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Sample records for 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type

  1. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Stuart A

    2009-11-01

    Glucocorticoid excess is characterized by increased adiposity, skeletal myopathy, and insulin resistance, but the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. Within skeletal muscle, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) converts cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in rodents) to active cortisol (corticosterone in rodents). We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity.

  2. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  3. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue and prospective changes in body weight and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; de Courten, Barbora; Wake, Deborah J

    2006-01-01

    Increased mRNA and activity levels of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) in human adipose tissue (AT) are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to investigate whether 11betaHSD1 expression or activity in abdominal subcutaneous AT of non...

  4. Novel non-steroidal inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicker, Nigel; Su, Xiangdong; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. 11beta-HSD1 is selectively expressed in many tissues including the liver and adipose tissue where metabolic events are important. Metabolic syndrome relates to a number of metabolic abnormalities and currently has a prevalence of >20% in adult Americans. 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors are being investigated by many major pharmaceutical companies for type 2 diabetes and other abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome. In this area of intense interest a number of structural types of 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor have been identified. It is important to have an array of structural types as the physicochemical properties of the compounds will determine tissue distribution, HPA effects, and ultimately clinical utility. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of three structurally different series of novel 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors that inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 in the low micromolar range. Docking studies with 1-3 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 reveal how the molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor and give further scope for structure based drug design in the optimisation of these series.

  5. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 promotes differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LIU; Yan SUN; Ting ZHU; Yu XIE; Jing YU; Wen-lan SUN; Guo-xian DING; Gang HU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the relationship between 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydroge-nase type 1 (1 lbeta-HSD1), a potential link between obesity and type 2 diabetes,and preadipocyte differentiation. Methods: Mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA plasmids were transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (a cell line derived from mouse Swiss3T3 cells that were isolated from mouse embryo), for examination of the effect of targeted 11 beta-HSD1 inhibition on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Dif-ferentiation was stimulated with 3-isobutyl-1-methyxanthine, insulin, and dexamethasone. The transcription level of the genes was detected by real-time PCR. Results: Lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited in cells transfected with mouse 11beta-HSD1 siRNA compared with non-transfected 3T3-L1 cells.Fewer lipid droplets were detected in the transfected cells both prior to stimulation and after stimulation with differentiation-inducing reagents. The expression of adipocyte differentiation-associated markers such as lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid synthetase were downregulated in the transfected cells. Similarly, the expres-sion of preadipocyte factor-1, an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation, was downregulated upon stimulation of differentiation and had no changes in the transfected cells. Conclusion: 11 beta-HSD1 can promote preadipocyte differentiation. Based on this, we propose that 11 beta-HSD1 may be an important candidate mediator of obesity and obesity-induced insulin resistance.

  6. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Christine G

    2008-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoids through the activity of two isozymes: type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD2). 11beta-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid to the active form, whereas 11beta-HSD2 converts active glucocorticoid to the inactive form. It is well established that reduced 11beta-HSD2 activity causes hypertension and electrolyte abnormalities. More recently, the pathophysiological role of 11beta-HSD1 has been explored and studies suggest that increased 11beta-HSD1 activity within target tissues may promote insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This review will discuss the evidence that inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 may be therapeutic in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Discovery of novel inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Trusselle, Melanie; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-03-25

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones, which play essential roles in various vital physiological processes. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Therefore, inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here we report the discovery of a series of novel adamantyl carboxamides as selective inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1 in HEK-293 cells transfected with the HSD11B1 gene. Compounds 9 and 14 show inhibitory activity against 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in 100nM range. Docking studies with the potent compound 8 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 (1XU9) reveals how the molecule may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  8. Distinct effect of stress on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and corticosteroid receptors in dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergang, P; Kuželová, A; Soták, M; Klusoňová, P; Makal, J; Pácha, J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest the participation of the hippocampus in the feedback inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress response. This inhibition is mediated by glucocorticoid feedback due to the sensitivity of the hippocampus to these hormones. The sensitivity is determined by the expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1), an enzyme that regulates the conversion of glucocorticoids from inactive to active form. The goal of our study was to assess the effect of stress on the expression of 11HSD1, GR and MR in the ventral and dorsal region of the CA1 hippocampus in three different rat strains with diverse responses to stress: Fisher 344, Lewis and Wistar. Stress stimulated 11HSD1 in the ventral but not dorsal CA1 hippocampus of Fisher 344 but not Lewis or Wistar rats. In contrast, GR expression following stress was decreased in the dorsal but not ventral CA1 hippocampus of all three strains. MR expression was not changed in either the dorsal or ventral CA1 region. These results indicate that (1) depending on the strain, stress stimulates 11HSD1 in the ventral hippocampus, which is known to be involved in stress and emotion reactions whereas (2) independent of strain, stress inhibits GR in the dorsal hippocampus, which is predominantly involved in cognitive functions.

  9. Discovery of adamantyl ethanone derivatives as potent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Thomas, Mark P; Szeto, Michelle W Y; Halem, Heather A; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2010-07-05

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl ethanone compounds was identified as potent inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1. The most active compounds identified (52, 62, 72, 92, 103 and 104) display potent inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in the 50-70 nM range. Compound 72 also proved to be metabolically stable when incubated with human liver microsomes. Furthermore, compound 72 showed very weak inhibitory activity for human cytochrome P450 enzymes and is therefore a candidate for in vivo studies. Comparison of the publicly available X-ray crystal structures of human 11beta-HSD1 led to docking studies of the potent compounds, revealing how these molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  10. Age-related changes in the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in rat Leydig cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Georgieva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in rats have shown that the ability of Leydig cells (LCs to produce testosterone significantly declines with age. To address the possible mechanisms by which aging LCs lose their steroidogenic function, we determined the effect of aging on the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD type 2. The enzyme plays a protective role in blunting the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids on LCs steroidogenesis. Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed progressive decline in 11beta-HDS type 2 expression in LCs of the 18 months of age rats and the most significant reduction in 11beta-HSD2 immunoreactivity was evident in the testicular interstitium of 24- month-old rats. The decrease in the 11beta-HDS type 2 immunostaining in LCs during aging coincided with decline in insulin-like 3/relaxin-like factor (INSL3/RLF expression, an independent marker for LCs differentiation status. Concomitant with the age-related decrease of 11beta-HDS type 2 immunoreactivity in the LCs population, the immunoexpression of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD, marker for LCs steroidogenic activity, was greatly reduced at 24 months compared to 3-month-old control. Similar pattern of expression exhibited also androgen receptor (AR which is localized in the nuclei of Sertoli cells (SCs, LCs, and peritubular cells. During ages we observed progressive decrease in the immunoreactivity for AR in the testicular types and there was a loss of stage specificity in SCs at age of 24 months. It now seems evident that a variety of factors are likely to be involved in age-related decreases in LCs steroidogenesis, including 11beta-HSD type 2. The observed reduction in 11beta-HSD type 2 expression in aging LCs reflects the decline in their protection ability, opposing the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids on testosterone production.

  11. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  12. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  13. Glucocorticoids, feto-placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and the early life origins of adult disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckl, J R

    1997-01-01

    Increasing human epidemiological data suggest that events that subtly retard intrauterine growth may determine common disorders, such as hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, in adult life. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. However, excessive fetal exposure to glucocorticoids retards growth and "programs" adult hypertension in rats. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) catalyzes the rapid inactivation of cortisol and corticosterone to inert 11 keto-products. Normally, 11 beta-HSD2 in the placenta and some fetal tissues is thought to protect the fetus from excess maternal glucocorticoids. In both rats and humans there is considerable natural variation in placental 11 beta-HSD2, and enzyme activity correlates with birth weight. Moreover, inhibition of feto-placental 11 beta-HSD2 in the rat reduces birth weight and produces hypertensive and hyperglycaemic adult offspring, many months after prenatal treatment; effects are dependent upon intact maternal adrenals, suggesting a direct action on the fetus or placenta. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy also produces hypertensive offspring and selectively attenuates placental 11 beta-HSD2 activity. These data suggest that feto-placental 11 beta-HSD2, by regulating fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, crucially determines fetal growth and the programming of later disorders. Deficiency of the barrier to maternal glucocorticoids may represent a common pathway between the maternal environment and feto-placental programming of later disease. These data may, at least in part, explain the human observations linking early life events to the risk of subsequent disease.

  14. Role of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and in rats with diet-induced obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun LIU; Wen-lan SUN; Yan SUN; Gang HU; Guo-xian DING

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To observe the roles of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in in vitro preadipocyte differentiation and in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Methods: Protein expression of 11β-HSD1 in the process of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation and in various tissues of the rats were detected by Western blot analysis; expression of 11β-HSD1 mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and other marker genes of preadipocyte differentiation were detected by using real-time PCR. Results: Lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 cells accumulated and increased after stimulation. A dramatically elevated protein level of 11β-HSD1, especially in the late stages of 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, was detected. The relative mRNA levels of 11β-HSD1, GR and cell differentiation markers LPL, aP2, and FAS were upregulated, and Pref-1 was downregulated during the differentiation. In DIO rats, bodyweight, visceral adipose mass index and the protein expression of 11β-HSD1 increased, especially in adipose tissue, brain and muscles. Serum insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol and 1oW-density lipoprotein cholesterol were found to be increased in DIO rats, but without any obvious changes in blood glucose or tumor necrosis factor-αlevels. Conclusion: 11β-HSD1 may promote preadipocyte differentiation, and may be involved in the development of obesity.

  15. Repeated maternal dexamethasone treatments in late gestation increases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in the hippocampus of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shunlun; Hao, Rusong; Sun, Kang

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated maternal injections of dexamethasone in late gestation on the expression of newborn hippocampal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), the enzyme amplifying glucocorticoids' action by converting biologically inactive 11-ketone metabolites into active glucocorticoids. Daily dexamethasone treatments (0.10 mg/kg body weight) in the last week of gestation were carried out in the pregnant rat. The expression of 11beta-HSD1 in the newborn hippocampal tissue was analyzed with Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The effect of corticosterone on the expression of 11beta-HSD1 was studied in cultured hippocampal neurons derived from newborn offspring received prenatal dexamethasone treatments. Both body and brain weights of the offspring were reduced significantly by repeated dexamethasone treatments in the last week of gestation. Western blot and real-time PCR analysis showed that both 11beta-HSD1 protein and mRNA expressions were increased significantly in the hippocampus of the newborn offspring on the first and seventh days after birth. Corticosterone could induce 11beta-HSD1 expression in cultured hippocampal neurons prepared from newborns received prenatal dexamethasone treatments, which was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. The above findings suggest that repeated prenatal dexamethasone treatments at the end of gestation increase 11beta-HSD1 expression in the hippocampal tissue of the offspring, which may trigger a positive feedback pathway for the generation of biologically active glucocorticoids in the hippocampal tissue of the newborns.

  16. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in the newly formed Leydig cells after ethane dimethanesulphonate treatment of adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Georgieva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD catalyzes the reversible conversion of physiologically active corticosterone to the biologically inert 11beta-dehydrocorticosterone in rat testis and protect the Leydig cells (LCs against the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids. The developmental pathway of the adult LCs population is accompanied with an increase in the 11beta-HDS activity. Thus, 11beta-HDS together with its role in controlling the toxicological effect of glucocorticoids on LCs can be used as a marker for their functional maturity. Ethane 1,2-dimethanesulphonate (EDS treatment of adult rats become unique appropriate model, which enable to answer many questions related to the differentiation of adult LCs in the prepubertal rat testis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the specific changes in the 11beta-HDS type 2 immunoreactivity in tandem with the expression of androgen receptor (AR during renewal of LCs population after EDS treatment. In the present study, we observed the first appearance of immunostaining for 11beta-HSD2 in new LCs population on day 14 after EDS administration when the progenitor LCs were detected. Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed progressive increases in the 11beta-HSD2 reaction intensity on 21 days after EDS treatment and reached a maximum on day 35. AR immunoexpression was found in new LCs on day 14 and 21 after EDS injection with an increasing curve of intensity. The most prominent AR immunostaining in new population LCs was evident by 35 days after EDS and that coincided with the increased number of LCs and restoration of adult LCs population. Our results demonstrated similar pattern of immunoreactivity for 11beta-HSD2 and AR in new LCs population after EDS treatment and suggested that the changes in 11beta-HSD2 expression can be used for evaluation of adult LCs differentiation in rat testis.

  17. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan

    2004-01-01

    and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes...... in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow...

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatova, Irena D; Kostadinova, Radina M; Goldring, Christopher E; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M

    2009-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoids. 11beta-HSD1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and controls glucocorticoid actions in inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that TNF-alpha increases 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity in various cell models. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and activity of 11beta-HSD1 is increased in liver tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-alpha, indicating that this effect also occurs in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanism of this increase, we investigated basal and TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the 11beta-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) in HepG2 cells. We found that TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfections with variable lengths of human HSD11B1 promoter revealed highest activity with or without TNF-alpha in the proximal promoter region (-180 to +74). Cotransfection with human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPbeta-LAP expression vectors activated the HSD11B1 promoter with the strongest effect within the same region. Gel shift and RNA interference assays revealed the involvement of mainly C/EBPalpha, but also C/EBPbeta, in basal and only of C/EBPbeta in the TNF-alpha-induced HSD11B1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed in vivo the increased abundance of C/EBPbeta on the proximal HSD11B1 promoter upon TNF-alpha treatment. In conclusion, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta control basal transcription, and TNF-alpha upregulates 11beta-HSD1, most likely by p38 MAPK-mediated increased binding of C/EBPbeta to the human HSD11B1 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo.

  19. Angiotensin administration stimulates renal 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstens, MN; van der Kleij, FGH; Boonstra, AH; Sluiter, WJ; van der Molen, JC; Navis, G; Dullaart, RPF

    2004-01-01

    Background. We examined whether acute administration of angiotensin modulates the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD), the intracellular enzyme catalyzing the interconversion between the hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone. Methods. Twenty-one male healthy subje

  20. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Giridharan Nappan V; Reddy Sirisha J; Kumar Chodavarapu; Prashanth Anamthathmakula; Prasad Sakamuri; Vajreswari Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-01-01

    Abstract 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of...

  1. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridharan Nappan V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of obesity. 11β-HSD1 activity in liver, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 3 month-old male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats was assayed. As observed in other rodent models, 11β-HSD1 activity was lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue. In contrast to other rodent obese models, WNIN/Ob obese rats had elevated 11β-HSD1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is in line with the observation in human obesity. Here, we conclude that dysregulation of 11β-HSD1 in WNIN/Ob obese rat model is identical to human obesity, which makes it an excellent model for studying the effect of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors in ameliorating obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  2. A novel genetically-obese rat model with elevated 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sakamuri S S Vara; Prashanth, Anamthathmakula; Kumar, Chodavarapu Pavan; Reddy, Sirisha J; Giridharan, Nappan V; Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula

    2010-11-17

    11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 activity is lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue of obese rodent models like obese zucker rats, Ob/Ob and db/db mice. Here, we report the 11 β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new genetic rat model of obesity. 11 β-HSD1 activity in liver, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues of 3 month-old male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats was assayed. As observed in other rodent models, 11 β-HSD1 activity was lower in liver and higher in omental adipose tissue. In contrast to other rodent obese models, WNIN/Ob obese rats had elevated 11 β-HSD1 activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue, which is in line with the observation in human obesity. Here, we conclude that dysregulation of 11 β-HSD1 in WNIN/Ob obese rat model is identical to human obesity, which makes it an excellent model for studying the effect of 11 β-HSD1 inhibitors in ameliorating obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  3. Reduced 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in patients with the nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, B; Dick, B; N'Gankam, V; Frey, F J; Frey, B M

    1999-02-01

    Patients with the nephrotic syndrome (NS) exhibit abnormal renal sodium retention which cannot completely explained by a secondary hyperaldosteronism due to reduced renal perfusion. As an alternative mechanism to explain this phenomenon we postulate a cortisol-mediated mineralocorticoid effect as a consequence of a reduced activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD). A down-regulation of 11beta-HSD, i.e. of the shuttle of active to inactive glucocorticosteroids, has been shown to cause mineralocorticoid effects. Therefore we investigated the activity of 11beta-HSD by measuring the urinary ratio of (tetrahydrocortisol + 5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol)/tetrahydrocortisone [(THF+5alpha-THF)/THE] by gas-chromatography in 29 NS patients with biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis and 29 healthy control subjects. The ratio of (THF+5alpha-THF)/THE was higher in NS patients (median 1.49, range 0.45-4.07) than in the control subjects (0.98, 0.60-1.36; pnew mechanism contributing to the exaggerated sodium retention in patients with the NS.

  4. Characterisation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human orbital adipose tissue: a comparison with subcutaneous and omental fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalska, Iwona J; Durrani, Omar M; Abbott, Joseph; Onyimba, Claire U; Khosla, Pamela; Moosavi, Areeb H; Reuser, Tristan T Q; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rauz, Saaeha

    2007-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a profound effect on adipose biology increasing tissue mass causing central obesity. The pre-receptor regulation of GCs by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) that activates cortisol from cortisone has been postulated as a fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome mediating adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the omental (OM) depot. Orbital adipose tissue (OF) is the site of intense inflammation and tissue remodelling in several orbital inflammatory disease states. In this study, we describe features of the GC metabolic pathways in normal human OF depot and compare it with subcutaneous (SC) and OM depots. Using an automated histological characterisation technique, OF adipocytes were found to be significantly smaller (parameters: area, maximum diameter and perimeter) than OM and SC adipocytes (P<0 x 001). Although immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated resident CD68+ cells in all three whole tissue adipose depots, OF CD68 mRNA and protein expression exceeded that of OM and SC (mRNA, P<0 x 05; protein, P<0 x 001). In addition, there was higher expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)alpha mRNA in the OF whole tissue depot (P<0 x 05). Conversely, 11beta-HSD1 mRNA together with the markers of late adipocyte differentiation (FABP4 and G3PDH) were significantly lower in OF. Primary cultures of OF preadipocytes demonstrated predominant 11beta-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity with minimal dehydrogenase activity. Orbital adipocytes are smaller, less differentiated, and express low levels of 11beta-HSD1 but abundant GRalpha compared with SC and OM. OF harbours a large CD68+ population. These characteristics define an orbital microenvironment that has the potential to respond to sight-threatening orbital inflammatory disease.

  5. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, P F; Madsbad, S; Nilas, L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and 2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mRNA in subcutaneous abdominal tissue from lean and obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to investigate...... controls, OC). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from the abdomen. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and determined as glucose disposal rate and insulin sensitivity index. Whole-body insulin sensitivity was calculated using homeostasis model......beta-HSD1 mRNA. The subgroups LP and OC had increased 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 mRNA expression compared with LC (Pfat...

  6. Weight loss after gastric bypass surgery in women is followed by a metabolically favorable decrease in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyte, Kotryna; Olsson, Tommy; Näslund, Ingmar;

    2010-01-01

    The role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) in the pathogenesis of obesity has been elucidated in humans and in various rodent models. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in glucocorticoid metabolism, circulating adipokine levels, and fatty acid (FA) reesterification. This ...

  7. Vitamin A decreases pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids in obesity: study on the effect of vitamin A on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids and its inhibition ameliorates obesity and metabolic syndrome. So far, no studies have reported the effect of dietary vitamin A on 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat and liver under normal and obese conditions. Here, we studied the effect of chronic feeding of vitamin A-enriched diet (129 mg/kg diet on 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. Methods Male, 5-month-old, lean and obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain (n = 16 for each phenotype were divided into two subgroups consisting of 8 rats of each phenotype. Control groups received stock diet containing 2.6 mg vitamin A/kg diet, where as experimental groups received diet containing 129 mg vitamin A/Kg diet for 20 weeks. Food and water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, tissues were collected and 11β-HSD1 activity was assayed in liver and visceral fat. Results Vitamin A supplementation significantly decreased body weight, visceral fat mass and 11β-HSD1 activity in visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity and gene expression were significantly reduced by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα, the main transcription factor essential for the expression of 11β-HSD1, decreased in liver of vitamin A fed-obese rats, but not in lean rats. Liver × receptor α (LXRα, a nuclear transcription factor which is known to downregulate 11β-HSD1 gene expression was significantly increased by vitamin A supplementation in both the phenotypes. Conclusions This study suggests that chronic consumption of vitamin A-enriched diet decreases 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and visceral fat of WNIN/Ob obese rats. Decreased 11β-HSD1 activity by vitamin A may result in decreased levels of active glucocorticoids in adipose tissue and possibly

  8. Persistent hypokalemia after successful adrenalectomy in a patient with Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion: possible role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, E; Fardella, C; Campusano, C; Cárdenas, I; Martinez, P

    1999-12-01

    Ectopic ACTH secretion is characterized by a high incidence of hypokalemia. The pathophysiology of hypokalemia has not been totally clarified, although it has been postulated that excessive amounts of adrenal steroids may play a role, as well as a possible role of the inhibition of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-OHSD). This enzyme normally converts cortisol to cortisone avoiding the mineralocorticoid action of cortisol. We present a patient with ectopic ACTH secretion due to a metastatic carcinoid tumor. The clinical picture was characterized by maintained hypokalemia (1.4 mmol/l) resistant to potassium, spironolactone and ketoconazole administration. A bilateral adrenalectomy was performed but the hypokalemia persisted while he was receiving a physiological dose of cortisol. Eight days after adrenalectomy cortisol was replaced by an equivalent dose of dexamethasone. This change was followed by a rapid and persistent normalization of hypokalemia suggesting a mineralocorticoid effect of cortisol. In conclusion, the origin of hypokalemia in our patient with ectopic ACTH secretion was secondary to cortisol. We postulate that this peculiar effect of cortisol could have happened if an inhibition of 11beta-OHSD occurred.

  9. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor, mineralocorticoid receptor, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 in the fetal and postnatal ovine hippocampus: ontogeny and effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Deborah M; Moss, Timothy J M; Li, Shaofu; Matthews, Stephen G; Challis, John R G; Newnham, John P

    2008-05-01

    To determine the expression of glucocorticoid metabolizing and action genes in the hippocampus of fetal, neonatal, and adult sheep. Pregnant ewes (or their fetuses) received intramuscular injections of saline or betamethasone (BETA, 0-5 mg/kg) at 104, 111, 118, and/or 125 days of gestation (dG). Hippocampal tissue was collected prior to (75, 84, and 101 dG), during (109 and 116 dG), or after (121, 132, and 146 dG; 6 and 12 postnatal weeks; 3.5 years of age) saline or BETA injections. Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD)1 and 11betaHSD2 mRNA levels were determined using qRT-PCR. Control animals late in gestation demonstrated a decrease in mRNA encoding GR and 11betaHSD1, whereas 11betaHSD2 was undetectable, consistent with a damping of the negative feedback influence of circulating or locally produced cortisol on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. BETA-administration had transient effects on fetal GR and MR, and early in postnatal life (12 weeks of age) 11betaHSD1 mRNA was increased. Hippocampal MR mRNA was elevated in adult offspring exposed to either one or four doses of maternal BETA (Pglucocorticoid negative feedback, facilitating increased preterm HPA activity and parturition. Adult offspring of BETA-treated mothers demonstrated increased MR and 11betaHSD2 mRNA, therefore it appears that exposure of fetus to high levels of synthetic glucocorticoids may have long-lasting effects on the hippocampal expression of HPA-related genes into adulthood.

  10. Dehydrogenase and Oxoreductase Activities of Porcine Placental 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Subsequently, samples were thawed and extracted with ethyl acetate to obtain tritiated steroids. These extracts were sub- jected to thin layer chromatography...containing .02 M EDTA (PBS) to remove most radio- activity. Tissue fragments were then homogenized in PBS and aliquots removed for DNA analysis (32). In...either 3H-cortisol or 3H-cortisone were used as substrate. Incubations were conducted as above-noted and DNA measures conducted. Statistical

  11. 11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2基因表达作为葡萄籽提取物预防乳腺癌靶点的探讨%Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 genes as a molecular target endpoint for the prevention of breast cell carcinogenesis with grape seed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋筱瑜; 王华骞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the change of 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression in carcinogenesis and cancer prevention and to study the possibility of using 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression as a molecular target endpoint in the progression of breast cell carcinogenesis suppressed by Grape Seed Extract (GSE). Methods Cell carcinogenesis model for human breast epithelial MCF10A cell was induced by treating the cell with carcinogens NNK and B[ a] P repeatedly, and the cell model system for the prevention of carcinogenesis was developed by combining GSE with NNK and B[ a] P. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene. The biological change of carcinogen treated cells was studied by transfecting small interference RNA ( siRNA ) to inhibit 11 β-HSD 2 gene expression of cells. Results The colony formation of carcinogen treated cells in low-mitogen medium was less after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited by specific siRNA, which was just like the colony formation of normal cells. The expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was high in carcinogen treated cells, and the gene expression was low or undetectable in normal breast epithelial cells and cells combined treated with GSE and carcinogen. Conclusion The biological display of carcinogen treated cells could be normalized after the expression of 11 β-HSD 2 gene was inhibited. The mechanism for GSE preventing carcinogenesis might be the result of GSE inhibiting the expression of 11β-HSD 2 gene. 11β-HSD 2 gene might be the molecular target endpoint for the suppression of breast cell carcinogenesis by GSE.%目的 研究11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶2型基因(11β-HSD 2)表达在癌症发生及预防过程中的变化,探讨该基因作为葡萄籽提取物(GSE)抑制乳腺上皮细胞慢性癌变过程中靶点的可能性.方法 建立低浓度致癌物NNK和B[a]P刺激乳腺上皮细胞MCF 10A癌变及GSE抑制乳腺上皮细胞癌变过程的细胞模型,研究瞬时转染了靶向11β-HSD 2基因的小RNA后的癌变细胞的生物学特性改变,并用Western blot分析11β-HSD 2基因在癌变细胞和经GSE抑制后细胞中的表达情况.结果 使用靶向11β-HSD 2基因的小RNA抑制后的癌变细胞,在低生长因子培养基中形成细胞集落的能力降低,与正常乳腺上皮细胞相当.11β-HSD 2基因在致癌物慢性刺激的细胞中呈现高表达,而在正常乳腺上皮细胞和经GSE与致癌物联合处理的细胞中基本不表达或表达水平很低.结论 抑制癌变细胞中11β-HSD 2基因的表达可使细胞的生物学表现趋于正常,GSE抑制细胞癌变的机制可能是通过抑制11β-HSD 2基因的表达实现,11β-HSD 2基因可能是GSE抑制乳腺上皮细胞癌变的分子靶点.

  12. SwissProt search result: AK121922 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121922 J033106F11 (P50233) Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase, isozyme 2 (EC 1....1.1.-) (11-DH2) (11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) (11-beta-HSD2) (NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) DHI2_RAT 2e-13 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK069875 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069875 J023036D07 (P50233) Corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase, isozyme 2 (EC 1....1.1.-) (11-DH2) (11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) (11-beta-HSD2) (NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) DHI2_RAT 1e-13 ...

  14. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre-receptor amplification of glucocorticoids is, in part, determined by the isoenzymes 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 and type 2, interconverting inert cortisone and active cortisol. Increased tissue activity of cortisol may play a part in features...... of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... abdominal surgery (lean men, 10), minor gynecological surgery (lean woman, 10), or gastric banding operations (obese men, 10; and obese women, 10). Gene expressions of 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue samples were determined by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Lean...

  15. Effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in hippocampus of neonatal rats%产前应用糖皮质激素对仔鼠海马区11-β羟基类固醇脱氢酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐发林; 张香敏; 程秀永

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨产前应用不同疗程糖皮质激素(GCs)对仔鼠海马11-β羟基类同醇脱氢酶(11β-HSD)活性的影响.方法 健康3月龄雌性SD大鼠30只,孕18 d时(E18)随机分为3组:多疗程组,E18开始每天肌注地塞米松O.48 ms/(kg·次),q 4 h,4次/d,连用3 d;单疗程组,E18肌注地塞米松4次,共1 d,其余2 d以等容积生理盐水代替;对照组.均以生理盐水代替.采用免疫组化法分别于仔鼠生后第7、15天(P7、P15)测定脑组织海马部位 11β-HSD1、11β-HsD2的活性.结果 P7各组仔鼠海马组织均有11β-HSD1表达,多疗程组仔鼠海马11β-HSD1活性高于单疗程组和对照组(P0.05).P7、P15各组仔鼠脑组织海马11βB-HSD2活性表达均极低.结论 产前过量GCs可导致仔鼠脑组织海马部位11β-HSD1活性增高,在体内持续存在时间较长.产前GCs对仔鼠脑组织海马部位11β-HSD2活性无明显影响.

  16. Obesity is accompanied by disturbances in peripheral glucocorticoid metabolism and changes in FA recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonyte, Kotryna; Rask, Eva; Näslund, Ingmar;

    2009-01-01

    The glucocorticoid activating enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1) is of major interest in obesity-related morbidity. Alterations in tissue-specific cortisol levels may influence lipogenetic and gluco/glyceroneogenetic pathways in fat and liver. We analyzed the expressio...... acid (FA) recycling in adipose tissue (AT)....

  17. The role of mediastinal adipose tissue 11β-hydroxysteroid d ehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid expression in the development of coronary atherosclerosis in obese patients with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalar Fatmahan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat deposition and its associated atherogenic complications are mediated by glucocorticoids. Cardiac visceral fat comprises mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT, and MAT is a potential biomarker of risk for obese patients. Aim Our objective was to evaluate the role of EAT and MAT 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GCR expression in comparison with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT in the development of coronary atherosclerosis in obese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD, and to assess their correlations with CD68 and fatty acids from these tissues. Methods and results Expression of 11β-HSD-1 and GCR was measured by qRT-PCR in EAT, MAT and SAT of thirty-one obese patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting due to CAD (obese CAD group and sixteen obese patients without CAD undergoing heart valve surgery (controls. 11β-HSD-1 and GCR expression in MAT were found to be significantly increased in the obese CAD group compared with controls (p  Conclusions We report for the first time the increased expression of 11β-HSD-1 and GCR in MAT compared with EAT and SAT, and also describe the interrelated effects of stearidonic acid, HOMA-IR, plasma cortisol and GCR mRNA levels, explaining 40.2% of the variance in 11β-HSD-1 mRNA levels in MAT of obese CAD patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MAT contributes locally to the development of coronary atherosclerosis via glucocorticoid action.

  18. Lakridsinduceret hypertension og hypokaliæmi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Pareek, Manan; Andersen, Inger

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of large amounts of liquorice can cause hypertension and hypokalaemia. Liquorice contains glycyrrhetinic acid, which inhibits the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, and ultimately leads to an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome. This case report describes a 50...... year-old woman presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia-induced limb paresis due to chronic liquorice ingestion. The patient was treated with potassium supplementation and spironolactone. Her blood pressure and electrolyte status normalised within a month after cessation of liquorice intake....

  19. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contributes to skeletal muscle homeostasis independent of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semjonous, Nina M

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) metabolism by the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen generates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) to provide the redox potential for the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) to activate glucocorticoid (GC). H6PDH knockout (KO) mice have a switch in 11β-HSD1 activity, resulting in GC inactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. Importantly, H6PDHKO mice develop a type II fiber myopathy with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). GCs play important roles in muscle physiology, and therefore, we have examined the importance of 11β-HSD1 and GC metabolism in mediating aspects of the H6PDHKO myopathy. To achieve this, we examined 11β-HSD1\\/H6PDH double-KO (DKO) mice, in which 11β-HSD1 mediated GC inactivation is negated. In contrast to H6PDHKO mice, DKO mice GC metabolism and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis set point is similar to that observed in 11β-HSD1KO mice. Critically, in contrast to 11β-HSD1KO mice, DKO mice phenocopy the salient features of the H6PDHKO, displaying reduced body mass, muscle atrophy, and vacuolation of type II fiber-rich muscle, fasting hypoglycemia, increased muscle glycogen deposition, and elevated expression of UPR genes. We propose that muscle G6P metabolism through H6PDH may be as important as changes in the redox environment when considering the mechanism underlying the activation of the UPR and the ensuing myopathy in H6PDHKO and DKO mice. These data are consistent with an 11β-HSD1-independent function for H6PDH in which sarcoplasmic reticulum G6P metabolism and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-(oxidized)\\/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) redox status are important for maintaining muscle homeostasis.

  20. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes - Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism I in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjects

  1. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: Influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Rimm, E.B.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hu, F.B.; Manson, J.E.; Hunter, D.J.; Mukamal, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In nested case-control studies of 640 women with incident diabetes and 1,000 control subjec

  2. Interaction of glutaric aciduria type 1-related glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with mitochondrial matrix proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schmiesing

    Full Text Available Glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1 is an inherited neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GCDH gene encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH, which forms homo- and heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial matrix. GA1 patients are prone to the development of encephalopathic crises which lead to an irreversible disabling dystonic movement disorder. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of GA1 vary considerably and lack correlations to the genotype. Using an affinity chromatography approach we report here for the first time on the identification of mitochondrial proteins interacting directly with GCDH. Among others, dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (DLST involved in the formation of glutaryl-CoA, and the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETFB serving as electron acceptor, were identified as GCDH binding partners. We have adapted the yellow fluorescent protein-based fragment complementation assay and visualized the oligomerization of GCDH as well as its direct interaction with DLST and ETFB in mitochondria of living cells. These data suggest that GCDH is a constituent of multimeric mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes, and the characterization of their interrelated functions may provide new insights into the regulation of lysine oxidation and the pathophysiology of GA1.

  3. Discovery of Adamantyl Heterocyclic Ketones as Potent 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) plays a key role in converting intracellular cortisone to physiologically active cortisol, which is implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity, and therefore constitutes a promising strategy to discover novel therapies for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl heterocyclic ketones provides potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Selected potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors show moderate metabolic stability upon incubation with human liver microsomes and weak inhibition of human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21608132

  4. Novel inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: templates for design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Gillian M; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani R; Tutill, Helena J; Day, Joanna M; Huchet, Marion; Ferrandis, Eric; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-04-15

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyze the interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms of androgens and estrogens at the 17 position. The 17beta-HSD type 1 enzyme (17beta-HSD1) catalyzes the reduction of estrone (E1) to estradiol and is expressed in malignant breast cells. Inhibitors of this enzyme thus have potential as treatments for hormone dependent breast cancer. Syntheses and biological evaluation of novel non-steroidal inhibitors designed to mimic the E1 template are reported using information from potent steroidal inhibitors. Of the templates investigated biphenyl ethanone was promising and led to inhibitors with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range.

  5. The structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II at 2.7 A resolution: implications for retinal specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, A L; Newcomer, M E

    1999-05-11

    Retinoic acid, a hormonally active form of vitamin A, is produced in vivo in a two step process: retinol is oxidized to retinal and retinal is oxidized to retinoic acid. Retinal dehydrogenase type II (RalDH2) catalyzes this last step in the production of retinoic acid in the early embryo, possibly producing this putative morphogen to initiate pattern formation. The enzyme is also found in the adult animal, where it is expressed in the testis, lung, and brain among other tissues. The crystal structure of retinal dehydrogenase type II cocrystallized with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has been determined at 2.7 A resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the crystal structure of a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) as a model. Unlike what has been described for the structures of two aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the metabolism of acetaldehyde, the substrate access channel is not a preformed cavity into which acetaldehyde can readily diffuse. Retinal dehydrogenase appears to utilize a disordered loop in the substrate access channel to discriminate between retinaldehyde and short-chain aldehydes.

  6. Resveratrol inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in rat adipose microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Noriko; Kubota, Sayaka; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, can regulate adiposity because it decreases adipose deposition in mice and rats; however, the mechanism underlying this effect has not been fully clarified. In humans and rodents, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is expressed in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid into active glucocorticoid in adipocytes. Activated glucocorticoid plays an important role in the pathogenesis of central obesity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on 11β-HSD1 activity in rodent adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 activity in microsomes from rat mesenteric adipose depots and 3T3-L1 adipocytes was determined in the presence of 11-dehydrocorticosterone with or without varying concentrations of resveratrol. Significant inhibition of 11β-HSD1 by resveratrol was observed in rat adipose microsomes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes within 10 min. Time- and dose-dependent effects were also observed. The 11β-HSD1 activity by resveratrol was also inhibited in rat epididymal adipose tissue, and this inhibition was not recovered by estrogen receptor blockers. The kinetic study revealed that resveratrol acted as a non-competitive inhibitor of 11β-HSD1. Ki and IC50 values of resveratrol were 39.6 and 35.2 μM respectively. Further, resveratrol did not affect the activities of 11β-HSD2 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. These results suggest that the most likely mechanism of 11β-HSD1 inhibition by resveratrol is via interaction between resveratrol and 11β-HSD1 enzyme, rather than via a transcriptional pathway. We demonstrated that the antiobesity effects of resveratrol may partially be attributed to the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity in adipocytes.

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase: Alcohol Use and Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association of ADH1B (rs1229984 and ALDH2 (rs671 polymorphisms with glucose tolerance status, as determined by a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and effect modification of these polymorphisms on the association between alcohol consumption and glucose intolerance in male officials of the Self-Defense Forces. The study subjects included 1520 men with normal glucose tolerance, 553 with prediabetic condition (impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, and 235 men with type 2 diabetes. There was an evident interaction between alcohol consumption and ADH1B polymorphism in relation to type 2 diabetes (interaction P=.03. The ALDH24∗87Lys allele was associated with a decreased prevalence odds of type 2 diabetes regardless of alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the ADH1B polymorphism modified the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes. A positive association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes was confounded by ALDH2 polymorphism.

  8. [Correlations between the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góth, Miklós; Hubina, Erika; Korbonits, Márta

    2005-01-09

    The metabolic syndrome has several similarities with Cushing's syndrome (impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity) suggesting that abnormalities in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may have a link with the metabolic syndrome. Several studies suggested an association between the clinical signs of the metabolic syndrome and the increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity based on increased cortisol concentration at 09.00 a.m. and increased cortisol response to corticotropin. According to the Barker hypothesis the fetal malnutrition could determine adult cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension), some endocrine and metabolic disorders (obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia). The suggested mechanism of the phenomenon is that the suboptimal fetal nutrition results in glucocorticoid overproduction. The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (converts biological inactive cortisone to cortisol and vice versa) is an important enzyme in cortisol metabolism. The increased expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in fat tissue could lead to central obesity and impaired glucose tolerance. The hypothesis that increased corticotropin-releasing hormone production drives the overactive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis was not proven. Further investigations are needed to identify additional pathogenetic factors and to find new therapeutic possibilities.

  9. Purification of two putative type II NADH dehydrogenases with different substrate specificities from alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Krulwich, Terry A; Hicks, David B

    2008-05-01

    A putative Type II NADH dehydrogenase from Halobacillus dabanensis was recently reported to have Na+/H+ antiport activity (and called Nap), raising the possibility of direct coupling of respiration to antiport-dependent pH homeostasis. This study characterized a homologous type II NADH dehydrogenase of genetically tractable alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4, in which evidence supports antiport-based pH homeostasis that is mediated entirely by secondary antiport. Two candidate type II NADH dehydrogenase genes with canonical GXGXXG motifs were identified in a draft genome sequence of B. pseudofirmus OF4. The gene product designated NDH-2A exhibited homology to enzymes from Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli whereas NDH-2B exhibited homology to the H. dabanensis Nap protein and its alkaliphilic Bacillus halodurans C-125 homologue. The ndh-2A, but not the ndh-2B, gene complemented the growth defect of an NADH dehydrogenase-deficient E. coli mutant. Neither gene conferred Na+-resistance on an antiporter-deficient E. coli strain, nor did they confer Na+/H+ antiport activity in vesicle assays. The purified hexa-histidine-tagged gene products were approximately 50 kDa, contained noncovalently bound FAD and oxidized NADH. They were predominantly cytoplasmic in E. coli, consonant with the absence of antiport activity. The catalytic properties of NDH-2A were more consistent with a major respiratory role than those of NDH-2B.

