WorldWideScience

Sample records for 12-30 ev range

  1. Threshold photoelectron studies of isoxazole over the energy range 9.9-30 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dampc, Marcin; Mielewska, Brygida [Department of Physics of Electronic Phenomena, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland); Siggel-King, Michele R.F. [Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); King, George C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester University, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Zubek, Mariusz, E-mail: mazub@mif.pg.gda.pl [Department of Physics of Electronic Phenomena, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk (Poland)

    2010-02-08

    The threshold photoelectron spectrum of the isoxazole molecule, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}NO has been measured over the photon energy range 9.9-30 eV with the use of synchrotron radiation. In the 9.9-10.8 eV range, corresponding to photoionization from the highest occupied molecular orbital 3a''({pi}{sub 3}), seven well resolved vibrational series have been observed and their modes are tentatively assigned. A strong adiabatic ionization, with an energy of 11.132 {+-} 0.003 eV corresponding to the 2a''({pi}{sub 2}) band, has also been observed. This is followed by a single vibrational series of the {nu}{sub C-H} stretching mode. Photoelectron bands in the energy region 13-30 eV have also been identified, some for the first time.

  2. Stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, R; Sanz, A G; Fuss, M C; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present new experimental electron energy loss distribution functions for pyrimidine (C4H4N2) measured for the incident energy range 30-2000 eV. Theoretical total and elastic cross sections for electron scattering from pyrimidine were calculated using the screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) method. Based on the mean energy loss observed in the experiment and the theoretical integral inelastic cross section, the stopping power for electrons in pyrimidine is calculated in the energy range 20-3000 eV.

  3. High efficiency multilayer gratings for monochromators in the energy range from 500 eV to 2500 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarde, B.; Choueikani, F.; Capitanio, B.; Ohresser, P.; Meltchakov, E.; Delmotte, F.; Krumrey, M.; Polack, F.

    2013-03-01

    Multilayer (ML) gratings have been prepared by coating shallow ion etched lamellar gratings with a Mo2C/B4C multilayer having a layer thickness close to the groove depth. It was shown that such a structure behaves as a 2D synthetic crystal and can reach very high efficiencies when the Bragg condition is satisfied. A ML coated grating has been characterized at the SOLEIL Metrology beamline between 700 and 1700 eV and a beamline of PTB at BESSY II between 1750 and 3500 eV. A peak diffraction efficiency of nearly 27 % was measured at 2200 eV. The measured efficiencies are well reproduced by numerical simulations made with the electromagnetic propagation code CARPEM, This grating will be used in the Deimos beamline at SOLEIL together with a matched multilayer mirror.

  4. Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    This paper describes a method to calibrate image plate sensitivity for use in the low energy spectral range. Image plates, also known as photostimulable luminescence (PSL) detectors, have often proved to be a valuable tool as a detector for plasma physics studies. Their advantages of large dynamic range, high stopping power, and resistance to neutron damage sometimes outweigh the problems of limited resolution and the remote processing required. The neutron damage resistance is required when the X-ray source is producing a high neutron flux. The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a key diagnostic on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at LLNL for use in determining the symmetry of the laser beams. The SXI is essential to proper interpretation of the data from the Dante diagnostic to determine the X-ray radiation temperature. It is comprised of two diagnostics located at the top and the bottom of the target chamber. The usual detector is a large array CCD camera. For shots giving high yields of neutrons, the camera would not only be blinded by the neutrons, it would be damaged. To get around this problem, an image plate (IP) is used as the detector. The NIF application covers the energy range from 700 to 5000 eV. The type of image plates typically used for plasma physics are the Fuji BAS-MS, BAS-SR, and BAS-TR models. All models consist of an X-ray sensitive material made of BaF(Br,I):Eu2+ embedded in a plastic binder. X-rays incident on the phosphor ionize the Eu 2+ producing Eu3+ and free electrons that are trapped in lattice defects (F-centers) produced by the absence of halogen ions in the BaF2 crystal. An image plate readout scanner irradiates the IP with a red laser causing reduction of the Eu3+ and emission of a blue photon. The photon is collected using a photomultiplier and digitized to make an electronic image. Image plates are cleared of all F-centers by putting them under a bright light for about 10 minutes. They are then ready for producing a

  5. DNA strand breaks and crosslinks induced by transient anions in the range 2-20 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xinglan; Zheng, Yi, E-mail: Yizheng@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Sanche, Léon [Group in the Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1H 5N4 (Canada)

    2014-04-21

    The energy dependence of the yields of single and double strand breaks (SSB and DSB) and crosslinks induced by electron impact on plasmid DNA films is measured in the 2-20 eV range. The yield functions exhibit two strong maxima, which are interpreted to result from the formation of core-excited resonances (i.e., transient anions) of the bases, and their decay into the autoionization channel, resulting in π → π{sup *} electronic transitions of the bases followed by electron transfer to the C–O σ{sup *} bond in the phosphate group. Occupancy of the σ{sup *} orbital ruptures the C–O bond of the backbone via dissociative electron attachment, producing a SSB. From a comparison of our results with those of other works, including theoretical calculations and electron-energy-loss spectra of the bases, the 4.6 eV peak in the SSB yield function is attributed to the resonance decay into the lowest electronically excited states of the bases; in particular, those resulting from the transitions 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) and 1{sup 3}A{sup ″} (n{sub 2} → π{sub 3}{sup *}) of thymine and 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine. The strongest peak at 9.6 eV in the SSB yield function is also associated with electron captured by excited states of the bases, resulting mostly from a multitude of higher-energy π → π{sup *} transitions. The DSB yield function exhibits strong maxima at 6.1 and 9.6 eV. The peak at 9.6 eV is probably related to the same resonance manifold as that leading to SSB, but the other at 6.1 eV may be more restricted to decay into the electronic state 1{sup 3}A{sup ′} (π → π{sup *}) of cytosine via autoionization. The yield function of crosslinks is dominated by a broad peak extending over the 3.6-11.6 eV range with a sharper one at 17.6 eV. The different line shape of the latter function, compared to that of SSB and DSB, appears to be due to the formation of reactive radical sites in the initial supercoiled

  6. Absolute Total Photoionization Cross Section of C60 in the Range of 25-120 eV: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Bhim P.; Katayanagi, Hideki; Prodhan, Md. Serajul I.; Yagi, Hajime; Huang, Chaoqun; Mitsuke, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    The absolute total photoionization cross section σabs,I of gaseous C60 is measured in the photon energy hν range from 25 to 120 eV by photoionization mass spectrometry with synchrotron radiation. The absolute detection efficiencies of photoions in different charge states are evaluated. The present σabs,I curve is combined with the photoabsorption cross section curves of C60 at hν=3.5--26 eV in the literature, after appropriate alterations of the vapor pressure are taken into account. The oscillator strengths are computed from the composite curve to be 178.5 and 230.5 for the hν ranges from 3.5 to 40.8 eV and from 3.5 to 119 eV, respectively. These oscillator strengths agree well with those expected from the Thomas-Kuhn-Reiche sum rule and 60 times the photoabsorption cross section of a carbon atom. Moreover, the present σabs,I curve behaves similarly to the relative photoionization cross section curve reported by Reinköster et al.

  7. Ellipsometry and energy characterization of the electron impact polymerization in the range 0-20 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyn, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    The electron impact polymerization of adsorbed vapors of a hydrocarbon vacuum oil with molecular mass 450 Da (C32H66) has been studied in-situ in the range 0-20 eV using ellipsometry and a servo system with the Kelvin's vibrating probe. This allowed registering at the same time the two energy-dependent characteristics (spectra) of the process: the film growth rate and the electrical potential of the irradiated surface. The first spectrum has two resonance maxima near 2.5 and 9.5 eV while the surface potential has only one weak extremum near 9.5 eV. The first growth rate peak at 2.5 eV was connected with a creation of radicals through a resonant process of the dissociative electron attachment and beginning polymerization. The peaks at 9.5 eV in both the spectra mean accelerating polymerization and decreasing surface charge owing to simultaneous birth of highly active radicals and free electrons. The single resonant process controlling both the processes simultaneously is the dissociative attachment of an electron to an anti-bonding molecular orbital, almost the same as at the 2.5 eV but differing by deeper decomposition of the transient anion, among the products of which are now not the radicals only but also free electrons. The kinetic curves obtained in pulsed regimes of the electron bombardment were qualitatively identical for different precursors and were used for calculations of cross sections of these processes.

  8. Dielectric function of Al-rich AlInN in the range 1-18 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalauskas, E.; Schley, P.; Gobsch, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Behmenburg, H.; Heuken, M. [AIXTRON SE, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); GaN Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Giesen, C. [AIXTRON SE, Kaiserstr. 98, 52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); Kalisch, H. [GaN Device Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstr. 24, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Jansen, R.H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik, RWTH Aachen University, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Goldhahn, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, PF 4120, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The ordinary dielectric function (DF) is presented for high quality Al-rich Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N alloy films pseudomorphically grown on GaN in the photon energy range 1-18 eV determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature (synchrotron radiation - BESSY II). The (0001)-oriented layers with In content of 14.3 and 15.4% were grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy on thick GaN buffers with sapphire substrates. The sharp onset of the imaginary part of the DF defines the direct absorption edge. In previous studies the DF of Al-rich AlInN were investigated in the photon energy range 1-10 eV, and three high-energy critical points (CPs) of the band structure (Van Hove singularities) were observed. The current study was performed in the extended photon energy range 10-18 eV and three CPs of the band structure at {proportional_to}10.6, {proportional_to}12.5 and {proportional_to}14.2 eV were detected. XRD measurements revealed the pseudomorphic growth of AlInN films and yielded the composition. Finally, the band gap value of 4.68 eV and high-frequency dielectric constant value of 4.55 were evaluated for sample with 15.4% In content. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. VUV action spectroscopy of protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide in the 6-14 eV range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranković, M. Lj. [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Canon, F. [INRA, UMR1324 Centre des Sciences du Goût et de l’Alimentation, F-21000 Dijon (France); Nahon, L. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Giuliani, A. [SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, St Aubin, BP48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); INRA, UAR1008, CEPIA, Rue de la Géraudière, BP 71627, 44316 Nantes (France); Milosavljević, A. R., E-mail: vraz@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics Belgrade, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have studied the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photodissociation of gas-phase protonated leucine-enkephalin peptide ion in the 5.7 to 14 eV photon energy range by coupling a linear quadrupole ion trap with a synchrotron radiation source. We report VUV activation tandem mass spectra at 6.7, 8.4, and 12.8 eV photon energies and photodissociation yields for a number of selected fragments. The obtained results provide insight into both near VUV radiation damage and electronic properties of a model peptide. We could distinguish several absorption bands and assign them to particular electronic transitions, according to previous theoretical studies. The photodissociation yields appear to be very different for the various observed fragmentation channels, depending on both the types of fragments and their position along the peptide backbone. The present results are discussed in light of recent gas-phase spectroscopic data on peptides.

  10. A First Preliminary Look: Are Corridor Charging Stations Used to Extend the Range of Electric Vehicles in The EV Project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary analysis of data from The EV Project was performed to begin answering the question: are corridor charging stations used to extend the range of electric vehicles? Data analyzed were collected from Blink brand electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) units based in California, Washington, and Oregon. Analysis was performed on data logged between October 1, 2012 and January 1, 2013. It should be noted that as additional AC Level 2 EVSE and DC fast chargers are deployed, and as drivers become more familiar with the use of public charging infrastructure, future analysis may have dissimilar conclusions.

  11. The FUNK search for Hidden Photon Dark Matter in the eV range

    CERN Document Server

    Döbrich, Babette; Engel, Ralph; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kowalski, Marek; Lindner, Axel; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Redondo, Javier; Roth, Markus; Schäfer, Christoph; Ulrich, Ralf; Veberic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    We give a brief update on the search for Hidden Photon Dark Matter with FUNK. The experiment uses a large spherical mirror, which, if Hidden Photon Dark Matter exists in the accessible mass and coupling parameter range, would yield an optical signal in the mirror's center in an otherwise dark environment. After a test run with a CCD, preparations for a run with a low-noise PMT are under way and described in this proceedings.

  12. A-periodic multilayer development for attosecond pulses in the 300-500 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Hofstetter, Michael; Kleineberg, Ulf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Rauhut, Roman [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The development of ultrafast X-ray pulses in the sub-femtosecond time regime is a cutting edge technology for studying electron dynamics in atoms, molecules or solid surfaces/nanostructures by means of pump/probe electron spectroscopy. XUV elements as multilayer mirrors and thin metal filters are used to filter and shape attosecond bursts from high harmonic radiation. One near future goal is to extend the current technology to higher photon energies, reaching the water window range around 300-500 eV, where the in-vitro investigation of bio-materials on ultra-short time scales becomes possible. Following the ideas of nowadays experimental setups, both the spectral and the temporal resolution can be determined and guided by means of periodic and a-periodic multilayer mirrors, allowing for spectral and temporal soft X-ray pulse shaping. We will present first investigations of periodic and a-periodic multilayer XUV optics in that energy range of 300-400 eV and discuss their applications for filtering single attosecond pulses from High Harmonic radiation. Simulations and optimizations of various binary and ternary multilayer material systems as well as first experimental results achieved by Ion Beam Deposition and in-situ ellipsometry of the deposited nanolayers are demonstrated.

  13. Changes of the cosmic-ray mass composition in the 10 14-10 16 eV energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernlöhr, K.; Hofmann, W.; Leffers, G.; Matheis, V.; Panter, M.; Zink, R.

    1998-04-01

    Data taken with ten Cosmic Ray Tracking (CRT) detectors and the HEGRA air-shower array on La Palma, Canary Islands, have been analysed to investigate changes of the cosmic overlineray mass composition at the 'knee' of the cosmic-ray flux spectrum near 10 15 eV energy. The analysis is based on the angular distributions of particles in air showers. HEGRA data provided the shower size, direction, and core position and CRT data the particle track information. It is shown that the angular distribution of muons in air showers is sensitive to the composition over a wide range of shower sizes and, thus, primary cosmic-ray energies with little systematic uncertainties. Results can be easily expressed in terms of of primary cosmic rays. In the lower part of the energy range covered, we have considerable overlap with direct composition measurements by the JACEE collaboration and find compatible results in the observed rise of . Above about 10 15 eV energy we find no or at most a slow further rise of . Simple cosmic-ray composition models are presented which are fully consistent with our results as well as the JACEE flux and composition measurements and the flux measurements of the Tibet ASγ collaboration. Minimal three-parameter composition models defined by the same power-law slope of all elements below the knee and a common change in slope at a fixed rigidity are inconsistent with these data.

  14. Optical constants of magnetron-sputtered boron carbide thin films from photoabsorption data in the range 30 to 770 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufli, Regina; Aquila, Andrew L; Salmassi, Farhad; Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Gullikson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    This work discusses the experimental determination of the optical constants (refractive index) of DC-magnetron-sputtered boron carbide films in the 30-770 eV photon energy range. Transmittance measurements of three boron carbide films with thicknesses of 54.2, 79.0, and 112.5 nm were performed for this purpose. These are believed to be the first published experimental data for the refractive index of boron carbide films in the photon energy range above 160 eV and for the near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure regions around the boron K (188 eV), carbon K (284.2 eV), and oxygen K (543.1 eV) absorption edges. The density, composition, surface chemistry, and morphology of the films were also investigated using Rutherford backscattering, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and extreme ultraviolet reflectance measurements.

  15. DEIMOS: A beamline dedicated to dichroism measurements in the 350–2500 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohresser, P., E-mail: philippe.ohresser@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Otero, E.; Choueikani, F.; Chen, K.; Stanescu, S.; Deschamps, F.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Lagarde, B.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Marteau, F. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Scheurer, F.; Joly, L.; Muller, B. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Kappler, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 UdS-CNRS, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Bunau, O.; Sainctavit, Ph. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin - BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, CNRS UMR 7590, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-01-15

    The DEIMOS (Dichroism Experimental Installation for Magneto-Optical Spectroscopy) beamline was part of the second phase of the beamline development at French Synchrotron SOLEIL (Source Optimisée de Lumière à Energie Intermédiaire du LURE) and opened to users in March 2011. It delivers polarized soft x-rays to perform x-ray absorption spectroscopy, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and x-ray linear dichroism in the energy range 350–2500 eV. The beamline has been optimized for stability and reproducibility in terms of photon flux and photon energy. The main end-station consists in a cryo-magnet with 2 split coils providing a 7 T magnetic field along the beam or 2 T perpendicular to the beam with a controllable temperature on the sample from 370 K down to 1.5 K.

  16. Change of primary cosmic radiation nuclear composition in the energy range 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, A T; Chubenko, A P; Eristavi, N A; Khaldeeva, I V; Nesterova, N M; Verbetsky, Yu G; Verbetsky, Yu.G.

    2002-01-01

    The dependence E_h (N_e) of Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadronic component energy flux on the number N_e of particles in EAS is investigated in the primary energy range of the order of 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV. The work was aimed at checking the existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior at these energies in several independent experiments. The investigation is carried out using large statistical material obtained at different configurations of experimental apparatus and under different triggering conditions. The existence of irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the region Ne > 2*10^6 is confirmed. These irregularities have the character of sharp deeps and are located near the same values of N_e regardless of the experimental material and selection conditions used. So, at recent stage of research the existence of these irregularities of E_h (N_e)/N_e behavior in the range of N_e > 2*10^6 may be regarded as reliably established. This fact supports our earlier conclusion on the existence of primary...

  17. The INCA project for direct studies of primary cosmic rays up to the 'knee' energy range 10{sup 15} - 10{sup 16} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, K.V.; Ambrosio, M.; Ammosov, V.V.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.; Saito, T.; Sasaki, H.; Wolfendale, A.; Chechin, V.A.; Chubenko, A.P.; Erlykin, A.D.; Lomonosov, B.N.; Merzon, G.I.; Roussetsky, A.S.; Ryabov, V.A.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Starkov, N.I.; Tsarev, V.A.; Zhdanov, G.B.; Aramo, C.; Sobolevskii, N.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhukov, A.P

    1999-03-01

    A large-aperture space experiment for investigations of primary electrons at energies up to 10 TeV as well as primary protons and nuclei in the 'knee' energy range 10{sup 15} - 10{sup 16} eV is proposed.

  18. Single photoionization of the Zn ii ion in the photon energy range 17.5-90.0 eV: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, G.; Davis, V. T.; Covington, A. M.; Thompson, J. S.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Antillón, A.; Hernández, E. M.; Calabrese, D.; Morales-Mori, A.; Juárez, A. M.; Windelius, O.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2017-10-01

    Measurements of the single-photoionization cross-section of Cu-like Zn+ ions are reported in the energy (wavelength) range 17.5 eV (708 Å) to 90 eV (138 Å). The measurements on this trans-Fe element were performed at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron radiation facility in Berkeley, California at a photon energy resolution of 17 meV using the photon-ion merged-beams end-station. Below 30 eV, the spectrum is dominated by excitation autoionizing resonance states. The experimental results are compared with large-scale photoionization cross-section calculations performed using a Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation. Comparisons are made with previous experimental studies, resonance states are identified and contributions from metastable states of Zn+ are determined.

  19. Experimental search for hidden photon CDM in the eV mass range with a dish antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, J.; Horie, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Minowa, M. [Department of Physics, School of Science, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science,The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter χ of ∼6×10{sup −12} for the hidden photon mass m{sub γ}=3.1±1.2 eV.

  20. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  1. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, J; Horie, T.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2015-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  2. Experimental Search for Hidden Photon CDM in the eV mass range with a Dish Antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, J; Inoue, Y; Minowa, M

    2015-01-01

    A search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a new technique with a dish antenna is reported. From the result of the measurement, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set an upper limit on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$ of $\\sim 6\\times 10^{-12}$ for the hidden photon mass $m_\\gamma = 3.1 \\pm 1.2$ eV.

  3. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, L.; Takei, Y.; van der Kuur, J.; de Korte, P. A. J.; Hoevers, H. F. C.; Boersma, D.; Bruijn, M.; Mels, W.; Ridder, M. L.; Takken, D.; van Weers, H.

    2008-04-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between 1.5 to 2.1 eV in the investigated energy range and is weakly dependent on the detector set point. A first analysis shows a count-rate capability, without considerable loss of performance, of about 500 counts per second.

  4. Characterisation of a TES-Based X-ray Microcalorimeter in the Energy Range from 150 to 1800 eV Using an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator

    CERN Document Server

    Gottardi, Luciano; van der Kuur, Jan; de Korte, Piet A J; Hoevers, Henk F C; Boersma, Dirk; Bruijn, Marcel; Mels, Wim; Ridder, Marcel L; Takken, Dick; van Weers, Henk

    2016-01-01

    We characterised a TES-based X-ray microcalorimeter in an adiabatic demagnetisation refrigerator (ADR) using synchrotron radiation. The detector response and energy resolution was measured at the beam-line in the PTB radiometry laboratory at the electron storage ring BESSY II in the range from 200 to 1800 eV. We present and discuss the results of the energy resolution measurements as a function of energy, beam intensity and detector working point. The measured energy resolution ranges between 1.5 to 2.1 eV in the investigated energy range and is weakly dependent on the detector set point. A first analysis shows a count-rate capability, without considerable loss of performance, of about 500 counts per second.

  5. The all-particle spectrum of primary cosmic rays in the wide energy range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV observed with the Tibet-III air-shower array

    CERN Document Server

    Amenomori, M

    2008-01-01

    We present an updated all-particle energy spectrum of primary cosmic rays in a wide range from 10^14 eV to 10^17 eV using 5.5 times 10^7 events collected in the period from 2000 November through 2004 October by the Tibet-III air-shower array located at 4300 m above sea level (atmospheric depth of 606 g/cm^2). The size spectrum exhibits a sharp knee at a corresponding primary energy around 4 PeV. This work uses increased statistics and new simulation calculations for the analysis. We performed extensive Monte Carlo calculations and discuss the model dependences involved in the final result assuming interaction models of QGSJET01c and SIBYLL2.1 and primary composition models of heavy dominant (HD) and proton dominant (PD) ones. Pure proton and pure iron primary models are also examined as extreme cases. The detector simulation was also made to improve the accuracy of determining the size of the air showers and the energy of the primary particle. We confirmed that the all-particle energy spectra obtained under v...

  6. Positron total cross sections for collisions with O2, H2O and CH4 in energy range from 30 to 3000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Liu Yu-Fang; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2005-01-01

    Total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections (TCSs) for the scattering of positrons by molecules O2, H2O and CH4 in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level. A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom which takes into considerationthe overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule is firstly employed for the TCS calculation of positron-molecule scattering. TCSs are quantitatively compared with those obtained in experiments and other theorieswherever available, and good agreement is obtained in the energy range from 30 to 3000eV. It is shown that the additivity rule model together with the modified complex optical model potential is completely suitable for the TCS calculations of the positron-molecule scattering.

  7. InSe and GaSe considered as efficient photosensitive materials in a wide spectral range (1-6 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaev, E.IU.; Godzhaev, M.O.; Aliev, E.T.; Zarbaliev, M.Z.

    1988-09-01

    Experimental results are presented on the quantum efficiency of the photoconductance of layered crystals of InSe and GaSe (candidate UV-detector materials), indicating that these crystals have high values of photosensitivity up to photon energies of 6 eV. The elevated quantum efficiency of these crystals in the UV range is connected with changes in the scattering mechanism of charge carriers and their lifetime near the surface of the material. 8 references.

  8. Fermi Bubble as a Source of Cosmic Rays in the Energy Range > 10E15 eV

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, K S; Dogiel, V A; Ko, C M; Ip, W H; Wang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Fermi-LAT has recently discovered two giant gamma-ray-bubbles which extend in the North and South of the Galactic center with diameter and height of the order of $H\\sim 10$ kpc. We suggest that periodic star capture processes by the galactic supermassive black hole, Sgr A$^*$, with a capture rate $\\tau_{cap}^{-1}\\sim 3\\times 10^{-5}$ yr$^{-1}$ and energy release $W\\sim 3\\times 10^{52}$ erg per capture can produce hot plasma injecting into the Galactic halo at a wind velocity $u\\sim 10^8$ cm/s. The periodic injection of hot plasma can produce a series of shocks. Energetic protons in the Bubble are re-accelerated when they interact with these shocks. We show that for energy larger than $E > 10^{15}$ eV, acceleration process can be better described by the stochastic second order Fermi acceleration. We propose that hadronic CRs within the "knee" of the observed CR spectrum are produced by Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) distributed in the Galactic disk. Re-acceleration of these particles in the Fermi Bubble pr...

  9. Stopping power and mean free path for low-energy electrons in ten scintillators over energy range of 20-20,000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan

    2012-01-01

    Systematic calculations of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20-20,000eV electrons in a group of 10 important scintillators have been carried out. The calculations are based on the dielectric model including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction and the optical energy loss functions (OELFs) are empirically evaluated because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the scintillators under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by both the f-sum rule and the calculation of mean ionization potential. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the first results for the 10 scintillators over the energy range of 20-20,000eV, and are of key importance for the investigation of liquid scintillation counting.

  10. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwell, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Universite Paris Est Creteil and Universite Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Benilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Es-Sebbar, Et. [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Universite Paris Est Creteil and Universite Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Leach, Sydney, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France)

    2012-01-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the VUV photoionization of acetamide in the 8-24 eV photon energy range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron/ion coincidence measurements are performed using synchrotron radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide is determined by TPEPICO measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VUV induced fragmentation pathways of acetamide are assigned and discussed. - Abstract: A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1{sup 2}A Prime ) = (9.71 {+-} 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1{sup 2}A Double-Prime , was determined to be Almost-Equal-To 10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH{sub 3}, NH{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO, HCCO and NH{sub 2}CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. VUV photoionization of acetamide studied by electron/ion coincidence spectroscopy in the 8-24 eV photon energy range

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A VUV photoionization study of acetamide was carried out over the 8-24 eV photon energy range using synchrotron radiation and photoelectron/photoion coincidence (PEPICO) spectroscopy. Threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) measurements were also made. Photoion yield curves and branching ratios were measured for the parent ion and six fragment ions. The adiabatic ionization energy of acetamide was determined as I.E. (1 2A′) = (9.71 ± 0.02) eV, in agreement with an earlier reported photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) value. The adiabatic energy of the first excited state of the ion, 1 2A″, was determined to be ≈10.1 eV. Assignments of the fragment ions and the pathways of their formation by dissociative photoionization were made. The neutral species lost in the principal dissociative photoionization processes are CH 3, NH 2, NH 3, CO, HCCO and NH 2CO. Heats of formation are derived for all ions detected and are compared with literature values. Some astrophysical implications of these results are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for the provision of polarised synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range 20-200 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C.; Quinn, F.M.; Bowler, M.A.; Grant, A.F.; Mythen, C.S

    2001-12-01

    The design and performance of a spherical grating monochromator and beamline optimised for experiments requiring polarised radiation are described. The beamline is mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source at Daresbury Laboratory, and the monochromator incorporates three gratings to cover the photon energy range 20-200 eV. The relative first- and higher-order grating efficiencies have been measured by means of photoelectron spectroscopy and have been compared to theoretical predictions. A movable aperture, placed in the optical path between the source and the first mirror, defines the photon emission directions of the beam entering the beamline. The polarisation of the radiation leaving the beamline is determined both by the vertical position of this aperture and by the modifications introduced by the beamline geometry and the optical components. The modification to the polarisation is difficult to calculate analytically, and a satisfactory quantitative assessment can only be accomplished through a combination of reflectivity and ray-tracing analysis. A reflection polarimeter has been used to obtain a full characterisation of the polarisation in the energy range 20-40 eV. These measurements have enabled the Stokes parameters to be deduced. The degree of linear polarisation has also been investigated through angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements.

  13. The energy-spectrum of light primaries in the range from 10^{16.6} to 10^{18.2} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Schoo, S; Arteaga-Velazquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Bluemer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hoerandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Luczak, P; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschlaeger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schroeder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, D; Wochele, J

    2013-01-01

    Data of the Grande extension of the KASCADE experiment allows us to study extensive air showers induced by primary cosmic rays with energies above 10^{16} eV. The energy of an event is estimated in terms of the number of charged particles (Nch ) and the number of muons (N{\\mu} ) measured at an altitude of 110 m a.s.l. While a combination of the two numbers is used for the energy, the ratio defines the primary mass (group). The spectrum of the combined light and medium mass components, recently measured with KASCADE-Grande, was found to be compatible with both a single power-law and a broken power-law in the energy range between 10^{16.3} and 10^{18} eV. In this contribution we will present the investigation of possible structures in the spectrum of light primaries with increased statistics both from a larger data set including more recent measurements and by using a larger fiducial area than in the previous study. With the better statistical accuracy and with optimized selection criteria for enhancing light p...

  14. Differential cross sections of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 in the energy range 100-700eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Er-Jun; Ma Yu-Gang; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Fang De-Qing; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the differential cross sections (DCS) of elastic electron scattering from CH4, CF4 and SF6 at six impact energies in a range of 100-700eV by employing the independent atom model (IAM) together with the relativistic partial waves. The atom is present in an optical potential which is complex, spherically symmetric, and energy dependent. The optical potential of the atom is the sum of the direct static, dynamic polarization, local exchange and modified absorption potentials. The results obtained by using a modified absorption potential show significant improvements on the unmodified absorption potential results. The present results are generally in good agreement with experimental data available. In addition, the present results indicate that the structure of molecule manifests the observable effects on electron-molecule scattering.

  15. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    CERN Document Server

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  16. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poolton, N R J [Synchrotron Radiation Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Malins, A E R [Synchrotron Radiation Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Quinn, F M [Synchrotron Radiation Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Pantos, E [Synchrotron Radiation Department, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Andersen, C E [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Botter-Jensen, L [Radiation Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Johnsen, O [Geological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Murray, A S [Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Aarhus University, Riso National Laboratory, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-05-07

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8} and CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3}. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  17. Interactions of protons with furan molecules studied by collision-induced emission spectroscopy at the incident energy range of 50-1000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Tomasz J.; Pranszke, Boguslaw

    2016-08-01

    Investigations of the ion-molecule reactions provide insight into many fields ranging from the stellar wind interaction with interstellar media, up to medicine and industrial applications. Besides the applications, the understanding of these processes is itself a problem of fundamental importance. Thus, interactions of protons with the gas-phase furan molecules have been investigated for the first time in the energy range of 50-1000 eV exploiting collision-induced emission spectroscopy. Recorded spectra reveal emission of the atomic H β to H θ lines of the hydrogen Balmer series and the molecular bands of vibrationally and rotationally excited diatomic CH fragments created in the A2 Δ and B2Σ- electronic states. The measurements of the emission yields of the excited fragments by recording their intensities at different projectile energies have been performed. The highest yields have been observed for production of hydrogen atoms which intensities rapidly decreased with increasing principal quantum number n . From the H ( n = 4-7) intensity ratios depopulation factors of hydrogen excited states have been determined at each impact energy and possible collisional mechanisms leading to enhanced production of the hydrogen atoms have been suggested. We compare and discuss our results with improved data set of proton collisions with tetrahydrofuran (THF) molecules, the hydrogenated derivatives of furan.

  18. Primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from 50 TeV to 1015 eV observed with the new Tibet AS core detector array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new EAS hybrid experiment has been designed by constructing a YAC (Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array inside the existing Tibet-III air shower array. The first step of YAC, called “YAC-I” has been successfully carried out in 2009–2010 together with Tibet-III air-shower array. YAC-II has also been operated from 2011. Preliminary results of YAC-I and performance of YAC-II are presented in this paper. The primary proton and helium spectra at energy range from50 TeV to 1015 eV derived from YAC-I data based on QGSJET2 and SIBYLL2.1 are reported. The obtained P+He spectrum is smoothly connected with directobservation data below 100 TeV and also with our previously reported results at higher energies within statistical error s. Based on these results and the sharp kneeof all-particle energy spectrum observed by our experiment, the possible origin of the sharp knee is discussed. See the published papers.

  19. Exploring pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons by stimulated photon colliders in the mass range 0.1 eV to 10 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Kensuke; Toyota, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    Searching for pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) in weak-coupling domains is crucial for understanding the dark components in the universe. We propose searching for pNGBs coupled to 2 photons in the mass range from 0.1 eV to 10 keV. This could provide opportunities to test string-theory-based pNGBs beyond the GUT scale M ˜ 10^{16} GeV included in the weak coupling proportional to M^{-1}. We provide formulae that are applicable to photon-photon scattering via a pNGB resonance exchange with a stimulation process in an asymmetric head-on photon-photon collider by mixing 3 laser pulses in laboratory experiments. We discuss the quantum electrodynamic effects on the pNGB exchange in the same mass-coupling domain as a background process from the standard model. We find that a large unexplored mass-coupling domain is accessible by combining existing laser facilities, including free-electron lasers.

  20. BOLUX: A cryogenic electrical-substitution radiometer as high accuracy primary detector in the 150-11,000 eV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussel, Ph.; Coron, N.

    2010-03-01

    We have measured the electrical and radiometric properties of a cryogenic absolute radiometer BOLUX (Bolomètre pour l'Utilisation dans le domaine de rayons X). BOLUX is intended for use as a primary detector standard for radiant power measurement of a synchrotron beam from EUV to X-ray spectral ranges. The absolute radiometer uses a composite bolometer with a built-in electrical heating element. The bolometer's absorber, optimized for beam diameter and for X-ray absorption, is coupled both to a Ge doped thermometer and to the electrical resistance calibrator with similar thermal paths so that electrical and radiant heating are equivalent. This device operates between 4 K the liquid helium temperature, and 1.25 K obtained by pumping helium. The main advantage of BOLUX over other radiometers is its portability (weight 12 kg) which means it can be used with any synchrotron beamline. The second advantage is its very small time constant (20 ms) compared with other apparatus (typically a few min). We can use it in DC mode or in AC mode and Alpha sources calibration experiments have already been realized. We have measured synchrotron radiant power at the laboratory of the Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY II. We reported experiments in DC mode and showed the possibility to study the drift and the temporal stability at the exit of a synchrotron beamline. For a helium bath temperature of 1.33 K and in the spectral range of 150 eV-11 keV, we have measured a high limit of detection (in 1 s integrated) to be 10 -10 W, with a DC responsivity of 1.3×10 5 V/W, spatial nonuniformity over 4 mm diameter below 1% and possibility to use over five decades between a few nW and 100 μW with a good linearity (<1%). Typically available radiant power of 50 nW can be measured with a standard uncertainty as low as 1%. BOLUX response has been directly compared with qualified photodiodes [1]; we have observed a standard deviation between

  1. VUV photophysics and dissociative photoionization of pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole in the 7-18 eV photon energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwell, Martin [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques (LISA), CNRS-UMR 7583, Universite Paris 7 and 12, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil (France)], E-mail: schwell@lisa.univ-paris12.fr; Jochims, Hans-Werner; Baumgaertel, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Freien Universitaet Berlin, Takustr. 3, Berlin 14195 (Germany); Leach, Sydney [Laboratoire d' Etude du Rayonnement et de la Matiere en Astrophysique (LERMA), CNRS-UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 Place Jules-Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France)], E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr

    2008-11-03

    Photoionization mass spectrometry is used to study ionization processes and fragmentation pathways of four prebiotic species, pyrimidine, purine, imidazole and benzimidazole, in the 7-18 eV photon energy region, with synchrotron radiation as excitation source. These molecules are possible precursors of the nucleic acid bases that occur in DNA and RNA. Ionization energies and ion appearance energies are reported. They are compared with electron impact and other studies and are discussed in terms of the electronic and nuclear structures of these species and their cations. The ion appearance energies, in conjunction with thermochemical data, were used to propose dissociative photoionization pathways, principally involving loss of HCN molecules in each of the four species. Astrophysical implications of the results concern the prospects for observation and survival of these molecules in the interstellar medium, in comets and in meteorites. Suggestions are made concerning suitable sites for radioastronomical searches for these purines and pyrimidines.

  2. Influence of the number of atomic levels on the spectral opacity of low temperature nickel and iron in the spectral range 50–300 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busquet M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Opacity is a fundamental ingredient for the secular evolution of stars. The calculation of the stellar plasma absorption coefficients is complex due to the composition of these plasmas, generally an H /He dominated mixture with a low concentration of partially ionized heavy ions (the iron group. The international collaboration OPAC recently presented extensive comparisons of spectral opacities of iron and nickel for temperatures between 15 and 40 eV and for densities of ∼ 3 mg/cm3, relevant to the stellar envelope conditions [1, 2]. The role of Configuration Interaction (CI and the influence of the number of atomic levels on the opacity using the recently improved version of HULLAC atomic code [3, 4] are illustrated in this article. Comparisons with theoretical predictions already presented in [1] are discussed.

  3. R-MATRIX RESONANCE ANALYSIS AND STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE RESONANCE PARAMETERS OF 233U IN THE NEUTRON ENERGY RANGE FROM THERMAL TO 600 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.

    2001-02-27

    The R-matrix resonance analysis of experimental neutron transmission and cross sections of {sup 233}U, with the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY, was extended up to the neutron energy of 600 eV by taking advantage of new high resolution neutron transmission and fission cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). The experimental data base is described. In addition to the microscopic data (time-of-flight measurements of transmission and cross sections), some experimental and evaluated integral quantities were included in the data base. Tabulated and graphical comparisons between the experimental data and the SAMMY calculated cross sections are given. The ability of the calculated cross sections to reproduce the effective multiplication factors k{sub eff} for various thermal, intermediate, and fast systems was tested. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters were examined and recommended values of the average s-wave resonance parameters are given.

  4. CSDA range, stopping power and mean penetration depth energy relationships in some hydrocarbons and biologic materials for 10 eV to 100 MeV with the modified Rohrlich-Carlson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemues, Hasan [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Samsun (Turkey); Bentabet, Abdelouahab [Bordj Bou Arreridj University, LCVRN, SNVSTU Faculty, El Anasser (Algeria)

    2017-05-15

    In this study, for some hydrocarbons and biological compounds, stopping power formula are presented, being valid for low and intermediate electron energies. In addition, calculation of the continuous slowing down approximation range (CSDA range) from the stopping power is also made. Calculation of the CSDA range for some hydrocarbons: C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (ethane), C{sub 4}H{sub 10} (butane), C{sub 6}H{sub 14} (hexane) C{sub 8}H{sub 18} (octane), C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5} (adenine) and C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N{sub 5}O (guanine) have been introduced for incident electrons in the energy range 30 eV to 1 MeV. The range of electrons has been calculated within the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) using modified Rohrlich and Carlson formula of stopping power. Besides, we have calculated the mean penetration depths using a spherical geometric model developed by Bentabet (Vacuum 86:1855-1859, 35). The results have been compared with the other theoretical results, Monte Carlo code such as PENELOPE predictions and semi-empirical results. The calculated results of CSDA ranges for electrons in the energy range from 20 eV to 100 MeV are found to be in good agreement to within 10% with available date. (orig.)

  5. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  6. Broadband multilayer mirror and diffractive optics for attosecond pulse shaping in the 280-500 eV photon energy range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chirped broadband multilayer mirrors are key components to shape attosecond pulses in the XUV range. Compressing high harmonic pulses to their Fourier limit is the major goal for attosecond physics utilizing short pulse pump-probe experiments. Here, we report about the first implementation of multilayers and diffractive optics fulfilling these requirements in the “water-window” spectral range.

  7. Markets Share Models for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    of a logit choice model and based on the estimated parameters a simulation model is set up. The model will be available for assessing different scenarios and forecasts of the sales of EVs under different assumptions of prices of the cars, life-time of batteries, the operations costs, the driving range......-tion potential. The recent development has increased the knowledge of costs of stations and cars, but the knowledge of the market potential of EVs is still limited. In the traffic agreement of January 2009 electric vehicles were highlighted as part of the solution for future CO2 problems. Here, the target...... to the end of 2015. More ambitious greenhouse gas reductions are announced and EV’s may contrib-ute to such targets. However, no specific target has been set for the share of electric vehicles. In order to investigate the potential role of electric vehicles (EVs), DTU transport has construct-ed a small car...

  8. A quantum-rovibrational-state-selected study of the reaction in the collision energy range of 0.05-10.00 eV: translational, rotational, and vibrational energy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chang, Yih-Chung; Pan, Yi; Lo, Po Kam; Lau, Kai Chung; Ng, C Y

    2017-03-29

    We report detailed absolute integral cross sections (σ's) for the quantum-rovibrational-state-selected ion-molecule reaction in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ecm) range of 0.05-10.00 eV, where (vvv) = (000), (100), and (020), and . Three product channels, HCO(+) + OH, HOCO(+) + H, and CO(+) + H2O, are identified. The measured σ(HCO(+)) curve [σ(HCO(+)) versus Ecm plot] supports the hypothesis that the formation of the HCO(+) + OH channel follows an exothermic pathway with no potential energy barriers. Although the HOCO(+) + H channel is the most exothermic, the σ(HOCO(+)) is found to be significantly lower than the σ(HCO(+)). The σ(HOCO(+)) curve is bimodal, indicating two distinct mechanisms for the formation of HOCO(+). The σ(HOCO(+)) is strongly inhibited at Ecm 0.4 eV by (100) vibrational excitation. The Ecm onsets of σ(CO(+)) determined for the (000) and (100) vibrational states are in excellent agreement with the known thermochemical thresholds. This observation, along with the comparison of the σ(CO(+)) curves for the (100) and (000) states, shows that kinetic and vibrational energies are equally effective in promoting the CO(+) channel. We have also performed high-level ab initio quantum calculations on the potential energy surface, intermediates, and transition state structures for the titled reaction. The calculations reveal potential barriers of ≈0.5-0.6 eV for the formation of HOCO(+), and thus account for the low σ(HOCO(+)) and its bimodal profile observed. The Ecm enhancement for σ(HOCO(+)) at Ecm ≈ 0.5-5.0 eV can be attributed to the direct collision mechanism, whereas the formation of HOCO(+) at low Ecm < 0.4 eV may involve a complex mechanism, which is mediated by the formation of a loosely sticking complex between HCO(+) and OH. The direct collision and complex mechanisms proposed also allow the rationalization of the vibrational inhibition at low Ecm and the vibrational enhancement at high Ecm observed for the σ(HOCO(+)).

  9. Electron-impact rotationally elastic total cross sections for H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of incident energy (0.01-2000 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinodkumar, Minaxi [V P and R P T P Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Bhutadia, Harshad [Government Engineering College, Patan 384265, Gujarat (India); Antony, Bobby [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad JH-826004 (India); Mason, Nigel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    This paper reports computational results of the total cross sections for electron impact on H{sub 2}CO and HCOOH over a wide range of electron impact energies from 0.01 eV to 2 keV. The total cross section is presented as sum of the elastic and electronic excitation cross sections for incident energies. The calculation uses two different methodologies, below the ionization threshold of the target the cross section is calculated using the UK molecular R-matrix code through the Quantemol-N software package while cross sections at higher energies are evaluated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The two methods are found to be consistent at the transition energy ({approx}15 eV). The present results are, in general, found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results (wherever available) and, thus, the present results can serve as a benchmark for the cross section over a wide range of energy.

  10. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  11. The study in the primary energy range 10^{16} - 10^{17} eV with the Muon Tracking Detector in the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Łuczak, P; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Bekk, K; Bertaina, M; Blümer, J; Bozdog, H; Brancus, I M; Cantoni, E; Chiavassa, A; Cossavella, F; Curcio, C; Daumiller, K; de Souza, V; Di Pierro, F; Doll, P; Engel, R; Engler, J; Fuchs, B; Fuhrmann, D; Gils, H J; Glasstetter, R; Grupen, C; Haungs, A; Heck, D; Hörandel, J R; Huber, D; Huege, T; Kampert, K -H; Kang, D; Klages, H O; Link, K; Ludwig, M; Mathes, H J; Mayer, H J; Melissas, M; Milke, J; Mitrica, B; Morello, C; Oehlschläger, J; Ostapchenko, S; Palmieri, N; Petcu, M; Pierog, T; Rebel, H; Roth, M; Schieler, H; Schoo, S; Schröder, F G; Sima, O; Toma, G; Trinchero, G C; Ulrich, H; Weindl, A; Wochele, J; Zabierowski, J

    2013-01-01

    The KASCADE-Grande Muon Tracking Detector enables with high accuracy the measurement of directions of EAS muons with energy above 0.8 GeV and up to 700 m distance from the shower centre. Reconstructed muon tracks are used to investigate muon pseudorapidity (eta) distributions. These distributions are nearly identical to the pseudorapidity distributions of their parent mesons produced in hadronic interactions. Comparison of the eta distributions from measured and simulated showers can be used to test the quality of the high energy hadronic interaction models. In this context a comparison of the QGSJet-II-2 and QGSJet-II-4 model will be shown. The pseudorapidity distributions reflect the longitudinal development of EAS and, as such, are sensitive to the mass of the cosmic rays primary particles. With various parameters of the eta distribution, obtained from the MTD data, it is possible to calculate the mean logarithmic mass of CRs. The results of the analysis in the primary energy range 10^{16} eV - 10^{17} eV...

