX laser accelerated protons and to provide transport, focusing and injection into a conventional accelerator. This study demonstrates transport and focusing of laser-accelerated 10 MeV protons by a pulsed 18 T magnetic solenoid. The effect of co-moving electrons on the bea...

  9. The PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) collaboration: Development of a proton Computed Tomography apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaringella, M., E-mail: scaringella@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Pugliatti, C. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); and others

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) apparatus able to reconstruct a map of stopping power useful for accurate proton therapy treatment planning and patient positioning. This system is based on two main components: a silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter. Each proton trajectory is sampled by the tracker in four points: two upstream and two downstream the object under test; the particle residual energy is measured by the calorimeter. The apparatus is described in details together with a discussion on the characterization of the hardware under proton beams with energies up to 175 MeV.

  10. Design and construction of a compact microwave proton source for a proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 100 MeV, 20 mA proton linear accelerator is being developed by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. 20 MeV acceleration system using radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac was already developed and has been tested. To operate this acceleration system with a long time, more reliable proton source is needed. A compact microwave proton source was proposed and has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is based on the microwave proton injector at LANL and CEA. The wave power from a 2.45 GHz, 2 kW magnetron source is introduced into a compact plasma chamber with 7 cm diameter and 5 cm length through a standard tapered, double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is installed on high voltage platform. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided with a water-cooled solenoid coil. A single-hole three electrode extraction system is designed for an extraction current up to 30 mA at a 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the proton source are presented.

  11. LOW-LYING EXCITATIONS IN YB-176 AND HF-180 FROM (P-],P') SCATTERING AT EP = 98.4 MEV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERRINO, R; DELEO, R; BACHER, AD; EMERY, GT; GLOVER, CW; NANN, H; OLMER, C; JANSSENS, RVF; VANDERWERF, SY

    1992-01-01

    The low-lying excited states of two rotational nuclei, Yb-176 and Hf-180, have been investigated up to an excitation energy of 3.5 MeV by means of high-resolution inelastic scattering of 98.4-MeV polarized protons. The spins and excitation strengths of the observed levels have been deduced by compar

  12. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  13. Relativistic predictions of polarization phenomena in exclusive proton-induced proton-knockout reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hillhouse, G C; Noro, T; Van der Ventel, B I S

    2006-01-01

    Whereas a nonrelativistic distorted wave model fails to quantitatively describe analyzing power data for exclusive proton-induced proton-knockout from the 3s_{1/2} state in Pb-208 at 202 MeV, the corresponding relativistic prediction provides a perfect description, thus suggesting that the Dirac equation is the more appropriate underlying dynamical equation. We check the consistency of this rsult by comparing predictions for both dynamical models to new high resolution data for 3s_{1/2} knockout in Pb-208 at a higher incident energy of 392 MeV.

  14. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rygg, J. R.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Khan, S. F.; Sayre, D. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H. W. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; McKenty, P. W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Rinderknecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF’s 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10{sup 10} protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He reactions also show 2 × 10{sup 10} isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  15. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, J. R.; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Khan, S. F.; Lahmann, B. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sayre, D. B.; Sio, H. W.

    2015-11-01

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF's 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the 3He(d,p)4He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (1010 protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (˜13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n)3He reactions also show 2 × 1010 isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  16. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E; Marques, FM; Wilschut, HW; Orr, NA; Angelique, JC; Borcea, C; Catford, WN; Clarke, NM; Descouvemont, P; Diaz, J; Grevy, S; Kugler, A; Kravchuk, [No Value; Labiche, M; Le Brun, C; Lienard, E; Lohner, H; Mittig, W; Ostendorf, RW; Pietri, S; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Saint Laurent, MG; Savajols, H; Wagner, [No Value; Yahlali, N

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  17. Proton shadow camera using CR-39 track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a capability for imaging proton sources of moderate energy (6 MeV), with moderate spatial resolution (approx. = 9 μm), as a diagnostic for laser fusion research. Our technique involves the use of Fresnel zone plate coded imaging coupled with nuclear track detectors (CR-39). We report on a series of test experiments in which a zone plate shadow camera successfully produced images of a proton source distribution. The zone plate shadow patterns were optically reconstructed in higher order producing diffraction-limited point response images with FWHM values of approx. = 9 μm for a 6 MeV proton source

  18. Energy Dependence of SEP Electron and Proton Onset Times

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Hong; Gopalswamy, Nat; Cyr, Orville St

    2016-01-01

    We study the large solar energetic particle (SEP) events that were detected by GOES in the $>$ 10 MeV energy channel during December 2006 to March 2014. We derive and compare solar particle release (SPR) times for the 0.25--10.4 MeV electrons and 10--100 MeV protons for the 28 SEP events. In the study, the electron SPR times are derived with the time-shifting analysis (TSA) and the proton SPR times are derived using both the TSA and the velocity dispersion analysis (VDA). Electron anisotropies are computed to evaluate the amount of scattering for the events under study. Our main results include: 1)near-relativistic electrons and high-energy protons are released at the same time within 8 min for most (16 of 23) SEP events. 2)There exists a good correlation between electron and proton acceleration, peak intensity and intensity time profiles. 3) The TSA SPR times for 90.5 MeV and 57.4 MeV protons have maximum errors of 6 min and 10 min compared to the proton VDA release times, respectively, while the maximum err...

  19. High Power Proton Accelerator Development at KAERI and its Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung-Ho; Park, Mi Young; Kim, Kui Young; Kim, Kye Ryung; Kim, Jun Yeon; Cho, Yong-Sub

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP), approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002, includes a 100 MeV proton linear accelerator (linac) development and programs for its utilization and application. The main goals in the first phase of the project, spanning from 2002 to 2005, were the design of a 100 MeV proton linac and the development of a 20 MeV linac consisting of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20 MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and 3 MeV RFQ have been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled, tuned and under a beam test. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The vacuum system of the 20 MeV proton linac and its related issues, especially in operation with a high duty, are discussed in detail.

  20. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariam, Fesseha G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  1. Proton irradiation on textured bismuth based cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textured bulk polycrystalline samples of bismuth based cuprate superconductors have been subjected to irradiation with 15 MeV protons. In case of Bi-2212, there has been substantial increase in Tc, which may be due to proton induced knock-out of loosely bound oxygen. In case of (Bi,Pb)-2223, there has been a reduction in Tc. The difference in behaviour in these two systems towards proton irradiation has been explained. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Proton therapy beam dosimetry with silicon CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 16 mm2 CMOS Image Sensor with more than 100 000 pixels and with a standard video output was irradiated with 48, 95 and 180 MeV protons. Proton-induced nuclear reactions in silicon were detected as bright spots or tracks in the images. The angular and energy-dependent response of the detector were studied. The application to proton dosimetry is discussed

  3. A comparison of ionizing radiation damage in CMOS devices from 60Co gamma rays, electrons and protons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Sao-Ping; YAO Zhi-Bin; ZHANG Feng-Qi

    2009-01-01

    Radiation hardened CC4007RH and non-radiation hardened CC4011 devices were irradiated using 80Co gamma rays, 1 MeV electrons and 1--9 MeV protons to compare the ionizing radiation damage of the gamma rays with the charged particles. For all devices examined, with experimental uncertainty, the radiation induced threshold voltage shifts (△Vth) generated by 60Co gamma rays are equal to that of 1 MeV electron and 1-7 MeV proton radiation under 0 gate bias condition. Under 5 V gate bias condition, the distinction of threshold voltage shifts (△Vth) generated by 60Co gamma rays and 1 MeV electrons irradiation are not large, and the radiation damage for protons below 9 MeV is always less than that of 60Co gamma rays. The lower energy the proton has, the less serious the radiation damage becomes.

  4. PROTON THERAPY IN COMBINATION WITH PET AS MONITOR - A FEASIBILITY STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAANS, AMJ; SCHIPPERS, JM

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of combining proton therapy with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as a therapy monitor and as a tool for in situ dosimetry during therapy, proton activiation experiments have been performed using a 55 MeV proton beam on two different materials. The 3-D measurements of t

  5. Three-Body Faddeev Approach to Two-Proton Emissions from 18Ne Excited State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ning; LIU Fu-Qing; ZHANG Huan-Qiao

    2009-01-01

    The proton drip line nucleus ~(18)Ne is considered as a system of two protons and a 16O core. The excitation-energy spectrum of ~(18)Ne and the relative-momentum distribution of the two protons emitted from the 6.15 MeV level of ~(18)Ne are calculated using the Faddeev approach.

  6. How proton pulse characteristics influence protoacoustic determination of proton-beam range: simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin C; Seghal, Chandra M; Avery, Stephen

    2016-03-21

    The unique dose deposition of proton beams generates a distinctive thermoacoustic (protoacoustic) signal, which can be used to calculate the proton range. To identify the expected protoacoustic amplitude, frequency, and arrival time for different proton pulse characteristics encountered at hospital-based proton sources, the protoacoustic pressure emissions generated by 150 MeV, pencil-beam proton pulses were simulated in a homogeneous water medium. Proton pulses with Gaussian widths ranging up to 200 μs were considered. The protoacoustic amplitude, frequency, and time-of-flight (TOF) range accuracy were assessed. For TOF calculations, the acoustic pulse arrival time was determined based on multiple features of the wave. Based on the simulations, Gaussian proton pulses can be categorized as Dirac-delta-function-like (FWHM peaks at 44.5 kHz and the systematic error in determining the Bragg peak range is peak arrival time to range with simulations, the residual error can be reduced. Using a proton pulse with FWHM = 2 μs results in a maximum signal-to-noise ratio per total dose. Simulations predict that a 300 nA, 150 MeV, FWHM = 4 μs Gaussian proton pulse (8.0 × 10(6) protons, 3.1 cGy dose at the Bragg peak) will generate a 146 mPa pressure wave at 5 cm beyond the Bragg peak. There is an angle dependent systematic error in the protoacoustic TOF range calculations. Placing detectors along the proton beam axis and beyond the Bragg peak minimizes this error. For clinical proton beams, protoacoustic detectors should be sensitive to <400 kHz (for -20 dB). Hospital-based synchrocyclotrons and cyclotrons are promising sources of proton pulses for generating clinically measurable protoacoustic emissions. PMID:26913839

  7. First H- beam accelerated at Linac4: 3MeV done, 157 MeV to go!

    CERN Multimedia

    Linac4 Project Team

    2013-01-01

    On 14 November, the first H- (one proton surrounded by two electrons) beam was accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV in the Linac4 - the new linear accelerator that will replace Linac2 as low-energy injector in the LHC accelerator chain.      A view of the Linac4 taken during the recent tests (top image) and the current measured by the instruments at the end of the acceleration line on 14 November (bottom image). Images: Linac4 collaboration. Using the recently installed Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, 13 mA of current were accelerated to the energy of 3 MeV. After the successful commissioning of the Linac4 RFQ at the 3 MeV test stand completed during the first months of 2013, the whole equipment (composed of the RFQ itself, the following Medium Energy Beam Transport line and its diagnostic line) were moved to the Linac4 tunnel during summer and installed in their final position. In the meantime, a new ion source was assembled, installed and successfu...

  8. Spatial uniformity of laser-accelerated ultrahigh-current MeV electron propagation in metals and insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of laser-generated MeV, MA electron beams propagating through conductors and insulators has been studied by comparing measurement and modeling of the distribution of MeV protons that are sheath accelerated by the propagated electrons. We find that electron flow through metals is uniform and can be laser imprinted, whereas propagation through insulators induces spatial disruption of the fast electrons. Agreement is found with material dependent modeling

  9. Measurements of neutron spectra from iron and boron—in—polyethylene bomareded with 14MeV nuetrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouYu-Qing; ChenYuan; 等

    1997-01-01

    The leakage spectra of 14MeV neutrons from spheres of iron and boron-inpolyethylene with three differnet mass ratios of boron carbide to polyethylene were measured over the energy range of 20 keV to 16MeV by using proton recoil method.The integral leakages and removal cross sections at different lower cut-off energy were given.

  10. Protonated nitrosamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.; Øgaard Madsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The protonated nitrosamide, NH3NO+, has been generated by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Although a direct search for this species in ammonia flames has proved negative, fast proton transfer to major flame constituents is supported experimentally as well as by MO calculations....