  10. The design of novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicker, Nigel; Sharland, Christopher M; Heaton, Wesley B; Gonzalez, Ana M Ramos; Bailey, Helen V; Smith, Andrew; Springall, Jeremy S; Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-03-25

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17beta-HSD3) is expressed at high levels in the testes and seminal vesicles but has also been shown to be present in prostate tissue, suggesting its potential involvement in both gonadal and non-gonadal testosterone biosynthesis. The role of 17beta-HSD3 in testosterone biosynthesis makes this enzyme an attractive molecular target for small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer. Here we report the design of selective inhibitors of 17beta-HSD3 as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to 17beta-HSD3 being a membrane-bound protein a crystal structure is not yet available. A homology model of 17beta-HSD3 has been built to aid structure-based drug design. This model has been used with docking studies to identify a series of lead compounds that may give an insight as to how inhibitors interact with the active site. Compound 1 was identified as a potent selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50)=700nM resulting in the discovery of a novel lead series for further optimisation. Using our homology model as a tool for inhibitor design compound 5 was discovered as a novel potent and selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) approximately 200nM.

  11. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Karen E; Coutinho, Agnes E; Zhang, Zhenguang; Kipari, Tiina; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2013-09-01

    Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

  12. Sodium homeostasis is preserved in a global 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thorbjørn H; Bailey, Matthew A; Kenyon, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Glucocorticoids act in the kidney to promote salt and water retention. Renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), by increasing local concentrations of glucocorticoids, may exert an antinatriuretic effect. We hypothesized...... that global deletion of 11βHSD1 in the mouse would give rise to a salt-wasting renal phenotype. What is the main finding and its importance? We subjected a mouse model of global 11βHSD1 deletion to studies of water and electrolyte balance, renal clearance, urinary steroid excretion, renin-angiotensin system...... sodium retention. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) is expressed in the renal tubules and the interstitial cells of the medulla, where it is likely to regenerate active glucocorticoids from inert 11-keto forms. The physiological function of renal 11βHSD1 is largely unknown. We...

  13. Crystal structures of type III{sub H} NAD-dependent D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from two thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Hemantha Kumar, G. [Department of Studies in Computer Science, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Determined the crystal structures of PGDH from two thermophiles. • Monomer is composed of nucleotide binding domain and substrate binding domain. • Crystal structures of type III{sub H} PGDH. - Abstract: In the L-Serine biosynthesis, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-3-phosphoglycerate to phosphohydroxypyruvate. PGDH belongs to 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases family. We have determined the crystal structures of PGDH from Sulfolobus tokodaii (StPGDH) and Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPGDH) using X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.77 Å and 1.95 Å, respectively. The PGDH protomer from both species exhibits identical structures, consisting of substrate binding domain and nucleotide binding domain. The residues and water molecules interacting with the NAD are identified. The catalytic triad residues Glu-His-Arg are highly conserved. The residues involved in the dimer interface and the structural features responsible for thermostability are evaluated. Overall, structures of PGDHs with two domains and histidine at the active site are categorized as type III{sub H} and such PGDHs structures having this type are reported for the first time.

  14. The HADHSC gene encoding short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hove, Els C; Hansen, Torben; Dekker, Jacqueline M;

    2006-01-01

    of the SCHAD enzyme in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion led us to the hypothesis that common variants in HADHSC on chromosome 4q22-26 might be associated with development of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have performed a large-scale association study in four different cohorts from the Netherlands...... measure (all P > 0.1). The present study provides no evidence that the specific HADHSC variants or haplotypes examined do influence susceptibility to develop type 2 diabetes. We conclude that it is unlikely that variation in HADHSC plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in the examined......The short-chain l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) protein is involved in the penultimate step of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Previously, it has been shown that mutations in the corresponding gene (HADHSC) are associated with hyperinsulinism in infancy. The presumed function...

  15. Expression and Activation of STAT Transcription Factors in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-08

    clinicians. J~, 273: 577-585, 1995. 183 Hundertmark 5, Buhler H, Rudolf M, Weitzel HK, Ragosch V: Inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase...activated protein kinase through a Jakl-dependent pathway. Mol. Cell. Bioi., 17:3833-40, 1997. Stewart JF, Rubens RO, King RJ, Minton MJ, Steiner R

  16. Adamantyl Ethanone Pyridyl Derivatives: Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of active glucocorticoids have been implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses the intracellular conversion of inactive cortisone to cortisol. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A series of adamantyl ethanone pyridyl derivatives has been identified, providing potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective for this isoform, with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Structure–activity relationship studies reveal that an unsubstituted pyridine tethered to an adamantyl ethanone motif through an ether or sulfoxide linker provides a suitable pharmacophore for activity. The most potent inhibitors have IC50 values around 34–48 nm against human 11β-HSD1, display reasonable metabolic stability in human liver microsomes, and weak inhibition of key human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21714097

  17. Substrate binding process and mechanistic functioning of type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from enhanced sampling methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo D Favia

    Full Text Available In humans, type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD-1 plays a key role in the regulation of the glucocorticoids balance by converting the inactive hormone cortisone into cortisol. Numerous functional aspects of 11β-HSD-1 have been understood thanks to the availability at the Worldwide Protein Data Bank of a number of X-ray structures of the enzyme either alone or in complex with inhibitors, and to several experimental data. However at present, a complete description of the dynamic behaviour of 11β-HSD-1 upon substrate binding is missing. To this aim we firstly docked cortisone into the catalytic site of 11β-HSD-1 (both wild type and Y177A mutant, and then we used steered molecular dynamics and metadynamics to simulate its undocking. This methodology helped shedding light at molecular level on the complex relationship between the enzyme and its natural substrate. In particular, the work highlights a the reason behind the functional dimerisation of 11β-HSD-1, b the key role of Y177 in the cortisone binding event, c the fine tuning of the active site degree of solvation, and d the role of the S228-P237 loop in ligand recognition.

  18. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4 defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Hugh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4. These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP

  19. Glucocorticoid-related genetic susceptibility for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Poirier, Raphael; Wollmer, M Axel; Grimaldi, Luigi M E; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Streffer, Johannes R; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Because glucocorticoid excess increases neuronal vulnerability, genetic variations in the glucocorticoid system may be related to the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 10 glucocorticoid-related genes in a population of 814 AD patients and unrelated control subjects. Set-association analysis revealed that a rare haplotype in the 5' regulatory region of the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) was associated with a 6-fold increased risk for sporadic AD. Results of a reporter-gene assay indicated that the rare risk-associated haplotype altered HSD11B1 transcription. HSD11B1 controls tissue levels of biologically active glucocorticoids and thereby influences neuronal vulnerability. Our results indicate that a functional variation in the glucocorticoid system increases the risk for AD, which may have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  20. Renal and endocrine changes in rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstislavsky, Sergej; Welker, Pia; Frühauf, Jan-Henning;

    2006-01-01

    , adrenals, and systemic endocrine parameters were studied in ISIAH of different ages and compared to normotensive Wistar albino Glaxo (WAG) rats. Native organs were obtained for Western and PCR analysis. Perfusion-fixed organs were prepared for histopathology and quantitative histochemistry. Plasma renin...... and adrenal hormones were measured. Renal morphology was unaltered in ISIAH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis was constitutively upregulated with enlarged adrenal cortices and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. Plasma renin activity was not different between groups, whereas aldosterone...... channel-alpha; 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) were increased. These data suggest enhanced volume conservation by the kidney. Our data define ISIAH as an attractive model for the renal components determining salt and water homeostasis in hypertension. The specific condition of a basally...

  1. [Diagnostic value of definition of lactate dehydrogenase in mixed saliva in children with periodontitis at diabetes mellitus, type I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidzhavadze, E M; Akhvlediani, M V; Vadachkoriia, Z O; Gordeladze, M R

    2006-01-01

    The problem of treatment of periodontitis remains one of the hot topics in practical stomatology. It has been established that modern adaptogenic infection is rather aggressive to whole organism of a human being. All these demands accurate approach while choosing of a conservative method of treatment for such forms as acute and chronic periodontitis. There were 27 children under observation with diabetes mellitus of type 1 (I group). Mean age was 10.5+/-0.75 years. 15 were girls and 13 boys. All patients from the I group were examined for the pathologies of oral cavity. In 100% dryness in a mouth and in 67% bleeding from the gum had been revealed. The mild form of chronic catarrhal gingivitis was revealed in 12 patients, moderate in 5, chronic hypertrophic gingivitis in 8 respectively. Studying of pH of saliva and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in children with periodontitis developed on the background of recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus has shown, that pH of saliva was equal to 5.3+/-0.18. In control group (healthy children) pH of saliva was 6.8+/-0.06. In the conclusion it should be emphasized, that we have tried to explain some aspects of multiple character of development of periodontitis at recently discovered insulin-depended diabetes mellitus. Character of changes of some properties of saliva pH and of enzyme activity of LDG promotes to carrying out medical and preventive actions, influencing the main blocks of pathogenesis of this pathological process. Besides, we consider possibility of inclusion the studied parameters of mixed saliva in the algorithm of investigation of periodontitis in children with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Species used for drug testing reveal different inhibition susceptibility for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Möller

    Full Text Available Steroid-related cancers can be treated by inhibitors of steroid metabolism. In searching for new inhibitors of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD 1 for the treatment of breast cancer or endometriosis, novel substances based on 15-substituted estrone were validated. We checked the specificity for different 17beta-HSD types and species. Compounds were tested for specificity in vitro not only towards recombinant human 17beta-HSD types 1, 2, 4, 5 and 7 but also against 17beta-HSD 1 of several other species including marmoset, pig, mouse, and rat. The latter are used in the processes of pharmacophore screening. We present the quantification of inhibitor preferences between human and animal models. Profound differences in the susceptibility to inhibition of steroid conversion among all 17beta-HSDs analyzed were observed. Especially, the rodent 17beta-HSDs 1 were significantly less sensitive to inhibition compared to the human ortholog, while the most similar inhibition pattern to the human 17beta-HSD 1 was obtained with the marmoset enzyme. Molecular docking experiments predicted estrone as the most potent inhibitor. The best performing compound in enzymatic assays was also highly ranked by docking scoring for the human enzyme. However, species-specific prediction of inhibitor performance by molecular docking was not possible. We show that experiments with good candidate compounds would out-select them in the rodent model during preclinical optimization steps. Potentially active human-relevant drugs, therefore, would no longer be further developed. Activity and efficacy screens in heterologous species systems must be evaluated with caution.

  4. Chronic inhibition of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity decreases hypertension, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Christine G; Costell, Melissa H; Krosky, Daniel J; Cui, Jianqi; Wu, Charlene W; Hong, Victor S; Harpel, Mark R; Willette, Robert N; Yue, Tian-Li

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity that promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome has been associated with changes in the secretion or metabolism of glucocorticoids, which have important functions in adipose, liver, kidney, and vasculature. Tissue concentrations of the active glucocorticoid cortisol are controlled by the conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 β -HSD1). Because of the various cardiovascular and metabolic activities of glucocorticoids, we tested the hypothesis that 11 β -HSD1 is a common mechanism in the hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. In obese and lean SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp), cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal functions were measured before and during four weeks of administration of vehicle or compound 11 (10 mg/kg/d), a selective inhibitor of 11 β -HSD1. Compound 11 significantly decreased 11 β -HSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver of SHR-cp. In obese SHR-cp, compound 11 significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and plasma renin activity with no effect on heart rate, body weight gain, or microalbuminuria. These results suggest that 11 β -HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue is a common mediator of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  5. Chronic Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Activity Decreases Hypertension, Insulin Resistance, and Hypertriglyceridemia in Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine G. Schnackenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and obesity that promote the development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome has been associated with changes in the secretion or metabolism of glucocorticoids, which have important functions in adipose, liver, kidney, and vasculature. Tissue concentrations of the active glucocorticoid cortisol are controlled by the conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1. Because of the various cardiovascular and metabolic activities of glucocorticoids, we tested the hypothesis that 11β-HSD1 is a common mechanism in the hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome. In obese and lean SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp, cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal functions were measured before and during four weeks of administration of vehicle or compound 11 (10 mg/kg/d, a selective inhibitor of 11β-HSD1. Compound 11 significantly decreased 11β-HSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver of SHR-cp. In obese SHR-cp, compound 11 significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, and plasma renin activity with no effect on heart rate, body weight gain, or microalbuminuria. These results suggest that 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue is a common mediator of hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome.

  6. A Novel Type II NAD+-Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Bacterium Congregibacter litoralis KT71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Cai; Tian, Chang-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Xu, Lei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In most living organisms, isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) convert isocitrate into ɑ-ketoglutarate (ɑ-KG). Phylogenetic analyses divide the IDH protein family into two subgroups: types I and II. Based on cofactor usage, IDHs are either NAD+-specific (NAD-IDH) or NADP+-specific (NADP-IDH); NADP-IDH evolved from NAD-IDH. Type I IDHs include NAD-IDHs and NADP-IDHs; however, no type II NAD-IDHs have been reported to date. This study reports a novel type II NAD-IDH from the marine bacterium Congregibacter litoralis KT71 (ClIDH, GenBank accession no. EAQ96042). His-tagged recombinant ClIDH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified; the recombinant enzyme was NAD+-specific and showed no detectable activity with NADP+. The Km values of the enzyme for NAD+ were 262.6±7.4 μM or 309.1±11.2 μM with Mg2+ or Mn2+ as the divalent cation, respectively. The coenzyme specificity of a ClIDH Asp487Arg/Leu488His mutant was altered, and the preference of the mutant for NADP+ was approximately 24-fold higher than that for NAD+, suggesting that ClIDH is an NAD+-specific ancestral enzyme in the type II IDH subgroup. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation analyses revealed the homohexameric structure of ClIDH, which is the first IDH hexamer discovered thus far. A 163-amino acid segment of CIIDH is essential to maintain its polymerization structure and activity, as a truncated version lacking this region forms a non-functional monomer. ClIDH was dependent on divalent cations, the most effective being Mn2+. The maximal activity of purified recombinant ClIDH was achieved at 35°C and pH 7.5, and a heat inactivation experiment showed that a 20-min incubation at 33°C caused a 50% loss of ClIDH activity. The discovery of a NAD+-specific, type II IDH fills a gap in the current classification of IDHs, and sheds light on the evolution of type II IDHs.

  7. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Elyse A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Adam Heikal

    2015-01-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the li...

  8. High salt intake down-regulates colonic mineralocorticoid receptors, epithelial sodium channels and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lienhard

    Full Text Available Besides the kidneys, the gastrointestinal tract is the principal organ responsible for sodium homeostasis. For sodium transport across the cell membranes the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC is of pivotal relevance. The ENaC is mainly regulated by mineralocorticoid receptor mediated actions. The MR activation by endogenous 11β-hydroxy-glucocorticoids is modulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2. Here we present evidence for intestinal segment specific 11β-HSD2 expression and hypothesize that a high salt intake and/or uninephrectomy (UNX affects colonic 11β-HSD2, MR and ENaC expression. The 11β-HSD2 activity was measured by means of 3H-corticosterone conversion into 3H-11-dehydrocorticosterone in Sprague Dawley rats on a normal and high salt diet. The activity increased steadily from the ileum to the distal colon by a factor of about 3, an observation in line with the relevance of the distal colon for sodium handling. High salt intake diminished mRNA and protein of 11β-HSD2 by about 50% (p<0.001 and reduced the expression of the MR (p<0.01. The functionally relevant ENaC-β and ENaC-γ expression, a measure of mineralocorticoid action, diminished by more than 50% by high salt intake (p<0.001. The observed changes were present in rats with and without UNX. Thus, colonic epithelial cells appear to contribute to the protective armamentarium of the mammalian body against salt overload, a mechanism not modulated by UNX.

  9. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney-Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney-Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney-Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred.

  10. Adipose tissue-targeted 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor protects against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Aisen; Di, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Lin; Yu, Jing; Zha, Juanmin; Lv, Shan; Cheng, Peng; Hu, Miao; Li, Yujie; Qi, Hanmei; Ding, Guoxian; Zhong, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Current pharmacological treatments for obesity and metabolic syndrome have various limitations. Recently, adipose tissue 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, there is no adipose tissue-targeted 11β-HSD1 inhibitor available now. We sought to develop a new 11β-HSD1 pharmacological inhibitor that homes specifically to the white adipose tissue and aimed to investigate whether adipose tissue-targeted 11β-HSD1 inhibitor might decrease body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obesity mice. BVT.2733, an 11β-HSD1 selective inhibitor was connected with a peptide CKGGRAKDC that homes to white fat vasculature. CKGGRAKDC-BVT.2733 (T-BVT) or an equimolar mixture of CKGGRAKDC and BVT.2733 (NT-BVT) was given to diet-induced obesity mice for two weeks through subcutaneous injection. T-BVT decreased body weight gain, improved glucose tolerance and decreased adipocyte size compared with vehicle treated mice. In adipose tissue T-BVT administration significantly increased adiponectin, vaspin mRNA levels; In liver T-BVT administration decreased the mRNA level of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), increased the mRNA levels of mitochondrial carnitine palmi-toyltransferase-I (mCPT-I) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα(PPARα). No significant differences in adipocyte size and hepatic gene expression were observed after treatment with NT-BVT compared with vehicle treated mice, though NT-BVT also decreased body weight gain, improved glucose tolerance, and increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) mRNA levels in muscle. These results suggest that an adipose tissue-targeted pharmacological inhibitor of 11β-HSD1 may prove to be a new approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  12. The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii involves a novel type of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase--The archaeal Zwischenferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Andreas; Schönheit, Peter

    2015-04-28

    The oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), catalyzing the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate is ubiquitous in eukarya and bacteria but has not yet been reported in archaea. In haloarchaea a putative 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) is annotated, whereas a gene coding for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Glc6PDH) could not be identified. Here we report the purification and characterization of a novel type of Glc6PDH in Haloferax volcanii that is not related to bacterial and eukaryal Glc6PDHs and the encoding gene is designated as azf (archaeal zwischenferment). Further, recombinant H. volcanii 6PGDH was characterized. Deletion mutant analyses indicate that both, Glc6PDH and 6PGDH, are functionally involved in pentose phosphate formation in vivo. This is the first report on the operation of the OPPP in the domain of archaea.

  13. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking catabolic NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Growth characteristics of the mutant and regulation of enzyme synthesis in the wild-type strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; van Eijk, J; van Renesse, R; Blijham, J M

    1978-01-01

    NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-B) was induced in a wild-type strain derived of alpha-sigma 1278b by alpha-amino acids, the nitrogen of which according to known degradative pathways is transferred to 2-oxoglutarate. A recessive mutant (gdhB) devoid of GDH-B activity grew more slowly than the wild type if one of these amino acids was the sole source of nitrogen. Addition of ammonium chloride, glutamine, asparagine or serine to growth media with inducing alpha-amino acids as the main nitrogen source increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant to the wild-type level and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the wild type. Arginine, urea and allantoin similarly increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the presence of glutamate, but not in the presence of aspartate, alanine or proline as the main nitrogen source. These observations are consistent with the view that GDH-B in vivo deaminates glutamate. Ammonium ions are required for the biosynthesis of glutamine, asparagine, arginine, histidine and purine and pyrimidine bases. Aspartate and alanine apparently are more potent inducers of GDH-B than glutamate. Anabolic NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-A) can not fulfil the function of GDH-B in the gdhB mutant. This is concluded from the equal growth rates in glutamate, aspartate and proline media as observed with a gdhB mutant and with a gdhA, gdhB double mutant in which both glutamate dehydrogenases area lacking. The double mutant showed an anomalous growth behaviour, growth rates on several nitrogen sources being unexpectedly low.

  14. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme and cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Valentina; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa; Zhukouskaya, Volha; Palmieri, Serena; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna; Fustinoni, Silvia; Chiodini, Iacopo

    2016-09-01

    In adrenal incidentaloma (AI) patients, beside the cortisol secretion, a different 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2) activity, measurable by 24-h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio (R-UFF/UFE) (the higher R-UFF/UFE the lower HSD11B2 activity), could influence the occurrence of the subclinical hypercortisolism (SH)-related complications (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity). We evaluated whether in AI patients, UFF levels are associated to UFE levels, and the HSD11B2 activity to the complications presence. In 156 AI patients (93F, age 65.2 ± 9.5 years), the following were measured: serum cortisol after 1 mg-dexamethasone test (1 mg-DST), ACTH, UFF, UFE levels, and R-UFF/UFE (by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), the latter was also evaluated in 63 matched-controls. We diagnosed SH (n = 22) in the presence of ≥2 among ACTH 83 nmol/L. Patients showed higher UFF levels and R-UFF/UFE than controls (75.9 ± 43.1 vs 54.4 ± 22.9 nmol/24 h and 0.26 ± 0.12 vs 0.20 ± 0.07, p < 0.005, respectively) but comparable UFE levels (291 ± 91.1 vs 268 ± 61.5, p = 0.069). The R-UFF/UFE was higher in patients with high (h-UFF, n = 28, 0.41 ± 0.20) than in those with normal (n-UFF, 0.22 ± 0.10, p < 0.005) UFF levels and in patients with SH than in those without SH (0.30 ± 0.12 vs 0.25 ± 0.12, p = 0.04). UFF levels were associated with R-UFF/UFE (r = 0.849, p < 0.001) in n-UFF, but not in h-UFF patients. Among h-UFF patients, the complications prevalence was not associated with R-UFF/UFE values. In AI patients, the UFF increase is not associated with a UFE increase. The HSD11B2 activity is inversely associated with UFF levels in n-UFF patients but not in h-UFF patients, and it is not associated with the SH complications.

  15. Identification of Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase type 12 (HSD17B12) as a CD8+ T-cell-defined human tumor antigen of human carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase type 12 (HSD17B12) is a multifunctional isoenzyme functional in the conversion of estrone to estradiol (E2), and elongation of long-chain fatty acids, in particular the conversion of palmitic to archadonic (AA) acid, the precursor of sterols and the inflammatory mediator, prostaglandin E2. Its overexpression together with that of COX-2 in breast carcinoma is associated with a poor prognosis. We have identified the HSD17B12114–122 peptide (IYDKIKTGL) as a nat...

  16. 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway in Mucor mucedo, is constitutively transcribed but its activity is differently regulated in (+) and (-) mating types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Christine; Petzold, Annett; Schultze, Kornelia; Wetzel, Jana; Wolschendorf, Frank; Burmester, Anke; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2005-09-01

    4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TDH) converts the (+) mating type sex pheromone 4-dihydromethyltrisporate into methyltrisporate. In Mucor mucedo, this conversion is required only in the (-) mating type. Expression of the TDH encoding TSP1 gene was analyzed qualitatively using reverse-transcribed PCR. TSP1 is constitutively transcribed in the (+) and in the (-) mating type, irrespective of the mating situation. By immunodetection, the translation product is also formed constitutively. In contrast to gene expression, TDH enzyme activity depends on the sexual status of the mycelium. Activity is restricted to the sexually stimulated (-) mating type. Non-stimulated (-), as well as stimulated and non-stimulated (+) mycelia exhibit no activity and do not influence activity in stimulated (-) mycelia. Time course analysis shows strongly increased enzyme activity at 80 min after stimulation. Low activity exists from the onset of stimulation, indicating that additional regulation mechanisms are involved in TDH function.

  17. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins.

  18. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, C D; Azevedo, I; Monteiro, R; Martins, M J

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly argues for a pathogenic role of glucocorticoids and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that includes insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, hypertension and visceral obesity. This has been partially prompted not only by the striking clinical resemblances between the metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome (a state characterized by hypercortisolism that associates with metabolic syndrome components) but also from monogenic rodent models for the metabolic syndrome (e.g. the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse or the leptin-resistant Zucker rat) that display overall increased secretion of glucocorticoids. However, systemic circulating glucocorticoids are not elevated in obese patients and/or patients with metabolic syndrome. The study of the role of 11β-HSD system shed light on this conundrum, showing that local glucocorticoids are finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner at the pre-receptor level. The system comprises two microsomal enzymes that either activate cortisone to cortisol (11β-HSD1) or inactivate cortisol to cortisone (11β-HSD2). Transgenic rodent models, knockout (KO) for HSD11B1 or with HSD11B1 or HSD11B2 overexpression, specifically targeted to the liver or adipose tissue, have been developed and helped unravel the currently undisputable role of the enzymes in metabolic syndrome pathophysiology, in each of its isolated components and in their prevention. In the transgenic HSD11B1 overexpressing models, different features of the metabolic syndrome and obesity are replicated. HSD11B1 gene deficiency or HSD11B2 gene overexpression associates with improvements in the metabolic profile. In face of these demonstrations, research efforts are now being turned both into the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 as a possible pharmacological target and into the role of dietary habits on the

  19. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, and not Type 12, is a target for endocrine therapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joanna M; Foster, Paul A; Tutill, Helena J; Parsons, Michael F C; Newman, Simon P; Chander, Surinder K; Allan, Gillian M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2008-05-01

    Oestradiol (E2) stimulates the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the pre-receptor activation/inactivation of hormones and other substrates. 17beta-HSD1 converts oestrone (E1) to active E2, but it has recently been suggested that another 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD12, may be the major enzyme that catalyses this reaction in women. Here we demonstrate that it is 17beta-HSD1 which is important for E2 production and report the inhibition of E1-stimulated breast tumor growth by STX1040, a non-oestrogenic selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1, using a novel murine model. 17beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD12 mRNA and protein expression, and E2 production, were assayed in wild type breast cancer cell lines and in cells after siRNA and cDNA transfection. Although 17beta-HSD12 was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines, only 17beta-HSD1 efficiently catalysed E2 formation. The effect of STX1040 on the proliferation of E1-stimulated T47D breast cancer cells was determined in vitro and in vivo. Cells inoculated into ovariectomised nude mice were stimulated using 0.05 or 0.1 microg E1 (s.c.) daily, and on day 35 the mice were dosed additionally with 20 mg/kg STX1040 s.c. daily for 28 days. STX1040 inhibited E1-stimulated proliferation of T47D cells in vitro and significantly decreased tumor volumes and plasma E2 levels in vivo. In conclusion, a model was developed to study the inhibition of the major oestrogenic 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD1, in breast cancer. Both E2 production and tumor growth were inhibited by STX1040, suggesting that 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors such as STX1040 may provide a novel treatment for hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  20. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Elyse A; Cook, Gregory M; Heikal, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see "Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs" Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, "Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins" [2].

  1. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyse A. Dunn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2, a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1], was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, “Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins” [2].

  2. Derivatives of (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)nicotine and (phenylsulfonamido-methyl)thiazole as novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: synthesis and biological activities in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu ZHANG; Yang ZHOU; Yu SHEN; Li-li DU; Jun-hua CHEN; Ying LENG; Jian-hua SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To design and synthese a novel class of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors, featuring the (phenylsul-fonamido-methyl)pyridine and (phenyisulfonamido-methyl)thiazole framework. Methods: Our initial lead 4-(phenylsulfonamido-methyl)benzamides were modified. Inhibition of human and mouse 11β-HSD1 enzy-matic activities by the new compounds was determined by a scintillation proximity assay (SPA) using microsomes containing 11β-HSD1.Results: Sixteen new compounds (6a-6h, 7a-7h) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. In dose-response studies, several com-pounds showed strong inhibitory activities with IC_(50) values at nanomolar or low nanomolar concentrations. Structure-activity relation-ships are also discussed with respect to molecular docking results. Conclusion: This study provides two promising new templates for 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  3. Expression of wild-type and mutant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNA in eucaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Bross, P;

    1992-01-01

    An effective EBV-based expression system for eucaryotic cells has been developed and used for the study of the mitochondrial enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). 1325 bp of PCR-generated MCAD cDNA, containing the entire coding region, was placed between the SV40 early promoter...... and polyadenylation signals in the EBV-based vector. Both wild-type MCAD cDNA and cDNA containing the prevalent disease-causing mutation A to G at position 985 of the MCAD cDNA were tested. In transfected COS-7 cells, the steady state amount of mutant MCAD protein was consistently lower than the amount of wild......-type human enzyme. The enzyme activity in extracts from cells harbouring the wild-type MCAD cDNA was dramatically higher than in the controls (harbouring the vector without the MCAD gene) while only a slightly higher activity was measured with the mutant MCAD. The mutant MCAD present behaves like wild...

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that helps red ...

  5. Preparation of 16β-Estradiol Derivative Libraries as Bisubstrate Inhibitors of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Using the Multidetachable Sulfamate Linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Poirier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial chemistry is a powerful tool used to rapidly generate a large number of potentially biologically active compounds. In our goal to develop bisubstrate inhibitors of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 that interact with both the substrate (estrone or estradiol and the cofactor (NAD(PH binding sites, we used parallel solid-phase synthesis to prepare three libraries of 16β-estradiol derivatives with two or three levels of molecular diversity. From estrone, we first synthesized a sulfamate precursor that we loaded on trityl chloride resin using the efficient multidetachable sulfamate linker strategy recently developed in our laboratory. We then introduced molecular diversity [one or two amino acid(s followed by a carboxylic acid] on steroid nucleus by Fmoc peptide chemistry. Finally, after a nucleophilic cleavage, libraries of 30, 63 and 25 estradiol derivatives were provided. A library of 30 sulfamoylated estradiol derivatives was also generated by acidic cleavage and its members were screened for inhibition of steroid sulfatase. Biological evaluation on homogenated HEK-293 cells overexpressing 17β-HSD1 of the estradiol derivatives carrying different oligoamide-type chains at C-16 first revealed that three levels of molecular diversity (a spacer of two amino acids were necessary to interact with the adenosine part of the cofactor binding site. Second, the best inhibition was obtained when hydrophobic residues (phenylalanine were used as building blocks.

  6. Proliferative responses to altered 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2 expression in human breast cancer cells are dependent on endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and the oestradiol receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A; Gunnarsson, C; Stål, O

    2006-09-01

    The primary source of oestrogen in premenopausal women is the ovary but, after menopause, oestrogen biosynthesis in peripheral tissue is the exclusive site of formation. An enzyme group that affects the availability of active oestrogens is the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) family. In breast cancer, 17HSD type 1 and type 2 have been mostly investigated and seem to be the principal 17HSD enzymes involved thus far. The question whether 17HSD type 1 or type 2 is of greatest importance in breast tumour development is still not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate how the loss of 17HSD type 2 expression, using siRNA in the non-tumour breast epithelial cells HMEC (human mammal epithelial cells) and MCF10A, and gain of 17HSD type 2 expression, using transient transfection in the breast cancer derived cell lines MCF7 and T47D, affect oestradiol conversion and proliferation rate measured as S-phase fraction. We further investigated how this was related to the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and oestradiol receptors in the examined cell lines. The oestradiol level in the medium changed significantly in the MCF7 transfected cells and the siRNA-treated HMEC cells, but not in T47D or MCF10A. The S-phase fraction decreased in the 17HSD type 2-transfected MCF7 cells and the siRNA-treated HMEC cells. The results seemed to be dependent on the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1 and the oestradiol receptors. In conclusion, we found that high or low levels of 17HSD type 2 affected the oestradiol concentration significantly. However, the response was dependent on the endogenous expression of 17HSD type 1. Expression of 17HSD type 1 seems to be dominant to 17HSD type 2. Therefore, it may be important to investigate a ratio between 17HSD type 1 and 17HSD type 2.

  7. 11β-羟类固醇脱氢酶1型与认知功能%11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    綦雯雯; 钟历勇

    2010-01-01

    11β-羟类固醇脱氧酶1型(11β-HSD1)是一种糖皮质激素(GC)的调节酶,参与中枢神经系统组织局部GC水平与活性的调节.其能使无活性的酮还原成有活性的GC,从而放大中枢GC的作用,致使局部GC水平过高,进而直接损伤海马,影响认知功能.11β-HSD1抑制剂和过氧化物酶体增殖物活化受体(PPAR)-γ激动剂,通过抑制和下调11β-HSD1的表达,能够改善伴有认知功能障碍的疾病如阿尔茨海默病(AD)、遗忘型轻度认知障碍患者的认知水平.%11β p-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1( 11β-HSD1 ) , a glucocorticoid ( GC ) regulatory enzyme,is involved in the regulation of GC from level to activity in the central nervous system. 11β-HSD1 mediates the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, amyplifying the action of local GC. The higher level of intra-cellular GC in brain results in the lesion of the hippocampus and the impairment of cognition. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ( PPAR) -γ agonists can improve the cognitive dysfunction associated with diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment, by inhibiting or reducing the expression of 11β-HSD1.

  8. Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 7α-hydroxylase CYP7B1 during social stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vodička

    Full Text Available 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1 is an enzyme that amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid concentration by the conversion of inert glucocorticoids to active forms and is involved in the interconversion of 7-oxo- and 7-hydroxy-steroids, which can interfere with the activation of glucocorticoids. The presence of 11HSD1 in the structures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis suggests that this enzyme might play a role in the regulation of HPA output. Here we show that the exposure of Fisher 344 rats to mild social stress based on the resident-intruder paradigm increased the expression of 11HSD1 and CYP7B1, an enzyme that catalyzes 7-hydroxylation of steroids. We found that social behavioral profile of intruders was significantly decreased whereas their plasma levels of corticosterone were increased more than in residents. The stress did not modulate 11HSD1 in the HPA axis (paraventricular nucleus, pituitary, adrenal cortex but selectively upregulated 11HSD1 in some regions of the hippocampus, amygdala and prelimbic cortex. In contrast, CYP7B1 was upregulated not only in the hippocampus and amygdala but also in paraventricular nucleus and pituitary. Furthermore, the stress downregulated 11HSD1 in the thymus and upregulated it in the spleen and mesenteric lymphatic nodes whereas CYP7B1 was upregulated in all of these lymphoid organs. The response of 11HSD1 to stress was more obvious in intruders than in residents and the response of CYP7B1 to stress predominated in residents. We conclude that social stress induces changes in enzymes of local metabolism of glucocorticoids in lymphoid organs and in brain structures associated with the regulation of the HPA axis. In addition, the presented data clearly suggest a role of 11HSD1 in modulation of glucocorticoid feedback of the HPA axis during stress.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a steroidogenic enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14, from the stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jie; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroids play a fundamental role not only in reproduction but also in various other biological processes in vertebrates. Although the presence of sex steroids has been confirmed in cnidarians (e.g., coral, sea anemone, jellyfish, and hydra), which are basal metazoans, only a few studies to date have characterized steroidogenesis-related genes in cnidarians. Based on a transcriptomic analysis of the stony coral Euphyllia ancora, we identified the steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14 (17beta-hsd 14), an oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent inactivation of estrogen/androgen (estradiol to estrone and testosterone to androstenedione) in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. ancora 17beta-Hsd 14 (Ea17beta-Hsd 14) clusters with other animal 17beta-HSD 14s but not with other members of the 17beta-HSD family. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a lack of correlation of Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript levels with the coral's reproductive cycle. In addition, Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript and protein were detected in all tissues examined, such as the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and gonads, at similar levels in both sexes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting with an anti-Ea17beta-Hsd 14 antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is mainly distributed in the endodermal regions of the polyps, but the protein was also observed in all tissues examined. These results suggest that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is involved in important functions that commonly occur in endodermal cells or has multiple functions in different tissues. Our data provide information for comparison with advanced animals as well as insight into the evolution of steroidogenesis-related genes in metazoans.

  10. Caffeine reduces 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in human trophoblast cells through the adenosine A(2B receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saina Sharmin

    Full Text Available Maternal caffeine consumption is associated with reduced fetal growth, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Since there is evidence that decreased placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2 is linked to fetal growth restriction, we hypothesized that caffeine may inhibit fetal growth partly through down regulating placental 11β-HSD2. As a first step in examining this hypothesis, we studied the effects of caffeine on placental 11β-HSD2 activity and expression using our established primary human trophoblast cells as an in vitro model system. Given that maternal serum concentrations of paraxanthine (the primary metabolite of caffeine were greater in women who gave birth to small-for-gestational age infants than to appropriately grown infants, we also studied the effects of paraxanthine. Our main findings were: (1 both caffeine and paraxanthine decreased placental 11β-HSD2 activity, protein and mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner; (2 this inhibitory effect was mediated by the adenosine A(2B receptor, since siRNA-mediated knockdown of this receptor prevented caffeine- and paraxanthine-induced inhibition of placental 11β-HSD2; and (3 forskolin (an activator of adenyl cyclase and a known stimulator of 11β-HSD2 abrogated the inhibitory effects of both caffeine and paraxanthine, which provides evidence for a functional link between exposure to caffeine and paraxanthine, decreased intracellular levels of cAMP and reduced placental 11β-HSD2. Taken together, these findings reveal that placental 11β-HSD2 is a novel molecular target through which caffeine may adversely affect fetal growth. They also uncover a previously unappreciated role for the adenosine A(2B receptor signaling in regulating placental 11β-HSD2, and consequently fetal development.

  11. BVT.2733, a selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, attenuates obesity and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, which suppresses glucocorticoid action, on adipose tissue inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of BVT.2733, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, on expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue in C57BL/6J mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with a normal chow diet (NC or high fat diet (HFD. HFD treated mice were then administrated with BVT.2733 (HFD+BVT or vehicle (HFD for four weeks. Mice receiving BVT.2733 treatment exhibited decreased body weight and enhanced glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to control mice. BVT.2733 also down-regulated the expression of inflammation-related genes including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and the number of infiltrated macrophages within the adipose tissue in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and RNA interference against 11β-HSD1 reduced the mRNA levels of MCP-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cultured J774A.1 macrophages and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BVT.2733 treatment could not only decrease body weight and improve metabolic homeostasis, but also suppress the inflammation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice. 11β-HSD1 may be a very promising therapeutic target for obesity and associated disease.