  12. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Their EVS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle (BEV) or Chevrolet Volt extended range electric vehicle (EREV) and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, BEV, EREV, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are called plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  13. Numerical investigation of non-ionizing energy loss of proton at an energy range of 300 eV to 1 GeV in silicon%300eV-1GeV质子在硅中非电离能损的计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金辉; 韦源; 谢红刚; 牛胜利; 黄流兴

    2014-01-01

    The displacement damage due to non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) is the main reason of photo-electronic device failure in space radiation environment. The basic mechanisms of NIEL are Coulomb and nuclear interactions of silicon atoms with incident protons at energies ranging from threshold to 1 GeV. In the low energy region where the Coulomb interaction is dominant, the NIEL can be calculated by analytical method and TRIM code. MCNPX/HTAPE3X is used to calculate NIEL when the nuclear elastic and non-elastic interactions between proton and target atoms are significant in the high energy range. The results show that it is reasonable to use MCNPX/HTAPE3X to evaluate the NIEL by recoiling nucleus caused by high energy protons. The combination of analytical method and TRIM code can calculate NIEL induced by Coulomb interaction in low energy range, which gives the NIEL of proton in silicon in an energy range from 300 eV to 1 GeV.%非电离能损(NIEL)引起的位移损伤是导致空间辐射环境中新型光电器件失效的主要因素.引起质子在硅中NIEL的作用机理有库仑相互作用和核相互作用,质子能量范围从位移损伤阈能到1 GeV.当质子能量位于低能区时,库仑相互作用占主导地位,采用解析方法和TRIM程序计算NIEL;当质子能量位于高能区时, NIEL主要来自质子与靶原子核的弹性和非弹性相互作用,使用MCNPX/HTAPE3X 进行模拟仿真计算由核反应引起的NIEL.实现了能量范围为300 eV-1 GeV的质子入射硅时NIEL的计算.计算结果表明, MCNPX/HTAPE3X可用于计算高能质子在材料中产生的反冲核所引起的NIEL,结合解析方法和TRIM程序可计算得到由于库仑相互作用引起的NIEL.

  14. Measurements of the total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures in the energy range from 2. 2 eV to 2. 2 meV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Eid, Y.; Shuriet, G.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-09-01

    The total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni, and Cu are measured using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The measurements were carried out in the energy range from 2.2 eV to 2.2 meV at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature for neutron energies below 5 meV. The coherent scattering cross-sections of these elements were determined from the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behavior of the total cross-sections at cold neutron energies. The incoherent cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu were obtained from the analysis of the total neutron cross-section data beyond the Bragg cut-off. The one phonon annihilation process was estimated at long neutron wavelengths and was found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of calculations.

  15. Optical and Magneto-Optical Properties of Gd22Fe78 Thin Films in the Photon Energy Range From 1.5 to 5.5 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Jesenská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical and magneto-optical properties of amorphous Gd22Fe78 (GdFe thin films prepared by direct current (DC sputtering on thermally oxidized substrates were characterized by the combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical spectroscopy in the photon energy range from 1.5 to 5.5 eV. Thin SiNx and Ru coatings were used to prevent the GdFe surface oxidation and contamination. Using advanced theoretical models spectral dependence of the complete permittivity tensor and spectral dependence of the absorption coefficient were deduced from experimental data. No significant changes in the optical properties upon different coatings were observed, indicating reliability of used analysis.

  16. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...

  17. Modeling of Electric Vehicles (EVs) for EV Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully integrate EVs into power systems, it is necessary to develop a detailed EV model considering both the EV users’ driving requirements and the battery charging and discharging characteristics. A generic EV model was proposed which takes into account charging and discharging...

  18. Measurement of the total cross section of heavy water in the 0.1 meV-1 eV energy range at 20 and 50 ° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Damián, J. I.; Granada, J. R.; Baxter, D. V.; Parnell, S. R.; Evans, D. C.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of heavy water as a neutron moderator, there are few measurements of its total neutron cross section for cold and thermal energies, and none of them covers the range of temperature (40-70 ° C) used in moderator and reflector tanks in research reactors, and in CANDU nuclear power plants. To cover this deficit, we measured the total cross section of liquid heavy water at 20 ° C and 50 ° C using the SANS beamline at the LENS facility at Indiana University. The time-of-flight technique was used, in a sample-in/sample-out measurement. The use of the solid methane cold neutron source at LENS allowed measuring in a broad range in energy, from 0.1meV to 1eV. In this paper we present details of the measurement and processing of the data, and comparison with previous experimental measurements and calculation models. This work is included in the Action Plan of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project "Advanced Moderators for Intense Cold Neutron Beams in Materials Research".

  19. Photoionisation of Cl+ from the 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0 and the 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0 states in the energy range 19 - 28 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2016-10-01

    Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states; 3s23p4 3P2, 1, 0, and 3s23p4 1D2, 1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 - 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions are also found in the spectra.

  20. Information on 'Shikoku EV Rally Festival 99' and analysis of participating EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, K. [Naruto Univ. of Education, Takashima (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A 3 day rally was held in August 1999 in the city of Shikoku, Japan to bring electric vehicles (EVs) to the public's attention. A total of 39 EVs from 3 production series participated. This included 29 EVs converted from internal combustion engine vehicles, 5 prototype EVs and 2 hybrid electric vehicles. Thirty seven of the EVs used lead-acid batteries, one used nickel-metal hydride batteries and one used lithium-ion batteries. Each one was charged using one outlet of 3 phase 200 V, 1 phase 200 V or 1 phase 100 V at temporary charging facilities. The 340 km course ran through the city and in mountainous regions. The EVs were driven according to normal traffic rules. At the end of the rally, each EV was evaluated for their performance, hill climbing ability, and re-charging time. Several of the converted EVs drove for more than 50 km through mountainous regions using lead-acid batteries. It was determined that the poor range of EVs can be improved by an efficient daily re-charge. refs.

  1. Polarisation analysis of VUV synchrotron radiation emitted from a bending magnet source in the energy range 20-50 eV: A comparison between measurements and theoretical predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finetti, P.; Holland, D.M.P. E-mail: d.m.p.holland@dl.ac.uk; Latimer, C.J.; Binns, C

    2004-02-01

    The results of a study to characterise the polarisation properties of the photon beam emerging from beamline 5D, mounted on a bending magnet source at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory, are presented. The expectation values for the Stokes parameters corresponding to the light transmitted by the beamline have been calculated by combining ray-tracing and optical methods. The polarisation of the light at the source is modified both by the beamline geometry and by the reflections at the optical components. Although it is often assumed that the polarising properties of grazing incidence optics are negligible, this assumption leads to rather inaccurate results in the VUV region. A study of the reflectivity shows that even at incidence angles ({theta}{sub i}=80-85 deg.) which are far from the Brewster angle ({theta}{sub B}{approx}45 deg. for VUV and soft X-ray radiation) the residual changes in the amplitudes of the reflected light can result in non-negligible polarisation effects. Furthermore, reflection at grazing incidence gives rise to a substantial change in the phase, and this has the effect of rotating the elliptically polarised state. Theoretical Stokes parameters have been compared with full polarisation measurements obtained using a reflection polarimeter in the energy range 20-40 eV.

  2. Measurements of the total and partial neutron cross sections of Be, Ni and Cu in the energy range from 2. 2 eV - 2. 2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuriet, G.; Hamouda, I. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Inshas (Egypt))

    1980-07-01

    The total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu have been measured using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The measurements were carried out in the energy range from 2.2 eV - 2.2 MeV at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperatures for neutron energies below 5 MeV. The values of both potential scattering cross-section and effective nuclear radius R' were determined, for the three elements, from the measured behaviour of the total cross-section, using the single level Breit-Wigner analysis. The determined values of R' are found in agreement with those predicted from the optical model. The coherent scattering amplitudes as well as the coherent scattering cross-sections were determined using the values of the Bragg cut-offs observed in the total cross-section measured at low neutron energies. The resulting values are in good agreement with those obtained using neutron diffraction methods. The incoherent scattering cross-sections were obtained from the total neutron cross-section beyond the Bragg cut-off measured at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  3. Valence and inner-valence shell dissociative photoionization of CO in the 26-33 eV range. II. Molecular-frame and recoil-frame photoelectron angular distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, M.; Houver, J.C.; Raseev, G.

    2012-01-01

    photoionization measurements where the velocities of the ionic fragment and photoelectron were detected in coincidence, are compared to RFPADs computed using the multichannel Schwinger configuration interaction method. The formalism for including a finite lifetime of the predissociative ion state is presented......V, and 32.5 eV. A comparison of experimental and theoretical RFPADs allows us to identify the ionic states detected in the experimental studies. In addition to previously identified states, we found evidence for the 2 (2)Delta state with an ionization potential of 25.3 eV and (2)Sigma(+) states...... with ionization potentials near 32.5 eV. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical RFPADs permits us to estimate predissociative lifetimes of 0.25-1 ps for some of the ion states. Consideration of the MFPADs of a series of (2)Pi ion states indicates the importance of inter-channel coupling at low...

  4. Change of Primary Cosmic Radiation Nuclear Conposition in the Energy Range $10^{15} - 10^{17}$ eV as a Result of the Interaction with the Interstellar Cold Background of Light Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnaveli, T T; Khaldeeva, I V

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the updated arguments in favor of a simple model, explaining from the united positions all peculiarities of the Extensive Air Shower (EAS) hadron E_h(E_0) (and muon E_mu(E_0)) component energy fluxes dependence on the primary particle energy E_0 in the primary energy region 10^{15} - 10^{17} eV are represented. These peculiarities have shapes of consequent distinct deeps of a widths dE_h/E_h of the order of 0.2 and of relative amplitudes dL/L of the order of {0.1 - 1.0}, and are difficult to be explained via known astrophysical mechanisms of particle generation and acceleration. In the basis of the model lies the destruction of the Primary Cosmic Radiation (PCR) nuclei on some monochromatic background of interstellar space, consisting of the light particles of the mass in the area of 36 eV (maybe the component of a dark matter). The destruction thresholds of PCR different nuclear components correspond to the peculiarities of E_h(E_0). In this work the results of the recent treatment of large sta...

  5. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  6. Partial {sigma}{sub nl} and total {sigma}{sub tot} cross sections of single electron capture in Ar{sup 8+} -He collision in the 400-2400 eV energy range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, A.; Husson, X.; Hennecart, D.; Hicham, S.; Kucal, H.; Lecler, D. [Caen Univ., 14 (France); Cassimi, A.; Grandin, J.P.; Jardin, P.; Lepoutre, A. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1993-12-31

    The Ar{sup 8+} ions are delivered by a recoil ion source (GANIL), the helium target consists in a supersonic jet. Three energy gain spectra were obtained for 400, 1600 and 2400 eV energy collision; each spectrum exhibits two peaks, the left one corresponds to an electron capture in the 5s level of Ar{sup 7+}, the right one corresponds to an electron capture in 4f and 4d levels. The difference between observed and expected energy position is due to the scattering angle which values allow for corrections and partial cross sections determination. Results are compared to the Landau-Zener calculation of Benmeuraien. 2 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  7. EV Portfolio Management and Grid Impact Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Jensen, Jakob Munch; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The EV portfolio management is to develop an EV charging management algorithm in order to determine EV charging schedules with the goal of utilizing renewalbe energy production for EV charging as much as possible and ensuring that EV energy requirements for driving needs are met. According...

  8. Study of some properties of 's' neutron resonance parameters for target nuclei I = 1/2 and I = 3/2 in function of spin value J = I + 1/2 in the energy range 1 {yields} 5000 eV; Etude de quelques proprietes des parametres de resonances des neutrons ''s'' pour des noyaux cibles I = 1/2 et I = 3/2 en fonction de la valeur du spin J = I + 1/2 dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    Different kinds of experiments and analysis methods allowing to achieve neutron resonances parameters in the low energy range (1 eV {yields} 5000 eV) are described. A great deal of effort to improve experimental conditions and data processing in order to know the spin value J = I {+-} 1/2 has been spent. The time of flight method was used. A few target nuclei I = 3/2 and 1 = 1/2 have been studied. For I = 3/2 (Ga, As, 3r, Au) we find S{sub o} J = 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 and S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 for I = 1/2 (Tm, Pt) but {sup 77}Se. Fluctuations of the total radiative width {gamma}{sub {gamma}} depend on the spin value I = I {+-} 1/2 when E1 transition, are enhanced for one of the both spin states. The magnitude of these fluctuations can be explained of the strength of E1 transitions (E{sub {gamma}} {approx} 7 MeV) is supposed to be proportional to E{sup 5}{sub {gamma}} instead of E{sup 3}{sub {gamma}}. The distribution of levels spacings against spin value J are considered and are compared to theoretical predictions. (author) [French] On decrit les differentes methodes d'analyse permettant d'obtenir les parametres des resonances de neutron dans le domaine d'energie 1 eV {yields} 5000 eV. Un effort particulier a ete fait pour connaitre la valeur du spin J = I {+-} 1/2. Les types d'experience et les analyses des donnees, developpes et ameliores pour determiner J sont decrits. Les resultats obtenus ont permis l'etude de differentes proprietes en fonction du spin J. On trouve: S{sub o} J 2 {approx_equal} 2 S{sub o} J = 1 pour les noyaux I = 3/2 etudies (Ga, As, Br, Au) et S{sub o} J = 1 {approx_equal} S{sub o} J = 0 Pour le Tm et {sup 195}Pt de spin I = 1/2. On constate que les largeurs radiatives totales {gamma}{sub {gamma}} fluctuent si des transitions E1 aux premiers etats excites sont favorisees. Ces fluctuations peuvent etre expliquees si on suppose que les intensites de ces transitions sont

  9. Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3

    CERN Document Server

    Garber, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A concise guide full of step-by-step recipes to teach you how to build and program an advanced robot.""Instant LEGO Mindstorm EV3"" is for both the adult tinkerer who has never touched LEGO before and the experienced LEGO engineer who has evolved from Mindstorm NXT to EV3. If you are interested in entering or advising students in robot competitions such as the FIRST LEGO League, the Wold Robot Olympiad, or RoboGames, then this book is a must for you. Even if you haven't purchased yo

  10. DOE Field Operations Program EV and HEV Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Slezak, L. A.

    2001-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Field Operations Program tests advanced technology vehicles (ATVs) and disseminates the testing results to provide fleet managers and other potential ATV users with accurate and unbiased information on vehicle performance. The ATVs (including electric, hybrid, and other alternative fuel vehicles) are tested using one or more methods - Baseline Performance Testing (EVAmerica and Pomona Loop), Accelerated Reliability Testing, and Fleet Testing. The Program (http://ev.inel.gov/sop) and its nine industry testing partners have tested over 30 full-size electric vehicle (EV) models and they have accumulated over 4 million miles of EV testing experience since 1994. In conjunction with several original equipment manufacturers, the Program has developed testing procedures for the new classes of hybrid, urban, and neighborhood EVs. The testing of these vehicles started during 2001. The EVS 18 presentation will include (1) EV and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) test results, (2) operating experience with and performance trends of various EV and HEV models, and (3) experience with operating hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Data presented for EVs will include vehicle efficiency (km/kWh), average distance driven per charge, and range testing results. The HEV data will include operating considerations, fuel use rates, and range testing results.

  11. Digitaliseerimise demopäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  12. Kloostripäev Pirital

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    15. VIII Pirita kloostris konverents "Birgitiinide kodust Pirita asumiks". Esinevad Toomas Abiline, Jaan Tamm, Robert Nerman, Krista Kodres. Fuajees näitus Albin Strutzkini materjalidest Tallinna linnamuuseumis, Pirita postkaartide väljapanek Viktor Kuigi kogust. Eksponeeritud Tiina Veisseriku ikoonid tekstiilil, Anatoli Ljutjuki sari "Süütult solvatute kirik" kloostrivaremetes. Päev lõpeb rockoratooriumiga "Naerusuine vabadus"

  13. Markets Share Models for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    A number of electric vehicles (EVs) matching ordinary conventional cars is on (or close to) the market and by now several stations and battery switch stations has been set up. Electrical vehi-cles are widely seen as an important tool for reducing CO2 emissions with a considerable reduc-tion poten......A number of electric vehicles (EVs) matching ordinary conventional cars is on (or close to) the market and by now several stations and battery switch stations has been set up. Electrical vehi-cles are widely seen as an important tool for reducing CO2 emissions with a considerable reduc......-tion potential. The recent development has increased the knowledge of costs of stations and cars, but the knowledge of the market potential of EVs is still limited. In the traffic agreement of January 2009 electric vehicles were highlighted as part of the solution for future CO2 problems. Here, the target...... choice model with the objective to project future sales of electric vehicles and to assess the effect of a number of political initiatives on the sales. The car choice model is based on a Danish stated preference experiment. The results from the choice experiment are con-densed in the estimation...

  14. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel About Charging Their EV Away From Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The EV Project is an infrastructure study that enrolled over 8,000 residential participants. These participants purchased or leased a Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle or Chevrolet Volt extended-range electric vehicle and were among the first to explore this new electric drive technology. Collectively, battery electric vehicles, extended-range electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are called PEVs. The EV Project participants were very cooperative and enthusiastic about their participation in the project and very supportive in providing feedback and information. The information and attitudes of these participants concerning their experience with their PEVs were solicited using a survey in June 2013. At that time, some had up to 3 years of experience with their PEVs.

  15. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 infections by a novel antiviral peptide derived from EV-71 capsid protein VP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wah Tan

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD. In recent years, EV-71 infections were reported to cause high fatalities and severe neurological complications in Asia. Currently, no effective antiviral or vaccine is available to treat or prevent EV-71 infection. In this study, we have discovered a synthetic peptide which could be developed as a potential antiviral for inhibition of EV-71. Ninety five synthetic peptides (15-mers overlapping the entire EV-71 capsid protein, VP1, were chemically synthesized and tested for antiviral properties against EV-71 in human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. One peptide, SP40, was found to significantly reduce cytopathic effects of all representative EV-71 strains from genotypes A, B and C tested, with IC(50 values ranging from 6-9.3 µM in RD cells. The in vitro inhibitory effect of SP40 exhibited a dose dependent concentration corresponding to a decrease in infectious viral particles, total viral RNA and the levels of VP1 protein. The antiviral activity of SP40 peptide was not restricted to a specific cell line as inhibition of EV-71 was observed in RD, HeLa, HT-29 and Vero cells. Besides inhibition of EV-71, it also had antiviral activities against CV-A16 and poliovirus type 1 in cell culture. Mechanism of action studies suggested that the SP40 peptide was not virucidal but was able to block viral attachment to the RD cells. Substitutions of arginine and lysine residues with alanine in the SP40 peptide at positions R3A, R4A, K5A and R13A were found to significantly decrease antiviral activities, implying the importance of positively charged amino acids for the antiviral activities. The data demonstrated the potential and feasibility of SP40 as a broad spectrum antiviral agent against EV-71.

  16. Absolute Integral Cross Sections for the State-selected Ion-Molecule Reaction N2+(X2Σg+ v+ = 0-2) + C2H2 in the Collision Energy Range of 0.03-10.00 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuntao; Xiong, Bo; Chung Chang, Yih; Ng, C. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Using the vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion source, together with the double-quadrupole-double-octopole mass spectrometer developed in our laboratory, we have investigated the state-selected ion-molecule reaction {{{{N}}}2}+({X}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+; v + = 0-2, N+ = 0-9) + C2H2, achieving high internal-state selectivity and high kinetic energy resolution for reactant {{{{N}}}2}+ ions. The charge transfer (CT) and hydrogen-atom transfer (HT) channels, which lead to the respective formation of product {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+ and N2H+ ions, are observed. The vibrationally selected absolute integral cross sections for the CT [σ CT(v +)] and HT [[σ HT(v +)] channels obtained in the center-of-mass collision energy (E cm) range of 0.03-10.00 eV reveal opposite E cm dependences. The σ CT(v +) is found to increase as E cm is decreased, and is consistent with the long-range exothermic CT mechanism, whereas the E cm enhancement observed for the σ HT(v +) suggests effective coupling of kinetic energy to internal energy, enhancing the formation of N2H+. The σ HT(v +) curve exhibits a step at E cm = 0.70-1.00 eV, suggesting the involvement of the excited {{{C}}}2{{{{H}}}2}+({A}2{{{{Σ }}}{{g}}}+) state in the HT reaction. Contrary to the strong E cm dependences for σ CT(v +) and σ HT(v +), the effect of vibrational excitation of {{{{N}}}2}+ on both the CT and HT channels is marginal. The branching ratios and cross sections for the CT and HT channels determined in the present study are useful for modeling the atmospheric compositions of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. These cross sections and branching ratios are also valuable for benchmarking theoretical calculations on chemical dynamics of the titled reaction.

  17. Photoion alignment. Chemical signatures 200 eV above threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, R.; Wu, C.; Mihill, A.G.; Poliakoff, E.D. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)); Wang, K.; McKoy, V. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1995-02-09

    We present results of experiment and theory for the alignment of CO[sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sup +]) and N[sub 2][sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sub n][sup +]) photoions over an extended energy range (0 [le] E[sub k] [le] 210 eV for CO and 0 [le] E[sub k] [le] 250 eV for N[sub 2]). The polarization of CO[sup +](B[sup 2][Sigma][sup [minus

  18. Photoionisation of Cl$^+$ from the $3s^23p^4\\;^3P_{2,1,0}$ and the$3s^23p^4\\;^1D_2, ^1S_0$ states in the energy range 19 - 28 eV

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Absolute photoionisation cross sections for the Cl$^+$ ion in its ground and the metastable states; $3s^2 3p^4\\; ^3P_{2,1,0}$, and $3s^2 3p^4\\; ^1D_2,\\; ^1S_0$, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at an photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19 -- 28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac Coulomb {\\it R}-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionisation of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of autoionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionisation continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are spectroscopically assigned and their resonance parameters tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from the present study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series $3s^2 3p...

  19. Photoionization of Cl+ from the 3s23p4 3P2,1,0 and the 3s23p4 1D2,1S0 states in the energy range 19-28 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Brendan M.

    2017-01-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-sections for the Cl+ ion in its ground and the metastable states, 3s23p4 3P2,1,0 and 3s23p4 1D2,1S0, were measured recently at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged beams photon-ion technique at a photon energy resolution of 15 meV in the energy range 19-28 eV. These measurements are compared with large-scale Dirac-Coulomb R-matrix calculations in the same energy range. Photoionization of this sulphur-like chlorine ion is characterized by multiple Rydberg series of auto-ionizing resonances superimposed on a direct photoionization continuum. A wealth of resonance features observed in the experimental spectra is spectroscopically assigned, and their resonance parameters are tabulated and compared with the recent measurements. Metastable fractions in the parent ion beam are determined from this study. Theoretical resonance energies and quantum defects of the prominent Rydberg series 3s23p3nd, identified in the spectra as 3p → nd transitions, are compared with the available measurements made on this element. Weaker Rydberg series 3s23p3ns, identified as 3p → ns transitions and window resonances 3s3p4(4P)np features, due to 3s → np transitions, are also found in the spectra.

  20. Production of EV71 vaccine candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pele; Hsieh, Shih-Yang; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Wu, Suh-Chin; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chow, Yen-Hung; Su, Ih-Jen; Klein, Michel

    2012-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia and with Coxsackie virus (CV) it is the other major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD). Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are urgently needed. From a scientific (the feasibility of bioprocess, immunological responses and potency in animal challenge model) and business development (cost of goods) points of view, we in this review address and discuss the pros and cons of different EV71 vaccine candidates that have been produced and evaluated in animal models. Epitope-based synthetic peptide vaccine candidates containing residues 211-225 of VP1 formulated with Freund's adjuvant (CFA/IFA) elicited low EV71 virus neutralizing antibody responses, but were protective in the suckling mouse challenge model. Among recombinant EV71 subunits (rVP1, rVP2 and rVP3) expressed in E. coli, purified and formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited mouse antibody responses with measurable EV71-specific virus neutralization titers. Immunization of mice with either a DNA plasmid containing VP1 gene or VP1 expressed in Salmonella typhimurium also generated neutralizing antibody responses and protected animals against a live EV71 challenge. Recombinant EV71 virus-like particles (rVLP) produced from baculovirus formulated either with CFA/IFA or alum elicited good virus neutralization titers in both mice and non-human primates, and were found to be protective in the suckling mouse EV71 challenge model. Synthetic peptides or recombinant EV71 subunit vaccines (rVP1 and rVLP) formulated in alum were found to be poorly immunogenic in rabbits. Only formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 virions formulated in alum elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies against different EV71 genotypes in mice, rabbits and non-human primates but induced weak neutralizing responses against CAV16. From a regulatory, economic and market acceptability standpoint, FI-EV71 virion vaccines are the most

  1. EV Charging Analysis with High EV Penetration in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the driving pattern analysis and the electric vehicle (EV) charging ananlysis of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The contents in the report are driving pattern analysis of the passenger cars and electrical charging load profiles of EVs based on the analyzed driving patterns...

  2. In memory of E.V. Shcherbinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Editorial Board

    2004-09-01

    On August 3, 2004 died Eduard Vasilyevich Shcherbinin, an outstanding scientist, well known in the MHD world scientific community, Dr. hab. Phys., professor, the head of the Laboratory of Electrical Vortex Flows at the Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia, a member of the Advising Editorial Board of the Journal "MagnetoHydroDynamics". Just after graduation from the Leningrad Politechnical Institute (physics and mathematics faculty) in 1961, E.V. Shcherbinin joined the Institute of Physics and stayed there till his last days. He started his work as an engineer at the Institute of Physics, in 1966 he was awarded his first scientific degree of Candidate of Science, in 1977 he was awarded another scientific degree of Dr.Phys., in 1980 he became a professor of mathematics. Eduard Vasilyevich Shcherbinin has been awarded many prizes, among which are the prizes of the Presidium of the Latvian Academy of Sciences (1973, 1977, 1986) and the F.Tsander prize (1991). All his fruitful scientific activity was devoted to theoretical MHD fundamental problems and to practical application problems. E.V. Shcherbinin was the founder of a new branch in MHD - the so-called electrovortex flows, having direct relation to the optimization of many practical metallurgy processes such as aluminum reduction cells, induction channel furnaces, electric arc furnaces and electroslag re-melting of metals. E.V. Shcherbinin published 6 monographs, about 200 scientific papers, he has more than 40 patents. Alongside, E.V. Shcherbinin guided the scientific work of many post-graduates and gave lectures in mathematics for students. Under his guidance, 13 post-graduates have successfully prepared their theses in MHD. E.V. Shcherbinin was also active in organizing many international seminars and conferences and participating in them. Recently, E.V. Shcherbinin, being the head of the Laboratory of Electrical Vortex Flows has published the monograph "Theory of self-similar boundary layer in

  3. Volatile Survival on Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Leos; Britt, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Asteroid 2008 EV5 is currently one of the possible targets of NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). The objective of this mission is to recover a boulder from the surface of an asteroid. The selection of the final target requires understanding the physical characteristics of the asteroid such as the size-frequency distribution of boulders on the asteroid's surface, the presence of volatiles on the surface and below, the strength of the surface materials and the degree of their alteration. In our work, we focus on the second criterion, the possibility of volatiles presence on 2008 EV5. These can be expected to survive embedded within the crystal lattice of various phyllosilicates. The positive presence of volatiles on the surface of and inside the asteroid is important especially for ISRU hardware demonstrations. Spectral data suggest that 2008 EV5 is a member of CI chondrite group which is characterized by high phyllosilicate content (~70%) but there is also the possibility of it being a CR chondrite where the phyllosilicate content ranges significantly, from samples with negligible phyllosilicate content to samples with almost 70% phyllosilicate content. If the dynamical history of the asteroid brought it close enough to the Sun, the lattice of phyllosilicates could have disintegrated and released the volatiles (water) and the material could have dehydrated. The depth at which the dehydration might have taken place depends on the characteristic depth of heat wave penetration which in turn depends on material characteristics such as density, heat capacity and heat conductivity. These are in turn are closely linked to the porosity. The characteristic heat penetration depth also depends on orbital geometry and rotational and orbital periods. Besides the temperature itself, the dehydration is also affected by the duration of the crystal lattice breakup temperatures. We use thermal model in conjunction with available experimental data on the dehydration of clays and

  4. How Do The EV Project Participants Feel about Charging Their EV at Home?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Key Observations from the Survey of the EV Project Participants; In June 2013, 72% of EV Project participants were very satisfied with their home charging experience; 21% of participants relied totally on home charging for all of their charging needs; Volt owners relied more on home charging than Leaf owners, who reported more use of away-from-home charging; 74% of participants reported that they plug in their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) every time they park at home. Others plugged in as they determined necessary to support their driving needs; 40% of participants reported that they would not have or are unsure that in June 2013 whether they would have purchased an alternating current (AC) Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) for home charging if it had not been provided by The EV Project; and 61% of participants reported that The EV Project incentive was very important or important in their decision to obtain a PEV.

  5. Tantsupäev toob auhinnad

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisel tantsupäeval, 29. apr., jõuab Kanuti Gildi saalis maailmaesietenduseni S. Pepeljajevi ja tema uue nimega trupi - teater APART - tantsulavastus "Uksed", millele järgneb Philip Morrise tantsuauhindade tseremoonia. Rahvusvahelist tantsupäeva tähistatakse maailmas 1982.a., päev on valitud prantsuse ballettmeistri J.-G. Noverre'i sünnikuupäeva järgi

  6. Avastamata aarete päev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutus korraldas Pirita Lillepaviljonis Euroopa Komisjoni ning majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi toetusel 27. mail 2009 Avastamata aarete päeva. Päev oli pühendatud Eesti looduse väärtustamisele. Sõna võtsid EAS Turismiarenduskeskuse direktori asetäitja Marje Braunbrück, looduse- ja rännumees Hendrik Relve, Tallinna Ülikooli rekreatsiooniteaduste osakonna juhataja Mart Reimann ja reisikorraldaja Gerald Broddelez

  7. Inherited MST1 deficiency underlies susceptibility to EV-HPV infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Crequer

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is characterized by persistent cutaneous lesions caused by a specific group of related human papillomavirus genotypes (EV-HPVs in otherwise healthy individuals. Autosomal recessive (AR EVER1 and EVER2 deficiencies account for two thirds of known cases of EV. AR RHOH deficiency has recently been described in two siblings with EV-HPV infections as well as other infectious and tumoral manifestations. We report here the whole-exome based discovery of AR MST1 deficiency in a 19-year-old patient with a T-cell deficiency associated with EV-HPV, bacterial and fungal infections. MST1 deficiency has recently been described in seven patients from three unrelated kindreds with profound T-cell deficiency and various viral and bacterial infections. The patient was also homozygous for a rare ERCC3 variation. Our findings broaden the clinical range of infections seen in MST1 deficiency and provide a new genetic etiology of susceptibility to EV-HPV infections. Together with the recent discovery of RHOH deficiency, they suggest that T cells are involved in the control of EV-HPVs, at least in some individuals.

  8. Quantifying EV battery end-of-life through analysis of travel needs with vehicle powertrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Samveg; Le Floch, Caroline; MacDonald, Jason; Moura, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Electric vehicles enable clean and efficient transportation, however concerns about range anxiety and battery degradation hinder EV adoption. The common definition for battery end-of-life is when 70-80% of original energy capacity remains, however little analysis is available to support this retirement threshold. By applying detailed physics-based models of EVs with data on how drivers use their cars, we show that EV batteries continue to meet daily travel needs of drivers well beyond capacity fade of 80% remaining energy storage capacity. Further, we show that EV batteries with substantial energy capacity fade continue to provide sufficient buffer charge for unexpected trips with long distances. We show that enabling charging in more locations, even if only with 120 V wall outlets, prolongs useful life of EV batteries. Battery power fade is also examined and we show EVs meet performance requirements even down to 30% remaining power capacity. Our findings show that defining battery retirement at 70-80% remaining capacity is inaccurate. Battery retirement should instead be governed by when batteries no longer satisfy daily travel needs of a driver. Using this alternative retirement metric, we present results on the fraction of EV batteries that may be retired with different levels of energy capacity fade.

  9. System Architecture Design for Electric Vehicle (EV) Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) system should fulfill the energy needs of EVs to meet the EV users’ driving requirements and enable the system service from EVs to support the power system operation with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RES) by providing necessary infrastructures. In order...... to realize the functionalities of the EV system, a three‐level conceptual EV system has been proposed. The proposed conceptual model comprises the three listed levels.    management/control level  information/communication level  physical level.   The control/management level is dealing with local control...

  10. EVS25,Calls for Sustainable Mobility Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Li Yinghong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Want to low your cost and save energy for your car,and also be environmentfriendly in nearby future? May you can find an answer in Zhenshen,Guangdong province,China,where the 25th world battery,hybrid and fuel cell electric vehicle symposium and exhibition (EVS25) will be held.The special event will last from November 5 to 9,2010,and is expected to attract 2000-2500 visitors,with an exhibition size of 30 thousand square meters,the largest in all the sessions held.

  11. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Novel DC Fast-Charging Station with a Local Battery Storage for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    models by increasing the size of the batteries. To satisfy EV load demand of the new EV models in urban areas the public DC Fast-Charging Station (DCFCS) is indispensable to recharge EVs rapidly. The introduction of the Battery Energy Storage within the DCFCSs is considered in this paper an alternative......The increasing penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and their charging systems is representing new highpower consumption loads for the distribution system operators (DSOs). To solve the problem of the EV range in terms of driving kilometers, the car manufacturers have invested resources on new EV...... and decrease the connection fees. Finally, an economic evaluation is done to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of the DCFCSs. The proposed approach considers various technical and economic issues, such as cost of installation, connection fees and life cycle cost of the batteries...

  12. Telescope search for a 3-eV to 8-eV axion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Ressell, M. Ted; Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Axions of mass 3-8 eV should have a cosmological abundance of about 50/cu cm and reside in rich clusters of galaxies. Their decays to two photons will produce a line at a wavelength of about 3100-8300 A. This effort has searched unsuccessfully for such a feature in the tergalactic light of three rich clusters, closing this 'window', and leaving open only the window from 10 to the -6th to 0.001 eV. This implies that if the axion exists, it likely comprises the dark matter. The present flux limits are of relevance to other relics whose decays produce monoenergetic photons.

  13. Cosmic Rays from the Knee to the Second Knee: 10 [sup] 14 to 10 [sup] 18 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandel, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The energies of cosmic rays, fully ionized charged nuclei, extend over a wide range up to 1020 eV. A particularly interesting energy region spans from 1014 to 1018 eV, where the all-particle energy spectrum exhibits two interesting structures, the "knee" and the "second knee". An explanation of thes

  14. X-ray Flares of EV Lac: Statistics, Spectra, Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Huenemoerder, David P; Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J; Osten, Rachel A; Reale, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We study the spectral and temporal behavior of X-ray flares from the active M-dwarf EV Lac in 200 ks of exposure with the Chandra/HETGS. We derive flare parameters by fitting an empirical function which characterizes the amplitude, shape, and scale. The flares range from very short (<1 ks) to long (10 ks) duration events with a range of shapes and amplitudes for all durations. We extract spectra for composite flares to study their mean evolution and to compare flares of different lengths. Evolution of spectral features in the density-temperature plane shows probable sustained heating. The short flares are significantly hotter than the longer flares. We determined an upper limit to the Fe K fluorescent flux, the best fit value being close to what is expected for compact loops.

  15. Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with speckle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C J

    2004-01-13

    Enhanced Video Surveillance (EVS) with Speckle Imaging is a high-resolution imaging system that substantially improves resolution and contrast in images acquired over long distances. This technology will increase image resolution up to an order of magnitude or greater for video surveillance systems. The system's hardware components are all commercially available and consist of a telescope or large-aperture lens assembly, a high-performance digital camera, and a personal computer. The system's software, developed at LLNL, extends standard speckle-image-processing methods (used in the astronomical community) to solve the atmospheric blurring problem associated with imaging over medium to long distances (hundreds of meters to tens of kilometers) through horizontal or slant-path turbulence. This novel imaging technology will not only enhance national security but also will benefit law enforcement, security contractors, and any private or public entity that uses video surveillance to protect their assets.

  16. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  17. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Møller Jørgensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles, 2013; 2: 10 has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment or purification prior to analysis.

  18. Potentials and capabilities of the Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Bæk, Rikke; Varming, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and exosomes are difficult to enrich or purify from biofluids, hence quantification and phenotyping of these are tedious and inaccurate. The multiplexed, highly sensitive and high-throughput platform of the EV Array presented by Jørgensen et al., (J Extracell Vesicles......, 2013; 2: 10) has been refined regarding the capabilities of the method for characterization and molecular profiling of EV surface markers. Here, we present an extended microarray platform to detect and phenotype plasma-derived EVs (optimized for exosomes) for up to 60 antigens without any enrichment...

  19. Driving Pattern Analysis for Electric Vehicle (EV) Grid Integration Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    In order to facilitate the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) into the Danish power system, the driving data in Denmark were analyzed to extract the information of driving distances and driving time periods which were used to represent the driving requirements and the EV unavailability...... from the driving time periods to show how many cars are available for charging and discharging in each time period. The obtained EV availability data are in one hour time periods and one quarter time periods for different study purposes. The EV availability data of one hour time period are to be used...

  20. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  1. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV.

  2. Weighted (C)eby(s)ev-Ostrowski type inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arif Rafiq; Nazir Ahmad Mir; Farooq Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    In account of the famous (C)eby(s)ev inequality, a rich theory has appeared in the literature. We establish some new weighted (C)eby(s)ev type integral inequalities. Our proofs are of independent interest and provide new estimates on these types of inequalities.

  3. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2010-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  4. EV and HP Providing Ancillary Services in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    This report covers the analysis of the electric vehicle (EV) and heat pump (HP) providing ancillary services to the power system of the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The analysis is to investigate the feasibility of EVs and HPs to serve as demand as frequency reserve...... (DFR) providers in the distribution power system in the four mentioned Nordic countries....

  5. Calculating Rayleigh scattering amplitudes from 100 eV to 10 MeV. [100 eV to 10 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.C.; Reynaud, G.W.; Botto, D.J.; Pratt, R.H.

    1979-05-01

    An attempt is made to explain how to calculate the contribution to elastic photon-atom scattering due to Rayleigh scattering (the scattering off bound electrons) in the photon energy range 100 eV less than or equal to W less than or equal to 10 MeV. All intermediate calculations are described, including the calculation of the potential, bound state wave functions, matrix elements, and final cross sections. 12 references. (JFP)

  6. Operation Strategy of EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Peng; Li Zhang; Ku-An Lu; Jun-Peng Hu; Si Liu

    2014-01-01

    An operation strategy of the electric vehicle (EV) battery charging and swapping station is proposed in the paper. The strategy is established based on comprehensively consideration of the EV charging behaviors and the possible mutual actions between battery charging and swapping. Three energy management strategies can be used in the station:charging period shifting, energy exchange between EVs, and energy supporting from surplus swapping batteries. Then an optimization model which minimizes the total energy management costs of the station is built. The Monte Carlo simulation is applied to analyze the characteristics of the EV battery charging load, and a heuristic algorithm is used to solve the strategy providing the relevant information of EVs and the battery charging and swapping station. The operation strategy can efficiently reduce battery charging during the high electricity price periods and make more reasonable use of the resources. Simulations prove the feasibility and rationality of the strategy.

  7. Digit ratio (2D:4D), sex differences, allometry, and finger length of 12-30-year olds: evidence from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) Internet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, John T

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have reported digit ratio (2D:4D) to be sexually dimorphic, (males lower 2D:4D than females). However, Kratochvíl and Flegr ([2009]: Biol Lett 5:643-646) have suggested that 2D regressed on 4D has an allometric regression line with nonzero Y-intercept that is shared by males and females. Thus, 2D is shorter than expected when 4D is long, and males have lower 2D:4D than females because they have longer fingers. In this study, it is shown that this suggestion may be incorrect because sex differences in slope were not considered. Participants were recruited in an Internet study and had an age range of 12-30 years. The expected sex difference in 2D:4D was found, and the regression of 2D on 4D showed a significant sex difference in slope (males lower than females). A comparison of 10 age groups (12 years, 13 years..., 21-30 years) showed that sexual dimorphism for fingers was age dependent, varying from monomorphic to very dimorphic. Changes in sexual dimorphism of 2D:4D were much less marked, but there was a significant reduction in mean 2D:4D with age. The tendency for slopes of 2D regressed on 4D to be lower in males compared with females was significant in eight age groups. Sex difference in 2D:4D varied across the age groups and was positively related to the magnitude of the difference in female and male slopes. In contrast to the report of Kratochvíl and Flegr, it was found that the regression of 2D on 4D showed sex differences in slope, and such differences gave rise to the sexual dimorphism in 2D:4D.

  8. NANO-BATTERY TECHNOLOGY FOR EV-HEV PANEL: A PIONEERING STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Global trends toward CO2 reduction and resource efficiency have significantly increased the importance of lightweight materials for automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEM. CO2 reduction is a fundamental driver for a more lightweight automobile. The introduction of Electrical Vehicles (EVs is one initiative towards this end. However EVs are currently facing several weaknesses: limited driving range, battery pack heaviness, lack of safety and thermal control, high cost, and overall limited efficiency. This study presents a panel-style nano-battery technology built into an EV with CuO filler solid polymer electrolyte (SPE sandwiched by carbon fiber (CF and lithium (Li plate. In addition to this, an aluminum laminated polypropylene film is used as the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC shield. The proposed battery body panel of the EV would reduce the car weight by about 20%, with a charge and discharge capacity of 1.5 kWh (10% of car total power requirement, and provide the heat insulation for the car which would save about 10% power consumption of the air conditioning system. Therefore, the EV would be benefited by 30% in terms of energy reduction by using the proposed body. Furthermore, the proposed body is considered environmental-friendly since it is recyclable for use in a new product. However, the main limiting factors of the SPE are its thermal behavior and moderate ionic conductivity at low temperatures. The SPE temperature is maintained by controlling the battery panel charging/discharge rate. It is expected that the proposed panel-style nano-battery use in an EV would save up to 6.00 kWh in battery energy, equivalent to 2.81 liters of petrol and prevent 3.081 kg of CO2 emission for a travel distance of 100 km. KEYWORDS: epoxy resin; carbon fiber; lithium thin plate; energy generation; solid electrolyte battery

  9. Anisotropic optical constants, birefringence, and dichroism of wurtzite GaN between 0.6 eV and 6 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokhovets, S.; Kirste, L.; Leach, J. H.; Krischok, S.; Himmerlich, M.

    2017-07-01

    We report the room-temperature anisotropic dielectric functions (DFs), refractive indices, and absorption coefficients as well as birefringence and dichroism of wurtzite GaN in the spectral range between 0.6 eV and 6 eV. They have been determined by combined spectroscopic ellipsometry, optical retardation, and transmission measurements on a series of m- and c-plane bulk substrates prepared from crystals grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The accuracy of the derived DFs is estimated by investigation of the role of mosaicity-related crystal imperfections, self-consistency test based on a Kramers-Kronig analysis, and examination of the influence of kind of overlayer. We also briefly discuss optical properties of a highly defective near-surface layer of GaN crystals introduced by their mechanical polishing.

  10. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress in the research of EV71 vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏荣; 王蕾; 廖芸

    2009-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major etiological agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Since no effeetive antiviral agents are available,developing effective EV71 vaccines for prevention of HFMD has been the control measure of choice. Currently, the research of EV71 vaccines has made certain pro-gress,and various EV71 vaccines, including attenuated vccines, inactivated vaccine, VP1 subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine, are being developed. Although various EV71 vaccines have certain efficacy, the optimal vaccine needs to be identified by evaluating the safety and protective efficacy of various EV71 vaccines.%肠道病毒71型(enterovims 71,EV71)是手足口病的主要病原体,由于尚无治疗手足口病的有效抗病毒药,因此,开发预防手足口病的有效EV71疫苗成为所有控制措施的首选.目前,EV71疫苗研究已取得一定的进展,正在研发的疫苗包括减毒或灭活疫苗、VP1亚单位疫苗和DNA疫苗.虽然各种疫苗均具有一定的免疫效果,但最适疫苗的确认还需对各种疫苗的安全性和保护效力进行评估.