  11. Recircular accelerator to proton ocular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: luisarabelo88@gmail.com, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)

  12. Measurement of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 from 1 MeV to 200 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcherbakov, O.A.; Laptev, A.B.; Petrov, G.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Gatchina, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Fomichev, A.V.; Donets, A.Y.; Osetrov, O.I.

    1998-11-01

    The measurements of neutron-induced cross-section ratios for Th232, U238, U233 and Np237 relative to U235 have been carried out in the energy range from 1 MeV up to 200 MeV using the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer GNEIS based on 1 GeV proton synchrocyclotron. Below 20 MeV, the results of present measurements are roughly in agreement with evaluated data though there are some discrepances to be resolved. (author)

  13. Proton Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  14. Proton-proton weak capture in chiral effective field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, L E; Schiavilla, R; Viviani, M

    2013-05-10

    The astrophysical S factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0-100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the A=3 binding energies and magnetic moments and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium β decay. Contributions from S and P partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The S factor at zero energy is found to be S(0)=(4.030±0.006)×10(-23) MeV fm(2), with a P-wave contribution of 0.020×10(-23) MeV fm(2). The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the low-energy constants and to the cutoff dependence. PMID:23705703

  15. Proton-Proton Weak Capture in Chiral Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcucci, Laura Elisa [Pisa U., INFN-Pisa; Schiavilla, Rocco [Old Dominion U., JLAB; Viviani, MIchele [INFN-Pisa

    2013-05-01

    The astrophysical $S$-factor for proton-proton weak capture is calculated in chiral effective field theory over the center-of-mass relative-energy range 0--100 keV. The chiral two-nucleon potential derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to leading order is augmented by the full electromagnetic interaction including, beyond Coulomb, two-photon and vacuum-polarization corrections. The low-energy constants (LEC's) entering the weak current operators are fixed so as to reproduce the $A=3$ binding energies and magnetic moments, and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in tritium $\\beta$ decay. Contributions from $S$ and $P$ partial waves in the incoming two-proton channel are retained. The $S$-factor at zero energy is found to be $S(0)=(4.030 \\pm 0.006)\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$, with a $P$-wave contribution of $0.020\\times 10^{-23}$ MeV fm$^2$. The theoretical uncertainty is due to the fitting procedure of the LEC's and to the cutoff dependence. It is shown that polynomial fits to parametrize the energy dependence of the $S$-factor are inherently unstable.

  16. Reactions sup 58,64 Ni( p ,. pi. sup + ) at 201 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Bonasera, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy)); Riggi, F.; Adorno, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Catania, Corso Italia 57, 95129 Catania (Italy)); Bimbot, L. (Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Boite Postale 1, 91406 Orsay CEDEX (France))

    1992-08-01

    The production of positive and negative pions induced by 201 MeV protons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 64}Ni isotopes has been studied. The double differential cross sections have been measured at the laboratory angles 22{degree}, 35{degree}, 55{degree}, 72{degree}, 90{degree}, 105{degree}, 120{degree}, 138{degree}, 155{degree} and from 20 MeV kinetic energy up to the kinematical limit. Features of the double differential cross sections relative to the two targets are discussed and compared to results obtained at higher incident energies.

  17. Design of the MYRRHA 17-600 MeV Superconducting Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J-L; Bouly, F; Carneiro, J-P; Vandeplassche, D

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the MYRRHA project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of transmutation in a 100MWth Accelerator Driven System (ADS) by building a new flexible irradiation complex in Mol (Belgium). The MYRRHA facility requires a 600 MeV accelerator delivering a maximum proton flux of 4 mA in continuous operation, with an additional requirement for exceptional reliability. This paper will briefly describe the beam dynamics design of the main superconducting linac section which covers the 17 to 600 MeV energy range and requires enhanced fault-tolerance capabilities.

  18. Calibration of scintillation detectors for MeV charged fusion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light output of ZnS scintillators used to detect escaping fusion products in the TFTR Tokamak is studied with 3.5 MeV alpha and 3 MeV proton beams. The emitted light first increases linearly with beam current and then saturates. In all cases investigated, the onset of the saturation corresponds to a power of about 1 mW absorbed within the ZnS powder. The scintillators have adequate time response up to 50--100 kHz

  19. Patient positioning for protontherapy using a proton range telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for imaging integrated density along the beam path in phantoms that makes use of high energy proton beams. An application of the technique is in the positioning of patients in a proton therapy radiation facility. It makes use of a proton range telescope for density variation and X-Y detectors for planar positioning. The principle of the method was tested at a proton energy of 66 MeV. Good visual quality is seen in the tests. The measurements are compared with detailed Monte Carlo simulations, and good agreement is found. We apply the simulations to high energy proton beams (245 MeV) and show that the method should provide good visual quality and sensitivity for positioning at the higher energies necessary for whole body therapy. ((orig.))

  20. Proton radiography as a means of material characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe how protons with energies of 800 MeV or greater can be used as radiographic probes for material characterization. A feature which distinguishes protons from x-rays is their charge, which results in multiple Coulomb scattering effects in proton radiographs. Magnetic lensing can ameliorate these effects and even allow mixed substances to be disentangled. We illustrate some of these effects using 800 MeV protons radiographs of a composite step wedge composed of Aluminum, Foam, and Graphite. We discuss how proton radiographs must be manipulated in order to use standard tomographic reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief description of an upcoming experiment, which will be performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory at 25 GeV

  1. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  2. Proton Radiobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Tommasino; Marco Durante

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming...

  3. The Structure of the Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  4. Determination of Neutron Spectrum by the Dosimetry Foil Method up to 37 Mev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, S. P.; Bém, P.; Burjan, V.; Fischer, U.; Forrest, R. A.; Götz, M.; Honusek, M.; Kroha, V.; Novàk, J.; Šimečková, E.

    2009-08-01

    The dosimetry activation foil technique was used for the determination of a white neutron spectrum at the U120M cyclotron facility of NPI/Řež. The neutrons were produced by 37 MeV protons slowing down in the thick heavy water target and have an energy distribution extending up to 37 MeV. To cover the whole energy range a set of 10 foils Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, Nb, In, Lu, and Au was used. The γ-rays from the decaying nuclei produced in 26 activation reactions were detected. The cross sections for these reaction were chosen from European Activation File EAF-2007 (up to 55 MeV) after intercomparison with the dosimetry cross section library IRDF-2002 which represents the cross section only up to 20 MeV and other high energy libraries. For the spectrum determination the SAND-II code was used after it had been modified to input dosimetry cross sections above 20 MeV in an arbitrary group structure. The guessed neutron spectrum which is needed to start an adjustment procedure was combined from those measured and calculated by the MCNPX code. The uncertainty of the adjusted neutron spectrum was estimated using the uncertainties of measured specific γ-activities induced in nuclides and dosimetry cross sections. It is less than 10% in the energy range below 25 MeV, the sensitivity domain of the most dosimetry reactions, but increases above this energy.

  5. Proton-counting radiography for proton therapy: a proof of principle using CMOS APS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Anaxagoras, T; Esposito, M; Green, S; Manolopoulos, S; Nieto-Camero, J; Parker, D J; Price, T; Evans, P M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the early recognition of the potential of proton imaging to assist proton therapy (Cormack 1963 J. Appl. Phys. 34 2722), the modality is still removed from clinical practice, with various approaches in development. For proton-counting radiography applications such as computed tomography (CT), the water-equivalent-path-length that each proton has travelled through an imaged object must be inferred. Typically, scintillator-based technology has been used in various energy/range telescope designs. Here we propose a very different alternative of using radiation-hard CMOS active pixel sensor technology. The ability of such a sensor to resolve the passage of individual protons in a therapy beam has not been previously shown. Here, such capability is demonstrated using a 36 MeV cyclotron beam (University of Birmingham Cyclotron, Birmingham, UK) and a 200 MeV clinical radiotherapy beam (iThemba LABS, Cape Town, SA). The feasibility of tracking individual protons through multiple CMOS layers is also demonstrated using a two-layer stack of sensors. The chief advantages of this solution are the spatial discrimination of events intrinsic to pixelated sensors, combined with the potential provision of information on both the range and residual energy of a proton. The challenges in developing a practical system are discussed.

  6. Modification of ROSPEC to cover neutrons from thermal to 18 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, H; Djeffal, S; Clifford, T; Li, L; Noulty, R; Machrafi, R

    2007-01-01

    Rotating Spectrometer (ROSPEC) is a neutron spectrometer designed to measure neutron energy distributions, and provide accurate neutron dosimetry. It is a completely self-contained unit and measures neutron energy via recoiling protons in gas proportional counters. Each of the four original gas counters is dedicated to a particular neutron energy range dictated by sensitivity to gamma rays at the low energy end of the spectrum and by proton collisions with the counter walls at the high energy end. Introduced originally in 1992, ROSPEC has a proven operational record with a program of continued upgrades. The operating range of the original ROSPEC spans 50 keV-4.5 MeV. The range of the ROSPEC has now been extended down to include epithermal and thermal neutrons by adding two 2 in. (3)He counters. Also, an optional simple scintillation spectrometer was designed to extend the upper limit of ROSPEC up to 18 MeV.

  7. Analysis of the pp analyzing-power data at 50.04 Mev

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoks, V. G. J.; de Swart, J. J.

    1990-07-01

    The recent, very accurate proton-proton analyzing-power measurements by the Zürich group at tlab = 50.04 MeV are analyzed. We show that in order to arrive at a proper description of these data, the magnetic-moment interaction has to be included in all partial waves. It is also shown that some of the approximations made in the literature, when trying to incorporate this magnetic-moment interaction, are inadequate. From these beautiful data one can now determine quite accurately the phase shifts at 50 MeV. We compare our results with the phase shifts found in other phase-shift analyses. Some of our phase shifts differ by 6-9 standard deviations from these analyses. Finally, we compare the predictions of some well-known nucleon-nucleon potential models with these high-precision data.

  8. DD proton spectrum for diagnosing the areal density of imploded capsules on Shenguang III prototype laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary DD proton spectrum is used for diagnosing the fuel-shell areal density ρR of imploded capsules on Shenguang III (SG-III) prototype laser facility for the first time. A charged particle spectrometer (CPS) with a CR39 nuclear track detector is used to measure the DD proton spectrum. The proton spectrum is determined from both the proton track and its size. A typical proton energy peak shift from 3.02 MeV to 2.6 MeV is observed in our experiment, which yields a maximum ρR larger than 6 mg/cm2. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  9. Design of 10 MeV cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Solhju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and construction of 10MeV cyclotron has been started at Amirkabir University of Technology since 2012. So far, the conceptual and detail engineering design phases have been finalized. The main purpose of this baby cyclotron is to generate proton beam for the production of PET radioisotopes. The cyclotron consists of magnet, cavity, ion source, RF and LLRF system, vacuum system, cooling system, power amplifiers and power supplies system. In this paper, a brief of design principles for all the parts of cyclotron and their final simulation results is presented. It should be noted that these simulations have been performed and optimized by the most accurate softwares such as TOSCA, ANSYS, HFSS, SolidWorks and CST. Also, the manufacturing feasibility of all the parts is performed and their dimensions and parameters are synchronized with manufacturing standards

  10. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  11. Competition of two-step process with spin-dependent interaction in 14N(p,p')14N(2.31 MeV) reaction at E sub(p) = 21.0 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections and vector analyzing powers of protons exciting the ground and first excited states in 14N are measured at an incident energy of 21.0 MeV. Importance of (p,d)(d,p) two-step process as well as tensor force is confirmed. (author)

  12. Installation and Test of 100 MeV Cyclotron Safety Interlock System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Shi-gang; SONG; Guo-fang; LI; Zhen-guo; WANG; Feng; LV; Yin-long; XING; Jian-sheng; CAI; Hong-ru; YIN; Zhi-guo; WU; Long-cheng; XIE; Huai-dong; GE; Tao; CAO; Lei; FU; Xiao-liang; WEN; Li-peng

    2013-01-01

    The safety system is an important part of BRIF project,which will play a key role for protection of staff,and equipments.100 MeV cyclotron will deliver proton beam of 200μA with energy of 100 MeV.Radiation caused by beam loss will be occurred when the machine running or commissioning,which is hazard to staff and device,so a set of interlock system is designed for protecting people and apparatus.