  12. A novel protective mechanism for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) in type i diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction: role of AMPK-regulated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuli; Yu, Wenjun; Sun, Dongdong; Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Babcock, Sara A; Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Ma, Meijuan; Shen, Mingzhi; Zeng, Chao; Li, Na; He, Wei; Zou, Qian; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is known to offer myocardial protection against stress conditions including ischemia-reperfusion injury, alcoholism and diabetes mellitus although the precise mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on diabetes-induced myocardial injury with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 transgenic mice were challenged with streptozotozin (STZ, 200mg/kg, i.p.) for 3months to induce experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes triggered cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, decreased cell shortening and prolonged relengthening duration, the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2. Lectin staining displayed that diabetes promoted cardiac hypertrophy, the effect of which was alleviated by ALDH2. Western blot analysis revealed dampened autophagy protein markers including LC3B ratio and Atg7 along with upregulated p62 following experimental diabetes, the effect of which was reconciled by ALDH2. Phosphorylation level of AMPK was decreased and its downstream signaling molecule FOXO3a was upregulated in both diabetic cardiac tissue and in H9C2 cells with high glucose exposure. All these effect were partly abolished by ALDH2 overexpression and ALDH2 agonist Alda1. High glucose challenge dampened autophagy in H9C2 cells as evidenced by enhanced p62 levels and decreased levels of Atg7 and LC3B, the effect of which was alleviated by the ALDH2 activator Alda-1. High glucose-induced cell death and apoptosis were reversed by Alda-1. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the AMPK inhibitor compound C mitigated Alda-1-offered beneficial effect whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin mimicked or exacerbated high glucose-induced cell injury. Moreover, compound C nullified Alda-1-induced protection against STZ-induced changes in autophagy and function. Our results suggested that ALDH2 protects against diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction possibly through an

  13. Emodin, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, regulates adipocyte function in vitro and exerts anti-diabetic effect in ob/ob mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-jing WANG; Su-ling HUANG; Ying FENG; Meng-meng NING; Ying LENG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy 6-methylanthraquinone) is a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) with the ability to ameliorate metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese mice.In the present study,we investigated the effects of emodin on adipocyte function and the underlying mechanisms in vitro,and its anti-diabetic effects in ob/ob mice.Methods:3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for in vitro studies.11β-HSD1A activity was evaluated with a scintillation proximity assay.The adipogenesis,glucose uptake,lipolysis and adiponectin secretion were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with emodin in the presence of active (corticosterone) or inactive glucocorticoid (11-dehydrocorticosterone).For in vivo studies,ob/ob mice were administered emodin (25 and 50 mg.kg-1·d-1,ip) for 26 d.On the last day of administration,the serum was collected and the mesenteric and perirenal fat were dissected for analyses.Results:Emodin inhibited the 11β-HSD1 activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in concentration- and time dependent manners (the IC50 values were 7,237 and 4.204 μmol/L,respectively,after 1 and 24 h treatment,in 3T3-L1 adipocytes,emodin (30 μmol/L) suppressed 11-dehydrocorticosterone-induced adipogenesis without affecting corticosterone-induced adipogenesis; emodin (3 μmol/L) reduced 11-dehydrocorticosterone-stimulated lipolysis,but had no effect on corticosterone-induced lipolysis.Moreover,emodin (3 μmol/L)partly reversed the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion induced by 11-dehydrocorticosterone but not those induced by corticosterone.In ob/ob mice,long-term emodin administration decreased 11β-HSD1 activity in mesenteric adipose tissues,lowered non-fasting and fasting blood glucose levels,and improved glucose tolerance.Conclusion:Emodin improves the inactive glucocorticoid-induced adipose tissue dysfunction by selective inhibition on 11β-HSD1 in adipocyte in vitro and improves glycemic control in ob

  14. STX2171, a 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitor, is efficacious in vivo in a novel hormone-dependent prostate cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joanna M; Foster, Paul A; Tutill, Helena J; Schmidlin, Fabien; Sharland, Christopher M; Hargrave, Jonathan D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2013-02-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) catalyse the 17-position reduction/oxidation of steroids. 17β-HSD type 3 (17β-HSD3) catalyses the reduction of the weakly androgenic androstenedione (adione) to testosterone, suggesting that specific inhibitors of 17β-HSD3 may have a role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. STX2171 is a novel selective non-steroidal 17β-HSD3 inhibitor with an IC(50) of ∼200 nM in a whole-cell assay. It inhibits adione-stimulated proliferation of 17β-HSD3-expressing androgen receptor-positive LNCaP(HSD3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. An androgen-stimulated LNCaP(HSD3) xenograft proof-of-concept model was developed to study the efficacies of STX2171 and a more established 17β-HSD3 inhibitor, STX1383 (SCH-451659, Schering-Plough), in vivo. Castrated male MF-1 mice were inoculated s.c. with 1×10(7) cells 24 h after an initial daily dose of testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle. After 4 weeks, tumours had not developed in vehicle-dosed mice, but were present in 50% of those mice given TP. One week after switching the stimulus to adione, mice were dosed additionally with the vehicle or inhibitor for a further 4 weeks. Both TP and adione efficiently stimulated tumour growth and increased plasma testosterone levels; however, in the presence of either 17β-HSD3 inhibitor, adione-dependent tumour growth was significantly inhibited and plasma testosterone levels reduced. Mouse body weights were unaffected. Both inhibitors also significantly lowered plasma testosterone levels in intact mice. In conclusion, STX2171 and STX1383 significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and inhibit androgen-dependent tumour growth in vivo, indicating that 17β-HSD3 inhibitors may have application in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer.

  15. Structural basis for species specific inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1: computational study and biological validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Klein

    Full Text Available 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of estrone to estradiol, which is the most potent estrogen in humans. Inhibition of 17β-HSD1 and thereby reducing the intracellular estradiol concentration is thus a promising approach for the treatment of estrogen dependent diseases. In the past, several steroidal and non-steroidal inhibitors of 17β-HSD1 have been described but so far there is no cocrystal structure of the latter in complex with 17β-HSD1. However, a distinct knowledge of active site topologies and protein-ligand interactions is a prerequisite for structure-based drug design and optimization. An elegant strategy to enhance this knowledge is to compare inhibition values obtained for one compound toward ortholog proteins from various species, which are highly conserved in sequence and differ only in few residues. In this study the inhibitory potencies of selected members of different non-steroidal inhibitor classes toward marmoset 17β-HSD1 were determined and the data were compared with the values obtained for the human enzyme. A species specific inhibition profile was observed in the class of the (hydroxyphenylnaphthols. Using a combination of computational methods, including homology modelling, molecular docking, MD simulation, and binding energy calculation, a reasonable model of the three-dimensional structure of marmoset 17β-HSD1 was developed and inhibition data were rationalized on the structural basis. In marmoset 17β-HSD1, residues 190 to 196 form a small α-helix, which induces conformational changes compared to the human enzyme. The docking poses suggest these conformational changes as determinants for species specificity and energy decomposition analysis highlighted the outstanding role of Asn152 as interaction partner for inhibitor binding. In summary, this strategy of comparing the biological activities of inhibitors toward highly conserved ortholog proteins might be an alternative to

  16. Characterization of wild-type human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and mutant enzymes present in MCAD-deficient patients by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S;

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli or in eukar......Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to study and compare wild-type medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3) and mis-sense mutant enzyme found in patients with MCAD deficiency. By comparing the patterns for wild-type and mutant MCAD expressed in Escherichia coli...... of one aspartic acid residue per monomer. Comparison of pulse labeling and steady-state amounts of MCAD protein in overexpressing COS-7 cells confirms that K304E MCAD is synthesized and transported into mitochondria in amounts similar to the wild-type protein, but is degraded much more readily. For wild...

  17. Development of hormone-dependent prostate cancer models for the evaluation of inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Foster, Paul A; Bailey, Helen V; Heaton, Wesley B; Sharland, Christopher M; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J

    2009-03-25

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the 17-position into active/inactive hormones, and the 15 known enzymes vary in their substrate specificity, localisation, and directional activity. 17beta-HSD Type 3 (17beta-HSD3) has been seen to be over-expressed in prostate cancer, and catalyses the reduction of androstenedione (Adione) to testosterone (T), which stimulates prostate tumour growth. Specific inhibitors of 17beta-HSD3 may have a role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia, and also have potential as male anti-fertility agents. A 293-EBNA-based cell line with stable expression of transfected human 17beta-HSD3 was created and used to develop a whole cell radiometric TLC-based assay to assess the 17beta-HSD3 inhibitory potency of a series of compounds. STX2171 and STX2624 (IC(50) values in the 200-450nM range) were two of several active inhibitors identified. In similar TLC-based assays these compounds were found to be inactive against 17beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD2, indicating selectivity. A novel proof of concept model was developed to study the efficacy of the compounds in vitro using the androgen receptor positive hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line, LNCaPwt, and its derivative, LNCaP[17beta-HSD3], transfected and selected for stable expression of 17beta-HSD3. The proliferation of the parental cell line was most efficiently stimulated by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but the LNCaP[17beta-HSD3] cells were equally stimulated by Adione, indicating that 17beta-HSD3 efficiently converts Adione to T in this model. Adione-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP[17beta-HSD3] cells was inhibited in the presence of either STX2171 or STX2624. The compounds alone neither stimulated proliferation of the cells nor caused significant cell death, indicating that they are non-androgenic with low cytotoxicity. STX2171 inhibited Adione

  18. Compound library development guided by protein structure similarity clustering and natural product structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A; Wittenberg, Lars-Oliver; Basu, Sudipta; Jeyaraj, Duraiswamy A; Gourzoulidou, Eleni; Reinecke, Kerstin; Odermatt, Alex; Waldmann, Herbert

    2004-11-30

    To identify biologically relevant and drug-like protein ligands for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology research the grouping of proteins according to evolutionary relationships and conservation of molecular recognition is an established method. We propose to employ structure similarity clustering of the ligand-sensing cores of protein domains (PSSC) in conjunction with natural product guided compound library development as a synergistic approach for the identification of biologically prevalidated ligands with high fidelity. This is supported by the concepts that (i) in nature spatial structure is more conserved than amino acid sequence, (ii) the number of fold types characteristic for all protein domains is limited, and (iii) the underlying frameworks of natural product classes with multiple biological activities provide evolutionarily selected starting points in structural space. On the basis of domain core similarity considerations and irrespective of sequence similarity, Cdc25A phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2 were grouped into a similarity cluster. A 147-member compound collection derived from the naturally occurring Cdc25A inhibitor dysidiolide yielded potent and selective inhibitors of the other members of the similarity cluster with a hit rate of 2-3%. Protein structure similarity clustering may provide an experimental opportunity to identify supersites in proteins.

  19. Intrahippocampal glucocorticoids generated by 11β-HSD1 affect memory in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Joyce L W; Wheelan, Nicola; Noble, June; Walker, Brian R; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Ludwig, Mike; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally amplifies active glucocorticoids within specific tissues including in brain. In the hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 messenger RNA increases with aging. Here, we report significantly greater increases in intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in aged wild-type (WT) mice during the acquisition and retrieval trials in a Y-maze than age-matched 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice, corresponding to impaired and intact spatial memory, respectively. Acute stress applied to young WT mice led to increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels similar to the effects of aging and impaired retrieval of spatial memory. 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice resisted the stress-induced memory impairment. Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 abolished increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels during the Y-maze trials and prevented spatial memory impairments in aged WT mice. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that dynamic increases in hippocampal 11β-HSD1 regenerated CORT levels during learning and retrieval play a key role in age- and stress-associated impairments of spatial memory.

  20. Differential effects of exercise and dietary docosahexaenoic acid on molecular systems associated with control of allostasis in the hypothalamus and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pinilla, F; Ying, Z

    2010-06-16

    Given the robust influence of diet and exercise on brain plasticity and disease, we conducted studies to determine their effects on molecular systems important for control of brain homeostasis. Studies were centered on a battery of proteins implicated in metabolic homeostasis that have the potential to modulate brain plasticity and cognitive function, in rat hypothalamus and hippocampus. Adult male rats were exposed to a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched diet (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 14 days. Here we report that the DHA diet and exercise influence protein levels of molecular systems important for the control of energy metabolism (primarily phospho-AMPK, silent information regulator type 1), food intake (primarily leptin and ghrelin receptors), stress (primarily glucocorticoid receptors), and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11betaHSD1). Exercise or DHA dietary supplementation had differential effects on several of these class proteins, and the concurrent application of both altered the pattern of response elicited by the single applications of diet or exercise. For example, exercise elevated levels of glucocorticoids receptors in the hypothalamus and the DHA diet had opposite effects, while the concurrent application of diet and exercise suppressed the single effects of diet or exercise. In most of the cases, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus had a distinctive pattern of response to the diet or exercise. The results harmonize with the concept that exercise and dietary DHA exert specific actions on the hypothalamus and hippocampus, with implications for the regulations of brain plasticity and cognitive function.

  1. Liquorice-induced sodium retention. Merely an acquired condition of apparent mineralocorticoid excess? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, A; Rossi, E; Regolisti, G; Perazzoli, F

    2000-01-01

    Excessive ingestion of liquorice may result in sodium retention, hypertension, hypokalemia, and suppression of renin and aldosterone. Similarities between liquorice-induced effects and congenital apparent mineralocorticoid excess have recently been emphasized, as in both conditions, reduced activity of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 allows cortisol to act as a potent mineralocorticoid. We report a case of generalized edema without any increase in blood pressure, with biochemical and hormonal features of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in a young woman who had been ingesting substantial amounts of liquorice for several years. Liquorice-induced wide-spread edema without hypertension in our patient, as well as in a few other cases previously reported, and the more common occurrence of edema associated with hypertension challenge the current explanation of liquorice syndrome as a purely acquired apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Indeed, in both congenital apparent and true mineralocorticoid excess, edema is typically absent, as a result of the sodium escape phenomenon. As pressure-natriuresis may be an essential mechanism accounting for the sodium escape phenomenon, some component of liquorice could partially or completely oppose the circulatory response that converts liquorice-induced sodium retention into blood pressure elevation. In patients with unexplained generalized edema and hypokalemia without hypertension, liquorice ingestion should be carefully investigated and the renin-aldosterone system should be assayed.

  2. Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Geneviève

    2009-04-01

    Aldosterone is a key regulator of electrolyte and water homeostasis and plays a central role in blood pressure regulation. Hormonal changes during pregnancy, among them increased progesterone and aldosterone production, lead to the required plasma volume expansion of the maternal body as an accommodation mechanism for fetus growth. This review discusses the regulation of aldosterone production by aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2); the impact on aldosterone secretion due to the presence of a chimeric gene originating from a crossover between CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA) - the inherited form of hypertension; enhanced aldosterone production in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA); and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). Features of hyperaldosteronism are also found in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), in which glucocorticoids exacerbate activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) because of a defect in the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme. Regulation of aldosterone production and tissue-specific activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor are prerequisites for optimal control of body fluids and blood pressure during pregnancy and contribute largely to the wellbeing of the mother-to-be.

  3. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type1 and memory%11β-羟类固醇脱氢酶1与记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏颖; 林函; 连庆泉

    2010-01-01

    海马局部长期的高糖皮质激素(GC)水平对海马神经元造成损伤并影响记忆.经循环进入海马组织的肾上腺皮质分泌的GC主要是游离的无活性GC,因而需在具有还原酶活性的11β-羟类固醇脱氡酶1(11β-HSD1)的催化下转化为活性GC才能发挥作用.11β-HSD1在海马组织高表达.11β-HSD1的还原酶活性由内质网中己糖-6-磷酸脱氢酶催化生成的还原型辅酶Ⅱ维持.因此,选择性抑制海马11β-HSD1的还原酶活性可以调节海马组织活性GC的水平,保护记忆.%In hippocampus,a high level of glucocorticoid lasting for a long time can do harm to hippocampal neurons and damage memory.Most of the glucocorticoid secreted from the adrenal cortex and transported into the hippocarnpus is nomadic and inactive,and it needs to be converted into active form under the catalysis of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1).11β-HSD1 is expressed highly in hippocampus of the cerebrum.The reductase activity of 11β-HSD1 is maintained by coenzyme Ⅱ generated under the catalysis of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in endocytoplasmic reticulum.Therefore,it is possible to adjust the level of active glucocorticoid and protect memory if the reducase activity of 11β-HSD1 is inhibited selectively.

  4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition in which ...

  5. Transforming growth factor-β1 and epidermal growth factor decrease the expression of 17β(-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase type 2 in endo-metrial carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) is the major molecular form of estrogens. Its biological effects are determined by estrogen receptors and intracellular E2 concentration in target cells. Regulation of intracellular E2 concentration involves the action of 17β(-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2, the enzyme inactivating E2 to estrone. It has been demonstrated that 17HSD type 2 is expressed in normal endometrial epithelia and emdometrial carcinoma cells (RL 95-2). However, the regulatory mechanism of 17HSD type 2 expression in emdometrial cancer cells remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of transforming growth factor-(1 (TGF-β1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) on 17HSD type 2 expression in RL 95-2 cells have been investigated using enzyme activity assay and Northern blot analysis. After stimulation with TGF-β1 or EGF, the in vivo oxidative 17HSD activity in RL 95-2 cells was significantly decreased. It appeared that the inhibitory effect of TGF-β1 and EGF on the enzyme activity of 17HSD type 2 is dose- and time-dependent. Northern blot analysis further revealed that treatment of cells for 48 h with 10 ng/mL TGF-1β And 50 ng/mL EGF reduced the expression 17HSD type 2 mRNA to 30% and 20% of the control level, respectively. The data demonstrate that 17HSD type 2 expression in endometrial carcinoma cells is down-regulated by certain growth factors.

  6. Studies on lipoamide dehydrogenase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.

    1992-01-01

    At the onset of the investigations described in this thesis progress was being made on the elucidation of the crystal structure of the Azotobactervinelandii lipoamide dehydrogenase. Also the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned in our laboratory. By this, a firm basis was laid to start site directed

  7. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptors in reproductive tissue of male horses at different stages of sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Luna, C V; Budik, S; Helmreich, M; Walter, I; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) as mediators of the stress response may affect Leydig cell function by inhibiting either luteinizing hormone receptor expression or testosterone biosynthesis. The isozymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) 1 and 11βHSD2 control the intracellular cortisol levels. Little is known about the effects of stress on fertility in the equine. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence and cellular localization of glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) and glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes (11βHSD1 and 11βHSD2) in equine epididymal and testicular tissue with special regard to sexual maturation. Testicular and epididymal tissue was collected from 21 healthy stallions, and four age groups were designed: pre-pubertal, young, mature and older horses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used. Pre-pubertal horses showed higher testicular gene expression of 11βHSD1, 11βHSD2 and GCR than horses of all other groups (p horses. In mature stallions, expression of 11βHSD enzymes and the oxidative 11βHSD activity in Leydig cells and epididymal basal and principal cells suggest a protective role on these tissues contributing to physiological intracellular glucocorticoid concentrations.

  8. An alpha-proteobacterial type malate dehydrogenase may complement LDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. Cloning and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Abhai K; Desai, Prashant V; Pradhan, Anupam; Khan, Shabana I; Avery, Mitchell A; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2004-09-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) may be important in carbohydrate and energy metabolism in malarial parasites. The cDNA corresponding to the MDH gene, identified on chromosome 6 of the Plasmodium falciparum genome, was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Pf MDH was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized as an NAD(+)(H)-specific MDH, which catalysed reversible interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate. Pf MDH could not use NADP/NADPH as a cofactor, but used acetylpyridine adenine dinucleoide, an analogue of NAD. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate and cofactor specificity. The highest levels of Pf MDH transcripts were detected in trophozoites while the Pf MDH protein level remained high in trophozoites as well as schizonts. A highly refined model of Pf MDH revealed distinct structural characteristics of substrate and cofactor binding sites and important amino acid residues lining these pockets. The active site amino acid residues involved in substrate binding were conserved in Pf MDH but the N-terminal glycine motif, which is involved in nucleotide binding, was similar to the GXGXXG signature sequence found in Pf LDH and also in alpha-proteobacterial MDHs. Oxamic acid did not inhibit Pf MDH, while gossypol, which interacts at the nucleotide binding site of oxidoreductases and shows antimalarial activity, inhibited Pf MDH also. Treatment of a synchronized culture of P. falciparum trophozoites with gossypol caused induction in expression of Pf MDH, while expression of Pf LDH was reduced and expression of malate:quinone oxidoreductase remained unchanged. Pf MDH may complement Pf LDH function of NAD/NADH coupling in malaria parasites. Thus, dual inhibitors of Pf MDH and Pf LDH may be required to target this pathway and to develop potential new antimalarial drugs.

  9. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  10. Insulin, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins and lactate regulate the human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene expression in colon cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Andrieu

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29 at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon.

  11. Aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase G534A gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manisha Patnaik; Pallabi Pati; Surendra N. Swain; Manoj K. Mohapatra; Bhagirathi Dwibedi; Shantanu K. Kar; Manoranjan Ranjit

    2014-12-01

    Essential hypertension which accounts 90–95% of the total hypertension cases is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 G534A polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India. A total of 246 hypertensive subjects (males, 159; females, 87) and 274 normal healthy individuals (males, 158; females, 116) were enrolled in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis of genetic and biochemical data revealed that in this population the CT and TT genotypes of aldosterone synthase C-344T polymorphism, frequency of alcohol consumption and aldosterone levels were significantly high among the total as well as male hypertensives, while the AC and CC genotypes of angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C polymorphism were significantly high among the total as well as female hypertensives. High density lipoprotein levels were higher in male hypertensives.

  12. Aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase G534A gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manisha Patnaik; Pallabi Pati; Surendra N. Swain; Manoj K. Mohapatra; Bhagirathi Dwibedi; Shantanu K. Kar; Manoranjan Ranjit

    2015-06-01

    Essential hypertension which accounts 90–95% of the total hypertension cases is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of aldosterone synthase C-344T, angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C and 11- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 G534A polymorphisms with essential hypertension in the population of Odisha, India. A total of 246 hypertensive subjects (males, 159; females, 87) and 274 normal healthy individuals (males, 158; females, 116) were enrolled in this study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Analysis of genetic and biochemical data revealed that in this population the CT and TT genotypes of aldosterone synthase C-344T polymorphism, frequency of alcohol consumption and aldosterone levels were significantly high among the total as well as male hypertensives, while the AC and CC genotypes of angiotensin II type I receptor A1166C polymorphism were significantly high among the total as well as female hypertensives. High density lipoprotein levels were higher in male hypertensives.

  13. Comparison of a homology model and the crystallographic structure of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in a structure-based identification of inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguet, Laurence; Zhang, Ziding; Barbier, Maryse; Grigorov, Martin G.

    2006-02-01

    Human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of cortisone into active cortisol. 11βHSD1 inhibition is a tempting target for the treatment of a host of human disorders that might benefit from blockade of glucocorticoid action, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type 2. Here, we report an in silico screening study aimed at identifying new selective inhibitors of human 11βHSD1 enzyme. In the first step, homology modeling was employed to build the 3D structure of 11βHSD1. Further, molecular docking was used to validate the predicted model by showing that it was able to discriminate between known 11βHSD1 inhibitors or substrates and non-inhibitors. The homology model was found to reproduce closely the crystal structure that became publicly available in the final stages of this work. Finally, we carried out structure-based virtual screening experiments on both the homology model and the crystallographic structure with a database of 114'000 natural molecules. Among these, 15 molecules were consistently selected as inhibitors based on both the model and crystal structures of the enzyme, implying a good quality for the homology model. Among these putative 11βHSD1 inhibitors, two were flavonone derivatives that have already been shown to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme.

  14. 15 Hypoxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given on the enzyme 15 hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. The determination, activity, distribution, purification, properties and physiological aspects are discussed. 128 references.......A review is given on the enzyme 15 hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. The determination, activity, distribution, purification, properties and physiological aspects are discussed. 128 references....

  15. Green tea and one of its constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, are potent inhibitors of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hintzpeter

    Full Text Available The microsomal enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid deydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoid receptor-inert cortisone to receptor- active cortisol, thereby acting as an intracellular switch for regulating the access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. There is strong evidence for an important aetiological role of 11β-HSD1 in various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity. Hence, modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Since tea has been associated with health benefits for thousands of years, we sought to elucidate the active principle in tea with regard to diabetes type 2 prevention. Several teas and tea specific polyphenolic compounds were tested for their possible inhibition of cortisone reduction with human liver microsomes and purified human 11β-HSD1. Indeed we found that tea extracts inhibited 11β-HSD1 mediated cortisone reduction, where green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 3.749 mg dried tea leaves per ml. Consequently, major polyphenolic compounds from green tea, in particular catechins were tested with the same systems. (--Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG revealed the highest inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity (reduction: IC50 = 57.99 µM; oxidation: IC50 = 131.2 µM. Detailed kinetic studies indicate a direct competition mode of EGCG, with substrate and/or cofactor binding. Inhibition constants of EGCG on cortisone reduction were Ki = 22.68 µM for microsomes and Ki = 18.74 µM for purified 11β-HSD1. In silicio docking studies support the view that EGCG binds directly to the active site of 11β-HSD1 by forming a hydrogen bond with Lys187 of the catalytic triade. Our study is the first to provide evidence that the health benefits of green tea and its

  16. Green tea and one of its constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, are potent inhibitors of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Stapelfeld, Claudia; Loerz, Christine; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Maser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid deydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoid receptor-inert cortisone to receptor- active cortisol, thereby acting as an intracellular switch for regulating the access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. There is strong evidence for an important aetiological role of 11β-HSD1 in various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity. Hence, modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Since tea has been associated with health benefits for thousands of years, we sought to elucidate the active principle in tea with regard to diabetes type 2 prevention. Several teas and tea specific polyphenolic compounds were tested for their possible inhibition of cortisone reduction with human liver microsomes and purified human 11β-HSD1. Indeed we found that tea extracts inhibited 11β-HSD1 mediated cortisone reduction, where green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 3.749 mg dried tea leaves per ml. Consequently, major polyphenolic compounds from green tea, in particular catechins were tested with the same systems. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) revealed the highest inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity (reduction: IC50 = 57.99 µM; oxidation: IC50 = 131.2 µM). Detailed kinetic studies indicate a direct competition mode of EGCG, with substrate and/or cofactor binding. Inhibition constants of EGCG on cortisone reduction were Ki = 22.68 µM for microsomes and Ki = 18.74 µM for purified 11β-HSD1. In silicio docking studies support the view that EGCG binds directly to the active site of 11β-HSD1 by forming a hydrogen bond with Lys187 of the catalytic triade. Our study is the first to provide evidence that the health benefits of green tea and its polyphenolic compounds may

  17. Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 from the fruitfly: dehydrogenase and hydratase act as separate entities, as revealed by structure and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haataja, Tatu J K; Koski, M Kristian; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Glumoff, Tuomo

    2011-05-01

    All of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathways characterized thus far house at least one MFE (multifunctional enzyme) catalysing two out of four reactions of the spiral. MFE type 2 proteins from various species display great variation in domain composition and predicted substrate preference. The gene CG3415 encodes for Drosophila melanogaster MFE-2 (DmMFE-2), complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MFE-2 deletion strain, and the recombinant protein displays both MFE-2 enzymatic activities in vitro. The resolved crystal structure is the first one for a full-length MFE-2 revealing the assembly of domains, and the data can also be transferred to structure-function studies for other MFE-2 proteins. The structure explains the necessity of dimerization. The lack of substrate channelling is proposed based on both the structural features, as well as by the fact that hydration and dehydrogenation activities of MFE-2, if produced as separate enzymes, are equally efficient in catalysis as the full-length MFE-2.

  18. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh......B), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce...... ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major...

  19. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017 and TP53 mutation (p < 0.001, but not 1p/19q loss (p = 0.834, occurred at a higher frequency in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041 and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010 were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response

  20. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 Gene Mutation Is Associated with Prognosis in Clinical Low-Grade Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yang; Wang, Yin-Yan; Cai, Jin-Quan; Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Wang, Kuan-Yu; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Yan-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene mutations are found in most World Health Organization grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations are known to have prognostic value in high-grade gliomas. However, their prognostic significance in low-grade gliomas remains controversial. We determined the predictive and prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status in low-grade gliomas. The association of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 status with clinicopathological and genetic factors was also evaluated. Clinical information and genetic data including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, 1p/19q chromosome loss, and TP53 mutation of 417 low-grade gliomas were collected from the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas database. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic effect of clinical characteristics and molecular biomarkers. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall, but not progression-free, survival. Notably, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was found to be a significant prognostic factor in patients with oligodendrogliomas, but not in patients with astrocytomas. Furthermore, O 6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation (p = 0.017) and TP53 mutation (p isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors than in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild-type tumors. Younger patient age (p = 0.041) and frontal lobe location (p = 0.010) were significantly correlated with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation. Chemotherapy did not provide a survival benefit in patients with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated tumors. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was an independent prognostic factor in low-grade gliomas, whereas it showed no predictive value for chemotherapy response. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation was highly associated with O 6-methylguanine DNA

  1. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a s

  2. Hyper- and hypoaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpy, D J; Stratakis, C A; Chrousos, G P

    1999-01-01

    Aldosterone participates in blood volume and serum potassium homeostasis, which in turn regulate aldosterone secretion by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. Autonomous aldosterone hypersecretion leads to hypertension and hypokalemia. Improved screening techniques have led to a re-evaluation of the frequency of primary aldosteronism among adults with hypertension, recognizing that normokalemic cases are more frequent than was previously appreciated. The genetic basis of glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism has been elucidated and adequately explains most of the pathophysiologic features of this disorder. A new form of familial aldosteronism has been described, familial hyperaldosteronism type II; linkage analysis and direct mutation screening has shown that this disorder is unrelated to mutations in the genes for aldosterone synthase or the angiotensin II receptor. The features of aldosterone hypersecretion may be due to non-aldosterone-mediated mineralocorticoid excess. These include two causes of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (11 beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency), the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) due to 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) deficiency, primary glucocorticoid resistance, Liddle's syndrome due to activating mutations of the renal epithelial sodium channel, and exogenous sources of mineralocorticoid, such as licorice, or drugs, such as carbenoxolone. The features of mineralocorticoid excess are also often seen in Cushing's syndrome. Hypoaldosteronism may lead to hypotension and hyperkalemia. Hypoaldosteronism may be due to inadequate stimulation of aldosterone secretion (hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism), defects in adrenal synthesis of aldosterone, or resistance to the ion transport effects of aldosterone, such as are seen in pseudohypoaldosteronism type I (PHA I). PHA I is frequently due to mutations involving the amiloride sensitive epithelial sodium channel. Gordon

  3. Regulation of adipocyte 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP β isoforms, LIP and LAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L Esteves

    Full Text Available 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 catalyses intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids, notably in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 is increased selectively in adipose tissue in human obesity, a change implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. With high fat (HF-feeding, adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 is down-regulated in mice, plausibly to counteract metabolic disease. Transcription of 11β-HSD1 is directly regulated by members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP family. Here we show that while total C/EBPβ in adipose tissue is unaltered by HF diet, the ratio of the C/EBPβ isoforms liver-enriched inhibitor protein (LIP and liver-enriched activator protein (LAP (C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP is increased in subcutaneous adipose. This may cause changes in 11β-HSD1 expression since genetically modified C/EBPβ((+/L mice, with increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, have decreased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels, whereas C/EBPβ(ΔuORF mice, with decreased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, show increased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1. C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio is regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and mTOR signalling, both of which are altered in obesity. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels were down-regulated following induction of ER stress by tunicamycin but were up-regulated following inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. These data point to a central role for C/EBPβ and its processing to LIP and LAP in transcriptional regulation of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue. Down-regulation of 11β-HSD1 by increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP in adipocytes may be part of a nutrient-sensing mechanism counteracting nutritional stress generated by HF diet.

  4. Carbenoxolone treatment attenuates symptoms of metabolic syndrome and atherogenesis in obese, hyperlipidemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio-Antar, Alli M; Hachey, David L; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2007-12-01

    Glucocorticoids, which are well established to regulate body fat mass distribution, adipocyte lipolysis, hepatic gluconeogenesis, and hepatocyte VLDL secretion, are speculated to play a role in the pathology of metabolic syndrome. Recent focus has been on the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), which is capable of regenerating, and thus amplifying, glucocorticoids in key metabolic tissues such as liver and adipose tissue. To determine the effects of global 11beta-HSD1 inhibition on metabolic syndrome risk factors, we subcutaneously injected "Western"-type diet-fed hyperlipidemic mice displaying moderate or severe obesity [LDL receptor (LDLR)-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice and mice derived from heterozygous agouti (A(y)/a) and homozygous LDLR(-/-) breeding pairs (A(y)/a;LDLR(-/-) mice)] with the nonselective 11beta-HSD inhibitor carbenoxolone for 4 wk. Body composition throughout the study, end-point fasting plasma, and extent of hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis were assessed. This route of treatment led to detection of high levels of carbenoxolone in liver and fat and resulted in decreased weight gain due to reduced body fat mass in both mouse models. However, only A(y)/a;LDLR(-/-) mice showed an effect of 11beta-HSD1 inhibition on fasting insulin and plasma lipids, coincident with a reduction in VLDL due to mildly increased VLDL clearance and dramatically decreased hepatic triglyceride production. A(y)/a;LDLR(-/-) mice also showed a greater effect of the drug on reducing atherosclerotic lesion formation. These findings indicate that subcutaneous injection of an 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor allows for the targeting of the enzyme in not only liver, but also adipose tissue, and attenuates many metabolic syndrome risk factors, with more pronounced effects in cases of severe obesity and hyperlipidemia.

  5. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  6. Cross-talk between cAMP and MAPK pathways in HSD11B2 induction by hCG in placental trophoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Shu

    Full Text Available Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2 in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2 or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression.

  7. Carbenoxolone treatment ameliorated metabolic syndrome in WNIN/Ob obese rats, but induced severe fat loss and glucose intolerance in lean rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1 regulates local glucocorticoid action in tissues by catalysing conversion of inactive glucocorticoids to active glucocorticoids. 11β-HSD1 inhibition ameliorates obesity and associated co-morbidities. Here, we tested the effect of 11β-HSD inhibitor, carbenoxolone (CBX on obesity and associated comorbidities in obese rats of WNIN/Ob strain, a new animal model for genetic obesity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subcutaneous injection of CBX (50 mg/kg body weight or volume-matched vehicle was given once daily for four weeks to three month-old WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats (n = 6 for each phenotype and for each treatment. Body composition, plasma lipids and hormones were assayed. Hepatic steatosis, adipose tissue morphology, inflammation and fibrosis were also studied. Insulin resistance and glucose intolerance were determined along with tissue glycogen content. Gene expressions were determined in liver and adipose tissue. CBX significantly inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in liver and adipose tissue of WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats. CBX significantly decreased body fat percentage, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance in obese rats. CBX ameliorated hepatic steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis in obese rats. Tissue glycogen content was significantly decreased by CBX in liver and adipose tissue of obese rats. Severe fat loss and glucose- intolerance were observed in lean rats after CBX treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that 11β-HSD1 inhibition by CBX decreases obesity and associated co-morbidities in WNIN/Ob obese rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is a key strategy to treat metabolic syndrome. Severe fat loss and glucose -intolerance by CBX treatment in lean rats suggest that chronic 11β-HSD1 inhibition may lead to insulin resistance in normal conditions.

  8. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  9. 视黄醛脱氢酶2抑制剂对斑马鱼胚胎心脏发育的影响%Effect of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitor on embryonic cardiac development of zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯佳; 桂永浩; 王跃祥; 张立凤; 宋后燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 利用新型模式生物斑马鱼,采用外源性视黄醛脱氢酶2抑制剂--对二乙氨基苯甲醛(4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde,DEAB),建立维甲酸(retinoic acid,RA)缺乏的斑马鱼模型,探讨其对斑马鱼胚胎心脏发育的影响. 方法 在斑马鱼胚胎受精后5、8、10.3 h,分别用1×10~(-6),5×10~(-6)、10×10~(-6),25×10~(-6) mol/L的DEAB处理,在解剖显微镜下实时观察胚胎发育的全过程,在受精后5 h给予1×10~(-9) mol/L外源性RA干预,观察其对DEAB致畸的拮抗作用.通过胚胎心脏表型观察、心率和心室收缩分数比较以及心脏特异分子标记--心房利钠肽A基因整体原位杂交实验分析RA缺乏对胚胎心脏发育的影响. 结果 外源性DEAB处理后,胚胎生存率随着处理浓度增加而降低,随着处理时间点后移而升高.当DEAB浓度≥5×10~(-6) mol/L时,斑马鱼畸胎率为100%,异常表型一致,并能被1×10~(-9),mol/L外源性RA有效援救.RA缺乏时斑马鱼心脏表现出管状心脏、无向右环化或环化不完全、房室分化异常及房室管区血液反流.与野生型胚胎相比,DEAB处理后斑马鱼胚胎心率和心室收缩分数降低,心房利钠肽A基因表达改变,在心室部位表达清晰强烈,在心房部位表达明显减弱. 结论 DEAB影响胚胎发育有剂量依赖性和时效性,其致畸作用能被外源性RA有效拮抗.RA缺乏影响心脏早期发育的多个重要环节,导致心脏收缩功能受损.心脏心房利钠肽A基因表达受RA信号调控.%Objective To study the effect of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 inhibitor (4-diethylaminobenzaldehyde,DEAB) on embryonic CSrdiac develclpment of zebrafish model with retinoic acid(RA)deficiency. Methods Zebrafish embryos were treated with DEAB at various concentrations including 1×10~(-6),5×10~(-6),10×10~(-6),25×10~(-6)mol/L at 5,8 and 10.3 hours post fertilization,respectively.The effects of DEAB on the embryonic development were assessed under microscope.1×10

  10. Interactions between heparinoids and alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulíková, H; Valusová, E; Antalík, M

    1997-07-01

    The interaction between polysulfated polysaecharides (low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH, dextran sulfate DS and pentosan sulfate PS) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was investigated. The fluorescence and UV spectra of YADH after adding the tested polysaccharides have confirmed the interaction between the enzyme and these compounds. Kinetic studies have shown that LMWH, DS and PS are inhibitors of YADH (mixed type with respect to NAD). The most potent inhibitor is PS (ID50=37.5 ng/ml, Ki=0.6 muM). The inhibition effect depends on the ionic strength (the inhibition decreased by about 50% in the presence of 100 mM Na2SO4) and pH value (the inhibition decreased at pH>7). The results indicate that the inhibition effect of these polyanions is caused by their electrostatic interactions with the NAD-binding region of YADH.

  11. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  12. Metabolic Engineering of Mannitol Production in Lactococcus lactis: Influence of Overexpression of Mannitol 1-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Different Genetic Backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, H.W.; Mars, A.E.; Meer, van der P.; Eggink, G.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2004-01-01

    To obtain a mannitol-producing Lactococcus lactis strain, the mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) from Lactobacillus plantarum was overexpressed in a wild-type strain, a lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)-deficient strain, and a strain with reduced phosphofructokinase activity. High-performance l

  13. Requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic bacteroid differentiation of Rhizobium meliloti in alfalfa nodules.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiol, A E; Truchet, G L; Dazzo, F. B.

    1987-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the cellular morphologies of a wild-type Rhizobium meliloti strain (L5-30), a nitrogen fixation-ineffective (Fix-) succinate dehydrogenase mutant (Sdh-) strain, and a Fix+ Sdh+ revertant strain within alfalfa nodules and after free-living growth in a minimal medium containing 27 mM mannitol plus 20 mM succinate. The results showed a requirement of succinate dehydrogenase activity for symbiotic differentiation and maintenance of R. meliloti ba...

  14. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Valnês

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1 is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1. There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM. The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4 μM and 134 (± 21, respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670... Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A sorbitol dehydrogenase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase in...

  16. Microbial alcohol dehydrogenases: identification, characterization and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: alcohol dehydrogenase, laboratory evolution, rational protein engineering, Pyrococcus furiosus, biocatalysis, characterization, computational design, thermostability.   Alcohol dehydrogeases (ADHs) catalyze the interconversion of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. They display a wide variety

  17. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the skin on the palms and soles (hand-foot syndrome); shortness of breath; and hair loss may also ... dehydrogenase deficiency , with its early-onset neurological symptoms, is a rare disorder. Its prevalence is ...

  18. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitkus, Matthew S; Diplas, Bill H; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg(132) of IDH1 and Arg(172) of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy.

  19. Liver alcohol dehydrogenase immobilized on polyvinylidene difluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Bello, J F; Moreno de Vega, M A; Cachaza, J M; Kennedy, J F

    1990-01-01

    A physical method for immobilization of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) by hydrophobic adsorption onto a supporting membrane of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) was performed. Simultaneously, a physicochemical characterization of the immobilized enzyme regarding its kinetic behaviour was performed. The activity/pH profile observed points to an effect of pH on activity that is completely different from the case of ADH in solution. The disturbance in the typical bell-shaped profile owing to the fact that the enzyme was immobilized is explained on the basis of a potent limitation to the diffusion of the protons in the support. The findings of the present work also reveal the existence of an effect that limits free external diffusion of the substrate towards and/or the product from the support; this effect seems to be the determinant of the overall rate of the enzymatic reaction and is thus of great importance in the effective kinetic behaviour (v([S])) of immobilized ADH, whose kinetic behaviour is complex (non-Michaelian), as may be seen from the lack of linearity observed in the corresponding double reciprocal and Eadie-Hofstee plots. By non-linear regression numerical analysis of the v([S]) data and application of the F-test for model discrimination, the minimum rate equation necessary to describe the intrinsic kinetic behaviour of PVDF-immobilized ADH proved to be one of the polynomial quotient type of degree 2:2 (in substrate concentration).