  11. Fission Fragment Folding Angle Distributions for the Systems sup 1 sup 1 B+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, and sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th in the Energy Range 1.1<E/V sub B <2.1

    CERN Document Server

    Kailas, S; Chatterjee, A; Saxena, A; Kapoor, S S; Vandenbosch, R; Lestone, J P; Liang, J F; Prindle, D J; Sonzogni, A A; Bierman, J D

    1999-01-01

    Fission fragment folding angle distributions have been measured for the systems sup 1 sup 1 B+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 7 Np, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U, and sup 1 sup 6 O+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, populating the same compound nucleus ( sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cf) and at similar excitation energies (E sub x 45-100 MeV). The full momentum transfer and incomplete momentum transfer fusion-fission components have been separated over the bombarding energy range 1.1T) and with smaller fission barriers (B sub f >T). It was interesting to find that the effective moment of inertia (J sub e sub f sub f) values deduced from the latter component were consistent with the values from Sierk prescription used in the former case

  12. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  13. Emakeelepäev Hamburgis / Liilika M. Allev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2009-01-01

    23. nov. 2008 toimunud EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeeriumi, Eesti Keele Instituudi ja EÜSLi HEA Seltsi traditsioonilisest emakeelepäevast, mille kavas oli sinatamine ja teietamine eestlastel ja eestivenelastel

  14. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  15. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  16. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  17. Immunological Evaluation and Comparison of Different EV71 Vaccine Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16 are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth diseases (HFMDs, and EV71 is now recognized as an emerging neurotropic virus in Asia. Effective medications and/or prophylactic vaccines against HFMD are not available. The current results from mouse immunogenicity studies using in-house standardized RD cell virus neutralization assays indicate that (1 VP1 peptide (residues 211–225 formulated with Freund’s adjuvant (CFA/IFA elicited low virus neutralizing antibody response (1/32 titer; (2 recombinant virus-like particles produced from baculovirus formulated with CFA/IFA could elicit good virus neutralization titer (1/160; (3 individual recombinant EV71 antigens (VP1, VP2, and VP3 formulated with CFA/IFA, only VP1 elicited antibody response with 1/128 virus neutralization titer; and (4 the formalin-inactivated EV71 formulated in alum elicited antibodies that cross-neutralized different EV71 genotypes (1/640, but failed to neutralize CVA16. In contrast, rabbits antisera could cross-neutralize strongly against different genotypes of EV71 but weakly against CVA16, with average titers 1/6400 and 1/32, respectively. The VP1 amino acid sequence dissimilarity between CVA16 and EV71 could partially explain why mouse antibodies failed to cross-neutralize CVA16. Therefore, the best formulation for producing cost-effective HFMD vaccine is a combination of formalin-inactivated EV71 and CAV16 virions.

  18. Total neutron cross-sections of /sup 151/Eu, /sup 153/Eu and Eu below 1 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been carried out for natural Eu and its stable isotopes in the energy range from 3 meV to 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(a) (/sup 151/Eu) = (9180 +- 150) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(s) (/sup 153/Eu) = (375 +- 20) b at 0.0253 eV, sigmasub(d) (Eu) = (4600 +- 120) b at 0.0253 eV. The contribution of the resonance to the total neutron cross-sections, in the thermal region, was calculated using the single-level Breit-Wigner formula.

  19. Järjekordne keelepäev Hamburgis (Emakeelepäev Hamburgis) I-III / Liilika M. Allev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allev, Liilika M.

    2007-01-01

    Seekord oli keskseks teemaks lapse keeleareng, korraldajateks EV Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium, Eesti Keeleinstituut ja EÜSLi HEA Selts. Keelepoliitikast. Kuidas eesti laps rääkima hakkab? Kakskeelsuse omandamine

  20. Battery management systems (BMS) optimization for electric vehicles (EVs) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehen, P. M. W.; Su'ait, M. S.; Razali, H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-04-01

    Following the UN Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Malaysia seriously committed on "Go Green" campaign with the aim to reduce 40% GHG emission by the year 2020. Therefore, the National Green Technology Policy has been legalised in 2009 with transportation as one of its focused sectors, which include hybrid (HEVs), electric vehicles (EVs) and fuel cell vehicles with the purpose of to keep up with the worst scenario. While the number of registered cars has been increasing by 1 million yearly, the amount has doubled in the last two decades. Consequently, CO2 emission in Malaysia reaches up to 97.1% and will continue to increase mainly due to the activities in the transportation sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia is now moving towards on green car which battery-based EVs. This type of transportation mainly needs power performance optimization, which is controlled by the Batteries Management System (BMS). BMS is an essential module which leads to reliable power management, optimal power performance and safe vehicle that lead back for power optimization in EVs. Thus, this paper proposes power performance optimization for various setups of lithium-ion cathode with graphene anode using MATLAB/SIMULINK software for better management performance and extended EVs driving range.

  1. Real-Time Forecasting of EV Charging Station Scheduling for Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatiraja Chokkalingam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs, has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate user’s “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision, allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure, data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on the road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.

  2. Development of battery management systems (BMS for electric vehicles (EVs in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehen P.M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery Management Systems (BMS is an electronic devices component, which is a vital fundamental device connected between the charger and the battery of the hybrid or electric vehicle (EV systems. Thus, BMS significantly enable for safety protection and reliable battery management by performing of monitoring charge control, state evaluation, reporting the data and functionalities cell balancing. To date, 97.1% of Malaysian CO2 emissions are mainly caused by transportation activities and the numbers will keep rising as numbers of registered car increase close up to 1 million yearly; double the amounts in the last two decades. The uncertainty of a battery’s performance poses a challenge to predict the extended range of EVs, which need BMS implementation of optimization of optimum power management. Hence, using MATLAB/SIMULINK software is one of the potential methods of BMS optimization with power generated by Hybrid Energy Storage system of lithium-ion battery. Therefore, this paper address through reviewing previous literatures initially focuses on the BMS optimization for EVs (car in Malaysia as prognostic technology model improvement on performance management of EVs.

  3. Smart EV Energy Management System to Support Grid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin

    Under smart grid scenarios, the advanced sensing and metering technologies have been applied to the legacy power grid to improve the system observability and the real-time situational awareness. Meanwhile, there is increasing amount of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as renewable generations, electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage system (BESS), etc., being integrated into the power system. However, the integration of EVs, which can be modeled as controllable mobile energy devices, brings both challenges and opportunities to the grid planning and energy management, due to the intermittency of renewable generation, uncertainties of EV driver behaviors, etc. This dissertation aims to solve the real-time EV energy management problem in order to improve the overall grid efficiency, reliability and economics, using online and predictive optimization strategies. Most of the previous research on EV energy management strategies and algorithms are based on simplified models with unrealistic assumptions that the EV charging behaviors are perfectly known or following known distributions, such as the arriving time, leaving time and energy consumption values, etc. These approaches fail to obtain the optimal solutions in real-time because of the system uncertainties. Moreover, there is lack of data-driven strategy that performs online and predictive scheduling for EV charging behaviors under microgrid scenarios. Therefore, we develop an online predictive EV scheduling framework, considering uncertainties of renewable generation, building load and EV driver behaviors, etc., based on real-world data. A kernel-based estimator is developed to predict the charging session parameters in real-time with improved estimation accuracy. The efficacy of various optimization strategies that are supported by this framework, including valley-filling, cost reduction, event-based control, etc., has been demonstrated. In addition, the existing simulation-based approaches do

  4. Experimental characterization of NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit (1 eV to 5 eV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; Goyon, C. E.; Ross, J. S.; Swadling, G. F.; Moore, A. S.; Baker, K. L.; Thomas, C. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Landen, O. L.; Michel, P. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Divol, L.; Widmann, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use several measurements to estimate NIF hohlraum emission in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit where hν collected by an optical photodiode, optical emission emitted from the laser-entrance hole in the 4 eV range, and various other optical measurements. These measurements can help quantify the laser-plasma interaction processes occurring in the hohlraum and may provide insight into the atomic physics of the Au wall at long wavelength. We describe our findings and discuss interpretations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0-40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL; Carbone, F; van der Marel, D

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  6. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0–40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P.; Boeij, P.L. de; Carbone, F.; Marel, D. van der

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  7. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0-40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P.; de Boeij, PL; Carbone, F; van der Marel, D

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric

  8. First isolation of enterovirus 71 (EV-71 from Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarão Leticia Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 has been associated to cases of neurological disease in many countries including Brazil. This virus has now been reported from three of the five Brazilian regions. Our study relates the findings concerning to the first isolate of this virus in Northern region of Brazil. A 15-month old female patient, from the rural zone of the municipality of Santana do Araguaia in southern Pará state was admitted at the hospital with acute, flaccid, asymmetric and ascending motor deficiency, located in the right lower limb. Stools samples from this child were inoculated in RD cells and was isolated an EV-71. We plan to sequence our strain and compare it to other isolates in Brazil. Differences at the molecular level can explain why EV-71 strains circulating in other continents, such as Asia, appear to be more virulent.

  9. Demand power with EV charging schemes considering actual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyeok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-friendly energies have recently become a popular topic. Given this trend, we predict that a large number of electric vehicles (EVs will be widely used. However, EVs need to be connected to a power system for charging, thereby causing severe risks, such as rapid increase of demand power. Therefore, in this study, we analyze the effects of EV charging on demand power, which depend on different charging schemes, namely, dumb charging, off-peak charging, time-of-use (ToU price-based charging. For practical analysis, we conduct simulations by considering the actual power system and driving patterns in South Korea. Simulation results show that the ToU price-based charging scheme exhibits better performance in terms of demand power over the other charging schemes.

  10. Modeling and Testing of EVs - Preliminary Study and Laboratory Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guang-Ya; Marra, Francesco; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2010-01-01

    impact at different geographical areas, as well as driving and charging patterns. Electric circuit model is deployed in this work to represent the electrical properties of a lithium-ion battery. This paper reports the preliminary modeling and validation work based on manufacturer data sheet and realistic......Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a key role in the future energy management system to stabilize both supply and consumption with the presence of high penetration of renewable generation. A reasonably accurate model of battery is a key element for the study of EVs behavior and the grid...... tests, followed by the suggestions towards a feasible battery model for further studies....

  11. Opacity measurement of a gold plasma at T{sub e} = 85 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jiyan; Yang Jiamin; Yang Guohong; Li Hang; Yuan Zheng; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Bao Lihua; Huang Chenwu; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian [Research Center of Laser Fusion, P. O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu Yan; Wu Zheqing; Yan Jun [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2011-11-15

    The opacity of a gold plasma at the temperature of 85 eV and density of 0.02 g/cm{sup 3} was measured over the energy range from 150 eV to 1200 eV. The gold sample was heated by thermal x-ray radiation generated with a foam-baffled gold cavity. The sample transmission was obtained from the backlight, absorption and self-emission spectra measured by a time-gated, spatially resolved grating spectrometer, with the backlight and absorption spectra being measured simultaneously in a single shot and the self-emission in another shot. The temperature and density of the gold absorber were determined by the hydrodynamic simulation with Multi-1D code, which was partially tested by the reemission radiative flux measurements of the heated sample. This work permits the first test of opacity models over the photon energy range that dominates the Rosseland mean opacity at the temperature of interest for the inertial confinement fusion.

  12. On search for eV hidden sector photons in Super-Kamiokande and CAST experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gninenko, S.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Redondo, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    If light hidden sector photons ({gamma}'s) exist, they could be produced through kinetic mixing with solar photons in the eV energy range. We propose to search for this hypothetical {gamma}'-flux with the Super-Kamiokande and/or upgraded CAST detectors. The proposed experiments are sensitive to the {gamma}-{gamma}' mixing strength as small as 10{sup -5}>or similar {chi}>or similar 10{sup -9} for the {gamma}'' mass region 10{sup -4} eV and, in the case of non-observation, would improve limits recently obtained from photon regeneration laser experiments for this mass region. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of the total neutron cross-section of germanium at energies below 2 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M.

    1983-01-01

    The total neutron cross-section of germanium has been measured at room temperature as a function of neutron energy in the range between 2.2 eV and 7 meV for randomly distributed crystals of germanium by transmission method using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer at ET-RR-1 research reactor. The measured cross-section showed an evidence of 1/..nu.. thermal slope in the energy range 1.20 eV to 0.20 eV. Crystal structure effects were also observed. Calculations were performed giving values for the coherent scattering amplitude as well as the coherent scattering cross-section. The results obtained showed also the absence of scattering nuclear spin dependence in case of germanium.

  14. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  15. Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The Global EV Outlook represents the collective efforts of two years of primary data gathering and analysis from the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI) and IEA. Key takeaways and insights include landscape analysis of electric vehicle (EV) stock/sales and charging station deployment. Existing policy initiatives are delineated and future opportunities highlighted in an ''Opportunity Matrix: Pathways to 2020''. Together EVI countries accounted for more than 90% of world EV stock at the end of 2012. Strong government support in EVI countries on both the supply and demand sides are contributing to rising market penetration. 12 out of 15 EVI countries offer financial support for vehicle purchases, and most employ a mix of financial and non-financial incentives (such as access to restricted highway lanes) to help drive adoption. The Global EV Outlook is a unique and data-rich overview of the state of electric vehicles today, and offers an understanding of the electric vehicle landscape to 2020.

  16. Naistepäev ikka hinnas / Ivar Jung

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jung, Ivar

    2003-01-01

    Kunstihoone galeriis Ivika Kivi ja Dagmar Kase näituse "ID 2002" taustal 8. III toimunud Reet Varblase organiseeritud seminarist "Naised, ühiskond, ilu ja hügieen". Linnagaleriis lõpetas Meiu Mündi maalinäituse Oksana Titova tantsuetendus. 9. III Pärnus Taave Tuutma kureeritud tegevuskunstipäev

  17. CONSISTENCY OF LS ESTIMATOR IN SIMPLE LINEAR EV REGRESSION MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jixue; Chen Xiru

    2005-01-01

    Consistency of LS estimate of simple linear EV model is studied. It is shown that under some common assumptions of the model, both weak and strong consistency of the estimate are equivalent but it is not so for quadratic-mean consistency.

  18. Ponjat samogo sebja / Ze'ev Hanin ; interv. Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanin, Ze'ev

    2006-01-01

    Lääne tsivilisatsiooni katse seostada tähtsamad maailma poliitikasündmused Iisraeliga ei ole selle riigi süü ega teene, tegemist on euroopa tsivilisatsiooni sügava kriisiga - sellisel seisukohal on hiljuti Tallinna külastanud Bar-Ilani ülikooli õppejõud ja politoloog Ze'ev Hanin

  19. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  20. An investigation of mass composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies above 1019 eV via the study of extensive air showers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doostmohammadi S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electron and muon components of extensive air shower (EAS with energies above 1019 eV are analyzed via various giant EAS arrays. A varying property of showers is observed for two energy ranges; higher and lower than (3 − 4 x 1019 eV. The age parameter, zenith angle, shower size dependence on muon size and shower size dependence on primary energy show an increment of mass composition (MC above (3−4x 1019eV. Comparison of the observed EAS results with the simulations of Capdevielle et al. (2000 and Shinozaki et al. (2005 gives at most 20% photon fraction for primary energies above 1019 eV. The arrival directions of showers above 4x1019 eV indicate an increasing concentration towards the super galactic plane.

  1. Magnetic Alignment Detection Using Existing Charging Facility in Wireless EV Chargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a promising outlet to promote the electric vehicle (EV industry due to its safe and noncontact manner. Wireless EV chargers require the secondary receiver coil to be well aligned with the primary station for efficient charging, which could require more of the driver’s time and attention when parking a vehicle. Therefore, this paper presents a magnetic alignment system to assist the EV driver during parking. The magnetic alignment approach uses the existing coil and frequency tracking control electronics of wireless chargers to detect the distance between the two coils while using 4 small auxiliary coils for direction and fine adjustment, leading to a cost effective detection method for coil alignment in electric vehicle wireless charging (EVWC. The testing results of a prototype show acceptable measurement correctness and the mean error for ten trials in range detection is within 0.25 cm at three different misalignment conditions (10.5, 15, and 20 cm. The positioning accuracy of coil alignment is within 1.2 cm for three different start positions with the auxiliary coils.

  2. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  3. Lanthanum-molybdenum multilayer mirrors for attosecond pulses between 80 and 130 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, M; Schultze, M; Guggenmos, A; Gagnon, J; Yakovlev, V S; Krausz, F; Kleineberg, U [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aquila, A; Yang, S; Gullikson, E [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2-400, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Huth, M; Nickel, B [Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Munich (Germany); Goulielmakis, E, E-mail: michael.hofstetter@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    A novel multilayer material system consisting of lanthanum and molybdenum nano-layers for both broadband and highly reflecting multilayer mirrors in the energy range between 80 and 130 eV is presented. The simulation and design of these multilayers were based on an improved set of optical constants, which were recorded by extreme ultraviolet (XUV)/soft-x-ray absorption measurements on freestanding lanthanum nano-films between 30 eV and 1.3 keV. Lanthanum-molybdenum (La/Mo) multilayer mirrors were produced by ion-beam sputtering and characterized through both x-ray and XUV reflectivity measurements. We demonstrate the ability to precisely simulate and realize aperiodic stacks. Their stability against ambient air conditions is demonstrated. Finally, the La/Mo mirrors were used in the generation of single attosecond pulses from high-harmonic cut-off spectra above 100 eV. Isolated 200 attosecond-long pulses were measured by XUV-pump/IR-probe streaking experiments and characterized using frequency-resolved optical gating for complete reconstruction of attosecond bursts (FROG/CRAB) analyses.

  4. Temperature dependence of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV in single-wall carbon nanotube films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukitaka Matsuoka, Akihiko Fujiwara, Naoki Ogawa, Kenjiro Miyano, Hiromichi Kataura, Yutaka Maniwa, Shinzo Suzuki and Yohji Achiba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature dependence of photoconductivity has been investigated for single-wall carbon nanotube films at 0.7 eV. In order to clarify the effect of atmosphere on photoconductivity, measurements have been performed under helium and nitrogen gas flow in the temperature range from 10 K to room temperature (RT and from 100 K to RT, respectively. Photoconductive response monotonously increases with a decrease in temperature and tends to saturate around 10 K. No clear difference in photoconductive response under different atmosphere was observed. We discuss the mechanism of photoconductivity at 0.7 eV.

  5. Cascades from nu_E above 1020 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2004-12-21

    At very high energies, the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect reduces the cross sections for electron bremsstrahlung and photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production. The fractional electron energy loss and pair production cross sections drop as the energy increases. In contrast, the cross sections for photonuclear interactions grow with energy. In solids and liquids, at energies above 10{sup 20} eV, photonuclear reactions dominate, and showers that originate as photons or electrons quickly become hadronic showers. These electron-initiated hadronic showers are much shorter (due to the absence of the LPM effect), but wider than purely electromagnetic showers would be. This change in shape alters the spectrum of the electromagnetic and acoustic radiation emitted from the shower. These alterations have important implications for existing and planned searches for radiation from u{sub e} induced showers above 10{sup 20} eV, and some existing limits should be reevaluated.

  6. Archaeology management system based on EV-Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Lu, Guo-nian; Pei, An-ping; Niu, Yu-gang; Luo, Tao

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, cultural relics were recorded in a 2D (2 dimensions) method such as paper maps, pictures, multi-media, micro-models and so on. This paper introduces the archaeology management system based on EV-Globe (Earth View-Globe - spatial information service platform on virtual 3D environment) for the cultural relics along the Eastern Route Project (ERP) of South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD). Integrate the spatial and attribute data of the cultural relics along ERP of SNWD processed by SuperMap deskpro2005 with the relative basic geological data based on the platform of EV-Globe and develop a series of functions based on the SDK (Software Development Kit), and so the relics can be managed visually, at the same time the system may assist the archaeologists and some researchers in managing and studying the cultural relics. Some conception and conceiving of web and mobile version is put forward for next researching.

  7. Potential Analysis of Regulating Power from Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The potential analysis of having electric vehicles (EVs) provide regulating power has been implemented. The possible regulating power capacity from EVs and the economic return for EV users by providing regulating power are obtained. A spot price based charging schedule scenario has been used to do....... The activated regulating power and regulating power prices in the Denmark West System in 2010 have been used to calculate the economic return for EV users if all the regulating power is provided by EVs....

  8. Open Innovation in EVs: A Case Study of Tesla Motors

    OpenAIRE

    Karamitsios, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the topic of open innovation in EVs. Initially a brief description of the concept of innovation and open innovation is carried out. Moreover, the three processes of open innovation are deployed while the coupled process is described in more detail. Furthermore, a short description is also given for corporate entrepreneurship, alliances, and the U.S. government policy. Also, this report considers Tesla Motors’ partnerships as a case study and it aims to give an insight of h...

  9. Intelligent Vehicle Charging Benefits Assessment Using EV Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letendre, Steven; Gowri, Krishnan; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Richard M.

    2013-12-01

    PEVs can represent a significant power resource for the grid. An IVCI with bi-direction V2G capabilities would allow PEVs to provide grid support services and thus generate a source of revenue for PEV owners. The fleet of EV Project vehicles represents a power resource between 30 MW and 90 MW, depending on the power rating of the grid connection (5-15 kW). Aggregation of vehicle capacity would allow PEVs to participate in wholesale reserve capacity markets. One of the key insights from EV Project data is the fact that vehicles are connected to an EVSE much longer than is necessary to deliver a full charge. During these hours when the vehicles are not charging, they can be participating in wholesale power markets providing the high-value services of regulation and spinning reserves. The annual gross revenue potential for providing these services using the fleet of EV Project vehicles is several hundred thousands of dollars to several million dollars annually depending on the power rating of the grid interface, the number of hours providing grid services, and the market being served. On a per vehicle basis, providing grid services can generate several thousands of dollars over the life of the vehicle.

  10. An ultrahigh-vacuum apparatus for resonant diffraction experiments using soft x rays (hnu=300-2000 eV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Chainani, A; Takata, Y; Tanaka, Y; Oura, M; Tsubota, M; Senba, Y; Ohashi, H; Mochiku, T; Hirata, K; Shin, S

    2009-02-01

    We have developed an ultrahigh-vacuum instrument for resonant diffraction experiments using polarized soft x rays in the energy range of hnu=300-2000 eV at beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. The diffractometer consists of modified differentially pumped rotary feedthroughs for theta-2theta stages, a sample manipulator with motor-controlled x-y-z-, tilt (chi)-, and azimuth (phi)-axes, and a liquid helium flow-type cryostat for temperature dependent measurements between 30 and 300 K. Test results indicate that the diffractometer exhibits high reproducibility (better than 0.001 degrees ) for a Bragg reflection of alpha-quartz 100 at a photon energy of hnu=1950 eV. Typical off- and on-resonance Bragg reflections in the energy range of 530-1950 eV could be measured using the apparatus. The results show that x-ray diffraction experiments with energy-, azimuth-, and incident photon polarization-dependence can be reliably measured using soft x rays in the energy range of approximately 300-2000 eV. The facility can be used for resonant diffraction experiments across the L-edge of transition metals, M-edge of lanthanides, and up to the Si K-edge of materials.

  11. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  12. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A–C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5′UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses. PMID:24722726

  13. Study of (e, 2e) process on potassium at 6 eV-60 eV above threshold in a second-order Born approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang; Zhou Ya-Jun; Jiao Li-Guang

    2012-01-01

    The standard distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method has been extended to second-order Born amplitude in order to describe the multiple interactions between the projectile and the atomic target.Second-order DWBA calculations have been preformed to investigate the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) of coplanar doubly symmetric (e,2e) collisions for the alkali target potassium at excess energies of 6 eV-60 eV.Compared with the previous first-order DWBA calculations,the present theoretical model improves the degree of agreement with experiments,especially for the backward scattering angle region of TDCS.This indicates that the present second-order Born term is capable of giving a reasonable correction to the DWBA model in studying coplanar symmetric (e,2e) problems in low and intermediate energy ranges.

  14. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  15. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Low Voltage (LV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cha, Seung-Tae; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2012-01-01

    Large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) has become a very interesting option because it can both reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from the transport sector and facilitate the integration of more renewable energy resources (RES) by providing the flexibility of EV charging demands....... Although the EV grid integration is promising, the impact of the EV grid integration has to be investigated in order to identify the bottlenecks of power systems for the EV grid integration and assess different charging scenarios. This paper is focused on the impact of EV grid integration on low voltage...

  16. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  17. "Iga päev..." : [luuletused] / Doris Kareva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareva, Doris, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Tekst eesti ja inglise k. D. Kareva lühibiograafia eesti ja inglise k. lk. 175. Sisu: "Iga päev..." = "Every day..." ; "Ma nägin unes - Saatan kõneles..." = "I dream that I heard Satan speak..." ; "Viib sünnieelsest unest surmaunne..." = "Rainbow-coloured confusion bears us..." ; "Vaadeldes vikerkaarlevat maailma..." = "Viewing the rainbowing world..." ; "Ei jõua kirjutada puhtandit..." = "No time to write the final draft..." ; "Põletatud luuletused..." = ""Burnt poems..." ; Fraktalia ; Müsteerium 1-5 = Enigma 1-5 ; "Jumal juhtub..." = "God happens..." ; Moira 1-7 = Wishing well 1-7 ; Concerto strumenti e voce

  18. Optimization of unipolar magnetic couplers for EV wireless power chargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Liu, Z. Z.; Chen, H. X.; Zhou, B.; Hei, T.

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the coupling coefficient of EV wireless power chargers, it's important to optimize the magnetic couplers. To improve the coupling coefficient, the relationship between coupling coefficient and efficiency is derived, and the expression of coupling coefficient based on magnetic circuit is deduced, which provide the basis for optimizing the couplers. By 3D FEM simulation, the optimal core structure and coils are designed for unipolar circular couplers. Experiments are designed to verify the correctness of the optimization results, and compared with previous coupler, the transmission efficiency is improved and weight is reduced.

  19. Secondary Use of PHEV and EV Batteries: Opportunities & Challenges (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Howell, D.

    2010-05-01

    NREL and partners will investigate the reuse of retired lithium ion batteries for plug-in hybrid, hybrid, and electric vehicles in order to reduce vehicle costs and emissions and curb our dependence on foreign oil. A workshop to solicit industry feedback on the process is planned. Analyses will be conducted, and aged batteries will be tested in two or three suitable second-use applications. The project is considering whether retired PHEV/EV batteries have value for other applications; if so, what are the barriers and how can they be overcome?

  20. Estimation in partial linear EV models with replicated observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Hengjian

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct the parameter estimators in the partial linear errors-in-variables (EV) models and explore their asymptotic properties. Unlike other related References, the assumption of known error covariance matrix is removed when the sample can be repeatedly drawn at each designed point from the model. The estimators of interested regression parameters, and the model error variance, as well as the nonparametric function, are constructed. Under some regular conditions, all of the estimators prove strongly consistent. Meanwhile, the asymptotic normality for the estimator of regression parameter is also presented. A simulation study is reported to illustrate our asymptotic results.

  1. Pogledi staršev na delovanje Vrtca Slovenj Gradec

    OpenAIRE

    Krivec, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Pogledi in pričakovanja staršev glede vrtca so odvisni od vsakega starša posebej, vsem pa je skupno, da želijo svojemu otroku le najboljše. Zato je pomembno, da vzgojitelji in starši med seboj sodelujejo, saj to pozitivno vpliva na otroka in njegov razvoj. Diplomsko delo sestavljata teoretični in empirični del. V teoretičnem delu je predstavljen predšolski otrok, ki mu prehod v vrtec predstavlja nekaj novega, saj je navajen družinskega okolja. Opisana je dnevna rutina, ki poteka v vrtcu. Podr...

  2. The attractivity of Mendrisio as industrial area for EVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M. [InfoVEL, Mendrisio (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Located in the Italian speaking region of Switzerland, Mendrisio is in the Canton Ticino. The city of 300,000 people is served by two international airports, the Lugano-Agno 15 km away and the Milano-Malpensa 60 km away. Car manufacturers introduced their different alternative technologies in the area through the electric vehicle (EV) - Pilot and Demonstration Project. The country is neutral, and does not have protectionist policies in the area of car manufacturing, since the country does not have a national car manufacturer. The decision-makers and the population are open to new technologies, as demonstrated by the fact that 335 EVs are already in operation in the region. Infrastructure, in the form of charging stations, is already in place, as are tax exemptions and other financial incentives. Highly skilled workers, fluent in many languages abound and are supported by high schools and public research centers. The author briefly described a few selected initiatives that were implemented in the last few years.

  3. NASA JSC EV2 Intern Spring 2016 - Jennie Chung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jennie

    2016-01-01

    Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is a mission to resume the manned exploration of the Solar System. This mission is the first crewed mission of NASA’s Orion on the Space Launch System. The target for EM-2 is to perform a flyby of a captured asteroid in lunar orbit, which NASA plans to launch in 2023. As an intern working with EV-2 – Avionics Systems Division in Johnson Space Center, we are developing flight instrumentation systems for EM-2 (MISL & RFID). The Modular Integrated Stackable Layer (MISL) is a compact space-related computer system that is modular, scalable and reconfigurable. The RFID (radio frequency identification) sensors are used to take lower frequency (TC) type measurements and be able to stream data real-time to an RF (radio frequency) interrogator upon demand. Our job, in EV-2, is to certify, test, manufacture/assemble and deliver flight EM-2 DFI System (MISL & RFID). Our goal is to propose a development effort to design low-mass wire and wireless data acquisition and sensor solutions for EM-2 DFI (Development Flight Instrumentation). The team is tasked to provide the most effective use of 75 pounds to acquire DFI data and to collect sensor data for 100-200 high priority DFI channels (mass driven).

  4. Iir Hermeliin soovitab: etendus "Üks suvepäev"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Tahkuna tuletornis 16. septembril esietendunud lavastusest "Üks suvepäev", mis kolib oktoobris Theatrumi teatrisaali. Lavastaja Lembit Peterson, tema kommentaarid. Näidendi "Üks suvepäev" autorist Jon Fossest

  5. Optimal Coordinated EV Charging with Reactive Power Support in Constrained Distribution Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paudyal, Sumit; Ceylan, Oğuzhan; Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.

    2017-07-01

    Electric vehicle (EV) charging/discharging can take place in any P-Q quadrants, which means EVs could support reactive power to the grid while charging the battery. In controlled charging schemes, distribution system operator (DSO) coordinates with the charging of EV fleets to ensure grid’s operating constraints are not violated. In fact, this refers to DSO setting upper bounds on power limits for EV charging. In this work, we demonstrate that if EVs inject reactive power into the grid while charging, DSO could issue higher upper bounds on the active power limits for the EVs for the same set of grid constraints. We demonstrate the concept in an 33-node test feeder with 1,500 EVs. Case studies show that in constrained distribution grids in coordinated charging, average costs of EV charging could be reduced if the charging takes place in the fourth P-Q quadrant compared to charging with unity power factor.

  6. Refractive indices of zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) in the subband-gap region (0.7{endash}3.3 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, M.A.; Ramirez-Flores, G.; Navarro-Contreras, H.; Lastras-Martinez, A. [Instituto de Investigacion en Communicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Powell, R.C.; Greene, J.E. [Materials Science Department, Coordinated Science Laboratory, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Refractive indices {ital n} and absorption coefficients {alpha} of epitaxial metastable zincblende structure {beta}-GaN(001) were determined over the subband-gap energy range between 0.8{endash}3.1 eV from an analysis of optical transmission spectra. {ital n} was found to vary from 2.25 to 0.8 eV (1.55 {mu}m) to 2.50 at 3.1 eV (0.4 {mu}m) with an energy {ital E} (eV) dependence that is well described by a Sellmeir-type dispersion relationship, {ital n}{sup 2}({ital E})=1+148/(38.3{minus}{ital E}{sup 2}). The refractive indices of {beta}-GaN are 3{percent}{endash}4{percent} smaller than previously reported values for hexagonal {alpha}-GaN. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Dissociative scattering of low-energy SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions (5-200 eV) on Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, T.A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Dissociative scattering of molecular SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions from a Cu(100) single crystal surface has been investigated in the incident energy range from 5 eV to 200 eV with a scattering angle of 77deg. The scattered ion intensity of dissociative ions and parent molecular ions were measured as a function of incident ion energy. The observed data show that onset energies of dissociation for SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions are 30 eV and 40 eV, respectively. The obtained threshold energies are consistent with a impulsive collision model where the dissociation of incident ion is caused by vibrational excitation during collision. (author)

  8. Allocation of Battery Production Impact between EVs and Battery Reuse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Furuseth, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Significant environmental impacts associated with electric vehicle (EV) Li-ion battery pack production has lead to a desire to explore the possibility of offsetting some of the environmental burdens associated with the battery pack production from the EV to a post-vehicle application. In this study, different battery characteristics were calculated in order to allocate environmental EV Li-ion battery pack production impacts between an EV and selected reuse applications. The battery characteri...

  9. Electron Landau damping in toroidal plasma with Solov'ev equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishanov, N. I.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The contribution of untrapped and two groups of trapped particles to the longitudinal (with respect to the magnetic field) elements of the dielectric susceptibility is determined by solving the drift-kinetic equations for such particles in axisymmetric tokamaks with Solov'ev equilibrium. The obtained dielectric characteristics are applicable for studying linear wave processes in the frequency range of Alfvén and fast magnetosonic waves in small- and large-aspect-ratio tokamaks with circular, elliptical, and D-shaped cross sections of magnetic surfaces. The high-frequency power absorbed in plasma via electron Landau damping is estimated by summing up terms containing the imaginary parts of both diagonal and non-diagonal elements of the longitudinal susceptibility. The imaginary part of the longitudinal susceptibility is calculated numerically for spherical tokamaks in a wide range of wave frequencies and magnetic surface radii.

  10. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to interference of ~1 eV sterile neutrino. The specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST) starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in searches for sterile neutrino mixed with electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST) we find the regions in model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle), which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  11. Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in The EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Smart; Stephen Schey

    2012-04-01

    As concern about society's dependence on petroleum-based transportation fuels increases, many see plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) as enablers to diversifying transportation energy sources. These vehicles, which include plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), range-extended electric vehicles (EREV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV), draw some or all of their power from electricity stored in batteries, which are charged by the electric grid. In order for PEVs to be accepted by the mass market, electric charging infrastructure must also be deployed. Charging infrastructure must be safe, convenient, and financially sustainable. Additionally, electric utilities must be able to manage PEV charging demand on the electric grid. In the Fall of 2009, a large scale PEV infrastructure demonstration was launched to deploy an unprecedented number of PEVs and charging infrastructure. This demonstration, called The EV Project, is led by Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. eTec is partnering with Nissan North America to deploy up to 4,700 Nissan Leaf BEVs and 11,210 charging units in five market areas in Arizona, California, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. With the assistance of the Idaho National Laboratory, eTec will collect and analyze data to characterize vehicle consumer driving and charging behavior, evaluate the effectiveness of charging infrastructure, and understand the impact of PEV charging on the electric grid. Trials of various revenue systems for commercial and public charging infrastructure will also be conducted. The ultimate goal of The EV Project is to capture lessons learned to enable the mass deployment of PEVs. This paper is the first in a series of papers documenting the progress and findings of The EV Project. This paper describes key research objectives of The EV Project and establishes the project background, including lessons learned from previous infrastructure deployment and PEV

  12. Construction Project Forecasting "Practical Use of EV Metrics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda Abbas Sabry

    2014-01-01

    During this professional research--Construction Project Forecasting (Practical Use of EV Metrics), which criticize earned value management as a most distinguished methodology for forecasting the project expected end dates and expecting budget at completion, the field for the research is construction field and specially the projects which content different phases without repetitive tasks. Forecasting for construction project is a complicated process need more than applying one equation only. As assuming that, project performance during finishing stage will be similar to project performance during concrete stage is totally wrong. The case study techniques have been used to prove an important idea and also to implement a suggested protocol which actually implemented and tested and it should be considered as a research finding. The project used in this case study is "Hurgadah Intemational Airport--New Terminal Building", while executing this complex construction projects with different stages the forecasting for the project end date and final end budget were completely not realistic. The above leads to questioning the next: "Is it true that using the earned value indexes for forecasting construction projects end date and final budget is the right way? And if not, what is the right process that should be used in order to reach acceptable forecasting method?" We implement the EV measurements by the normal technique and also implement in the same month the suggested protocol for forecasting, comparing the results proof the effectiveness of the suggested protocol. The findings prove that, the construction projects need special treatment when use the EVM for forecasting. The earned value indexes created to serve the projects which have repeated tasks or can say which got one stage only, like information technology (IT) projects as those projects depending on manpower productivity and also based on few different qualifications. On such type of projects

  13. How to deal with PCR composition problem at $E_0 \\gtrsim 10^{17}$ eV

    CERN Document Server

    Galkin, V I; Bakhromzod, R; Mukumov, A

    2015-01-01

    Basic ideas of muon tracker technique for the solution of primary cosmic ray (PCR) composition problem in the energy range $10^{17}-10^{18}$ eV are presented. The approach uses MC simulation data made with CORSIKA6.990 for "Pamir-XXI" site conditions. Similar technology can certainly be developed for other observation levels and interaction models. One can probably extend it to much higher primary energies.

  14. Why is the Dark Axion Mass $10^{-22}$ eV?

    CERN Document Server

    Chiueh, Tzihong

    2014-01-01

    Scalar field dark matter likely is able to solve all small-scale cosmology problems facing the cold dark matter (CDM), and has become an emerging contender to challenge the CDM. It however requires a particle mass $\\sim 1 - 2 \\times10^{-22}$eV. We find such an extremely small particle mass can naturally arise from a non-QCD axion mechanism, under fairly general assumptions that a few species of self-interacting light particles of comparable masses and a massless gauge boson decouple from the bright sector since the photon temperature exceeds 200 GeV, and the axion is the dominant dark matter. These assumptions also set the axion decay constant scale to several $\\times 10^{16}$ GeV. Given the above axion mass range, we further pin down the dark-sector particles to consist of only one species of fermion and anti-fermion, likely right-handed neutrinos. With a mass around $92-128$ eV, the dark-sector particles may constitute a minority population of dark matter. If the gauge boson lives on SU(2), a dilute instant...

  15. The EV Project Price/Fee Models for Publicly Accessible Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    As plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are introduced to the market place and gain more consumer acceptance, it is important for a robust and self-sustaining non-residential infrastructure of electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) to be established to meet the needs of PEV drivers. While federal and state financial incentives for electric vehicles were in place and remain so today, future incentives are uncertain. In order for PEVs to achieve mainstream adoption, an adequate and sustainable commercial or publicly available charging infrastructure was pursued by The EV Project to encourage increased PEV purchases by alleviating range anxiety, and by removing adoption barriers for consumers without a dedicated overnight parking location to provide a home-base charger. This included determining a business model for publicly accessible charge infrastructure. To establish this business model, The EV Project team created a fee for charge model along with various ancillary offerings related to charging that would generate revenue. And after placing chargers in the field the Project rolled out this fee structure.

  16. EV71病毒核酸快速检测方法的比较%Comparison of Different Molecular Assays for the Rapid Detection of Enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫海燕; 黄学勇; 许玉玲; 马宏; 陈豪敏; 许汴利

    2012-01-01

    Molecular detection of enterovirus (EV)71 RNA based on PCR methods is a quick and sensitive approach. At present, different PCR-based methods for EV71 RNA detection are available, but comparisons of results obtained using different approaches are limited. This study is to compare the analytical sensitivity and specificity of different real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) assays for enterovirus and EV71 detection, Altogether, three rRT-PCR assays and one cRT-PCR assay targeting the 5'UTR gene for universal detection of enterovirus; two rRT-PCR assays andone cRT-PCR assay targeting the VP1 gene for specific detection of EV 71 were examined. All assays showed good specificity. The detection sensitivity ranged from 8. 19 ×10 to 8. 19 ×105 copy equivalents. In general, rRT-PCR assays were more sensitive than cRT-PCR assays. All rRT-PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity for clinical specimens.%PCR方法检测肠道病毒71型(EV71)的分子诊断技术十分快速敏感.目前已有多篇文献报道了不同的检测EV71的PCR方法,但对不同方法检测结果的比较还少有报道.本研究将检测肠道病毒通用5′UTR基因的3种定量PCR(rRT-PCR)方法和1种普通PCR(cRT-PCR)方法和特异性检测EV71的2种rRT-PCR和1种cRT-PCR方法进行特异性和敏感性比较评估.所有试验方法都有较好的特异性,无交叉反应.核酸最低检测限值为从8.19× 101~8.19×105个拷贝,rRT-PCR比cRT-PCR更敏感.所有的rRT-PCR方法检测50份临床标本时都较敏感.

  17. Analysis on influencing factors of EV charging station planning based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F.; Ma, X. F.

    2016-08-01

    As a new means of transport, electric vehicle (EV) is of great significance to alleviate the energy crisis. EV charging station planning has a far-reaching significance for the development of EV industry. This paper analyzes the impact factors of EV charging station planning, and then uses the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to carry on the further analysis to the influencing factors, finally it gets the weight of each influence factor, and provides the basis for the evaluation scheme of the planning of charging stations for EV.

  18. Recombination in the Evolution of Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group that Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    OpenAIRE

    Teemu Smura; Soile Blomqvist; Tytti Vuorinen; Olga Ivanova; Elena Samoilovich; Haider Al-Hello; Carita Savolainen-Kopra; Tapani Hovi; Merja Roivainen

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus). However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C) species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C). In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains ty...

  19. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Technologies for Quantifying Extracellular Vesicles (EVs in Clinical Cerebrospinal Fluids (CSF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny C Akers

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs have emerged as a promising biomarker platform for glioblastoma patients. However, the optimal method for quantitative assessment of EVs in clinical bio-fluid remains a point of contention. Multiple high-resolution platforms for quantitative EV analysis have emerged, including methods grounded in diffraction measurement of Brownian motion (NTA, tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS, vesicle flow cytometry (VFC, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Here we compared quantitative EV assessment using cerebrospinal fluids derived from glioblastoma patients using these methods. For EVs 150 nm in diameter, NTA consistently detected lower number of EVs relative to TRPS. These results unveil the strength and pitfalls of each quantitative method alone for assessing EVs derived from clinical cerebrospinal fluids and suggest that thoughtful synthesis of multi-platform quantitation will be required to guide meaningful clinical investigations.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of novel mouse cell line (NIH/3T3-adapted human enterovirus 71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bianca Luena Victorio

    Full Text Available Since its identification in 1969, Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has been causing periodic outbreaks of infection in children worldwide and most prominently in the Asia-Pacific Region. Understanding the pathogenesis of Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is hampered by the virus's inability to infect small animals and replicate in their derived in vitro cultured cells. This manuscript describes the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of two selected EV71 strains (EV71:TLLm and EV71:TLLmv, which have been adapted to replicate in mouse-derived NIH/3T3 cells, in contrast to the original parental virus which is only able to replicate in primate cell lines. The EV71:TLLm strain exhibited productive infection in all primate and rodent cell lines tested, while EV71:TLLmv exhibited greater preference for mouse cell lines. EV71:TLLmv displayed higher degree of adaptation and temperature adaptability in NIH/3T3 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting much higher fitness in NIH/3T3 cells. In comparison with the parental EV71:BS strain, the adapted strains accumulated multiple adaptive mutations in the genome resulting in amino acid substitutions, most notably in the capsid-encoding region (P1 and viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D. Two mutations, E167D and L169F, were mapped to the VP1 canyon that binds the SCARB2 receptor on host cells. Another two mutations, S135T and K140I, were located in the VP2 neutralization epitope spanning amino acids 136-150. This is the first report of human EV71 with the ability to productively infect rodent cell lines in vitro.

  2. Detection of enterovirus 71 (EV71)%肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宪华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肠道病毒71型(EV71)的检测方法.方法 采用酶联免疫法(ELISA法)、免疫胶体金法(胶体金法)、荧光定量PCR法(PCR法)对1399例手足口病患儿的样本进行检测,并对检测结果进行卡方检验.结果 1399例手足口病患儿样本ELISA法、金标法、PCR法结果的阳性率分别为37.8%、36.0%、39.8%,三种方法检验结果 无显著性差异(x2=4.197,P>0.05).ELISA法与胶体金法及PCR法结果比较均无显著性差异(x2=0.959,P>0.05;x2=1.180,P>0.05);胶体金法与PCR法两者之间差异有统计学意义(x2=4.26,P<0.05).结论 这三种肠道病毒71型(EV71)检测方法无显著差异,但胶体金法方便快捷,PCR法精准,ELISA法可作为常规使用.