  13. R&D of the Fluoroscopes of 100 MeV Cyclotron Beam Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Meng; GUAN; Feng-ping; XIE; Huai-dong; ZHENG; Xia; XING; Jian-sheng; LV; Yin-long

    2013-01-01

    Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility(BRIF)consists of a 100 MeV H-cyclotron CYCIAE-100and nine beam lines.All the beam lines provide the channels of the proton beam or the neutron beam to the terminal of physics experiment.There are many beam diagnosis monitors distributing along the beam lines,including,Faraday cups,beam position monitors,fluoroscopes,collimators,emittance measurement

  14. Nuclear multifragmentation by 700–1500 MeV photons: New data of GRAAL experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedorezov, V. G., E-mail: vladimir@cpc.inr.ac.ru; Lapik, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GRAAL Collaboration

    2015-12-15

    The cross sections of carbon nucleus photodisintegration into protons and neutrons with high multiplicity for photon energies from 700 to 1500 MeV were measured. The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the GRAAL setup using the wide-aperture detector LAGRANγE. It was shown that multifragmentation up to complete disintegration into separate nucleons is initiated by elementary reactions of meson photoproduction with a subsequent intranuclear cascade.

  15. Quantitative comparison of single event upsets induced by protons and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SEU susceptibility of microchips induced by neutrons and protons has been examined on both experimental and theoretical grounds. Experimental energy deposition spectra in surface barrier detectors by 14 MeV neutrons are compared against theoretical predictions based on considering individual neutron reactions and using ENDF-V cross sections. In this paper, these results are compared with recent SEU measurements on 3 RAM devices made separately with 67 MeV neutrons and protons

  16. The R&D Works on the High Intensity Proton Linear Accelerator for Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, N; Ino, H; Kawai, M; Kusano, J; Mizumoto, M; Murata, H; Oguri, H; Okumura, Y; Touchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R&D works of the 10MeV/10mA proton linear accelerator have been carried out for last four years. A high brightness hydrogen ion source, an RFQ and an RF power source have been developed and examined to achieve 2MeV proton beam. A DTL hot test model was also fabricated and a high power test has been carried out. The present status of the R&D works are described in this paper.

  17. Test Scheme Setup for the PEFP 20MeV DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Han-Sung; Hwang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Tae Seol, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    A 100MeV proton accelerator is under development for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP). The goal of the first stage of the project is to develop a 20MeV accelerator and the initial test of the 20MeV accelerator will be made. The DTL of 20 MeV accelerator consists of four tanks and will be driven with single klystron, which gives rise to some unique problems with regard to the way of independent resonance control for each tank. Some changes made in the LLRF for reducing phase or amplitude error of cavities affect all of four tanks simultaneously, for which it is not possible to use LLRF for individual control of phase and amplitude of each tank. For independent control of each tank, we are going to use the temperature control of the drift tubes as a frequency tuner. During the initial test of the DTL, the phase of each tank will be synchronized with the first tank phase, and beam based test will be performed as if all of tanks were single unit. The detailed description of the test scheme and the a...

  18. Simulation and Field Measurement of Quadrupole Magnets for KOMAC 20MeV Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. H.; Kim, H. S.; Song, Y. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, quadrupole magnets the same as installed at the beam line simulated and analyzed for magnetic fields. Also quadrupole magnets will be measured field stability and evaluated reliability on long time operation. Control system consisted of Labview program and communication method consisted of Ethernet and Rs-232 with optical fiber for devices safety from high voltage and/or high current. As a results the DC power supply is controlled, magnetic fields data is acquired and coil temperature is measured. Magnetic field with hall sensor and temperature with K-type thermo-couple are measured with conversion factor using by voltmeter. Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was developed at Gyeongju in Korea in 2012. KOMAC including a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ, and a 100-MeV DTL. And beam line consists of 20-MeV and 100-MeV for user. Proton beam transferred from the linac to the beam line using by dipole magnets and transferred proton beam focused and decreased beam loss and by quadrupole magnets.

  19. Proton scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scanner is based on the nuclear scattering of high energy protons by the nucleons (protons and neutrons) included in the atomic nuclei. Because of the wide scattering angle, three coordinates in space of the interaction point can be computed, giving directly three dimensional radiographs. Volumic resolution is of about a few cubic-millimeters. Because the base interaction is the strong nuclear force, the atomic dependence of the information obtained is different from that of the X-ray scanner, for which the base interaction is electro-magnetic force. (orig./VJ)

  20. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjue, Sky; Lansce Proton Radiography Team

    2015-10-01

    Proton radiography is a valuable tool for assessing dynamic experiments over times as short as 100 nanoseconds. Facilities now exist or are in development in the China, Germany, Russia and the United States with proton energies ranging from 800 MeV to 50 GeV. The multiple Coulomb scattering distribution of protons and the cross sections for proton interactions with the nucleus both depend on the proton energy. A detailed understanding of these effects is necessary to gain the best possible quantitative information from proton generated radiographs. We will present an analysis of the integrated nuclear cross sections for various metals at 800 MeV kinetic energy using step wedges at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center at 800 MeV, along with results at 24 GeV from Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at 24 GeV. The results will be compared with models of multiple scattering and several models of the nuclear interactions. Finally, we will discuss trends in the interplay between nuclear attenuation and multiple scattering as a function of proton energy.

  1. PRIMA+: a proton computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a medical imaging method, based on the use of proton beams with kinetic energy of the order of 250 MeV, aimed to directly measure the stopping power distribution of tissues thus improving the present accuracy of treatment planning in hadron therapy. A pCT system should be capable to measure tissue electron density with an accuracy better than 1% and a spatial resolution better than 1 mm. The blurring effect due to multiple Coulomb scattering can be mitigated by single proton tracking technique. As a first step towards pCT the PRIMA+ Collaboration built a prototype capable to carry out a single radiography and a tomographic image of a rotating object. This apparatus includes a silicon microstrip tracker to identify the proton trajectory and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to measure the particle residual energy.

  2. Neutrotherapy cyclotron ''MEDICYC''. Increase of proton exit energy from 50 to 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutrotherapy cyclotron ''MEDICYC''built by the ''Centre Antoine Lacassagne'' at Nice, has been studied firstly to accelerate protons up to 50 MeV. The required energy is now increased to 60 MeV. The method used to calculate the new sectors, magnetic maps, beam dynamics, and extraction are presented. Details ae given on the cyclotron resonance

  3. Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, M V; Briz, J A; Cederkäll, J; Fynbo, H O U; Jensen, J H; Jonson, B; Laursen, K L; Nilsson, T; Perea, A; Pesudo, V; Riisager, K; Tengblad, O

    2015-01-01

    Beta-delayed proton emission from $^{21}$Mg has been measured at ISOLDE, CERN, with a detection setup including particle identification capabilities. $\\beta$-delayed protons with center of mass energies between 0.39$\\,$MeV and 7.2$\\,$MeV were measured and used to determine the half life of $^{21}$Mg as $118.6\\pm 0.5\\,$ms. From a line shape fit of the $\\beta p$ branches we extract spectroscopic information about the resonances of $^{21}$Na. Finally an improved interpretation of the decay scheme in accordance with the results obtained in reaction studies is presented.

  4. Nonidentical protons

    CERN Document Server

    Mart, T

    2013-01-01

    We have calculated the proton charge radius by assuming that the real proton radius is not unique and the radii are randomly distributed in a certain range. This is performed by averaging the elastic electron-proton differential cross section over the form factor cut-off. By using a dipole form factor and fitting the middle value of the cut-off to the low $Q^2$ Mainz data, we found the lowest $\\chi^2/N$ for a cut-off $\\Lambda=0.8203\\pm 0.0003$ GeV, which corresponds to a proton charge radius $r_E=0.8333\\pm 0.0004$ fm. The result is compatible with the recent precision measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen as well as recent calculations using more sophisticated techniques. Our result indicates that the relative variation of the form factor cut-off should be around 21.5%. Based on this result we have investigated effects of the nucleon radius variation on the symmetric nuclear matter (SNM) and the neutron star matter (NSM) by considering the excluded volume effect in our calculation. The mass-radius ...

  5. Proton Radiobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tommasino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak, the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE, protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed.

  6. Measurement of / values using proton beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G A V Ramanamurthy; K Ramachandra Rao; Y Rama Krishna; P Venkateswarlu; K Bhaskara Rao; P V Ramana Rao; S Venkata Ratnam; V Seshagiri Rao; G J Nagaraju; S Bhuloka Reddy

    2001-05-01

    The / intensity ratios are measured in some 3 shell elements by using a 2 MeV proton beam along with a high resolution Si(Li) detector. The present / intensity ratios are in good agreement with Scofield modified theoretical values, thus supporting the basic assumptions in that theory. From the present / intensity ratios, it is evident that due to chemical effects, the experimental / intensity ratios will be increased while they will be decreased due to the presence of simultaneous -shell vacancies which are produced due to proton excitation.

  7. Cross section ratio and angular distributions of the reaction p + d → {sup 3}He + η at 48.8 MeV and 59.8 MeV excess energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adlarson, P.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gullstroem, C.O.; Heijkenskjoeld, L.; Hoeistad, B.; Johansson, T.; Marciniewski, P.; Redmer, C.F.; Wolke, M.; Zlomanczuk, J. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Augustyniak, W.; Marianski, B.; Morsch, H.P.; Trzcinski, A.; Zupranski, P. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Nuclear Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Bardan, W.; Ciepal, I.; Czerwinski, E.; Hodana, M.; Jany, A.; Jany, B.R.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Ozerianska, I.; Podkopal, P.; Rudy, Z.; Skurzok, M.; Smyrski, J.; Wronska, A.; Zielinski, M.J. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Perez del Rio, E.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G.J. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen, Kepler Center fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Tuebingen (Germany); Bergmann, F.S.; Demmich, K.; Goslawski, P.; Huesken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Passfeld, A.; Taeschner, A. [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Muenster (Germany); Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Bhatt, H.; Lalwani, K.; Varma, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Buescher, M.; Engels, R.; Goldenbaum, F.; Hejny, V.; Khan, F.A.; Lersch, D.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Ohm, H.; Prasuhn, D.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Stassen, R.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockhorst, H.; Stroeher, H.; Wurm, P.; Zurek, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Coderre, D.; Ritman, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (Germany); Erven, A.; Erven, W.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Wuestner, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Zentralinstitut fuer Engineering, Elektronik und Analytik, Juelich (Germany); Eyrich, W.; Hauenstein, F.; Krapp, M.; Zink, A. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Fedorets, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Foehl, K. [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Goswami, A. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (India); Grigoryev, K. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, III. Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, Aachen (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Leningrad district (Russian Federation); Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of High Energiy Physics, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Klos, B.; Stephan, E.; Weglorz, W. [University of Silesia, August Chelkowski Institute of Physics, Katowice (Poland); Kulessa, P.; Pysz, K.; Siudak, R.; Szczurek, A. [Polish Academy of Sciences, The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Kupsc, A.; Pszczel, D. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Physics Department, Warsaw (Poland); Mikirtychiants, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik I, Bochum (DE); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, High Energy Physics Division, Leningrad district (RU); Pyszniak, A. [Uppsala University, Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (SE); Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (PL); Roy, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Department of Physics, Indore, Madhya Pradesh (IN); Sawant, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Physics, Mumbai, Maharashtra (IN); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Serdyuk, V. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich (DE); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (DE); Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Moscow region (RU); Sopov, V. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation, Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (RU); Yamamoto, A. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (JP); Yurev, L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, Moscow region (RU); Zabierowski, J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Lodz (PL); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY Collaboration

    2014-06-15

    We present new data for angular distributions and on the cross section ratio of the p+d → {sup 3}He + η reaction at excess energies of Q = 48.8 MeV and Q = 59.8 MeV. The data have been obtained at the WASA-at-COSY experiment (Forschungszentrum Juelich) using a proton beam and a deuterium pellet target. While the shape of obtained angular distributions show only a slow variation with the energy, the new results indicate a distinct and unexpected total cross section fluctuation between Q = 20 MeV and Q = 60 MeV, which might indicate the variation of the production mechanism within this energy interval. (orig.)