  20. Characterization of two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenases from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kento; Nakanishi, Fumika; Tomita, Takeo; Akiyama, Nagisa; Lassak, Kerstin; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon, possesses two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase genes, saci_0600 and saci_2375, in its genome, which suggests that it uses these enzymes for three similar reactions in lysine biosynthesis through 2-aminoadipate, leucine biosynthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To elucidate their roles, these two genes were expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study and their gene products were characterized. Saci_0600 recognized 3-isopropylmalate as a substrate, but exhibited slight and no activity for homoisocitrate and isocitrate, respectively. Saci_2375 exhibited distinct and similar activities for isocitrate and homoisocitrate, but no detectable activity for 3-isopropylmalate. These results suggest that Saci_0600 is a 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase for leucine biosynthesis and Saci_2375 is a dual function enzyme serving as isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. The crystal structure of Saci_0600 was determined as a closed-form complex that binds 3-isopropylmalate and Mg(2+), thereby revealing the structural basis for the extreme thermostability and novel-type recognition of the 3-isopropyl moiety of the substrate.

  1. Protein structure similarity clustering and natural product structure as guiding principles for chemical genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M A; Waldmann, H

    2006-01-01

    The majority of all proteins are modularly built from a limited set of approximately 1,000 structural domains. The knowledge of a common protein fold topology in the ligand-sensing cores of protein domains can be exploited for the design of small-molecule libraries in the development of inhibitors and ligands. Thus, a novel strategy of clustering protein domain cores based exclusively on structure similarity considerations (protein structure similarity clustering, PSSC) has been successfully applied to the development of small-molecule inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases based on the structure of a naturally occurring Cdc25 inhibitor. The efficiency of making use of the scaffolds of natural products as biologically prevalidated starting points for the design of compound libraries is further highlighted by the development of benzopyran-based FXR ligands.

  2. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun-Hee [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Patel, Mulchand S., E-mail: mspatel@buffalo.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  3. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (-)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (-)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (-)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (-)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition.

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin;

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... were determined and it was found that lactate dehydrogenase exerted virtually no control on the glycolytic flux at the wild-type enzyme level and also not on the flux catalyzed by the enzyme itself, i.e. on the lactate production. As expected, the flux towards the mixed-acid products was strongly...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    Cellular toxicity and/or cell death entail complex mechanisms that require detailed evaluation for proper characterization. A detailed mechanistic assessment of cytotoxicity is essential for design and construction of more effective polycations for nucleic acid delivery. A single toxicity assay...... cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...

  6. Essential histidine residue in 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushita, Hiroyuki; Itagaki, Eiji; 板垣, 英治

    1992-01-01

    The variation with pH of kinetic parameters was examined for 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase from Nocardia corallina. The V(max)/K(m) profile for 4-androstenedione indicates that activity is lost upon protonation of a cationic acid-type group with a pK value of 7.7. The enzyme was inactivated by diethylpyrocarbonate at pH 7.4 and the inactivation was substantially prevented by androstadienedione. Analyses of reactivation with neutral hydroxylamine, pH variation, and spectral changes of the ina...

  7. Construction of Mutant Glucose Oxidases with Increased Dye-Mediated Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sode

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis studies on glucose oxidases (GOxs were conducted to construct GOxs with reduced oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity. We focused on two representative GOxs, of which crystal structures have already been reported—Penicillium amagasakiense GOx (PDB ID; 1gpe and Aspergillus niger GOx (PDB ID; 1cf3. We constructed oxygen-interacting structural models for GOxs, and predicted the residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen on the basis of the crystal structure of cholesterol oxidase as well as on the fact that both enzymes are members of the glucose/methanol/choline (GMC oxidoreductase family. Rational amino acid substitution resulted in the construction of an engineered GOx with drastically decreased oxidase activity and increased dehydrogenase activity, which was higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. As a result, the dehydrogenase/oxidase ratio of the engineered enzyme was more than 11-fold greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. These results indicate that alteration of the dehydrogenase/oxidase activity ratio of GOxs is possible by introducing a mutation into the putative functional residues responsible for oxidative half reaction with oxygen of these enzymes, resulting in a further increased dehydrogenase activity. This is the first study reporting the alteration of GOx electron acceptor preference from oxygen to an artificial electron acceptor.

  8. Serum lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes and serum hydroxy butyric dehydrogenase in myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanekar D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Total serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in cases of myocar-dial infarct is difficult to interpret as abnormal values can occur in diseases of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. The estimation of its isoenzymes is of better diagnostic help because of its tissue specificity. Serum LDH isoenzymes were studied in patients o f myocardial infarction and results are quantitated by densitometry. As LDH 1 represents serum hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase when 2-oxylbutyrate is used as substrate, serum hydroxybutyric dehydro-genase was also estimated in above patients. Greater specificity in diagnosis is achieved with SHBDH because of its myocardial nature and lower incidence of false positive results.

  9. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome.

  10. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems.

  11. Alcohol dehydrogenase – physiological and diagnostic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Łaniewska-Dunaj

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH is a polymorphic enzyme, existing in multiple isoenzymes divided into several classes and localized in different organs. ADH plays a significant role in the metabolism of many biologically important substances, catalyzing the oxidation or reduction of a wide spectrum of specific substrates. The best characterized function of ADH is protection against excess of ethanol and some other exogenous xenobiotics and products of lipid peroxidation. The isoenzymes of alcohol dehydrogenase also participate in the metabolism of retinol and serotonin. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity is significantly higher in cancer tissues than in healthy organs (e.g. liver, stomach, colorectum. The changes in activity of particular ADH isoenzymes in the sera of patients with different cancers (especially of the digestive system seem to be caused by release of these isoenzymes from cancer cells, and may play a potential role as markers of this cancer. The particular isoenzymes of ADH present in the serum may indicate the cancer localization. Alcohol dehydrogenase may also be useful for diagnostics of non-cancerous liver diseases (e.g. viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic cirrhosis.

  12. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently in

  13. CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE OF AN ELECTRON-TRANSFER COMPLEX BETWEEN METHYLAMINE DEHYDROGENASE AND AMICYANIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHEN, LY; DURLEY, R; POLIKS, BJ; HAMADA, K; CHEN, ZW; MATHEWS, FS; DAVIDSON, VL; SATOW, Y; HUIZINGA, E; VELLIEUX, FMD; HOL, WGJ

    1992-01-01

    The crystal structure of the complex between the quinoprotein methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and the type I blue copper protein amicyanin, both from Paracoccus denitrificans, has been determined at 2.5-angstrom resolution using molecular replacement. The search model was MADH from Thiobacillus ver

  14. NAD(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase 1 regulates methylglyoxal concentration in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Ku, MyungHee; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2014-04-02

    We purified a fraction that showed NAD(+)-linked methylglyoxal dehydrogenase activity, directly catalyzing methylglyoxal oxidation to pyruvate, which was significantly increased in glutathione-depleted Candida albicans. It also showed NADH-linked methylglyoxal-reducing activity. The fraction was identified as a NAD(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) through mass spectrometric analyses. In ADH1-disruptants of both the wild type and glutathione-depleted cells, the intracellular methylglyoxal concentration increased significantly; defects in growth, differentiation, and virulence were observed; and G2-phase arrest was induced.

  15. [Dihydropirymidine dehydrogenase (DPD)--a toxicity marker for 5-fluorouracil?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzychowska, Adriana; Dołegowska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In proceedings relating to patients suffering from cancer, an important step is predicting response and toxicity to treatment. Depending on the type of cancer, physicians use the generally accepted schema of treatment, for example pharmacotherapy. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most widely used anticancer drug in chemotherapy for colon, breast, and head and neck cancer. Patients with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which is responsible for the metabolism of 5-FU, may experience severe side effects during treatment, and even death. In many publications the need for determining the activity of DPD is discussed, which would protect the patient from the numerous side effects of treatment. However, in practice these assays are not done routinely, despite the high demand. In most cases, a genetic test is used to detect changes in the gene encoding DPD (such as in the USA), but because of the large number of mutations the genetic test cannot be used as a screening test. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity has been shown to have high variability among the general population, with an estimated proportion of at least 3-5% of individuals showing low or deficient DPD activity. In this publication we presents data about average dihydropirymidine dehydrogenase activity in various populations of the world (e.g. Japan, Ghana, Great Britain) including gender differences and collected information about the possibility of determination of DPD activity in different countries. Detection of reduced DPD activity in patients with planned chemotherapy will allow a lower dosage of 5-FU or alternative treatment without exposing them to adverse reactions.

  16. From obesity to diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, U

    2006-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing dramatically in the last decades in the whole world, not only in industrialized countries but also in developing areas. A major complication of obesity is insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is also rapidly increasing world-wide--reaching a prevalence in adults of approx. 5-6% in Central Europe and in the US, and more than 50% in specific, genetically prone populations. This article reviews pathogenetic mechanisms linking obesity and type 2 diabetes. Emphasis is placed on the observation that excessive amounts of adipocytes are associated with an impairment of insulin sensitivity, a key feature of the "metabolic syndrome". This is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia; all of them are enhanced by the presence of visceral (abdominal) obesity and all contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk observed in these patients. Besides release of free fatty acids, adipocytes secrete substances that contribute to peripheral insulin resistance, including adiponectin, resistin, TNF-alpha and interleukin 6. Increased turnover of free fatty acids interferes with intracellular metabolism of glucose in the muscle, and they exert lipotoxic effect on pancreatic beta-cells. The pre-receptor metabolism of cortisol is enhanced in visceral adipose tissue by activation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. A new class of anti-diabetic drugs (thiazolidinediones, or glitazones) bind to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) and lower thereby plasma free fatty acids and cytokine production in adipocytes, in addition to a decrease of resistin and an increase in adiponectin observed in animals, resulting in an overall increase in insulin sensitivity and in an improvement of glucose homeostasis. However, the first step to avoid insulin resistance and prevent the development of diabetes should be a reduction in body weight in overweight subjects, and an

  17. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  18. Class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase. Characterization of the hamster enzyme, sensitive to daidzin and conserved within the family of multiple forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmqvist, L; Lundgren, R; Norin, A; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B; Klyosov, A; Keung, W M

    1997-10-13

    Mitochondrial (class 2) hamster aldehyde dehydrogenase has been purified and characterized. Its primary structure has been determined and correlated with the tertiary structure recently established for this class from another species. The protein is found to represent a constant class within a complex family of multiple forms. Variable segments that occur in different species correlate with non-functional segments, in the same manner as in the case of the constant class of alcohol dehydrogenases (class III type) of another protein family, but distinct from the pattern of the corresponding variable enzymes. Hence, in both these protein families, overall variability and segment architectures behave similarly, with at least one 'constant' form in each case, class III in the case of alcohol dehydrogenases, and at least class 2 in the case of aldehyde dehydrogenases.

  19. Engineering of pyranose dehydrogenase for increased oxygen reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Krondorfer

    Full Text Available Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH, a member of the GMC family of flavoproteins, shows a very broad sugar substrate specificity but is limited to a narrow range of electron acceptors and reacts extremely slowly with dioxygen as acceptor. The use of substituted quinones or (organometals as electron acceptors is undesirable for many production processes, especially of food ingredients. To improve the oxygen reactivity, site-saturation mutagenesis libraries of twelve amino acids around the active site of Agaricus meleagris PDH were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We established high-throughput screening assays for oxygen reactivity and standard dehydrogenase activity using an indirect Amplex Red/horseradish peroxidase and a DCIP/D-glucose based approach. The low number of active clones confirmed the catalytic role of H512 and H556. Only one position was found to display increased oxygen reactivity. Histidine 103, carrying the covalently linked FAD cofactor in the wild-type, was substituted by tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine. Variant H103Y was produced in Pichia pastoris and characterized and revealed a five-fold increase of the oxygen reactivity.

  20. In Silico Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Peroxisomal 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro D. Fernández-Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available NADPH, whose regeneration is critical for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification pathways, is an essential component in cell redox homeostasis. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles with a complex biochemical machinery involved in signaling and stress processes by molecules such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. NADPH is required by several peroxisomal enzymes involved in β-oxidation, NO, and glutathione (GSH generation. Plants have various NADPH-generating dehydrogenases, one of which is 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH. Arabidopsis contains three 6PGDH genes that probably are encoded for cytosolic, chloroplastic/mitochondrial, and peroxisomal isozymes, although their specific functions remain largely unknown. This study focuses on the in silico analysis of the biochemical characteristics and gene expression of peroxisomal 6PGDH (p6PGDH with the aim of understanding its potential function in the peroxisomal NADPH-recycling system. The data show that a group of plant 6PGDHs contains an archetypal type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS, while in silico gene expression analysis using affymetrix microarray data suggests that Arabidopsis p6PGDH appears to be mainly involved in xenobiotic response, growth, and developmental processes.

  1. Effect of nutrient ingestion on total-body and splanchnic cortisol production in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rita; Singh, Ravinder; Basu, Ananda; Johnson, C M; Rizza, Robert A

    2006-03-01

    The splanchnic bed produces cortisol at rates approximating extraadrenal tissues by converting cortisone to cortisol via the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 pathway. It is not known whether splanchnic cortisol production is regulated by nutrient ingestion and/or by the accompanying changes in hormone secretion. To address this question, 18 healthy humans were randomized to ingest either a mixed meal or to receive an intravenous saline infusion while total-body, splanchnic, and D3 cortisol production (an index of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity) were measured using the combined hepatic catheterization and D4 cortisol infusion methods. Fasting glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ on the meal and saline study days. Glucose and insulin concentrations increased after meal ingestion, peaking at 11.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l and 451 +/- 64 pmol/l, respectively, at 45 min, then fell to baseline thereafter. In contrast, glucose and insulin concentrations slowly fell to 5.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/l and 27 +/- 6 pmol/l during the 6 h of observation on the saline study day. Fasting cortisol concentration did not differ on the meal and saline study days. Cortisol increased (P < 0.05) to a peak of 353 +/- 55 nmol/l after meal ingestion but did not change after saline infusion. The increase in cortisol after meal ingestion was associated with an increase in both total body cortisol (from 748 +/- 63 to 1,620 +/- 235 nmol/min; P < 0.01) and total body D3 cortisol (from 99 +/- 11 to 143 +/- 11 nmol/min; P < 0.01) production, whereas there was no change in either on the saline study day. The increase in total-body cortisol and D3 cortisol production after meal ingestion originated in extrasplanchnic tissues since splanchnic cortisol production (mean 0-360 min: 254 +/- 83 vs. 262 +/- 36 nmol/min) and splanchnic D3 cortisol production (mean 0-360 min: 72 +/- 22 vs. 77 +/- 14 nmol/min) did not differ on the meal and saline study days. We conclude that ingestion of a mixed

  2. Hybridizability of gamma-irradiated lactic dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.

    1976-03-01

    The hybridizabilities of the gamma-irradiated chicken heart and pig muscle lactic dehydrogenases were estimated by hybridizing the irradiated enzymes with the unirradiated pig heart lactic dehydrogenase. The disc gel electrophoretic patterns of the inter- and intraspecific hybrids showed that the LDH activity of the pig heart isozyme band increased as a function of dose. This observation was analyzed upon the binomial redistribution pattern of the recombined subunits. The result shows that the hybridizabilities of both the chicken heart and pig muscle isozymes decreased along with the loss of catalytic activity and the release from substrate inhibition. The titration of free SH groups of the irradiated chicken isozyme suggested that the unfolding of the peptide chain destroyed the specific tertiary structure needed for the binding of subunits. (auth)

  3. Purification of arogenate dehydrogenase from Phenylobacterium immobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, E; Waldner-Sander, S; Keller, B; Keller, E; Lingens, F

    1985-01-07

    Phenylobacterium immobile, a bacterium which is able to degrade the herbicide chloridazon, utilizes for L-tyrosine synthesis arogenate as an obligatory intermediate which is converted in the final biosynthetic step by a dehydrogenase to tyrosine. This enzyme, the arogenate dehydrogenase, has been purified for the first time in a 5-step procedure to homogeneity as confirmed by electrophoresis. The Mr of the enzyme that consists of two identical subunits amounts to 69000 as established by gel electrophoresis after cross-linking the enzyme with dimethylsuberimidate. The Km values were 0.09 mM for arogenate and 0.02 mM for NAD+. The enzyme has a high specificity with respect to its substrate arogenate.

  4. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Benjamin R; Voss, Jesse S; Kerr, Sarah E; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Graham, Rondell P; Zhang, Lizhi; Highsmith, W Edward; Zhang, Jun; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Halling, Kevin C

    2012-10-01

    Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are common in gliomas and help stratify patients with brain cancer into histologic and molecular subtypes. However, these mutations are considered rare in other solid tumors. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in cholangiocarcinoma and to assess histopathologic differences between specimens with and without an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. We sequenced 94 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cholangiocarcinoma (67 intrahepatic and 27 extrahepatic) assessing for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (codon 132) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (codons 140 and 172) mutations. Multiple histopathologic characteristics were also evaluated and compared with isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutation status. Of the 94 evaluated specimens, 21 (22%) had a mutation including 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (28% versus 7%, respectively; P = .030). The 14 isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations were R132C (n = 9), R132S (n = 2), R132G (n = 2), and R132L (n = 1). The 7 isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutations were R172K (n = 5), R172M (n = 1), and R172G (n = 1). Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations were more frequently observed in tumors with clear cell change (P < .001) and poorly differentiated histology (P = .012). The results of this study show for the first time that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 genes are mutated in cholangiocarcinoma. The results of this study are encouraging because it identifies a new potential target for genotype-directed therapeutic trials and may represent a potential biomarker for earlier detection of cholangiocarcinoma in a subset of cases.

  5. Improved production of propionic acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via combinational overexpression of glycerol dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Chen, Rachel R; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA.

  6. Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and psychotic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mr. T, a 28-year-old unmarried male, a diagnosed case of Glucose-6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency since childhood, presented with 13 years of psychotic illness and disturbed biological functions. He showed poor response to antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and had three prior admissions to Psychiatry. There was a family history of psychotic illness. The General Physical Examination and Systemic Examination were unremarkable. Mental Status Examination revealed increased psychomotor activity, pressure of speech, euphoric affect, prolixity, delusion of persecution, delusion of grandiosity, delusion of control, thought withdrawal and thought insertion, and second and third person auditory hallucinations, with impaired judgment and insight. A diagnosis of schizophrenia paranoid type, with a differential diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder manic subtype, was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and atypicality of clinical presentation, as well as a course of psychotic illness in the G6PD Deficiency state,with its implications on management.

  7. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  8. Effects of proportions of dietary macronutrients on glucocorticoid metabolism in diet-induced obesity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland H Stimson

    Full Text Available Tissue glucocorticoid levels in the liver and adipose tissue are regulated by regeneration of inactive glucocorticoid by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1 and inactivation by 5alpha- and 5beta-reductases. A low carbohydrate diet increases hepatic 11beta-HSD1 and reduces glucocorticoid metabolism during weight loss in obese humans. We hypothesized that similar variations in macronutrient proportions regulate glucocorticoid metabolism in obese rats. Male Lister Hooded rats were fed an obesity-inducing ad libitum 'Western' diet (37% fat, n = 36 for 22 weeks, then randomised to continue this diet (n = 12 or to switch to either a low carbohydrate (n = 12 or a moderate carbohydrate (n = 12 diet for the final 8 weeks. A parallel lean control group were fed an ad libitum control diet (10% fat, n = 12 throughout. The low and moderate carbohydrate diets decreased hepatic 11beta-HSD1 mRNA compared with the Western diet (both 0.7+/-0.0 vs 0.9+/-0.1 AU; p<0.01, but did not alter 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue. 5Alpha-reductase mRNA was increased on the low carbohydrate compared with the moderate carbohydrate diet. Compared with lean controls, the Western diet decreased 11beta-HSD1 activity (1.6+/-0.1 vs 2.8+/-0.1 nmol/mcg protein/hr; p<0.001 and increased 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase mRNAs (1.9+/-0.3 vs 1.0+/-0.2 and 1.6+/-0.1 vs 1.0+/-0.1 AU respectively; p<0.01 in the liver, and reduced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity (both p<0.01 in adipose tissue. Although an obesity-inducing high fat diet in rats recapitulates the abnormal glucocorticoid metabolism associated with human obesity in liver (but not in adipose tissue, a low carbohydrate diet does not increase hepatic 11beta-HSD1 in obese rats as occurs in humans.

  9. Structure of a bacterial enzyme regulated by phosphorylation, isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase [threo-DS-isocitrate: NADP+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating), EC 1.1.1.42] from Escherichia coli has been solved and refined at 2.5 A resolution and is topologically different from that of any other dehydrogenase. This enzyme, a dimer of identical 416-residue subunits, is inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-113, which lies at the edge of an interdomain pocket that also contains many residues conserved between isocitrate dehydrogenase and isopropylma...

  10. Malate dehydrogenase: a model for structure, evolution, and catalysis.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases are widely distributed and alignment of the amino acid sequences show that the enzyme has diverged into 2 main phylogenetic groups. Multiple amino acid sequence alignments of malate dehydrogenases also show that there is a low degree of primary structural similarity, apart from in several positions crucial for nucleotide binding, catalysis, and the subunit interface. The 3-dimensional structures of several malate dehydrogenases are similar, despite their low amino acid s...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the...

  12. Placental glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Paik, S G; Park, H Y

    1994-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated in 300 Korean placentae using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The allele frequencies for GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3 were 0.537, 0.440 and 0.005, respectively, which were similar to those in Japanese. We also observed an anodal allele which was similar to the GDH4 originally reported in Chinese populations at a low frequency of 0.015. An additional new cathodal allele (named GDH6) was observed in the present study with a very low frequency of 0.003.

  13. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  14. Molecular determinants of the cofactor specificity of ribitol dehydrogenase, a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha;

    2012-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmRDH) catalyzes the conversion of ribitol to d-ribulose and concomitantly reduces NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H. A systematic approach involving an initial sequence alignment-based residue screening, followed by a homology model-based screening and site...

  15. Peculiarities of the inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by thiamine thiazolone diphosphate in vitro and in intact mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovleva, G.M.; Strumilo, S.A.; Gorenshtein, B.I.; Ostrovskii, Yu.M.

    1986-07-10

    Thiamine thiazolone diphosphate (TTPP) possesses the ability to penetrate through the mitochondrial membrane and inhibit the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in intact mitochondria, TTPP inhibits the activity of the complex of animal origin according to a mixed type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -8/ M) and yeast pyruvate decarboxylase according to a competitive type (K/sub i/ 5 x 10/sup -6/ M) with respect to thiamine diphosphate (TPP). Decarboxylation of pyruvate in intact and lysed rat liver and brain mitochondria is inhibited in the presence of TTPP significantly more weakly than the total activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, determined according to the formation of acetyl-CoA. It is suggested that TTPP, as an analog of the transition state, acts only in dehydrogenase reactions but not at the stage of simple decarboxylation of pyruvate.

  16. Redesigning the substrate specificity of an enzyme: isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S A; Fung, S Y; Koshland, D E

    2000-11-21

    Despite the structural similarities between isocitrate and isopropylmalate, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) exhibits a strong preference for its natural substrate. Using a combination of rational and random mutagenesis, we have engineered IDH to use isopropylmalate as a substrate. Rationally designed mutations were based on comparison of IDH to a similar enzyme, isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH). A chimeric enzyme that replaced an active site loop-helix motif with IPMDH sequences exhibited no activity toward isopropylmalate, and site-directed mutants that replaced IDH residues with their IPMDH equivalents only showed small improvements in k(cat). Random mutants targeted the IDH active site at positions 113 (substituted with glutamate), 115, and 116 (both randomized) and were screened for activity toward isopropylmalate. Six mutants were identified that exhibited up to an 8-fold improvement in k(cat) and increased the apparent binding affinity by as much as a factor of 80. In addition to the S113E mutation, five other mutants contained substitutions at positions 115 and/or 116. Most small hydrophobic substitutions at position 116 improved activity, possibly by generating space to accommodate the isopropyl group of isopropylmalate; however, substitution with serine yielded the most improvement in k(cat). Only two substitutions were identified at position 115, which suggests a more specific role for the wild-type asparagine residue in the utilization of isopropylmalate. Since interactions between neighboring residues in this region greatly influenced the effects of each other in unexpected ways, structural solutions were best identified in combinations, as allowed by random mutagenesis.

  17. Oxidative stress and bovine liver diseases: Role of glutathione peroxidase and glucose6‐phosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Ellah, Mahmoud Rushdi; OKADA, Keiji; Yasuda, Jun

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the different types of free radicals, antioxidants and the effect of oxidative stress on the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glucose6‐phosphate dehydrogenase in bovine liver diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that the formation of reactive oxygen species is a common occurrence associated with most if not all disease processes. The overall importance of reactive oxygen species to the progression and severity of various disease state...

  18. Dimerization and enzymatic activity of fungal 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan Katja

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR superfamily. SDR proteins usually function as dimers or tetramers and 17β-HSDcl is also a homodimer under native conditions. Results We have investigated here which secondary structure elements are involved in the dimerization of 17β-HSDcl and examined the importance of dimerization for the enzyme activity. Sequence similarity with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea indicated that Arg129 and His111 from the αE-helices interact with the Asp121, Glu117 and Asp187 residues from the αE and αF-helices of the neighbouring subunit. The Arg129Asp and His111Leu mutations both rendered 17β-HSDcl monomeric, while the mutant 17β-HSDcl-His111Ala was dimeric. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conservation of the secondary structure in both monomers. The three mutant proteins all bound coenzyme, as shown by fluorescence quenching in the presence of NADP+, but both monomers showed no enzymatic activity. Conclusion We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis and structure/function analysis that 17β-HSDcl dimerization involves the αE and αF helices of both subunits. Neighbouring subunits are connected through hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds and salt bridges involving amino acid residues His111 and Arg129. Since the substitutions of these two amino acid residues lead to inactive monomers with conserved secondary structure, we suggest dimerization is a prerequisite for catalysis. A detailed understanding of this dimerization could lead to the development of compounds that will specifically prevent dimerization, thereby serving as a new type of inhibitor.

  19. Studies on the structure and function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, de R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to obtain more information of the structure and function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.In chapter 2 a survey is given of the recent literature on pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes.In chapter 3 results

  20. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  1. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  2. Stability of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooshima, H.; Genko, Y.; Harano, Y.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of substrate on stabilities of native (NA) and three kinds of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (IMA), namely PGA (the carrier; porous glass), SEA (agarose gel) prepared covalently, and AMA (anion-exchange resin) prepared ionically, were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) The deactivations of NA and IMA free from the substrate or in the presence of ethanol obey the first-order kinetics, whereas, in the presence of butyraldehyde, their deactivation behaviors are explained on the basis of coexistence of two components of YADHs, namely the labile E1 and the comparatively stable E2, with different first-order deactivation constants. (2) A few attempts for stabilization of IMA were carried out from the viewpoint of the effects of crosslinkages among the subunits of YADH for PGA and the multibonding between the carrier and enzyme for SEA. The former is effective for the stabilization, whereas the latter is not. (Refs. 19).

  3. Optimization of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-04-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently influence the immobilization efficiency, expressed in terms of residual activity and protein loading. Residual activity of 79% was achieved with ADH from bakers' yeast (YADH) after optimizing the immobilization parameters. A step-wise drying process has been found to be more effective than one-step drying. A hypothesis of deactivation through bubble nucleation during drying of the enzyme/glass bead suspension at low drying pressure (300% residual activity was found after drying. Hyperactivation of the enzyme is probably caused by structural changes in the enzyme molecule during the drying process. ADH from Thermoanaerobacter species (ADH T) is found to be stable under drying conditions (>15 kPa) in contrast to LBADH and YADH.

  4. Untangling the glutamate dehydrogenase allosteric nightmare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Stanley, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all living organisms, but only animal GDH is regulated by a large repertoire of metabolites. More than 50 years of research to better understand the mechanism and role of this allosteric network has been frustrated by its sheer complexity. However, recent studies have begun to tease out how and why this complex behavior evolved. Much of GDH regulation probably occurs by controlling a complex ballet of motion necessary for catalytic turnover and has evolved concomitantly with a long antenna-like feature of the structure of the enzyme. Ciliates, the 'missing link' in GDH evolution, might have created the antenna to accommodate changing organelle functions and was refined in humans to, at least in part, link amino acid catabolism with insulin secretion.

  5. Handling of human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) variant proteins in transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Peter M; Pedersen, Christina B; Schmidt, Stine P;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the in vivo handling of human short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) variant proteins, three transgenic mouse lines were produced by pronuclear injection of cDNA encoding the wild-type, hSCAD-wt, and two disease causing folding variants hSCAD-319C > T and hSCAD-625G > A...

  6. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  7. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.;

    2004-01-01

    (P)H dehydrogenases, was introduced into Nicotiana sylvestris. Transgenic lines with high transcript and protein levels for St-NDB1 had up to threefold increased activity of external NADPH dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria as compared to the wild type (WT). In two lines, the external NADPH dehydrogenase activity...... for NADPH and dependent on calcium for activity. Transgenic lines overexpressing St-ndb1 had specifically increased protein levels for alternative oxidase and uncoupling protein, as compared to the WT and one co-suppressing line. This indicates cross-talk in the expressional control, or metabolic conditions...... influencing it, for the different categories of energy-dissipating proteins that bypass oxidative phosphorylation. The potential effects of external NADPH oxidation on other cellular processes are discussed....

  8. Effect of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seung Yong; Han, Song-Iy; Bae, Chun Sik; Cho, Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul

    2015-06-01

    PGE2 is an important mediator of wound healing. It is degraded and inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Various growth factors, type IV collagen, TIMP-2 and PGE2 are important mediators of inflammation involving wound healing. Overproduction of TGF-β and suppression of PGE2 are found in excessive wound scarring. If we make the condition downregulating growth factors and upregulating PGE2, the wound will have a positive effect which results in little scar formation after healing. TD88 is a 15-PGDH inhibitor based on thiazolinedione structure. We evaluated the effect of TD88 on wound healing. In 10 guinea pigs (4 control and 6 experimental groups), we made four 1cm diameter-sized circular skin defects on each back. TD88 and vehicle were applicated on the wound twice a day for 4 days in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Tissue samples were harvested for qPCR and histomorphometric analyses on the 2nd and 4th day after treatment. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant reepithelization in the experimental group. qPCR analysis showed significant decrease of PDGF, CTGF and TIMP-2, but significant increase of type IV collagen in the experimental group. Taken together TD88 could be a good effector on wound healing, especially in the aspects of prevention of scarring.

  9. Acute overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A perturbs beta-cell mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, E K; Zhao, C; Rutter, G A

    2000-07-01

    Islet beta-cells express low levels of lactate dehydrogenase and have high glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase activity. To determine whether this configuration favors oxidative glucose metabolism via mitochondria in the beta-cell and is important for beta-cell metabolic signal transduction, we have determined the effects on glucose metabolism and insulin secretion of acute overexpression of the skeletal muscle isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-A. Monitored in single MIN6 beta-cells, LDH hyperexpression (achieved by intranuclear cDNA microinjection or adenoviral infection) diminished the response to glucose of both phases of increases in mitochondrial NAD(P)H, as well as increases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic free ATP, and cystolic free Ca2+. These effects were observed at all glucose concentrations, but were most pronounced at submaximal glucose levels. Correspondingly, adenoviral vector-mediated LDH-A overexpression reduced insulin secretion stimulated by 11 mmol/l glucose and the subsequent response to stimulation with 30 mmol/l glucose, but it was without significant effect when the concentration of glucose was raised acutely from 3 to 30 mmol/l. Thus, overexpression of LDH activity interferes with normal glucose metabolism and insulin secretion in the islet beta-cell type, and it may therefore be directly responsible for insulin secretory defects in some forms of type 2 diabetes. The results also reinforce the view that glucose-derived pyruvate metabolism in the mitochondrion is critical for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the beta-cell.

  10. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii.

  11. Cell wall-associated malate dehydrogenase activity from maize roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović, Vesna; Vuletić, Mirjana; Marković, Ksenija; Vučinić, Zeljko

    2011-10-01

    Isolated cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) roots exhibited ionically and covalently bound NAD-specific malate dehydrogenase activity. The enzyme catalyses a rapid reduction of oxaloacetate and much slower oxidation of malate. The kinetic and regulatory properties of the cell wall enzyme solubilized with 1M NaCl were different from those published for soluble, mitochondrial or plasma membrane malate dehydrogenase with respect to their ATP, Pi, and pH dependence. Isoelectric focusing of ionically-bound proteins and specific staining for malate dehydrogenase revealed characteristic isoforms present in cell wall isolate, different from those present in plasma membranes and crude homogenate. Much greater activity of cell wall-associated malate dehydrogenase was detected in the intensively growing lateral roots compared to primary root with decreased growth rates. Presence of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) in the assay medium inhibited the activity of the wall-associated malate dehydrogenase. Exposure of maize plants to excess concentrations of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) in the hydroponic solution inhibited lateral root growth, decreased malate dehydrogenase activity and changed isoform profiles. The results presented show that cell wall malate dehydrogenase is truly a wall-bound enzyme, and not an artefact of cytoplasmic contamination, involved in the developmental processes, and detoxification of heavy metals.

  12. Metabolism of excised embryos of Lupinus luteus L. VI. An electrophoretic analysis of some dehydrogenases in cultured embryos as compared with the normal seedling axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czosnowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrophoretic patterns (disc electrophoresis of the studied dehydrogenases: glucose-6-phosphate - (A, malate - (B, glutamate - (C, alcohol - (D and lactate dehydrogenase (E, in the axial organs of isolated Lupinus luteus embryos and seedlings cultivated over 12 days are characterized by great similarities. With time, after the third day of cultivation the patterns begin to become less deyeloped. Analyses performed during the first 10 hours of imbibition of seed parts indicate that the maximal development of isozyme patterns occurs during the third hour after which the patterns become poorer. The most uniform type of pattern. and the lowest number of isozymes was shown by glutamate dehydrogenase, the richest pattern was shown by malate dehydrogenase. No band common for a 11 the 27 experimental elements was found.

  13. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Franco De Rose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  14. Complex formation between malate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis is regulated by tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomae, Maike; Meyer, Frederik M; Commichau, Fabian M; Burkovski, Andreas; Hillen, Wolfgang; Seidel, Gerald

    2014-02-01

    In Bacillus subtilis, recent in vivo studies revealed that particular enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle form complexes that allow an efficient transfer of metabolites. Remarkably, a complex of the malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) (EC 1.1.1.37) with isocitrate dehydrogenase (Icd) (EC 1.1.1.42) was identified, although both enzymes do not catalyze subsequent reactions. In the present study, the interactions between these enzymes were characterized in vitro by surface plasmon resonance in the absence and presence of their substrates and cofactors. These analyses revealed a weak but specific interaction between Mdh and Icd, which was specifically stimulated by a mixture of substrates and cofactors of Icd: isocitrate, NADP(+) and Mg(2+). Wild-type Icd converted these substrates too fast, preventing any valid quantitative analysis of the interaction with Mdh. Therefore, binding of the IcdS104P mutant to Mdh was quantified because the mutation reduced the enzymatic activity by 174-fold but did not affect the stimulatory effect of substrates and cofactors on Icd-Mdh complex formation. The analysis of the unstimulated Mdh-IcdS104P interaction revealed kinetic constants of k(a) = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10(2) m(-1) ·s(-1) and k(d) = 1.0 ± 0.1 × 10(-3) ·s(-1) and a K(D) value of 5.0 ± 0.1 μm. Addition of isocitrate, NADP(+) and Mg(2+) stimulated the affinity of IcdS104P to Mdh by 33-fold (K(D) = 0.15 ± 0.01 μm, k(a) = 1.7 ± 0.7 × 10(3) m(-1) ·s(-1), k(d) = 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10(-4) ·s(-1)). Analyses of the enzymatic activities of wild-type Icd and Mdh showed that Icd activity doubles in the presence of Mdh, whereas Mdh activity was slightly reduced by Icd. In summary, these data indicate substrate control of complex formation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolon assembly and maintenance of the α-ketoglutarate supply for amino acid anabolism in vivo.

  15. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  16. Immunochemical properties of NAD+-linked glycerol dehydrogenases from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, J C; Forage, R G; Lin, E C

    1982-01-01

    An NAD+-linked glycerol dehydrogenase hyperproduced by a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 was found to be immunochemically homologous to a minor glycerol dehydrogenase of unknown physiological function in Klebsiella pneumoniae 1033, but not to the glycerol dehydrogenase of the dha system responsible for anaerobic dissimilation of glycerol or to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase of K. pneumoniae.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzyme is involved in the normal processing of carbohydrates. It also protects red blood cells from the ... of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or alter its structure, this enzyme can no longer play its protective ...

  19. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  20. Formaldehyde degradation in Corynebacterium glutamicum involves acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmeier, Lennart; Hoefener, Michael; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium belonging to the actinomycetes, is able to degrade formaldehyde but the enzyme(s) involved in this detoxification process were not known. Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Ald, which is essential for ethanol utilization, and FadH, characterized here as NAD-linked mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, were shown to be responsible for formaldehyde oxidation since a mutant lacking ald and fadH could not oxidize formaldehyde resulting in the inability to grow when formaldehyde was added to the medium. Moreover, C. glutamicum ΔaldΔfadH did not grow with vanillate, a carbon source giving rise to intracellular formaldehyde. FadH from C. glutamicum was purified from recombinant Escherichia coli and shown to be active as a homotetramer. Mycothiol-dependent formaldehyde oxidation revealed Km values of 0.6 mM for mycothiol and 4.3 mM for formaldehyde and a Vmax of 7.7 U mg(-1). FadH from C. glutamicum also possesses zinc-dependent, but mycothiol-independent alcohol dehydrogenase activity with a preference for short chain primary alcohols such as ethanol (Km = 330 mM, Vmax = 9.6 U mg(-1)), 1-propanol (Km = 150 mM, Vmax = 5 U mg(-1)) and 1-butanol (Km = 50 mM, Vmax = 0.8 U mg(-1)). Formaldehyde detoxification system by Ald and mycothiol-dependent FadH is essential for tolerance of C. glutamicum to external stress by free formaldehyde in its habitat and for growth with natural substrates like vanillate, which are metabolized with concomitant release of formaldehyde.

  1. Lactic dehydrogenase and cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Daniele; Calogero, Armando; Naviglio, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the intense scientific efforts made, there are still many tumors that are difficult to treat and the percentage of patient survival in the long-term is still too low. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of cancer are needed. Cancer is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease, whose development requires a reorganization of cell metabolism. Most tumor cells downregulate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increase the rate of glucose consumption and lactate release, independently of oxygen availability (Warburg effect). This metabolic rewiring is largely believed to favour tumor growth and survival, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Importantly, the correlation between the aerobic glycolysis and cancer is widely regarded as a useful biochemical basis for the development of novel anticancer strategies. Among the enzymes involved in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is emerging as a very attractive target for possible pharmacological approaches in cancer therapy. This review addresses the state of the art and the perspectives concerning LDH both as a useful diagnostic marker and a relevant molecular target in cancer therapy and management.