  3. More is different: Reconciling eV sterile neutrinos with cosmological mass bounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, Neff. In this paper we discuss a scenario that Neff can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN epoch, but leading to a decrease of Neff. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced. To be consistent with the latest Planck results, at least 3 sterile species are needed.

  4. More Is Different: Reconciling eV Sterile Neutrinos and Cosmological Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    It is generally expected that adding light sterile species would increase the effective number of neutrinos, $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In this paper we discuss a scenario that $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$ can actually decrease due to the neutrino oscillation effect if sterile neutrinos have self-interactions. We specifically focus on the eV mass range, as suggested by the neutrino anomalies. With large self-interactions, sterile neutrinos are not fully thermalized in the early Universe because of the suppressed effective mixing angle or matter effect. As the Universe cools down, flavor equilibrium between active and sterile species can be reached after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch, but leading to a decrease of $N_{\\textrm{eff}}$. In such a scenario, we also show that the conflict with cosmological mass bounds on the additional sterile neutrinos can be relaxed further when more light species are introduced.

  5. Broadband multilayer soft X-ray mirrors for attosecond pulse formation at photon energies above 100 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstetter, Michael; Schuster, Joerg; Kleineberg, Ulf [LMU, Physik (Germany); Aquila, Andrew [CXRO (United States); Schulze, Martin; Fiess, Markus; Gouliemakis, Eleftherios; Krausz, Ferenc [MPQ (Germany); Huth, Martin [LMU, Chemie (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on the development, fabrication and application of multilayer mirrors as broadband soft-X-ray optical components for the formation of attosecond (1 asec=10{sup -18}s)pulses from high harmonic radiation. Until recently, attosecond physics was merely confined to the photon energy range below 100 eV due to the properties of Mo/Si multilayer and single isolated pulses of 80 asec pulse duration have been achieved. For many applications, e.g. in the characterization of the photoemission dynamics from solid surfaces or the characterization of ultrafast surface plasmon dynamics in metallic nanostructures by attosecond pump-probe spectroscopy, higher photon energies are desirable to address deeper bound electronic core states or to increase the kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons. Here, we introduce new aperiodic broad bandwidth multilayer systems based on lanthanum (e.g. LaMo, LaB{sub 4}CMo, LaB{sub 4}C, MoB{sub 4}C),for the 100-190 eV photon energy range. Multilayer properties like interface roughness, interlayer formation and reflectivity are discussed. Finally, first applications for spectral filtering of the HHG comb above 100 eV are presented.

  6. Consistency of modified MLE in EV model with replicated observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Sanguo

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kendall, M., Stuart, A., The Advanced Theory of Statistics, Vol. 2, New York: Charles Griffin, 1979.[2]Anderson, T. W., Estimating linear statistical relationships, Ann. Statist., 1984, 12: 1.[3]Cui Hengjian, Asymptotic normality of M-estimates in the EV model, Sys. Sci. and Math. Sci., 1997, 10(3): 225.[4]Madansky, A., The fitting of straight lines when both variables are subject to error, JASA, 1959, 54: 173.[5]Villegas, C., Maximum likelihood estimations of a linear functional relationship, Ann. Math. Statist., 1961, 32(4): 1048.[6]Stout, W. F., Almost Sure Convergence, New York: Academic Press, 1974.[7]Petrov, V. V., Sums of Independent Random Variables, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[8]Lai, T. L., Robbins, H., Wei, C. Z., Strong consistency of least squares estimates in multiple regression, J. Multivariate Anal., 1979, 9: 343.[9]Chen Xiru, On limiting properties of U-statistics and von-Mises statistics, Scientia Sinica (in Chinese), 1980, (6): 522.

  7. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  8. LARGE-SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF COSMIC RAYS DETECTED ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahlers, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahn, E. J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Albuquerque, I. F. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Almela, A. [Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez Castillo, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves Batista, R. [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Aminaei, A. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Antici' c, T. [Rudjer Boskovi' c Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Arganda, E. [IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. This search is performed as a function of both declination and right ascension in several energy ranges above 10{sup 18} eV, and reported in terms of dipolar and quadrupolar coefficients. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Assuming that any cosmic-ray anisotropy is dominated by dipole and quadrupole moments in this energy range, upper limits on their amplitudes are derived. These upper limits allow us to test the origin of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV from stationary Galactic sources densely distributed in the Galactic disk and predominantly emitting light particles in all directions.

  9. Bounds on sterile neutrino mixing for cosmologically interesting mass range

    CERN Document Server

    Nunokawa, H; Rossi, A; Valle, José W F

    1999-01-01

    This talk summarizes our recent work which studied the impact of resonant neutrino) conversions on supernova physics, under the assumption that the mass of the sterile state is in the few eV -cosmologically significant range.

  10. cdma2000 1x EV-DO关键技术及网络部署%cdma2000 1x EV-DO Key Technologies and Network Deployment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雷; 张忠平

    2005-01-01

    cdma2000 1x EV-DO是3G的主流技术之一,正成为人们关注和研究的一个焦点.本文首先简要介绍了cdma2000 1x EV-DO的一些关键技术,然后对EV-DO网络部署时需要考虑的一些重要问题进行了分析,并给出了一些实验的结果.

  11. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis:A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming; Bai; Xing-Shun; Qi; Zhi-Ping; Yang; Kai-Chun; Wu; Dai-Ming; Fan; Guo-Hong; Han

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis.METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios(ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed.RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95% CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95% CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26(95% CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding.

  12. EV City Casebook: A Look At The Global Electric Vehicle Movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) hold the potential of transforming the way the world moves. EVs can increase energy security by diversifying the fuel mix and decreasing dependence on petroleum, while also reducing emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Just as important, EVs can unlock innovation and create new advanced industries that spur job growth and enhance economic prosperity. However, the mass deployment of EVs will require transportation systems capable of integrating and fostering this new technology. To accelerate this transition, cities and metropolitan regions around the world are creating EV-friendly ecosystems and building the foundation for widespread adoption. In recognition of the importance of urban areas in the introduction and scale-up of electric vehicles, the EV City Casebook presents informative case studies on city and regional EV deployment efforts around the world. These case studies are illustrative examples of how pioneering cities are preparing the ground for mass market EV deployment. They offer both qualitative and quantitative information on cities' EV goals, progress, policies, incentives, and lessons learned to date. The purpose of the EV City Casebook is to share experiences on EV demonstration and deployment, identify challenges and opportunities, and highlight best practices for creating thriving EV ecosystems. These studies seek to enhance understanding of the most effective policy measures to foster the uptake of electric vehicles in urban areas. The cities represented here are actively engaging in a variety of initiatives that share the goal of accelerating EV adoption. This publication is the result of an effort to coordinate those initiatives and provide a global perspective on the electric vehicle movement. This international knowledge-sharing network consists of the Electric Vehicles Initiative (EVI), a multi-government initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial; Project Get Ready, a Rocky Mountain Institute

  13. Positron total cross sections for collisions with N2 and CO2 at 30-3000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deheng Shi; Yufang Liu; Jinfeng Sun; Zunlue Zhi; Xiangdong Yang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The total (elastic plus inelastic) cross sections for positron scattering from N2 and CO2 over the incident energy range from 30 to 3000eV are calculated using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level.A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into account the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is employed to calculate the total cross section of positron-molecule scattering. The calculated total cross sections are in good agreement with those reported by experiments and other theories over a wide energy range.

  14. Evolution of the cosmic ray anisotropy above 10^{14} eV

    CERN Document Server

    Aglietta, M; Alessandro, B; Antonioli, P; Arneodo, F; Bergamasco, L; Bertaina, M; Bonino, R; Castellina, A; Chiavassa, A; Piazzoli, B D'Ettorre; Di Sciascio, G; Fulgione, W; Galeotti, P; Ghia, P L; Iacovacci, M; Mannocchi, G; Morello, C; Navarra, G; Saavedra, O; Stamerra, A; Trinchero, G C; Valchierotti, S; Vallania, P; Vernetto, S; Vigorito, C

    2009-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of the cosmic ray anisotropy are well established experimentally between 10^{11} eV and 10^{14} eV. The study of their evolution into the energy region 10^{14}-10^{16} eV can provide a significant tool for the understanding of the steepening ("knee") of the primary spectrum. In this letter we extend the EAS-TOP measurement performed at E_0 around 10^{14} eV, to higher energies by using the full data set (8 years of data taking). Results derived at about 10^{14} and 4x10^{14} eV are compared and discussed. Hints of increasing amplitude and change of phase above 10^{14} eV are reported. The significance of the observation for the understanding of cosmic ray propagation is discussed.

  15. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2006-12-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2004-02-23 to 2006-12-30 (NODC Accession 0012522)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  16. Temperature and salinity profile data from globally distributed Argo profiling floats for the week of 2009-12-24 for the Global Argo Data Repository, date ranged from 2002-02-15 to 2009-12-30 (NODC Accession 0060860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) operates the Global Argo Data Repository (GADR) as the long-term archive for the International Global Argo Project...

  17. The cosmic ray spectrum and composition measured by KASCADE-Grande between 10{sup 16} eV and 10{sup 18} eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT – Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Souza, V. de [Universidade São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos (Brazil); and others

    2014-11-15

    The shape and composition of the primary spectrum of cosmic rays are key elements to understand the origin, acceleration and propagation of the Galactic cosmic rays. Besides the well known knee and ankle features, the recent results of KASCADE-Grande indicate that the measured energy spectrum exhibits also a less pronounced but still clear deviation from a single power law between the knee and the ankle, with a spectral hardening at 2 × 10{sup 16} eV and a steepening at 10{sup 17} eV. The average mass composition gets heavier after the knee till 10{sup 17} eV where a bending of the heavy component is observed. An indication of a hardening of the light component just above 10{sup 17} eV has been measured as well. In this paper the major results obtained so far by the KASCADE-Grande experiment are reviewed.

  18. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2009/2010; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  19. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2010/2011; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented.

  20. The Development of cdma2000 1xEV-DO Technologies%cdma2000 1xEV-DO技术及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴小燕; 刘宝凤

    2003-01-01

    本文首先比较了cdma2000 1xEV-DO与cdma2000 1x的主要区别,对cdma2000 1xEV-DO中两种不同的系统架构(Phase Ⅰ和Phase Ⅱ)进行了介绍,并针对Phase Ⅰ描述了其A8/A9、A10/A11、A12、A13接口,然后给出了在cdma2000 1x的基础上建立1xEV-DO网络的变迁,对目前1xEV-DO的试验和商用情况、设备和终端的提供情况进行了介绍,最后对终端发展进行了展望.

  1. 基于EV-DO的VoIP QoS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖清华; 李静

    2009-01-01

    为了对基于EV-DO的VoIP QoS有一个定性的了解,文章首先给出了基于EV-DO的QoS架构,提供了EV-DO为VoIP定制的QoS参数,而后在此基础上阐述了在EV-DO网络中实现VoIP端到端的QoS保证的技术方式,对今后顺利实现VoIP应用有着很好的指导意义.

  2. Large Scale Deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Heat Pumps (HPs) in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Petersen, Pauli Fríðheim

    This report describes the study results of large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, focusing on the demand profiles with high peneration of EVs and HPs in 2050......This report describes the study results of large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) in the Nordic countries of Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland, focusing on the demand profiles with high peneration of EVs and HPs in 2050...

  3. cdma2000 1xEV-DO系统中的QoS%QoS in cdma2000 1xEV-DO System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海波; 罗兴国; 唐晓梅

    2005-01-01

    本文首先介绍了cdma2000 1xEV-DO空中接口相关协议对QoS的支持,接着分别从无线接入网、核心网、骨干网三个方面讨论了1xEV-DO系统实现QoS的机制,最后指出了当前系统实现QoS面临的问题.

  4. cdma2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A的多流分组应用%MFPA of cdma2000 1x EV-DO Rev.A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    摩托罗拉公司

    2007-01-01

    cdma2000 1x EV-DO版本A(即release A)将是中国CDMA运营商的3G选择.为使用户能同时支持不同QoS的实时应用,EV-DO Rev.A的数据平面引入了多流分组应用.为配合MFPA的应用,分组数据业务节点(PDSN)亦须做相应的升级.

  5. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  6. Muon groups and primary composition at 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budko, E. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Dogujaev, V. A.; Mihelev, A. R.; Padey, V. A.; Petkov, V. A.; Striganov, P. S.; Suvorova, O. V.; Voevodsky, A. V.

    1985-01-01

    The data on muon groups observed at Baksan underground scintillation telescope is analyzed. In this analysis we compare the experimental data with calulations, based on a superposition model in order to obtain the effective atomic number of primary cosmic rays in the energy range 10 to the 13th power to 10 to the 15th power eV.

  7. Electron scattering cross section data for tungsten and beryllium atoms from 0.1 to 5000 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, F.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; García, G.

    2017-08-01

    We report integral cross sections for electron interactions with tungsten and beryllium atoms in the incident electron energy range from 0.1 up to 5000 eV. The calculated cross sections are obtained for electron-atom scattering processes represented by a complex potential. For tungsten, ionization cross sections are discussed in the electron energy region from threshold up to 5000 eV against the available data from the Deutsch-Märk formalism and a semi-empirical complex scattering potential. Although a reasonable agreement for the ionization cross sections has been found in the overlapping energy region, inconsistencies on the integral inelastic cross sections from the previous semi-empirical approach based on a complex scattering potential ionization contribution, are now amended and comprehensively explained. For beryllium atoms an excellent agreement with previous ‘state-of-the-art’ scattering theory calculations has been found for the integral elastic cross sections. However, the partial contribution of the excitation and ionization channels to the inelastic part shows serious discrepancies which deserve further investigations. Calculated elastic differential cross sections for tungsten are also reported from 0.1 to 5000 eV for scattering angles from 0° to 180°. The present set of cross sectional data may be of relevance for the plasma fusion community.

  8. An upper limit on additional neutrino mass eigenstate in 2 to 100 eV region from "Troitsk nu-mass" data

    CERN Document Server

    Belesev, A I; Geraskin, E V; Golubev, A A; Likhovid, N A; Nozik, A A; Pantuev, V S; Parfenov, V I; Skasyrskaya, A K

    2012-01-01

    We performed a search for any sign of an additional neutrino mass state in beta-electron spectrum based on data reanalysis of direct electron antineutrino mass measurements in Tritium beta-decay in the Troitsk nu-mass experiment. The existing data set allows us to search for such a state in the mass range up to 100 eV. The lowest value at a 95% C.L. upper limit for the contribution of a heavy eigenstate into electron neutrino is around or less than 1% for masses above 20 eV.

  9. Measurement of the Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrum and Composition from 10^{17} to 10^{18.3} eV Using a Hybrid Fluorescence Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Abu-Zayyad, T; Bird, D J; Boyer, J; Cao, Z; Catanese, M; Chen, G F; Clay, R W; Covault, C E; Dai, H Y; Dawson, B R; Elbert, J W; Fick, B E; Fortson, Lucy F; Fowler, J W; Gibbs, K G; Glasmacher, M A K; Green, K D; Huang, A; Jui, C; Kidd, M J; Kieda, D B; Knapp, B C; Larsen, C G; Lee, W; Loh, E C; Mannel, E J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J N; Newport, B J; Nitz, D F; Ong, R A; Simpson, K M; Smith, J D; Sinclair, D; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Song, C; Tang, J K K; Thomas, S B; Der Velde, J; Wiencke, L R; Wilkinson, C R; Yoshida, S; Zhang, X Z

    2001-01-01

    We study the spectrum and average mass composition of cosmic rays with primary energies between 10^{17} eV and 10^{18} eV using a hybrid detector consisting of the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) prototype and the MIA muon array. Measurements have been made of the change in the depth of shower maximum as a function of energy. A complete Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response and comparisons with shower simulations leads to the conclusion that the cosmic ray intensity is changing f rom a heavier to a lighter composition in this energy range. The spectrum is consistent with earlier Fly's Eye measurements and supports the previously found steepening near 4 \\times 10^{17} eV .

  10. Nutritive value of Medicago truncatula (ev. Jemalong) as pasture for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritive value of medic pasture under grazing conditions have, however, been obtained ... parameter was also estimated from chromium faecal grab samples. ..... indication of total feacal output in white tailed deer. J. Range Mgmt. 30,61.

  11. Impact Study of Electric Vehicle (EV) Integration on Medium Voltage (MV) Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The impact study of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration on medium voltage (MV) grids was carried out to quantify the power component loading and voltage profile change in MV grids due to the extra demands from the EV charging. Three charging scenarios, dumb charging, time charging and fleet...

  12. EV Charging Analysis Based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the charging demand profiles of electric vehicles (EVs) based on the National Travel Surveys of the Nordic area. The EV charging analysis is carried out considering different types of charging patterns which are dumb charging, timed charging and spot price based charging...

  13. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  14. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  15. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  16. Sõlmornamendist, eriti muinaskäevõrudel ja setu naiste ülerõivastel / Mare Piho

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piho, Mare, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Artikli ajendiks sai 1972. aastal Setumaalt juhuleiuna saadud 11. sajandi käevõru. Käevõrul kujutaud plettornamenti on kasutatud setu naiste 19. sajandi keskpaiga - 20. sajandi riietelel. Sõlmest kui märgist ja selle tähendusest. Sõlmornamendist setu naiste pealisriietel. Sõlmornamendi järjepidevusest ja püsimisest

  17. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  18. [Inactivation of EV71 by Exposure to Heat and Ultraviolet Light].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Li, Dandi; Xie, Guangcheng; Hu, Yaqian; Zhang, Qing; Kong, Xiangyu; Guo, Nijun; Li, Yuning; Duan, Zhaojun

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that can cause a severe burden of disease to children. To identify an effective method for the control and prevention of EV71, we studied the effect of exposure to heat and ultraviolet (UV) light upon EV71 inactivation. We found that exposure to 50 degrees C could not inactivate the infectivity of EV71. However, exposure to 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C could inactivate EV71 effectively. EV71 could be inactivated after exposure to UV light at a distance between the sample and a lamp of 30 cm for 30 min or 60 min because viral genomic RNA was destroyed. However, fetal bovine serum (FBS) could attenuate the inactivation proffered by heat and UV light. Attenuation effects of FBS were correlated positively with FBS concentration. Hence, EV71 can be inactivated by exposure to heat and UV light, and our results could provide guidance on prevention of the spread of EV71.

  19. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV 71 and coxsackievirus (CV A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg emulsified in submicron particles was found (i to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases.

  20. Progress on the research and development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.

  1. Comparison of the LEGO Mindstorms NXT and EV3 Robotics Education Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Ann; Rhodes, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The release of the latest LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robotics platform in September 2013 has provided a dilemma for many youth robotics leaders. There is a need to understand the differences in the Mindstorms NXT and EV3 in order to make future robotics purchases. In this article the differences are identified regarding software, hardware, sensors, the…

  2. Workplace Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project at Six Work Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at six workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  3. Catalytic Assessment: Understanding How MCQs and EVS Can Foster Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen W.

    2009-01-01

    One technology for education whose adoption is currently expanding rapidly in UK higher education is that of electronic voting systems (EVS). As with all educational technology, whether learning benefits are achieved depends not on the technology but on whether an improved teaching method is introduced with it. EVS inherently relies on the…

  4. Optimization and control method for smart charging of EVs facilitated by Fleet operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Si, Chengyong

    2013-01-01

    challenges to the utility system operator; accordingly, smart charging of EVs is needed. This paper presents a review and classification of methods for smart charging of EVs found in the literature. The study is mainly executed from the control theory perspectives. Firstly, service dependent aggrega......Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral parts of a smart grid, since they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems other than just consuming power. As an important solution to balance the intermittent renewable energy re-sources, such as wind power and PVs, EVs can absorb...... and control of smart charging of EVs. Finally, the paper discusses and proposes future research directions in the area....

  5. Extending the dose range: Probing deep traps in quartz with 3.06 eV photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates that violet (405 nm) stimulated luminescence (VSL) signal from quartz contains contribution from deep traps that are otherwise not accessible with blue light (470 nm). Additionally, it also contains the typical fast and slow components observed with the blue light stimul...

  6. Non-equilibrium GaNAs Alloys with Band Gap Ranging from 0.8-3.4 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    600 °C. The same active N flux with the total N beam equivalent pressure ( BEP ) ~1.5 10-5 Torr and the same deposition time (2hr) were used for the... BEP ~1.5x10-7 and ~7.5x10-6 Torr, respectively. A mono- tonic increase in the As incorporation in the film is ob- served as the growth temperature is

  7. Cosmic rays: the spectrum and chemical composition from $10^{10}$ to $10^{20}$ eV

    CERN Document Server

    Peixoto, C J Todero; Biermann, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    The production of energetic particles in the universe remains one of the great mysteries of modern science. The mechanisms of acceleration in astrophysical sources and the details about the propagation through the galactic and extragalactic media are still to be defined. In recent years, the cosmic ray flux has been measured with high precision in the energy range from \\energy{10} to \\energyEV{20.5} by several experiments using different techniques. In some energy ranges, it has been possible to determine the flux of individual elements (hydrogen to iron nuclei). This paper explores an astrophysical scenario in which only our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A produce all particles measured on Earth in the energy range from \\energy{10} to \\energyEV{20.5}. Data from AMS-02, CREAM, KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande and the Pierre Auger Observatories are considered. The model developed here is able to describe the total and individual particle flux of all experiments considered. It is shown that the theory used here is abl...

  8. Range Tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Jenke, Philipp; Huhle, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we tackle the problem of merging an arbitrary number of range scans (depth images) into a single surface mesh. The mesh-based representation is superior to point-based approaches since it contains important connectivity information. Most previous mesh-based merge methods, however, lose surface details by using simplifying intermediate surface representations (e.g.\\ implicit functions). Such details are essential for further processing steps, especially for feature-preserving r...

  9. Management approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) airborne science investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-09-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  10. Management Approach for NASA's Earth Venture-1 (EV-1) Airborne Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Denkins, Todd C.; Allen, B. Danette

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program Office (PO) is responsible for programmatic management of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Science Mission Directorate's (SMD) Earth Venture (EV) missions. EV is composed of both orbital and suborbital Earth science missions. The first of the Earth Venture missions is EV-1, which are Principal Investigator-led, temporally-sustained, suborbital (airborne) science investigations costcapped at $30M each over five years. Traditional orbital procedures, processes and standards used to manage previous ESSP missions, while effective, are disproportionally comprehensive for suborbital missions. Conversely, existing airborne practices are primarily intended for smaller, temporally shorter investigations, and traditionally managed directly by a program scientist as opposed to a program office such as ESSP. In 2010, ESSP crafted a management approach for the successful implementation of the EV-1 missions within the constructs of current governance models. NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements form the foundation of the approach for EV-1. Additionally, requirements from other existing NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs), systems engineering guidance and management handbooks were adapted to manage programmatic, technical, schedule, cost elements and risk. As the EV-1 missions are nearly at the end of their successful execution and project lifecycle and the submission deadline of the next mission proposals near, the ESSP PO is taking the lessons learned and updated the programmatic management approach for all future Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS) missions for an even more flexible and streamlined management approach.

  11. Taras Ševčenko in the Prose and Poetry of Vasyl’ Stus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Achilli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Ševčenko in the poetry of Vasyl’ Stus and Stus’s widespread stereotypical image as a reincarnation of Ševčenko in the 20th century have occupied an important role in both literary studies and popularization. In my article I reconsider this fundamental issue by discussing Stus’s reception of Ševčenko in his critical essays, his letters, and his poetry. My focus is on both Ševčenko’s presence as a ‘fictional character’ in some poems by Stus and the overall influence of Ševčenko’s poetry on Stus’s poetic writing. Moreover, Stus’s representation of Ševčenko is compared with other images of the 19th-century poet in modern Ukrainian poetry from the Avant-garde up to the Seventies. In the conclusion I point out how Ševčenko’s Romanticism should not be confused with Stus’s Modernism. The former should be seen as a part of the complex intertextual mechanism which lies at the heart of Stus’s poetry.

  12. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the differential elastic scattering cross sections for acetone by electron impact energy of 7.0-50 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastega, D. F.; Lange, E.; Ameixa, J.; Barbosa, A. S.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.

    2016-03-01

    We report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron interactions with acetone, C3H6O . The incident electron energy range was 7.0-50 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varied from 10° to 120°. The calculated cross sections were obtained with two different methodologies, the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP), and the independent-atom method with screening-corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The present elastic DCSs have been found to agree well with the results of IAM-SCAR calculations above 20 eV, and also with the SMC calculations below 30 eV. Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. Comparison with previous DCSs shows good agreement albeit the present data is extended down to lower electron impact energies. We find a low-lying π* shape resonance located at 2.6 eV, in agreement with recent results on electron collisions with acetone [M. G. P. Homem et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 032711 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.032711]. The presence of a σ* resonance is also discussed.

  13. Optical properties of sputtered hexagonal CdZnO films with band gap energies from 1.8 to 3.3 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiangyang; Chen Peiliang; Zhang Ruijie [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang Deren, E-mail: mseyang@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-06-09

    Highlights: > Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents were grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering, which is a simple and widely used method. > The optical band gap energies of Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films were tuned from {approx} 3.3 eV to {approx} 1.8 eV. > The ultraviolet irradiation enhanced photoluminescence from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films was observed. - Abstract: Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films in a wide range of Cd contents have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering. At x {<=} 0.66, the sputtered Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films are of single hexagonal phase. The optical band gap energies of the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films decrease from {approx}3.3 eV at x = 0 to {approx}1.8 eV at x = 0.66. Correspondingly, the near-band-edge photoluminescence is tuned in a wide visible region from {approx}378 to 678 nm. Moreover, the ultraviolet irradiation enhanced PL from the Cd{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O films has been observed.

  14. Complete coding regions of the prototypes enterovirus B93 and C95: phylogenetic analyses of the P1 and P3 regions of EV-B and EV-C strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, N; Lévêque, N; Magnius, L O; Kabue, J P; Muyembe-Tamfum, J J; Maslin, J; Lina, B; Norder, H

    2015-03-01

    Complete coding regions were sequenced for two new enterovirus genomes: EV-B93 previously identified by VP1 sequencing, derived from a child with acute flaccid paralysis in the Democratic Republic of Congo; and EV-C95 from a French soldier with acute gastroenteritis in Djibouti. The EV-B93 P1 had more than 30% nucleotide divergence from other EV-B types, with highest similarity to E-15 and EV-B80. The P1 nucleotide sequence of EV-C95 was most similar, 71%, to CV-A21. Complete coding regions for the new enteroviruses were compared with those of 135 EV-B and 176 EV-C strains representing all types available in GenBank. When strains from the same outbreak or strains isolated during the same year in the same geographical region were excluded, 27 of the 58 EV-B, and 16 of the 23 EV-C types were represented by more than one sequence. However, for EV-B the P3 sequences formed three clades mainly according to origin or time of isolation, irrespective of type, while for EV-C the P3 sequences segregated mainly according to disease manifestation, with most strains causing paralysis, including polioviruses, forming one clade, and strains causing respiratory illness forming another. There was no intermixing of types between these two clades, apart from two EV-C96 strains. The EV-B P3 sequences had lower inter-clade and higher intra-clade variability as compared to the EV-C sequences, which may explain why inter-clade recombinations are more frequent in EV-B. Further analysis of more isolates may shed light on the role of recombinations in the evolution of EV-B in geographical context.

  15. Asymptotic Normality of LS Estimate in Simple Linear EV Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jixue LIU

    2006-01-01

    Though EV model is theoretically more appropriate for applications in which measurement errors exist, people are still more inclined to use the ordinary regression models and the traditional LS method owing to the difficulties of statistical inference and computation. So it is meaningful to study the performance of LS estimate in EV model.In this article we obtain general conditions guaranteeing the asymptotic normality of the estimates of regression coefficients in the linear EV model. It is noticeable that the result is in some way different from the corresponding result in the ordinary regression model.

  16. Comparative analysis of EV isolation procedures for miRNAs detection in serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Andreu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are emerging as potent non-invasive biomarkers. However, current methodologies are time consuming and difficult to translate to clinical practice. To analyse EV-encapsulated circulating miRNA, we searched for a quick, easy and economic method to enrich frozen human serum samples for EV. We compared the efficiency of several protocols and commercial kits to isolate EVs. Different methods based on precipitation, columns or filter systems were tested and compared with ultracentrifugation, which is the most classical protocol to isolate EVs. EV samples were assessed for purity and quantity by nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blot or cytometry against major EV protein markers. For biomarker validation, levels of a set of miRNAs were determined in EV fractions and compared with their levels in total serum. EVs isolated with precipitation-based methods were enriched for a subgroup of miRNAs that corresponded to miRNAs described to be encapsulated into EVs (miR-126, miR-30c and miR-143, while the detection of miR-21, miR-16-5p and miR-19a was very low compared with total serum. Our results point to precipitation using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a suitable method for an easy and cheap enrichment of serum EVs for miRNA analyses. The overall performance of PEG was very similar, or better than other commercial precipitating reagents, in both protein and miRNA yield, but in comparison to them PEG is much cheaper. Other methods presented poorer results, mostly when assessing miRNA by qPCR analyses. Using PEG precipitation in a longitudinal study with human samples, we demonstrated that miRNA could be assessed in frozen samples up to 8 years of storage. We report a method based on a cut-off value of mean of fold EV detection versus serum that provides an estimate of the degree of encapsulation of a given miRNA.

  17. 1-eV GaInNAs solar cells for ultrahigh-frequency multijunction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J.; Geisz, J.F.; Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The authors demonstrate working prototypes of a GaInNAs-based solar cell lattice-matched to GaAs with photoresponse down to 1 eV. This device is intended for use as the third junction of future-generation ultrahigh-efficiency three- and four-junction devices. Under the AM1.5 direct spectrum with all the light higher in energy than the GaAs band gap filtered out, the prototypes have open-circuit voltages ranging from 0.35 to 0.44 V, short-circuit currents of 1.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factors from 61--66%. The short-circuit currents are of principal concern: the internal quantum efficiencies rise only to about 0.2. The authors discuss the short diffusion lengths which are the reason for this low photocurrent. As a partial workaround for the poor diffusion lengths, they demonstrate a depletion-width-enhanced variation of one of the prototype devices that grades off decreased voltage for increased photocurrent, with a short-circuit current of 6.5 mA/cm{sup 2} and an open-circuit voltage of 0.29 V.

  18. Invited Article: High resolution angle resolved photoemission with tabletop 11 eV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu; Vishik, Inna M.; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Lee, James J.; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko N.; Leuenberger, Dominik; Shen, Zhi-Xun [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Liu, Zhongkai [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zong, Alfred [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Jefferson, C. Michael; Merriam, Andrew J. [Lumeras LLC, 207 McPherson St, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Moore, Robert G.; Kirchmann, Patrick S. [SIMES, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with 113.778 nm wavelength (10.897 eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10 MHz, provides a flux of 2 × 10{sup 12} photons/s, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2 meV and 0.012 Å{sup −1}, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2 meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2 Å{sup −1}, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source and showcase its performance for rare earth metal tritellurides, high temperature cuprate superconductors, and iron-based superconductors.

  19. High Resolution Angle Resolved Photoemission with Tabletop 11eV Laser

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yu; Yi, Ming; Yang, Shuolong; Liu, Zhongkai; Lee, James; Chen, Sudi; Rebec, Slavko; Leuenberger, Dominik; Zong, Alfred; Jefferson, Michael; Moore, Robert; Kirchmann, Patrick; Merriam, Andrew; Shen, Zhixun

    2015-01-01

    We developed a table-top vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser with $113.778$nm wavelength (10.897eV) and demonstrated its viability as a photon source for high resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). This sub-nanosecond pulsed VUV laser operates at a repetition rate of 10MHz, provides a flux of 2$\\times$10$^{12}$ photons/second, and enables photoemission with energy and momentum resolutions better than 2meV and 0.012\\AA$^{-1}$, respectively. Space-charge induced energy shifts and spectral broadenings can be reduced below 2meV. The setup reaches electron momenta up to 1.2\\AA$^{-1}$, granting full access to the first Brillouin zone of most materials. Control over the linear polarization, repetition rate, and photon flux of the VUV source facilitates ARPES investigations of a broad range of quantum materials, bridging the application gap between contemporary low energy laser-based ARPES and synchrotron-based ARPES. We describe the principles and operational characteristics of this source, and sho...

  20. EvArnoldi: A New Algorithm for Large-Scale Eigenvalue Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Ezer, Hillel

    2016-05-19

    Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are an essential theme in numerical linear algebra. Their study is mainly motivated by their high importance in a wide range of applications. Knowledge of eigenvalues is essential in quantum molecular science. Solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the electrons composing the molecule are the basis of electronic structure theory. Electronic eigenvalues compose the potential energy surfaces for nuclear motion. The eigenvectors allow calculation of diople transition matrix elements, the core of spectroscopy. The vibrational dynamics molecule also requires knowledge of the eigenvalues of the vibrational Hamiltonian. Typically in these problems, the dimension of Hilbert space is huge. Practically, only a small subset of eigenvalues is required. In this paper, we present a highly efficient algorithm, named EvArnoldi, for solving the large-scale eigenvalues problem. The algorithm, in its basic formulation, is mathematically equivalent to ARPACK ( Sorensen , D. C. Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi/Lanczos Methods for Large Scale Eigenvalue Calculations ; Springer , 1997 ; Lehoucq , R. B. ; Sorensen , D. C. SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications 1996 , 17 , 789 ; Calvetti , D. ; Reichel , L. ; Sorensen , D. C. Electronic Transactions on Numerical Analysis 1994 , 2 , 21 ) (or Eigs of Matlab) but significantly simpler.

  1. Search for eV sterile neutrinos at a nuclear reactor — the Stereo project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, J.; Stereo Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The re-analyses of the reference spectra of reactor antineutrinos together with a revised neutrino interaction cross section enlarged the absolute normalization of the predicted neutrino flux. The tension between previous reactor measurements and the new prediction is significant at 2.7 σ and is known as “reactor antineutrino anomaly”. In combination with other anomalies encountered in neutrino oscillation measurements, this observation revived speculations about the existence of a sterile neutrino in the eV mass range. Mixing of this light sterile neutrino with the active flavours would lead to a modification of the detected antineutrino flux. An oscillation pattern in energy and space could be resolved by a detector at a distance of few meters from a reactor core: the neutrino detector of the Stereo project will be located at about 10 m distance from the ILL research reactor in Grenoble, France. Lengthwise separated in six target cells filled with 2 m3 Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in total, the experiment will search for a position-dependent distortion in the energy spectrum.

  2. Calculation of resonance self-shielding for {sup 235}U from 0 to 2250 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Derrien, H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Santos, G.R. [Cidade Univ., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Nuclear

    1998-08-01

    Over the years, the evaluated {sup 235}U cross sections in the resolved energy range have been extensively revised. A major accomplishment was the first evaluation released to the ENDF/B-VI library. In that evaluation, the low energy range bound was lowered to 10{sup {minus}5} eV, and the upper limit raised to 2,250 eV. Several high-resolution measurements in conjunction with the Bayesian computer code SAMMY were used to perform the analysis of the {sup 235}U resonance parameters. SAMMY uses the Reich-Moore formalism, which is adequate for representing neutron cross sections of fissile isotopes, and a generalized least-squares (Bayes) technique for determining the energy-dependence of the neutron cross sections. Recently a re-evaluation of the {sup 235}U cross section in the resolved resonance region was completed. This evaluation has undergone integral tests in various laboratories throughout the USA and abroad. The evaluation has been accepted for inclusion in ENDF/B-VI release 5. The intent of this work is to present results of calculations of self-shielded fission rates carried out with these resonance parameters and to compare those fission rates with experimental data. Results of this comparison study provide an assessment of the resonance parameters with respect to the calculation of self-shielded group cross sections.

  3. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2011/2012; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  4. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. Annual report 2011/2012; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 2011/2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) outlines the cultivation of industrial crops and energy plants in Germany. The organisational structure of the association and its research projects are presented for the fiscal year 2011/2012.

  5. The origin of 2.7 eV luminescence and 5.2 eV excitation band in hafnium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perevalov, T. V., E-mail: timson@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 13 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A. [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of SB RAS, 13 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Saraev, A. A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of SB RAS, 5 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kaichev, V. V. [Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of SB RAS, 5 Lavrentieva Ave, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of RAS, 26 Politechnicheskaya St., 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-17

    The origin of a blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and a luminescence excitation band at 5.2 eV of hafnia has been studied in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric hafnium oxide films. Experimental and calculated results from the first principles valence band spectra showed that the stoichiometry violation leads to the formation of the peak density of states in the band gap caused by oxygen vacancies. Cathodoluminescence in the non-stoichiometric film exhibits a band at 2.65 eV that is excited at the energy of 5.2 eV. The optical absorption spectrum calculated for the cubic phase of HfO{sub 2} with oxygen vacancies shows a peak at 5.3 eV. Thus, it could be concluded that the blue luminescence band at 2.7 eV and HfO{sub x} excitation peak at 5.2 eV are due to oxygen vacancies. The thermal trap energy in hafnia was estimated.

  6. Commercial Electric Vehicle (EV) Development and Manufacturing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeve, Dion

    2014-06-30

    Navistar with the Department of Energy’s assistance undertook this effort to achieve the project objectives as listed in the next section. A wholly owned subsidiary of Navistar, Workhorse Sales Corporation was the original grant awardee and upon their discontinuation as a standalone business entity, Navistar assumed the role of principal investigator. The intent of the effort, as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was to produce zero emission vehicles that could meet the needs of the marketplace while reducing carbon emissions to zero. This effort was predicated upon the assumption that concurrent development activities in the lithium ion battery industry investigations would significantly increase their production volumes thus leading to substantial reductions in their manufacturing costs. As a result of this development effort much was learned about the overall system compatibility between the electric motor, battery pack, and charging capabilities. The original system was significantly revised and improved during the execution of this development effort. The overall approach that was chosen was to utilize a British zero emissions, class 2 truck that had been developed for their market, homologate it and modify it to meet the product requirements as specified in the grant details. All of these specific goals were achieved. During the course of marketing and selling the product valuable information was obtained as relates to customer expectations, price points, and product performance expectations, specifically those customer expectations about range requirements in urban delivery situations. While the grant requirements specified a range of 100 miles on a single charge, actual customer usage logs indicate a range of 40 miles or less is typical for their applications. The price point, primarily due to battery pack costs, was significantly higher than the mass market could bear. From Navistar’s and the overall industry’s perspective

  7. Eesti Vabariigi aastapäev Karlsruhes pakkus vaimset toitu ja sealiha / Meeli Bagger

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bagger, Meeli, 1958-

    2003-01-01

    22. veebr. 2003 tähistas Karlsruhe Saksa-Eesti Selts EV 85. aastapäeva koosviibimisega, kus Euroopa Parlamendi liige Evelyn Gebhardt esitas ettekande teemal "Eesti Euroopa Liidu lävel", toimus kontsert ja traditsiooniline pidu

  8. Optimal Operation of EVs and HPs in the Nordic Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi

    -fill" pattern to the grid when it is introduced into the day-ahead electricity market. A combined modeling of the EV and HP energy planning is proposed for both the energy plans in the day-ahead electricity market and the frequency reserve provision decisions in the ancillary service market. It is shown...... that both EVs and HPs can provide considerable frequency reserves to the power system along the day in the Nordic region. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technologies which enable the EVs to discharge the batteries in the reserve operations can further utilize the capacity of the EVs and consequently increase...... the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and the fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also as a potential approach to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region. With increasing amounts of RES in the power system...

  9. ASYMPTOTIC NORMALITY OF PARAMETERS ESTIMATION IN EV MODEL WITH REPLICATED OBSERVATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张三国; 陈希孺

    2002-01-01

    This paper based on the essay [1], studies in case that replicated observations are available in some experimental points, the parameters estimation of one dimensional linear errors-in-variables (EV) models. Asymptotic normality is established.

  10. Inequalities of Čebyšev Type for Lipschitzian Functions in Banach Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldea Marius V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give some Čebyšev type norm inequalities for two Lipschitzian functions on Banach algebras. Some examples for power function, exponential and the resolvent functions are also provided

  11. Optimising production using the state-contingent approach versus the EV approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    It is not clear whether the state-contingent approach to decision making under risk and uncertainty has the potential of providing better decisions than the well-known EV model based on an estimated stochastic production function and variance measures. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulation...... different types of utility functions, i.e. linear utility function, EV-utility function and a Cobb Douglas utility function based on state-contingent income measures. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out for various numbers of observations. Finally the results are compared to the true optimal choice...... of input, to identify the most efficient model; the EV-model or the model based on the state-contingent approach. The main result is that under certain conditions, the state-contingent approach performs better than the EV model....

  12. Cultural and morphological properties of the vaccine strain Yersinia pestis EV NIIEG bacteria after photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulianova, Onega V.; Lyapina, Anna M.; Khizhnyakova, Mariya A.; Laskavy, Vladislav N.; Feodorova, Valentina A.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.

    2015-03-01

    New method of photoinactivation of plague microbes (bacteria Yersinia pestis) has been suggested. Rate of growth of colonies of Y. pestis EV NIIEG at specific regimes of photo processing have been analyzed. Dependence of growth on exposure time and concentrations of photosensitizer (methylene blue) has been studied. Number of colony forming units of Y. pestis EV NIIEG bacteria as a function of intensity of light and concentration of methylene blue has been scrutinized.

  13. Hierarchical Agent-Based Integrated Modelling Approach for Microgrids with Adoption of EVs and HRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large adoption of electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs, and the increasing of the loads shall bring significant challenges to the microgrid. The methodology to model microgrid with high EVs and HRESs penetrations is the key to EVs adoption assessment and optimized HRESs deployment. However, considering the complex interactions of the microgrid containing massive EVs and HRESs, any previous single modelling approaches are insufficient. Therefore in this paper, the methodology named Hierarchical Agent-based Integrated Modelling Approach (HAIMA is proposed. With the effective integration of the agent-based modelling with other advanced modelling approaches, the proposed approach theoretically contributes to a new microgrid model hierarchically constituted by microgrid management layer, component layer, and event layer. Then the HAIMA further links the key parameters and interconnects them to achieve the interactions of the whole model. Furthermore, HAIMA practically contributes to a comprehensive microgrid operation system, through which the assessment of the proposed model and the impact of the EVs adoption are achieved. Simulations show that the proposed HAIMA methodology will be beneficial for the microgrid study and EV’s operation assessment and shall be further utilized for the energy management, electricity consumption prediction, the EV scheduling control, and HRES deployment optimization.

  14. Additivity Rule for Electron-Molecule Total Cross Section Calculations at 50-5000 eV: A Geometrical Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI De-Heng; SUN Jin-Feng; MA Heng; ZHU Zun-Lue; YANG Xiang-Dong

    2007-01-01

    To quantify the changes of the geometric shielding effect in a molecule as the incident electron energy varies,we present an empirical fraction, which represents the total cross section (TCS) contributions of shielded atoms in a molecule at different energies. Using this empirical fraction, a new formulation of the additivity rule is proposed. Using this new additivity rule, the TCSs for electron scattering by CO2, C2H2, C6H12 (cyclo-hexane) and CsH16 (cyclo-octane) are calculated in the range 50-5000 eV. Here the atomic cross sections are derived from the experimental TCS results of simple molecules (H2, O2, CO). The quantitative TCSs are compared with those obtained by experiments and other theories, and good agreement is attained over a wide energy range.

  15. Fluorescence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers between 10^16.5 eV and 10^19 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. N.; Zundel, Z.; Jui, C. C. H.; Smith, J. D.; Thomas, S. B.; Ivanov, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 10^18 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km^2, with 1.2km spacing. The TA Collaboration is in the process of building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes will observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. We have already observed multi-telescope cosmic ray events as well as the scattered light from the central laser (CLF). By 4/2013, all ten telescopes will have been commissioned and the first 35 scintillator counters will have been deployment by helicopter. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10^16.5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE.