  8. Structures in proton-proton scattering at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bystricky, J.; Deregel, J.; Lehar, F. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires)

    1984-08-21

    Different structures observed in the proton-proton spin correlation parameters at theta = 90deg c.m. and in the spin-dependent cross-section differences ..delta..sigmasub(L) and ..delta..sigmasub(T) at intermediate energies are discussed. Elastic and inelastic contributions to the total cross-section indicate ..delta..sigmasub(L) to be mainly elastic and ..delta..sigmasub(T) inelastic. Based on the Saclay-Geneva phase shift analysis studied is the energy dependence of the singlet-triplet scattering amplitudes at 0deg and at 90deg c.m. up to 1GeV and the singlet and triplet cross-sections up to 2200 MeV from experimental data are calculated. Only the spin-singlet partial amplitude shows a possible resonant-like structure at approx. 560 MeV (total mass of 2.14 GeV); the spin-singlet total cross-section indicates another possible structure at approx. 1.3 GeV (total mass of 2.44 GeV). Phase shift analysis results show an anticlock-wise structure in the Argan diagram for the spin singlet partial wave.

  9. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  10. Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoen, E.; Vanhellemont, J.; Alaerts, A. [IMEC, Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Proton irradiation effects in silicon devices are studied for components fabricated in various substrates in order to reveal possible hardening effects. The degradation of p-n junction diodes increases in first order proportionally with the fluence, when submitted to 10 MeV proton irradiations in the range 5x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} to 5x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. The damage coefficients for both p- and n-type Czochralski, Float-Zone and epitaxial wafers are reported. Charge-Coupled Devices fabricated in a 1.2 {mu}m CCD-CMOS technology are shown to be quite resistant to 59 MeV H{sup +} irradiations, irrespective of the substrate type. (author)

  11. The 31P(3He,d)32S reactions at 25MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 31P(3He,d)32S reaction was investigated at 25 MeV incident energy. One hundred and eleven levels up to an excitation energy of 12.5 MeV were observed using a split-pole magnetic spectrograph. The experimental angular distributions were analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation. The optical model parameters used in the DWBA calculations were obtained from a fit to elastic 3He scattering data taken on 31P at 25 MeV. Gamov functions were used as form factors for the transfered proton in the case of unbound states. Values of the transfered orbital angular momenta l and spectroscopic strengths were obtained for sixty levels, with many odd-parity levels being observed above 9 MeV excitation. Spin and parity assignments were made upon the basis of the l-values obtained from the shapes of the angular distributions and upon comparison with the results of other reactions. Isospin assignments were made by comparison with 32P levels. Except for the lsub(P)=1, T=0 transfers, most of the observed spectroscopic strength is concentrated into a few levels. The existence of a T-mixed doublet of levels, Jsup(π)=1-, is suggested in the 11 MeV region of excitation. The excitation energies and spectroscopic strengths are compared with results of a recent shell-model calculation

  12. INR proton Linac operation and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, Leonid V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, 60th October Anniversary Pr., Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kravchuk@inr.ru

    2006-06-23

    The INR Proton Linear Accelerator is presently under operation for about 2400 h per year with energy about 250 MeV and average current up to 150 {mu}A. The Linac applications are mainly as follows: neutron and condensed matter research at spallation neutron source and neutron spectrometers, isotope production for medicine and industry, beam therapy. The experimental area description and the Linac operational experience are given in the paper.

  13. ATPF - a dedicated proton therapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shou-Xian; Guan, Xia-Ling; Tang, Jing-Yu; Chen, Yuan; Deng, Chang-Dong; Dong, Hai-Yi; Fu, Shi-Nian; Jiao, Yi; Shu, Hang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu; Qiu, Jing; Shi, Cai-Tu; Sun, Hong; Wei, Jie; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    A proton therapy facility based on a linac injector and a slow-cycling synchrotron is proposed. To obtain good treatments for different cancer types, both the spot scanning method and the double-scattering method are adopted in the facility, whereas the nozzles include both gantry and fixed beam types. The proton accelerator chain includes a synchrotron of 250 MeV in maximum energy, an injector of 7 MeV consisting of an RFQ and a DTL linac, with a repetition rate of 0.5 Hz. The slow extraction using the third-order resonance and together with the RFKO method is considered to be a good method to obtain a stable and more-or-less homogenous beam spill. To benefit the spot scanning method, the extraction energy can be as many as about 200 between 60 MeV and 230 MeV. A new method - the emittance balancing technique of using a solenoid or a quadrupole rotator is proposed to solve the problem of unequal emittance in the two transverse planes with a beam slowly extracted from a synchrotron. The facility has been designed to keep the potential to be upgraded to include the carbon therapy in the future.

  14. Investigation on using high-energy proton beam for total body irradiation (TBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Qin, Nan; Jia, Xun; Zou, Wei J; Khan, Atif; Yue, Ning J

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the possibility of using proton beam for total body irradia-tion (TBI). We hypothesized the broad-slow-rising entrance dose from a monoen-ergetic proton beam can deliver a uniform dose to patient with varied thickness. Comparing to photon-based TBI, it would not require any patient-specific com-pensator or beam spoiler. The hypothesis was first tested by simulating 250 MeV, 275 MeV, and 300 MeV protons irradiating a wedge-shaped water phantom in a paired opposing arrangement using Monte Carlo (MC) method. To allow ± 7.5% dose variation, the maximum water equivalent thickness (WET) of a treatable patient separation was 29 cm for 250 MeV proton, and > 40 cm for 275 MeV and 300 MeV proton. The compared 6 MV photon can only treat patients with up to 15.5 cm water-equivalent separation. In the second step, we simulated the dose deposition from the same beams on a patient's whole-body CT scan. The maximum patient separation in WET was 23 cm. The calculated whole-body dose variations were ± 8.9%, ± 9.0%, ± 9.6%, and ± 14% for 250 MeV proton, 275 MeV proton, 300 MeV proton, and 6 MV photon. At last, we tested the current machine capability to deliver a monoenergetic proton beam with a large uniform field. Experiments were performed on a compact double scattering single-gantry proton system. With its C-shaped gantry design, the source-to-surface distance (SSD) reached 7 m. The measured dose deposition curve had 22 cm relatively flat entrance region. The full width half maximum field size was measured 105 cm. The current scatter filter had to be redesigned to produce a uniform intensity at such treatment distance. In con-clusion, this work demonstrated the possibility of using proton beam for TBI. The current commercially available proton machines would soon be ready for such task. PMID:27685117

  15. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  16. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  17. Intense high-quality medical proton beams via laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Galow, Benjamin J; Keitel, Christoph H

    2010-01-01

    Simulations based on the coupled relativistic equations of motion show that protons stemming from laserplasma processes can be efficiently post-accelerated employing crossed pulsed laser beams focused to spot radii on the order of the laser wavelength. We demonstrate that the crossed beams produce quasi-monoenergetic accelerated protons with kinetic energies exceeding 200 MeV, small energy spreads of about 1% and high densities as required for hadron cancer therapy.

  18. Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation belt protons in the kinetic energy range 24 to 76 MeV are being measured by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on each of the two Van Allen Probes. Data have been processed for the purpose of studying variability in the trapped proton intensity during October 2013 to August 2015. For the lower energies (≲32 MeV), equatorial proton intensity near L = 2 showed a steady increase that is consistent with inward diffusion of trapped solar protons, as shown by positive radial gradients in phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants. It is postulated that these protons were trapped with enhanced efficiency during the 7 March 2012 solar proton event. A model that includes radial diffusion, along with known trapped proton source and loss processes, shows that the observed average rate of increase near L = 2 is predicted by the same model diffusion coefficient that is required to form the entire proton radiation belt, down to low L, over an extended (˜103 year) interval. A slower intensity decrease for lower energies near L = 1.5 may also be caused by inward diffusion, though it is faster than predicted by the model. Higher-energy (≳40 MeV) protons near the L = 1.5 intensity maximum are from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay. Their observed intensity is lower than expected by a factor ˜2, but the discrepancy is resolved by adding an unspecified loss process to the model with a mean lifetime ˜120 years.

  19. Measurement of the analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the CNI region with a 22 GeV/c polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out the experiment BNL-AGS E950 to measure the analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference (CNI) region with a 22 GeV/c polarized proton beam. Recoil carbons from 300 keV to a few MeV in the CNI region, were detected inside the AGS ring to identify proton-carbon elastic scattering. The preliminary results of the analyzing power measurement are presented

  20. Preliminary Design of 3.5-MeV Helium RFQ for Fusion Materials Radiation Damage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yongsub; Jang, Jiho; Kwon, Hyeokjung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This work briefly summarized a 3.5 MeV helium RFQ design for alpha irradiation study. We have studied a 3.5-MeV helium RFQ for the fusion material damage study, especially for the alpha particle effects produced by DT reaction. The total length is about 3.7 m, which is compact to be installed in a general experiment hall with a reasonable radiation shielding. For the ion source of He, we are considering a microwave ion source. KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has developed a 100-MeV proton linac which includes a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole), and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The RFQ technology can be also used to MeV ion beam applications. Especially helium beam with the kinetic energy of 3.5 MeV can be used to study the alpha particle irradiation from DT nuclear fusion reaction on the first wall of the fusion reactor.

  1. Capture and Transport of Laser Accelerated Protons by Pulsed Magnetic Fields: Advancements Toward Laser-Based Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris-Mog, Trevor J.

    The interaction of intense laser light (I > 10 18 W/cm2) with a thin target foil leads to the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism (TNSA). TNSA is responsible for the generation of high current, ultra-low emittance proton beams, which may allow for the development of a compact and cost effective proton therapy system for the treatment of cancer. Before this application can be realized, control is needed over the large divergence and the 100% kinetic energy spread that are characteristic of TNSA proton beams. The work presented here demonstrates control over the divergence and energy spread using strong magnetic fields generated by a pulse power solenoid. The solenoidal field results in a parallel proton beam with a kinetic energy spread DeltaE/E = 10%. Assuming that next generation lasers will be able to operate at 10 Hz, the 10% spread in the kinetic energy along with the 23% capture efficiency of the solenoid yield enough protons per laser pulse to, for the first time, consider applications in Radiation Oncology. Current lasers can generate proton beams with kinetic energies up to 67.5 MeV, but for therapy applications, the proton kinetic energy must reach 250 MeV. Since the maximum kinetic energy Emax of the proton scales with laser light intensity as Emax ∝ I0.5, next generation lasers may very well accelerate 250 MeV protons. As the kinetic energy of the protons is increased, the magnetic field strength of the solenoid will need to increase. The scaling of the magnetic field B with the kinetic energy of the protons follows B ∝ E1/2. Therefor, the field strength of the solenoid presented in this work will need to be increased by a factor of 2.4 in order to accommodate 250 MeV protons. This scaling factor seems reasonable, even with present technology. This work not only demonstrates control over beam divergence and energy spread, it also allows for us to now perform feasibility studies to further research what a laser-based proton therapy system

  2. Multiple scattering of proton via stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, M.R.; Noshad, Houshyar, E-mail: hnoshad@aut.ac.ir

    2015-08-01

    Multiple scattering of protons through a target is explained by a set of coupled stochastic differential equations. The motion of protons in matter is calculated by analytical random sampling from Moliere and Landau probability density functions (PDF). To satisfy the Vavilov theory, the moments for energy distribution of a 49.1 MeV proton beam in aluminum target are obtained. The skewness for the PDF of energy demonstrates that the energy distribution of protons in thin thickness becomes a Landau function, whereas, by increasing the thickness of the target it does not follow a Gaussian function completely. Afterwards, the depth-dose distributions are calculated for a 60 MeV proton beam traversing soft tissue and for a 160 MeV proton beam travelling through water. The results prove that when elastic scattering is taken into account, the Bragg-peak position is decreased, while the dose deposited in the Bragg region is increased. The results obtained in this article are benchmarked by comparison of our results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  3. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  4. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M. -J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT)

  5. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  6. Status of and prospects for proton beam utilization at the KOMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kye-Ryung

    2015-02-01

    The 1st proton beam utilization experiment using the 100-MeV proton accelerator at the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was successfully conducted on July 22, 2013. Forty-eight proposals for the second half year's beam times were submitted, and 37 proposals were selected. The beam time was allocated by the PAC (Program Advisory Committee), which was composed of experts recommended by the KOPUA (Korea Proton Accelerator User Association). For proton beam utilization, the KOMAC constructed two target rooms, TR23 and TR103, for the 20-MeV and 100-MeV proton beam last year, and an operation license was issued by the KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) in July, before the beam service started. Proton beams can be utilized in various application fields, such as nano-, bio-, space, semiconductor, and nuclear technologies, medical sciences, nuclear physics, and so on. Especially, the demands for high-dose irradiation with proton beams are increasing for nuclear- and fusion-material tests and radio-isotope production. In this paper, we review the achievements during last ten years and report the status of and the future prospects for beam utilization of the 100-MeV proton accelerator at the KOMAC.