  2. Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A; Burgan, Michelle F; De Kee, Danny W; Li, Tang; Aris, John P; Benner, Steven A

    2005-06-01

    Modern yeast living in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348) amino acids. As many microorganisms cannot grow in ethanol, accumulated ethanol may help yeast defend resources in the fruit. We report here the resurrection of the last common ancestor of Adh1 and Adh2, called Adh(A). The kinetic behavior of Adh(A) suggests that the ancestor was optimized to make (not consume) ethanol. This is consistent with the hypothesis that before the Adh1-Adh2 duplication, yeast did not accumulate ethanol for later consumption but rather used Adh(A) to recycle NADH generated in the glycolytic pathway. Silent nucleotide dating suggests that the Adh1-Adh2 duplication occurred near the time of duplication of several other proteins involved in the accumulation of ethanol, possibly in the Cretaceous age when fleshy fruits arose. These results help to connect the chemical behavior of these enzymes through systems analysis to a time of global ecosystem change, a small but useful step towards a planetary systems biology.

  3. COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES OF THE KINETIC ISOTOPE EFFECT INMETHYLAMINE DEHYDROGENASE

    OpenAIRE

    Kopec-Harding, Kamilla Rosa

    2012-01-01

    There is currently experimental evidence of hydrogen tunnelling in over 20 different enzymes include yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH), morphinone reductase (MR) and methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). Various models have been used to describe hydrogen tunnelling in enzymes including the static barrier model, the vibrationally enhanced ground state tunnelling model (VEGST) and the environmentally coupled tunnelling model (ECT). Despite some differences in these models, there is a general cons...

  4. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  5. Daidzin: a potent, selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-I) is potently, reversibly, and selectively inhibited by an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae and identified as daidzin, the 7-glucoside of 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone. Kinetic analysis with formaldehyde as substrate reveals that daidzin inhibits ALDH-I competitively with respect to formaldehyde with a Ki of 40 nM, and uncompetitively with respect to the coenzyme NAD+. The human cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDH-II) is nearly 3...

  6. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavaty, Andrei S; Rich, Rebecca L; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R; Myszka, David G; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2015-05-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD(+), NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.

  7. α -Ketoglutarate accumulation is not dependent on isocitrate dehydrogenase activity during tellurite detoxification in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Claudia A; Appanna, Vasu D; Vásquez, Claudio C

    2013-01-01

    Tellurite is toxic to most microorganisms because of its ability to generate oxidative stress. However, the way in which tellurite interferes with cellular processes is not fully understood to date. In this line, it was previously shown that tellurite-exposed cells displayed reduced activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (α-KGDH), which resulted in α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) accumulation. In this work, we assessed if α-KG accumulation in tellurite-exposed E. coli could also result from increased isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities, both enzymes involved in α-KG synthesis. Unexpectedly both activities were found to decrease in the presence of the toxicant, an observation that seems to result from the decreased transcription of icdA and gdhA genes (encoding ICDH and GDH, resp.). Accordingly, isocitrate levels were found to increase in tellurite-exposed E. coli. In the presence of the toxicant, cells lacking icdA or gdhA exhibited decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and higher tellurite sensitivity as compared to the wild type strain. Finally, a novel branch activity of ICDH as tellurite reductase is presented.

  8. Coulometric bioelectrocatalytic reactions based on NAD-dependent dehydrogenases in tricarboxylic acid cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Jun [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tsujimura, Seiya [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kano, Kenji [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: kkano@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2008-12-30

    This paper describes the characterization of mediated electro-enzymatic electrolysis systems based on NAD-dependent dehydrogenase reactions in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. A micro-bulk electrolysis system with a carbon felt anode immersed in an electrolysis solution with a value of about 10 {mu}L was constructed for coulometric analysis of the substrate oxidation. Diaphorase (DI) was used to couple the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase reaction with the anode reaction of a suitable redox mediator. We focused on three types of NAD-dependant dehydrogenases reactions in this research: (1) isocitrate oxidation, in which the standard Gibbs energy change ({delta}G{sup o}') is negative; (2) {alpha}-ketoglutarate oxidation, which involves an electrochemically active coenzyme A (CoA); and (3) malate oxidation, which is thermodynamically unfavorable because of a large positive {delta}G{sup o}' value. The complete electrolysis of isocitrate was easily achieved, supporting the effective re-oxidation of NADH in the diaphorase-catalyzed electrochemical reaction. CoA was unfavorably oxidized at the electrodes in the presence of some mediators. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CoA was suppressed and the quantitative electrochemical oxidation of {alpha}-ketoglutarate was achieved by selecting a suitable mediator with negligibly slow electron transfer kinetics with CoA. The uphill malate oxidation was susceptible to product inhibition in the bioelectrochemical system, although NADH generated in the malate dehydrogenase reaction was immediately oxidized in the electrochemical system. The inhibition was successfully suppressed by linking citrate synthase to quench oxaloacetate and to make the total {delta}G{sup o}' value negative.

  9. Effects of deletion of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase genes on glycerol and ethanol metabolism in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Chin, Young-Wook; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Bioethanol is currently used as an alternative fuel for gasoline worldwide. For economic production of bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formation of a main by-product, glycerol, should be prevented or minimized in order to reduce a separation cost of ethanol from fermentation broth. In this study, S. cerevisiae was engineered to investigate the effects of the sole and double disruption of NADH-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) and NADPH-requiring glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1) on the production of glycerol and ethanol from glucose. Even though sole deletion of GPD1 or GDH1 reduced glycerol production, double deletion of GPD1 and GDH1 resulted in the lowest glycerol concentration of 2.31 g/L, which was 46.4% lower than the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the recombinant S. cerevisiae ∆GPD1∆GDH1 strain showed a slight improvement in ethanol yield (0.414 g/g) compared with the wild-type strain (0.406 g/g). Genetic engineering of the glycerol and glutamate metabolic pathways modified NAD(P)H-requiring metabolic pathways and exerted a positive effect on glycerol reduction without affecting ethanol production.

  10. Identification of Hedgehog pathway responsive glioblastomas by isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Valadez, J; Grover, Vandana K; Carter, Melissa D; Calcutt, M Wade; Abiria, Sunday A; Lundberg, Christopher J; Williams, Thomas V; Cooper, Michael K

    2013-01-28

    The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates the growth of a subset of adult gliomas and better definition of Hh-responsive subtypes could enhance the clinical utility of monitoring and targeting this pathway in patients. Somatic mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes occur frequently in WHO grades II and III gliomas and WHO grade IV secondary glioblastomas. Hh pathway activation in WHO grades II and III gliomas suggests that it might also be operational in glioblastomas that developed from lower-grade lesions. To evaluate this possibility and to better define the molecular and histopathological glioma subtypes that are Hh-responsive, IDH genes were sequenced in adult glioma specimens assayed for an operant Hh pathway. The proportions of grades II-IV specimens with IDH mutations correlated with the proportions that expressed elevated levels of the Hh gene target PTCH1. Indices of an operational Hh pathway were measured in all primary cultures and xenografts derived from IDH-mutant glioma specimens, including IDH-mutant glioblastomas. In contrast, the Hh pathway was not operational in glioblastomas that lacked IDH mutation or history of antecedent lower-grade disease. IDH mutation is not required for an operant pathway however, as significant Hh pathway modulation was also measured in grade III gliomas with wild-type IDH sequences. These results indicate that the Hh pathway is operational in grades II and III gliomas and glioblastomas with molecular or histopathological evidence for evolvement from lower-grade gliomas. Lastly, these findings suggest that gliomas sharing this molecularly defined route of progression arise in Hh-responsive cell types.

  11. Properties and subunit structure of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, M; Hiraoka, T; Koike, K; Ogasahara, K; Kanzaki, T

    1976-06-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase [EC 1.2.4.1] was separated from the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 150,000 by sedimentation equilibrium methods. The enzyme was dissociated into two subunits (alpha and beta), with estimated molecular weights of 41,000 (alpha) and 36,000 (beta), respectively, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunits were separated by phosphocellulose column chromatography and their chemical properties were examined. The subunit structure of the pyruvate dehydrogenase was assigned as alpha2beta2. The content of right-handed alpha-helix in the enzyme molecule was estimated to be about 29 and 28% by optical rotatory dispersion and by circular dichroism, respectively. The enzyme contained no thiamine-PP, and its dehydrogenase activity was completely dependent on added thiamine-PP and partially dependent on added Mg2+ and Ca2+. The Km value of pyruvate dehydrogenase for thiamine diphosphate was estimated to be 6.5 X 10(-5) M in the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+. The enzyme showed highly specific activity for thiamine-PP dependent oxidation of both pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate, but it also showed some activity with alpha-ketovalerate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, and alpha-ketoisovalerate. The pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was strongly inhibited by bivalent heavy metal ions and by sulfhydryl inhibitors; and the enzyme molecule contained 27 moles of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)-reactive sulfhydryl groups and a total of 36 moles of sulfhydryl groups. The inhibitory effect of p-chloromercuribenzoate was prevented by preincubating the enzyme with thiamine-PP plus pyruvate. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase necessary for formation of the complex is also reported.

  12. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 on hippocampus of rat with chronic unpredictable mild stress%11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶-1在慢性温和应激抑郁大鼠海马组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程世翔; 涂悦; 张赛; 文立; 刘晓智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 ( 11 β-HSD1 )on hippocampus of rat with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS).Methods Twenty-four male SpragueDawley rats were randomly divided into control group and depressive model group. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to make up depressive animal model.Behavioral changes were recorded by body weight measuring,sucrose consumption test (SCT) and open field test (OFT),respectively.The mRNA transcription of 11β-HSD1 in hippocampus tissues of the rats were detected by real-time RT-PCR,and the protein expression of 11β-HSD1 were detected by western blot and immunofluorescence.Results Bcforc starting CUMS protocol,the rats exhibited equivalent weight and sucrose consumption.Twenty-eight days after CUMS protocol,behavior parameters such as body weight,sucrose consumption,nunber of crossing,and number of rearing were significantly decreased in rats exposed to CUMS group compared with control group (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ).Correspondingly,realtime RT-PCR assays showed the mRNA expression of 11 β-HSD1 in the hippocampus of CUMS group,which was (31 ±9) % lower than that of control group.Meanwhile,the protein expression of it in CUMS group was lower than that of control group (P < 0.05 ).Inmunofluorescence revealed that the number of positive 11 3-HSD1 cells was high (223 ± 13) in the control group,while the number was decreased prominently (92 ± 11 ) in the CUMS group (P < 0.01 ).Conclusion Depressive behavior of rats is induced and the expression of 11 β-HSD1 in the hippocampus is decreased prominently by CUMS,the mechanism of which is at least related to the low expression of 11β-HSD1 and disturbance of glucocorticoid metabolism caused by CUMS.%目的 应用慢性温和不可预知刺激( CUMS)建立抑郁症动物模型,探讨大鼠海马组织中11β-羟基类固醇脱氢酶-1(11β-HSD1)蛋白表达以及抑郁症的发病机制.方法 将24只Sprague

  13. Effects of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 on insulin resistance in rats induced by glucocorticoid and high fat diet%11β-HSD1在糖皮质激素联合高脂喂养大鼠胰岛素抵抗中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红爽; 乜春城; 朱小丽; 马红芳; 陈赫军; 种宝贵

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过糖皮质激素联合高脂喂养建立胰岛素抵抗动物模型,探讨11β-羟类固醇脱氢酶1(11β-HSD1)在该模型中的表达和意义.方法 32只雄性Wistar大鼠,按体重随机区组法分为对照组、地塞米松组、高脂饮食组、高脂+地塞米松组(HFD+ DEX组),每组8只.对照组和地塞米松组喂以普通饲料,高脂饮食组和HFD+ DEX组喂以高脂饲料,8周后地塞米松组和HFD+ DEX组辅以地塞米松刺激,12周后进行胰岛素耐量试验,检测血糖、血脂、血胰岛素及皮质酮水平,计算肝指数、内脏肥胖指数及稳态模型评估-胰岛素抵抗(HOMA-IR)指数,检测11β-HSD1基因及蛋白表达情况.结果 与对照组相比,其余3组均出现胰岛素抵抗,表现为:胰岛素耐量试验不敏感(注射胰岛素30 min后对照组、高脂饮食组、地塞米松组和HFD+ DEX组血糖值分别下降了44.15%,28.14%,32.58%,13.53%)、高血糖、高胰岛素血症、血脂紊乱(总胆固醇、甘油三酯及游离脂肪酸升高,高密度脂蛋白-胆固醇降低)、HOMA-IR指数、肝指数及内脏肥胖指数升高,且HFD+ DEX组各项指标变化幅度最大(F=10.89~213.20,P<0.05或P<0.01).另外,与对照组相比,其余3组内脏脂肪组织11β-HSD1基因及蛋白表达水平也明显升高,且HFD+ DEX组明显高于高脂饮食组及地塞米松组(F =32.64~116.00,P均<0.01).结论 地塞米松联合高脂饮食喂养可成功建立大鼠胰岛素抵抗模型,内脏脂肪组织中11β-HSD1基因及蛋白表达升高,可能与胰岛素抵抗的发生密切相关.%Objective To set up an insulin-resistant (IR) animal model by glucocorticoid and high-fat diet, and investigate the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in this model and its significance.Methods Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups according to body weight randomized blocks : control group, dexamethasone group (DEX group), high-fat diet

  14. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGerald, R.J.; Adams, B. O.; Sandham, H. J.; Abhyankar, S

    1989-01-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation ...

  15. 13C–Metabolic enrichment of glutamate in glutamate dehydrogenase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yijin; Sieg, Alex; Trotter, Pamela J.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) interconvert α-ketoglutarate and glutamate. In yeast, NADP-dependent enzymes, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3, are reported to synthesize glutamate from α-ketoglutarate, while an NAD-dependent enzyme, encoded by GDH2, catalyzes the reverse. Cells were grown in acetate/raffinose (YNAceRaf) to examine the role(s) of these enzymes during aerobic metabolism. In YNAceRaf the doubling time of wild type, gdh2Δ, and gdh3Δ cells was comparable at ~ 4 hours. NADP-dependent GDH a...

  16. Prognostic values of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma YM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yu-mei Ma,1 Shan Zhao2 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Cancer Second Division, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang City, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 activity has been used as a functional stem cell marker to isolate cancer stem cells in different cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity in ovarian cancer remains elusive. In addition, the prognostic value of an individual ALDH1 isoenzyme in ovarian cancer is not clear. Thus, we accessed the prognostic value of ALDH1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer patients through the “Kaplan–Meier plotter” online database, which can be used to determine the effect of the genes on ovarian cancer prognosis. We found that high mRNA expression of five ALDH1 isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, and ALDH1L1, was not correlated with overall survival (OS for all 1,306 ovarian cancer patients. In addition, all five of the ALDH1 isoenzymes’ high mRNA expression was found to be uncorrelated with OS in serous cancer or endometrioid cancer patients. However, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is associated with worse OS in grade II ovarian cancer patients, hazard ratio (HR 1.53 (1.14–2.07, P=0.005. ALDH1A2’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with worse OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 2.86 (1.56–5.08, P=0.00036. In addition, ALDH1A3’s high mRNA expression is significantly associated with better OS in TP53 wild-type ovarian cancer patients, HR 0.56 (0.32–1.00, P=0.04. Our results indicate that although ALDH1 isoenzyme mRNA might not be a prognostic marker for overall ovarian cancer patients, some isoenzymes, such as ALDH1A2 and ALDH1A3, might be a good prognostic marker for some types of ovarian cancer patients. Keywords: ALDH1, cancer stem cell, prognosis, KM plotter, hazard ratio

  17. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by an unusually small head size (microcephaly); impaired development of physical reactions, movements, and speech (psychomotor retardation); and recurrent seizures (epilepsy). Different types of ...

  19. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  20. Determination of dehydrogenase activities involved in D-glucose oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Sainz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane bound dehydrogenases (membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH, D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains. Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites (GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the A. malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h, which coincided with glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of G. oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition.Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter were

  1. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  2. Cloning, characterization, and engineering of fungal L-arabinitol dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoungjin; Sullivan, Ryan P; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-07-01

    L-Arabinitol 4-dehydrogenase (LAD) catalyzes the conversion of L-arabinitol to L-xylulose with concomitant NAD(+) reduction in fungal L-arabinose catabolism. It is an important enzyme in the development of recombinant organisms that convert L: -arabinose to fuels and chemicals. Here, we report the cloning, characterization, and engineering of four fungal LADs from Penicillium chrysogenum, Pichia guilliermondii, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma longibrachiatum, respectively. The LAD from P. guilliermondii was inactive, while the other three LADs were NAD(+)-dependent and showed high catalytic activities, with P. chrysogenum LAD being the most active. T. longibrachiatum LAD was the most thermally stable and showed the maximum activity in the temperature range of 55-65 degrees C with the other LADs showed the maximum activity in the temperature range of 40-50 degrees C. These LADs were active from pH 7 to 11 with an optimal pH of 9.4. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to alter the cofactor specificity of these LADs. In a T. longibrachiatum LAD mutant, the cofactor preference toward NADP(+) was increased by 2.5 x 10(4)-fold, whereas the cofactor preference toward NADP(+) of the P. chrysogenum and A. niger LAD mutants was also drastically improved, albeit at the expense of significantly reduced catalytic efficiencies. The wild-type LADs and their mutants with altered cofactor specificity could be used to investigate the functionality of the fungal L-arabinose pathways in the development of recombinant organisms for efficient microbial L-arabinose utilization.

  3. The Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase in Diabetes and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Kyu Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC is an emerging target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. To maintain a steady-state concentration of adenosine triphosphate during the feed-fast cycle, cells require efficient utilization of fatty acid and glucose, which is controlled by the PDC. The PDC converts pyruvate, coenzyme A (CoA, and oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ into acetyl-CoA, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, and carbon dioxide. The activity of the PDC is up- and down-regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, respectively. In addition, pyruvate is a key intermediate of glucose oxidation and an important precursor for the synthesis of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and nonessential amino acids.

  4. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.

  5. A survey for isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in C3-, C 4-and crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants, and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M; Burkhard, C; Schnarrenberger, C

    1979-01-01

    Two isoenzymes each of glucosephosphate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.9), phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.43) were separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography from green leaves of the C3-plants spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), of the Crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants Crassula lycopodioides Lam., Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Sedum rubrotinctum R.T. Clausen, and from the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardii. After isolation of cell organelles from spinach leaves by isopyenic centrifugation in sucrose gradients one of two isoenzymes of each of the four enzymes was found to be associated with whole chloroplasts while the other was restricted to the soluble cell fraction, implying the same intracellular distribution of these isoenzymes also in the other species.Among C4-plants, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in only one form in corn (Zea mays L.), sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) and Coix lacrymajobi L., but as two isoenzymes in Atriplex spongiosa L. and Portulaca oleracea L. In corn, the two dehydrogenases were mainly associated with isolated mesophyll protoplasts while in Atriplex spongiosa they were of similar specific activity in both mesophyll protoplasts and bundle-sheath strands. In all five C4-plants three isoenzymes of glucosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase were found. In corn two were localized in the bundle-sheath strands and the third one in the mesophyll protoplasts. The amount of activity of the enzymes was similar in each of the two cell fractions. Apparently, C4 plants have isoenzymes not only in two cell compartments, but also in physiologically closely linked cell types such as mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells.

  6. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C. (Michigan); (UCSF)

    2013-09-18

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  7. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  8. Purification and characterization of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, H; Inagaki, K; Matsunami, H; Nakayama, Y; Tano, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    3-Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the acidophilic autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The native enzyme was a dimer of molecular weight 40,000. The apparent K(m) values for 3-isopropylmalate and NAD+ were estimated to be 0.13 mM and 8.7 mM, respectively. The optimum pH for activity was 9.0 and the optimum temperature was 65 degrees C. The properties of the enzyme were similar to those of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enzyme, expect for substrate specificity. T. thiooxidans 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase could not utilize malate as a substrate.

  9. How are ‘atypical’ sulfite dehydrogenases linked to cell metabolism? – Interactions between the SorT sulfite deydrogenase and small redox proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie eLow

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfite dehydrogenases are enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of the toxic and mutagenic compound sulfite to sulfate, thereby protecting cells from adverse effects associated with sulfite exposure. While some bacterial sulfite dehydrogenases that have been characterized to date are able to use cytochrome c as an electron acceptor, the majority of these enzymes prefer ferricyanide as an electron acceptor and have therefore been termed ‘atypical’ sulfite dehydrogenases. Identifying the natural electron acceptor of these enzymes, however, is crucial for understanding how the ‘atypical’ sulfite dehydrogenases are integrated into cell metabolism.The SorT sulfite dehydrogenase from Sinorhizobium meliloti is a representative of this enzyme type and we have investigated the interactions of SorT with two small redox proteins, a cytochrome c and a Cu containing pseudoazurin, that are encoded in the same operon and are co-transcribed with the sorT gene. Both potential acceptor proteins have been purified and characterized in terms of their biochemical and electrochemical properties, and interactions and enzymatic studies with both the purified SorT sulfite dehydrogenase and components of the respiratory chain have been carried out.We were able to show for the first time that an ‘atypical’ sulfite dehydrogenase can couple efficiently to a cytochrome c isolated from the same organism despite being unable to efficiently reduce horse heart cytochrome c, however, at present the role of the pseudoazurin in SorT electron transfer is unclear, but it is possible that it acts as an intermediate electron shuttle between. The SorT system appears to couple directly to the respiratory chain, most likely to a cytochrome oxidase.

  10. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Gao; Keitaro Matsuo; Nobuyuki Hamajima; Kazuo Tajima; Toshiro Takezaki; Jian-Zhong Wu; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Hai-Xia Cao; Jian-Hua Ding; Yan-Ting Liu; Su-Ping Li; Jia Cao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between drinking and polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) for risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese males.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in 190 cases and 223 population-based controls.ADH2 Arg47His (G-A) and ALDH2 Glu487Lys (G-A) genotypes were identified by PCR and denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC).Information on smoking and drinking was collected and odds ratio (OR) was estimated.RESULTS: The ADH2 A/A and ALDH2 G/G genotypes showed moderately increased CRC risk. The age- and smoking-adjusted OR for ADH2 A/A relative to G/A and G/G was 1.60 (95% CI=1.08-2.36), and the adjusted OR for ALDH2 G/G relative to G/A and A/A was 1.79 (95% CI=1.19-2.69). Significant interactions between ADH2,ALDH2 and drinking were observed. As compared to the subjects with ADH2 G and ALDH2 A alleles, those with ADH2 A/A and ALDH2 G/G genotypes had a significantly increased OR (3.05, 95% CI= 1.67-5.57). The OR for CRC among drinkers with the ,4DH2 A/A genotype was increased to 3.44 (95% CI= 1.84-6.42) compared with non-drinkers with the ADH2 G allele. The OR for CRC among drinkers with theALDH2 G/G genotype was also increased to 2.70 (95% CI= 1.57-4.66) compared with non-drinkers with the ALDH2 A allele.CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the ADH2 and ALDH2 genes are significantly associated with CRC risk. There are also significant gene-gene and geneenvironment interactions between drinking and ADH2 and ALDH2 polymorphisms regarding CRC risk in Chinese males.

  11. An Fe-S cluster in the conserved Cys-rich region in the catalytic subunit of FAD-dependent dehydrogenase complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Masaki; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2016-12-01

    Several bacterial flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-harboring dehydrogenase complexes comprise three distinct subunits: a catalytic subunit with FAD, a cytochrome c subunit containing three hemes, and a small subunit. Owing to the cytochrome c subunit, these dehydrogenase complexes have the potential to transfer electrons directly to an electrode. Despite various electrochemical applications and engineering studies of FAD-dependent dehydrogenase complexes, the intra/inter-molecular electron transfer pathway has not yet been revealed. In this study, we focused on the conserved Cys-rich region in the catalytic subunits using the catalytic subunit of FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex (FADGDH) as a model, and site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were performed. By co-expressing a hitch-hiker protein (γ-subunit) and a catalytic subunit (α-subunit), FADGDH γα complexes were prepared, and the properties of the catalytic subunit of both wild type and mutant FADGDHs were investigated. Substitution of the conserved Cys residues with Ser resulted in the loss of dye-mediated glucose dehydrogenase activity. ICP-AEM and EPR analyses of the wild-type FADGDH catalytic subunit revealed the presence of a 3Fe-4S-type iron-sulfur cluster, whereas none of the Ser-substituted mutants showed the EPR spectrum characteristic for this cluster. The results suggested that three Cys residues in the Cys-rich region constitute an iron-sulfur cluster that may play an important role in the electron transfer from FAD (intra-molecular) to the multi-heme cytochrome c subunit (inter-molecular) electron transfer pathway. These features appear to be conserved in the other three-subunit dehydrogenases having an FAD cofactor.

  12. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases: structures of the human liver enzymes, functional properties and evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörnvall, H; Hempel, J; von Bahr-Lindström, H; Höög, J O; Vallee, B L

    1987-01-01

    All three types of subunit of class I human alcohol dehydrogenase have been analyzed both at the protein and cDNA levels, and the structures of alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, and gamma 2 subunits are known. The same applies to class II pi subunits. Extensive protein data are also available for class III chi subunits. In the class I human isozymes, amino acid exchanges occur at 35 positions in total, with 21-28 replacements between any pair of the alpha/beta/gamma chains. These values, compared with those from species differences between the corresponding human and horse enzymes, suggest that isozyme developments in the class I enzyme resulted from separate gene duplications after the divergence of the human and equine evolutionary lines. All subunits exhibit some unique properties, with slightly closer similarity between the human gamma and horse enzyme subunits and somewhat greater deviations towards the human alpha subunit. Differences are large also in segments close to the active site zinc ligands and other functionally important positions. Species differences are distributed roughly equally between the two types of domain in the subunit, whereas isozyme differences are considerably more common in the catalytic than in the coenzyme-binding domain. These facts illustrate a functional divergence among the isozymes but otherwise similar changes during evolution. Polymorphic forms of beta and gamma subunits are characterized by single replacements at one and two positions, respectively, explaining known deviating properties. Class II and class III subunits are considerably more divergent. Their homology with class I isozymes exhibits only 60-65% positional identity. Hence, they reflect further steps towards the development of new enzymes, with variations well above the horse/human species levels, in contrast to the class I forms. Again, functionally important residues are affected, and patterns resembling those previously established for the divergently related

  13. Virtual mutagenesis of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 involved in glioblastoma multiforme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-dong; SHI Yan-fang; WANG Hong; WANG Jia-liang; MA Wen-bin; WANG Ren-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Site A132Arg mutations potentially impair the affinity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) for its substrate isocitrate (ICT),consequently reducing the production of α-ketoglutarate and leading to tumor growth through the induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway.However,given that the roles of other active sites in IDH1 substrate binding remain unclear,we aimed to investigate IDH1 mutation pattern and its influence on enzyme function.Methods Fifteen IDH1 catalytic active site candidates were selected for in silico mutagenesis and protein homology modeling.Binding free energy of the IDH1/ICT complexes with single-site mutations was compared with that of the wild type.The affinity of 10 IDH1 catalytic active sites for the ICT substrate was further calculated.Results The IDH1 active site included seven residues from chain A (A77Thr,A94Ser,A100Arg,A132Arg,A1O9Arg,A275Asp,and A279Asp) and three residues from chain B (B214Thr,B212Lys,and B252Asp) that constituted the substrate ICT-binding site.These residues were located within 0.5 nm of ICT,indicating a potential interaction with the substrate.IDH1 changes of binding free energy (△E) suggested that the A132Arg residue from chain A contributes three hydrogen bonds to the ICT α-carboxyl and β-carboxyl groups,while the other nine residues involved in ICT binding form only one or two hydrogen bonds.Amino acid substitutes at A132Arg,A109Arg,and B212Lys sites,had the greatest effect on enzyme affinity for its substrate.Conclusions Mutations at sites A132Arg,A109Arg,and B212Lys reduced IDH1 affinity for ICT,indicating these active sites may play a central role in substrate binding.Mutations at sites A77Thr,A94Ser,and A275Asp increased the affinity of IDH1 for ICT,which may enhance IDN1 catalytic activity.Mutant IDH1 proteins with higher catalytic activity than the wild-type IDH1 could potentially be used as a novel gene therapy for glioblastoma multiforme.

  14. Malate dehydrogenase in phototrophic purple bacteria: purification, molecular weight, and quaternary structure.

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The citric acid cycle enzyme malate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the nonsulfur purple bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodomicrobium vannielii, and Rhodocyclus purpureus. Malate dehydrogenase was purified from each species by either a single- or a two-step protocol: triazine dye affinity chromatography was the key step in purification of malate dehydrogenase in all cases. Purification of malate dehydrogenase resulted in a 130- to 240-fold increase in ...

  15. Mutations associated with succinate dehydrogenase D-related malignant paragangliomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Pacak, K.; Bertherat, J.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Duet, M.; Eisenhofer, G.; Stratakis, C.A.; Niccoli-Sire, P.; Tran, B.H.; Burnichon, N.; Gimenez-Roqueplo, A.P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) syndromes result from germline mutations in genes encoding subunits B, C and D of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB, SDHC and SDHD). SDHB-related PGLs are known in particular for their high malignant potential. Recently, however, maligna

  16. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  17. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.;

    2002-01-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...

  18. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We ...

  19. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for biotechnologica

  20. Succinate dehydrogenase is the regulator of respiration in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Hartman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In chronic infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli are thought to enter a metabolic program that provides sufficient energy for maintenance of the protonmotive force, but is insufficient to meet the demands of cellular growth. We sought to understand this metabolic downshift genetically by targeting succinate dehydrogenase, the enzyme which couples the growth processes controlled by the TCA cycle with the energy production resulting from the electron transport chain. M. tuberculosis contains two operons which are predicted to encode succinate dehydrogenase enzymes (sdh-1 and sdh-2; we found that deletion of Sdh1 contributes to an inability to survive long term stationary phase. Stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that Sdh1 functions as a succinate dehydrogenase during aerobic growth, and that Sdh2 is dispensable for this catalysis, but partially overlapping activities ensure that the loss of one enzyme can incompletely compensate for loss of the other. Deletion of Sdh1 disturbs the rate of respiration via the mycobacterial electron transport chain, resulting in an increased proportion of reduced electron carrier (menaquinol which leads to increased oxygen consumption. The loss of respiratory control leads to an inability to recover from stationary phase. We propose a model in which succinate dehydrogenase is a governor of cellular respiration in the adaptation to low oxygen environments.

  1. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  3. Nondecarboxylating and decarboxylating isocitrate dehydrogenases: oxalosuccinate reductase as an ancestral form of isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, Miho; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2008-03-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus catalyzes the reduction of oxalosuccinate, which corresponds to the second step of the reductive carboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate in the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. In this study, the oxidation reaction catalyzed by H. thermophilus ICDH was kinetically analyzed. As a result, a rapid equilibrium random-order mechanism was suggested. The affinities of both substrates (isocitrate and NAD+) toward the enzyme were extremely low compared to other known ICDHs. The binding activities of isocitrate and NAD+ were not independent; rather, the binding of one substrate considerably promoted the binding of the other. A product inhibition assay demonstrated that NADH is a potent inhibitor, although 2-oxoglutarate did not exhibit an inhibitory effect. Further chromatographic analysis demonstrated that oxalosuccinate, rather than 2-oxoglutarate, is the reaction product. Thus, it was shown that H. thermophilus ICDH is a nondecarboxylating ICDH that catalyzes the conversion between isocitrate and oxalosuccinate by oxidation and reduction. This nondecarboxylating ICDH is distinct from well-known decarboxylating ICDHs and should be categorized as a new enzyme. Oxalosuccinate-reducing enzyme may be the ancestral form of ICDH, which evolved to the extant isocitrate oxidative decarboxylating enzyme by acquiring higher substrate affinities.

  4. Physiological and Growth Responses of Tomato Progenies Harboring the Betaine Alhyde Dehydrogenase Gene to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Feng Zhou; Xian-Yang Chen; Xing-Ning Xue; Xin-Guo Zhang; Yin-Xin Li

    2007-01-01

    The responses of five transgenlc tomato (Lycoperslcon esculentum Mill) lines containing the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene to salt stress were evaluated. Proline, betaine (N, N, N-trimethylglycine, hereafter betaine), chlorophyll and ion contents, BADH activity, electrolyte leakage (EL), and some growth parameters of the plants under 1.0% and 1.5% NaCl treatments were examined. The transgenic tomatoes had enhanced BADH activity and betaine content, compared to the wild type under stress conditions. Salt stress reduced chlorophyll contents to a higher extent in the wild type than in the transgenic plants. The wild type exhibited significantly higher proline content than the transgenic plants at 0.9% and 1.3% NaCl. Cell membrane of the wild type was severely damaged as determined by higher EL under salinity stress. K+ and Ca2+ contents of all tested lines decreased under salt stress,but the transgenic plants showed a significantly higher accumulation of K+ and Ca2+ than the wild type. In contrast,the wild type had significantly higher Cl- and Na+ contents than the transgenic plants under salt stress. Although yield reduction among various lines varied, the wild type had the highest yield reduction. Fruit quality of the transgenic plants was better in comparison with the wild type as shown by a low ratio of blossom end rot fruits.The results show that the transgenic plants have improved salt tolerance over the wild type.

  5. STUDIES CONCERNING THE INFLUENCE OF SOME AMINO ACIDS ON THE DYNAMICS OF KREBS CYCLE DEHYDROGENASES ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH.& RUHL. HONEY PARASITE ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tutu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  6. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF DEHYDROGENASES KREBS CYCLE ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS GROWN ON MEDIA WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  7. STUDIES ON THE DYNAMICS OF DEHYDROGENASES KREBS CYCLE ACTIVITY AT MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS GROWN ON MEDIA WITH DIFFERENT CARBOHYDRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As ubiquitous organisms, fungi grow on a large number of organic substrate, alive or dead, confronting therefore with a wide variety of carbohydrates and various physical factors, and their versatility to adapt and be able to use a large number of these compounds could provide them the chance to survive. Given that, these fungi have a rich enzyme equipment that allows them to operate on different metabolic pathways, this study aims to monitor the dynamics activity of some Krebs cycle dehydrogenases in Monilinia laxa (Aderh & Ruhl. Honey species parasitic on various species of plum trees. To this end, the fungus was cultivated in vitro on media enriched with different carbohydrates and the isocitrate dehydrogenase, �-cetoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the fungus mycelium was followed, at 7, respectively, 14 days after the inoculation of the culture medium and determined using the spectrophotometric Sîsoev and Krasna method (Cojocaru, D.C., 2009. Data revealed obvious differences depending on the type of carbohydrate introduced into the medium and the age of the culture mycelia.

  8. Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase 9 Is Required for the Biogenesis of Oxidative Phosphorylation Complex I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Nouws; L. Nijtmans; S.M. Houten; M. Brand; M. Huynen; H. Venselaar; S. Hoefs; J. Gloerich; J. Kronick; T. Hutchin; P. Willems; R. Rodenburg; R. Wanders; L. van den Heuvel; J. Smeitink; R.O. Vogel

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9) is a recently identified member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. It closely resembles very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), involved in mitochondria! (3 oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. Contrary to its previously proposed involvement in fatty acid

  9. Engineering of alanine dehydrogenase from Bacillus subtilis for novel cofactor specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchner, Alexandra; Jarasch, Alexander; Skerra, Arne

    2016-09-01

    The l-alanine dehydrogenase of Bacillus subtilis (BasAlaDH), which is strictly dependent on NADH as redox cofactor, efficiently catalyzes the reductive amination of pyruvate to l-alanine using ammonia as amino group donor. To enable application of BasAlaDH as regenerating enzyme in coupled reactions with NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases, we alterated its cofactor specificity from NADH to NADPH via protein engineering. By introducing two amino acid exchanges, D196A and L197R, high catalytic efficiency for NADPH was achieved, with kcat /KM  = 54.1 µM(-1)  Min(-1) (KM  = 32 ± 3 µM; kcat  = 1,730 ± 39 Min(-1) ), almost the same as the wild-type enzyme for NADH (kcat /KM  = 59.9 µM(-1)  Min(-1) ; KM  = 14 ± 2 µM; kcat  = 838 ± 21 Min(-1) ). Conversely, recognition of NADH was much diminished in the mutated enzyme (kcat /KM  = 3 µM(-1)  Min(-1) ). BasAlaDH(D196A/L197R) was applied in a coupled oxidation/transamination reaction of the chiral dicyclic dialcohol isosorbide to its diamines, catalyzed by Ralstonia sp. alcohol dehydrogenase and Paracoccus denitrificans ω-aminotransferase, thus allowing recycling of the two cosubstrates NADP(+) and l-Ala. An excellent cofactor regeneration with recycling factors of 33 for NADP(+) and 13 for l-Ala was observed with the engineered BasAlaDH in a small-scale biocatalysis experiment. This opens a biocatalytic route to novel building blocks for industrial high-performance polymers.

  10. Designing a highly active soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase for efficient glucose biosensors and biofuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, Fabien [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Stines-Chaumeil, Claire [Universite de Bordeaux, CNRS, Institut de Biochimie et de Genetique Cellulaires, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Flexer, Victoria [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France); Andre, Isabelle [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR5504, F-31400 Toulouse (France); INRA, UMR 792 Ingenierie des Systemes Biologiques et des Procedes, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Mano, Nicolas, E-mail: mano@crpp-bordeaux.cnrs.fr [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal (CRPP), UPR 8641, Avenue Albert Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} A new mutant of PQQ-GDH designed for glucose biosensors application. {yields} First mutant of PQQ-GDH with higher activity for D-glucose than the Wild type. {yields} Position N428 is a key point to increase the enzyme activity. {yields} Molecular modeling shows that the N428 C mutant displays a better interaction for PQQ than the WT. -- Abstract: We report for the first time a soluble PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase that is twice more active than the wild type for glucose oxidation and was obtained by combining site directed mutagenesis, modelling and steady-state kinetics. The observed enhancement is attributed to a better interaction between the cofactor and the enzyme leading to a better electron transfer. Electrochemical experiments also demonstrate the superiority of the new mutant for glucose oxidation and make it a promising enzyme for the development of high-performance glucose biosensors and biofuel cells.

  11. Purification of methanol dehydrogenase from mouth methylotrophic bacteria of tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waturangi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Purification of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH from methylotrophic bacteria was conducted to obtain pure enzyme for further research and industrial applications due to the enzyme’s unique activity that catalyzes oxidation of methanol as an important carbon source in methylotrophic bacteria.Methodology and Results: The enzyme was screened from methylotrophic bacteria isolated from human mouth. Purification of this enzyme was conducted using ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by cation exchange chromatography. Two types of media were used to produce the enzymes: luria broth and standard mineral salts media (MSM. MSM produced MDH with higher specific activity than LB. Specific activity was also increased along with the purification steps. Application of ammonium sulphate increased the purity of enzyme and was more effective for the enzyme produced in LB. Using sepharose increased the enzyme activity 10 -57 folds.Conclusion, significant and impact of this study: With this, ammonium sulphate precipitation coupled with single cation exchange chromatographic system has been proved to provide sufficient purified of methanol dehydrogenase from methylotrophic bacteria origin of human mouth with high specific activity for further application.

  12. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Moo-Young; Ng, Chiam Yu; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bio-based chemical product, because it can be converted into several C4 industrial chemicals. In this study, a lactate dehydrogenase-deleted mutant was constructed to improve 2,3-butanediol productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes. To delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, λ Red recombination method was successfully adapted for E. aerogenes. The resulting strain produced a very small amount of lactate and 16.7% more 2,3-butanediol than that of the wild-type strain in batch fermentation. The mutant and its parental strain were then cultured with six different carbon sources, and the mutant showed higher carbon source consumption and microbial growth rates in all media. The 2,3-butanediol titer reached 69.5 g/l in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant,which was 27.4% higher than that with the parental strain.With further optimization of the medium and aeration conditions,118.05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering.