  16. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Shaofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71, one of the most important neurotropic EVs, has caused death and long-term neurological sequelae in hundreds of thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade. The neurological diseases are attributed to infection by EV71 inducing an extensive peripheral and central nervous system (CNS inflammatory response with abnormal cytokine production and lymphocyte depletion induced by EV71 infection. In the absence of specific antiviral agents or vaccines, an effective immunosuppressive strategy would be valuable to alleviate the severity of the local inflammation induced by EV71 infection. Presentation of the hypothesis The complement system plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response. Inappropriate or excessive activation of the complement system results in a severe inflammatory reaction or numerous pathological injuries. Previous studies have revealed that EV71 infection can induce complement activation and an inflammatory response of the CNS. CR2-targeted complement inhibition has been proved to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases, such as influenza virus-induced lung tissue injury, postischemic cerebral injury and spinal cord injury. In this paper, a mouse model is proposed to test whether a recombinant fusion protein consisting of CR2 and a region of Crry (CR2-Crry is able to specifically inhibit the local complement activation induced by EV71 infection, and to observe whether this treatment strategy can alleviate or even cure the neurogenic inflammation. Testing the hypothesis CR2-Crry is expressed in CHO cells, and its biological activity is determined by complement inhibition assays. 7-day-old ICR mice are inoculated intracranially with EV71 to duplicate the neurological symptoms. The mice are then divided into two groups, in one of which the mice are treated with CR2-Crry targeted complement inhibitor, and in the other with phosphate-buffered saline. A

  17. Calculations on various total cross-sections of electron impact on group VA - atoms-threshold to 2000 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, K N; Gangopadhyay, Sumona; Kothari, Harshit N [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388 120 (India); Shelat, Foram A, E-mail: knjoshipura@yahoo.co, E-mail: sumona_013@yahoo.co.i [GCET Engineering college, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388 120 (India)

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we have calculated various total cross-sections of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth (Group VA-atoms) in the energy range of 15 to 2000 eV. Spherical Complex potential formalism is used to derive total as well as inelastic cross-sections. We have developed CSP-ic method by which we can extract ionization cress-section from the inelastic cross-section. Our results are compared with available theoretical and experimental data.

  18. First Measurements of Ambient Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM at the EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratz L. E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, a global-scale network of ground-based atmospheric monitoring sites is being developed with the objective of expanding the global coverage of atmospheric mercury (Hg measurements and improving our understanding of global atmospheric Hg transport. An important addition to the GMOS monitorng network has been the high altitude EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory, located at an elevation of 5,050 meters a.s.l. in the eastern Himalaya Mountains of Nepal. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM using the Tekran 2537A Mercury Vapor Analyzer began at the EvK2CNR Pyramid Observatory in November 2011. From 17 November 2011 to 23 April 2012, the mean concentration of TGM at the Pyramid was 1.2 ng m−3. A range of concentrations from 0.7 to 2.6 ng m−3 has been observed. These are the first reported measurements of atmospheric Hg in Nepal, and currently this is the highest altitude monitoring station for atmospheric Hg in the world. It is anticipated that these high quality measurements, in combination with the other continuous atmospheric measurments being collected at the Pyramid station, will help to further our understanding of Hg concentrations in the free troposphere and the transport of atmospheric Hg on the global scale.

  19. A new Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope at the ALS for operation up to 2500eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcoyne, David; Ade, Harald; Attwood, David; Hitchcock, Adam; McKean, Pat; Mitchell, Gary; Monteiro, Paulo; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the design and construction of a higher energy Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope on a new bend magnet beam line at the Advanced Light Source. Previously we have operated such an instrument on a bend magnet for C, N and O 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The new instrument will have similar performance at higher energies up to and including the S 1s edge at 2472eV. A new microscope configuration is planned. A more open geometry will allow a fluorescence detector to count emitted photons from the front surface of the sample. There will be a capability for zone plate scanning in addition to the more conventional sample scanning mode. This will add the capability for imaging a massive sample at high resolution over a limited field of view, so that heavy reaction cells may be used to study processes in-situ, exploiting the longer photon attenuation length and the longer zone plate working distances available at higher photon energy. The energy range will extend down to include the C1s edge at 300eV, to allow high energy NEXAFS microscopic studies to correlate with the imaging of organics in the same sample region of interest.

  20. Demonstration experiment of a laser synchrotron source for tunable, monochromatic x-rays at 500 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, A.; Fischer, R.; Fisher, A. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A Laser Synchrotron Source (LSS) was proposed to generate short-pulsed, tunable x-rays by Thomson scattering of laser photons from a relativistic electron beam. A proof-of-principle experiment was performed to generate x-ray photons of 20 eV. A demonstration experiment is being planned and constructed to generate x-ray photons in the range of {approximately}500 eV. Laser photons of {lambda}=1.06 {mu}m are Thomson backscattered by a 4.5 MeV electron beam which is produced by an S-band RF electron gun. The laser photons are derived from either (i) a 15 Joules, 3 nsec Nd:glass laser, (ii) the uncompressed nsec: pulse of the NRL table-top terawatt (T{sup 3}) laser, or (iii) the compressed sub-picosec pulse of the T{sup 3} laser. The RF electron gun is being constructed with initial operation using a thermionic cathode. It will be upgraded to a photocathode to produce high quality electron beams with high current and low emittance. The x-ray pulse structure consists of {approximately}10 psec within an envelope of a macropulse whose length depends on the laser used. The estimated x-ray photon flux is {approximately}10{sup 18} photons/sec, and the number of photons per macropulse is {approximately}10{sup 8}. Design parameters and progress of the experiment will be presented.

  1. Earth sciences within the project Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesy and geophysics; Le scienze della Terra nel progetto Ev-K2-CNR: Geodesia e geofisica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poretti, Giorgio [Trieste, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Matematiche

    1997-05-01

    Earth Sciences started the Ev-K2-CNR project in 1987 with the comparison between the heights of Mt. Everest and K2. Several gravimetric campaigns followed in the most difficult areas of the Himalayas. In 1991 a GPS network was established in Nepal for the determination of the Earth crust movements in the area. In 1992 a precise measurement of mount Everest was performed with classical and satellite technologies. Mount K2 was remeasured in Summer 1996.

  2. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  3. Usage of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Along the Corridors between the EV Project Major Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindy Kirkpatrick

    2012-05-01

    The report explains how the EVSE are being used along the corridors between the EV Project cities. The EV Project consists of a nationwide collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL), ECOtality North America, Nissan, General Motors, and more than 40 other city, regional and state governments, and electric utilities. The purpose of the EV Project is to demonstrate the deployment and use of approximately 14,000 Level II (208-240V) electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) and 300 fast chargers in 16 major cities. This research investigates the usage of all currently installed EV Project commercial EVSE along major interstate corridors. ESRI ArcMap software products are utilized to create geographic EVSE data layers for analysis and visualization of commercial EVSE usage. This research locates the crucial interstate corridors lacking sufficient commercial EVSE and targets locations for future commercial EVSE placement. The results and methods introduced in this research will be used by INL for the duration of the EV Project.

  4. Progress on the research and development of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenglun; Mao, Qunying; Gao, Fan; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-03-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, which can cause severe complications, have become one of the serious public health issues in the Western Pacific region and China. To date, a number of pharmaceutical companies and institutes have initiated the research and development of EV71 vaccines as a countermeasure. As is the case with innovative vaccine development, there are several critical bottlenecks in EV71 vaccine development that must be overcome before the clinical trials, including the selection of vaccine strain, standardization of the procedure for quantifying neutralizing antibody (NTAb) and antigen, establishment and application of a reference standard and biological standards, development of animal models for the evaluation of protective efficacy, and identification of the target patient population. To tackle these technical obstacles, researchers in Mainland of China have conducted a series of studies concerning the screening of vaccine strains and the establishment of criteria, biological standards and detection methods, thereby advancing EV71 vaccine development. This review summarizes recent worldwide progress on the quality control and evaluation of EV71 vaccines.

  5. Supernova 2010ev: A reddened high velocity gradient type Ia supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Claudia P; Folatelli, Gastón; Pignata, Giuliano; Anderson, Joseph P; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taubenberger, Stefan; Bufano, Filomena; Olivares, Felipe E; Haislip, Joshua B; Reichart, Daniel E

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present and study the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2010ev. Methods. We obtain and analyze multi-band optical light curves and optical-near-infrared spectroscopy at low and medium resolution spanning from -7 days to +300 days from the B-band maximum. Results. A photometric analysis shows that SN 2010ev is a SN Ia of normal brightness with a light curve shape of $\\Delta m_{15}(B)=1.12 \\pm 0.02$ and a stretch s = $0.94 \\pm 0.01$ suffering significant reddening. From photometric and spectroscopic analysis, we deduce a color excess of $E(B - V) = 0.25 \\pm 0.05$ and a reddening law of $R_v = 1.54 \\pm 0.65$. Spectroscopically, SN 2010ev belongs to the broad-line SN Ia group, showing stronger than average Si II {\\lambda}6355 absorption features. We also find that SN 2010ev is a high-velocity gradient SN, with a value of $164 \\pm 7$ km s$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$. The photometric and spectral comparison with other supernovae shows that SN 2010ev has similar colors and velocit...

  6. The evolution of Vp1 gene in enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae, consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes. The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes. An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21, CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific 'signature' amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific 'signature' amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared.

  7. The Evolution of Vp1 Gene in Enterovirus C Species Sub-Group That Contains Types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smura, Teemu; Blomqvist, Soile; Vuorinen, Tytti; Ivanova, Olga; Samoilovich, Elena; Al-Hello, Haider; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Roivainen, Merja

    2014-01-01

    Genus Enterovirus (Family Picornaviridae,) consists of twelve species divided into genetically diverse types by their capsid protein VP1 coding sequences. Each enterovirus type can further be divided into intra-typic sub-clusters (genotypes). The aim of this study was to elucidate what leads to the emergence of novel enterovirus clades (types and genotypes). An evolutionary analysis was conducted for a sub-group of Enterovirus C species that contains types Coxsackievirus A21 (CVA-21), CVA-24, Enterovirus C95 (EV-C95), EV-C96 and EV-C99. VP1 gene datasets were collected and analysed to infer the phylogeny, rate of evolution, nucleotide and amino acid substitution patterns and signs of selection. In VP1 coding gene, high intra-typic sequence diversities and robust grouping into distinct genotypes within each type were detected. Within each type the majority of nucleotide substitutions were synonymous and the non-synonymous substitutions tended to cluster in distinct highly polymorphic sites. Signs of positive selection were detected in some of these highly polymorphic sites, while strong negative selection was indicated in most of the codons. Despite robust clustering to intra-typic genotypes, only few genotype-specific ‘signature’ amino acids were detected. In contrast, when different enterovirus types were compared, there was a clear tendency towards fixation of type-specific ‘signature’ amino acids. The results suggest that permanent fixation of type-specific amino acids is a hallmark associated with evolution of different enterovirus types, whereas neutral evolution and/or (frequency-dependent) positive selection in few highly polymorphic amino acid sites are the dominant forms of evolution when strains within an enterovirus type are compared. PMID:24695547

  8. Photoionization of iodine atoms: Angular distributions and relative partial photoionization cross-sections in the energy region 11.0-23.0 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eypper, Marie; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Morris, Alan; Dyke, John M.; Stranges, Stefano; West, John B.; King, George C.

    2010-08-01

    Relative partial photoionization cross-sections and angular distribution parameters, β, have been measured for the first, I+(P32)←I(P23/2), and fourth, I+(D12)←I(P23/2), (5p)-1 photoelectron (PE) bands of atomic iodine, by performing angle-resolved constant-ionic-state (CIS) measurements on these PE bands in the photon energy range 11.0-23.0 eV. Three Rydberg series, two ns and one nd series, which converge to the I+ P31 limit at 11.33 eV and four Rydberg series, two ns and two nd series, which converge to the I+ D12 limit at 12.15 eV were observed in the first PE band CIS spectra. The fourth band CIS spectrum showed structure in the 12.9-14.1eV photon energy range, which is also seen in the first band CIS spectra. This structure arises from excitation to ns and nd Rydberg states that are parts of series converging to the I+ S10 limit we reported on earlier, as well as 5s→5p excitations in the photon energy range 17.5-22.5 eV. These atomic iodine CIS spectra show reasonably good agreement with the equivalent spectra obtained for atomic bromine. The β-plots for the first PE band recorded up to the I+ P31 and I+ D12 limits only show resonances corresponding to some of the 5p→nd excitations observed in the first band CIS spectra scanned to the I+ D12 limit (12.15 eV). These plots are interpreted in terms of an angular momentum transfer model with the positive values of β obtained on resonances corresponding to parity allowed jt=1 and 3 channels and the off-resonance negative β values corresponding to parity unfavored channels, where jt is the quantum number for angular momentum transfer between the molecule, and the ion and photoelectron. The β-plots recorded for iodine are significantly different from those obtained for atomic bromine. Comparison of the experimental CIS spectra and β-plots with available theoretical results highlights the need for higher level calculations which include factors such as configuration interaction in the initial and final

  9. Development of Lattice-Matched 1.7 eV GalnAsP Solar Cells Grown on GaAs by MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Nikhil; Oshima, Ryuji; France, Ryan; Geisz, John; Norman, Andrew; Dippo, Pat; Levi, Dean; Young, Michelle; Olavarria, Waldo; Steiner, Myles A.

    2016-11-21

    To advance the state-of-the-art in III-V multijunction solar cells towards high concentration efficiencies approaching 50%, development of a high-quality ~1.7 eV second junction solar cell is of key interest for integration in five or more junction devices. Quaternary GalnAsP solar cells grown lattice-matched on GaAs allows bandgap tunability in the range from 1.42 to 1.92 eV and offers an attractive Al-free alternative to conventional AlGaAs solar cells. In this work, we investigate the role of growth temperature towards understanding the optimal growth window for realizing high-quality GalnAsP alloys. We demonstrate bandgap tunability from 1.6 to 1.8 eV in GalnAsP alloys for compositions close to the miscibility gap, while still maintaining lattice-matched condition to GaAs. We perform an in-depth investigation to understand the impact of varying base thickness and doping concentration on the carrier collection and performance of these 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cells. The photo-response of these cells is found to be very sensitive to p-type zinc dopant incorporation in the base layer. We demonstrate prototype 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cell designs that leverage enhanced depletion width as an effective method to overcome this issue and boost long-wavelength carrier collection. Short-circuit current density (JSC) measured in field-aided devices were as high as 17.25 m A/cm2. The best GalnAsP solar cell in this study achieved an efficiency of 17.2% with a JSC of 17 m A/cm2 and a fill-factor of 86.4%. The corresponding open-circuit voltage (VOC) 1.7 eV measured on this cell represents the highest Voc reported for a 1.7 eV GalnAsP solar cell. These initial cell results are encouraging and highlight the potential of Al-free GalnAsP solar cells for integration in the next generation of III-V multijunction solar cells.

  10. EV Charging Through Wireless Power Transfer: Analysis of Efficiency Optimization and Technology Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John M [ORNL; Rakouth, Heri [Delphi Automotive Systems, USA; Suh, In-Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at reviewing the technology trends for wireless power transfer (WPT) for electric vehicles (EV). It also analyzes the factors affecting its efficiency and describes the techniques currently used for its optimization. The review of the technology trends encompasses both stationary and moving vehicle charging systems. The study of the stationary vehicle charging technology is based on current implementations and on-going developments at WiTricity and Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). The moving vehicle charging technology is primarily described through the results achieved by the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST) along with on-going efforts at Stanford University. The factors affecting the efficiency are determined through the analysis of the equivalent circuit of magnetic resonant coupling. The air gap between both transmitting and receiving coils along with the magnetic field distribution and the relative impedance mismatch between the related circuits are the primary factors affecting the WPT efficiency. Currently the industry is looking at an air gap of 25 cm or below. To control the magnetic field distribution, Kaist has recently developed the Shaped Magnetic Field In Resonance (SMFIR) technology that uses conveniently shaped ferrite material to provide low reluctance path. The efficiency can be further increased by means of impedance matching. As a result, Delphi's implementation of the WiTricity's technology exhibits a WPT efficiency above 90% for stationary charging while KAIST has demonstrated a maximum efficiency of 83% for moving vehicle with its On Line Vehicle (OLEV) project. This study is restricted to near-field applications (short and mid-range) and does not address long-range technology such as microwave power transfer that has low efficiency as it is based on radiating electromagnetic waves. This paper exemplifies Delphi's work in powertrain electrification as part of its innovation for the real world

  11. Total electron scattering cross sections for NO, CO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (E{sub i} >= 50 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshipura, K.N. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India). Dept. of Physics; Patel, P.M. [VP and RPTP Science Coll., Vallabh Vidyanagar (India)

    1996-09-14

    Various total cross sections for electron scattering on the heteronuclear molecules NO, CO, NO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} are calculated at energies from 50 eV onwards. The approximate additivity rule used earlier has been modified by separating e{sup -}-molecule interactions into short-range and long-range parts. The resulting modified additivity rule for e{sup -}-molecule cross sections is simple but more effective and it yields better accord with experiments, especially above 100 eV incident energy. (Author).

  12. Radar Observations and the Shape of Near-Earth Asteroid 2008 EV5

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Michael W; Benner, Lance A M; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D; Jao, Joseph S; Scheeres, Daniel J; Magri, Christopher; Nolan, Michael C; Howell, Ellen S; Taylor, Patrick A; Margot, Jean-Luc; Brisken, Walter

    2011-01-01

    We observed the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array during December 2008. EV5 rotates retrograde and its overall shape is a 400 /pm 50 m oblate spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is notably smooth on decameter scales. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. The equatorial ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid in the past. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact and later regolith redistribution may have erased smaller features, explaining the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  13. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV......Rapid deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) and concerns regarding their impacts on power systems provide new opportunities for utilizing more electrical energy storage system (EESS) in power systems. Peak-shaving in high Photovoltaic (PV) penetration conditions and providing ancillary...... service in high load conditions are among the applications of EESS in distribution systems. In this paper, a new method is developed based on the voltage sensitivity analysis of the network in order to calculate the EESS capacity required for prevention of voltage rise and voltage drop in distribution...

  14. Construction and characterization of infectious cDNA clones of enterovirus 71(EV71)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-wei; Ma; Shu-bin; Hao; Le-le; Sun; Jing; Li; Qiao; Qiao; Feng; Gao; Li; Zhao; Xue-jie; Yu; Zhi-yu; Wang; Hong-ling; Wen

    2015-01-01

    Dear Editor,Enterovirus 71(EV71),a member of the genus Enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae,is a single-stranded,positive-sense RNA virus that usually causes mild handfoot-mouth disease(HFMD)in children,with symptoms such as fever,diarrhea,and herpangina(Liu et al.,2013).However,certain strains of EV71 infection can cause severe neurological complications,such as SDLY107(Sun et al.,2014).EV71 is classified into three distinct genotypes(A–C);the B and C genotypes are further divided into B1–B5 and C1–C5 genotypes,respectively,based on

  15. Q-chat基于EV-DO的高效能一键通

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐超

    2008-01-01

    随着电信全面推动CDMA网络向EV-DO升级,具有方便快捷、络向EV-DO升级,具有方便快捷、成本低廉、功能强大特点的Q-chat有着更加广泛的推广空间。在不久的未来,Q-chat业务有可能成为2G时代短信这样的“杀手级”业务。

  16. ANALIZA OPISNEGA OCENJEVANJA: PERSPEKTIVA UČITELJEV IN STARŠEV

    OpenAIRE

    Kranjčec, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Magistrsko delo z naslovom Analiza opisnega ocenjevanja: perspektiva učiteljev in staršev je nastalo z namenom, da predstavim mnenja staršev o razumljivosti in informativnosti opisnih ocen, ter podam njihove predloge za izboljšanje le teh. Namen magistrskega dela pa je tudi, predstaviti stališča opisnega ocenjevanja s strani učiteljev, kako se lotevajo zapisa opisnih ocen, kaj jim predstavlja največ težav in kakšni so njihovi predlogi za spremembe opisnega ocenjevanja. V teoretičnem delu...

  17. Stripping in collisions between hydrogen molecules below 500 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. K.; Eisner, M.

    1973-01-01

    Measurement of the cross section of stripping the mass 2 and 4 isotopes from molecular hydrogen in their parent gases at kinetic energies between 50 and 500 eV. The angular dependence of the ions is found to be highly peaked in the forward direction, at energies above 100 eV. Plotted vs incident velocity, the cross sections for H2 and D2 approached the same value at the highest velocities and did diverge toward lower velocities. The behavior of the cross sections is found to be consistent with a theoretical model suggested by Demkov and Komarov (1968).

  18. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5'UTR RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-12-15

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and a polyadenylated 3'UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3D(pol) protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3D(pol), resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5'UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5'UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Genetic variations of live attenuated plague vaccine strains (Yersinia pestis EV76 lineage) during laboratory passages in different countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujun; Yang, Xianwei; Xiao, Xiao; Anisimov, Andrey P; Li, Dongfang; Yan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Dongsheng; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Carniel, Elisabeth; Achtman, Mark; Yang, Ruifu; Song, Yajun

    2014-08-01

    Plague, one of the most devastating infectious diseases in human history, is caused by the bacterial species Yersinia pestis. A live attenuated Y. pestis strain (EV76) has been widely used as a plague vaccine in various countries around the world. Here we compared the whole genome sequence of an EV76 strain used in China (EV76-CN) with the genomes of Y. pestis wild isolates to identify genetic variations specific to the EV76 lineage. We identified 6 SNPs and 6 Indels (insertions and deletions) differentiating EV76-CN from its counterparts. Then, we screened these polymorphic sites in 28 other strains of EV76 lineage that were stored in different countries. Based on the profiles of SNPs and Indels, we reconstructed the parsimonious dissemination history of EV76 lineage. This analysis revealed that there have been at least three independent imports of EV76 strains into China. Additionally, we observed that the pyrE gene is a mutation hotspot in EV76 lineages. The fine comparison results based on whole genome sequence in this study provide better understanding of the effects of laboratory passages on the accumulation of genetic polymorphisms in plague vaccine strains. These variations identified here will also be helpful in discriminating different EV76 derivatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculations of stopping powers and inelastic mean free paths for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Systematic calculations are performed for determining the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for 20 eV-20 keV electrons in 11 types of human tissue. The calculations are based on a dielectric model, including the Born-Ochkur exchange correction. The optical energy loss functions (OELF) are empirically evaluated, because of the lack of available experimental optical data for the 11 tissues under consideration. The evaluated OELFs are examined by the f-sum rule expected from the dielectric response theory, and by calculation of the mean excitation energy. The calculated SPs are compared with those for PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate, a tissue equivalent material) and liquid water. The SP and IMFP data presented here are the results for the 11 human tissues over the energy range of 20 eV-20 keV, and are of importance in radiotherapy planning and for studies of various radiation effects on human tissues.

  1. Electron impact total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections with simple molecules consisting of N & O atoms at 100- 1600 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinfeng Sun(孙金锋); Deheng Shi(施德恒); Zunlue Zhu (朱遵略); Yufang Liu (刘玉芳)

    2003-01-01

    A model complex optical potential rewritten by the conception of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron cloud, is employed to calculate the total (elastic + inelastic) cross sections with simple molecules (N2, O2, NO2, NO, N2O) consisting of N & O atoms over an incident energy range of 100 - 1600 Ev by the use of additivity rule at Roothaan-Hartree-Fock level. In the study, the complex optical potential composed of static, exchange, correlation polarization plus absorption contributions firstly uses bonded-atom conception. The qualitative results are compared with experimental data and other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained. The total cross sections of electronmolecule scattering above 100 Ev can be successfully calculated.

  2. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [LIP and Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario (INAF), Universita di Torino and Sezione INFN, Torino (Italy); Ahlers, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahn, E. J. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Albuquerque, I. F. M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Allard, D. [Laboratoire AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Universite Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, Paris (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Allen, J. [New York University, New York, NY (United States); Allison, P. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Almela, A. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Muniz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves Batista, R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFGW, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C. [Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and Sezione INFN, Napoli (Italy); Aminaei, A. [IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen (Netherlands); Anchordoqui, L. [University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Antici' c, T. [Rudjer Boskovi' c Institute, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Arganda, E. [IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  3. EV71可感染幼龄中缅树鼩%Experimental studies on infant Tupaia belangeri chineses with EV71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文广; 黄晓燕; 徐娟; 孙晓梅; 代解杰; 李琦涵

    2012-01-01

    Tupaia belonged are small mammals with a squirrel-like appearance; they were formerly classified under the primates order despite the lack of derived features characteristic of primates. Given that T. Belangeri are easy to raise, cheap to maintain, and have a small body size, a high reproductive rate, and close affinity to primates, these animals would be used as an alternative to primates in biomedical research. Three-month old T. Belangeri chineses were infected with enterovirus 71 (EV71) via three different routes, namely, oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection, to study the infection in infant T. Belangeri and find a feasible scheme to make them an ideal animal model of EV71 in place of primates. Daily activities were regularly observed, body temperatures were measured, and blood tests were conducted. Blood and fecal samples were regularly collected. The infection was examined via the neutralizing antibody test, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Real-Time PCR, and pathological analysis. The temperature, as well as the white blood cell count and the number of lymphocytes, increased four days after infection. Virus loads were determined in all three groups, and the peak appeared on, before, or after the tenth day, respectively. Thus, oral administration proved to be the best route. The highest serum antibody titer obtained was 1:16. Acute paralysis with urinary retention manifested after about two weeks, and pathological changes were observed in the brain, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, and other tissues. In conclusion, T. Belangeri chineses can infected with EV71 via oral administration, nasal dripping, and tail intravenous injection. Therefore, T. Belangeri are potential EV71 animal models for further studies on the mechanism of pathogenesis or vaccine evaluation.%树鼩是灵长类动物的近亲,且具有体型小、繁殖周期短、饲养管理成本低等优点,长期以来被认为有望替代灵长类

  4. Simultaneous Optimal Placement of Distributed Generation and Electric Vehicle Parking Lots Based on Probabilistic EV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Amini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High penetration of distributed generations and the increasing demand for using electric vehicles provide a lot of issues for the utilities. If these two effective elements of the future power system are used in an unscheduled manner, it may lead to the loss increment in distribution networks, dramatically. In this paper, the simultaneous allocation of distributed generations (DGs and electric vehicles (EVs parking lots has been studied in a radial distribution network. A distribution network which is upgrading and equipped with DGs is considered and these resources' optimal placement is achieved in interaction with the EV parking lots in order to minimize the power distribution network loss. The proposed method considers not only the loss minimization but also the reliability of the parking lot from the investor's point of view. The output of this model is the daily electricity demand of parking lot. The proposed method includes two levels. At the first level of the proposed algorithm, the parking lot investor makes decision and selects three candidate buses for each parking based on three main criteria. After making decision by the parking lot investor, the candidate buses are introduced to the distribution network operator. At the second stage, the distribution network operator allocates the DGs and EV parking lots based on the candidate buses of investor in order to achieve the minimum loss of the distribution network. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated by allocating of DGs and EV parking lots simultaneously on the standard distribution test system.

  5. Dissociative Electron Attachment to Carbon Dioxide via the 8.2 eV Feshbach resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Dan; Adaniya, Hidihito; Rescigno, Tom; Haxton, Dan; Orel, Ann; McCurdy, Bill; Belkacem, Ali

    2011-08-17

    Momentum imaging experiments on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to CO{sub 2} are combined with the results of ab initio calculations to provide a detailed and consistent picture of the dissociation dynamics through the 8.2 eV resonance, which is the major channel for DEA in CO{sub 2}. The present study resolves several puzzling misconceptions about this system.

  6. The EVS: a computerized decision support system for GPs in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, I.; Hoogen, H. van den; Bakker, D. de

    2003-01-01

    Background: In 1998 a project was started to introduce nationally a decision support system in general practice in the Netherlands, called EVS (electronic prescription support system). The system contains national guidelines developed by the Dutch Council of GPs (NHG) for approximately 80 diagnoses.

  7. Experimental study on EV purchases assisted by multi-agents representing a set of questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Juai; Xie, Dongliang; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    participants and the incomparability among repeated trials. Taking the customers’ willingness to buy EVs as an example, this paper extracts multi-layer correlation information from a limited number of questionnaires and builds a multi-agent model to match the probabilistic distributions of multi...

  8. An EVS Clicker Based Hybrid Assessment to Engage Students with Marking Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Steve; Barker, Trevor; Lilley, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Over 4 iterations of a large course (>180 students) in introductory emedia design in a first year computer science course we have seen a year on year improvement. We believe this is due to the use of EVS clickers for feed-forward assessment: that is to say a method of getting the whole class to evaluate previous cohorts' submissions in public…

  9. Invent--Innovate--Implement--Interview with Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales, EV Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Dr. Christian Schaefer, Senior Vice President Sales of EV Group, has 15 years of international management experience in the materials and equipment industry. During his tenure, Schaefer spearheaded the consolidation 9f RHI following the first Asian crisis and guided the company through major mergers and acquisitions,accomplishments that ultimately helped the company increase market share, revenues and profits.

  10. Äripäev peab Seppikutele maksma 70 000 krooni / Indrek Veiserik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veiserik, Indrek

    2009-01-01

    Tartu ringkonnakohus mõistis 15. okt. 2009 AS-ilt Äripäev Riigikogu liikme Ain Seppiku ja tema poegade kasuks välja 70 000 krooni suuruse hüvitise. Kohus leidis, et Äripäevas ilmunud artiklitega sai Seppikute maine oluliselt kahjustada

  11. Coordinated Control of PV Generation and EVs Charging Based on Improved DECell Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the coordination of EVs’ charging and renewable energy has become a hot research all around the globe. Considering the requirements of EV owner and the influence of the PV output fluctuation on the power grid, a three-objective optimization model was established by controlling the EVs charging power during charging process. By integrating the meshing method into differential evolution cellular (DECell genetic algorithm, an improved differential evolution cellular (IDECell genetic algorithm was presented to solve the multiobjective optimization model. Compared to the NSGA-II and DECell, the IDECell algorithm showed better performance in the convergence and uniform distribution. Furthermore, the IDECell algorithm was applied to obtain the Pareto front of nondominated solutions. Followed by the normalized sorting of the nondominated solutions, the optimal solution was chosen to arrive at the optimized coordinated control strategy of PV generation and EVs charging. Compared to typical charging pattern, the optimized charging pattern could reduce the fluctuations of PV generation output power, satisfy the demand of EVs charging quantity, and save the total charging cost.

  12. Lavrent'ev problem for separated flows with an external perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy K. Potapov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the Lavrent'ev mathematical model for separated flows with an external perturbation. This model consists of a differential equation with discontinuous nonlinearity and a boundary condition. Using a variational method, we show the existence of a semiregular solution. As a particular case, we study the one-dimensional model.

  13. Optimal Design of DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    the design of a new DCFCS for EVs coupled with a local Battery Energy Storage (BES). DCFCS is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. This paper proposes an optimal size of the BES to reduce the negative impacts...

  14. On the Variation of Eta with Energy in the 100-1000 ev Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigner, E. P.

    1949-11-01

    Fluctuations in the fission yield in the 100- to 1000-ev region led to an investigation of the influencing variables. Changes in fission width from level to level and higher angular momentum phenomena are seen as possible explanations. (D.E.B.)

  15. ev kukub põgeneja käest : [luuletused] / Helgi Muller

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Muller, Helgi, 1932-1971

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kui minu tuppa ei kostaks ; Imelind ; Kodumaa ; Karikakar I ; "Taevas vaatab sind ..." ; Öö musta jõge pidi ; Põuavägud ; "Kas põletada ..." ; Pihud ; Hingetuisk ; "Nagu hüüd ..." ; Päev jälle kukub käest. Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 192

  16. Coordination of EVs Participation for Load Frequency Control in Isolated Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizaheh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing the penetration levels of renewable energy sources (RESs) in microgrids (MGs) may lead to frequency instability issues due to intermittent nature of RESs and low inertia of MG generating units. On the other hand, presence of electric vehicles (EVs), as new high-electricity- consuming a...

  17. The new EnEV: what's changing? Insulation of pipelines according to assistant draft on energy conservation ordinance (EnEV 2009); Die neue EnEV: Was aendert sich? Daemmung von Rohrleitungen nach dem Referentenentwurf zur Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-02-26

    The assistant draft of EnEV 2009 was presented 18th april 2008. It is safe to assume that the draft will be realized. Essential innovations, taking into account insulations, are the requirement to insulate also refrigerating systems, cold water pipelines, and clean room- as air conditioning systems. (GL)

  18. Generating Geospatially Realistic Driving Patterns Derived From Clustering Analysis Of Real EV Driving Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Aabrandt, Andreas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    scales, which calls for a statistically correct, yet flexible model. This paper describes a method for modelling EV, based on non-categorized data, which takes into account the plug in locations of the vehicles. By using clustering analysis to extrapolate and classify the primary locations where...

  19. 77 FR 51983 - Availability of Department of Energy EV Everywhere Grand Challenge Initial Framing Document and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Challenge Initial Framing Document and Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... 7, 2012. The EV Everywhere Initial Framing Document (framing document) has been developed as a principal means of facilitating stakeholder engagement in ] the planning process. The framing...

  20. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 1018eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K.D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selec

  1. Vabariigi aastapäev Ottawas Taani suursaadiku osalemisel / Walter Pent

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pent, Walter

    2003-01-01

    EV 85. aastapäeva üritusel pidas kõne Taani suursaadik Kanadas Svend R. Nielsen ning anti üle Kotkaristi Kuldrist Ottawa Eesti Seltsi esimehele, lennuväekolonel Margus Arujale teenete eest eesti sõjaväe loomisele kaasaaitamisel\\

  2. Damage threshold of amorphous carbon mirror for 177 eV FEL radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farahani, S. D.; Chalupsky, J.; Burian, T.; Chapman, H.; Gleeson, A. J.; Hajkoya, V.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, D.; Sinn, H.; Sobierajski, R.; Stormer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Gaudin, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of damage studies performed at the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) on amorphous carbon (a-C). The experiment was performed in the total external reflection geometry representing the working configuration of X-ray mirrors. The 177 eV photon laser beam was focused on a 40 nm

  3. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the ......A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding...... into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...

  4. EnEV compact. Collection of texts according to the energy conservation ordinance 2009 and thermal insulation regulations; EnEV kompakt. Textsammlung zur Energieeinsparverordnung 2009 und den Waermeschutzverordnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The actual energy conservation ordinance (EnEV) came into force at 1st October, 2009. With the amended EnEV 2009, the energetic requirements at new buildings and redevelopments are intensified. The novella EnEV 2009 is a component of the Integrated Energy and Climatic Program (IEKP) of the Federal Government. The collection of texts of the German Energy Agency (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) contains the complete text of the EnEV 2009, the accompanying proclamations of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the thermal insulation regulations of 1977, 1982 and 1994.

  5. A Method for Remote Control of EV Charging by Modifying IEC61851 Compliant EVSE Based PWM Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Martinenas, Sergejus; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    ). These properties can be used in a number of power and energy services, which can support power system operation while lowering the cost of EV ownership. Such services depend on the support from the communications technologies and standards that connect controllers and logic in the EVs with those in the charging......The Electric Vehicle (EV) has properties that can not only load but can elevate its value as a resource to the power system. An EV represents a high-power, fast-responding flexible demand unit, with an attached energy storage (battery) and the potential for bi-directional capabilities (V2G...... infrastructure- and back-end systems. To date, there is still no widely adopted standard that supports EV grid services, such as smart charging. This work proposes a solution that would allow any combination of charging spot and EV - individually lacking the logic, communication and controllability required...

  6. Development of nickel/metal-hydride batteries for EVs and HEVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fujioka, Noriyuki; Ikoma, Munehisa; Ohta, Akira

    This paper is to introduce the nickel/metal-hydride (Ni/MH) batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) developed and mass-produced by our company. EV-95 for EVs enables a vehicle to drive approximately 200 km per charge. As the specific power is extremely high, more than 200 W/kg at 80% depth of discharge (DOD), the acceleration performance is equivalent to that of gasoline fuel automobiles. The life characteristic is also superior. This battery gives the satisfactory result of more than 1000 cycles in bench tests and approximately 4-year on-board driving. EV-28 developed for small EVs comprises of a compact and light battery module with high specific power of 300 W/kg at 80% DOD by introducing a new technology for internal cell connection. Meanwhile, our cylindrical battery for the HEV was adopted into the first generation Toyota Prius in 1997 which is the world's first mass-product HEV, and has a high specific power of 600 W/kg. Its life characteristic was found to be equivalent to more than 100,000 km driving. Furthermore, a new prismatic module in which six cells are connected internally was used for the second generation Prius in 2000. The prismatic battery comprises of a compact and light battery pack with a high specific power of 1000 W/kg, which is approximately 1.7 times that of conventional cylindrical batteries, as a consequence of the development of a new internal cell connection and a new current collection structure.

  7. Technology Roadmaps - Electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EV/PHEV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    The mass deployment of electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and PHEVs) that rely on low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission electricity generation has great potential to significantly reduce the consumption of petroleum and other high CO2-emitting transportation fuels. The vision of the Electric and Plug-in Hybrid (EV/PHEV) Vehicles Roadmap is to achieve by 2050 the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs, which together represent more than 50% of annual LDV (light duty vehicle) sales worldwide. In addition to establishing a vision, this roadmap sets strategic goals to achieve it, and identifies the steps that need to be taken to accomplish these goals. This roadmap also outlines the roles and collaboration opportunities for different stakeholders and shows how government policy can support the overall achievement of the vision. The strategic goals for attaining the widespread adoption and use of EVs and PHEVs worldwide by 2050 cover the development of the EV/PHEV market worldwide through 2030 and involve targets that align with global targets to stabilise GHG concentrations. These technology-specific goals include the following: Set targets for electric-drive vehicle sales; Develop coordinated strategies to support the market introduction of electric-drive vehicles; Improve industry understanding of consumer needs and behaviours; Develop performance metrics for characterising vehicles; Foster energy storage RD and D initiatives to reduce costs and address resource-related issues; and, Develop and implement recharging infrastructure. The roadmap outlines additional recommendations that must be considered in order to successfully meet the technology milestones and strategic goals. These recommendations include the following: Use a comprehensive mix of policies that provide a clear framework and balance stakeholder interests; Engage in international collaboration efforts; and, Address policy and industry needs at a national level. The IEA will work in an

  8. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10(19) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Backer, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Mer, H. Blu; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. de Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10(18) eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional to E(-gamma), at energies between 4 x 10(18) eV and 4 x 10(19) eV is 2.69 +/- 0.02(stat) +/- 0.06

  9. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10(19) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Backer, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Mer, H. Blu; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. de Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gamez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Lucero, A.; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10(18) eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional to E(-gamma), at energies between 4 x 10(18) eV and 4 x 10(19) eV is 2.69 +/- 0.02(stat) +/- 0.06

  10. Variable coefficients EV model in the application of the exchange rate%变系数 EV 模型在人民币汇率中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雁; 张德生; 王丽辉; 荀新新

    2014-01-01

    将自适应变系数EV模型在计算机模拟实验的基础上推广到人民币汇率应用中,并利用该模型对人民币美元汇率的月度数据进行拟合预测。实证研究结果表明:自适应变系数EV模型的拟合效果优于FA R模型、A FA R模型的拟合效果,其预测精度也是这几种模型中最优的,可以为研究人民币美元汇率今后的趋势提供帮助。%The adaptive variable coefficients EV model on the basis of computer simulation ex-periment to the RMB exchange rate applications ,the monthly RMB exchange rate is fitted and predicted by using this model .The empirical results show that adaptive variable coeffi-cients EV model was used for data fitting and forecasting precision is superior to the FAR model and AFAR model ,so this model can offer help for the trends of RMB/USD exchange rate .

  11. Monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against EV71 screened from mice immunized with yeast-produced virus-like particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Lin; Lingzhi; Xianyu; Songya; Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease(HFMD) occur in children under 5 years old, and can cause death in some cases. The C4 strain of enterovirus 71(EV71) is the main pathogen that causes HFMD in China. Although no drugs against EV71 are available, some studies have shown that candidate vaccines or viral capsid proteins can produce anti-EV71 immunity. In this study, female BABL/c mice(6–8 weeks old) were immunized with virus-like particles(VLPs) of EV71 produced in yeast to screen for anti-EV71 antibodies. Two hybridomas that could produce neutralizing antibodies against EV71 were obtained. Both neutralizing m Abs(D4 and G12) were confirmed to bind the VP1 capsid protein of EV71, and could protect > 95% cells from 100 TCID50 EV71 infection at 25 μg/m L solution(lowest concentration). Those two neutralizing m Abs identified in the study may be promising candidates in development for m Abs to treat EV71 infection, and utilized as suitable reagents for use in diagnostic tests and biological studies.

  12. Coordinated EV adoption: double-digit reductions in emissions and fuel use for $40/vehicle-year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Gu; Kreikebaum, Frank; Thomas, Valerie M; Divan, Deepak

    2013-09-17

    Adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) would affect the costs and sources of electricity and the United States efficiency requirements for conventional vehicles (CVs). We model EV adoption scenarios in each of six regions of the Eastern Interconnection, containing 70% of the United States population. We develop electricity system optimization models at the multidecade, day-ahead, and hour-ahead time scales, incorporating spatial wind energy modeling, endogenous modeling of CV efficiencies, projections for EV efficiencies, and projected CV and EV costs. We find two means to reduce total consumer expenditure (TCE): (i) controlling charge timing and (ii) unlinking the fuel economy regulations for CVs from EVs. Although EVs provide minimal direct GHG reductions, controlled charging provides load flexibility, lowering the cost of renewable electricity. Without EVs, a 33% renewable electricity standard (RES) would cost $193/vehicle-year more than the reference case (10% RES). Combining a 33% RES, EVs with controlled charging and unlinking would reduce combined electric- and vehicle-sector CO2 emissions by 27% and reduce gasoline consumption by 59% for $40/vehicle-year more than the reference case. Coordinating EV adoption with adoption of controlled charging, unlinked fuel economy regulations, and renewable electricity standards would provide low-cost reductions in emissions and fuel usage.

  13. Measurement of neutron capture cross-section of the {sup 71}Ga(n, {gamma}){sup 72}Ga reaction at 0.0536 eV energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.S. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: shuza88@yahoo.co.in; Chowdhury, M.H. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hossain, S.M.; Latif, Sk.A.; Hafiz, M.A.; Islam, M.A.; Zakaria, A.K.M.; Yunus, S.M. [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, GPO Box No. 3787, Savar, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Azharul Islam, S.M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    The neutron capture cross-section for the {sup 71}Ga(n, {gamma}){sup 72}Ga reaction at 0.0536 eV energy was measured using activation technique based on TRIGA Mark-II research reactor. The {sup 197}Au(n, {gamma}){sup 198}Au monitor reaction was used to determine the effective neutron flux. Neutron absorption and {gamma}-ray attenuation in gallium oxide pellet were corrected in determination of cross-section. The cross-section for the above reaction at 0.0536 eV amounts to 2.75 {+-} 0.14 b. As far as we know there are no experimental data available at our investigated energy. So far we are the first, who carried out experiment with 0.0536 eV neutrons for cross-section measurement. The present result is larger than that of JENDL-3.3, but consistent within the uncertainty range. The value of ENDF/B-VII is higher than this work. The result of this work will be useful to observe energy dependence of neutron capture cross-sections.

  14. High-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy of Ni at 1s : 6-eV satellite at 4 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karis, O.; Svensson, S.; Rusz, J.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gorgoi, M.; Schäfers, F.; Braun, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Mårtensson, N.

    2008-12-01

    Electron correlations are responsible for many profound phenomena in solid-state physics. A classical example is the 6-eV satellite in the photoelectron spectrum of Ni. Until now the satellite structure has only been investigated at the L shell and more shallow levels. Here we report a high-kinetic-energy photoemission spectroscopy (HIKE) investigation of Ni metal. We present 1s and 2p photoelectron spectra, obtained using excitation energies up to 12.6 keV. Our investigation demonstrates that the energy position of the satellite relative to the main line is different for the 1s and the 2p levels. In combination with electronic structure calculations, we show that this energy shift is attributed to unique differences in the core-valence coupling for the K and L2,3 shells in 3d transition metals, resulting in different screening of the core holes.

  15. A Fusion of Sensors Information for Autonomous Driving Control of an Electric Vehicle (EV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Hasri; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.

    2013-12-01

    The study uses the environment of the road as input variables for the main system to control steering wheel, brake and acceleration pedals. A camera is installed on the roof of the Electric Vehicles (EV) and is used to obtain image information of the road. On the other hand, users or drivers do not have to directly contact with the main system because it will autonomously control the devices by using fuzzy information of the road conditions. A fuzzy information means in the preliminary experiments, reasoning of the various environments will be done by using fuzzy approach. At the end of the study, several existing algorithms for controlling motors and image processing technique could be combined into an algorithm that could be used to move EV without assist from human.