  7. Total cross section of neutron-proton scattering at low energies in quark-gluon model

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovsky, V. A.; Radchenko, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    We show that analysis of nonrelativistic neutron-proton scattering in a framework of relativistic QCD based quark model can give important information about QCD vacuum structure. In this model we describe total cross section of neutron-proton scattering at kinetic energies of projectile neutron from 1 eV up to 1 MeV.

  8. Electrical Mobility of Protons and Proton-Holes in Pure Water Characterized by Physics-Based Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Binbin; Sah, Chihtang

    Pure water has been characterized empirically for nearly a century, as dissociation into hydronium (H3O)1+ and hydroxide (HO)1- ions. Last March, we reported that the ~40 year experimental industrial standard of chemical equilibrium reaction constant, the ion product, can be accounted for by a statistical-physics-based concentration product of two electrical charge carriers, the positively charged protons, p+, and the negatively charged proton holes or prohols, p-, with a thermal activation energy or proton trapping well depth of Ep + / p - = 576 meV, in the 0-100OC pure liquid water. We now report that the empirically fitted industrial standard experimental data (1985, 1987, 2005) of the two dc ion mobilities in liquid water, can also be accounted for by trapping-limited drift of protons and prohols through proton channels of lower proton electrical potential valleys, Ep+/0 water rule.

  9. Particle production in proton-proton collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoneim, M. T.; Hussein, M. T.; Sawy, F. H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of particle production in proton-proton collisions using data that are collected from many experiments of relative wide range of reaction energies. These data include production of pions and heavier particles; like keons and lambda hyperons. Proton-proton collision is a simple system to investigate and to be considered a starting point that guides to more complicated processes of production in the proton-nucleus and the nucleus-nucleus collisions. In this pape...

  10. Newly developed semi-empirical formulas for (, ) at 17.9 MeV and (, ) at 22.3 MeV reaction cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eyyup Tel; Abdullah Aydin; E Gamze Aydin; Abdullah Kaplan; Ömer Yavaş; İskender A Reyhancan

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we have investigated the asymmetry term effect for the (, ) and (, ) reaction cross-sections and obtained new coefficients for the (, ) and (, ) reaction cross-sections at 17.9 and 22.3 MeV energies. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including the non-elastic effects of optical model found by fitting two parameters for proton-induced reactions. The coefficients were determined by least-square fitting method. The obtained cross-section formulas with new coefficients have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution in medium due to proton beam incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of analyzing the multi-dimensional dose distribution in a medium due to proton beam incidence is presented to obtain the reliable and simplified method from clinical viewpoint, especially for the medical treatment of cancer. The heavy ion beam being taken out of an accelerator has to be adjusted to fit cancer location and size, utilizing a modified range modulator, a ridge filter, a bolus and a special scanning apparatus. The precise calculation of multi-dimensional dose distribution of proton beam is needed to fit treatment to a limit part. The analytical formulas consist of those for the fluence distribution in a medium, the divergence of flying range, the energy distribution itself, the dose distribution in side direction and the two-dimensional dose distribution. The fluence distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV, the energy distribution of protons at the position of a Bragg peak for various values of incident energy, the depth dose distribution in polystyrene in case of the protons with incident energy of 40 and 60 MeV and average energy of 100 MeV, the proton fluence and dose distribution as functions of depth for the incident average energy of 250 MeV, the statistically estimated percentage errors in the proton fluence and dose distribution, the estimated minimum detectable tumor thickness as a function of the number of incident protons for the different incident spectra with average energy of 250 MeV, the isodose distribution in a plane containing the central axis in case of the incident proton beam of 3 mm diameter and 40 MeV and so on are presented as the analytical results, and they are evaluated. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Experimental study on scintillation efficiency of ZnO:In to proton response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; OUYANG Xiao-Ping; ZHANG Zhong-Bing; XIA Liang-Bin; LIU Jin-Liang; ZHANG Xian-Peng; LIU Lin-Yue

    2011-01-01

    Film ZnO:In crystal is a good candidate for a scintillation recoil proton neutron detection system and the response of ZnO:In to protons is a crucial point.The energy response of ZnO:In to mono-energetic protons in the range of 10 keV-8 MeV was measured.The experiment was carried out in current mode,and Au foil scattering was employed,where the forward scattering protons were used for exciting the sample,and the backward scattering protons were used for monitoring the beam intensity.According to the result,the yield of light non-linearly depends on proton energy,and drops significantly when proton energy is low.The scintillation efficiency as a function of proton energy was obtained,which is very useful for researching the scintillation recoil proton neutron detection system.

  13. Characterization of nuclear sources from neutron-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-proton correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R. E-mail: roberta.ghetti@kosufy.lu.se; Martensson, J.; Colonna, N.; Helgesson, J.; Jakobsson, B.; De Filippo, E.; Tagliente, G.; Lanzano, G.; Pantaleo, A.; Bellini, V.; Anzalone, A.; Carlen, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Celano, L.; D' Erasmo, G.; Di Santo, D.; Fiore, E.M.; Fokin, A.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Kuznetsov, A.; Mahboub, D.; Palazzolo, F.; Palomba, M.; Paticchio, V.; Riera, G.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Urrata, M

    2000-07-03

    Two-neutron, two-proton and neutron-proton correlation functions have been measured simultaneously for the E/A=45 MeV {sup 58} Ni + {sup 27} Al reaction. Calculations from a statistical model have been compared to singles energy spectra as well as to total and gated correlation functions. This imposes very strong constraints on the model parameters. The use of directionally gated correlation functions helps to disentangle space and time information. Values of Gaussian radii, emission lifetimes, initial temperatures, source velocities and flow velocities are extracted. Correlation functions gated on total momentum of the nucleon pairs suggest that more energetic particles are emitted on a fast time scale ( < 100 fm / c ) and that the fraction of pre-equilibrium to equilibrium emission is larger for protons than for neutrons.

  14. Characterization of nuclear sources from neutron-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-proton correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghetti, R; Colonna, N; Helgesson, J; Jakobsson, B; De Filippo, E; Tagliente, G; Lanzanò, G; Pantaleo, A; Bellini, V; Anzalone, A; Carlén, L; Cavallaro, S; Celano, L; D'Erasmo, G; Di Santo, D; Fiore, E M; Fokin, A; Geraci, M; Giustolisi, F; Kuznetsov, A; Mahboub, D; Palazzolo, F; Palomba, M; Paticchio, V; Riera, G; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, C; Urrata, M

    2000-01-01

    Two-neutron, two-proton and neutron-proton correlation functions have been measured simultaneously for the E/A=45 MeV sup 5 sup 8 Ni + sup 2 sup 7 Al reaction. Calculations from a statistical model have been compared to singles energy spectra as well as to total and gated correlation functions. This imposes very strong constraints on the model parameters. The use of directionally gated correlation functions helps to disentangle space and time information. Values of Gaussian radii, emission lifetimes, initial temperatures, source velocities and flow velocities are extracted. Correlation functions gated on total momentum of the nucleon pairs suggest that more energetic particles are emitted on a fast time scale ( < 100 fm / c ) and that the fraction of pre-equilibrium to equilibrium emission is larger for protons than for neutrons.

  15. A search for neutron single-particle states populated via proton emission from 146Tm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the proton emission from 69145Tm77 and observed three new transitions. New transitions at 0.89 and 0.93 MeV have half-lives similar to that of the previously observed transition at 1.19 MeV, while a new transition at 1.02 MeV has a half-life similar to that of the previously observed transition at 1.12 MeV. These new transitions indicate the population of excited neutron single-particle states in 68145Er77

  16. Measurements of the Fe-54 (n,p) Mn-54 Reaction Cross Section in the Neutron Energy Range 2.3-3.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the 54Fe (n, p) 54Mn reaction cross section using a surface barrier detector to record the number of protons released in the reaction. The neutron flux was determined by means of a hydrogenous radiator, detecting the scattered protons with the solid state detector, and calculating the number of impinging neutrons from the well known n-p scattering cross section. The 54Fe (n, p) 54Mn reaction cross section is found to increase from 25 mb at 2.3 MeV to 208 mb at 3.5 MeV

  17. Protons from the alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, J.

    1964-01-01

    Resonances in the yield of ground-state protons from alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na were investigated in the energy range Eα = 1.0 – 3.3 MeV. At least thirty-eight resonances were observed. Resonance energies and strengths are presented. At nine resonances angular distribution measurements lead

  18. Defect recovery in aluminum irradiated with protons at 20 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, S.; Rajainmäki, H.; Nieminen, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum single crystals have been irradiated with 7.0-MeV protons at 20 K. The irradiation damage and its recovery are studied with positron-lifetime spectroscopy between 20 and 500 K. Stage-I recovery is observed at 40 K. At 240 K, loss of freely migrating vacancies is observed. Hydrogen in vac...

  19. Neutron transmission benchmark problems for iron and concrete shields in low, intermediate and high energy proton accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Katsumi [and others

    1996-09-01

    Benchmark problems were prepared for evaluating the calculation codes and the nuclear data for accelerator shielding design by the Accelerator Shielding Working Group of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics in JAERI. Four benchmark problems: transmission of quasi-monoenergetic neutrons generated by 43 MeV and 68 MeV protons through iron and concrete shields at TIARA of JAERI, neutron fluxes in and around an iron beam stop irradiated by 500 MeV protons at KEK, reaction rate distributions inside a thick concrete shield irradiated by 6.2 GeV protons at LBL, and neutron and hadron fluxes inside an iron beam stop irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN are compiled in this document. Calculational configurations and neutron reaction cross section data up to 500 MeV are provided. (author)

  20. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 relative to 60Co gamma-rays throughout the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). We have studied the variation of the RBE at three positions in the SOBP of the 76 and 201 MeV proton beams used for cancer treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy in Orsay (ICPO) in two human tumor cell lines using clonogenic cell death and the incidence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with endonuclease treatment to reveal clustered lesions as endpoints.The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76 MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201 MeV protons it was close to that for 137Cs gamma-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for 137Cs g-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. In the second part of our work, we have shown using cell clones made deficient for known repair genes by stable or transient shRNA transfection, that the D-NHEJ pathway determine the response to protons. The response of DNA damages created in the distal part of the 76 MeV SOBP suggests that those damages belong to the class of DNA 'complex lesions' (LMDS). It also appears that the particle fluence is a major determinant of the outcome of treatment in the distal part of the SOBP. (author)

  1. Single and double ionization of helium by fast antiproton and proton impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.H.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Mo-dash-barller, S.P.; Elsener, K.; Rensfelt, K.H.; Uggerho-dash-barj, E.

    1986-10-27

    The first ion-atom--collision data obtained with antiprotons are presented. We measured the single- and double-ionization cross section for 0.5-5-MeV antiprotons and protons colliding with helium. For ion energies above --2 MeV, the single-ionization cross section is the same for protons and antiprotons. However, surprisingly, the double-ionization cross section for antiprotons is approximately a factor of 2 larger than that for protons. The present data constitute a challenge for future theoretical models of charged-particle--atom collisions.

  2. The LILIA experiment: Energy selection and post-acceleration of laser generated protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giorgio; Sinigardi, Stefano; Londrillo, Pasquale; Rossi, Francesco; Sumini, Marco; Giove, Dario; De Martinis, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The LILIA experiment is planned at the SPARCLAB facility of the Frascati INFN laboratories. We have simulated the laser acceleration of protons, the transport and energy selection with collimators and a pulsed solenoid and the post-acceleration with a compact high field linac. For the highest achievable intensity corresponding to a = 30 over 108 protons at 30 MeV with a 3% spread are selected, and at least107 protons are post-accelerated up to 60 MeV. If a 10 Hz repetition rated can be achieved the delivered dose would be suitable for the treatment of small superficial tumors.