  13. Crystal structure studies of NADP+ dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S M; Pampa, K J; Manjula, M; Abdoh, M M M; Kunishima, Naoki; Lokanath, N K

    2014-06-20

    NADP(+) dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP(+) was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH's. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH's of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH's. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH's of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit-subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  14. Analysis of lactate and malate dehydrogenase enzyme profiles of selected major carps of wetland of Calcutta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Madhumita; Chakraborty, Priyanka

    2012-07-01

    The East Calcutta Wetland (ECW), a Ramsar site in India, acts as the only sink for both city sewages as well as effluents from the surrounding small-scale industries and is alarmingly polluted with heavy metals. The three best edible major carp species rohu (Labeo rohita,), catla (Catla catla,) and mrigala (Cirrhinus mrigala) were undertaken to monitor lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CAE) to assess the effects of pollutants, if any. Crude tissue extracts were prepared from brain, eye, heart, skeletal muscle and kidney tissue respectively from each type of fish. No differences were not found in MDH of catla from both sites for all tissues analyzed in this study. Rohu also showed similar mobility for all tissues except for heart tissue which was distinctly different in fishes from ECW site than that of its counterpart from non ECW site. On the other hand, MDH of two tissues of mrigala, eye and muscle respectively showed different migration patterns. LDH profiles for all tissues of three fish species from both the sites were consistently similar, only the expression levels of muscle LDH of mrigala and kidney LDH of rohu varied little.

  15. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  16. Comparison between medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mutant proteins overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Bross, P; Andresen, B S;

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a potentially lethal inherited defect in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. By comparing the behaviour of five missense MCAD mutant proteins expressed in COS cells and in Escherichia coli, we can define some of these as "pure folding mutants......." Upon expression in E. coli, these mutant proteins produce activity levels in the range of the wild-type enzyme only if the chaperonins GroESL are co-overproduced. When overexpressed in COS cells, the pure folding mutants display enzyme activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest...

  17. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria: a bioinformatic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiela, Michael; Skarka, Adam; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3α-, 7α-, 12α-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Δ(4)(5α)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including

  18. SERUM LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AS A PROGNOSTIC MARKER IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Breast cancer a multifactorial disease and one of the most dreaded of human diseases that claims the lives of thousands of women all over the globe every year. This may probably due to the fact that it remains undiagnosed at an early stage perhaps due to lack of awareness amongst the females and the fact that most cancers do not produce any symptoms until the tumour are too large to be removed surgically. Hence there is need to detect cancer at an early stage. AIM: Estimation of diagnostic importance and prognostication of serum Lactate dehydrogenase in cases on breast cancer. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: An observational study was conducted in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi (Meghe, Wardha which included 44 confirmed cases of carcinoma breast and 44 normal healthy females admitted in AVBRH in a span of 2 years. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Determination of serum LDH was done using TC matrix analyser. The values of LDH were obtained on presentation, 21 days after intervention, 2 months after intervention and 6 months after intervention. The values of LDH on presentation in both the groups were compared. The decline in the values of LDH were observed with the due course of treatment. Chisquare test and Student’s Unpaired and paired t test were used for statistical analysis. RESULT: The mean Lactate dehydrogenase on presentation was in study group and control group was 564.38±219.41 IU/L and 404.18±101.32 IU/L respectively (p<0.05. The levels of Lactate dehydrogenase decreased with due course of treatment. The levels of LDH were proportionate to the stage of disease. CONCLUSION: The results of the study concludes cost effective usefulness of serum Lactate dehydrogenase in early detection of breast cancer and to assess its prognostic importance which can be done in smaller laboratories. The traditional model of DS-

  19. Characterization of Flavin-Containing Opine Dehydrogenase from Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiya Watanabe

    Full Text Available Opines, in particular nopaline and octopine, are specific compounds found in crown gall tumor tissues induced by infections with Agrobacterium species, and are synthesized by well-studied NAD(PH-dependent dehydrogenases (synthases, which catalyze the reductive condensation of α-ketoglutarate or pyruvate with L-arginine. The corresponding genes are transferred into plant cells via a tumor-inducing (Ti plasmid. In addition to the reverse oxidative reaction(s, the genes noxB-noxA and ooxB-ooxA are considered to be involved in opine catabolism as (membrane-associated oxidases; however, their properties have not yet been elucidated in detail due to the difficulties associated with purification (and preservation. We herein successfully expressed Nox/Oox-like genes from Pseudomonas putida in P. putida cells. The purified protein consisted of different α-, β-, and γ-subunits encoded by the OdhA, OdhB, and OdhC genes, which were arranged in tandem on the chromosome (OdhB-C-A, and exhibited dehydrogenase (but not oxidase activity toward nopaline in the presence of artificial electron acceptors such as 2,6-dichloroindophenol. The enzyme contained FAD, FMN, and [2Fe-2S]-iron sulfur as prosthetic groups. On the other hand, the gene cluster from Bradyrhizobium japonicum consisted of OdhB1-C-A-B2, from which two proteins, OdhAB1C and OdhAB2C, appeared through the assembly of each β-subunit together with common α- and γ-subunits. A poor phylogenetic relationship was detected between OdhB1 and OdhB2 in spite of them both functioning as octopine dehydrogenases, which provided clear evidence for the acquisition of novel functions by "subunit-exchange". To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have examined flavin-containing opine dehydrogenase.

  20. GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE 1 AND SIRT4 REGULATE GLIAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Komlos, Daniel; Mann, Kara D.; Zhuo, Yue; Ricupero, Christopher L.; Hart, Ronald P.; Liu, Alice Y.-C.; Firestein, Bonnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is caused by an activation mutation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the reversible interconversion between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate. The syndrome presents clinically with hyperammonemia, significant episodic hypoglycemia, seizures, and a frequent incidences of developmental and learning defects. Clinical research has implicated that although some of the developmental and neurological de...

  1. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  2. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Shiga; Hiromi Joreau; Tze Loon Neoh; Takeshi Furuta; Hidefumi Yoshii

    2014-01-01

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably...

  3. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency...

  4. R-lipoic acid inhibits mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotchkina, Lioubov G; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S

    2004-10-01

    The four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and two pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDP) isoenzymes that are present in mammalian tissues regulate activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of its pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) component. The effect of lipoic acids on the activity of PDKs and PDPs was investigated in purified proteins system. R-lipoic acid, S-lipoic acid and R-dihydrolipoic acid did not significantly affect activities of PDPs and at the same time inhibited PDKs to different extents (PDK1>PDK4 approximately PDK2>PDK3 for R-LA). Since lipoic acids inhibited PDKs activity both when reconstituted in PDC and in the presence of E1 alone, dissociation of PDK from the lipoyl domains of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase in the presence of lipoic acids is not a likely explanation for inhibition. The activity of PDK1 towards phosphorylation sites 1, 2 and 3 of E1 was decreased to the same extent in the presence of R-lipoic acid, thus excluding protection of the E1 active site by lipoic acid from phosphorylation. R-lipoic acid inhibited autophosphorylation of PDK2 indicating that it exerted its effect on PDKs directly. Inhibition of PDK1 by R-lipoic acid was not altered by ADP but was decreased in the presence of pyruvate which itself inhibits PDKs. An inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on PDKs would result in less phosphorylation of E1 and hence increased PDC activity. This finding provides a possible mechanism for a glucose (and lactate) lowering effect of R-lipoic acid in diabetic subjects.

  5. Recent advances in biotechnological applications of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Yin, Huan-Huan; Yu, Dao-Fu; Chen, Xiang; Tang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Xue, Ya-Ping; Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), which belong to the oxidoreductase superfamily, catalyze the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with high stereoselectivity under mild conditions. ADHs are widely employed as biocatalysts for the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemic substrates and for the preparation of enantiomerically pure chemicals. This review provides an overview of biotechnological applications for ADHs in the production of chiral pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals.

  6. An efficient ribitol-specific dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjitha; Singh, Raushan; Kim, In-Won; Sigdel, Sujan; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-05-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 (EaRDH) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The complete 729-bp gene was amplified, cloned, expressed, and subsequently purified in an active soluble form using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme had an optimal pH and temperature of 11.0 and 45°C, respectively. Among various polyols, EaRDH exhibited activity only toward ribitol, with Km, Vmax, and kcat/Km values of 10.3mM, 185Umg(-1), and 30.9s(-1)mM(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed strong preference for NAD(+) and displayed no detectable activity with NADP(+). Homology modeling and sequence analysis of EaRDH, along with its biochemical properties, confirmed that EaRDH belongs to the family of NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenases, a member of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SCOR) family. EaRDH showed the highest activity and unique substrate specificity among all known RDHs. Homology modeling and docking analysis shed light on the molecular basis of its unusually high activity and substrate specificity.

  7. Daidzin: a potent, selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, W M; Vallee, B L

    1993-02-15

    Human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-I) is potently, reversibly, and selectively inhibited by an isoflavone isolated from Radix puerariae and identified as daidzin, the 7-glucoside of 4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone. Kinetic analysis with formaldehyde as substrate reveals that daidzin inhibits ALDH-I competitively with respect to formaldehyde with a Ki of 40 nM, and uncompetitively with respect to the coenzyme NAD+. The human cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme (ALDH-II) is nearly 3 orders of magnitude less sensitive to daidzin inhibition. Daidzin does not inhibit human class I, II, or III alcohol dehydrogenases, nor does it have any significant effect on biological systems that are known to be affected by other isoflavones. Among more than 40 structurally related compounds surveyed, 12 inhibit ALDH-I, but only prunetin and 5-hydroxydaidzin (genistin) combine high selectivity and potency, although they are 7- to 15-fold less potent than daidzin. Structure-function relationships have established a basis for the design and synthesis of additional ALDH inhibitors that could both be yet more potent and specific.

  8. Structural insights on mouse L-threonine dehydrogenase: A regulatory role of Arg180 in catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Huang, Xianyu; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Fudong; Yang, Yang; Tao, Hongru; Han, Chuanchun; Zhao, Chen; Xiao, Yazhong; Shi, Yunyu

    2015-12-01

    Mouse L-threonine dehydrogenase (mTDH), which belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily and mediates threonine catabolism, plays pivotal roles in both powerful biosynthesis and signaling in mouse stem cells and has a regulatory residue Arg180. Here we determined three crystal structures of mTDH: wild-type (WT) in the apo form; in complex with NAD(+) and a substrate analog, glycerol, or with only NAD(+); as well as the R180K variant with NAD(+). This is the first description of a structure for mammalian SDR-type TDH. Structural comparison revealed the structural basis for SDR-type TDH catalysis remains strictly conserved in bacteria and mammals. Kinetic enzyme assays, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements indicated the R180K mutation has little effect on NAD(+) binding affinity, whereas affects the substrate's affinity for the enzyme. The crystal structure of R180K with NAD(+), biochemical and spectroscopic studies suggested that the R180K mutant should bind NAD(+) in a similar way and have a similar folding to the WT. However, the R180K variant may have difficulty adopting the closed form due to reduced interaction of residue 180 with a loop which connects a key position for mTDH switching between the closed and open forms in mTDH catalysis, and thereby exhibited a significantly decreased kcat/Km value toward the substrate, L-Thr. In sum, our results suggest that activity of GalE-like TDH can be regulated by remote interaction, such as hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction around the Arg180 of mTDH.

  9. Scanning mutagenesis of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib eAhsan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1α subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated Ser-residue and the sequences of the flanking amino acids are highly conserved. We have used the synthetic peptide-based kinase client assay plus recombinant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α and E1α-kinase to perform scanning mutagenesis of the residues flanking the site of phosphorylation. Consistent with the results from phylogenetic analysis of the flanking sequences, the direct peptide-based kinase assays tolerated very few changes. Even conservative changes such as Leu, Ile, or Val for Met, or Glu for Asp, gave very marked reductions in phosphorylation. Overall the results indicate that regulation of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation is an extreme example of multiple, interdependent instances of co-evolution.

  10. α-Ketoglutarate Accumulation Is Not Dependent on Isocitrate Dehydrogenase Activity during Tellurite Detoxification in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Reinoso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellurite is toxic to most microorganisms because of its ability to generate oxidative stress. However, the way in which tellurite interferes with cellular processes is not fully understood to date. In this line, it was previously shown that tellurite-exposed cells displayed reduced activity of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (α-KGDH, which resulted in α-ketoglutarate (α-KG accumulation. In this work, we assessed if α-KG accumulation in tellurite-exposed E. coli could also result from increased isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activities, both enzymes involved in α-KG synthesis. Unexpectedly both activities were found to decrease in the presence of the toxicant, an observation that seems to result from the decreased transcription of icdA and gdhA genes (encoding ICDH and GDH, resp.. Accordingly, isocitrate levels were found to increase in tellurite-exposed E. coli. In the presence of the toxicant, cells lacking icdA or gdhA exhibited decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels and higher tellurite sensitivity as compared to the wild type strain. Finally, a novel branch activity of ICDH as tellurite reductase is presented.

  11. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of bifunctional isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase in complex with its substrate, isocitrate dehydrogenase, from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The protein complex of bifunctional isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase with its substrate, isocitrate dehydrogenase, has been crystallized for structural analysis. A complete data set was collected from the complex crystal and processed to 2.9 Å resolution.

  13. Characterization of Arabidopsis lines deficient in GAPC-1, a cytosolic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-11-01

    Phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPC-1) is a highly conserved cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-P to 1,3-bis-phosphoglycerate; besides its participation in glycolysis, it is thought to be involved in additional cellular functions. To reach an integrative view on the many roles played by this enzyme, we characterized a homozygous gapc-1 null mutant and an as-GAPC1 line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both mutant plant lines show a delay in growth, morphological alterations in siliques, and low seed number. Embryo development was altered, showing abortions and empty embryonic sacs in basal and apical siliques, respectively. The gapc-1 line shows a decrease in ATP levels and reduced respiratory rate. Furthermore, both lines exhibit a decrease in the expression and activity of aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase and reduced levels of pyruvate and several Krebs cycle intermediates, as well as increased reactive oxygen species levels. Transcriptome analysis of the gapc-1 mutants unveils a differential accumulation of transcripts encoding for enzymes involved in carbon partitioning. According to these studies, some enzymes involved in carbon flux decreased (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD-malic enzyme, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase) or increased (NAD-malate dehydrogenase) their activities compared to the wild-type line. Taken together, our data indicate that a deficiency in the cytosolic GAPC activity results in modifications of carbon flux and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an alteration of plant and embryo development with decreased number of seeds, indicating that GAPC-1 is essential for normal fertility in Arabidopsis plants.

  14. Maternal Prenatal Mental Health and Placental 11β-HSD2 Gene Expression: Initial Findings from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaina Seth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High intrauterine cortisol exposure can inhibit fetal growth and have programming effects for the child’s subsequent stress reactivity. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2 limits the amount of maternal cortisol transferred to the fetus. However, the relationship between maternal psychopathology and 11β-HSD2 remains poorly defined. This study examined the effect of maternal depressive disorder, antidepressant use and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy on placental 11β-HSD2 gene (HSD11B2 expression. Drawing on data from the Mercy Pregnancy and Emotional Wellbeing Study, placental HSD11B2 expression was compared among 33 pregnant women, who were selected based on membership of three groups; depressed (untreated, taking antidepressants and controls. Furthermore, associations between placental HSD11B2 and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS during 12–18 and 28–34 weeks gestation were examined. Findings revealed negative correlations between HSD11B2 and both the EPDS and STAI (r = −0.11 to −0.28, with associations being particularly prominent during late gestation. Depressed and antidepressant exposed groups also displayed markedly lower placental HSD11B2 expression levels than controls. These findings suggest that maternal depression and anxiety may impact on fetal programming by down-regulating HSD11B2, and antidepressant treatment alone is unlikely to protect against this effect.

  15. [Corticosteroid hormones and angiotensin-converting enzyme in the dynamics of chronic granulomatous inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, A P; Selyatitskaya, V G

    2013-01-01

    It was studied the contents of corticosteroid hormones in the adrenal gland, plasma and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity (11betaHSD) in the liver and kidneys, as well as the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in blood plasma, lung, renal cortex and liver of male rats in the dynamics of SiO2-induced inflammation. The study showed that chronic granulomatous inflammation in rats was accompanied by an initial short-term reaction to the activation of synthesis of the main glucocorticoid hormone, followed by specific inhibition of synthesis of this hormone as well as 11betaHSD activity in the adrenal gland. Inflammation caused less pronounced changes in the functional state of the renin-angiotensin system, however, inhibition of ACE activity observed in plasma, liver and kidneys during the initial period of inflammation. Factor analysis revealed a violation of intersystem relations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical and renin-angiotensin systems in inflammation due, probably, to the modulating influence of cytokines.

  16. Dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenases: biochemical characteristics and applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Takenori; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Suye, Shin-Ichiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2015-11-01

    Dye-linked D-amino acid dehydrogenases (Dye-DADHs) catalyze the dehydrogenation of free D-amino acids in the presence of an artificial electron acceptor. Although Dye-DADHs functioning in catabolism of L-alanine and as primary enzymes in electron transport chains are widely distributed in mesophilic Gram-negative bacteria, biochemical and biotechnological information on these enzymes remains scanty. This is in large part due to their instability after isolation. On the other hand, in the last decade, several novel types of Dye-DADH have been found in thermophilic bacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea, where they contribute not only to L-alanine catabolism but also to the catabolism of other amino acids, including D-arginine and L-hydroxyproline. In this minireview, we summarize recent developments in our understanding of the biochemical characteristics of Dye-DADHs and their specific application to electrochemical biosensors.

  17. NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity is impaired in mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that lack aconitase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Rodríguez, L; Olivera, H; Soberón, M

    1985-10-01

    A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking aconitase did not grow on minimal medium (MM) and had five- to tenfold less NADP+-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity than the wild-type, although its glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was still inducible. When this mutant was incubated with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source, the 2-oxoglutarate content rose, and the NADP+-dependent GDH activity increased. Furthermore, carbon-limited cultures showed a direct relation between NADP+-dependent GDH activity and the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate content. We propose that the low NADP+-dependent GDH activity found in the mutant was due to the lack of 2-oxoglutarate or some other intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

  18. In crystallo posttranslational modification within a MauG/pre-methylamine dehydrogenase complex.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, L. M. R.; Sanishvili, R.; Davidson, V. L.; Wilmot, C. M.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Minnesota; Univ. of Mississippi

    2010-03-12

    MauG is a diheme enzyme responsible for the posttranslational modification of two tryptophan residues to form the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor of methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). MauG converts preMADH, containing monohydroxylated {beta}Trp{sup 57}, to fully functional MADH by catalyzing the insertion of a second oxygen atom into the indole ring and covalently linking {beta}Trp{sup 57} to {beta}Trp{sup 108}. We have solved the x-ray crystal structure of MauG complexed with preMADH to 2.1 angstroms. The c-type heme irons and the nascent TTQ site are separated by long distances over which electron transfer must occur to achieve catalysis. In addition, one of the hemes has an atypical His-Tyr axial ligation. The crystalline protein complex is catalytically competent; upon addition of hydrogen peroxide, MauG-dependent TTQ synthesis occurs.

  19. Mechanism of protection against alcoholism by an alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism: development of an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Meza, Mario; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Mura, Casilda V; Sapag, Amalia; Israel, Yedy

    2010-01-01

    Humans who carry a point mutation in the gene coding for alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*2; Arg47His) are markedly protected against alcoholism. Although this mutation results in a 100-fold increase in enzyme activity, it has not been reported to cause higher levels of acetaldehyde, a metabolite of ethanol known to deter alcohol intake. Hence, the mechanism by which this mutation confers protection against alcoholism is unknown. To study this protective effect, the wild-type rat cDNA encoding rADH-47Arg was mutated to encode rADH-47His, mimicking the human mutation. The mutated cDNA was incorporated into an adenoviral vector and administered to genetically selected alcohol-preferring rats. The V(max) of rADH-47His was 6-fold higher (Palcoholism.

  20. Discovery of α-mangostin as a novel competitive inhibitor against mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Joon; Fei, Xiang; Cho, Seok-Cheol; Choi, Bu Young; Ahn, Hee-Chul; Lee, Kyeong; Seo, Seung-Yong; Keum, Young-Sam

    2015-12-01

    Somatic heterozygous mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) are abundantly found in several types of cancer and strongly implicate altered metabolism in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we have identified α-mangostin as a novel selective inhibitor of mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H). We have observed that α-mangostin competitively inhibits the binding of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to IDH1-R132H. The structure-relationship study reveals that α-mangostin exhibits the strongest core inhibitor structure. Finally, we have observed that α-mangostin selectively promotes demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and histone H3 trimethylated lysine residues in IDH1 (+/R132H) MCF10A cells, presumably via restoring the activity of cellular α-KG-dependent DNA hydroxylases and histone H3 lysine demethylases. Collectively, we provide evidence that α-mangostin selectively inhibits IDH1-R132H.

  1. [Interaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from the heart muscle with thiamine diphosphate and its derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumilo, S A; Kiselevskiĭ, Iu V; Taranda, N I; Zabrodskaia, S V; Oparin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of 23 thiamin derivatives on the bovine heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) were studied. Oxythiamin diphosphate and tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate exhibited the most pronounced effect on the PDC activity, affecting the complex by a competitive type of inhibition for thiamin diphosphate (TDP). The apparent affinity of TDP and the anticoenzyme derivatives for apo PDC depended on presence of phosphate and divalent metal ions. Phosphate considerably increased the Km values for TDP (up to 0.17 microM) and the Ki values for oxythiamin diphosphate (0.40 microM) as well as for tetrahydroxythiamin diphosphate (0.23 microM). In presence of Mn2+, Km value for TDP was 3.5-fold lower as compared with Mg2+ containing medium.

  2. Molecular mechanism of null expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Yoshida, Akira [Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States); Yanagawa, Yuchio [Tokohu Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    In isozyme systems in general, the pattern of tissue-dependent expression of a given type of isozyme is uniform in various mammalian species. In contrast, a major cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme, termed ALDH1, which is strongly expressed in the livers of humans and other mammals, is hardly detectable in rat liver. Thirteen nucleotides existing in the 5{prime}-promoter region of human, marmoset, and mouse ALDH1 genes are absent in the four rat strains examined. When the 13 nucleotides were deleted from a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression construct, which contained the 5{prime} promoter region of the human ALDH1 gene and a low-background promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression vector, the expression activity was severely diminished in human hepatic cells. Thus, deletion of the 13 nucleotides in the promoter region of the gene can account for the lack of ALDH1 expression in rat liver. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suggests three distinct pathways of nitroglycerin biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, M Verena; Beretta, Matteo; Griesberger, Martina; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd; Gorren, Antonius C F

    2011-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying reduction of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), we generated mutants of the enzyme lacking the cysteines adjacent to reactive Cys302 (C301S and C303S), the glutamate that participates as a general base in aldehyde oxidation (E268Q) or combinations of these residues. The mutants were characterized regarding acetaldehyde dehydrogenation, GTN-triggered enzyme inactivation, GTN denitration, NO formation, and soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Lack of the cysteines did not affect dehydrogenase activity but impeded GTN denitration, aggravated GTN-induced enzyme inactivation, and increased NO formation. A triple mutant lacking the cysteines and Glu268 catalyzed sustained formation of superstoichiometric amounts of NO and exhibited slower rates of inactivation. These results suggest three alternative pathways for the reaction of ALDH2 with GTN, all involving formation of a thionitrate/sulfenyl nitrite intermediate at Cys302 as the initial step. In the first pathway, which predominates in the wild-type enzyme and reflects clearance-based GTN denitration, the thionitrate apparently reacts with one of the adjacent cysteine residues to yield nitrite and a protein disulfide. The predominant reaction catalyzed by the single and double cysteine mutants requires Glu268 and results in irreversible enzyme inactivation. Finally, combined lack of the cysteines and Glu268 shifts the reaction toward formation of the free NO radical, presumably through homolytic cleavage of the sulfenyl nitrite intermediate. Although the latter reaction accounts for less than 10% of total turnover of GTN metabolism catalyzed by wild-type ALDH2, it is most likely essential for vascular GTN bioactivation.

  4. Application of NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases for enzymatic mannitol/sorbitol production with coenzyme regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, S; Arnaut, F; Soetaert, W; Vandamme, E J

    2003-01-01

    D-Mannitol and D-sorbitol were produced enzymatically from D-fructose using NAD-dependent polyol dehydrogenases. For the production of D-mannitol the Leuconostoc mesenteroides mannitol dehydrogenase could be used. Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract contained however both mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenase. When this cell extract was used, the reduction of D-fructose resulted in a mixture of D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. To determine the optimal bioconversion conditions the polyol dehydrogenases were characterized towards pH- and temperature-optimum and -stability. As a compromise between enzyme activity and stability, the bioconversion reactions were performed at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Since the polyol dehydrogenases are NADH-dependent, an efficient coenzyme regeneration was needed. Regeneration of NADH was accomplished by formate dehydrogenase-mediated oxidation of formate into CO2.

  5. Active site of Zn2+-dependent sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Suk Han

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gro1PDH, EC 1.1.1.261 is key to the formation of the enantiomeric configuration of the glycerophosphate backbone (sn-glycerol-1-phosphate of archaeal ether lipids. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible conversion between dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol-1-phosphate. To date, no information about the active site and catalytic mechanism of this enzyme has been reported. Using the sequence and structural information for glycerol dehydrogenase, we constructed six mutants (D144N, D144A, D191N, H271A, H287A and D191N/H271A of Gro1PDH from Aeropyrum pernix K1 and examined their characteristics to clarify the active site of this enzyme. The enzyme was found to be a zinc-dependent metalloenzyme, containing one zinc ion for every monomer protein that was essential for activity. Site-directed mutagenesis of D144 increased the activity of the enzyme. Mutants D144N and D144A exhibited low affinity for the substrates and higher activity than the wild type, but their affinity for the zinc ion was the same as that of the wild type. Mutants D191N, H271A and H287A had a low affinity for the zinc ion and a low activity compared with the wild type. The double mutation, D191N/ H271A, had no enzyme activity and bound no zinc. From these results, it was clarified that residues D191, H271 and H287 participate in the catalytic activity of the enzyme by binding the zinc ion, and that D144 has an effect on substrate binding. The structure of the active site of Gro1PDH from A. pernix K1 seems to be similar to that of glycerol dehydrogenase, despite the differences in substrate specificity and biological role.

  6. Buformin suppresses the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Akiko; Kubota, Masafumi; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Usui, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Kazuyuki

    2006-05-01

    The biguanides metformin and buformin, which are clinically used for diabetes mellitus, are known to improve resistance to insulin in patients. Biguanides were reported to cause lactic acidosis as a side effect. Since the mechanism of the side effect still remains obscure, we have examined genes whose expression changes by treating HepG2 cells with buformin in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the side effect. A subtraction cDNA library was constructed by the method of suppressive subtractive hybridization and the screening of the library was performed with cDNA probes prepared from HepG2 cells treated with or without buformin for 12 h. The expression of the gene and the protein obtained by the screening was monitored by real-time RT-PCR with specific primers and Western blotting with specific antibody. The amounts of ATP and NAD+ were determined with luciferase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. We found that expression of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene was suppressed by treating HepG2 cells with 0.25 mM buformin for 12 h as a result of the library screening. The decrease in the expression depended on the treatment period. The amount of GAPD protein also decreased simultaneously with the suppression of the gene expression by the treatment with buformin. The amount of ATP and NAD+ in the HepG2 cells treated with buformin decreased to 10 and 20% of the control, respectively. These observations imply that the biguanide causes deactivation of the glycolytic pathway and subsequently the accumulation of pyruvate and NADH and a decrease in NAD+. Therefore, the reaction equilibrium catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase leans towards lactate production and this may result in lactic acidosis.

  7. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuko Ueshima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3 were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienylserine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2.

  8. Arteriovenous malformation within an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutated anaplastic oligodendroglioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The co-occurrence of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs and cerebral neoplasms is exceedingly rare but may harbor implications pertaining to the molecular medicine of brain cancer pathogenesis. Case Description: Here, we present a case of de novo AVM within an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutated anaplastic oligodendroglioma (WHO Grade III and review the potential contribution of this mutation to aberrant angiogenesis as an interesting case study in molecular medicine. Conclusion: The co-occurrence of an IDH1 mutated neoplasm and AVM supports the hypothesis that IDH1 mutations may contribute to aberrant angiogenesis and vascular malformation.

  9. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  10. Structural determinants of stereospecificity in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhold, E G; Glasfeld, A; Ellington, A D; Benner, S A

    1991-01-01

    Replacing Leu-182 by Ala in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) yields a mutant that retains 34% of its kcat value and makes one stereochemical "mistake" every 850,000 turnovers (instead of approximately 1 error every 7,000,000,000 turnovers in native YADH) in its selection of the 4-Re hydrogen of NADH. Half of the decrease in stereochemical fidelity comes from an increase in the rate of transfer of the 4-Si hydrogen of NADH. The mutant also accepts 5-m...

  11. Structures of citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Davide M; Spallek, Ralf; Oehlmann, Wulf; Singh, Mahavir; Rizzi, Menico

    2015-02-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway of all aerobic organisms and is responsible for the synthesis of many important precursors and molecules. TCA cycle plays a key role in the metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is involved in the adaptation process of the bacteria to the host immune response. We present here the first crystal structures of M. tuberculosis malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase, two consecutive enzymes of the TCA, at 2.6 Å and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively. General analogies and local differences with the previously reported homologous protein structures are described.

  12. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  13. Selective inhibition of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Massimo; El-Bastawissy, Eman; Knaggs, Michael H.; Barrett, Michael P.; Hanau, Stefania; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2001-05-01

    A number of triphenylmethane derivatives have been screened against 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei and sheep liver. Some of these compounds show good inhibition of the enzymes and also selectivity towards the parasite enzyme. Modelling was undertaken to dock the compounds into the active sites of both enzymes. Using a combination of DOCK 3.5 and FLEXIDOCK a correlation was obtained between docking score and both activity for the enzymes and selectivity. Visualisation of the docked structures of the inhibitors in the active sites of the enzymes yielded a possible explanation of the selectivity for the parasite enzyme.

  14. Investigations regarding the anthropic impact on the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases system on certain wood-species in mining areas, Suceava county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Viorel Oniciuc

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krebs cycle, a second stage of cellular respiration that occurs in the mitochondrion of the leafcell and consist in a multistep processes plays a central role in catabolism of organic fuel molecules. The miningextraction technologies for both underground and surface, the preparation of copper ore and barite applied in Tarnia,respectively to the sulphur in Calimani Mountain and the excess of these elements in natural environment may causemalfunction of ecosystem. The dehydrogenases of Krebs cycle can give information on the type and the duration of theeffects of pollutants on the metabolic activity in leaves, to subsequent area pollution, therefore, the aim of the presentstudy has been to determine these effects on this enzymatic system activity. For this reason, the isocitrate dehydrogenase,the -ketoglutate dehydrogenase, the succinate ehydrogenase and the malate dehydrogenase activity was determined using the spectrophotometric method with triphenyl-tetrazolium and the analysis of experimental results shows the differences from one sample to another sample of closely related species specificity, but also the effect of environmentalfactors.

  15. Structural studies of MFE-1: the 1.9 A crystal structure of the dehydrogenase part of rat peroxisomal MFE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Jukka P; Kiema, Tiila R; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Wierenga, Rik K

    2006-01-27

    The 1.9 A structure of the C-terminal dehydrogenase part of the rat peroxisomal monomeric multifunctional enzyme type 1 (MFE-1) has been determined. In this construct (residues 260-722 and referred to as MFE1-DH) the N-terminal hydratase part of MFE-1 has been deleted. The structure of MFE1-DH shows that it consists of an N-terminal helix, followed by a Rossmann-fold domain (domain C), followed by two tightly associated helical domains (domains D and E), which have similar topology. The structure of MFE1-DH is compared with the two known homologous structures: human mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD; sequence identity is 33%) (which is dimeric and monofunctional) and with the dimeric multifunctional alpha-chain (alphaFOM; sequence identity is 28%) of the bacterial fatty acid beta-oxidation alpha2beta2-multienzyme complex. Like MFE-1, alphaFOM has an N-terminal hydratase part and a C-terminal dehydrogenase part, and the structure comparisons show that the N-terminal helix of MFE1-DH corresponds to the alphaFOM linker helix, located between its hydratase and dehydrogenase part. It is also shown that this helix corresponds to the C-terminal helix-10 of the hydratase/isomerase superfamily, suggesting that functionally it belongs to the N-terminal hydratase part of MFE-1.

  16. Vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin in Japanese subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki; Yonezawa, Kazuya

    2017-03-23

    The functional genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) influences the enzymatic activities of its wild type (Glu504 encoded by ALDH2*1) and mutant type (Lys504 encoded by ALDH2*2) proteins. The enzymatic activities of mutant-type ALDH2 are limited compared with those of the wild type. ALDH2 has been suggested as a critical factor for nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation by some human studies and in vitro studies. Currently, there is no research on direct observations of the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin sublingual tablets, which is the generally used dosage form. In the present study, the contribution of ALDH2 to the vasodilatory effect of nitroglycerin sublingual tablets was investigated among three genotype groups (ALDH2*1/*1, ALDH2*1/*2, and ALDH2*2/*2) in Japanese. The results by direct assessments of in vivo nitroglycerin-mediated dilation showed no apparent difference in vasodilation among all genotypes of ALDH2. Furthermore, to analyze the effect of other factors (age and flow-mediated dilation), multiple regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis were carried out. These analyses also indicated that the genotypes of ALDH2 were not related to the degree of vasodilation. These results suggest the existence of other predominant pathway(s) for nitroglycerin biotransformation, at least with regard to clinical nitroglycerin (e.g., a sublingual tablet) in Japanese subjects.

  17. [Purification and properties of two chloridazondihydrodiol dehydrogenases from chloridazon degrading bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F

    1978-10-01

    A cell-free extract of Chloridazon-degrading soil bacteria catalyzes the conversion of the dihydrodiol derivative of chloridazon to the corresponding catechol derivative. NAD is required as hydrogen acceptor. Chromatography of the crude extract on DEAE-cellulose results in the elution of two different enzymes (enzyme A and enzyme B, respectively) with the same catalytic capacity. Both enzymes were purified to homogeneity in disc-gel electrophoresis and their properties were compared. The molecular weight was found to be 220 000 for both enzymes. Dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated subunits of molecular weight 50 000 in both cases. The synthesis of the enzymes does not seem to be under inductive control. The two dehydrogenases differ in heat-stability, pH-optimum, Km-values for the substrate and in their sensitivity to inhibitors. Enzyme A shows relatively high heat lability, a pH-optimum at pH 9.5, and a Km-value of 0.25 mM for the dihydrodiol derivative of chloridazon. The catalytic activity of enzyme A is not influenced by p-chloromercuribenzoate or by N-bromosuccinimide. In contrast enzyme B is relatively stable at high temperatures, showing a pH-optimum of 7.0, and a Km for the dihydrodiol derivative of chloridazon of 1.0 mM. Enzyme B can be completely inhibited by even small amounts of p-chloromercuribenzoate and by N-bromosuccinimide. Striking differences were found in the substrate specificities of the two dehydrogenases. Whereas enzyme A exhibits a high specificity towards dihydrodiols derived from aromates of the chloridazon or phenazon type, enzyme B is much less specific and is also able to convert the dihydrodiols of benzene, toluene or chlorobenzene into the corresponding catechols. Both enzymes are competitively inhibited by the reaction product, the catechol of chloridazon. Other catechols differed in their inhibitory effect on the two dehydrogenases. These differences are correlated with the different substrate

  18. 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway of Mucor mucedo: purification, cloning of the corresponding gene, and developmental expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Jana; Scheibner, Olaf; Burmester, Anke; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The NADP-dependent 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase is a (-) mating-type-specific enzyme in the pathway from beta-carotene to trisporic acid. This substance and its isomers and derivatives represent the general system of sexual communication in zygomycetes. The (-) mating type of Mucor mucedo was stimulated by trisporic acid and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Several peptides of the 26-kDa protein, digested with trypsin, were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA. The primary PCR fragment was sequenced and the complete gene, TSP2, was isolated. A labeled TSP2 hybridization probe detects a single-copy gene in the genome of M. mucedo. Northern blot analysis with RNAs from different growth stages reveals that the expression of the gene depends on the developmental stage of the mycelium in both mating types of M. mucedo. At the enzyme level, activity is found exclusively in the (-) mating type. However, renaturation of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels revealed the TSP2 gene product in both mating types. Analyzing the protein sequence places the enzyme in the short chain dehydrogenase superfamily. Thus, it has an evolutionary origin distinct from that of the previously isolated 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, which belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Apart from the TSP2 genes in the three sequenced zygomycetous genomes (Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Mucor circinelloides), the closest relative is the Myxococcus xanthus CsgA gene product, which is also a short chain dehydrogenase, involved in C signaling and fruiting body formation.

  19. 4-Dihydrotrisporin-Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme of the Sex Hormone Pathway of Mucor mucedo: Purification, Cloning of the Corresponding Gene, and Developmental Expression▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Jana; Scheibner, Olaf; Burmester, Anke; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The NADP-dependent 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase is a (−) mating-type-specific enzyme in the pathway from β-carotene to trisporic acid. This substance and its isomers and derivatives represent the general system of sexual communication in zygomycetes. The (−) mating type of Mucor mucedo was stimulated by trisporic acid and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Several peptides of the 26-kDa protein, digested with trypsin, were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA. The primary PCR fragment was sequenced and the complete gene, TSP2, was isolated. A labeled TSP2 hybridization probe detects a single-copy gene in the genome of M. mucedo. Northern blot analysis with RNAs from different growth stages reveals that the expression of the gene depends on the developmental stage of the mycelium in both mating types of M. mucedo. At the enzyme level, activity is found exclusively in the (−) mating type. However, renaturation of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels revealed the TSP2 gene product in both mating types. Analyzing the protein sequence places the enzyme in the short chain dehydrogenase superfamily. Thus, it has an evolutionary origin distinct from that of the previously isolated 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, which belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Apart from the TSP2 genes in the three sequenced zygomycetous genomes (Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Mucor circinelloides), the closest relative is the Myxococcus xanthus CsgA gene product, which is also a short chain dehydrogenase, involved in C signaling and fruiting body formation. PMID:18931040

  20. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates.

  1. Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin cotyledons: characterization and isoenzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K H; Splittstoesser, W E

    1972-04-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Pior. cultivar Dickinson Field) cotyledons was found in both soluble and particulate fractions with the bulk of the activity in the soluble fraction. Both enzymes used NAD(H) and NADP(H) but NAD(H) was favored. The enzymes were classified as glutamate-NAD oxidoreductase, deaminating (EC 1.4.1.3). Both enzymes were heat stable, had a pH optimum for reductive amination of 8.0, and were inhibited by high concentrations of NH(4) (+) or alpha-ketoglutarate. The soluble enzyme was more sensitive to NH(4) (+) inhibition and was activated by metal ions after ammonium sulfate fractionation while the solubilized particulate enzyme was not. Inhibition by ethylenediaminetetraacetate was restored by several divalent ions and inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate was reversed by glutathione. Particulate glutamate dehydrogenase showed a greater activity with NADP. The molecular weights of the enzymes are 250,000. Separation of the enzymes by disc gel electrophoresis showed that during germination the soluble isoenzymes increased from 1 to 7 in number, while only one particulate isoenzyme was found at any time. This particulate isoenzyme was identical with one of the soluble isoenzymes. A number of methods indicated that the soluble isoenzymes were not simply removed from the particulate fraction and that true isoenzymes were found.