  16. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Peng, Wei; Ren, Jingshan; Hu, Zhongyu; Xu, Jiwei; Lou, Zhiyong; Li, Xumei; Yin, Weidong; Shen, Xinliang; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Rowlands, David J.; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children, can cause severe central nervous system disease and mortality. At present no vaccine or antiviral therapy is available. We have determined high-resolution structures for the mature virus and natural empty particles. The structure of the mature virus is similar to that of other enteroviruses, whilst the empty particles are dramatically expanded, with notable fissures, resembling elusive enterovirus uncoating intermediates not previously characterized in atomic detail. Hydrophobic capsid pockets within the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding triggered virus uncoating. The results provide a paradigm for enterovirus uncoating, in which the VP1 GH loop acts as an adaptor-sensor for the attachment of cellular receptors, converting heterologous inputs to a generic uncoating mechanism, spotlighting novel points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22388738

  17. EVS19看燃料电池轿车的发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛峰; 陈礼璠

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 EVS19概述 在21世纪世界关注洁净的环境时,世界电动汽车联合会WEVA(The World Electric Vehicle Association)、亚太电动汽车联合会EVAAP(The Electric Vehicle Association 0f Asia-Pacific)和韩国汽车工程师协会KSAE(The K0rean Society of Automotive Engineers)联合组织了2002年10月19~23日在韩国釜山召开的第十九届国际电池、混合动力和燃料电池电动汽车研讨与展览会(EVS).

  18. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Domenico, M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2010-03-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, Xmax⁡, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 1018eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106-21+35)g/cm2/decade below 1018.24±0.05eV, and (24±3)g/cm2/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26g/cm2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  19. Teadus- ja erialaraamatukogudel oma päev ja aasta teo auhind / Kristina Rallmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rallmann, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Esimene teadus- ja erialaraamatukogude päev toimus 22. oktoobril 2008 Tallinna majanduskoolis, teadusraamatukogu aasta teo auhind läks RR-i virtuaaalnäitusele "Meie parlament ja aeg: fakte, sündmusi, dokumente, inimesi" ning erialaraamatukogu aasta teo auhind Eesti Pimedate Raamatukogu töörühmale heliteavikute CD-plaatidele automatiseeritud paljundamise ja posti teel laenutamise süsteemi eest

  20. Tallinki esimene börsipäev pettis väikeinvestorite ootusi / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Tallinki aktsia esimene börsipäev valmistas paljudele väikeinvestoritele pettumust, kuna aktsia hind tõusis päevaga vaid 58 senti ehk 0,7 protsenti. Lisa: Kas teate? Küsimusele, mida teete Tallinki aktsiatega, vastavad: ettevõtja Indrek Toome, Riigikogu liige Margus Hanson, teleprodutsent Raivo Suviste ja AS-i Biodiesel nõukogu esimees Heino Harak

  1. Teadus- ja erialaraamatukogudel oma päev ja aasta teo auhind / Kristina Rallmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rallmann, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Esimene teadus- ja erialaraamatukogude päev toimus 22. oktoobril 2008 Tallinna majanduskoolis, teadusraamatukogu aasta teo auhind läks RR-i virtuaaalnäitusele "Meie parlament ja aeg: fakte, sündmusi, dokumente, inimesi" ning erialaraamatukogu aasta teo auhind Eesti Pimedate Raamatukogu töörühmale heliteavikute CD-plaatidele automatiseeritud paljundamise ja posti teel laenutamise süsteemi eest

  2. EV and HP Scheduling with Network Constraints in the Nordic Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei

    Large scale deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) holds great potential not only to limit the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and fossil fuel consumption in the transportation and heating sectors but also to cope with the intermittency due to the further utilization of renewable...... energy sources (RES) in the Nordic region including Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It is therefore an important pathway to the goal of achieving a carbon neutral electric power system in the Nordic region by 2050....

  3. Thermal Management of Battery Systems in EV and Smart Grid Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Mohammad Rezwan

    The principal outcome of the research is to deliver experimental and modelling framework targeted for both EV and next-generation smart grid application developer. The results of the research assist in providing a correct datasheet for a battery cell. It is a result of an experimental framework t...... methodology, it enables to determine how the current input affects the heat flux generation inside a battery cell and how it is possible to find the key performance indicator (KPI) efficiency....

  4. EV Charging Facilities and Their Application in LV Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2013-01-01

    for the different locations in the feeder. With time-series simulations, we quantify the energy size required for a station ESS. A Belgian LV residential grid, modeled using real PV generation and load profiles, is used as case study. The method and simulation results show the effectiveness of using public EV...... charging facilities with the additional function of voltage regulation in feeders with PV....

  5. Tallinki esimene börsipäev pettis väikeinvestorite ootusi / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    Tallinki aktsia esimene börsipäev valmistas paljudele väikeinvestoritele pettumust, kuna aktsia hind tõusis päevaga vaid 58 senti ehk 0,7 protsenti. Lisa: Kas teate? Küsimusele, mida teete Tallinki aktsiatega, vastavad: ettevõtja Indrek Toome, Riigikogu liige Margus Hanson, teleprodutsent Raivo Suviste ja AS-i Biodiesel nõukogu esimees Heino Harak

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles charge efficiency tests of ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlette, J.J.

    1981-01-15

    Charge efficiencies were determined for ESB EV-106 lead-acid batteries by measurements made under widely differing conditions of temperature, charge procedure, and battery age. The measurements were used to optimize charge procedures and to evaluate the concept of a modified, coulometric state-of-charge indicator. Charge efficiency determinations were made by measuring gassing rates and oxygen fractions. A novel, positive displacement gas flow meter which proved to be both simple and highly accurate is described and illustrated.

  7. Different EV enrichment methods suitable for clinical settings yield different subpopulations of urinary extracellular vesicles from human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Royo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Urine sample analysis is irreplaceable as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and follow-up. However, in urine samples, non-degraded protein and RNA may be only found in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs. In recent years, various methods of uEV enrichment using low volumes of urine and unsophisticated equipment have been developed, with variable success. We compared the results of the differential ultracentrifugation procedure with 4 of these methods. The methods tested were a lectin-based purification, Exoquick (System Biosciences, Total Exosome Isolation from Invitrogen and an in-house modified procedure employing the Exosomal RNA Kit from Norgen Biotek Corp. The analysis of selected gene transcripts and protein markers of extracellular vesicles (EVs revealed that each method isolates a different mixture of uEV protein markers. In our conditions, the extraction with Norgen's reagent achieved the best performance in terms of gene transcript and protein detection and reproducibility. By using this method, we were able to detect alterations of EVs protein markers in urine samples from prostate cancer adenoma patients. Taken together, our results show that the isolation of uEVs is feasible from small volumes of urine and avoiding ultracentrifugation, making easier the analysis in a clinical facility. However, caution should be taken in the selection of the enrichment method since they have a differential affinity for protein uEVs markers and by extension for different subpopulation of EVs.

  8. Defined breast milk EV subsets boost the immune response and skew the T-cell balance towards a regulatory phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, Marijke; Van Herwijnen, Martijn; Brouwers, Jos; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank; Nolte-'t Hoen, Esther; Wauben, Marca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the past years it has become clear that cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) are present in human breast milk and that these EV can play a role in the instruction of the immune system. Since breast milk impacts the development of the neonatal immune system by conveying environme

  9. High efficiency carbon-based multilayers for LAMP at 250 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Mingwu; Huang, Qiushi; She, Rui; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Feng, Hua; Spiga, Daniele; Giglia, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    X-ray reflection near the Brewster's angle by multilayer mirrors can be used to detect the polarization from X-ray sources. The photon emission spectra from some isolated neutron stars and AGN/blazars etc. show that their emission is peaked at low energies near 250eV, which is just below carbon K-absorption edge. The Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe (LAMP) is proposed as a micro-satellite mission dedicated for astronomical X-ray polarimetry working at 250 eV and is currently under early phase study. Co/C multilayers are selected and designed at the energy near 250eV with a grazing incident angle of 45°. The carbon layer thickness ratio is optimized to get the highest integral reflectivity which means larger effective signals in the astrophysics observation. The multilayer coatings were manufactured by direct current magnetron sputtering on D263 glasses and electroformed nickels and characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8keV. Reactive sputtering with 4%, 6% and 8% nitrogen were used to improve the Co/C multilayer interfaces respectively. Reflectivity for s-polarization and p-polarization light was measured at BEAR beamline in Elettra synchtron facility. Co/C multilayer deposited with 6% nitrogen exhibits the best performance comparing to other multilayers with different nitrogen content.

  10. Study of the integrated immune response induced by an inactivated EV71 vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longding Liu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD, causes outbreaks among children in the Asia-Pacific region. A vaccine is urgently needed. Based on successful pre-clinical work, phase I and II clinical trials of an inactivated EV71 vaccine, which included the participants of 288 and 660 respectively, have been conducted. In the present study, the immune response and the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of 30 infants (6 to 11 months immunized with this vaccine or placebo and consented to join this study in the phase II clinical trial were analyzed. The results showed significantly greater neutralizing antibody and specific T cell responses in vaccine group after two inoculations on days 0 and 28. Additionally, more than 600 functional genes that were up- or down-regulated in PBMCs were identified by the microarray assay, and these genes included 68 genes associated with the immune response in vaccine group. These results emphasize the gene expression profile of the immune system in response to an inactivated EV71 vaccine in humans and confirmed that such an immune response was generated as the result of the positive mobilization of the immune system. Furthermore, the immune response was not accompanied by the development of a remarkable inflammatory response. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01391494 and NCT01512706.

  11. Advances in Enterovirus 71 Receptors%EV71的受体研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广振; 李明; 李晋涛

    2011-01-01

    @@ 手足口病(Hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)是一种临床表现为手、足、口腔等部位的疱疹及中枢神经系统并发症的婴幼儿疾病,其病原体以柯萨奇病毒A16型(Coxsackievirus A16,CoxA16)和人肠道病毒71型(Human enterovirus 71,EV71)最为常见[1].2008年中国卫生部将HFMD列人丙类传染病目录.近年来,引起手足口病的主要病原体为小RNA病毒科肠道病毒71型[2].自1969年EV71在美国加利福尼亚州手足口病疫情中首次报道后,该病毒已在世界范围内引起十余次手足口病暴发和流行,且死亡病例趋于增多[3].仅1998年中国台湾EV71大暴发中就出现129 000例病例,其中重症病例多达400个,死亡78例[4].

  12. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  13. Expression and characterization of a novel scorpine-like peptide Ev37, from the scorpion Euscorpiops validus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Yu, Congya; Wang, Mingyu; Li, Zhi; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; He, Xiaohua; Han, Song

    2013-03-01

    Scorpion venom contains a group of two-domain peptides that function to block potassium channels or have cytolytic activities. These peptides, whose functions are poorly studied, are named β-KTx or scorpine-like peptides. Ev37, the first identified gene in the Euscorpiidae family, which encoded a novel scorpine-like peptide, was cloned from the venom cDNA library of scorpion Euscorpiops validus. Sequence analysis showed that the mature Ev37 peptide contained 78 amino acid residues, which formed two structural domains: a putative α-helical N-terminus and a C-terminus with the cysteine-stabilized α/β motif. The peptide rEv37 and two truncated peptides representing the individual structural domains (Ev37-N and Ev37-C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified for functional study. Unlike classic scorpine-like peptides, rEv37 and truncated peptides showed no cytolytic activity against bacteria or eukaryotic cells. Interestingly, rEv37 selectively inhibited Kv1.3 channel without effectively blocking Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels. Neither Ev37-N nor Ev37-C blocked Kv1.3 channel, suggesting that both the N-terminal and C-terminal domain of Ev37 are likely involved in the interaction with Kv1.3 channel. These results not only enrich our knowledge of scorpion toxins from scorpine-like subfamily but also provide a novel template with unique structure for designing new types of selective Kv1.3 blockers.

  14. The size and range effect: lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Linda; Singh, Bhawna; Hammer Strømman, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effect of increasing battery size and driving range to the environmental impact of electric vehicles (EVs). To this end, we compile cradle-to-grave inventories for EVs in four size segments to determine their climate change potential. A second objective is to compare the lifecycle emissions of EVs to those of conventional vehicles. For this purpose, we collect lifecycle emissions for conventional vehicles reported by automobile manufacturers. The lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions are calculated per vehicle and over a total driving range of 180 000 km using the average European electricity mix. Process-based attributional LCA and the ReCiPe characterisation method are used to estimate the climate change potential from the hierarchical perspective. The differently sized EVs are compared to one another to find the effect of increasing the size and range of EVs. We also point out the sources of differences in lifecycle emissions between conventional- and electric vehicles. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis assesses the change in lifecycle emissions when electricity with various energy sources power the EVs. The sensitivity analysis also examines how the use phase electricity sources influences the size and range effect.

  15. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering on Polyatomic Molecules (CH4, CO2,NO2, and N2O) at 10 ~ 3000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jin-Feng; XU Bin; LIU Yu-Fang; SHI De-Heng

    2005-01-01

    A new modified formulation of the Additivity Rule (AR) was proposed to calculate the total electron scattering cross sections for CH4, CO2, NO2, and N2O, considering the overlapping between atoms in molecules and the not fully transparency of the molecules. The present calculation covers the range of impact energy from 10 to 3000 eV. The results are compared with experimental data and other theories where available. The atoms are presented by spherical complex optical potential, which is composed of static, exchange, polarization, and absorption terms.

  16. Molecular and seroepidemiologic studies of Enterovirus 71 infection in the State of Pará, Brazil Estudos soroepidemiológico e molecular de infecção por EV-71 no Estado do Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla M.O. Castro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, the Enterovirus 71 (EV-71 Picornaviridae family is associated to hand, foot and mouth disease in addition to acute neurological diseases while in Brazil these viruses are more closely associated to the latter group. The aim of this research was to use the first EV-71 isolate of the Northern region of Brazil in molecular and seroepidemiologic studies. Two (2.2% out of 88 stool samples (44 cases of AFP, collected from January 1998 to December 2000 were positive for EV-71 isolation (73442/PA/99. Nucleotide sequence of the gen that codifies the VP1 protein showed that isolate 73442/PA/99 was similar to the EV-71 strains belonging to genotype B - more closely identified with EV-71 from North America. Neutralization test with 389 sera samples collected from January 1998 to November 2001, from individuals ranging from 0 to 15 years of age living in the city of Belém, State of Pará showed the following results in relation to isolate 73442/PA/99 and prototype BrCr: a total of 207 individuals (53.2% had neutralization antibodies to both viruses, 167 (42.9% had no antibodies and 15 showed the presence of neutralizing antibodies to one of the two viruses. Only 20.2% of the children aged 0 to 3 had neutralizing antibodies to EV-71, indicating that these children were more susceptible to the infection. Both the seroprevalence study and VP1 sequencing were important to demonstrate the spread and the molecular pattern of the EV-71 circulating in the Northern Region of Brazil.Em muitos países, o Enterovírus 71 (EV-71 família Picornaviridae é associado a doença de pé-mão e boca e doenças neurológicas agudas enquanto que no Brasil esse vírus está mais associado às últimas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi utilizar em estudos moleculares e soroepidemiológicos, o primeiro isolamento de EV-71 obtido na região norte do Brasil. No período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2000 foram coletadas 88 amostras (44 casos de PFA de fezes das

  17. Mechanism and Solution of Call Drop in cdma20001x EV-DO Systems%cdma20001x EV-DO的掉话原理分析及解决思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁炜; 管文明

    2010-01-01

    本文结合cdma2000 1x EV-DO的技术特点阐述了EV-DO系统中造成掉话的几种情况,重点涉及EV-DO前向和反向掉话机制以及优化方法,和传统的cdma2000 1x掉话做了对比,另外还介绍了影响掉话指标的几个关键定时器.

  18. Research and Measurement of cdma2000 1x EV-DO RevA Network Throughput%cdma2000 1X EV-DO网络吞吐量的研究和试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月珍; 尹珂

    2009-01-01

    本文重点对cdma2000 1x EV-DO RevA 网络的吞吐量进行了分析,并给出了EV-DO RevA试验网吞吐量的测试结果,实测结果展现了影响EV-DO RevA网络吞吐量的主要因素以及用户的业务速率体验情况.

  19. InterEvDock: a docking server to predict the structure of protein-protein interactions using evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinchao; Vavrusa, Marek; Andreani, Jessica; Rey, Julien; Tufféry, Pierre; Guerois, Raphaël

    2016-07-01

    The structural modeling of protein-protein interactions is key in understanding how cell machineries cross-talk with each other. Molecular docking simulations provide efficient means to explore how two unbound protein structures interact. InterEvDock is a server for protein docking based on a free rigid-body docking strategy. A systematic rigid-body docking search is performed using the FRODOCK program and the resulting models are re-scored with InterEvScore and SOAP-PP statistical potentials. The InterEvScore potential was specifically designed to integrate co-evolutionary information in the docking process. InterEvDock server is thus particularly well suited in case homologous sequences are available for both binding partners. The server returns 10 structures of the most likely consensus models together with 10 predicted residues most likely involved in the interface. In 91% of all complexes tested in the benchmark, at least one residue out of the 10 predicted is involved in the interface, providing useful guidelines for mutagenesis. InterEvDock is able to identify a correct model among the top10 models for 49% of the rigid-body cases with evolutionary information, making it a unique and efficient tool to explore structural interactomes under an evolutionary perspective. The InterEvDock web interface is available at http://bioserv.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr/services/InterEvDock/.

  20. Radar Observations and the Shape of 2008 EV5: Ridges and Craters on Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Michael W.; Ostro, S. J.; Benner, L. A. M.; Scheeres, D. J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Brozovic, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Taylor, P. A.; Margot, J.; Magri, C.; Jao, J. S.; Brisken, W.

    2010-10-01

    The near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 was discovered by the Mt. Lemmon Survey on March 4 2008, and approached to within 8.4 lunar distances in December 2008, when it was a very strong radar target. We observed EV5 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars and the Very Long Baseline Array, and previously described those observations and obtaining EV5's pole direction. We have now completed a detailed model of EV5's shape. The Arecibo delay-Doppler data provided 7.5-m spatial resolution, showing that EV5's overall shape is a 400 ± 50 m spheroid. The most prominent surface feature is a ridge parallel to the asteroid's equator that is broken by a concavity 150 m in diameter. Otherwise the asteroid's surface is shows few decameter-scale features and is notably smooth - our shape model has an average surface slope of <15º. EV5's radar and optical albedos are consistent with either rocky or stony-iron composition. EV5's ridge is similar to structure seen on the rubble-pile near-Earth asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4, and is consistent with YORP spin-up reconfiguring the asteroid during an episode of more rapid rotation. We interpret the concavity as an impact crater. Shaking during the impact should have erased smaller surface features and may explain the general lack of decameter-scale surface structure.

  1. Progress in research of enterovirus 71 vaccines%EV71疫苗研制新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕾; 陈敬贤; 王明丽

    2013-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(enterovirus 71,EV71)是引起手足口病和神经系统并发症的重要病原体.近几年,世界多个地区发生了由EV72感染引起的手足口病.由于目前尚无有效的抗病毒药物对患者进行治疗,因而疫苗的研制成为预防和控制EV71传播的关键.此文主要就近年EV71疫苗的研制进展做一综述.%Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is known to be a causative agent of hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD) and severe neurological complications.Many outbreaks caused by EV71 have occurred in different regions of the world.Due to lacking an effective antiviral agent,development of effective vaccines has become the top priority in terms of control strategies.This article reviews the recent advancement in the design of various kinds of vaccines against EV71.

  2. EV71感染者儿茶酚胺水平的研究%Detection of catecholamine in cases with EV71 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费晓; 方凯; 李兴旺; 曾慧慧; 孙月; 孟雪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the alteration of three types of catecholamine (CA) secretion of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DO) in different phases especially in hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) with enterovirus 7 (EV71) infection and at the stage of the disease developing from phase 2 to end-stage cardiopulmonary failure. Methods Total of 106 patients with HFMD treated in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University during August to December 2011 were selected. The levels of CA in patients with EV71 positive were detected. HFMD rash cases (phase 1) were divided into group A, the nervous system involvement cases (phase 2) into group B, the prophase cases of cardiopulmonary failure (phase 3) into group C, heart and lung cardiopulmonary failure (phase 4) patients into group D. Group B includes group B1 (without glucocorticoids) and group B2 (used glucocorticoids). The control group were healthy children in the same period in the hospital. Results Compared to the maximum value of the control group, there were different degrees of increase for CA levels in group A, B1, B2 and C. The levels of dopamine (DO), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) of group C during onset period had significant differences compared with the control group (P = 0.000). There were significant differences between group C and group A, B1 , B2 in DO levels of plasma and in urine (P = 0.000) during onset period. The plasma CA levels between onset period and convalescence were compared in group C, and there were significant differences (P = 0.003, 0.002, 0.005). While only DO and NE were found significantly different in group A, group B1 and group B2 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Partial patients might have neurological involvement during phase 1. The levels of CA during phase 1 and 2 might provide the early-warning. The levels of CA significantly increased after phase 3 and 4, while DO increased firstly, and NE and E increased subsequently after phase 4. Glucocorticoids

  3. CDMA2000 1X EV-DO(A版本)对VoIP的承载能力初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培; 古建

    2005-01-01

    随着CDMA2000 1 X EV-DO技术的发展以及因特网的普及,人们开始越来越多地关注1X EV-DO(A版本)网络对VoIP业务的承载能力.文章首先概述了VoIP业务的特征,然后从物理层和MAC层两方面介绍了1X EV-DO(A版本)网络有助于支持VoIP的一些关键特性.

  4. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argiro, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, `F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Backer, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohacova, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceicao, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; Garca, B; Garca Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, i H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutíerrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kegl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leiguide Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; López-Aguera, A; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Luna Garca, R; Maccarone, i M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martinez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafa, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodríguez-Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodrguez-Fras, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, ii H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovanek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smda, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Tascau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés-Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, L; vanden Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-01-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5x10^18eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the flux, J ~ E^-gamma, at energies between 4x10^18eV and 4x10^19eV is 2.69+-0.02(stat)+-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+-0.4(stat)+-0.06(syst) at higher energies, consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  5. Air Shower Radio Emission with Energy E$_0$$\\geq$10$^{19}$ eV by Yakutsk Array Data

    CERN Document Server

    Knurenko, S P

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents short technical description of Yakutsk Radio Array and some preliminary results obtained from measurements of radio emission at 32 MHz frequency induced by air shower particles with energy {\\epsilon}$\\geq$1$\\cdot$10$^{19}$ eV. The data obtained at Yakutsk array in 1987-1989 (first set of measurements) and 2009-2014 (new set of measurements). For the first time, at Yakutsk array radio emission from air shower with energy > 10$^{19}$ eV was registered including the shower with highest energy ever registered at Yakutsk array with energy $\\sim$2$\\cdot$10$^{20}$ eV.

  6. 规划有竞争力的cdma20001xEV-DO Rev.A网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢国珠

    2007-01-01

    随着移动通信的迅猛发展,为了适应高速分组数据、实时多媒体和广播多播等业务需求,CDMA20001xEV-DORev.A技术面临更大发展空间。相比1xEV-DORel.0,1xEV-DORev.A提供更高的峰值速率,更高的扇区吞吐量和更丰富的业务类型,并提供端到端的QoS保障。

  7. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglec......Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks...

  8. Pilot power based rate control in CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO Rev-A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-feng; GU Jian; YANG Hong-wen

    2008-01-01

    This article proposes a new algorithm to improvethe rate control efficiency of enhanced reverse link mediumaccess control (RLMAC) in the code division multiple access(CDMA) lx EV-DO release A(Rev. A) system. The newalgorithm brings reverse access terminal (AT) pilot power tothe RLMAC rate control procedure and makes it easier for alow pilot power user to increase its data rate when the systemis slightly loaded and harder to decrease its date rate when thesystem is heavily loaded. Numerical results of system levelsimulations show that the new algorithm can bring highersystem throughput, lower AT transmission power, and lowersystem load.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Immunogenicity and Protective Effects of Inactivated EV71 Vaccines in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Xiuling; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Zengbing; Yao, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Gao, Fan; Li, Fengxiang; Xu, Miao; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment

  10. Comparative analysis of the immunogenicity and protective effects of inactivated EV71 vaccines in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Mao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated, final container products (FCPs without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD(50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs, especially at 14-21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90-100% survival, while the ED(50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. CONCLUSIONS: These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and

  11. Operator Inequalities of the Jensen, _eby_ev and Grüss Type

    CERN Document Server

    Dragomir, Silvestru Sever

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this book is to present recent results concerning inequalities of the Jensen, AiebyA!ev and Gruss type for continuous functions of bounded selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. In the introductory chapter, the author portrays fundamental facts concerning bounded selfadjoint operators on complex Hilbert spaces. The generalized Schwarz's inequality for positive selfadjoint operators as well as some results for the spectrum of this class of operators are presented. This text introduces the reader to the fundamental results for polynomials in a linear operator, continuou

  12. ODMR experiments on the 1.65eV luminescence in GaP:Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, F. J. A. M.; van Roosmalen, J. T. C.

    1987-03-01

    Optically detected magnetic resonance experiments on the 1.65eV emission band in a Cu-doped LPE-grown GaP layer are reported. A strong resonance with a g-value of g = 2.006 ± 0.003 is observed. The linewidth depends on both microwave and laser excitation power. Other resonances, appearing at two and three times the field of the strong resonance, have also been measured. An interpretation of the measurements is given, based on the recombination of exchange coupled donor-acceptor pairs.

  13. E&V (Evaluation and Validation) Manual. Version 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-29

    THE MANUAL Chapter 2 discusses the structure of the E&V Reference System (Refer- ence Manual plus Guidebook) and the Classification Schema upon which...should also be specified. This is because if the scores for reliability are high, but the software is incorrect or difficult to verify, the true...7.1.6.9] Experiments, Monitored (3.4.4) t- xpert System, APSE Viewed as a Knowledge-Based (3.2.5) Export (see: Import/Export] Fault Tolerance [Anomaly

  14. INDIGO OTROCI - VZGOJA GENERACIJE INDIGO S STALIŠČA STARŠEV

    OpenAIRE

    Sovič, Maja

    2012-01-01

    V zadnjih desetletjih so se začele pojavljati nove generacije tako imenovanih »indigo otrok«, katerih fenomen je obkrožil svet. Kljub temu da je ta koncept zelo popularen, pa stroka tega fenomena še ni uspela znanstveno potrditi. Tako fenomen indigo otrok še vedno ostaja na poljudni ravni in empirično nedokazljiv. Namen moje diplomske naloge je bil osvetliti problematiko vzgoje otrok s stališča staršev, kateri tipi indigo otrok glede na mnenja strokovnjakov obstajajo in ali so indigo nadarjen...

  15. Optimising production using the state-contingent approach versus the EV approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    to analyse this question. Based on an artificially generated set of stochastic production data, parameters of both stochastic production functions and of state-contingent production functions are estimated. Using these estimated production functions, input decisions are afterwards optimised using three......It is not clear whether the state-contingent approach to decision making under risk and uncertainty has the potential of providing better decisions than the well-known EV model based on an estimated stochastic production function and variance measures. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulation...

  16. 一种CDMA EV-DO revA网络性能优化方案的设计%A Kind of Paln Design about Network Property Mayorization Based on CDMA EV-DO Rev A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓堂; 湛邵斌; 谢忠时

    2010-01-01

    CDMA EV-DO Rev.A作为CDMA EV-DO Rel.O技术之后的下一代版本极大地增强了对实时业务的支持.CDMA EV-DO Rev.A除了继续提高数据业务的带宽之外,引入了一系列关键技术,保证各种业务流获得其相应的业务质量保证.提供了一种针对CDMA EV-DO Rev.A QoS算法进行的优化设计方案,以保证更优的网络性能.

  17. Measurement of the total neutron cross-section of selenium at neutron energies below 2 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M.

    1983-01-01

    Total neutron cross-section of ordinary selenium has been measured at room temperature as a function of neutron energy in the range from 2.2 eV to 5.5 meV. The measurements were performed using the transmission method in connection with a time-of-flight spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. Expression for the dependence of the total neutron cross-section of selenium upon energy was obtained. New values for the coherent scattering amplitude as well as the coherent scattering cross-section of selenium were also determined. Values for the average scattering cross-section and the total incoherent scattering cross-section were also obtained. The values of both potential scattering cross-section and effective potential scattering radius R' were determined for this element from the measured behaviour of the total cross section, using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The determined value of R' was found to be in agreement with that predicted from vibrational-rotational optical model calculations.

  18. Additivity rule for electron-molecule total cross section calculations at 50-5000 eV: a new geometrical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lüe; Liu Yu-Fang

    2008-01-01

    Taking into consideration the changes of the geometric shielding effect in a molecule as the energy of incident electrons varies, this paper presents an empirical fraction, which depends on the energy of incident electrons, the target's molecular dimension and the atomic and electronic numbers in the molecule. Using this empirical fraction, it proposes a new formulation of the additivity rule. Employing the new additivity rule, it calculates the total cross sections of electron scattering by C2H4, C6H8, C6H14 and C8H18 over the energy range from 50 to 5000eV. In order to exclude the calculation deviations caused by solving the radial SchriJdinger equation of electron scattering by atoms, here the atomic cross sections are derived from the experimental total cross section results of simple molecules (H2,O2, CO) via the inversion algorithm. The quantitative total cross sections are compared with those obtained by experiments and other theories, and good agreement is obtained over a wide energy range, even at energy of several tens of eV.

  19. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the s-only isotope 204Pb from 1 eV to 440 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Domingo-Pardo, C; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Berthoumieux, E; Bisterzo, S; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Embid-Segura, M; Ferrant, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Gallino, R; Goncalves, I; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Kappeler, F; Karamanis, D; Karadimos, D; Kerveno, M; Ketlerov, V; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lamboudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marrone, S; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P.M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; Oshima, M; O'Brien, S; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J.L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vincente, M.C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2007-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 204Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 440 keV. An R-matrix analysis of the resolved resonance region, between 1 eV and 100 keV, was carried out using the SAMMY code. In the interval between 100 keV and 440 keV we report the average capture cross section. The background in the entire neutron energy range could be reliably determined from the measurement of a 208Pb sample. Other systematic effects in this measurement could be investigated and precisely corrected by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a Maxwellian average capture cross section for 204Pb at kT=30 keV of 79(3) mb, in agreement with previous experiments. However our cross section at kT=5 keV is about 35% larger than the values reported so far. The implications of the new cross section for the s-process abundance contributions in the Pb/Bi region are discussed.

  20. Deriving the characteristics of warm electrons (100-500 eV) in the magnetosphere of Saturn with the Cassini Langmuir probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, P.; Holmberg, M. K. G.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lewis, G. R.; Schippers, P.; Coates, A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Waite, J. H.; Dandouras, I.

    2014-12-01

    Though Langmuir probes (LP) are designed to investigate cold plasma regions (e.g. ionospheres), a recent analysis revealed a strong sensitivity of the Cassini LP measurements to hundreds of eV electrons. These warm electrons impact the surface of the probe and generate a significant current of secondary electrons, that impacts both the DC level and the slope of the current-voltage curve of the LP (for negative potentials) through energetic contributions that may be modeled with a reasonable precision. We show here how to derive information about the incident warm electrons from the analysis of these energetic contributions, in the regions where the cold plasma component is small with an average temperature in the range ~ [ 100 - 500 ] eV. First, modeling the energetic contributions (based on the incident electron flux given by a single anode of the CAPS spectrometer) allows us to provide information about the pitch angle anisotropies of the incident hundreds of eV electrons. The modeling reveals indeed sometimes a large variability of the estimated maximum secondary electron yield (which is a constant for a surface material) needed to reproduce the observations. Such dispersions give evidence for strong pitch angle anisotropies of the incident electrons, and using a functional form of the pitch angle distribution even allows us to derive the real peak angle of the distribution. Second, rough estimates of the total electron temperature may be derived in the regions where the warm electrons are dominant and thus strongly influence the LP observations, i.e. when the average electron temperature is in the range ~ [ 100 - 500 ] eV. These regions may be identified from the LP observations through large positive values of the current-voltage slope at negative potentials. The estimated temperature may then be used to derive the electron density in the same region, with estimated densities between ~ 0.1 and a few particles /cm3 (cc). The derived densities are in better

  1. Lessons Learned about Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure from The EV Project and ChargePoint America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes key findings in two national plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstrations: The EV Project and ChargePoint America. It will be published to the INL/AVTA website for the general public.

  2. Trails, RS2477, 3200 ev, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Trails, RS2477 dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2005. It is described as '3200 ev'....

  3. EV-DO系统支持差异化服务的QoS应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓明

    2009-01-01

    EV-DO系统是专门针对移动多媒体应用进行优化的无线传输技术.本文概述了EV-DO Rev A系统的QoS机制及端到端QoD体系架构,分析了EV-DO系统为不同用户、不同业务提供差异化服务的QoS需求,探讨了EV-DO系统支持差异化服务的端到端QoS技术及应用,并指出了进一步改进分组调度算法和速率控制技术以优化无线资源管理,从而满足用户公平性、不同用户和业务的QoS要求.

  4. Cucumis melo endornavirus: Genome organization, host range and co-divergence with the host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanadzovic, Sead; Wintermantel, William M; Valverde, Rodrigo A; McCreight, James D; Aboughanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina

    2016-03-02

    A high molecular weight dsRNA was isolated from a Cucumis melo L. plant (referred to as 'CL01') of an unknown cultivar and completely sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that dsRNA is associated with an endornavirus for which a name Cucumis melo endornavirus (CmEV) is proposed. The genome of CmEV-CL01 consists of 15,078 nt, contains a single, 4939 codons-long ORF and terminates with a stretch of 10 cytosine residues. Comparisons of the putative CmEV-encoded polyprotein with available references in protein databases revealed a unique genome organization characterized by the presence of the following domains: viral helicase Superfamily 1 (Hel-1), three glucosyltransferases (doublet of putative capsular polysaccharide synthesis proteins and a putative C_28_Glycosyltransferase), and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The presence of three glycome-related domains of different origin makes the genome organization of CmEV unique among endornaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of viral RdRp domains showed that CmEV belongs to a specific lineage within the family Endornaviridae made exclusively of plant-infecting endornaviruses. An RT-PCR based survey demonstrated high incidence of CmEV among melon germplasm accession (>87% of tested samples). Analyses of partial genome sequences of CmEV isolates from 26 different melon genotypes suggest fine-tuned virus adaptation and co-divergence with the host. Finally, results of the present study revealed that CmEV is present in plants belonging to three different genera in the family Cucurbitaceae. Such diverse host range is unreported for known endornaviruses and suggests a long history of CmEV association with cucurbits predating their speciation.

  5. The origin of the 0.78 eV luminescence band in dislocated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, A J [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Steinman, E A [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow District 142432 (Russian Federation); Pitt, C W [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Hole, D E [Ion Implantation Laboratory, School of Engineering and IT, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Vdovin, V I [Institute for Chemical Problems of Microelectronics, B Tolmachevsky per. 5, 109017 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-10-08

    We report the results of a study into the influence of implanted impurities on luminescence in the region of the well-known D1 luminescence band that is associated with dislocations in silicon. A photoluminescence band at around 0.78 eV, which is sometimes seen in silicon containing a high density of dislocations, has been attributed to the presence of oxygen complexes. In this study we have deposited layers of Si{sub 0.9}Ge{sub 0.1} onto single-crystal Si substrates by MBE in order to induce dislocations in the silicon substrate. The samples have subsequently been implanted with iron, erbium or oxygen in order to study the effect of implanted impurities on D-band photoluminescence at around 800 meV. Following implantation with oxygen, two luminescence bands appear at around 0.85 and 0.78 eV, respectively. These bands are not present in either the unimplanted sample or those subject to Er or Fe implantation. The correlation between oxygen doping and the appearance of these bands supports the conjecture that they are associated with oxygen complexes.

  6. Torque blending and wheel slip control in EVs with in-wheel motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ricardo; Araújo, Rui E.; Tanelli, Mara; Savaresi, Sergio M.; Freitas, Diamantino

    2012-01-01

    Among the many opportunities offered by electric vehicles (EVs), the design of power trains based on in-wheel electric motors represents, from the vehicle dynamics point of view, a very attractive prospect, mainly due to the torque-vectoring capabilities. However, this distributed propulsion also poses some practical challenges, owing to the constraints arising from motor installation in a confined space, to the increased unsprung mass weight and to the integration of the electric motor with the friction brakes. This last issue is the main theme of this work, which, in particular, focuses on the design of the anti-lock braking system (ABS). The proposed structure for the ABS is composed of a tyre slip controller, a wheel torque allocator and a braking supervisor. To address the slip regulation problem, an adaptive controller is devised, offering robustness to uncertainties in the tyre-road friction and featuring a gain-scheduling mechanism based on the vehicle velocity. Further, an optimisation framework is employed in the torque allocator to determine the optimal split between electric and friction brake torque based on energy performance metrics, actuator constraints and different actuators bandwidth. Finally, based on the EV working condition, the priorities of this allocation scheme are adapted by the braking supervisor unit. Simulation results obtained with the CarSim vehicle model, demonstrate the effectiveness of the overall approach.

  7. ELEKTRİKLİ EV ALETLERİNDE CE UYUMLULUĞU VE BİR UYGULAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hızla gelişen teknoloji, artan rekabet ortamı ve kullanıcının bilinçlenmesi gibi nedenlerden dolayı kaliteli üretim yapmanın gerekliliği günümüzde daha da artmıştır. Ürün kalitesinin ve güvenilirliğinin belgelenmesi tüketici açısından şart olmuştur. Ürün güvenliğinin belgelenmesinde kullanılan birçok belge vardır. Bu belgelerden biri de CE belgesidir. Bu makalede, CE işareti ile ilgili temel bilgi verilmiş ve elektrikli ev aletleri için gerekli CE standartları ve testlerinden bahsedilmiştir. Örnek olarak elektrikli ev aletlerinden tost makinesi ele alınmış, incelenmiştir. Tost makinesine CE belgesi almak için EN60335-2-9 direktifine göre gerekli testler yapılmış ve CE belgesi alınmıştır.

  8. Latency requirements for head-worn display S/EVS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Randall E.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steven P.

    2004-08-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project is conducting research in advanced flight deck concepts, such as Synthetic/Enhanced Vision Systems (S/EVS), for commercial and business aircraft. An emerging thrust in this activity is the development of spatially-integrated, large field-of-regard information display systems. Head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems are being proposed as one method in which to meet this objective. System delays or latencies inherent to spatially-integrated, head-worn displays critically influence the display utility, usability, and acceptability. Research results from three different, yet similar technical areas - flight control, flight simulation, and virtual reality - are collectively assembled in this paper to create a global perspective of delay or latency effects in head-worn or helmet-mounted display systems. Consistent definitions and measurement techniques are proposed herein for universal application and latency requirements for Head-Worn Display S/EVS applications are drafted. Future research areas are defined.

  9. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Ballocchi, G.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; De Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S. N.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kirsanov, M. M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A. V.; Krasnikov, N. V.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mossuz, L.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Y.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A. Y.; Popov, B.; Poulsen, C.; Rico, J.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Steininger, M.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A. N.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Volkov, S. A.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zioutas, K.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2000-04-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles a's (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to eV masses. The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and the NOMAD neutrino detector. The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in interactions of high energy photons, generated by the 450 GeV protons in the CERN SPS neutrino target, with virtual photons from the WANF horn magnetic field. The particles would penetrate the downstream shielding and would be observed in the NOMAD neutrino detector through their re-conversion into real high energy photons by interacting with the virtual photons from the magnetic field of the NOMAD dipole magnet. From the analysis of the data collected during the 1996 run with 1.08×1019 protons on target, 312 candidate events with energy between 5 and 140 GeV were found. This number is in general agreement with the expectation of 272/+/-18 background events from standard neutrino processes. A 90 %CL upper limit on the /aγγ-coupling gaγγ< 1.5×10-4GeV-1 for a masses up to 40 eV is obtained.

  10. The Cosmic Ray Anisotropy between 1014 and 1015 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglietta, M.; Alessandron, B.; Antonioli, P.; Arneodo, F.; Bergamasco, L.; Bertaina, M.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Chiavassa, A.; Castagnoli, G. C.; D'Ettore Piazzoli, B.; Di Sciascio, G.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Ghia, P. L.; Iacovacci, M.; Mannocchi, G.; Morello, C.; Navarra, G.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G. C.; Valchierotti, S.; Vallania, P.; Vernetto, S.; Vigorito, C.; EAS-TOP Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The study of the anisotropy of the arrival directions is an essential and complementary to ol, with respect to the energy spectrum and composition, to investigate the origin and propagation of cosmic rays primaries. In particular, the study of the evolution of the CR anisotropy over primary energy can be very powerful for the interpretation of the knee in the CR primary spectrum. By means of the EAS-TOP data (four years) we have reported an anisotropy measurement at primary energy E0 ≈ 1014 eV [1], with amplitude Asid,δ=0° = (3.7 ± 0.6) · 10-4 and phase φ = (1.8 ± 0.5) hr LST, at a significance level 6.5 s.d. The use of the full EAS-TOP data set and the application of different criteria of data selection allow to extend this measurement to higher energies, up to around 1015 eV. We report here the results of the first harmonic analysis, both in solar and sidereal time, in five energy bins.

  11. Coil Design for High Misalignment Tolerant Inductive Power Transfer System for EV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafeel Ahmed Kalwar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The inductive power transfer (IPT system for electric vehicle (EV charging has acquired more research interest in its different facets. However, the misalignment tolerance between the charging coil (installed in the ground and pick-up coil (mounted on the car chassis, has been a challenge and fundamental interest in the future market of EVs. This paper proposes a new coil design QDQ (Quad D Quadrature that maintains the high coupling coefficient and efficient power transfer during reasonable misalignment. The QDQ design makes the use of four adjacent circular coils and one square coil, for both charging and pick-up side, to capture the maximum flux at any position. The coil design has been modeled in JMAG software for calculation of inductive parameters using the finite element method (FEM, and its hardware has been tested experimentally at various misaligned positions. The QDQ coils are shown to be capable of achieving good coupling coefficient and high efficiency of the system until the misalignment displacement reaches 50% of the employed coil size.

  12. Recoil ion and electronic angular asymmetry parameters for photo double ionization of helium at 99 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuning, H. [Kansas State Univ., Physics Dept., Manhattan, KS (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States); Doerner, R.; Braeuning-Demian, A. [Universitaet Frankfurt, Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany)] [and others

    1997-10-14

    Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy has been used to map the entire five-dimensional momentum space of the photo double ionization of helium at 20 eV above threshold. Angular asymmetry parameters for the relative motion of the electrons and the recoil ion have been determined and are found to be close to similar data at 1 eV above threshold. In addition the asymmetry parameter of one photoelectron is found to be in good agreement with recent theory. (author).

  13. Integrating fleets of EVs into rural low-voltage grids with a high share of photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerstebrock, T.; Schuette, S. [OFFIS e.V., Oldenburg (Germany). Inst. for Information Technology; Buchmann, M. [Bremer Energie Institut (BEI), Bremen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Various projects have already focused on the integration of electric vehicles (EV) into the electricity grid in urban areas, including the effect of different charging strategies like Vehicle-to-Grid. In this paper, we explain our approach to investigate similar scenarios for commercially used EVs in rural areas. The low-voltage power grid in these areas is often designed for lower loads, making it important to evaluate the effect of EVs in such a system. Additionally, the diffusion of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems in these areas is accelerating. This development leads to an even higher load and to a higher risk of congestion or voltage band violations in the low-voltage grid. EVs may be able to exploit this surplus of electricity and stabilize the power grid. However, single (privately used) EVs would not be sufficient. Thus, we investigate the potential of EV fleets to upkeep a stable low-voltage grid. Our approach uses co-simulation to simulate the dependencies between the grid and EV fleet activities. A geographic information system (GIS) serves as the database to provide consumption/supply curves for the simulation of private households and PV-systems. The mobility simulation component is based on real field tests in which fleet owners temporarily use electric vehicles. Based on the co-simulation, we will develop recommendations of pricing models to create incentives for grid-friendly EV operation and roadmaps to expand PV and/or locally upgrade power grids. Additionally, we will identify reference setups under which fleet owners can switch to electric vehicles. (orig.)