  3. An empirical fit to estimated neutron emission cross sections from proton induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moumita Maiti; Maitreyee Nandy; S N Roy; P K Sarkar

    2003-01-01

    Neutron emission cross section for various elements from 9Be to 209Bi have been calculated using the hybrid model code ALICE-91 for proton induced reactions in the energy range 25 MeV to 105 MeV. An empirical expression relating neutron emission cross section to target mass number and incident proton energy has been obtained. The simple expression reduces the computation time significantly. The trend in the variation of neutron emission cross sections with respect to the target mass number and incident proton energy has been discussed within the framework of the model used.

  4. <600> MeV synchro-cyclotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    One of the 14 pancakes of the new magnet coils for the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron which were wound and coated with epoxy resin on the CERN site. These new coils will replace the present ones which have been in use for more than 14 years but are now showing signs of deteriorations.

  5. MeV fullerene impacts on mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M.; Scandella, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Ames, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Hillock heights on mica irradiated with MeV C{sub 60} ions have been investigated systematically. Results show that the small range of secondary particles along the track plays a crucial role in defect production. (author) figs., tab., refs.

  6. Preliminary design studies of a 100 MeV H-/H+ LINAC as injector for SNS synchrotron/ADS LINAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S A Pande; Moonooku Prasad; Nita Kulkarni; P R Hannurkar

    2002-11-01

    It is proposed to construct a spallation neutron source (SNS) at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT) based on a 1 GeV proton synchrotron with 100 MeV H- LINAC as injector. Additionally, the LINAC can form the first 100 MeV part of a 1 GeV proton LINAC to be built in future for accelerator driven system (ADS) applications. We are exploring a configuration of the 100 MeV LINAC which will consist of an H- ion source, a 4–6 MeV RFQ followed either by a 20 MeV drift tube LINAC (DTL) and 100 MeV separated function drift tube LINAC (SDTL) or a coupled cavity drift tube LINAC (CCDTL) structure. In this paper, we present the results of our preliminary physics design studies of the RFQ–SDTL, RFQ–CCDTL and RFQ–DTL–SDTL configurations. The design of the 4.5 MeV RFQ is discussed along with the matching sections between the RFQ–SDTL/DTL and RFQ–CCDTL. The choice of the accelerator configuration and that of various parameters of the individual accelerator structures under consideration are discussed. The design objectives are to arrive at a configuration which eases heat removal for CW operation and which is less prone to halo formation in order to reduce the beam loss at higher energies.

  7. Proton induced radiation damage in fast crystal scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Kapustinsky, Jon; Nelson, Ron; Wang, Zhehui

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports proton induced radiation damage in fast crystal scintillators. A 20 cm long LYSO crystal, a 15 cm long CeF3 crystal and four liquid scintillator based sealed quartz capillaries were irradiated by 800 MeV protons at Los Alamos up to 3.3 ×1014 p /cm2. Four 1.5 mm thick LYSO plates were irradiated by 24 GeV protons at CERN up to 6.9 ×1015 p /cm2. The results show an excellent radiation hardness of LYSO crystals against charged hadrons.

  8. Programmable Power Supply for AC Switching Magnet of Proton Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Seong-Hun; Kang Heung Sik; Lee, Chi-Hwan; Lee, Hong-Gi; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Ryu, Chun-Kil; Sik Han, Hong; Suck Suh, Hyung

    2005-01-01

    The 100-MeV PEFP proton linac has two proton beam extraction lines for user' experiment. Each extraction line has 5 beamlines and has 5 Hz operating frequency. An AC switching magnet is used to distribute the proton beam to the 5 beamlines, An AC switching magnet is powered by PWM-controlled bipolar switching-mode converters. This converter is designed to operate at ±350A, 5 Hz programmable step output. The power supply is employed IGBT module and has controlled by a DSP (Digital Signal Process). This paper describes the design and test results of the power supply.

  9. Study of the gamma spectra emitted in a nuclear reaction - Measurement of the half-lives of the levels 6.13 MeV, 6.92 MeV and 7.12 MeV of 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the energy shifts of the gamma spectrum released during a nuclear reaction are important compared with the detector resolution, the comparison of the experimental spectrum with theoretical spectra allows us to determine the half-life of the initial state of the transition. The calculation of the experimental spectrum implies to know the slowing-down of the recoil nucleus in the matter in order to take into account the Doppler effect. For recoil energies in the range of the MeV and for solid media, the Lindhard theory agrees well with experimental data. The phenomenon of deflection which appears at very low energies must be taken into account by restraining the measurement domain. By choosing an adequate media we can measure half-lives in the domain 1 and 100 fs without needing to take into account deflection effects. We have measured the half-life of the first 3 energy levels of 16O (6.135 MeV, 6.923 MeV and 7.121 MeV), these levels are reached through the reaction 19F(p,αγ)16O with proton incident energies ranging from 0.872 MeV to 2.42 MeV. We have used a coaxial germanium semi-conductor with lithium additions that was connected to an amplification line of Ortec type. 2 kinds of target have been used: calcium fluoride and copper fluoride evaporated on tantalum support. We have obtained the following values for the half-life: (16±4) fs for the 6.923 MeV level, (18±4) fs for the 7.121 MeV level, and for the 6.135 MeV we can only give a lower limit since the gamma decay occurs when the nucleus is at rest τ > 200 fs

  10. Development of proton beam monitoring devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an 1 channel ionization chamber for beam monitoring system of KOMAC 20/100 MeV proton accelerator with a crystal scintillator, and try to make Multi Functional detectors, which can cover wide range of proton current. After the development, it is possible to provide the beam information to KOMAC beam users. We also develop a fast neutron detector system to detect the proton recoil by the neutron in the beam line. This system can provide the neutron dose information to beam user for safety. The followings are our major study 1) Beam profile and energy monitoring by using scintillators 2) Development of 32 channel Charge integration Embedded DAQ board 3) 1 channel gas scintillation detector for pulse beam monitoring 4) Development of fast neutron detector. Results Our major achievements are as follows ; 1) XY distribution scanning of proton beam by using LYSO crystal scintillator, 2) Development of a 32 channel Charge integration Embedded DAQ board and test it on beam line, 3) Development of 1 channel gas scintillation detector for pulse beam monitoring and test at KOMAC beam line. 4) Development of fast neutron detectors such as liquid scintillator and stilbene and measured neutron at beam line. The most important achievements of this research are ; 1) We measured the timing structure of proton beam by using 1 ch gas scintillation detector, and 2) it was possible to scanning the XY distribution of proton beam at real time

  11. An Analytical Model of Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose for Passively-Scattered Proton Radiotherapy and Validation with Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Christopher; Newhauser, Wayne, E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Farah, Jad [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Service de Dosimétrie Externe, BP-17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-05-18

    Exposure to stray neutrons increases the risk of second cancer development after proton therapy. Previously reported analytical models of this exposure were difficult to configure and had not been investigated below 100 MeV proton energy. The purposes of this study were to test an analytical model of neutron equivalent dose per therapeutic absorbed dose (H/D) at 75 MeV and to improve the model by reducing the number of configuration parameters and making it continuous in proton energy from 100 to 250 MeV. To develop the analytical model, we used previously published H/D values in water from Monte Carlo simulations of a general-purpose beamline for proton energies from 100 to 250 MeV. We also configured and tested the model on in-air neutron equivalent doses measured for a 75 MeV ocular beamline. Predicted H/D values from the analytical model and Monte Carlo agreed well from 100 to 250 MeV (10% average difference). Predicted H/D values from the analytical model also agreed well with measurements at 75 MeV (15% average difference). The results indicate that analytical models can give fast, reliable calculations of neutron exposure after proton therapy. This ability is absent in treatment planning systems but vital to second cancer risk estimation.

  12. Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Transport Calculations at Energies up to 150 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evaluated nuclear data library has been created. The library consists of two sub-libraries for neutron and proton incident particles. The first version of neutron sub-library has been completed and described in the present paper. The library contains nuclear data for transport, heating, and shielding applications for 242 nuclides ranging in atomic number from 8 to 82 in the energy region of primary neutrons from 10-5 eV to 150 MeV. Data below 20 MeV are taken mainly from ENDF/B-VI (Revision 8) and for some nuclides, from the JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.0 libraries. The evaluation of emitted particle energy and angular distributions at the energies above 20 MeV was performed with the help of the ALICE/ASH code and the analysis of available experimental data. The total cross sections, elastic cross sections, and elastic scattering angular distributions were calculated with the help of the coupled channel model. The results of the calculation were adjusted to the data from ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.3m or JEFF-3.0 at the neutron energy equal to 20 MeV. The library is written in ENDF/B-VI format using the MF=3/MT=5 and MF=6/MT=5 representations

  13. Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahia, F.; Lemos, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds.

  14. Proton resonance spectroscopy in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differential cross sections for the 39K(p,po)39K and 39K-(p,αo)36Ar reactions have been measured for Ep = 1.90 to 4.02 MeV at laboratory angles θ = 90 degree, 108 degree, 150 degree and 165 degree. Data were taken with the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) KN Van de Graaff accelerator and the associated high resolution system. The targets consisted of 1-2 μg/cm2 of potassium carbonate (K2CO3), enriched to 99.97% 39K, evaporated onto gold coated carbon backings. Excitation functions were measured in proton energy steps varying from 100 to 400 3V. The energy region studied corresponds to an excitation energy range in the 40Ca nucleus of Ex = 10.2 to 12.3 MeV. A multi-level multi-channel R-matrix based computer code was used to fit the experimental excitation functions. Resonance parameters obtained include resonance energy, spin, parity, partial widths, and channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixing ratios. Of the 248 resonances observed in the proton channel, 148 were also observed in the alpha channel. A fit to the observed level density yielded a nuclear temperature of 1.5 MeV. The data were compared with predictions of statistical theories of energy levels for both level spacing and reduced width distributions. The alpha reduced widths agree with the Porter-Thomas distribution and suggest that only 5-10% of the states with alpha widths were not observed. The summed strength in each of the alpha channels represents a significant fraction of the Wigner limit for these channels. The proton channels, on the other hand, generally have much smaller fractions. The two proton s-wave strength functions are equal and thus show no evidence for spin-exchange forces in the nucleon-nucleus interaction

  15. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  16. Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for neutron fluence over the energy range of 20 to 250 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mclean, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Justus, Alan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gadd, S Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Olsher, Richard H [RP-2; Devine, Robert T [RP-2

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.

  17. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  18. New superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since one and a half decades ACCEL is investing in development and engineering of state of the art particle-therapy systems. A new medical superconducting 250 MeV proton cyclotron with special focus on the present and future beam requirements of fast scanning treatment systems has been designed. The first new ACCEL medical proton cyclotron is under commissioning at PSI for their PROSCAN proton therapy facility having undergone successful factory tests especially of the closed loop cryomagnetic system. The second cyclotron is part of ACCEL's integrated proton therapy system for Europe's first clinical center, RPTC in Munich. The cyclotron, the energy selection system, the beamline as well as the four gantries and patient positioners have been installed. The scanning system and major parts of the control software have already been tested. We will report on the concept of ACCEL's superconducting cyclotron driven scanning proton therapy systems and the current status of the commissioning work at PSI and RPTC

  19. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10-5 - 10-3 found to be of the order of 10-28 - 10-26 cm2. For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10-4)sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  20. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring; general view.

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    CESAR (CERN Electron Storage and Accumulation Ring) was built as a study-model for the ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings). The model had to be small (24 m circumference) and yet the particles had to be highly relativistic, which led to the choice of electrons. On the other hand, in order to model the behaviour of protons, effects from synchrotron radiation had to be negligible, which meant low magnetic fields (130 G in the bending magnets) and a corresponding low energy of 1.75 MeV. All the stacking (accumulation) procedures envisaged for the ISR were proven with CESAR, and critical aspects of transverse stability were explored. Very importantly, CESAR was the test-bed for the ultrahigh vacuum techniques and components, essential for the ISR, with a final pressure of 6E-11 Torr. The CESAR project was decided early in 1960, design was completed in 1961 and construction in 1963. After an experimental period from 1964 to 1967, CESAR was dismantled in 1968.