  2. Orthodontic Force Application in Correlation with Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Husin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement generate mechanical forces to periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The forces correlate with initial responses of periodontal tissues and involving many metabolic changes. One of the metabolic changes detected in saliva is lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between orthodontic interrupted force application, lactate dehydrogenase activity and the distance of tooth movement. Methods: upper premolar, pre-retraction of upper canine and 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-retraction of upper canine with 100g interrupted orthodontic force. Results: duration of force (F=11.926 p 14 and 28 days post-retraction of canine. The region of retraction correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=7.377 p=0.007. The duration of force correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=66.554 p=0.000. retraction of canine. Conclusion: This study concluded that orthodontic interrupted force application on canine could increase the distance of tooth movement and LDH activity in saliva.

  3. Toxicity of Nitrification Inhibitors on Dehydrogenase Activity in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs such as 3,4-dimethylpyrazolephosphate=DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate=ClMPP and dicyandiamide,DCD which might be expected to inhibit microbial activity, on dehydrogenase activity (DRA,in three different soils in laboratory conditions. Dehydrogenase activity were assessed via reduction of 2-p-Iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyltetrazoliumchloride (INT. The toxicity and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using a loamy clay, a sandy loam and a sandy soil. The quantitative determination of DHA was carried out spectrophotometrically. In all experiments, the influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration were examined. To evaluate the rate of inhibition with the increasing NI concentrations, dose reponse curves were presented and no observable effect level =NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED 50(10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for common microbial activity such as DHA was about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils if it compare to DMPP and DCD. The NOEL,ED10 and ED50 values higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs were generally most effective in sandy soils. The three NIs considered at the present state of knowledge as environmentally safe in use.

  4. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2016-05-23

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)+as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD+versusNADP+, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP+cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  5. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-08-27

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management.

  6. FAD binding properties of a cytosolic version of Escherichia coli NADH dehydrogenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Josefina M; Valle, Lorena; Morán Vieyra, Faustino E; Rintoul, María R; Borsarelli, Claudio D; Rapisarda, Viviana A

    2014-03-01

    Respiratory NADH dehydrogenase-2 (NDH-2) of Escherichia coli is a peripheral membrane-bound flavoprotein. By eliminating its C-terminal region, a water soluble truncated version was obtained in our laboratory. Overall conformation of the mutant version resembles the wild-type protein. Considering these data and the fact that the mutant was obtained as an apo-protein, the truncated version is an ideal model to study the interaction between the enzyme and its cofactor. Here, the FAD binding properties of this version were characterized using far-UV circular dichroism (CD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), limited proteolysis, and steady-state and dynamic fluorescence spectroscopy. CD spectra, thermal unfolding and DSC profiles did not reveal any major difference in secondary structure between apo- and holo-protein. In addition, digestion site accessibility and tertiary conformation were similar for both proteins, as seen by comparable chymotryptic cleavage patterns. FAD binding to the apo-protein produced a parallel increment of both FAD fluorescence quantum yield and steady-state emission anisotropy. On the other hand, addition of FAD quenched the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the truncated protein, indicating that the flavin cofactor should be closely located to the protein Trp residues. Analysis of the steady-state and dynamic fluorescence data confirms the formation of the holo-protein with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and an association constant KA=7.0(±0.8)×10(4)M(-1). Taken together, the FAD-protein interaction is energetically favorable and the addition of FAD is not necessary to induce the enzyme folded state. For the first time, a detailed characterization of the flavin:protein interaction was performed among alternative NADH dehydrogenases.

  7. Crystal structure studies of NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Abdoh, M.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with citrate and cofactor. • The structure reveals a unique novel terminal domain involved in dimerization. • Clasp domain shows significant difference, and catalytic residues are conserved. • Oligomerization of the enzyme is quantized with subunit-subunit interactions. • Novel domain of this enzyme is classified as subfamily of the type IV. - Abstract: NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP{sup +} was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH’s. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH’s. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit–subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  8. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, P.; McKay, J. D.; Jenab, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populati......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian...... populations.SUBJECTS/METHODS: A nested case-control study (1269 cases matched to 2107controls by sex, age, study centre and date of blood collection) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7...

  9. Directed evolution of leucine dehydrogenase for improved efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Wu, Zhe; Jin, Jian-Ming; Tang, Shuang-Yan

    2016-07-01

    L-tert-Leucine and its derivatives are used as synthetic building blocks for pharmaceutical active ingredients, chiral auxiliaries, and ligands. Leucine dehydrogenase (LeuDH) is frequently used to prepare L-tert-leucine from the α-keto acid precursor trimethylpyruvate (TMP). In this study, a high-throughput screening method for the L-tert-leucine synthesis reaction based on a spectrophotometric approach was developed. Directed evolution strategy was applied to engineer LeuDH from Lysinibacillus sphaericus for improved efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis. After two rounds of random mutagenesis, the specific activity of LeuDH on the substrate TMP was enhanced by more than two-fold, compared with that of the wild-type enzyme, while the activity towards its natural substrate, leucine, decreased. The catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K m) of the best mutant enzyme, H6, on substrates TMP and NADH were all enhanced by more than five-fold as compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. The efficiency of L-tert-leucine synthesis by mutant H6 was significantly improved. A productivity of 1170 g/l/day was achieved for the mutant enzyme H6, compared with 666 g/l/day for the wild-type enzyme.

  10. Identification of yak lactate dehydrogenase B gene variants by gene cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that two types of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) existed in yaks. Based on the electrophoresis characteristics of LDH isoenzymes, yak LDH variants were speculated to be the gene mutation on H subunit encoded by B gene. According to the mobility in electrophoresis, the fast-band LDH type was named LDH-Hf and the slow-band LDH type LDH-Hs. In order to reveal the gene alteration in yak LDH variants, total RNA was extracted from heart tissues of yaks with different LDH variants, and cDNAs of the two variants were reverse transcripted. Two variants of B genes were cloned by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that four nucleotides differed between LDH-Bf and LDH-Bs, which resulted in two amino acids alteration. By Deepview software analysis of the conformation of yak LDH1 variants and H subunit, these four nucleotides altered two amino acids that generated new hydrogen bonds to change the hydrogen bonds network, and further caused subtle conformational changes between the two LDH variants.

  11. Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence.

  12. Identification of yak lactate dehydrogenase B gene variants by gene cloning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG YuCai; ZHAO XingBo; ZHOU Jing; PIAO Ying; JIN SuYu; HE QingHua; HONG Jian; LINing; WU ChangXin

    2008-01-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that two types of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) existed in yaks. Based on the electrophoresis characteristics of LDH isoenzymes, yak LDH variants were speculated to be the gene mutation on H subunit encoded by B gene. According to the mobility in electrophoresis, the fast-band LDH type was named LDH-Hf and the slow-band LDH type LDH-Hs. In order to reveal the gene alteration In yak LDH variants, total RNA was extracted from heart tissues of yaks with different LDH variants, and cDNAs of the two variants were reverse transcripted. Two variants of B genes were cloned by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that four nucleotides differed between LDH-Bf and LDH-Bs, which resulted in two amino acids alteration. By Deepview software analysis of the conformation of yak LDH1 variants and H subunit, these four nucleotides altered two amino acids that generated new hydrogen bonds to change the hydrogen bonds network, and further caused subtle conformstionsl changes between the two LDH variants.

  13. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  14. Structural basis for the dysfunctioning of human 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, A.F.; Kok, de A.

    2002-01-01

    2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes are a ubiquitous family of multienzyme systems that catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of various 2-oxo acid substrates. They play a key role in the primary energy metabolism: in glycolysis (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), the citric acid cycle (2-oxoglutarate

  15. Role of phosphoenolpyruvate in the NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase reaction in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tadashi; Murakami, Keiko; Mori, Hirotada; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Yoshin, Masataka

    2007-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate inhibited Escherichia coli NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase allosterically (Ki of 0.31 mM) and isocitrate lyase uncompetitively (Ki' of 0.893 mM). Phosphoenolpyruvate enhances the uncompetitive inhibition of isocitrate lyase by increasing isocitrate, which protects isocitrate dehydrogenase from the inhibition, and contributes to the control through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate shunt.

  16. Role of Phosphoenolpyruvate in the NADP-Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and Isocitrate Lyase Reaction in Escherichia coli▿

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate inhibited Escherichia coli NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase allosterically (Ki of 0.31 mM) and isocitrate lyase uncompetitively (Ki′ of 0.893 mM). Phosphoenolpyruvate enhances the uncompetitive inhibition of isocitrate lyase by increasing isocitrate, which protects isocitrate dehydrogenase from the inhibition, and contributes to the control through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate shunt.

  17. P450BM3 fused to phosphite dehydrogenase allows phosphite-driven selective oxidations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, Nina; Kulig, Justyna K; Bartsch, Anette; Hayes, Martin A; Janssen, Dick B; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate the wider application of the NADPH-dependent P450BM3, we fused the monooxygenase with a phosphite dehydrogenase (PTDH). The resulting monooxygenase-dehydrogenase fusion enzyme acts as a self-sufficient bifunctional catalyst, accepting phosphite as a cheap electron donor for the regener

  18. ¹³C-metabolic enrichment of glutamate in glutamate dehydrogenase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Sieg, Alex; Trotter, Pamela J

    2011-10-20

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) interconvert α-ketoglutarate and glutamate. In yeast, NADP-dependent enzymes, encoded by GDH1 and GDH3, are reported to synthesize glutamate from α-ketoglutarate, while an NAD-dependent enzyme, encoded by GDH2, catalyzes the reverse. Cells were grown in acetate/raffinose (YNAceRaf) to examine the role(s) of these enzymes during aerobic metabolism. In YNAceRaf the doubling time of wild type, gdh2Δ, and gdh3Δ cells was comparable at ∼4 h. NADP-dependent GDH activity (Gdh1p+Gdh3p) in wild type, gdh2Δ, and gdh3Δ was decreased ∼80% and NAD-dependent activity (Gdh2p) in wild type and gdh3Δ was increased ∼20-fold in YNAceRaf as compared to glucose. Cells carrying the gdh1Δ allele did not divide in YNAceRaf, yet both the NADP-dependent (Gdh3p) and NAD-dependent (Gdh2p) GDH activity was ∼3-fold higher than in glucose. Metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]-acetate and analysis of carbon NMR spectra were used to examine glutamate metabolism. Incorporation of (13)C into glutamate was nearly undetectable in gdh1Δ cells, reflecting a GDH activity at <15% of wild type. Analysis of (13)C-enrichment of glutamate carbons indicates a decreased rate of glutamate biosynthesis from acetate in gdh2Δ and gdh3Δ strains as compared to wild type. Further, the relative complexity of (13)C-isotopomers at early time points was noticeably greater in gdh3Δ as compared to wild type and gdh2Δ cells. These in vivo data show that Gdh1p is the primary GDH enzyme and Gdh2p and Gdh3p play evident roles during aerobic glutamate metabolism.

  19. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of the Pichia pastoris sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter for expression of heterologous proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Sankar; Govindappa, Nagaraj; Sreenivas, Suma; Sastry, Kedarnath

    2013-11-01

    Sorbitol is used as a non-repressive carbon source to develop fermentation process for Mut(s) recombinant clones obtained using the AOX1 promoter in Pichia pastoris. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is an enzyme in the carbohydrate metabolism that catalyzes reduction of D-fructose into D-sorbitol in the presence of NADH. The small stretch of 211bps upstream region of sorbitol dehydrogenase coding gene has all the promoter elements like CAAT box, GC box, etc. It is able to promote protein production under repressive as well as non-repressive carbon sources. In this study, the strength of the sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter was evaluated by expression of two heterologous proteins: human serum albumin and erythrina trypsin inhibitor. Sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter allowed constitutive expression of recombinant proteins in all carbon sources that were tested to grow P. pastoris and showed activity similar to GAP promoter. The sorbitol dehydrogenase promoter was active in all the growth phases of the P. pastoris.

  20. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  1. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase product

  2. Identification and regional localization of a human IMP dehydrogenase-like locus (IMPHDL1) at 16p13. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doggett, N.A.; Tesmer, J.G.; Duesing, L.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Callen, D.F.; Chen, Z.L.; Moore, S. (Adelaide Children' s Hospital, North Adelaide (Australia)); Stallings, R.L. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Sequence-tagged sites (STS)s are versatile chromosomal markers for a variety of genome mapping efforts. In this report, the authors describe a randomly generated STS (323F4) from human chromosome 16 genomic DNA that has 90.0% sequence identity to the type I human inosine-5[prime]-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH1) gene and 72% identity to the type II human inosine-5[prime]-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH2) gene. Additional sequencing by primer walking has provided a total of 1380 bp of the human chromosome 16 sequence. The IMPDH-like sequence 323F4 was regionally localized by PCR analysis of a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing different portions of human chromosome 16 to 16p13.3-13.12, between the breakpoints found in hybrids CY196/CY197 and CY198. This regional mapping assignment was further refined to subband 16p13.3 by high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization using cosmid 323F4 as a probe. The authors conclude that a third, previously undescribed IMPDH locus, termed IMPDHL1, exists at human chromosome 16p13.13. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The Plant Short-Chain Dehydrogenase (SDR superfamily: genome-wide inventory and diversification patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moummou Hanane

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs form one of the largest and oldest NAD(P(H dependent oxidoreductase families. Despite a conserved ‘Rossmann-fold’ structure, members of the SDR superfamily exhibit low sequence similarities, which constituted a bottleneck in terms of identification. Recent classification methods, relying on hidden-Markov models (HMMs, improved identification and enabled the construction of a nomenclature. However, functional annotations of plant SDRs remain scarce. Results Wide-scale analyses were performed on ten plant genomes. The combination of hidden Markov model (HMM based analyses and similarity searches led to the construction of an exhaustive inventory of plant SDR. With 68 to 315 members found in each analysed genome, the inventory confirmed the over-representation of SDRs in plants compared to animals, fungi and prokaryotes. The plant SDRs were first classified into three major types — ‘classical’, ‘extended’ and ‘divergent’ — but a minority (10% of the predicted SDRs could not be classified into these general types (‘unknown’ or ‘atypical’ types. In a second step, we could categorize the vast majority of land plant SDRs into a set of 49 families. Out of these 49 families, 35 appeared early during evolution since they are commonly found through all the Green Lineage. Yet, some SDR families — tropinone reductase-like proteins (SDR65C, ‘ABA2-like’-NAD dehydrogenase (SDR110C, ‘salutaridine/menthone-reductase-like’ proteins (SDR114C, ‘dihydroflavonol 4-reductase’-like proteins (SDR108E and ‘isoflavone-reductase-like’ (SDR460A proteins — have undergone significant functional diversification within vascular plants since they diverged from Bryophytes. Interestingly, these diversified families are either involved in the secondary metabolism routes (terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics or participate in developmental processes (hormone biosynthesis or

  4. The reaction of choline dehydrogenase with some electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, M C; Dawson, A P

    1975-12-01

    1. The choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) WAS SOLUBILIZED FROM ACETONE-DRIED POWDERS OF RAT LIVER MITOCHONDRIA BY TREATMENT WITH Naja naja venom. 2. The kinetics of the reaction of enzyme with phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as electron acceptors were investigated. 3. With both electron acceptors the reaction mechanism appears to involve a free, modified-enzyme intermediate. 4. With some electron acceptors the maximum velocity of the reaction is independent of the nature of the acceptor. With phenazine methosulphate and ubiquinone-2 as acceptors the Km value for choline is also independent of the nature of the acceptor molecule. 5. The mechanism of the Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme is apparently the smae as that for the snake venom solubilized enzyme.

  5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Thibodeau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH complex is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that serves a critical role in the conversion of anaerobic to aerobic cerebral energy. The regulatory complexity of PDH, coupled with its significant influence in brain metabolism, underscores its susceptibility to, and significance in, ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we evaluate proposed mechanisms of PDH-mediated neurodysfunction in stroke, including oxidative stress, altered regulatory enzymatic control, and loss of PDH activity. We also describe the neuroprotective influence of antioxidants, dichloroacetate, acetyl-L-carnitine, and combined therapy with ethanol and normobaric oxygen, explained in relation to PDH modulation. Our review highlights the significance of PDH impairment in stroke injury through an understanding of the mechanisms by which it is modulated, as well as an exploration of neuroprotective strategies available to limit its impairment.

  6. Fabricating polystyrene fiber-dehydrogenase assemble as a functional biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjie; Jin, Bo; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Immobilization of the enzymes on nano-structured materials is a promising approach to enhance enzyme stabilization, activation and reusability. This study aimed to develop polystyrene fiber-enzyme assembles to catalyze model formaldehyde to methanol dehydrogenation reaction, which is an essential step for bioconversion of CO2 to a renewable bioenergy. We fabricated and modified electrospun polystyrene fibers, which showed high capability to immobilize dehydrogenase for the fiber-enzyme assembles. Results from evaluation of biochemical activities of the fiber-enzyme assemble showed that nitriation with the nitric/sulfuric acid ratio (v/v, 10:1) and silanization treatment delivered desirable enzyme activity and long-term storage stability, showing great promising toward future large-scale applications.

  7. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase from chitosan-treated Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaid, Mariam M; Sircar, Debabrata; Beuerle, Till; Mitra, Adinpunya; Beerhues, Ludger

    2009-09-01

    Cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia respond to the addition of chitosan with the accumulation of the biphenyl phytoalexin aucuparin. The carbon skeleton of this inducible defense compound is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS) from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA. The formation of benzoyl-CoA proceeds via benzaldehyde as an intermediate. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BD), which converts benzaldehyde into benzoic acid, was detected in cell-free extracts from S. aucuparia cell cultures. BD and BIS were induced by chitosan treatment. The preferred substrate for BD was benzaldehyde (K(m)=49 microM). Cinnamaldehyde and various hydroxybenzaldehydes were relatively poor substrates. BD activity was strictly dependent on the presence of NAD(+) as a cofactor (K(m)=67 microM).

  8. IMP Dehydrogenase: Structural Schizophrenia and an Unusual Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom,L.; Gan, L.

    2006-01-01

    Textbooks describe enzymes as relatively rigid templates for the transition state of a chemical reaction, and indeed an enzyme such as chymotrypsin, which catalyzes a relatively simple hydrolysis reaction, is reasonably well described by this model. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) undergoes a remarkable array of conformational transitions in the course of a complicated catalytic cycle, offering a dramatic counterexample to this view. IMPDH displays several other unusual mechanistic features, including an Arg residue that may act as a general base catalyst and a dynamic monovalent cation site. Further, IMPDH appears to be involved in 'moon-lighting' functions that may require additional conformational states. How the balance between conformational states is maintained and how the various conformational states interconvert is only beginning to be understood.

  9. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  10. Encapsulation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in Mannitol by Spray Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Shiga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11 was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders.

  11. Encapsulation of alcohol dehydrogenase in mannitol by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Joreau, Hiromi; Neoh, Tze Loon; Furuta, Takeshi; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2014-03-24

    The retention of the enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been studied in various drying processes such as spray drying. The aim of this study is to encapsulate ADH in mannitol, either with or without additive in order to limit the thermal denaturation of the enzyme during the drying process. The retention of ADH activity was investigated at different drying temperatures. When mannitol was used, the encapsulated ADH was found inactive in all the dried powders. This is presumably due to the quick crystallization of mannitol during spray drying that resulted in the impairment of enzyme protection ability in comparison to its amorphous form. Maltodextin (dextrose equivalent = 11) was used to reduce the crystallization of mannitol. The addition of maltodextrin increased ADH activity and drastically changed the powder X-ray diffractogram of the spray-dried powders.

  12. Glutamate oxidation in astrocytes: Roles of glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenna, Mary C; Stridh, Malin H; McNair, Laura Frendrup;

    2016-01-01

    The cellular distribution of transporters and enzymes related to glutamate metabolism led to the concept of the glutamate–glutamine cycle. Glutamate is released as a neurotransmitter and taken up primarily by astrocytes ensheathing the synapses. The glutamate carbon skeleton is transferred back...... oxidative degradation; thus, quantitative formation of glutamine from the glutamate taken up is not possible. Oxidation of glutamate is initiated by transamination catalyzed by an aminotransferase, or oxidative deamination catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). We discuss methods available to elucidate...... the enzymes that mediate this conversion. Methods include pharmacological tools such as the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid, studies using GDH knockout mice, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of GDH in astrocytes. Studies in brain slices incubated with [15N]glutamate demonstrated activity of GDH...

  13. Kinetics of myoglobin redox form stabilization by malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Anand; Muthukrishnan, S; Hunt, Melvin C; Barstow, Thomas J; Houser, Terry A

    2010-06-09

    This study reports the reduction of metmyoglobin (MMb) via oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate and the regeneration of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) via malate dehydrogenase (MDH). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a malate-MDH-NADH system as a possible mechanism for MMb reduction. In experiment 1, kinetics of MDH and MMb reduction were determined, and the results showed that increasing concentrations of oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and l-malate also increased (p malate and NAD(+) added. Reduction of MMb in the muscle extracts via MDH was NAD(+), malate, and extract concentration dependent (p malate can replenish NADH via MDH activity in post-mortem muscle, ultimately resulting in a more functional meat color.

  14. In vitro interaction between psychotropic drugs and alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Bello, F; Burguillo, F J; Cachaza, J M; Kennedy, J F

    1991-03-01

    A series of CNS-stimulating and -depressant drugs have been studied for their in vitro interaction with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity. The depressant drugs studied included barbital, phenobarbital, thiopental, nitrazepam, chlorpromazine, sulpiride, clomethiazole, Li2CO3, diazepam, phenytoin, ethosuximide, morphine, and codeine. The stimulant drugs were theophylline, caffeine, amphetamine, imipramine, chlorimipramine, amitriptyline, and tranylcypromine. The results were as follows. First, ADH activity was inhibited by the action of chlorpromazine, tranylcypromine, imipramine, chlorimipramine, amitriptyline, sulpiride, amphetamine, codeine, ethosuximide, morphine, clomethiazole, nitrazepam, Li2CO3, theophylline, and phenobarbital, in descending order of inhibitory effect. Second, inhibition followed by activation of ADH activity was observed for imipramine and chlorimipramine. Third, activation of ADH activity was observed for phenytoin. Finally, the following drugs were not seen to exert any effect on ADH activity: barbital, thiopental, diazepam, and caffeine.

  15. Mechanistic enzymology of CO dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    The final steps in acetyl-CoA biosynthesis by anaerobic bacteria are performed by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), a nickel/iron-sulfur protein. An important achievement was to establish conditions under which acetyl-CoA synthesis by purified enzymes equals the in vivo rate of acetate synthesis. Under these optimized conditions we established that the rate limiting step in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from methyl-H[sub 4]folate, CO and CoA is likely to be the methylation of CODH by the methylated corrinoid/iron-sulfur protein. We then focused on stopped flow studies of this rate limiting transmethylation reaction and established its mechanism. We have studied the carbonylation of CODH by infrared and resonance Raman spectroscopy and determined that the [Ni-Fe[sup 3-4]S[sub 4

  16. Crystallographic analysis of FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Hirofumi; Inaka, Koji; Furubayashi, Naoki; Honda, Michinari; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2015-08-01

    An FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Aspergillus terreus was purified and crystallized at 293 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. A data set was collected to a resolution of 1.6 Å from a single crystal at 100 K using a rotating-anode X-ray source. The crystal belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.56, b = 135.74, c = 74.13 Å, β = 90.37°. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of GDH. The Matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.2 Å(3) Da(-1) and the solvent content was estimated to be 44%.

  17. Conjugated bilirubin in neonates with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M; Rubaltelli, F F; Hammerman, C; Vilei, M T; Leiter, C; Abramov, A; Muraca, M

    1996-05-01

    We used a system capable of measuring conjugated bilirubin and its monoconjugated and diconjugated fractions in serum to assess bilirubin conjugation in 29 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient, term, male newborn infants and 35 control subjects; all had serum bilirubin levels > or = 256 mumol/L (15 mg/dI). The median value for diconjugated bilirubin was lower in the G6PD-deficient neonates than in control subjects (0.06 (range 0.00 to 1.84) vs 0.21 (range 0.00 to 1.02) mumol/L, p = 0.006). Diglucuronide was undetectable in 11 (38.9%) of the G6PD-deficient infants versus 3 (8.6%) of the control subjects (p = 0.015). These findings imply a partial defect of bilirubin conjugation not previously demonstrated in G6PD-deficient newborn infants.

  18. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  19. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis.

  20. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  1. Biochemical and structural characterization of Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Kathleen; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Kehr, Sebastian; Fischer, Marina; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2012-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) play key roles in cellular redox, amino acid, and energy metabolism, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we studied the functional network provided by the three known glutamate dehydrogenases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The recombinant production of the previously described PfGDH1 as hexahistidyl-tagged proteins was optimized. Additionally, PfGDH2 was cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized. Like PfGDH1, PfGDH2 is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme with a specific activity comparable to PfGDH1 but with slightly higher K(m) values for its substrates. The three-dimensional structure of hexameric PfGDH2 was solved to 3.1 Å resolution. The overall structure shows high similarity with PfGDH1 but with significant differences occurring at the subunit interface. As in mammalian GDH1, in PfGDH2 the subunit-subunit interactions are mainly assisted by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas in PfGDH1 these contacts are mediated by networks of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In accordance with this, the known bovine GDH inhibitors hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol were more effective on PfGDH2 than on PfGDH1. Subcellular localization was determined for all three plasmodial GDHs by fusion with the green fluorescent protein. Based on our data, PfGDH1 and PfGDH3 are cytosolic proteins whereas PfGDH2 clearly localizes to the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle specific for apicomplexan parasites. This study provides new insights into the structure and function of GDH isoenzymes of P. falciparum, which represent potential targets for the development of novel antimalarial drugs.

  2. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www6.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/LDH

  3. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration in nasal wash fluid indicates severity of rhinovirus-induced wheezy bronchitis in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiano, Giulia; Proietti, Elena; Kronig, Marie Noelle; Kieninger, Elisabeth; Sadeghi, Christine D; Gorgievski, Meri; Barbani, Maria Teresa; Midulla, Fabio; Tapparel, Caroline; Kaiser, Laurent; Alves, Marco P; Regamey, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The clinical course of rhinovirus (RV)-associated wheezing illnesses is difficult to predict. We measured lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, RV load, antiviral and proinflammatory cytokines in nasal washes obtained from 126 preschool children with RV wheezy bronchitis. lactate dehydrogenase values were inversely associated with subsequent need for oxygen therapy. lactate dehydrogenase may be a useful biomarker predicting disease severity in RV wheezy bronchitis.

  4. Structure-based mutational studies of substrate inhibition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase BetB from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Brown, Greg; Stolnikova, Ekaterina; Halavaty, Andrei S; Savchenko, Alexei; Anderson, Wayne F; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2014-07-01

    Inhibition of enzyme activity by high concentrations of substrate and/or cofactor is a general phenomenon demonstrated in many enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here we show that the uncharacterized protein BetB (SA2613) from Staphylococcus aureus is a highly specific betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, which exhibits substrate inhibition at concentrations of betaine aldehyde as low as 0.15 mM. In contrast, the aldehyde dehydrogenase YdcW from Escherichia coli, which is also active against betaine aldehyde, shows no inhibition by this substrate. Using the crystal structures of BetB and YdcW, we performed a structure-based mutational analysis of BetB and introduced the YdcW residues into the BetB active site. From a total of 32 mutations, those in five residues located in the substrate binding pocket (Val288, Ser290, His448, Tyr450, and Trp456) greatly reduced the substrate inhibition of BetB, whereas the double mutant protein H448F/Y450L demonstrated a complete loss of substrate inhibition. Substrate inhibition was also reduced by mutations of the semiconserved Gly234 (to Ser, Thr, or Ala) located in the BetB NAD(+) binding site, suggesting some cooperativity between the cofactor and substrate binding sites. Substrate docking analysis of the BetB and YdcW active sites revealed that the wild-type BetB can bind betaine aldehyde in both productive and nonproductive conformations, whereas only the productive binding mode can be modeled in the active sites of YdcW and the BetB mutant proteins with reduced substrate inhibition. Thus, our results suggest that the molecular mechanism of substrate inhibition of BetB is associated with the nonproductive binding of betaine aldehyde.

  5. Determining structure and function of steroid dehydrogenase enzymes by sequence analysis, homology modeling, and rational mutational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, William L; Thomas, James; Pletnev, Vladimir; Addlagatta, Anthony; Huether, Robert; Habegger, Lukas; Weeks, Charles M

    2005-12-01

    The short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of enzymes includes over 6,000 members identified in sequenced genomes. Of these enzymes, approximately 300 have been characterized functionally, and the three-dimensional crystal structures of approximately 40 have been reported. Since some SCOR enzymes are steroid dehydrogenases involved in hypertension, diabetes, breast cancer, and polycystic kidney disease, it is important to characterize the other members of the family for which the biological functions are currently unknown and to determine their three-dimensional structure and mechanism of action. Although the SCOR family appears to have only a single fully conserved residue, it was possible, using bioinformatics methods, to determine characteristic fingerprints composed of 30-40 residues that are conserved at the 70% or greater level in SCOR subgroups. These fingerprints permit reliable prediction of several important structure-function features including cofactor preference, catalytic residues, and substrate specificity. Human type 1 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase (3beta-HSDI) has 30% sequence identity with a human UDP galactose 4-epimerase (UDPGE), a SCOR family enzyme for which an X-ray structure has been reported. Both UDPGE and 3-HSDI appear to trace their origins back to bacterial 3alpha,20beta-HSD. Combining three-dimensional structural information and sequence data on the 3alpha,20beta-HSD, UDPGE, and 3beta-HSDI subfamilies with mutational analysis, we were able to identify the residues critical to the dehydrogenase function of 3-HSDI. We also identified the residues most probably responsible for the isomerase activity of 3beta-HSDI. We test our predictions by specific mutations based on sequence analysis and our structure-based model.

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa O; Gross, Eric R; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-08-27

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R(2) = 0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde- and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was even beneficial when given after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic, cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance.

  7. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Ping; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2016-02-26

    Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) from B. longum (BlIDH), a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP⁺-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH), with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP⁺ over NAD⁺ in the presence of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn(2+)) and 65 °C (with Mg(2+)), and pH 7.5 (with Mn(2+)) and pH 8.0 (with Mg(2+)). Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn(2+) or Mg(2+). Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP⁺ to NAD⁺ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP⁺ use by the IDH family.

  8. Biochemical Characterization and Complete Conversion of Coenzyme Specificity of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium longum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ping Huang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH from B. longum (BlIDH, a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP+-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH, with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP+ over NAD+ in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn2+ and 65 °C (with Mg2+, and pH 7.5 (with Mn2+ and pH 8.0 (with Mg2+. Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn2+ or Mg2+. Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP+ to NAD+ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP+ use by the IDH family.

  9. Sequestration of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase to Aggregates Formed by Mutant Huntingtin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junchao WU; Fang LIN; Zhenghong QIN

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) has been reported to interact with proteins containing the polyglutamine (polyQ) domain. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential contributions of the polyQ and polyproline (polyP) domains to the co-localization of mutant huntingtin (htt) and GAPDH. Overexpression of N-terminal htt (1-969 amino acids) with 100Q and 46Q (htt1-969-100Q and httl-969-46Q, mutant htt) in human mammary gland carcinoma MCF-7 cells formed more htt aggregates than that of htt1-969-18Q (wild-type htt). The co-localization of GAPDH with htt aggregates was found in the cells expressing mutant but not wild-type htt. Deletion of the polyp region in the N-terminal htt had no effect on the co-localization of GAPDH and mutant htt aggregates. These results suggest that the polyQ domain, but not the polyp domain, plays a role in the sequestration of GAPDH to aggregates by mutant htt. This effect might contribute to the dysfunction of neurons caused by mutant htt in Huntington's disease.

  10. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat lung alveolar epithelial cells. An ultrastructural enzyme-cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD is the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway in carbohydrate metabolism, and it plays an important role in cell proliferation and antioxidant regulation within cells in various organs. Although marked cell proliferation and oxidant/antioxidant metabolism occur in lung alveolar epithelial cells, definite data has been lacking as to whether cytochemically detectable G6PD is present in alveolar epithelial cells. The distribution pattern of G6PD within these cells, if it is present, is also unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the subcellular localization of G6PD in alveolar cells in the rat lung using a newly- developed enzyme-cytochemistry (copper-ferrocyanide method. Type I cells and stromal endothelia and fibroblasts showed no activities. Electron-dense precipitates indicating G6PD activity were clearly visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of type II alveolar epithelial cells. The cytochemical controls ensured specific detection of enzyme activity. This enzyme may play a role in airway defense by delivering substances for cell proliferation and antioxidant forces, thus maintaining the airway architecture.

  11. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a cytosolic protein required for sorbitol metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, María Francisca; Ampuero, Diego; Mandujano, Patricio; Parada, Roberto; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Gallart, Marta; Altabella, Teresa; Cabrera, Ricardo; Stange, Claudia; Handford, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Sorbitol is converted to fructose in Rosaceae species by SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, EC 1.1.1.14), especially in sink organs. SDH has also been found in non-Rosaceae species and here we show that the protein encoded by At5g51970 in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. possesses the molecular characteristics of an SDH. Using a green fluorescent protein-tagged version and anti-SDH antisera, we determined that SDH is cytosolically localized, consistent with bioinformatic predictions. We also show that SDH is widely expressed, and that SDH protein accumulates in both source and sink organs. In the presence of NAD+, recombinant SDH exhibited greatest oxidative activity with sorbitol, ribitol and xylitol as substrates; other sugar alcohols were oxidized to a lesser extent. Under standard growth conditions, three independent sdh- mutants developed as wild-type. Nevertheless, all three exhibited reduced dry weight and primary root length compared to wild-type when grown in the presence of sorbitol. Additionally, under short-day conditions, the mutants were more resistant to dehydration stress, as shown by a reduced loss of leaf water content when watering was withheld, and a greater survival rate on re-watering. This evidence suggests that limitations in the metabolism of sugar alcohols alter the growth of Arabidopsis and its response to drought.

  12. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and esophageal cancer risk in Southeast Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Ding; Su-Ping Li; Hai-Xia Cao; Jian-Zhong Wu; Chang-Ming Gao; Ping Su; Yan-Ting Liu; Jian-Nong Zhou; Jun Chang; Gen-Hong Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on esophageal cancer susceptibility in Southeast Chinese males. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-one esophageal cancer patients and 191 healthy controls from Taixing city in Jiangsu Province were enrolled in this study. ADH2 and ALDH2 genotypes were examined by polymerase chain reaction and denaturing highperformance liquid chromatography. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The ADH G allele carriers were more susceptible to esophageal cancer, but no association was found between ADH2 genotypes and risk of esophageal cancer when disregarding alcohol drinking status. Regardless of ADH2 genotype, ALDH2G/A or A/A carriers had significantly increased risk of developing esophageal cancer, with homozygous individuals showing higher esophageal cancer risk than those who were heterozygous. A significant interaction between ALDH2 and drinking was detected regarding esophageal cancer risk; the OR was 3.05 (95% CI: 1.49-6.25). Compared with non-drinkers carrying both ALDH2 G/G and ADH2 A/A, drinkers carrying both ALDH2 A allele and ADH2 G allele showed a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal cancer (OR = 8.36, 95% CI: 2.98-23.46).CONCLUSION: Both ADH2 G allele and ALDH2 A allele significantly increase the risk of esophageal cancer development in Southeast Chinese males. ALDH2 A allele significantly increases the risk of esophageal cancer development especially in alcohol drinkers. Alcohol drinkers carrying both ADH2 G allele and ALDH2 A allele have a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer.

  13. Branched chain amino acid transaminase and branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity in the brain, liver and skele­tal muscle of acute hepatic failure rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takei,Nobuyuki

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Branched chain amino acid (BCAA transaminase activity increased in both the mitochondrial and supernatant fractions of brain from hepatic failure rats, in which a partial hepatectomy was performed 24h following carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration, although the activity of liver and skeletal muscle was the same as in control rats. The elevation of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase activity in liver-injured rats was partly due to increased activity of brain specific Type III isozyme. Branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA dehydrogenase in the brain homogenates was not significantly altered in acute hepatic failure rats, while the liver enzyme activity was markedly diminished. BCKA dehydrogenase activity in the brain homogenates was inhibited by adding ATP to the assay system, and was activated in vitro by preincubating the brain homogenate at 37 degrees C for 15 min. These findings suggest that brain BCAA catabolism is accelerated in acute hepatic failure rats.

  14. Overexpression and nuclear accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatorov, Vladimir V; Charles, Vinod; Reddy, P H; Tagle, Dan A; Chuang, De-Maw

    2003-03-01

    Huntington's disease is due to an expansion of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene. Huntingtin interacts with several proteins including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). We performed immunohistochemical analysis of GAPDH expression in the brains of transgenic mice carrying the huntingtin gene with 89 CAG repeats. In all wild-type animals examined, GAPDH was evenly distributed among the different cell types throughout the brain. In contrast, the majority of transgenic mice showed GAPDH overexpression, with the most prominent GAPDH changes observed in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, neocortex, and hippocampal formation. Double staining for NeuN and GFAP revealed that GAPDH overexpression occurred exclusively in neurons. Nissl staining analysis of the neocortex and caudate putamen indicated 24 and 27% of cell loss in transgenic mice, respectively. Subcellular fluorescence analysis revealed a predominant increase in GAPDH immunostaining in the nucleus. Thus, we conclude that mutation of huntingtin is associated with GAPDH overexpression and nuclear translocation in discrete populations of brain neurons.

  15. Improved phosphorus acquisition by tobacco through transgenic expression of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase from Penicillium oxalicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jun; Gao, Xiaorong; Dong, Zhimin; Yi, Jun; An, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, but is generally unavailable and inaccessible in soil, since applied P is mostly fixed to aluminium (Al) and ferrum (Fe) in acidic soils and to calcium (Ca) in alkaline soils. Increased organic acid excretion is thought to be one mechanism by which plants use to enhance P uptake. In this study, we overexpressed a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene from the mycorrhizal fungi Penicillium oxalicum in tobacco. The MDH activity of transgenic lines was significantly increased compared to that of wild type. Malate content in root exudation of transgenic lines induced in response to P deficiency was 1.3- to 2.9-fold greater than that of wild type under the same condition. Among the transgenic lines that were selected for analysis, one line (M1) showed the highest level of MDH activity and malate exudate. M1 showed a significant increase in growth over wild type, with 149.0, 128.5, and 127.9% increases in biomass, when grown in Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate media, respectively. M1 also had better P uptake compared to wild type, with total P content increased by 287.3, 243.5, and 223.4% when grown in Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate media, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study on improving the ability of a plant to utilize P from Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate by manipulating the organic acid metabolism of the plant through genetic engineering.

  16. A new dawn for plant mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The expression of complex I and two homologues of bacterial and yeast NADH dehydrogenases, NDA and NDB, have been studied in potato leaf mitochondria. The mRNA level of NDA is completely light dependent and shows a diurnal rhythm with a sharp maximum just after dawn. NDA protein quantity and inte...... and internal rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase activity are also light dependent. These findings suggest that NDA has a role in photorespiration and might be identical to the previously unidentified internal rotenone-insensitive NADH dehydrogenase....

  17. Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhA(RE1) at 1.9Å and 2.5Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhA(RE1), which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhA(RE1) indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein\\'s active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ∼17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ∼160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources.