  14. EV71疫苗研究进展%Progress of reaseach on vaccine of Enterovirus 71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 姚昕; 李凤祥

    2009-01-01

    肠道病毒71型(EV71),可引起手足口病(HFMD)和严重神经系统疾病.近年来,在世界多个国家和地区报道了EV71的爆发.由于目前缺乏有效的抗病毒药物,因此研制有效的疫苗是控制EV71流行最为有效的策略.近年来很多报道显示在EV71疫苗研究上取得了重要进展,本文以此为重点概括了EV71灭活疫苗、重组疫苗、DNA疫苗、多肽疫苗、减毒活疫苗等以及动物模型方面的研究进展.%Enterovirus 71(EV71)is known to be a causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD)and severe neurological complications.Many Ev71 outbreaks have been reposed in different regions of the world.Due to the lack of an effective antiviralagent,primary prevention of the disease,including the development of effective vaccines,has been the top priority in terms of control strategies.Recently,many reports indicated lots of important progression is acquired.In this article,we renewed the progression of EV71 animal model and vaccines which inchded inactivation vaccine,recombinant vaccine,DNA vaccine,polypeptide vaccine and live attenuated vaccine.

  15. Neljapäev sobib töö tegemiseks kõige vähem / Tõnu Vare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vare, Tõnu, 1947-

    2006-01-01

    Uuringufirma Robert Half Finance & Accounting läbiviidud 1800 haldus- ja personalitöötaja küsitlus 11 riigis näitas, et kõige sobivam päev töötegemiseks on esmaspäev, kõige kiiremini elavad pärast puhkust igapäevatöösse sisse itaallased ja kõige aeglasemalt luksemburglased

  16. Electric vehicle (EV) storage supply chain risk and the energy market: A micro and macroeconomic risk management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Susanna D.

    As a cost effective storage technology for renewable energy sources, Electric Vehicles can be integrated into energy grids. Integration must be optimized to ascertain that renewable energy is available through storage when demand exists so that cost of electricity is minimized. Optimization models can address economic risks associated with the EV supply chain- particularly the volatility in availability and cost of critical materials used in the manufacturing of EV motors and batteries. Supply chain risk can reflect itself in a shortage of storage, which can increase the price of electricity. We propose a micro-and macroeconomic framework for managing supply chain risk through utilization of a cost optimization model in combination with risk management strategies at the microeconomic and macroeconomic level. The study demonstrates how risk from the EVs vehicle critical material supply chain affects manufacturers, smart grid performance, and energy markets qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results illustrate how risk in the EV supply chain affects EV availability and the cost of ancillary services, and how EV critical material supply chain risk can be mitigated through managerial strategies and policy.

  17. 10种常见水果果汁体外抗EV71病毒研究%A study on anti-EV71 virus in vitro of 10 kinds of common fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炳丽; 康真; 梁爽; 李然; 宋晓琳; 范荣军

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒所引起细胞病变(CPE)的抑制作用。方法采用MTT 比色法,测定10种常见水果果汁对 Hep Ⅱ细胞的细胞毒性,并在对细胞的最大无毒浓度(MNCC)范围内,采用体外细胞培养法研究10种常见水果果汁对手足口 EV71病毒病毒的抑制作用。在此基础上计算出苹果汁和葡萄汁对 EV71病毒的半数抑制浓度的 IC50值。结果在10种常见水果果汁中筛选出苹果汁和葡萄汁两种具有抗手足口 EV71病毒作用的果汁,其 IC50值分别为果汁原液的1.652倍稀释液和9.965倍稀释液。结论苹果汁和葡萄汁具有进一步筛选抗 EV71病毒有效成分的研究价值。%Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common fruit juice on cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus. Methods The cytotoxicity of 10 kinds of common juice to Hep Ⅱ was determined by MTT assay. The inhibitory effect of 10 kinds of common juice on hand, foot and mouth EV71 virus was studied by cell culture in vitro within the maximum non-toxic concentration of cells (MNCC). Then inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values of apple juice and grape juice for EV71 virus were calculated. Results Apple juice and grape juice with the function of anti-hand,foot and mouth EV71 virus were selected from 10 kinds of common juice. The IC50 values were respectively 1.652 times dilution and 9.965 times dilution of the original fruit juice. Conclusion Apple juice and grape juice have a research value of further selecting effective components of anti-EV71 virus.

  18. Spatial Mapping of NEO 2008 EV5 Using Small Satellite Formation Flying and Steresoscopic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan; Singh Derewa, Chrishma

    2016-10-01

    NASA is currently developing the first-ever robotic Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) to the near-Earth asteroid 2008 EV5 with the objective to capture a multi-ton boulder from the asteroids surface and use its mass to redirect its parent into a CIS lunar orbit where astronauts will study its physical and chemical composition.A critical step towards achieving this mission is to effectively map the target asteroid, identify the candidate boulder for retrieval and characterize its critical parameters. Currently, ARRM utilizes a laser altimeter to characterize the height of the boulders and mapping for final autonomous control of the capture. The proposed Lava-Kusha mission provides the increased of stereoscopic imaging and mapping, not only the Earthward side of the asteroid which has been observed for possible landing sites, but mapping the whole asteroid. LKM will enhance the fidelity of the data collected by the laser altimeter and gather improved topographic data for future Orion missions to 2008 EV5 once in cis lunar space.LKM consists of two low cost small satellites (6U) as a part of the ARRM. They will launch with ARRM as an integrated part of the system. Once at the target, this formation of pathfinder satellites will image the mission critical boulder to ensure the system design can support its removal. LKM will conduct a series of flybys prior to ARRM's rendezvous. LKMs stereoscopic cameras will provide detailed surveys of the boulder's terrain and environment to ensure ARRM can operate safely, reach the location and interface with the boulder. The LKM attitude control and cold gas propulsion system will enable formation maintenance maneuvers for global mapping of asteroid 2008 EV5 at an altitude of 100 km to a high-spatial resolution imaging altitude of 5 km.LKM will demonstrate formation flying in deep space and the reliability of stereoscopic cameras to precisely identify a specific target and provide physical characterization of an asteroid. An

  19. IGSN e.V.: Registration and Identification Services for Physical Samples in the Digital Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Klump, J.; Arko, R. A.; Bristol, S.; Buczkowski, B.; Chan, C.; Chan, S.; Conze, R.; Cox, S. J.; Habermann, T.; Hangsterfer, A.; Hsu, L.; Milan, A.; Miller, S. P.; Noren, A. J.; Richard, S. M.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    -for-profit organization, the IGSN e.V. (e.V. = 'Eingetragener Verein', legal status for a registered voluntary association in Germany), that defines the IGSN scope and syntax and maintains the IGSN Handle system, and (b) a Science Advisory Board that guides policies, technology, and best practices of the SESAR Sample Metadata Clearinghouse and Local Registration Agents. The IGSN e.V. is being incorporated in Germany at the GFZ Potsdam, a founding event is planned for the AGU Fall Meeting.

  20. A method to improve observations of gamma-ray sources near 10 (15) eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, P.; Elbert, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Now that sources of gamma rays near 10 to the 15th power eV have been identified, there is a need for telescopes which can study in detail the high energy gamma ray emissions from these sources. The capabilities of a Cerenkov detector which can track a source at large zenith angle (small elevation angle) are analyzed. Because the observed showers must then develop far from the detector, the effective detection area is very large. During a single half-hour hot phase of Cygnus X-3, for example, it may be possible to detect 45 signal showers compared with 10 background showers. Time structure within the hot phase may then be discernible. The precise capabilities of the detector depend on its mirror size, angular acceptance, electronic speed, coincidence properties, etc. Calculations are presented for one feasible design using mirrors of an improved Fly's Eye type.

  1. An explicit solution to the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiguo WU; Guangren DUAN; Bin ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    In this note,the matrix equation AV+BW=EV J is considered,where E,A and B are given matrices of appropriate dimensions,J is an arbitrarily given Jordan matrix,V and W are the matrices to be determined.Firstly,a right factorization of(sE-A)-1 B is given based on the Leverriver algorithm for descriptor systems.Then based on this factorization and a proposed parametric solution,an alternative parametric solution to this matrix equation is established in terms of the R-controllability matrix of(E,A,B),the generalized symmetric operator and the observability matrix associated with the Jordan matrix J and a free parameter matrix.The proposed results provide great convenience for many analysis and design problems.Moreover,some equivalent forms are proposed.A numerical example is employed to illustrate the effect of the proposed approach.

  2. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaina, Mario

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3-5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  3. Electron Correlation in the Final Continuum of Ionization Hydrogen by 150-eV Electron Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程华; 臧树良; 王晓伟; 王京阳

    2004-01-01

    Electron correlation in triple differential cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact is analysed for the case of coplanar asymmetric geometry within the framework of the two-potential formulae. Based on the approximations of projectile and faster-electron plane wave, the transition matrix element is analytically expressed to be a product of two factors: the correlation factor of two electrons in the final channel and the structure-scattering factor. The contribution of both the factors to the angular distribution of the triple differential cross section is calculated. The present results are compared with the experimental data and the other theoretical calculations for the incident energy of 150 eV.

  4. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  5. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  6. Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-02-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  7. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  8. 内源性禽白血病病毒ev/J gp85基因的表达%Expression of Endogenous Retrovirus ev/J gp85 Gene in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雄燕; 杨玉莹; 张莹; 钟蓓

    2009-01-01

    从已构建的质粒pGEM-MTCgp85中酶切回收ev/J gp85基因,通过构建杆状病毒转移载体pFastBac1-ev/Jgp85和重组杆状病毒穿梭载体Bacmid-ev/Jgp85,将ev/Jgp85基因转入Bac-to-Bac高效真核表达系统的Sf9 昆虫细胞进行真核表达.间接免疫荧光试验显示,构建的重组杆状病毒感染的Sf9细胞出现与野生型杆状病毒感染的Sf9细胞阴性对照明显不同的亮绿荧光;Western blot 分析DAB 显色,重组病毒感染的Sf9细胞蛋白显示出约35 ku的阳性条带.结果表明,内源性ev/Jgp85基因在Sf9细胞中得到良好的表达,并且其编码产物完全可以被外源性ALV-J的特异性单抗JE9识别.

  9. Histopathological features and distribution of EV71 antigens and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model of enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pin; Gao, Zifen; Zong, Yuanyuan; Bao, Linlin; Xu, Lili; Deng, Wei; Li, Fengdi; Lv, Qi; Gao, Zhancheng; Xu, Yanfeng; Yao, Yanfeng; Qin, Chuan

    2014-08-30

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic pathogen that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease. While infection is usually self-limiting, a minority of patients infected with EV71 develop severe neurological complications. In humans, EV71 has been reported to utilize the scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) as a receptor for infectious cellular entry. In this study, we define the pathological features of EV71-associated disease as well as the distribution of EV71 antigen and SCARB2 in human fatal cases and a mouse model. Histopathologically, human fatal cases showed severe central nervous system (CNS) changes, mainly in the brainstems, spinal cords, and thalamus. These patient further exhibited pulmonary edema and necrotic enteritis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human fatal cases demonstrated that EV71 antigen and SCARB2 were observed mainly in neurons, microglia cells and inflammatory cells in the CNS, and epithelial cells in the intestines. However, skeletal muscle tissue was negative for EV71 antigen. In a mouse model of EV71 infection, we observed massive necrotic myositis, different degrees of viral diseases in CNS, and extensive interstitial pneumonia. In mice, EV71 exhibits strong myotropism compared to the neurotropism seen in humans. EV71 antigen was detected in the spinal cord and brainstem of mice. However, there was no clear correlation between mouse SCARB2 and EV71 antigen distribution in the mouse model, consistent with previous results that SCARB2 functions as a receptor for EV71 in humans but not mice. The EV71-induced lesions seen in the mouse model resembled the pathological changes seen in human samples. These results increase our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis and will inform further work developing a mouse model for EV71 infection.

  10. Reactive scattering of O and H2 and quenching of OH at collision energies up to 4.4 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Kharchenko, Vasili

    2016-05-01

    We report new cross sections for the O(3 P) + H2 reactive scattering as well as quenching rates for rotationally and vibrationally excited OH by H atoms for a range of collision energies from 0.4 and 4.4 eV. These processes are important for understanding non-local thermal equilibrium (non-LTE) regime in astrophysical environment such as photon-dominated regions (PDRs) and evolution of planetary atmospheres in time, including the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. The cross sections were calculated quantum mechanically using coupled-channel formalism implemented in MOLSCAT and ABC computer codes on refitted recent potential energy surfaces for 3A' and 3A'' , while the surface-hopping effects were estimated from models and similar atom-molecule reactions. A large basis set was used to ensure the convergence at higher energies. Our results agree well with the published data at lower energies and indicate that reduced-dimensionality approach at collision energies higher than about 1.5 eV may not be adequate. Differential cross sections and diffusion cross sections, of interest in transport calculations, are also reported. This work was been supported by NASA grant NNX10AB88G.

  11. A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 10^{17} - 10^{17.5} eV from radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Buitink, S; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Huege, T; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Rossetto, L; Schellart, P; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Trinh, T N G; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Bell, M E; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Carbone, D; Ciardi, B; Conway, J E; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Dettmar, R -J; van Diepen, G; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Engels, D; Enriquez, J E; Fallows, R A; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Griessmeier, J M; Gunst, A W; van Haarlem, M P; Hassall, T E; Heald, G; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Intema, H; Juette, E; Karastergiou, A; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, G M; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markoff, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Mulcahy, D D; Munk, H; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pietka, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H J A; Scaife, A M M; Schwarz, D J; Serylak, M; Sluman, J; Smirnov, O; Stappers, B W; Steinmetz, M; Stewart, A; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; Vogt, C; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wijnholds, S J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P; Zensus, J A

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays are the highest energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays between 10^{17} eV and 10^{18} eV are essential to understand whether this energy range is dominated by Galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic rays of these energies. Cosmic rays initiate cascades of secondary particles (air showers) in the atmosphere and their masses are inferred from measurements of the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum, Xmax, or the composition of shower particles reaching the ground. Current measurements suffer from either low precision, or a low duty cycle and a high energy threshold. Radio detection of cosmic rays is a rapidly developing technique, suitable for determination of Xmax with a duty cycle of in principle nearly 100%. The radiation is generated by the separation of relativistic charged particles in the geomagnetic field and a negative charge exces...

  12. IceCube astrophysical neutrinos without a spectral cutoff and (10^15-10^17) eV cosmic gamma radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E

    2014-01-01

    We present a range of unbroken power-law fits to the astrophysical-neutrino spectrum consistent with the most recent published IceCube data at the 68\\% confidence level. Assuming that the neutrinos originate in decays of pi mesons, we estimate accompanying gamma-ray fluxes for various distributions of sources, taking propagation effects into account. We then briefly discuss existing experimental results constraining PeV to EeV diffuse gamma-ray flux and their systematic uncertainties. Several scenarios are marginally consistent both with the KASKADE and CASA-MIA upper limits at (10^15-10^16) eV and with the EAS-MSU tentative detection at ~10^17 eV, given large systematic errors of the measurements. Future searches for the diffuse gamma-ray background at sub-PeV to sub-EeV energies just below present upper limits will give a crucial diagnostic tool for distinguishing between the Galactic and extragalactic models of the origin of the IceCube events.

  13. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 (ev21 with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3’LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP, we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 hpi and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  14. Study of the chemical composition of high energy cosmic rays using the muon LDF of EAS between $10^{17.25}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV

    CERN Document Server

    Tapia, A; Sánchez, F; Croce, A Sedoski; Figueira, J M; García, B; González, N; Josebachuili, M; Ravignani, D; Wundheiler, B; Etchegoyen, A

    2015-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of estimating primary cosmic ray composition at high energies from the study of two parameters of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) at ground and underground level with Monte Carlo simulations using the new EPOS and QGSJETII hadronic models tuned with LHC data. Namely, the slope and density at a given distance of the muon lateral distribution function are analysed in this work. The power to discriminate primary masses is quantified in terms of merit factor for each parameter. The analysis considers three different primary particles (proton, iron and gamma), four different zenith angles (0$^{\\circ}$, 15$^{\\circ}$, 30$^{\\circ}$ and 45$^{\\circ}$) and primary energies of $10^{17.25}$ eV, $10^{17.50}$ eV and $10^{17.75}$ eV.

  15. Ab initio study of electron energy loss spectra of bulk bismuth up to 100 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timrov, Iurii; Markov, Maxime; Gorni, Tommaso; Raynaud, Michèle; Motornyi, Oleksandr; Gebauer, Ralph; Baroni, Stefano; Vast, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    The dynamical charge-density response of bulk bismuth has been studied within time-dependent density functional perturbation theory, explicitly accounting for spin-orbit coupling. The use of the Liouville-Lanczos approach allows us to calculate electron energy loss spectra for excitation energies as large as 100 eV. Effects of 5 d semicore electronic states, spin-orbit coupling, exchange and correlation, local fields, and anisotropy are thoroughly investigated. The account of the 5 d states in the calculation turns out to be crucial to correctly describe the loss spectra above 10 eV and, in particular, the position and shape of the bulk-plasmon peak at 14.0 eV at vanishing transferred momentum. Our calculations reveal the presence of interband transitions at 16.3 eV, which had never been discussed before. The origin of the peak at 5.8 eV is revisited as due to mixed interband and collective excitations. Finally, our study supplements the lack of experiments at finite transferred momenta.

  16. Display of the Viral Epitopes on Lactococcus lactis: A Model for Food Grade Vaccine against EV71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadimpalli Ravi S. Varma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed a system for display of antigens of Enterovirus type 71 (EV71 on the cell surface of L. lactis. The viral capsid protein (VP1 gene from a local viral isolate was utilized as the candidate vaccine for the development of oral live vaccines against EV71 using L. lactis as a carrier. We expressed fusion proteins in E. coli and purified fusion proteins were incubated with L. lactis. We confirmed that mice orally fed with L. lactis displaying these fusion proteins on its surface were able to mount an immune response against the epitopes of EV71. This is the first example of an EV71 antigen displayed on the surface of a food grade organism and opens a new perspective for alternative vaccine strategies against the EV71. We believe that the method of protein docking utilized in this study will allow for more flexible presentations of short peptides and proteins on the surface of L. lactis to be useful as a delivery vehicle.

  17. Comparing the Primary and Recall Immune Response Induced by a New EV71 Vaccine Using Systems Biology Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shao

    Full Text Available Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines have completed Phase III clinical trials in mainland China, with high efficacy, satisfactory safety, and sustained immunogenicity. However, the molecular mechanisms how this new vaccine elicit potent immune response remain poorly understood. To characterize the primary and recall responses to EV71 vaccines, PBMC from 19 recipients before and after vaccination with EV71 vaccine are collected and their gene expression signatures after stimulation with EV71 antigen were compared. The results showed that primary and recall response to EV71 antigen have both activated an IRF7 regulating type I interferon and antiviral immune response network. However, up-regulated genes involved in T cell activation regulated by IRF1, inflammatory response, B-cell activation and humoral immune response were only observed in recall response. The specific secretion of IL-10 in primary response and IL-2,IP-10,CCL14a, CCL21 in recall response was consistent with the activation of immune response process found in genes. Furthermore, the expression of MX1 and secretion of IP-10 in recall response were strongly correlated with NTAb level at 180d after vaccination (r = 0.81 and 0.99. In summary, inflammatory response, adaptive immune response and a stronger antiviral response were indentified in recall response.

  18. The '0.4 eV' shape resonance of electron scattering from mercury in a Franck Hertz tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletopoulos, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The alternative version of the Franck-Hertz experiment with mercury, in which a two-grid tube is used as a combination of electron gun, equipotential collision space and detection cell, was analysed recently in considerable detail. In particular, it was inferred that, at optimal pressure, the formation of peaks in the anode current at inelastic thresholds is mediated inside the detection cell by the large variation, a maximum at 0.4 eV, in the cross section for elastic scattering. This variation is due to a shape resonance in the electron-mercury system and is observable persuasively at the onset of anode current as a sharp peak followed by a clear minimum. In this paper, the passage of electrons through the second grid to the anode region is analysed in terms of kinetic theory. The discussion is based on a simplified expression for the electron current derivable from an approximate form of the Boltzmann transport equation that maintains the spatial density gradient but omits elastic energy losses. The estimated range of pressure underlying this kind of idealization is in good agreement with experiment. An explicit solution is obtained by constructing an analytic expression for the momentum transfer cross section of mercury using a recent theory of generalized Fano profiles for overlapping resonances. This solution is used in order to model successfully the formation of peaks at the threshold of anode current and at excitation potentials, and to explain the dependence of the observed profiles on the pressure and on the sign and magnitude of the potential across the detection cell.

  19. GRIGOR’EV DIRECTORY: TO FURTHER WORK OVER “DICTIONARY OF LANGUAGE OF THE XX CENTURY RUSSIAN POETRY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa L. Shestakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the last lexicographic project of V.P. Grigor’ev — to “Dictionary of Language of the XX Century Russian Poetry”. Against a background history of creation of the Dictionary, its genre characteristic is given as a complete consolidated (on 10 poets concordance of the commenting type with accurately thought-out over ratio of text material and of comments of the different contents. The main features of the organization of an entry are considered. There are a chronological ranging of examples in obligatory “zone of contexts”, which is allowing to build history of each separate word; a filling of facultative “meaning zone” with data on peculiarities of each lexeme semantics, of the stylistic accent of lexemes, etc., about variant connections with other units of the Dictionary. Entries from different volumes of the edition are used as illustrations. It is noted also, that already at an initial plan of the Dictionary there was an idea of its improvement, therefore work on the project is development and specification of the different parts of its concept today. Thus, the information on phraseological manifestations of the word was embedded into the last of the published volumes, by means of a special mark. Material of the description and interests of the user of the Dictionary prompted expediency of such step (for example, it is important to explain to modern reader that the combination of words ‘not to put okhulka on a hand’, which is found in article Okhulka ‘abuse’, means ‘not to miss the benefit’. The article also discusses the experience of use of the Dictionary data in other lexicographic projects and in various linguistic researches.

  20. Analysis and Optimization of LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Redirection Ratio Anomaly%LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向比例异常的分析研究与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王闽申; 陈烜; 饶明; 陈智强; 林志

    2016-01-01

    为了解决频繁的LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向严重影响LTE用户感知体验的问题,对LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO重定向比例异常、用户感知差等现象着手进行具体问题的原因定位和分析,采用对比分析的方法发现厂家间驻留和迁移参数配置存在不一致。通过实验及对参数优化前后的数据分析,验证了厂家互操作策略不同、参数设置不一致是导致互操作重定向比例异常的根本原因,并给出了LTE-CDMA20001xEV-DO互操作参数配置原则和建议。%In order to solve the problem of frequent LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO redirection affecting the LTE user perception experience seriously. This article located and analyzed the cause for LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO redirection rate anomaly as well as bad user perception experience. With the method of comparative analysis, the article discovered the inconsistent conifguration of reside and migration parameters between the different manufacturers. Through experiments and data analysis of parameters before and after optimization, various operation strategies and inconsistent conifguration of manufacturers were determined to be the fundamental cause for the anomaly, and principles of LTE-CDMA2000 1xEV-DO interoperability parameters conifguration and the suggestions were put forward.

  1. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, H.W.; Erickson, J.C. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Barber, H.B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); James, R.B.; Hermon, H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) is a leading technological material for room-temperature gamma-ray and x-ray detectors. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions {epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2} in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of {approximately}1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively.

  2. Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry between 0.75 and 6.24 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph B. James

    2000-01-07

    Optical properties of Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te (CZT) were studied by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). Measurements made by VASE were performed on CZT and CdTe samples in air at room temperature at multiple angles of incidence. A parametric function model was employed in the VASE analysis to determine the dielectric functions {var_epsilon}={var_epsilon}{sub 1} + i{var_epsilon}{sub 2} in the range of 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A two-oscillator analytical model was used to describe the dielectric response of native oxides on CZT. Surface oxide optical properties and thickness on CZT were also determined in conjunction with the VASE measurement and analysis of a CdTe sample. Two samples of CZT of different oxide thicknesses were measured and their optical constants were coupled together in a multiple-sample, multiple-model VASE analysis to resolve correlations between fitting parameters. Effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to describe the optical properties of the CZT oxide with roughness. A Kramers-Kronig self-consistency check of the real and imaginary parts of the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1} dielectric functions was performed over the energy range 0.75 to 6.24 eV. A five-Lorentz-oscillator model was employed to describe the dielectric response of CZT in the range of 1.6 to 6.24 eV. Intensity transmission measurements were made on the Cd{sub 0.9}Zn{sub 0.1}Te and CdTe, showing the absorption energy band edges of {approximately} 1.58 and 1.46 eV, respectively.

  3. GyroBoy – a self-balancing robot programmed in JAVA with leJOS EV3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Klint

    GyroBoy is a self-balancing robot created by LEGO as a demonstration of what you can build with the EV3 LEGO Mindstorms education kit. The kit includes building instructions as well as a control program for GyroBoy developed in LEGO´s so called block-programming language. In this article I will p...... will present a similar control program developed in Java using the leJOS EV3 class library.......GyroBoy is a self-balancing robot created by LEGO as a demonstration of what you can build with the EV3 LEGO Mindstorms education kit. The kit includes building instructions as well as a control program for GyroBoy developed in LEGO´s so called block-programming language. In this article I...

  4. Observation of the Suppression of the Flux of Cosmic Rays above 4×1019eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; Junior, W. J. M. De Mello; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Luna García, R.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pękala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tuci, V.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-08-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5×1018eV, derived from 20 000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index γ of the particle flux, J∝E-γ, at energies between 4×1018eV and 4×1019eV is 2.69±0.02(stat)±0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2±0.4(stat)±0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz’min.

  5. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Grande, N Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-08-08

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  6. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4x10^19eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP; Aglietta, M.; /INFN, Turin; Aguirre, C.; /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /INFN, Naples; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Northeastern U. /Lisbon, IST /Lisbon, LIFEP

    2008-06-01

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10{sup 18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index {gamma} of the particle flux, J {proportional_to} E{sup {gamma}}, at energies between 4 x 10{sup 18} eV and 4 x 10{sup 19} eV is 2.69 {+-} 0.02(stat){+-}0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2 {+-} 0.4(stat){+-}0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuzmin.

  7. A new calculation on the stopping power and mean free path for low energy electrons in toluene over energy range of 20-10000 eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Xia, Yueyuan; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhang, Liming

    2009-04-01

    A new calculation of the stopping powers (SP) and inelastic mean free paths (IMFP) for electrons in toluene at energies below 10 keV has been presented. The calculation is based on the dielectric model and on an empirical evaluation approach of optical energy loss function (OELF). The reliability for the evaluated OELFs of several hydrocarbons with available experimental optical data has been systematically checked. For toluene, using the empirical OELF, the evaluated mean ionization potential, is compared with that given by Bragg's rule, and the calculated SP at 10 keV is also compared with the Bethe-Bloch prediction. The present results for SP and IMFP provide an alternative basic data for the study on the energy deposition of low-energy electrons transport through toluene, and also show that the method used in this work may be a good one for evaluating the SP and IMFP for hydrocarbons.

  8. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Bedir, Abdulkadir [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  9. Similar protective immunity induced by an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Ma, Kaili; Yang, Erxia; Wang, Jingjing; Che, Yanchun; Jiang, Li; Pu, Jing; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Huai; Li, Qihan

    2015-11-17

    During the development of enterovirus 71 (EV71) inactivated vaccine for preventing human hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) by EV71 infection, an effective animal model is presumed to be significant and necessary. Our previous study demonstrated that the vesicles in oral regions and limbs potentially associated with viremia, which are the typical manifestations of HFMD, and remarkable pathologic changes were identified in various tissues of neonatal rhesus macaque during EV71 infection. Although an immune response in terms of neutralizing antibody and T cell memory was observed in animals infected by the virus or stimulated by viral antigen, whether such a response could be considered as an indicator to justify the immune response in individuals vaccinated or infected in a pandemic needs to be investigated. Here, a comparative analysis of the neutralizing antibody response and IFN-γ-specific T cell response in vaccinated neonatal rhesus macaques and a human clinical trial with an EV71 inactivated vaccine was performed, and the results showed the identical tendency and increased level of neutralizing antibody and the IFN-γ-specific T cell response stimulated by the EV71 antigen peptide. Importantly, the clinical protective efficacy against virus infection by the elicited immune response in the immunized population compared with the placebo control and the up-modulated gene profile associated with immune activation were similar to those in infected macaques. Further safety verification of this vaccine in neonatal rhesus macaques and children confirmed the potential use of the macaque as a reliable model for the evaluation of an EV71 candidate vaccine.

  10. A First Look at the Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Electric Grid in the EV Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Schey; John G. Smart; Don R. Scoffield

    2012-05-01

    ECOtality was awarded a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to lead a large-scale electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstration, called The EV Project. ECOtality has partnered with Nissan North America, General Motors, the Idaho National Laboratory, and others to deploy and collect data from over 5,000 Nissan LEAFsTM and Chevrolet Volts and over 10,000 charging systems in 18 regions across the United States. This paper summarizes usage of residential charging units in The EV Project, based on data collected through the end of 2011. This information is provided to help analysts assess the impact on the electric grid of early adopter charging of grid-connected electric drive vehicles. A method of data aggregation was developed to summarize charging unit usage by the means of two metrics: charging availability and charging demand. Charging availability is plotted to show the percentage of charging units connected to a vehicle over time. Charging demand is plotted to show charging demand on the electric gird over time. Charging availability for residential charging units is similar in each EV Project region. It is low during the day, steadily increases in evening, and remains high at night. Charging demand, however, varies by region. Two EV Project regions were examined to identify regional differences. In Nashville, where EV Project participants do not have time-of-use electricity rates, demand increases each evening as charging availability increases, starting at about 16:00. Demand peaks in the 20:00 hour on weekdays. In San Francisco, where the majority of EV Project participants have the option of choosing a time-of-use rate plan from their electric utility, demand spikes at 00:00. This coincides with the beginning of the off-peak electricity rate period. Demand peaks at 01:00.

  11. Skid Prevention for EVs Based on the Emulation of Torque Reduction Characteristics of Separately-excited DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Shinya; Hori, Yoichi

    It is well-known that the separately-excited DC motor has effective torque (current) reduction characteristics in response to rapid increase in the rotational speed of the motor. These characteristics have been utilized in adhesion control of electric railway trains with separately-excited DC motor. Up to now, we have proposed a new skid prevention method for EVs, utilizing these characteristics and have made experiments with the hardware skid simulator “Motor-Generator setup”. In this paper, we applied this skid prevention control to our new vehicle “UOT CADWELL EV" equipped with BLDC motors and showed its effectiveness.

  12. POVEZANOST VZGOJNIH STILOV STARŠEV Z DIMENZIJAMI OSEBNOSTI IN SAMOSPOŠTOVANJEM POSAMEZNIKOV V ZGODNJI ODRASLOSTI

    OpenAIRE

    Belna, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Stili, ki jih starši uporabljajo pri vzgoji svojih otrok, se povezujejo z različnimi področji otrokovega življenja in funkcioniranja, ne samo v času otroštva, pač pa se učinki vzgoje kažejo tudi kasneje v življenju. Magistrsko delo obravnava posameznike v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Osnovni namen raziskave je ugotoviti povezanost vzgojnih stilov staršev z dimenzijami osebnosti in s samospoštovanjem udeležencev v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Cilj je tudi ugotoviti, ali vzgojni stili staršev pom...

  13. POVEZANOST VZGOJNIH STILOV STARŠEV Z DIMENZIJAMI OSEBNOSTI IN SAMOSPOŠTOVANJEM POSAMEZNIKOV V ZGODNJI ODRASLOSTI

    OpenAIRE

    Belna, Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Stili, ki jih starši uporabljajo pri vzgoji svojih otrok, se povezujejo z različnimi področji otrokovega življenja in funkcioniranja, ne samo v času otroštva, pač pa se učinki vzgoje kažejo tudi kasneje v življenju. Magistrsko delo obravnava posameznike v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Osnovni namen raziskave je ugotoviti povezanost vzgojnih stilov staršev z dimenzijami osebnosti in s samospoštovanjem udeležencev v obdobju zgodnje odraslosti. Cilj je tudi ugotoviti, ali vzgojni stili staršev pom...

  14. DC Fast-Charging Stations for EVs Controlled by a Local Battery Storage in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelaj, Marjan; Træholt, Chresten; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa

    2017-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) are representing a great opportunity for major car manufacturers to invest resources in new technologies in order to support sustainable transportation and the reduction of 퐂퐎ퟐ emissions, in particular in the metropolitan areas. In recent years, the increasing penetration...... is equipped with a bidirectional AC/DC converter for feeding power back to the grid, two lithium batteries and a DC/DC converter. The proposed solution decreases the charging time of EVs and facilitates the integration of fast chargers in existing low voltage (LV) grids. The charging station can also be used...

  15. The Energy Spectrum of Cosmic Rays above 10$^{17.2}$ eV Measured by the Fluorescence Detectors of the Telescope Array Experiment in Seven Years

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is the largest detector to observe ultra-high-energy cosmic rays in the northern hemisphere. The fluorescence detectors at southern two stations of TA are newly constructed and have now completed seven years of steady operation. One advantage of monocular analysis of the fluorescence detectors is a lower energy threshold for cosmic rays than that of other techniques like stereoscopic observations or coincidences with the surface detector array, allowing the measurement of an energy spectrum covering three orders of magnitude in energy. Analyzing data collected during those seven years, we report the energy spectrum of cosmic rays covering a broad range of energies above 10$^{17.2}$ eV measured by the fluorescence detectors and a comparison with previously published results.

  16. Synthesis and properties of layered synthetic microstructure (LSM) dispersion elements for 62 eV (200A) to 1. 24 keV (10A) radiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The opportunities offered by engineered synthetic multilayer dispersion elements for x-rays have been recognized since the earliest days of x-ray diffraction analysis. In this paper, application of sputter deposition technology to the synthesis of Layered Synthetic Microstructure (LSMs) of sufficient quality for use as x-ray dispersion elements is discussed. It will be shown that high efficiency, controllable bandwidth dispersion elements, with d spacings varying from 15 A to 180 A, may be synthesized onto both mechanically stiff and flexible substrates. Multilayer component materials include tungsten, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and silicon layers separated by carbon layers. Experimental observations of peak reflectivity in first order, integrated reflectivity in first order, and diffraction performance at selected photon energies in the range, 100 to 15,000 eV, will be reported and compared to theory.

  17. Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies above 1015 eV - Rapporteur Review of Poster Presentations at the 23rd ECRS - Session PCR 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabelski, Jacek

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric Extensive Air Showers (EAS) are the only way of experimental studies of Primary Cosmic Rays (CR) with energies above 1015 eV. The final targets of these studies are search for astrophysical origin of these particles and properties of particle production in high energy particle interaction. Works presented at the PCR 2 session in the form of posters reflected the current progress in this area. In this review presented posters were grouped according to CR energy range, astrophysical significance, relation to high energy physics interaction properties and interaction models, and future experiments. 42 posters were submitted for this session. Some of the presented material in posters overlapped in parts with oral presentations.

  18. Six-step Voltage Control of PM Brushless AC Motors under High Speed Flux-weakening Operation for EV/HEV Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2008-01-01

    The torque-speed characteristics of brushless motor having an interior permanent magnet rotor and a sinusoidalback-emf waveform are compared experimentally when it is operated in brushless AC (BLAC) mode and brushless DC(BLDC) modes with both 2-phase, 120° conduction (BLDC-120) and 3-phase,180° conduction (BLDC-180).Particularemphasis is on high-speed,six-step voltage controlled,flux-weakening operation.h is shown that for EV/HEV applications,even for interior PM brushless motors which have sinusoidal back-emf waveforms,in order to achieve maximum torque perampere capability over wide operation speed range,it is advantageous to employ a hybrid operation mode-BLAC operationin the constant torque region and six-step voltage control (BLDC-180 operation, together with current phase control) inthe flux-weakening region.

  19. Graphene Anodes and Cathodes: Tuning the Work Function of Graphene by Nearly 2 eV with an Aqueous Intercalation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Taur, Jieh-I; Chen, Ting-Hao; Liao, Guo-Kai; Pi, Tun-Wen; Chen, Mei-Hsin; Wu, Chih-I

    2015-08-12

    To expand the applications of graphene in optoelectronics and microelectronics, simple and effective doping processes need to be developed. In this paper, we demonstrate an aqueous process that can simultaneously transfer chemical vapor deposition grown graphene from Cu to other substrates and produce stacked graphene/dopant intercalation films with tunable work functions, which differs significantly from conventional doping methods using vacuum evaporation or spin-coating processes. The work function of graphene layers can be tuned from 3.25 to 5.10 eV, which practically covers the wide range of the anode and cathode applications. Doped graphene films in intercalation structures also exhibit excellent transparency and low resistance. The polymer-based solar cells with either low work function graphene as cathodes or high work function graphene as anodes are demonstrated.

  20. SIRT1 inhibits EV71 genome replication and RNA translation by interfering with the viral polymerase and 5′UTR RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Lvyin; Cui, Jin; Song, Yu; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Junbo; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Ho, Wenzhe; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) possesses a single-stranded positive RNA genome that contains a single open reading frame (ORF) flanked by a 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) and a polyadenylated 3′UTR. Here, we demonstrated that EV71 activates the production of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase (HDAC). EV71 further stimulates SIRT1 sumoylation and deacetylase activity, and enhances SIRT1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. More interestingly, activated SIRT1 subsequently binds with the EV71 3Dpol protein (a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RdRp) to repress the acetylation and RdRp activity of 3Dpol, resulting in the attenuation of viral genome replication. Moreover, SIRT1 interacts with the cloverleaf structure of the EV71 RNA 5′UTR to inhibit viral RNA transcription, and binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the EV71 5′UTR to attenuate viral RNA translation. Thus, EV71 stimulates SIRT1 production and activity, which in turn represses EV71 genome replication by inhibiting viral polymerase, and attenuates EV71 RNA transcription and translation by interfering with viral RNA. These results uncover a new function of SIRT1 and reveal a new mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication. PMID:27875274

  1. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  2. Molecule emission from condensed Ar and O2 targets by 750 eV Ne impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Christian; Pedrys, Roman; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-06-01

    The sputtering of a condensed Ar and a condensed O2 solid by 750 eV Ne+ ions is studied both by experiment and by molecular dynamics simulation. We focus on the emission of Ar2 dimers and O2 molecules. The translational energy distribution of ejected O2 molecules follows a high-energy fall-off ∼E-2 characteristic of collision-cascade ejection. Here simulation and experiment are in close agreement. The Ar2 translational energy distribution shows a steeper fall-off ∼En at high emission energies E with n ∼ 4 ; it is interpreted to be due to the so-called recombination mechanism of dimer formation. These interpretations are corroborated by an analysis of the distance-of-origin of the emitted species. The role of three-body collisions on the Ar2 emission is discussed. A comparison of experimental and simulated energy distributions of sputtered Ar atoms and dimers allows us to identify a contribution of electronic sputtering of these species.

  3. The role of low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electrons in astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Michael C.; Rivas, Nathalie; Tran, Audrey A.; Verish, Clarissa A.; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2016-10-01

    UV photon-driven condensed phase cosmic ice reactions have been the main focus in understanding the extraterrestrial synthesis of complex organic molecules. Low-energy (≤ 20 eV) electron-induced reactions, on the other hand, have been largely ignored. In this article, we review studies employing surface science techniques to study low-energy electron-induced condensed phase reactions relevant to astrochemistry. In particular, we show that low-energy electron irradiation of methanol ices leads to the synthesis of many of the same complex molecules formed through UV irradiation. Moreover, our results are qualitatively consistent with the hypothesis that high-energy condensed phase radiolysis is mediated by low-energy electron-induced reactions. In addition, due to the numbers of available low-energy secondary electrons resulting from the interaction of high-energy radiation with matter as well as differences between electron- and photon-induced processes, low-energy electron-induced reactions are perhaps as, or even more, effective than photon-induced reactions in initiating condensed-phase chemical reactions in the interstellar medium. Consequently, we illustrate a need for astrochemical models to include the details of electron-induced reactions in addition to those driven by UV photons. Finally, we show that low-energy electron-induced reactions may lead to the production of unique molecular species that could serve as tracer molecules for electron-induced condensed phase reactions in the interstellar medium.

  4. Damage threshold of amorphous carbon mirror for 177 eV FEL radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjani Farahani, Sh.; Chalupsky, Jaromir; Burian, T.; Chapman, Henry; Gleeson, A. J.; Hajkoya, V.; Juha, L.; Jurek, M.; Klinger, Dorota; Sinn, Harald; Sobierajski, R.; Störmer, M.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, Thomas; Wabnitz, H.; Gaudin, Jerome

    2011-04-01

    We present results of damage studies performed at the Free-Electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) on amorphous carbon (a-C). The experiment was performed in the total external reflection geometry representing the working configuration of X-ray mirrors. The 177 eV photon laser beam was focused on a 40 nm thin layer of a-C coated on a silicon substrate. Single-shot damages were produced at two different grazing angles (4.3° and 7.7°) below the critical angle (θc=8°) calculated for this photon energy. The corresponding damage fluence thresholds were determined to be 43.7 and 74 mJ/cm2. No evidence of delamination or mechanical damages (cracks) under grazing angles on the 40 nm thin sample was observed. The results are compared with the results of the previous experiment done on thicker layers (900 nm) of a-C with the same experimental conditions [1].

  5. Smart Charging of EVs in Residential Distribution Systems Using the Extended Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart charging of electrical vehicles (EVs is critical to provide the secure and cost-effective operation for distribution systems. Three model objective functions which are minimization of total supplied power, energy costs and maximization of profits are formulated. The conventional household load is modeled as a ZIP load that consists of constant power, constant current and constant impedance components. The imbalance of distribution system, constraints on nodal voltages and thermal loadings of lines and transformers are all taken into account. Utilizing the radial operation structure of distribution system, an extended iterative method is proposed to greatly reduce the dimensions of optimization variables and thus improve calculation speed. Impacts of the conventional household load model on the simulation results are also investigated. Case studies on three distribution systems with 2, 14, and 141 buses are performed and analyzed. It is found that the linear constrained convex quadratic programming model is applicable at each iteration, when the conventional household load is composed of constant power and constant impedance load. However, it is not applicable when the conventional household load consists of constant current load. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are also validated.

  6. The Swift/Fermi GRB 080928 from 1 eV to 150 keV

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, A; Klose, S; Kann, D A; Rau, A; Krimm, H A; Jóhannesson, G; Panaitescu, A; Yuan, F; Ferrero, P; Krühler, T; Greiner, J; Schady, P; Pandey, S B; Amati, L; Afonso, P M J; Akerlof, C W; Arnold, L; Clemens, C; Filgas, R; Hartmann, D H; Yoldaş, A Küpcü; McBreen, S; McKay, T A; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; E., F Olivares; Paciesas, B; Rykoff, E S; Szokoly, G; Updike, A C; Yoldaş, A

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive study of the Gamma-Ray Burst 080928 and of its afterglow. GRB 080928 was a long burst detected by Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM. It is one of the exceptional cases where optical emission was already detected when the GRB itself was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. For nearly 100 seconds simultaneous optical, X-ray and gamma-ray data provide a coverage of the spectral energy distribution of the transient source from about 1 eV to 150 keV. Here we analyze the prompt emission, constrain its spectral properties, and set lower limits on the initial Lorentz factor of the relativistic outflow. In particular, we show that the SED during the main prompt emission phase is in agreement with synchrotron radiation. We construct the optical/near-infrared light curve and the spectral energy distribution based on Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIa (Australia) and GROND (La Silla) data and compare it to the X-ray light curve retrieved from the Swift/XRT repository. We show that its bumpy shape ca...

  7. Testing Serial Correlation in Semiparametric Varying-Coefficient Partially Linear EV Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-mei Hu; Zhi-zhong Wang; Feng Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies estimation and serial correlation test of a semiparametric varying-coefficient partially linear EV model of the form Y = Xτβ + Zτα(T) + ε,ξ = X + η with the identifying condition E[(ε,ητ)τ] = 0, Cov[(ε,ητ)τ] = σ2Iρ+1. The estimators of interested regression parameters β, and the model error variance σ2, as well as the nonparametric components α(T), are constructed. Under some regular conditions, we show that the estimators of the unknown vector β and the unknown parameter σ2 are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal and that the estimator of α(T) achieves the optimal strong convergence rate of the usual nonparametric regression. Based on these estimators and asymptotic properties, we propose the VN,p test statistic and empirical log-likelihood ratio statistic for testing serial correlation in the model. The proposed statistics are shown to have asymptotic normal or chi-square distributions under the null hypothesis of no serial correlation. Some simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of the proposed tests.