  1. CESAR, 2 MeV electron storage ring.

    CERN Multimedia

    1967-01-01

    CESAR (CERN Electron Storage and Accumulation Ring) was built as a study-model for the ISR (Intersecting Storage Rings). The model had to be small (24 m circumference) and yet the particles had to be highly relativistic, which led to the choice of electrons. On the other hand, in order to model the behaviour of protons, effects from synchrotron radiation had to be negligible, which meant low magnetic fields (130 G in the bending magnets) and a corresponding low energy of 1.75 MeV. All the stacking (accumulation) procedures envisaged for the ISR were proven with CESAR, and critical aspects of transverse stability were explored. Very importantly, CESAR was the test-bed for the ultrahigh vacuum techniques and components, essential for the ISR, with a final pressure of 6E-11 Torr. The CESAR project was decided early in 1960, design was completed in 1961 and construction in 1963. After an experimental period from 1964 to 1967, CESAR was dismantled in 1968.

  2. Proposed layout features of an Australian proton treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From a theoretical point of view protons offer the best possible physical dose distribution for many radiotherapy treatment scenarios. However, proton generation of sufficient energy for treatment (about 250MeV) requires a large accelerator and is more expensive than conventional radiotherapy. Therefore the present project aimed at determining the desired configuration for a proton radiotherapy treatment facility in Australia. This is part of a proposal to introduce proton radiotherapy to Australia by the Australian Proton Project Group. It is assumed that a proton centre is build as a dedicated national radiotherapy facility. In this context and to be economically viable it must be large enough to treat well in excess of 1000 patients per year on several treatment stations. When building a proton treatment facility, it is essential to make use of all state-of-the-art features such as spot scanning techniques in order to offer patients a significant improvement in dose distribution compared to advanced conventional treatment techniques such as conformal and/or intensity modulated X-ray radiotherapy. As the potential useful life of a proton treatment unit is of the order of 20 years, it must be designed in a flexible way to allow upgrading as technology advances. The proposed facility includes at least one rotating gantry for isocentric beam delivery and stationary beam lines delivering protons between 70 and 250MeV energy. Features such as proton radiography and in situ PET treatment verification should be considered as a potential upgrade for future expansion. Other commercial activities (eg. radiation hardness testing) which could contribute to the running costs of the facility and scientific research out of the normal treatment hours is to be considered in the final design. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Study of the p+{sup 12}C reaction at energies up to 30 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masahide; Yamamoto, A.; Yoshioka, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Double differential cross sections of charged-particles emitted in the p+{sup 12}C reaction were measured in the energy region from 14 to 26 MeV. The observed continuous components of emitted protons and {alpha}-particles were analyzed by assuming sequential decay of intermediate reaction products and/or simultaneous breakup process. It was found that the three body simultaneous decay, p+{alpha}+{sup 8}Be, and the sequential decay via p+{sup 12}C{sup *}{sub 3-} and {alpha}+{sup 9}B{sub g.s.} are most important in the proton-induced breakup of {sup 12}C for energies up to 30 MeV. (author)

  4. MCNP6 Simulation of Quasi-Monoenergetic 7Li(p,n) Neutron Sources below 150 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Mashnik, Stepan G

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of MCNP6 to simulate quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources from interactions of proton beams with energies below 150 MeV on thick 7Li targets have been studied. Neutron spectra at zero degrees from a 2-mm 7Li layer backed by a 12-mm carbon beam stopper in an Al flange bombarded with protons of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 MeV have been calculated with MCNP6 using the recent Los Alamos data library as well as using the Bertini+Dresner and CEM03.03 event generators. A comparison with the experimental neutron spectra shows that the event generators do not do well in describing such reactions, while MCNP6 using the LANL data library simulates production of neutrons from p + 7Li in good agreement with the measured data.

  5. SU-E-T-519: Emission of Secondary Particles From a PMMA Phantom During Proton Irradiation: A Simulation Study with the Geant4 Monte Carlo Toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Proton therapy exhibits several advantages over photon therapy due to depth-dose distributions from proton interactions within the target material. However, uncertainties associated with protons beam range in the patient limit the advantage of proton therapy applications. To quantify beam range, positron-emitting nuclei (PEN) and prompt gamma (PG) techniques have been developed. These techniques use de-excitation photons to describe the location of the beam in the patient. To develop a detector system for implementing the PG technique for range verification applications in proton therapy, we studied the yields, energy and angular distributions of the secondary particles emitted from a PMMA phantom. Methods: Proton pencil beams of various energies incident onto a PMMA phantom with dimensions of 5 x 5 x 50 cm3 were used for simulation with the Geant4 toolkit using the standard electromagnetic packages as well as the packages based on the binary-cascade nuclear model. The emitted secondary particles are analyzed . Results: For 160 MeV incident protons, the yields of secondary neutrons and photons per 100 incident protons were ~6 and ~15 respectively. Secondary photon energy spectrum showed several energy peaks in the range between 0 and 10 MeV. The energy peaks located between 4 and 6 MeV were attributed to originate from direct proton interactions with 12C (~ 4.4 MeV) and 16O (~ 6 MeV), respectively. Most of the escaping secondary neutrons were found to have energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Isotropic emissions were found for lower energy neutrons (<10 MeV) and photons for all energies, while higher energy neutrons were emitted predominantly in the forward direction. The yields of emitted photons and neutrons increased with the increase of incident proton energies. Conclusions: A detector system is currently being developed incorporating the yields, energy and angular distributions of secondary particles from proton interactions obtained from this study

  6. Characteristics of neutrons and proton beams arising from two different Beam Nozzles

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Yeon-Gyeong

    2015-01-01

    Tandem or Van de Graaff accelerator with an energy of 3-MeV is typically used for PIXE analysis. In this study, the beam line design used in PIXE analysis was used to increase the production of isotopes instead of the typical low-energy accelerator from a 13-MeV cyclotron. For PIXE analysis, the proton beam should be focused at the target through the use of a nozzle after degrading the proton beam energy from 13-MeV to 3-MeV using an energy degrader. Previous studies have been conducted to determine the most appropriate material and thickness of the energy degrader. Based on the energy distribution of the degraded proton beam and the neutron occurrence rate at the degrader an aluminum nozzle of X thickness was determined to be the most appropriate nozzle construction. Neutrons are created by the collision of 3-MeV protons into the nozzle after passage through energy degrader. In addition, a sufficient intensity of proton beam is required for non-destructive analysis of PIXE. Therefore, in order to optimize no...

  7. Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.

    1997-12-31

    The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick {sup 9}Be, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.). 31 refs.

  8. n-p-γ Bremsstrahlung below 210 MeV bombarding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental knowledge of the neutron-proton-gamma below 210 MeV bombarding energy is discussed. The knowledge of this process is poor and due to the small intensity and bad resolution of the neutron beams. In this energy region the one-pion exchange is the main source of high energy photons. The different models proposed to explain the process are summarized. As at higher bombarding energies heavier mesons are also expected to couple with the photons, the investigation of the elementary process above the pion threshold is suggested

  9. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  10. Measurement of the neutron total cross section of sodium from 32 keV to 37 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.C.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1976-10-01

    The neutron transmission through a 8.1-cm sample of pure sodium has been measured for neutron energies between 32.5 keV and 37.4 MeV. The Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) was used to provide the neutrons, which were detected at the 200-m flight path by a NE-110 proton recoil detector. The experimental results are tabulated and compared with the total cross section in the ENDF/B-IV file for sodium.

  11. Search for three-body force effects in neutron-deuteron scattering at 95 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermod, P. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Blomgren, J. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: jan.blomgren@tsl.uu.se; Bergenwall, B. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Hildebrand, A. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Johansson, C. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Klug, J. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Nilsson, L. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Olsson, N. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden); Oesterlund, M. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Pomp, S. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Tippawan, U. [Department of Neutron Research, Uppsala University, Box 525, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Jonsson, O. [Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Prokofiev, A. [Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Renberg, P.-U. [Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University (Sweden); Nadel-Turonski, P. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden); Maeda, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Sakai, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Tamii, A. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-16

    The neutron-deuteron (nd) elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy. The neutron-proton (np) differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. An inclusion of three-nucleon forces gives a considerable improvement in the theoretical description of the nd data in the angular region of the cross-section minimum.

  12. The Effect of Proton Energy on SEU Cross-Section of a 16Mbit TFT PMOS SRAM with DRAM Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Uznanski, Slawosz; Blackmore, Ewart; Brugger, Markus; Gaillard, Remi; Mekki, Julien; Todd, Benjamin; Trinczek, Michael; Vilar Villanueva, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Proton experimental data are analyzed for a 16-Mbit Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) PMOS Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) with DRAM capacitors. The presence of high-Z materials as tungsten causes an unusual increase of the Single Event Upset (SEU) proton cross-section for the energies above 100MeV. Monte-Carlo simulations reproduce the experimentally measured cross-sections up to 480MeV and predict a further increase up to GeV energies. The implications of this increase are analyzed in the context of the LHC and other radiation environments where a significant fraction of the fluence lies above 100MeV.

  13. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, Walter

    2015-02-01

    In the last five decades, proton-proton and proton-antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion-ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  14. The first private-hospital based proton therapy center in Korea; Status of the proton therapy center at Samsung Medical Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kwang Zoo; Han, Young Yih; Kim, Jin Sung [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this report is to describe the proton therapy system at Samsung Medical Center (SMC-PTS) including the proton beam generator, irradiation system, patient positioning system, patient position verification system, respiratory gating system, and operating and safety control system, and review the current status of the SMC-PTS. The SMC-PTS has a cyclotron (230 MeV) and two treatment rooms: one treatment room is equipped with a multi-purpose nozzle and the other treatment room is equipped with a dedicated pencil beam scanning nozzle. The proton beam generator including the cyclotron and the energy selection system can lower the energy of protons down to 70 MeV from the maximum 230 MeV. The multi-purpose nozzle can deliver both wobbling proton beam and active scanning proton beam, and a multi-leaf collimator has been installed in the downstream of the nozzle. The dedicated scanning nozzle can deliver active scanning proton beam with a helium gas filled pipe minimizing unnecessary interactions with the air in the beam path. The equipment was provided by Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., RayStation from RaySearch Laboratories AB is the selected treatment planning system, and data management will be handled by the MOSAIQ system from Elekta AB. The SMC-PTS located in Seoul, Korea, is scheduled to begin treating cancer patients in 2015.

  15. Evaluation of d + 6,7Li data for deuteron incident energies up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new evaluation of the nuclear data for a particle transport calculations was performed for d + 6,7Li interactions in the energy region from 4 to 50 MeV incident energy. Use was made of the available new optical model potential for d + Li interactions. For the description of a neutron emission a new optical model potential for n + 9Be was elaborated for the neutron energies from 0.1 to 22 MeV. Global optical model potentials were used for the neutrons above 22 MeV and for protons, tritons, He-3 and alphas - in the whole energy range. The following nuclear processes were accounted for: particle evaporation and preequilibrium emission, stripping of the proton from the deuteron and direct interactions of deuterons with lithium nuclei. GNASH and ECIS96 codes were applied for the first two process descriptions, the Serber model was utilised for stripping processes and the DWUCK4 code was used for direct reaction processes modelling. Total neutron emission spectra were calculated as a sum of the spectra in all these processes. A complete transport file was finally prepared in ENDF-6 format covering the deuteron incident energies up to 50 MeV. The newly evaluated data are in good agreement with experimental data for neutron emission spectra. The evaluated data files were successfully tested with a modified version of the MCNP computer code

  16. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazey, G.; et al.

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  17. Measurement of 181 MeV H- ions stripping cross-sections by carbon stripper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, P. K.; Yoshimoto, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Hotchi, H.; Harada, H.; Okabe, K.; Kinsho, M.; Irie, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The stripping cross-sections of 181 MeV H- (negative hydrogen) ions by the carbon stripper foil are measured with good accuracy. The present experiment was carried out at the 3-GeV RCS (Rapid Cycling Synchrotron) of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The stripping cross-sections for different charge states, also known as electron loss cross-sections of H- ion, are denoted as σ-11, σ-10 and σ01, for both electrons stripping (H- →H+), one-electron stripping (H- →H0) and the 2nd-electron stripping (H0 →H+) proceeding σ-10, respectively. We have established very unique and precise techniques for such measurements so as also to determine a foil stripping efficiency very accurately. The cross-sections σ-11, σ-10 and σ01 are obtained to be (0.002 ± 0.001) ×10-18cm2, (1.580 ± 0.034) ×10-18cm2 and (0.648 ± 0.014) ×10-18cm2, respectively. The presently given cross-sections are newly available experimental results for an incident H- energy below 200 MeV and they are also shown to be consistent with recently proposed energy (1 /β2) scaled cross-sections calculated from the previously measured data at 200 and 800 MeV. The present results have a great importance not only at J-PARC for the upgraded H- beam energy of 400 MeV but also for many new and upgrading similar accelerators, where H- beam energies in most cases are considered to be lower than 200 MeV.