  8. Studies of Air Showers above 10^18 eV with the CHICOS Array

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, T W; Carlson, B E; Jillings, C J; Larson, M B; McKeown, R D; Hill, J E; Falkowski, B J; Seki, R; Sepikas, J; Yodh, G B; Wells, D; Chan, K C

    2005-01-01

    CHICOS (California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory) is presently an array of more than 140 detectors distributed over a large area (~400 km^2) of southern California, and will consist of 180 detectors at 90 locations in the near future. These sites, located at area schools, are equipped with computerized data acquisition and automatic nightly data transfer (via internet) to our Caltech lab. The installed sites make up the largest currently operating ground array for ultra-high energy cosmic ray research in the northern hemisphere. The goal of CHICOS is to provide data related to the flux and distribution of arrival directions for ultra-high energy cosmic rays. We have performed detailed Monte-Carlo calculations to determine the density and arrival-time distribution of charged particles in extensive air showers for the CHICOS array. Calculations were performed for proton primaries with energies 10^18 to 10^21 eV and zenith angles out to 50 degrees. We have developed novel parameterizations for both distribu...

  9. Search for eV (pseudo)scalar penetrating particles in the SPS neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Ballocchi, G; Banner, M; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I G; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S A; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, Paolo Walter; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R D; Daniels, D C; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S N; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kirsanov, M M; Klimov, O L; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnikov, N V; Krasnoperov, A V; Kuznetsov, V E; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Mossuz, L; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, Alfredo; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Popov, B; Poulsen, C; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sevior, M E; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Steininger, M; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Verkindt, D; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Volkov, S A; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zioutas, Konstantin; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2000-01-01

    We carried out a model-independent search for light scalar or pseudoscalar particles $a$'s (an example of which is the axion) that couple to two photons by using a photon-regeneration method at high energies allowing a substantial increase in the sensitivity to $eV$ masses.\\ The experimental set-up is based on elements of the CERN West Area Neutrino Facility (WANF) beam line and theNOMAD neutrino detector.\\ The new particles, if they exist, could be produced through the Primakoff effect in interactions of high energy photons, generated by the 450 $GeV$ protons in the CERN SPS neutrino target, with virtual photons from the WANF horn magnetic field.\\ The particles would penetrate the downstream shieldingand would be observed in the NOMAD neutrino detector through their re-conversion into real high energy photons byinteracting with the virtual photons from the magnetic field of the NOMAD dipole magnet.\\ From the analysis of the data collected during the 1996 run with $1.08\\times10^{19}$ protons on target, 312 ca...

  10. Thermophysical properties of near-Earth asteroid (341843) 2008 EV5 from WISE data

    CERN Document Server

    Alí-Lagoa, V; Delbo, M; Gundlach, B; Blum, J; Licandro, J

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To derive the thermal inertia of 2008 EV$_5$, the baseline target for the Marco Polo-R mission proposal, and infer information about the size of the particles on its surface. Methods. Values of thermal inertia are obtained by fitting an asteroid thermophysical model to NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared data. From the constrained thermal inertia and a model of heat conductivity that accounts for different values of the packing fraction (a measure of the degree of compaction of the regolith particles), grain size is derived. Results. We obtain an effective diameter $D = 370 \\pm 6\\,\\mathrm{m}$, geometric visible albedo $p_V = 0.13 \\pm 0.05$ (assuming $H=20.0 \\pm 0.4$), and thermal inertia $\\Gamma = 450 \\pm 60$ J/m2/s(1/2)/K at the 1-$\\sigma$ level of significance for its retrograde spin pole solution. The regolith particles radius is $r = 6.6^{+1.3}_{-1.3}$ mm for low degrees of compaction, and $r = 12.5^{+2.7}_{-2.6}$ mm for the highest packing densities.

  11. 0.52eV Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; G Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; H Ehsani; KD Rahner; J Azarkevich; P Talamo; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Marinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi; DR Taylor; J Hazel

    2004-06-09

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from 0.52eV lattice-matched InGaAsSb alloys are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaSb substrates. 4cm{sup 2} multi-chip diode modules with front-surface spectral filters were tested in a vacuum cavity and attained measured efficiency and power density of 19% and 0.58 W/cm{sup 2} respectively at operating at temperatures of T{sub radiator} = 950 C and T{sub diode} = 27 C. Device modeling and minority carrier lifetime measurements of double heterostructure lifetime specimens indicate that diode conversion efficiency is limited predominantly by interface recombination and photon energy loss to the GaSb substrate and back ohmic contact. Recent improvements to the diode include lattice-matched p-type AlGaAsSb passivating layers with interface recombination velocities less than 100 cm/s and new processing techniques enabling thinned substrates and back surface reflectors. Modeling predictions of these improvements to the diode architecture indicate that conversion efficiencies from 27-30% and {approx}0.85 W/cm{sup 2} could be attained under the above operating temperatures.

  12. Extensive Air Showers and Cosmic Ray Physics above 1017 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertaina Mario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic Rays above 1017 eV allow studying hadronic interactions at energies that can not be attained at accelerators yet. At the same time hadronic interaction models have to be applied to the cosmic-ray induced air-shower cascades in atmosphere to infer the nature of cosmic rays. The reliability of air-shower simulations has become the source of one of the largest systematic uncertainty in the interpretation of cosmic-ray data due to the uncertainties in modeling the hadronic interaction driving the air-shower development. This paper summarises in the first part the recent results on the cosmic ray energy spectrum, composition and anisotropy from the knee region to the GZK cutoff [1, 2] of the spectrum by means of ground-based experiments. Most of the information reported in this contribution is taken from [3–5]. Aspects interconnecting cosmic ray and particle physics are reviewed in the second part of the paper.

  13. Cosmology based on $f(R)$ gravity with ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Chudaykin, A S; Starobinsky, A A; Burenin, R A

    2015-01-01

    We address the cosmological role of ${\\cal O}(1)$ eV sterile neutrino in modified gravity models. We confront the present cosmological data with the predictions of FLRW cosmological model based on a variant of $f(R)$ modified gravity proposed by one of the authors previously. This viable cosmological model which deviation from general relativity with an induced effective cosmological constant decreases as $R^{-2n}$ for large, but not too large values of the Ricci scalar $R$ provides an alternative to the bare cosmological constant explanation of the present dark energy and accelerated expansion of the Universe ($n=2$ is adopted). We used various up-to-date cosmological data sets including Planck CMB anisotropy, CMB lensing potential, BAO, cluster mass function and Hubble constant measurements. Using the low-z measurements of linear perturbation amplitude from galaxy cluster mass function data we find that sum of neutrino masses constrained by CMB+BAO data is not sufficient to compensate for the extra linear p...

  14. Asteroid Redirect Mission Proximity Operations for Reference Target Asteroid 2008 EV5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, David M.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Cichy, Benjamin D.; Broschart, Steve B.; Deweese, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is composed of two segments, the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), and the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM). In March of 2015, NASA selected the Robotic Boulder Capture Option1 as the baseline for the ARRM. This option will capture a multi-ton boulder, (typically 2-4 meters in size) from the surface of a large (greater than approx.100 m diameter) Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) and return it to cis-lunar space for subsequent human exploration during the ARCM. Further human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cis-lunar space. In addition, prior to departing the asteroid, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) will perform a demonstration of the Enhanced Gravity Tractor (EGT) planetary defense technique2. This paper will discuss the proximity operations which have been broken into three phases: Approach and Characterization, Boulder Capture, and Planetary Defense Demonstration. Each of these phases has been analyzed for the ARRM reference target, 2008 EV5, and a detailed baseline operations concept has been developed.

  15. KATRIN sensitivity on right-handed currents with eV scale sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbrink, Nicholas [WWU Muenster, Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hannestad, Steen [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Valerius, Kathrin [KIT Karlsruhe, Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany); Weinheimer, Christian [WWU Muenster, Institute for Nuclear Physics (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The KATRIN experiment aims to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the endpoint of the Tritium beta spectrum. As a large-scale experiment with a sharp energy resolution, high source luminosity and low background it may also be capable of testing certain theories of neutrino interactions beyond the standard model. As an example for such an interaction, right-handed currents are introduced in some theories which contain a hidden left-right-symmetry. They have basically the same properties as standard left-handed weak currents but are strongly suppressed. Interference between left- and right-handed currents leads to slightly modified kinematics, thus allowing to boost or weaken certain regions near the endpoint of the beta spectrum. The effect would be even more pronounced in case of the existence of a fourth sterile neutrino since it is proportional to the mass of the neutrino final state. In the talk, that is discussed for the case of a sterile neutrino with a mass of some eV. The qualitative effects on the shape of the spectrum are shown as well as results of sensitivity simulations are presented.

  16. evěná nosná konstrukce patrového domu

    OpenAIRE

    Junková, Karolina

    2014-01-01

    Předmětem mé bakalářské práce je návrh a statické posouzení dřevěné nosné konstrukce patrového obytného domu. Budova má tři podlaží - 1. nadzemní parto, 2. nadzemní patro a obytné podkroví. Půdorysné rozměry konstrukce jsou 14,7x11,1 m a výška 11 m. Rámová nosná konstrukce je tvořena stěnovými panely, na které jsou uloženy stropnice. Střešní konstrukce je řešena soustavou vazníků. Budova se nachází ve Slavkově u Brna, klimatická zatížení jsou řešena pro danou oblast. The subject of my bach...

  17. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Tungsten at Temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Colgan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that were submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.

  18. UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Annual report 2015/2016. Review, around look, outlook; UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V.. Jahresbericht 2015/2016. Rueckblick Umblick Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-30

    The report presents the organisational structure and activities of the UNITI Bundesverband mittelstaendischer Mineraloelunternehmen e.V. (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany). Above all, topical issues on business in the mineral oil and lubricant sector are discussed. There is an appendix containing data on the production and sales of petroleum products in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  19. Nuclear Gamma-Ray Laser of Optical Range

    CERN Document Server

    Tkalya, E V

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of amplification of the 7.6 eV (3.5 eV) $\\gamma$-radiation by the stimulated $\\gamma$-emission of the ensemble of the $^{229m}$Th isomeric nuclei in a host dielectric crystal with a large band gap is proved theoretically. This amplification is a result of the following three factors: 1) the excitation of a great number of the $^{229m}$Th isomers by laser radiation; 2) the creation of the inverse population of nuclear levels in a cooled sample placed in magnetic field; 3) the emissions/absorption of the optical photons by thorium nuclei in the crystal without recoil (the M\\"{o}ssbauer effect in the optical range).

  20. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  1. 1015 cm-3 eV-1 level detection of density of states of a p-type polymer by hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoya; Kinjo, Hiroumi; Yamazaki, Junki; Ishii, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method, called hν-dependent high-sensitivity ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, to observe the density of states (DOS) in a very wide range from HOMO to extremely weak gap states (1022 to 1015 cm-3 eV-1 in density of states). The method was applied to a p-type semiconducting polymer. A series of spectra for hν = 4.4-7.7 eV were recorded, and the DOS was obtained by overlapping the spectral part with a similar line shape between adjacent photon energy spectra to eliminate the photon energy dependence of the photoionization cross section. This method can be applied to both organic and inorganic materials, providing useful information about the DOS of functional materials.

  2. The 33S(n,α)30Si cross section measurement at n_TOF-EAR2 (CERN): From 0.01 eV to the resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Praena, J.; Porras, I.; Quesada, J. M.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Camaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Gödel, K.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The 33S(n,α)30Si cross section measurement, using 10B(n,α) as reference, at the n_TOF Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) facility at CERN is presented. Data from 0.01 eV to 100 keV are provided and, for the first time, the cross section is measured in the range from 0.01 eV to 10 keV. These data may be used for a future evaluation of the cross section because present evaluations exhibit large discrepancies. The 33S(n,α)30Si reaction is of interest in medical physics because of its possible use as a cooperative target to boron in Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT).

  3. 直接RT-LAMP检测EV71方法的建立和评价%Development and assessment of direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for EV71 detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮美生; 郭龙华; 周天龙; 黎荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple and rapid direct reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal am-plification (direct RT-LAMP) experimental method for detecting enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection, and the sensitivity and specificity of this method using clinical nasopharyngeal swab specimens for the detection of EV71 were evaluated. Methods Direct RT-LAMP without RNA extraction and with heat-treatment was used to detect EV71 infection in 290 nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Results The accordance rate of direct RT-LAMP and RT-LAMP was 92.4%(268/290), and that of direct RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR was 88.9%. No false posi-tive was found in direct RT-LAMP or RT-LAMP. The clinical performance demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of direct RT-LAMP was 90.3%and 100%compared to RT-LAMP, and 86.8%and 100%compared to qRT-PCR, re-spectively. Conclusion Direct RT-LAMP method can potentially be developed for simple and rapid screening of EV71 and other pathogens.%目的:建立并评价一种简单快速的逆转录环-介导的等温扩增(直接RT-LAMP)检测人肠道病毒71(EV71)的实验方法。方法无需RNA提取,用热处理标本后用直接RT-LAMP方法检测EV71,并用临床收集的290份咽试标本评价其灵敏度和特异性。结果直接RT-LAMP和RT-LAMP实验完全符合率为92.4%(268/290),直接RT-LAMP和qRT-PCR完全符合率为88.9%。在RT-LAMP或直接RT-LAMP实验中没有发现假阳性。与RT-LAMP比较,直接RT-LAMP的灵敏度和特异性分别为90.3%和100%;与qRT-PCR比较,其敏感性和特异性分别为86.8%和100%。结论直接RT-LAMP方法能被开发成简单快速检测EV71和其他病原体的方法。

  4. Towards optimal range medians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gfeller, Beat; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2011-01-01

    that in the cell-probe model, any data structure which supports updates in O(logO(1)n) time must have Ω(log n/loglog n) query time. Our approach naturally generalizes to higher-dimensional range median problems, where element positions and query ranges are multidimensional - it reduces a range median query...... to a logarithmic number of range counting queries....

  5. Tau ranging revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that a ranging receiver with a sufficient and reasonable number of correlators is competitive with the current sequential component ranging system by some 1.5 to 2.5 dB. The optimum transmitter code, the optimum receiver, and a near-maximum-lilelihood range-estimation algorithm are presented.

  6. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10(18) eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Barbosa, A. F.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De la Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schuessler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Susa, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winnick, M. G.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X-max, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are se

  7. $\\gamma$-Ray Bursts Cannot Produce the Observed Cosmic Rays Above $10^{19} eV$

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2000-01-01

    Using recent results indicating that the redshift distribution of gamma-ray bursts most likely follows the redshift evolution of the star formation rate, I show that the energy input from these bursts at low redshifts is insufficient to account for the observed flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with energies above $10^{19}$ eV.

  8. Play as the Leading Activity of the Preschool Period: Insights from Vygotsky, Leont'ev, and Bakhtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert M.; Tarulli, Donato

    2003-01-01

    Discusses ideas from Vygotsky, Leont'ev and Bakhtin to show how fantasy play acts as its own zone of proximal development that contributes to the development of symbolic mediation, the appropriation of social roles and symbols, and the preschool child's preparation for elementary school. (JPB)

  9. Design of a High Voltage Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Driving Capacitive Incremental Actuators usable in Electric Vehicles (EVs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thummala, Prasanth; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    the converter for efficiently charging and discharging the capacitive actuator from 0 V to 2.5 kV and vice versa, respectively. The converter is used to drive a dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) based capacitive incremental actuator, which has the potential to be used in automotive (e.g., EVs), space...

  10. Dual-Electrical-Port Control of Cascaded Brushless Doubly-Fed Induction Drive for EV/HEV Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Peng; Cheng, Ming; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dual-electrical-port control scheme of cascaded brushless doubly-fed induction machine (CBDFIM) for EV/HEV applications aiming at achieving doubled constant torque and constant power regions compared to its singly-fed counterpart with the same equivalent pole pair number...

  11. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  12. Toomkiriku Saueri orel saab korda! / Hugo Lepnurm, Toomas Mäeväli ; interv. Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepnurm, Hugo, 1914-1999

    1998-01-01

    Prof. Hugo Lepnurm ja orelimeister Toomas Mäeväli Toomkiriku Saueri oreli restaureerimise käigust saksa firmas Orgelwerkstatt Christian Scheffler. Oreli sisseõnnistamine 1. augustil 1998. Samas andmed oreli elukäigust. Oreli ehitas 1858. a. saksa meister Friedrich Ladegast. Eestis viimasel ajal töökorda saadud teistest orelitest.

  13. Damage induced to DNA by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under vacuum and atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Emilie; Cloutier, Pierre; Sicard-Roselli, Cécile; Fromm, Michel; Sanche, Léon

    2009-07-23

    In this study, we show that it is possible to obtain data on DNA damage induced by low-energy (0-30 eV) electrons under atmospheric conditions. Five monolayer films of plasmid DNA (3197 base pairs) deposited on glass and gold substrates are irradiated with 1.5 keV X-rays in ultrahigh vacuum and under atmospheric conditions. The total damage is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The damage produced on the glass substrate is attributed to energy absorption from X-rays, whereas that produced on the gold substrate arises from energy absorption from both the X-ray beam and secondary electrons emitted from the gold surface. By analysis of the energy of these secondary electrons, 96% are found to have energies below 30 eV with a distribution peaking at 1.4 eV. The differences in damage yields recorded with the gold and glass substrates is therefore essentially attributed to the interaction of low-energy electrons with DNA under vacuum and hydrated conditions. From these results, the G values for low-energy electrons are determined to be four and six strand breaks per 100 eV, respectively.

  14. Measurement of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 10(18) eV using the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allen, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anticic, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Belletoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Froehlich, U.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; Garcia, B.; Garcia Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Goggin, L. M.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Halenka, V.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, K.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lautridou, P.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Agueera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Redondo, A.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the flux of cosmic rays with unprecedented precision and Statistics using the Pierre Auger Observatory Based on fluorescence observations in coincidence with at least one Surface detector we derive a spectrum for energies above 10(18) eV We also update the previously publi

  15. Introduction of electric double layer capacitors in the solar-EV; Solar denki jidosha eno denki nijuso condenser no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaka, M. [Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A basic experiment was carried out on a supplementary power supply, in which solar cells and electric double layer capacitors(EDLC) were combined for a DC/DC converter, for the use of a solar-electric vehicle (S-EV); and in actuality, an S-EV was loaded with the power supply with a running test conducted on a public road. The EDLC was found effective and useful for avoiding temporary lowering of voltage and momentary break. An electric supply was thereby made possible for an emergency light without the use of the DC/DC converter. However, in a tunnel or a night driving and in case of failure of the DC/DC converter, an operating time of only 7 minutes or so was affordable with the EDLC having a capacity of 100F. Moreover, particularly with a heavy load, it was impossible to maintain a voltage for many hours. Under the circumstances, an S-EV design would primarily require two sets of independent DC/DC converter loaded in the future. The EDLC, young after it was developed, still has a small energy density compared with a lead storage battery. Yet, an EDLC with a higher performance being developed, there is a possibility that it will be applied to S-EV`s by utilizing its characteristics such as a high efficiency and a long service life. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Potential Estimation of Hourly Blank Storage Space and Charge Loads of EVs using Road Traffic Census and Vehicles Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Ito, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Norihiro; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If both EVs (Electric Vehicles, includes plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) and renewable energies spread in large quantities, it is possible to control the supply fluctuation of renewable energies using the storage battery of EVs. This research tried to show the charge load potential of EVs based on the state of the Japanese passenger car using traffic census results etc. Furthermore, it tried to show trend of the storage battery capacity according to time. From the estimated result; (1) the charge electricity of low and middle distance gets a majority of the total charge demand, (2) charge load changes according to time several times, and the minimum load is the number of GWh at early morning, (3) if night charge is assumed, the standby charge demand of noon will reach tens GWh, it may have sufficient scale for supply fluctuation control of PVs. Although the present EV is not suitable for long-distance running, these are expected to be 30 or less percent of the total charge demand. The estimated storage capacity potential in this research will not change numbers of times.

  17. A Novel Enterovirus 71 (EV71) Virulence Determinant: The 69th Residue of 3C Protease Modulates Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingqing; Yue, Yingying; Zhang, Yajie; Yuan, Zenglin; Li, Peng; Song, Nannan; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Gu, Lichuan; Meng, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71), the major causative agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, has been known to cause fatal neurological complications. Unfortunately, the reason for neurological complications that have been seen in fatal cases of the disease and the relationship between EV71 virulence and viral genetic sequences remains largely undefined. The 3C protease (3Cpro) of EV71 plays an irreplaceable role in segmenting the precursor polyprotein during viral replication, and intervening with host life activity during viral infection. In this study, for the first time, the 69th residue of 3C protease has been identified as a novel virulence determinant of EV71. The recombinant virus with single point variation, in the 69th of 3Cpro, exhibited obvious decline in replication, and virulence. We further determined the crystal structure of 3C N69D at 1.39 Ǻ resolution and found that conformation of 3C N69D demonstrated significant changes compared with a normal 3C protein, in the substrate-binding site and catalytic active site. Strikingly, one of the switch loops, essential in fixing substrates, adopts an open conformation in the 3C N69D-rupintrivir complex. Consistent with this apparent structural disruption, the catalytic activity of 3C N69D decreased sharply for host derived and viral derived substrates, detected for both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in addition to EV71, Asp69 was also found in 3C proteases of other virus strains, such as CAV16, and was conserved in nearly all C type human rhinovirus. Overall, we identified a natural virulence determinant of 3C protease and revealed the mechanism of attenuated virulence is mediated by N69D substitution. Our data provides new insight into the enzymatic mechanism of a subdued 3C protease and suggests a theoretical basis for virulence determinantion of picornaviridae. PMID:28217559

  18. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 00-716 (Poland); Möbius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  20. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Wang; Haiying Lv; Qiang Sun; Yanqing Mi; Peng Gao

    2017-01-01

    The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV). In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the t...

  1. Central Makran Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A spectacular view of the Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 65.5E) looking north with the Arabian Sea and the city of Karachi in the foreground. In the center, the Indian sub-continent moving slowly north into the Asian continent has caused the folded sedimentary Makran Range to bend from east-west to north-south as well as the uplift forming The Great Himalaya Range and the high Tibetan Plateau to the north.

  2. Baculovirus Host-Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. Thiem; Xiao-Wen Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Baculoviruses are used as microbial insecticides, protein expression vectors, epitope display platforms, and most recently as vectors for gene therapy. Understanding the mechanisms that control baculovirus host-range and tissue tropisms are important for assessing their safety and for improving their properties for these biotechnology applications. In the past two decades some progress has been made and several baculovirus genes that influence host-range have been identified. Despite this progress, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that restrict baculovirus host-range is still limited. Here we review what is currently known about baculovirus genes that influence virus host-range.

  3. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  4. Laser Range Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Bahuguna

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design aspects of laser range finders and proximity sensors being developed at IRDE for different applications. The principle used in most of the laser range finders is pulse echo or time-of-flight measurement. Optical triangulation is used in proximity sensors while techniques like phase detection and interferometry are employed in instruments for surveying and motion controllers where high accuracy is desired. Most of the laser range finders are designed for ranging non-cooperative targets.

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. Theoretical photoionization spectra in the UV photon energy range for a Mg-like Al+ ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Soung; Kim, Young Soon

    2008-08-01

    In the present work, we report the photoionization cross sections of the Al+ ion calculated for the photon energy range 20-26 eV and 30-50 eV. We have expanded our previous calculation (2007 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76 014302) with an optimized admixture of the initial ground state 3s21S and exited states 3s3p1,3P, 3s3d1,3D and 3s4s1,3S, and obtained significantly improved predictions for the main background and autoionizing resonance structures of the reported experimental spectra. The absolute measurements of the photoionization cross sections of the Al+ ion in these energy ranges have been performed by West et al (2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 052719), and they reported that the prominent peaks around 21 eV were attributed to the effects of the significant influence of the small fraction of the fourth-order radiation with energies around 84 eV from the synchrotron source. In our previous work, the main shape for these cross sections was calculated assuming an admixture of initial 3s21S and 3s3p3P states, only with a rough overall estimate for the experimental spectra in the photon energy range 20-26 eV, and without these peaks around 21 eV. The report of the experimental assignment attributes these peaks to the excitation of a 2p electron from the core. However, our present results with the new admixture reveal similar peaks without considering the possibility of the core excitation.

  8. A single-aliquot regenerative-dose method based on IR (1.49eV) bleaching of the fast OSL component in quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mgj@aber.ac.uk; Murray, A.S. [Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Boetter-Jensen, L. [Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wintle, A.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales SY23 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    In the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz, the presence of significant medium and slow components in the initial-OSL signal (first 0.8s or so) can give rise to erroneous dose estimates. Thus it is desirable to develop a dose estimation method that is based on the OSL from the fast component alone. In this paper, the reduction of fast component OSL by high temperature infrared (IR) stimulation is investigated. It is shown that, in the temperature range from 120-190-bar C, it is possible to deplete the fast component preferentially using IR stimulation. The thermal assistance energy required for IR stimulation (1.49eV; 830nm) of the fast component is calculated to be 0.41+/-0.02eV. However, the elevated temperature IRSL of quartz has a poor signal-to-noise ratio; hence a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol based on a differential-OSL signal (the difference between the two short OSL signals separated by an elevated temperature IR stimulation) is proposed. The measurement conditions are optimised following examination of both the photoionisation cross-sections of the fast component for different stimulation temperatures, and possible thermally induced sensitivity changes arising from holding the samples at high temperatures for long periods ({approx}1500s). The resulting equivalent dose values, and those from a conventional SAR protocol based on the initial-OSL signal, are compared with the expected doses for several samples. We observe that for samples with relatively strong medium and slow components, the SAR protocol based on isolation of the fast component (derived by IR depletion of the OSL) gives significantly more accurate estimates than the SAR protocol using net initial OSL signals. On the other hand, accurate dose estimates are obtained from samples dominated by the fast component using both protocols. Finally, the implications are discussed for dosimetry using quartz.

  9. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  10. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...

  11. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    Range selection is the problem of preprocessing an input array A of n unique integers, such that given a query (i; j; k), one can report the k'th smallest integer in the subarray A[i];A[i+1]; : : : ;A[j]. In this paper we consider static data structures in the word-RAM for range selection and sev...

  12. Generic methodology for driving range estimation of electric vehicle with on-road charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, A.; Prasanth, V.; Bauer, P.; Bolech, M.

    2015-01-01

    An analytical estimation of driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) with contactIess on-road charging system is presented in this paper. Inductive power transfer (IPT) systems with different configurations (static, dynamic), power levels and road coverage have different (and non-linear) impact on t

  13. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  14. Total cross sections for scattering of electrons from O2,H2O,H2,O3, CO and CO2 at 100-2000eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Yang Xiang-Dong; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang

    2004-01-01

    A complex optical model potential rewritten by the concept of bonded atom, which considers the overlap of electron clouds, is employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering from several simple molecules (O2, H2O, H2, O3, CO and CO2) consisting of C, H and O atoms in an incident energy range of 100-2000eV by the use of the additivity rule at Hartree-Fock level. In the study, the complex optical potential composed of static, exchange,correlation polarization plus absorption contributions firstly uses the bonded-atom concept. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained. It is shown that the additivity rule along with the complex optical model potential rewritten by the concept of bonded atom can be used successfully to calculate the total cross section of electron-molecule scattering above 100eV, whereas the rule together with the complex optical model potential not rewritten by the concept of bonded atom is only successfully used above 300-500eV. So, the introduction of the bonded-atom concept in the complex optical potential can improve the accuracy of the total cross section calculations.

  15. 人源抗EV71病毒中和表位SP70的Fab抗体研制%Development of a humanized Fab antibody against the neutralizing SP70 epitope of EV71

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余艳琼; 翁育伟; 严延生

    2016-01-01

    目的 构建人源抗EV71病毒Fab噬菌体抗体库,筛选具有中和活性的人源单克隆抗体,为EV71感染引起的手足口病临床诊断及治疗奠定基础.方法 从成人志愿者抗凝血中分离外周淋巴细胞,提取总RNA并逆转录为cDNA.以cDNA为模板,用人源IgG Fab段基因引物扩增轻链及重链Fd区基因,分步克隆至pComb3载体,构建Fab噬菌体抗体库.以SP70为抗原对Fab噬菌体抗体库进行富集筛选,将获得的重组噬菌体感染XL1-Blue菌并诱导表达,用SP70对诱导表达的菌上清进行筛选.结果 共获得3株轻、重链基因组合序列不同的克隆,且这3株Fab抗体可特异性结合SP70多肽.结论 成功构建人源抗EV71病毒Fab噬菌体抗体库,并从中筛选出3株针对EV71病毒结构蛋白VP1上中和线性表位SP70的特异性人源Fab抗体,为研发新的手足口病诊断和治疗工具奠定基础.

  16. The state at the brakes. Pt. 1. The long way from DIN 4108 to EnEV; Der Staat als Bremser. T. 1. Der lange Weg von der DIN 4108 bis zur EnEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke-Hennig, Werner [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Due to the oil crisis in the year 1973, the former substantial energy consumption of buildings had to be reduced. However, first successes were very meagre. The contribution under consideration reports on the long way from the regulation DIN 4108 up to the Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV). The first part of this multipart contribution is concerned with the difficult birth of the thermal insulation regulation and comments the period of time up to their first amendment in the year 1984.

  17. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16. METHODS: Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses. RESULTS: The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16. CONCLUSION: EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  18. The natural diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 is an inhibitor of fungal delta-9 fatty acid desaturation with efficacy in a model of skin dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Philipp; Diefenbacher, Melanie; Greve, Katrine B V; Brianza, Federico; Folly, Christophe; Heider, Harald; Lone, Museer A; Long, Lisa; Meyer, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Patrick; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Schneiter, Roger; Sorensen, Alexandra S

    2014-01-01

    Human fungal infections represent a therapeutic challenge. Although effective strategies for treatment are available, resistance is spreading, and many therapies have unacceptable side effects. A clear need for novel antifungal targets and molecules is thus emerging. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the plant-derived diyne-furan fatty acid EV-086 as a novel antifungal compound. EV-086 has potent and broad-spectrum activity in vitro against Candida, Aspergillus, and Trichophyton spp., whereas activities against bacteria and human cell lines are very low. Chemical-genetic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants identified lipid metabolic processes and organelle organization and biogenesis as targets of EV-086. Pathway modeling suggested that EV-086 inhibits delta-9 fatty acid desaturation, an essential process in S. cerevisiae, depending on the delta-9 fatty acid desaturase OLE1. Delta-9 unsaturated fatty acids-but not saturated fatty acids-antagonized the EV-086-mediated growth inhibition, and transcription of the OLE1 gene was strongly upregulated in the presence of EV-086. EV-086 increased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated free fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine fatty acyl chains, respectively. Furthermore, EV-086 was rapidly taken up into the lipid fraction of the cell and incorporated into phospholipids. Together, these findings demonstrate that EV-086 is an inhibitor of delta-9 fatty acid desaturation and that the mechanism of inhibition might involve an EV-086-phospholipid. Finally, EV-086 showed efficacy in a guinea pig skin dermatophytosis model of topical Trichophyton infection, which demonstrates that delta-9 fatty acid desaturation is a valid antifungal target, at least for dermatophytoses.

  19. Ga-rich GaxIn1-xP solar cells on Si with 1.95 eV bandgap for ideal III-V/Si photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Christopher; Grassman, T. J.; Carlin, J. A.; Chmielewski, D. J.; Ringel, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Theoretical models for III-V compound multijunction solar cells show that solar cells with bandgaps of 1.95-2.3 eV are needed to create ideal optical partitioning of the solar spectrum for device architectures containing three, four and more junctions. For III-V solar cells integrated with an active Si sub-cell, GaInP alloys in the Ga-rich regime are ideal since direct bandgaps of up to ~ 2.25 eV are achieved at lattice constants that can be integrated with appropriate GaAsP, SiGe and Si materials, with efficiencies of almost 50% being predicted using practical solar cell models under concentrated sunlight. Here we report on Ga-rich, lattice-mismatched Ga0.57In0.43P sub-cell prototypes with a bandgap of 1.95 eV grown on tensile step-graded metamorphic GaAsyP1-y buffers on GaAs substrates. The goal is to create a high bandgap top cell for integration with Si-based III-V/Si triple-junction devices. Excellent carrier collection efficiency was measured via internal quantum efficiency measurements and with their design being targeted for multijunction implementation (i.e. they are too thin for single junction cells), initial cell results are encouraging. The first generation of identical 1.95 eV cells on Si were fabricated as well, with efficiencies for these large bandgap, thin single junction cells ranging from 7% on Si to 11% on GaAs without antireflection coatings, systematically tracking the change in defect density as a function of growth substrate.

  20. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  1. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  2. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  3. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  4. Correlation radio range finder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorochan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In work widely known methods of range measuring are short characterized. The basic attention is given features of signal processing in a correlation method of range measuring. The signal with angular modulation with one-voice-frequency fluctuation is used as a probing signal. The absence of Doppler effect on the formation of the correlation integral, the frequency instability of the transmitter, the phase change on reflection from the target is presented. It is noticed that the result of signal processing in the range measuring instrument is reduced to formation on an exit one-voice-frequency harmonious fluctuation equal to modulating frequency that provides high characteristics of a radio range finder.

  5. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  6. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  7. Substring Range Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. {itemize} We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems to a new problem, which we call \\emph{substring range reporting}. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of...

  8. Substring Range Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. {itemize} We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems to a new problem, which we call \\emph{substring range reporting}. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of...

  9. Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^18 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee; Andringa, S.; /Lisbon, IST /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb

    2010-02-01

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{sub max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10{sup 18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{sub -21}{sup +35}) g/cm{sup 2}/decade below 10{sup 18.24 {+-} 0.05}eV, and (24 {+-} 3) g/cm{sup 2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{sup 2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  10. Advancing non-equilibrium ARPES experiments by a 9.3 eV coherent ultrafast photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilento, F., E-mail: federico.cilento@elettra.eu [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Crepaldi, A. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Manzoni, G.; Sterzi, A. [Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); Zacchigna, M. [C.N.R. – I.O.M., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Bugnon, Ph.; Berger, H. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Parmigiani, F. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, Trieste 34149 (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Trieste, Via A. Valerio 2, Trieste 34127 (Italy); International Faculty, University of Köln, 50937 Köln (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The quest for investigating the non-equilibrium dynamics of the band structure of strongly-correlated materials over their entire Brillouin zone is a primary objective. However, the actual ultrafast UV light sources are not suitable for addressing several critical questions in the field. Here we report on a novel light source generating sub-250 fs, 9.3 eV photon energy light pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate, obtained via third-harmonic generation in Xe of frequency-doubled 50 fs laser pulses at 1.55 eV. By reporting the measured band dispersion of a Cu(111) crystal and the non-equilibrium dynamics of the Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator, we prove that this source is suitable for studying the non-equilibrium dynamics of the entire Fermi surface of several complex materials, with high signal statistics and limited space-charge effect.

  11. Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10{18} eV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Ahn, E J; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anticić, T; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Arganda, E; Arisaka, K; Arqueros, F; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Balzer, M; Barber, K B; Barbosa, A F; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellétoile, A; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blanco, M; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Boncioli, D; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Borodai, N; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Bruijn, R; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Coluccia, M R; Conceição, R; Contreras, F; Cook, H; Cooper, M J; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; 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Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gonçalves, P; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Gozzini, S R; Grashorn, E; Grebe, S; Grigat, M; Grillo, A F; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Herve, A E; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Jiraskova, S; Kadija, K; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Keivani, A; Kelley, J; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kruppke-Hansen, D; Kuehn, F; Kuempel, D; Kulbartz, K; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lautridou, P; Leão, M S A B; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Lemiere, A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Louedec, K; Lozano Bahilo, J; Lucero, A; Ludwig, M; Lyberis, H; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Marin, V; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Marsella, G; Martello, D; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McEwen, M; Medina-Tanco, G; Melissas, M; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menshikov, A; Meurer, C; Micanović, S; Micheletti, M I; Miller, W; Miramonti, L; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Mueller, S; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Nyklicek, M; Oehlschläger, J; Olinto, A; Oliva, P; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Palmieri, N; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Parra, A; Parrisius, J; Parsons, R D; Pastor, S; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; 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Yushkov, A; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2010-03-05

    We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10;{18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{-21}{+35}) g/cm{2}/decade below 10{18.24+/-0.05} eV, and (24+/-3) g/cm{2}/decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm{2}. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.

  12. EV-DO监测系统中R-P接口业务信令追踪的研究与实现%RESEARCH AND IMPLEMENTATION OF SIGNALING TRACING OF R-P INTERFACE SERVICE IN EV-DO MONITORING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向程超; 雒江涛; 梁昌银

    2015-01-01

    In EV-DO network,the signaling monitoring system is particularly important to the analyses of users data business operation.Ai-ming at CDR synthesis of A1 1 signaling and PPP signaling between R-P interface which is an important interface in EV-DO network,and com-bining the service characteristics of calling and paging procedures,this paper presents a series of optimisation and improvement schemes.By testing on ED-VO existing network data and its corresponding experimental result derived,it is shown that the optimisation of the correlation mechanism between signaling and service data messages shortens the tracing statistic time in regard to the signaling of data network paging and user calling businesses to the highest of 30 s,the refinement in indexes boosts fault positioning accuracy as well.This improved scheme has important significance for optimising the analyses platform of networks operation and maintenance.%在EV-DO网络中,信令监测系统对于用户数据业务运营的分析尤为重要。针对EV-DO网络中的重要数据接口R-P接口间A11及PPP信令CDR(Call Data Record)的合成,结合主叫和寻呼过程的业务特征,提出一系列优化及改进方案。经过EV-DO现网数据的测试以及产生的相应实验结果表明,优化信令与业务数据消息间的关联机制,缩短了数据网络寻呼与用户主叫业务信令的追踪统计时间最高可达30 s,指标的细化提升了故障定位准确性。这项改进方案对于优化网络运维的分析平台有着重要意义。

  13. Conformal gauge mediation and light gravitino of mass m{sub 3/2}eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)], E-mail: ibe@slac.stanford.edu; Nakayama, Y. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Yanagida, T.T. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan)

    2009-01-26

    We discuss a class of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with conformal invariance above the messenger mass scale (conformal gauge mediation). The spectrum of the supersymmetric particles including the gravitino is uniquely determined by the messenger mass. When the conformal fixed point is strongly interacting, it predicts a light gravitino of mass m{sub 3/2}eV, which is attractive since such a light gravitino causes no problem in cosmology.

  14. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Bromide in the 4.5-20 eV Excitation Energy Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 徐克尊

    2004-01-01

    The absolute optical oscillator strength density spectrum of HBr in the valence shell energy region of 4.5-20 eV has been determined by a high-resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer. The optical oscillator strengths reported. It has been manifested clearly that the optical oscillator strengths of some transitions for the previous photoabsorption method are subject to severe line-saturation effects.

  15. Optical Oscillator Strengths of Hydrogen Chloride in the Energy Region of 5.5-20 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文斌; 朱林繁; 刘小井; 苑震生; 孙建敏; 成华东; 酒井康弘; 徐克尊

    2003-01-01

    Absolute optical oscillator strength density (OOSD) spectrum of HCl in the valence shell energy region of 5.5-20 eV has been determined by the high resolution fast electron energy loss spectrometer (EELS). The optical oscillator strengths for the broad A1Ⅱ + 13∑+ dissociation peak and the discrete transitions of b3Ⅱ(v′=0),C1Ⅱ(v′ = 0, 1, 2) and M1Ⅱ(v′= 0) are reported.

  16. Estilo de vida saludable (EVS): la necesidad de una mirada alternativa al enfoque biomédico

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    La comunidad médica adventista continuamente encuentra evidencia que respalda la filosofía de la salud, especialmente la que tiene que ver con los Estilos de Vida Saludables (EVS), dado que está asociado a una larga longevidad y menor riesgo de padecer enfermedades crónicas y degenerativas. Pero, ¿qué se conoce de la investigación científica que identifica restricciones en este enfoque?

  17. High reflectance Cr/C multilayer at 250 eV for soft X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Mingwu; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Zhong; Huang, Qiushi [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Zhanshan, E-mail: wangzs@tongji.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Advanced Micro-Structured Materials, Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Hongchang [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    X-ray reflection near 45° via multilayer mirrors can be used for astronomical polarization measurements. A Cr/C multilayer mirror (designed for X-ray polarimetry at 250 eV), with a period thickness of 3.86 nm and a bi-layer number of 100, was fabricated using direct current magnetron sputtering. Grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8 keV and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the multilayer structure. Different models were introduced to fit the hard X-ray reflectivity curve, which indicates that the layer thickness of two materials slightly drifts from the bottom to the top of the stack. Both the chromium and carbon layers are amorphous with asymmetric interfaces, while the Cr-on-C interface is slightly wider. Based on the good quality of the multilayer structure, a high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV at a grazing incidence angle of 40.7°. The fabricated Cr/C multilayer mirror exhibits high reflectivity and polarization levels in the energy region of 240 eV–260 eV. - Highlights: • We fabricated Cr/C multilayer with 3.8 nm d-spacing. • X-ray reflectometry was used to determine the exact structure of Cr/C multilayer. • A high reflectivity of 21.8% for the s-polarized light was obtained at 250 eV. • Both Cr and C were found to be amorphous with slightly asymmetric interfaces. • A 4-layer model was used to fit and explain the results.

  18. Development of Markov Chain-Based Queuing Model and Wireless Infrastructure for EV to Smart Meter Communication in V2G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.

  19. The Energy Spectrum and the Chemical Composition of Primary Cosmic Rays with Energies from 1014 to 1016 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogio, S.; Kakimoto, F.; Kurashina, Y.; Burgoa, O.; Harada, D.; Tokuno, H.; Yoshii, H.; Morizawa, A.; Gotoh, E.; Nakatani, H.; Nishi, K.; Shimoda, S.; Tajima, N.; Yamada, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Murakami, K.; Toyoda, Y.; Matsubara, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Shirasaki, Y.; Tsunesada, Y.; Miranda, P.; Velarde, A.

    2004-09-01

    We have measured extensive air showers with primary energies above 6 TeV at Mount Chacaltaya in Bolivia. The data were collected by an air shower array called the Minimum Air Shower (MAS) array starting in 2000 March. We applied an equi-intensity analysis method to the extensive air showers extended over the region of their maximum development. We varied the mixture of protons and iron in our simulations and compared these to the data to determine the mixing ratio of protons as a function of the primary energy. Using this, we derived the primary energy spectrum from 1014 to 5×1016 eV. Consequently, we conclude that the power-law index of the spectrum changes gradually around 1015.5 eV and that the obtained proton ratio decreases with increasing energy. We directly measured the longitudinal development of air showers generated by primaries with energies around the knee. We found that the average mass number of primary cosmic rays shows a steady increase with energy above 1014.5 eV and that the dominant component around the knee is not protons.

  20. NIF-scale re-emission sphere measurements of early-time Tr = 100 eV hohlraum symmetry (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, E L; Thomas, C; Milovich, J; Edwards, J; Sorce, C; Kirkwood, R; Meeker, D; Jones, O; Izumi, N; Landen, O L

    2008-10-01

    The indirect-drive National Ignition Campaign (NIC) proposes to set the first 2 ns of hohlraum radiation symmetry by observing the instantaneous soft x-ray re-emission pattern from a high-Z sphere in place of the ignition capsule. To assess this technique under NIC conditions, we used the Omega Laser Facility to image the re-emission of Bi coated spheres with 200 ps temporal, 50-100 microm spatial, and 30% spectral resolution. The sphere is driven by 70% NIC-scale vacuum Au hohlraums heated to Tr=100 eV using two cones per side laser beam illumination. The experiments have demonstrated the required accuracies of <3%P(2)/P(0) and <3%P(4)/P(0) Legendre mode flux asymmetry at both 900 and 1200 eV re-emission photon energies. The re-emission patterns at 900 and 1200 eV are also consistent with each other and their relative dependence on radiation temperature. We measured the P(2)/P(0) and P(4)/P(0) dependence to laser cone power ratio. View factor calculations are in agreement with the experimentally measured radiation flux and re-emit images when assuming 55% inner beam and 100 % outer beam coupling into x rays at the hohlraum wall.