  18. Amplitude description of elastic pp scattering at 800 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravcsik, Michael J.; Arash, Firooz; Goldstein, Gary R.

    1985-04-01

    Recent polarization data on proton-proton elastic scattering at 800 MeV taken at LAMPF are used for an amplitude analysis using the optimal formalism. The direct analysis of data is done in the transversity frame, which is best suited to parity-conserving reactions. From the results, amplitudes are also obtained in the helicity frame and the ``magic'' frame. Agreement with previous amplitudes obtained from an energy-dependent phase-shift analysis is good. The comparison of the helicity amplitudes c and e strengthens previous suggestions for a possible triplet-state dibaryon resonance. The comparison of the amplitudes am and cm in the magic frame indicates a possible domination of the process near 90° scattering angle by one-particle-exchange mechanism involving exchanged particles with natural parity.

  19. Measurement of stopping power ratios for 60 MeV positive or negative pions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, J A; Henkelman, R M

    1979-07-01

    Pion stopping power ratios are essential parameters for pion radiotherapy treatment planning. The validity of scaling proton stopping powers to pions is called into question since the pion mass is intermediate between the electron and proton masses. Direct measurements of stopping power ratios with respect to water were made for 60 MeV pions of both charges in Teflon, Plexiglas, nylon, paraffin, gelatine, tissue-equivalent plastic (Shonka A150), graphite, aluminium, steel and copper. Corrections for multiple scattering and energy dependence of the stopping power are applied. Measured stopping power ratios at an accuracy of 0.6% are in agreement to within the limits of experimental error with stopping power ratios calculated from the Bethe-Bloch equation using elemental I-values and Bragg additivity. PMID:112597

  20. Study of proton and 2 protons emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20; Etude de l'emission proton et de deux protons dans les noyaux legers deficients en neutrons de la region A=20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerguerras, T

    2001-09-01

    Proton and two proton emission from light neutron deficient nuclei around A=20 have been studied. A radioactive beam of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F and {sup 20}Mg, produced at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds by fragmentation of a {sup 24}Mg primary beam at 95 MeV/A, bombarded a {sup 9}Be target to form unbound states. Proton(s) and nuclei from the decay were detected respectively in the MUST array and the SPEG spectrometer. From energy and angle measurements, the invariant mass of the decaying nucleus could be reconstructed. Double coincidence events between a proton and {sup 17}F, {sup 16}O, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O and {sup 18}Ne were registered to obtain excitation energy spectra of {sup 18}Ne, {sup 17}F, {sup 16}F, {sup 15}F et {sup 19}Na. Generally, the masses measures are in agreement with previous experiments. In the case of {sup 18}Ne, excitation energy and angular distributions agree well with the predictions of a break up model calculation. From {sup 17}Ne proton coincidences, a first experimental measurement of the ground state mass excess of {sup 18}Na has been obtained and yields 24,19(0,15)MeV. Two proton emission from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 18}Ne excited states and the {sup 19}Mg ground state was studied through triple coincidences between two proton and {sup 15}O, {sup 16}O and {sup 17}Ne respectively. In the first case, the proton-proton relative angle distribution in the center of mass has been compared with model calculation. Sequential emission from excited states of {sup 17}Ne, above the proton emission threshold, through {sup 16}F is dominant but a {sup 2}He decay channel could not be excluded. No {sup 2}He emission from the 1.288 MeV {sup 17}Ne state, or from the 6.15 MeV {sup 18}Ne state has been observed. Only one coincidence event between {sup 17}Ne and two proton was registered, the value of the one neutron stripping reaction cross section of {sup 20}Mg being much lower than predicted. (author)

  1. Measurement of the spin correlation coefficient Asub(yy)(900C) for inelastic (p vectorp vector) scattering at 9.57 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis was the measurement of the component Asub(yy) of the spin correlation tensor for proton-proton scattering at a center-of-mass angle intersection(cm) = 900. The mean scattering energy was Esub(Lab) = 9.57 +- 0.11 MeV. From the measurements for the spin correlation coefficient Asub(yy) the value Asub(yy) (900, 9.57 MeV) = -0.978 +- 0.012 was derived. A scattering phase analysis of measurements of the cross sections, the analyzing power, and the value Asub(y) determined in this thesis was performed at the energy 9.92 MeV. (orig./HSI)

  2. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  3. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity.

  4. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. PMID:27423927

  5. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  6. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure (≤ ns) and high intensity (≥107 p/cm2) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are applicable for

  7. Resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg and $^{21}$Na

    CERN Multimedia

    Di julio, D D; Jansson, K; Rudolph, D; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T; Perea martinez, A

    In our letter-of-intent, INTC-I-051, we discussed the physics case for scattering and transfer reactions involving light nuclei in the break-out region of the rp-process. The Committee found the physics case compelling and supported the letter-of-intent under the premise that beams of proper quality were developed and that an adequate detector set-up was presented. As these two requirements have been met recently we now propose to study resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg to identify the states at 1.733 MeV and 2.575 MeV in $^{23}$Al that have been reported from the $^{24}$Mg($^{7}$Li,$^{8}$He)$\\,^{23}\\!$Al reaction but that remained unobserved in the only resonant proton scattering experiment performed with $^{22}$Mg so far. In particular we should be able to investigate the character of the proton emission of the 2.575 MeV state which may also have a significant inelastic branch. We also propose to perform resonant proton scattering on $^{21}$Na above $\\alpha$-particle threshold with $^{18}$Ne to study ...

  8. Detailed characterization of the LLNL imaging proton spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Hazi, A. U.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Kuranz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Belancourt, P. X.; Fein, J. R.; MacDonald, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Pollock, B. B.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Chen, H.

    2016-11-01

    Ultra-intense short pulse lasers incident on solid targets (e.g., thin Au foils) produce well collimated, broad-spectrum proton beams. These proton beams can be used to characterize magnetic fields, electric fields, and density gradients in high energy-density systems. The LLNL-Imaging Proton Spectrometer (L-IPS) was designed and built [H. Chen et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 10D314 (2010)] for use with such laser produced proton beams. The L-IPS has an energy range of 50 keV-40 MeV with a resolving power (E/dE) of about 275 at 1 MeV and 21 at 20 MeV, as well as a single spatial imaging axis. In order to better characterize the dispersion and imaging capability of this diagnostic, a 3D finite element analysis solver is used to calculate the magnetic field of the L-IPS. Particle trajectories are then obtained via numerical integration to determine the dispersion relation of the L-IPS in both energy and angular space.

  9. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  10. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  11. A comparative analysis on two solar proton events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE GuiMing; HAN YanBen; ZHANG YiJun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis on the two Solar Proton Events (SPE), which occurred on 14 July 2000 (Bastille Day) and 28 October 2003 (28OCT03) respectively. It is found that although the peak flux of the latter seemed to be greater than that of the former based on geostationary observations, the maximum intensities of the energetic protons (>10 MeV and 30 MeV) during the Bastille Day event were all higher than those of the 28OCT03 event according to the interplanetary observations. Further analysis indicated that the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energies exceeding 10 and 30 MeV by the Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)-driven shock on 14 July 2000, was far larger than that of the 28OCT03 event. In the Bastille Day case, when the CME approached to the height around 14 R⊙, the CME-driven shock would reach its maximum capacity in accelerating the solar energetic protons (>100 MeV). In contrast, on 28 October 2003, when CME approached to the height about 58R⊙, the CME-driven shock reached its highest potential in accelerating the solar energetic protons of the same category. At this moment, the peak flux (>100 MeV) was about 155 pfu, which was much lower than 355 pfu measured on 14 July 2000. This demonstrated that in the Bastille Day event, the quantity of the seed particles, which could be accelerated to the energy beyond 100 MeV, was significantly larger than its counterpart in the 28OCT03 case. Therefore, the peak flux of an SPE event depends not only on the interplanetary intensity of the solar energetic particles, but also on the velocity of the associated CME-driven shock, and the quantity of the seed particles as well as on the interplanetary magnetic environment. This paper also reveals that the magnetic sheath associated with ICME on 28 October 2003 captured a large number of solar energetic protons, including those having energy greater than 100 MeV.

  12. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  13. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minli Wang

    Full Text Available Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1 kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  14. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  15. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. R.; Dinator, M. I.; Cerda, P.

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce 11C and 13N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm 2. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center.

  16. Protein determination in seeds by proton activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Dinator, M.I. (Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Fisica); Cerda, P. (Bio-Bio Univ., Chillan (Chile))

    1989-04-01

    A proton beam of 6.6 MeV has been used to produce /sup 11/C and /sup 13/N in Araucaria Araucana seeds. Their positron decay allows determination of the N/C ratio. In seeds the nitrogen content is associated to proteins while carbon is spread in the organic material. Samples were irradiated for about 10 min with a beam intensity of 5 nA on areas of 1 mm/sup 2/. Slices of the seed were radially explored, showing a larger concentration of protein in the center. (orig.).

  17. Radioactive proton capture on {sup 6}He

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauvan, E.; Marques, F.M. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysich Versneller Instituut, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction {sup 6}He(p,{gamma}) at 40 MeV. Capture into {sup 7}Li is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded that may be described by quasi-free capture on halo neutron, the {alpha} core and {sup 5}He. The possibility of describing such events by capture into the continuum of {sup 7}Li is also discussed. (authors)

  18. Studies on the preparation of thallium-201 by irradiating mercury with protons using extraction chromatography technique to separate thallium from mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide sup(201)Tl is used in Nuclear Medicine to identify myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarct. It is a cyclotron-produced radioisotope, obtained indirectly from the decay of sup(202)Pb or directly by irradiating mercury with deuterons or protons. The usual technique to prepare sup(201)Tl makes use of the nuclear reaction: sup(203)(p,3n) → sup(201)Tl, which requires proton energy of around 28 MeV. Due to the limited proton energy of IPEN'S CV-28 cyclotron, studies on the irradiating conditions of natural mercury oxide pellets and drops of natural mercury metal were made in the range of 19 - 24 MeV. At the end of the bombardment of a 6 MeV thickness target of natural mercury metal with 19 MeV protons around 10 MBq sup(201)Tl/μ A h was obtained. (author)

  19. Parity Nonconservation in Proton-Proton and Proton-Water Scattering at 1.5 GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, R. E.; Bowman, J. D.; Carlini, R.; MacArthur, D.; Nagle, D. E.; Frauenfelder, H.; Harper, R. W.; Yuan, V.; McDonald, A. B.; Talaga, R. L.

    1984-07-01

    Experiments searching for parity nonconservation in the scattering of 1.5 GeV/c (800 MeV) polarized protons from an unpolarized water target and a liquid hydrogen target are described. The intensity of the incident proton beam was measured upstream and downstream of the target by a pair of ionization detectors. The beam helicity was reversed at a 30-Hz rate. Auxiliary detectors monitored beam properties that could give rise to false effects. The result for the longitudinal asymmetry from the water is A{sub L} = (1.7 +- 3.3 +- 1.4) x 10{sup -7}, where the first error is statistical and the second is an estimate of systematic effects. The hydrogen data yield a preliminary result of A{sub L} = (1.0 +- 1.6) x 10{sup -7}. The systematic errors for p-p are expected to be < 1 x 10{sup -7}.

  20. Radiation tests of the EMU spacesuit for the International SpaceStation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Shavers, M.

    2001-06-04

    Measurements using silicon detectors to characterize theradiation transmitted through the EMU spacesuit and a human phantom havebeen performed using 155 and 250 MeV proton beams at the Loma LindaUniversity Medical Center (LLUMC). The beams simulate radiationencountered in space, where trapped protons having kinetic energies onthe order of 100 MeV are copious. Protons with 100 MeV kinetic energy andabove can penetrate many centimeters of water of other light materials,so that astronauts exposed to such energetic particles will receive dosesto their internal organs. This dose can be enhanced or reduced byshielding - either from the spacesuit or the self-shielding of the body -but minimization of the risk depends on details of the incident particleflux (in particular the energy spectrum) and on the dose responses of thevarious critical organs.