  18. Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, B S; Olpin, S; Poorthuis, B J; Scholte, H R; Vianey-Saban, C; Wanders, R; Ijlst, L; Morris, A; Pourfarzam, M; Bartlett, K; Baumgartner, E R; deKlerk, J B; Schroeder, L D; Corydon, T J; Lund, H; Winter, V; Bross, P; Bolund, L; Gregersen, N

    1999-01-01

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the initial rate-limiting step in mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. VLCAD deficiency is clinically heterogenous, with three major phenotypes: a severe childhood form, with early onset, high mortality, and high incidence of cardiomyopathy; a milder childhood form, with later onset, usually with hypoketotic hypoglycemia as the main presenting feature, low mortality, and rare cardiomyopathy; and an adult form, with isolated skeletal muscle involvement, rhabdomyolysis, and myoglobinuria, usually triggered by exercise or fasting. To examine whether these different phenotypes are due to differences in the VLCAD genotype, we investigated 58 different mutations in 55 unrelated patients representing all known clinical phenotypes and correlated the mutation type with the clinical phenotype. Our results show a clear relationship between the nature of the mutation and the severity of disease. Patients with the severe childhood phenotype have mutations that result in no residual enzyme activity, whereas patients with the milder childhood and adult phenotypes have mutations that may result in residual enzyme activity. This clear genotype-phenotype relationship is in sharp contrast to what has been observed in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, in which no correlation between genotype and phenotype can be established. PMID:9973285

  19. Cooperation of divalent ions and thiamin diphosphate in regulation of the function of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniecki, J; Czygier, M

    2001-12-01

    The role of Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ in regulation of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing endogenous thiamin diphosphate (TDP) was studied. It was found that the effects of the cations depended on the presence of exogenous TDP. In the absence of added TDP, the divalent cations led to a shortening of a lag phase of the PDC reaction and a strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate. The relative efficiency of the three types of ions are presented as follows: Mn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The other sources claim that in the presence of exogenous TDP, which alone strongly increased the affinity of PDC for pyruvate, any significant additional effects of the cations were not observed. However, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ decreased the Km value for CoA in both cases, the absence and presence of exogenous TDP, in approximately a similar extent (about twofold). The affinity of PDC for NAD+ seems to be not sensitive to the presence of the divalent cations. The data obtained suggest that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ can cooperate with TDP as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart PDC on the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoamide acetyltransferase components of the complex.

  20. Inhibition of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 2 Protects Against Hepatic Steatosis Through Modulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis and Ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Younghoon; Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Jeon, Jae-Han; Park, Bo-Yoon; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Lee, Sun Joo; Ham, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Park, Keun-Gyu; Park, So Young; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Cheol Soo; Park, Tae-Sik; Lee, W N Paul; Harris, Robert A; Lee, In-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased insulin resistance and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, but decreased ketogenesis and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) flux. This study examined whether hepatic PDC activation by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) ameliorates these metabolic abnormalities. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and increased levels of pyruvate, TCA cycle intermediates, and malonyl-CoA but reduced ketogenesis and PDC activity due to PDK2 induction. Hepatic PDC activation by PDK2 inhibition attenuated hepatic steatosis, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, reduced hepatic glucose production, increased capacity for β-oxidation and ketogenesis, and decreased the capacity for lipogenesis. These results were attributed to altered enzymatic capacities and a reduction in TCA anaplerosis that limited the availability of oxaloacetate for the TCA cycle, which promoted ketogenesis. The current study reports that increasing hepatic PDC activity by inhibition of PDK2 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity by regulating TCA cycle anaplerosis and ketogenesis. The findings suggest PDK2 is a potential therapeutic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Crystal structure of the NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase from Cladosporium herbarum: Implications for oligomerisation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüss, Dorota; Goettig, Peter; Magler, Iris; Denk, Ursula; Breitenbach, Michael; Schneider, Peter B; Brandstetter, Hans; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit

    2010-08-01

    The ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum is a prominent fungal inducer of Type I allergy. The only major allergen identified so far is Cla h 8, a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH). MtDH, a cytoplasmic protein of 28.5kDa, belongs to the Short chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (SDR), acting as a NADP-dependent oxidoreductase. In this study, we found that C. herbarum MtDH can exist as monomers, dimers and tetramers in solution and, correspondingly, forms tetramers and higher oligomers in two crystal structures. Additionally, we identified a unique adaptive binding site for the metal ions Na(+) and Zn(2+) that were distinguished by an anomalous dispersion experiment. A Translation-Libration-Screw analysis confirmed the stabilising effect of Zn(2+) for the tetrameric assembly. Moreover, the zinc containing structure explains the mode of MtDH multimerisation by metal bridging of the tetramers. The formation of oligomers and higher multimers of MtDH provides a missing link to its allergenic properties. Based on the well defined active site region and a comparative analysis with related structures, we can also clarify the atypical enzymatic properties of MtDH by two alternative binding modes of the substrate to the active site.

  2. Crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase Gnd1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Cong-Zhao

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the third enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH is the main generator of cellular NADPH. Both thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase require NADPH as the electron donor to reduce oxidized thioredoxin or glutathione (GSSG. Since thioredoxin and GSH are important antioxidants, it is not surprising that 6PGDH plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Furthermore the activity of 6PGDH is associated with several human disorders including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The 3D structural investigation would be very valuable in designing small molecules that target this enzyme for potential therapeutic applications. Results The crystal structure of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH/Gnd1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been determined at 2.37 Å resolution by molecular replacement. The overall structure of Gnd1 is a homodimer with three domains for each monomer, a Rossmann fold NADP+ binding domain, an all-α helical domain contributing the majority to hydrophobic interaction between the two subunits and a small C-terminal domain penetrating the other subunit. In addition, two citrate molecules occupied the 6PG binding pocket of each monomer. The intact Gnd1 had a Km of 50 ± 9 μM for 6-phosphogluconate and of 35 ± 6 μM for NADP+ at pH 7.5. But the truncated mutants without the C-terminal 35, 39 or 53 residues of Gnd1 completely lost their 6PGDH activity, despite remaining the homodimer in solution. Conclusion The overall tertiary structure of Gnd1 is similar to those of 6PGDH from other species. The substrate and coenzyme binding sites are well conserved, either from the primary sequence alignment, or from the 3D structural superposition. Enzymatic activity assays suggest a sequential mechanism of catalysis, which is in agreement with previous studies. The C-terminal domain of Gnd1 functions as a hook to further tighten the dimer, but it is not

  3. Adamantyl carboxamides and acetamides as potent human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiangdong; Halem, Heather A; Thomas, Mark P; Moutrille, Cecile; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2012-11-01

    The modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Here we report the discovery of a series of novel adamantyl carboxamide and acetamide derivatives as selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1 in HEK-293 cells transfected with the HSD11B1 gene. Optimization based on an initially identified 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (3) led to the discovery of potent inhibitors with IC(50) values in the 100 nM range. These compounds are also highly selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Compound 15 (IC(50)=114 nM) with weak inhibitory activity against the key human cytochrome P450 enzymes and moderate stability in incubation with human liver microsomes is worthy of further development. Importantly, compound 41 (IC(50)=280 nM) provides a new lead that incorporates an adamantyl group surrogate and should enable further series diversification.

  4. Analysis of Enzyme Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3 Gene Polymorphism of Alcoholics and Non-Alcoholics in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suhartini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is an addictive substance that is often misused worldwide, including in Indonesia. Ninety percent of the alcohol that enters the body will be metabolized in the liver using the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH enzyme. It is important to determine the activity of ADH enzyme and ADH3 gene polymorphism on alcoholics and non-alcoholics in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The aim of the study is  to determine ADH activity and identify ADH3 gene polymorphism of alcoholics and non-alcoholics in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design method. Blood samples were taken from 71 Javanese alcoholics and 71 non-alcoholics of Javanese descent in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The participants were initially requested to sign an informed consent form. Examination of ADH enzyme activity used the spectrophotometry method and ADH3 gene polymorphism was assessed with PCR-RFLP using Ssp I restriction enzyme. The activity of ADH enzyme in all individuals appeared to be a slower type. The average of the ethanol value of alcoholics and non-alcoholics were 0.05554 mM and 0.0758 mM respectively. Gene type of alcoholics were ADH3*2(75.4%, ADH3*1/3*2(21.5%, and ADH3*1(3.1%, and non-alcoholics were ADH3*2(88.6%, ADH3*1/3*2(10.0%, and ADH3*1(1.4%. There were no significant differences between the activity of ADH with polymorphism of ADH3 gene in either alcoholics and non-alcoholics (p>0,05. Conclusion: The activity of ADH enzyme in all participants appeared to be a slower type. Most of the ADH3 gene polymorphism of alcoholics and non-alcoholics were both ADH3*2 (75.4% and 88.6%. There was no differences of ADH enzyme activity with ADH3 gene polymorphism between alcoholics and non-alcoholics of Javanese population in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  5. Induction of glutamate dehydrogenase in the ovine fetal liver by dexamethasone infusion during late gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Timmerman (Michelle); R.B. Wilkening; T.R. Regnault

    2003-01-01

    textabstractGlucocorticoids near term are known to upregulate many important enzyme systems prior to birth. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes both the reversible conversion of ammonium nitrogen into organic nitrogen (glutamate production) and th

  6. Structural Biology of Proteins of the Multi-enzyme Assembly Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Objectives and research challenges of this effort include: 1. Need to establish Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 2. Need to test value of microgravity for improving crystal quality of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex protein crystals; 3. Need to improve flight hardware in order to control and understand the effects of microgravity on crystallization of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex proteins; 4. Need to integrate sets of national collaborations with the restricted and specific requirements of flight experiments; 5. Need to establish a highly controlled experiment in microgravity with a rigor not yet obtained; 6. Need to communicate both the rigor of microgravity experiments and the scientific value of results obtained from microgravity experiments to the national community; and 7. Need to advance the understanding of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex structures so that scientific and commercial advance is identified for these proteins.

  7. Heterozygosity of the sheep: Polymorphism of 'malic enzyme', isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+), catalase and esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1977-04-01

    In contrast to other reports, it is found that the sheep has approximately as much enzyme variation as man. Most of the genetically interpretable enzyme variation in heart, liver, kidney and muscle from 52 sheep (Merinos or Merino crosses) is in the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases [two 'malic enzymes' and the supernatant isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+)] and in the esterases. Ten different loci for NAD-dependent dehydrogenases are electrophoretically monomorphic, as are five different NADH diaphorases from heart muscle and 15 different major proteins from skeletal muscle. It is highly statistically significant that NADP-dependent dehydrogenases and esterases are polymorphic but representatives of several other major classes of enzymes are not. The physiological significance of this polymorphism may be related to the role of these enzymes in growth and detoxication, sheep having been selected by man for faster growth, of wool or of carcass, and for grazing a wide variety of plants.

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Merdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  9. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence......, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1...

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may...... be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking...... and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men...

  11. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Stefania Falvella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T, fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C, conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

  12. The role of glutamate dehydrogenase in mammalian ammonia metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the reversible inter-conversion of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia. High levels of GDH activity is found in mammalian liver, kidney, brain, and pancreas. In the liver, GDH reaction appears to be close-to-equilibrium, providing the appropriate ratio of ammonia and amino acids for urea synthesis in periportal hepatocytes. In addition, GDH produces glutamate for glutamine synthesis in a small rim of pericentral hepatocytes. Hence, hepatic GDH can be either a source for ammonia or an ammonia scavenger. In the kidney, GDH function produces ammonia from glutamate to control acidosis. In the human, the presence of two differentially regulated isoforms (hGDH1 and hGDH2) suggests a complex role for GDH in ammonia homeostasis. Whereas hGDH1 is sensitive to GTP inhibition, hGDH2 has dissociated its function from GTP control. Furthermore, hGDH2 shows a lower optimal pH than hGDH1. The hGDH2 enzyme is selectively expressed in human astrocytes and Sertoli cells, probably facilitating metabolic recycling processes essential for their supportive role. Here, we report that hGDH2 is also expressed in the epithelial cells lining the convoluted tubules of the renal cortex. As hGDH2 functions more efficiently under acidotic conditions without the operation of the GTP energy switch, its presence in the kidney may increase the efficacy of the organ to maintain acid base equilibrium.

  13. Nuclear lactate dehydrogenase modulates histone modification in human hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castonguay, Zachary; Auger, Christopher; Thomas, Sean C.; Chahma, M’hamed; Appanna, Vasu D., E-mail: vappanna@laurentian.ca

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • Nuclear LDH is up-regulated under oxidative stress. • SIRT1 is co-immunoprecipitated bound to nuclear LDH. • Nuclear LDH is involved in histone deacetylation and epigenetics. - Abstract: It is becoming increasingly apparent that the nucleus harbors metabolic enzymes that affect genetic transforming events. Here, we describe a nuclear isoform of lactate dehydrogenase (nLDH) and its ability to orchestrate histone deacetylation by controlling the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}), a key ingredient of the sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase system. There was an increase in the expression of nLDH concomitant with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in the culture medium. Under oxidative stress, the NAD{sup +} generated by nLDH resulted in the enhanced deacetylation of histones compared to the control hepatocytes despite no discernable change in the levels of SIRT1. There appeared to be an intimate association between nLDH and SIRT1 as these two enzymes co-immunoprecipitated. The ability of nLDH to regulate epigenetic modifications by manipulating NAD{sup +} reveals an intricate link between metabolism and the processing of genetic information.

  14. Regulation of L-threonine dehydrogenase in somatic cell reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chuanchun; Gu, Hao; Wang, Jiaxu; Lu, Weiguang; Mei, Yide; Wu, Mian

    2013-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that metabolic remodeling plays an important role in the regulation of somatic cell reprogramming. Threonine catabolism mediated by L-threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) has been recognized as a specific metabolic trait of mouse embryonic stem cells. However, it remains unknown whether TDH-mediated threonine catabolism could regulate reprogramming. Here, we report TDH as a novel regulator of somatic cell reprogramming. Knockdown of TDH inhibits, whereas induction of TDH enhances reprogramming efficiency. Moreover, microRNA-9 post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of TDH and thereby inhibits reprogramming efficiency. Furthermore, protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT5) interacts with TDH and mediates its post-translational arginine methylation. PRMT5 appears to regulate TDH enzyme activity through both methyltransferase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Functionally, TDH-facilitated reprogramming efficiency is further enhanced by PRMT5. These results suggest that TDH-mediated threonine catabolism controls somatic cell reprogramming and indicate the importance of post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation of TDH.

  15. Asparaginyl deamidation in two glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuna, Alexander; Quezada, Héctor; Gómez-Puyou, Armando; González, Alicia

    2005-03-25

    The non-enzymatic deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a major source of spontaneous damage of several proteins under physiological conditions. In many cases, deamidation and isoaspartyl formation alters the biological activity or stability of the native polypeptide. Rates of deamidation of particular residues depend on many factors including protein structure and solvent exposure. Here, we investigated the spontaneous deamidation of the two NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase isoenzymes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which have different kinetic properties and are differentially expressed in this yeast. Our results show that Asn54, present in Gdh3p but missing in the GDH1-encoded homologue, is readily deamidated in vitro under alkaline conditions. Relative to the native enzyme, deamidated Gdh3p shows reduced protein stability. The different deamidation rates of the two isoenzymes could explain to some extent, the relative in vivo instability of the allosteric Gdh3p enzyme, compared to that of Gdh1p. It is thus possible that spontaneous asparaginyl modification could play a role in the metabolic regulation of ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis.

  16. Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 and SIRT4 regulate glial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, Daniel; Mann, Kara D; Zhuo, Yue; Ricupero, Christopher L; Hart, Ronald P; Liu, Alice Y-C; Firestein, Bonnie L

    2013-03-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HI/HA) syndrome is caused by an activation mutation of glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (GDH1), a mitochondrial enzyme responsible for the reversible interconversion between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate. The syndrome presents clinically with hyperammonemia, significant episodic hypoglycemia, seizures, and frequent incidences of developmental and learning defects. Clinical research has implicated that although some of the developmental and neurological defects may be attributed to hypoglycemia, some characteristics cannot be ascribed to low glucose and as hyperammonemia is generally mild and asymptomatic, there exists the possibility that altered GDH1 activity within the brain leads to some clinical changes. GDH1 is allosterically regulated by many factors, and has been shown to be inhibited by the ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin 4 (SIRT4), a mitochondrially localized sirtuin. Here we show that SIRT4 is localized to mitochondria within the brain. SIRT4 is highly expressed in glial cells, specifically astrocytes, in the postnatal brain and in radial glia during embryogenesis. Furthermore, SIRT4 protein decreases in expression during development. We show that factors known to allosterically regulate GDH1 alter gliogenesis in CTX8 cells, a novel radial glial cell line. We find that SIRT4 and GDH1 overexpression play antagonistic roles in regulating gliogenesis and that a mutant variant of GDH1 found in HI/HA patients accelerates the development of glia from cultured radial glia cells.

  17. Regulation by ammonium of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogonez, E; Satrústegui, J; Machado, A

    1985-06-01

    The activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+) (EC 1.4.1.4; NADP-GDH) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is decreased under conditions in which intracellular ammonia concentrations increases. A high internal ammonia concentration can be obtained (a) by increasing the ammonium sulphate concentration in the culture medium, and (b) by growing the yeast either in acetate + ammonia media, where the pH of the medium rises during growth, or in heavily buffered glucose + ammonia media at pH 7.5. Under these conditions cellular oxoglutarate concentrations do not vary and changes in NADP-GDH activity appear to provide a constant rate of oxoglutarate utilization. The following results suggest that the decrease in NADP-GDH activity in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells is brought about by repression of synthesis: (i) after a shift to high ammonium sulphate concentrations, the number of units of activity per cell decreased as the inverse of cell doubling; and (ii) the rate of degradation of labelled NADP-GDH was essentially the same in ammonia-accumulating yeast cells and in controls, whereas the synthesis constant was much lower in the ammonia-accumulating cells than in the controls.

  18. Leucaena sp. recombinant cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and physicochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Parth; Gupta, Neha; Gaikwad, Sushama; Agrawal, Dinesh C; Khan, Bashir M

    2014-02-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase is a broad substrate specificity enzyme catalyzing the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, leading to lignin formation in plants. Here, we report characterization of a recombinant CAD homologue (LlCAD2) isolated from Leucaena leucocephala. LlCAD2 is 80 kDa homo-dimer associated with non-covalent interactions, having substrate preference toward sinapaldehyde with Kcat/Km of 11.6×10(6) (M(-1) s(-1)), and a possible involvement of histidine at the active site. The enzyme remains stable up to 40 °C, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 0.002 and 5h, respectively. LlCAD2 showed optimal activity at pH 6.5 and 9 for reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively, and was stable between pH 7 and 9, with the deactivation rate constant (Kd(*)) and half-life (t1/2) of 7.5×10(-4) and 15 h, respectively. It is a Zn-metalloenzyme with 4 Zn(2+) per dimer, however, was inhibited in presence of externally supplemented Zn(2+) ions. The enzyme was resistant to osmolytes, reducing agents and non-ionic detergents.

  19. Site Saturation Mutagenesis Applications on Candida methylica Formate Dehydrogenase

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    Gülşah P. Özgün

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In NADH regeneration, Candida methylica formate dehydrogenase (cmFDH is a highly significant enzyme in pharmaceutical industry. In this work, site saturation mutagenesis (SSM which is a combination of both rational design and directed evolution approaches is applied to alter the coenzyme specificity of NAD+-dependent cmFDH from NAD+ to NADP+ and increase its thermostability. For this aim, two separate libraries are constructed for screening a change in coenzyme specificity and an increase in thermostability. To alter the coenzyme specificity, in the coenzyme binding domain, positions at 195, 196, and 197 are subjected to two rounds of SSM and screening which enabled the identification of two double mutants D195S/Q197T and D195S/Y196L. These mutants increase the overall catalytic efficiency of NAD+ to 5.6×104-fold and 5×104-fold value, respectively. To increase the thermostability of cmFDH, the conserved residue at position 1 in the catalytic domain of cmFDH is subjected to SSM. The thermodynamic and kinetic results suggest that 8 mutations on the first residue can be tolerated. Among all mutants, M1L has the best residual activity after incubation at 60°C with 17%. These studies emphasize that SSM is an efficient method for creating “smarter libraries” for improving the properties of cmFDH.

  20. SERUM VALUES OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE AND LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE IN OSTEOSARCOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUMÁRRAGA, JUAN PABLO; BAPTISTA, ANDRÉ MATHIAS; ROSA, LUIS PABLO DE LA; CAIERO, MARCELO TADEU; CAMARGO, OLAVO PIRES DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the relationship between the pre and post chemotherapy (CT) serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) found in specimens after the pre surgical CT in patients with osteosarcoma. Methods: Series of cases with retrospective evaluation of patients diagnosed with osteosarcoma. Participants were divided into two groups according to serum values of both enzymes. The values of AP and LDH were obtained before and after preoperative CT. The percentage of tumor necrosis (TN) of surgical specimens of each patient was also included. Results: One hundred and thirty seven medical records were included from 1990 to 2013. Both the AP as LDH decreased in the patients studied, being the higher in pre CT than post CT. The average LHD decrease was 795.12U/L and AP decrease was 437.40 U/L. The average TN was 34.10 %. There was no statistically significant correlation between the serums values and the percentage of tumoral necrosis. Conclusion: The serum levels values of AP and LDH are not good predictors for the chemotherapy-induced necrosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27217815

  1. Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase: Potential Therapeutic Target and Putative Metabolic Oncogene

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    Cheryl K. Zogg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplified by cancer cells’ preference for glycolysis, for example, the Warburg effect, altered metabolism in tumorigenesis has emerged as an important aspect of cancer in the past 10–20 years. Whether due to changes in regulatory tumor suppressors/oncogenes or by acting as metabolic oncogenes themselves, enzymes involved in the complex network of metabolic pathways are being studied to understand their role and assess their utility as therapeutic targets. Conversion of glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate into phosphohydroxypyruvate by the enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH—a rate-limiting step in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to serine—represents one such mechanism. Forgotten since classic animal studies in the 1980s, the role of PHGDH as a potential therapeutic target and putative metabolic oncogene has recently reemerged following publication of two prominent papers near-simultaneously in 2011. Since that time, numerous studies and a host of metabolic explanations have been put forward in an attempt to understand the results observed. In this paper, I review the historic progression of our understanding of the role of PHGDH in cancer from the early work by Snell through its reemergence and rise to prominence, culminating in an assessment of subsequent work and what it means for the future of PHGDH.

  2. Structural determinants of stereospecificity in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, E G; Glasfeld, A; Ellington, A D; Benner, S A

    1991-10-01

    Replacing Leu-182 by Ala in yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) yields a mutant that retains 34% of its kcat value and makes one stereochemical "mistake" every 850,000 turnovers (instead of approximately 1 error every 7,000,000,000 turnovers in native YADH) in its selection of the 4-Re hydrogen of NADH. Half of the decrease in stereochemical fidelity comes from an increase in the rate of transfer of the 4-Si hydrogen of NADH. The mutant also accepts 5-methylnicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a cofactor analog not accepted by native YADH. The stereospecificity of the mutant is lower still with analogs of NADH where the carboxamide group of the nicotinamide ring is replaced by groups with weaker hydrogen bonding potential. For example, with thio-NADH, the mutant enzyme makes 1 stereochemical "mistake" every 450 turnovers. Finally, the double mutant T157S/L182A, in which Thr-157 is replaced by Ser and Leu-182 is replaced by Ala, also shows decreased stereochemical fidelity. These results suggest that Si transfer in the mutant enzymes arises from NADH bound in a syn conformation in the active site and that this binding is not obstructed in native YADH by side chains essential for catalysis.

  3. RECIPIENT PRETRANSPLANT INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN NONMYELOABLATIVE HCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  4. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megova, Magdalena; Drabek, Jiri; Koudelakova, Vladimira; Trojanec, Radek; Kalita, Ondrej; Hajduch, Marian

    2014-12-01

    Over the past few years, new biomarkers have allowed a deeper insight into gliomagenesis and facilitated the identification of possible targets for glioma therapy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and IDH2 mutations have been shown to be promising biomarkers for monitoring disease prognosis and predicting the response to treatment. This review summarizes recent findings in this field. Web of Science, Science Direct, and PubMed online databases were used to search for publications investigating the role of IDH in glioma. References were identified by searching for the keywords "IDH1 or IDH2 and glioma and diagnostic or predictive or prognostic" in papers published from January, 2008, to April, 2014. Only papers in English were reviewed. Publications available only as an abstract were not included. IDH1/2 mutations are tightly associated with grade II and III gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, with better prognosis and production of a recently described oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Although the contradictory positive effect of IDH mutation on prognosis and negative role of 2HG in tumor transformation remain unresolved, the future direction of personalized treatment strategies targeted to glioma development is likely to focus on IDH1/2 mutations.

  5. Alternative splicing regulates targeting of malate dehydrogenase in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabran, Philomène; Rossignol, Tristan; Gaillardin, Claude; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2012-06-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a major mechanism contributing to the proteome complexity of most eukaryotes, especially mammals. In less complex organisms, such as yeasts, the numbers of genes that contain introns are low and cases of alternative splicing (AS) with functional implications are rare. We report the first case of AS with functional consequences in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The splicing pattern was found to govern the cellular localization of malate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the central carbon metabolism. This ubiquitous enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle in mitochondria and in the glyoxylate cycle, which takes place in peroxisomes and the cytosol. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, three genes encode three compartment-specific enzymes. In contrast, only two genes exist in Y. lipolytica. One gene (YlMDH1, YALI0D16753g) encodes a predicted mitochondrial protein, whereas the second gene (YlMDH2, YALI0E14190g) generates the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms through the alternative use of two 3'-splice sites in the second intron. Both splicing variants were detected in cDNA libraries obtained from cells grown under different conditions. Mutants expressing the individual YlMdh2p isoforms tagged with fluorescent proteins confirmed that they localized to either the cytosolic or the peroxisomal compartment.

  6. Multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes

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    Aquino-Silva Maria Regina de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent locus duplication hypothesis for sMDH-B* was proposed to explain the complex electrophoretic pattern of six bands detected for the soluble form of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 in 84% of the Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes analyzed (AB1B2 individuals. Klebe's serial dilutions were carried out in skeletal muscle extracts. B1 and B2 subunits had the same visual end-points, reflecting a nondivergent pattern for these B-duplicated genes. Since there is no evidence of polyploidy in the Cichlidae family, MDH-B* loci must have evolved from regional gene duplication. Tissue specificities, thermostability and kinetic tests resulted in similar responses from both B-isoforms, in both sMDH phenotypes, suggesting that these more recently duplicated loci underwent the same regulatory gene action. Similar results obtained with the two sMDH phenotypes did not show any indication of a six-banded specimen adaptive advantage in subtropical regions.

  7. Characterization of malate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennaco, Lynda J; Hu, Yajing; Holden, James F

    2007-09-01

    Native and recombinant malate dehydrogenase (MDH) was characterized from the hyperthermophilic, facultatively autotrophic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum. The enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit mass of 33 kDa. The activity kinetics of the native and recombinant proteins are the same. The apparent K ( m ) values of the recombinant protein for oxaloacetate (OAA) and NADH (at 80 degrees C and pH 8.0) were 15 and 86 microM, respectively, with specific activity as high as 470 U mg(-1). Activity decreased more than 90% when NADPH was used. The catalytic efficiency of OAA reduction by P. islandicum MDH using NADH was significantly higher than that reported for any other archaeal MDH. Unlike other archaeal MDHs, specific activity of the P. islandicum MDH back-reaction also decreased more than 90% when malate and NAD(+) were used as substrates and was not detected with NADP(+). A phylogenetic tree of 31 archaeal MDHs shows that they fall into 5 distinct groups separated largely along taxonomic lines suggesting minimal lateral mdh transfer between Archaea.

  8. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates senescence in human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Dho, So Hee; Ju, Sung-Kyu; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-10-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism changes during cellular senescence. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) catalyzes the reversible reduction of oxaloacetate to malate at the expense of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we show that MDH1 plays a critical role in the cellular senescence of human fibroblasts. We observed that the activity of MDH1 was reduced in old human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) [population doublings (PD) 56], suggesting a link between decreased MDH1 protein levels and aging. Knockdown of MDH1 in young HDFs (PD 20) and the IMR90 human fibroblast cell line resulted in the appearance of significant cellular senescence features, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, flattened and enlarged morphology, increased population doubling time, and elevated p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1) protein levels. Cytosolic NAD/NADH ratios were decreased in old HDFs to the same extent as in MDH1 knockdown HDFs, suggesting that cytosolic NAD depletion is related to cellular senescence. We found that AMP-activated protein kinase, a sensor of cellular energy, was activated in MDH1 knockdown cells. We also found that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, a controller of cellular senescence, was decreased in MDH1 knockdown cells. These results indicate that the decrease in MDH1 and subsequent reduction in NAD/NADH ratio, which causes SIRT1 inhibition, is a likely carbohydrate metabolism-controlled cellular senescence mechanism.

  9. Functional characterization of a vanillin dehydrogenase in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Si, Meiru; Zhang, Weipeng; Zhang, Yaoling; Chen, Can; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Shaolin; Shen, Xihui

    2015-01-27

    Vanillin dehydrogenase (VDH) is a crucial enzyme involved in the degradation of lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Herein, the VDH from Corynebacterium glutamicum was characterized. The relative molecular mass (Mr) determined by SDS-PAGE was ~51 kDa, whereas the apparent native Mr values revealed by gel filtration chromatography were 49.5, 92.3, 159.0 and 199.2 kDa, indicating the presence of dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric forms. Moreover, the enzyme showed its highest level of activity toward vanillin at pH 7.0 and 30°C, and interestingly, it could utilize NAD(+) and NADP(+) as coenzymes with similar efficiency and showed no obvious difference toward NAD(+) and NADP(+). In addition to vanillin, this enzyme exhibited catalytic activity toward a broad range of substrates, including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, o-phthaldialdehyde, cinnamaldehyde, syringaldehyde and benzaldehyde. Conserved catalytic residues or putative cofactor interactive sites were identified based on sequence alignment and comparison with previous studies, and the function of selected residues were verified by site-directed mutagenesis analysis. Finally, the vdh deletion mutant partially lost its ability to grow on vanillin, indicating the presence of alternative VDH(s) in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Taken together, this study contributes to understanding the VDH diversity from bacteria and the aromatic metabolism pathways in C. glutamicum.

  10. Metabolism of the novel IMP dehydrogenase inhibitor benzamide riboside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Walter; Salamon, Alexandra; Szekeres, Thomas

    2002-04-01

    Benzamide riboside (BR) is a novel anticancer agent exhibiting pronounced activity against several human tumor cell lines via the inhibition of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) that catalyzes the formation of xanthine 5'-monophosphate from inosine 5'-monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, thereby restricting the biosynthesis of guanylates. Phosphorylation of BR to its 5'-monophosphate derivative appears to be ubiquitous in most cells catalyzed by the enzymes, adenosine kinase, nicotinamide nucleoside kinase and 5' nucleotidase. BR 5'-monophosphate is then converted to the active metabolite benzamide adenine dinucleotide (BAD) by NMN adenylyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of NAD. As BAD is more potent in the inhibition of IMPDH than BR and BR 5'-monophosphate, cytotoxicity of BR is closely connected with intercellular metabolism to BAD. However, intracellular BAD level is also affected by BADase activity, a phosphodiesterase which hydrolyzes BAD to BR-5'-monophosphate and AMP. A recent study demonstrates enzymatic deamination of BR to non-cytotoxic benzene carboxylic acid (BR-COOH) as the main hepatic BR biotransformation product in rat liver. As the IMPDH inhibitors tiazofurin and ribavirin exhibit predominant accumulation and biotransformation in liver, hepatic metabolism may be an important factor also for BR activation and inactivation and should be considered in human liver during cancer therapy when BR is used as a single drug or in combination with other anticancer agents.

  11. Human choline dehydrogenase: medical promises and biochemical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Gadda, Giovanni

    2013-09-15

    Human choline dehydrogenase (CHD) is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria primarily in liver and kidney and catalyzes the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. Its physiological role is to regulate the concentrations of choline and glycine betaine in the blood and cells. Choline is important for regulation of gene expression, the biosynthesis of lipoproteins and membrane phospholipids and for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine; glycine betaine plays important roles as a primary intracellular osmoprotectant and as methyl donor for the biosynthesis of methionine from homocysteine, a required step for the synthesis of the ubiquitous methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine. Recently, CHD has generated considerable medical attention due to its association with various human pathologies, including male infertility, homocysteinuria, breast cancer and metabolic syndrome. Despite the renewed interest, the biochemical characterization of the enzyme has lagged behind due to difficulties in the obtainment of purified, active and stable enzyme. This review article summarizes the medical relevance and the physiological roles of human CHD, highlights the biochemical knowledge on the enzyme, and provides an analysis based on the comparison of the protein sequence with that of bacterial choline oxidase, for which structural and biochemical information is available.

  12. The PQQ-alcohol dehydrogenase of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Contreras-Zentella, Martha; González-Valdez, Alejandra; Sosa-Torres, Martha; Arreguín-Espinoza, Roberto; Escamilla-Marván, Edgardo

    2008-06-30

    The oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid is the most characteristic process in acetic acid bacteria. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is rather unique among the acetic acid bacteria as it carries out nitrogen fixation and is a true endophyte, originally isolated from sugar cane. Aside its peculiar life style, Ga. diazotrophicus, possesses a constitutive membrane-bound oxidase system for ethanol. The Alcohol dehydrogenase complex (ADH) of Ga. diazotrophicus was purified to homogeneity from the membrane fraction. It-exhibited two subunits with molecular masses of 71.4 kDa and 43.5 kDa. A positive peroxidase reaction confirmed the presence of cytochrome c in both subunits. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) of ADH was identified by UV-visible light and fluorescence spectroscopy. The enzyme was purified in its full reduced state; potassium ferricyanide induced its oxidation. Ethanol or acetaldehyde restored the full reduced state. The enzyme showed an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.1 and its optimal pH was 6.0. Both ethanol and acetaldehyde were oxidized at almost the same rate, thus suggesting that the ADH complex of Ga. diazotrophicus could be kinetically competent to catalyze, at least in vitro, the double oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid.

  13. Serum alcohol dehydrogenase levels in patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravos, Matej; Malesic, Ivan; Levanic, Suzana

    2005-11-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was assessed in 81 patients admitted to hospital for treatment for alcohol dependence with or without liver cirrhosis, 20 patients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate and 41 patients with various mental disorders treated with psychopharmacologic agents. Testing the hypothesis of the arithmetic mean showed that in alcohol dependents the arithmetic mean of ADH activity (12.19 nkat/l+/-5.61) differs significantly from that in healthy subjects (4.45 nkat/l+/-2.31) and in the group with ethanol poisoning (6.24 nkat/l+/-3.65) there is none. In the group with bipolar disorder, treated with lithium (7.39 nkat/l+/-3.11) and, in the group of patients treated with psychiatric drugs because of various mental disorders (7.79 nkat/l+/-8.51), the differences are statistically significant. In our opinion, assessing ADH activity in the sera of alcohol dependents could be an additional marker advantageous to the diagnostics, course and monitoring of therapy in such patients. In the groups of patients with mental disorders treated with psychotropic drugs, the increased ADH activity was found to be a more sensitive marker for the detection of drug hepatotoxicity.

  14. The structure and allosteric regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Changhong; Allen, Aron; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been extensively studied for more than 50 years. Of particular interest is the fact that, while considered by most to be a 'housekeeping' enzyme, the animal form of GDH is heavily regulated by a wide array of allosteric effectors and exhibits extensive inter-subunit communication. While the chemical mechanism for GDH has remained unchanged through epochs of evolution, it was not clear how or why animals needed to evolve such a finely tuned form of this enzyme. As reviewed here, recent studies have begun to elucidate these issues. Allosteric regulation first appears in the Ciliates and may have arisen to accommodate evolutionary changes in organelle function. The occurrence of allosteric regulation appears to be coincident with the formation of an 'antenna' like feature rising off the tops of the subunits that may be necessary to facilitate regulation. In animals, this regulation further evolved as GDH became integrated into a number of other regulatory pathways. In particular, mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition result in dangerously high serum levels of insulin and ammonium. Therefore, allosteric regulation of GDH plays an important role in insulin homeostasis. Finally, several compounds have been identified that block GDH-mediated insulin secretion that may be to not only find use in treating these insulin disorders but to kill tumors that require glutamine metabolism for cellular energy.

  15. Glutamate dehydrogenase: structure, allosteric regulation, and role in insulin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Changhong; Allen, Aron; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. Only in the animal kingdom is this enzyme heavily allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. The major activators are ADP and leucine and inhibitors include GTP, palmitoyl CoA, and ATP. Spontaneous mutations in the GTP inhibitory site that lead to the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HHS) syndrome have shed light as to why mammalian GDH is so tightly regulated. Patients with HHS exhibit hypersecretion of insulin upon consumption of protein and concomitantly extremely high levels of ammonium in the serum. The atomic structures of four new inhibitors complexed with GDH complexes have identified three different allosteric binding sites. Using a transgenic mouse model expressing the human HHS form of GDH, at least three of these compounds blocked the dysregulated form of GDH in pancreatic tissue. EGCG from green tea prevented the hyper-response to amino acids in whole animals and improved basal serum glucose levels. The atomic structure of the ECG-GDH complex and mutagenesis studies is directing structure-based drug design using these polyphenols as a base scaffold. In addition, all of these allosteric inhibitors are elucidating the atomic mechanisms of allostery in this complex enzyme.

  16. The structure and allosteric regulation of mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Changhong; Allen, Aron; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2012-03-15

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate. Only in the animal kingdom is this enzyme heavily allosterically regulated by a wide array of metabolites. The major activators are ADP and leucine, while the most important inhibitors include GTP, palmitoyl CoA, and ATP. Recently, spontaneous mutations in the GTP inhibitory site that lead to the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia (HHS) syndrome have shed light as to why mammalian GDH is so tightly regulated. Patients with HHS exhibit hypersecretion of insulin upon consumption of protein and concomitantly extremely high levels of ammonium in the serum. The atomic structures of four new inhibitors complexed with GDH complexes have identified three different allosteric binding sites. Using a transgenic mouse model expressing the human HHS form of GDH, at least three of these compounds were found to block the dysregulated form of GDH in pancreatic tissue. EGCG from green tea prevented the hyper-response to amino acids in whole animals and improved basal serum glucose levels. The atomic structure of the ECG-GDH complex and mutagenesis studies is directing structure-based drug design using these polyphenols as a base scaffold. In addition, all of these allosteric inhibitors are elucidating the atomic mechanisms of allostery in this complex enzyme.

  17. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  18. Location of the coenzyme binding site in the porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Chu; Colman, Roberta F

    2005-08-26

    The structure of crystalline porcine mitochondrial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) has been determined in complex with Mn2+-isocitrate. Based on structural alignment between this porcine enzyme and seven determined crystal structures of complexes of NADP with bacterial IDHs, Arg83, Thr311, and Asn328 were chosen as targets for site-directed mutagenesis of porcine IDH. The circular dichroism spectra of purified wild-type and mutant enzymes are similar. The mutant enzymes exhibit little change in Km for isocitrate or Mn2+, showing that these residues are not involved in substrate binding. In contrast, the Arg83 mutants, Asn328 mutants, and T311A exhibit 3-20-fold increase in the Km(NADP). We propose that Arg83 enhances NADP affinity by hydrogen bonding with the 3'-OH of the nicotinamide ribose, whereas Asn328 hydrogen bonds with N1 of adenine. The pH dependence of Vmax for Arg83 and Asn328 mutants is similar to that of wild-type enzyme, but for all the Thr311 mutants, pK(es) is increased from 5.2 in the wild type to approximately 6.0. We have previously attributed the pH dependence of Vmax to the deprotonation of the metal-bound hydroxyl of isocitrate in the enzyme-substrate complex, prior to the transfer of a hydride from isocitrate to NADP's nicotinamide moiety. Thr311 interacts with the nicotinamide ribose and is the closest of the target amino acids to the nicotinamide ring. Distortion of the nicotinamide by Thr311 mutation will likely be transmitted to Mn2+-isocitrate resulting in an altered pK(es). Because porcine and human mitochondrial NADP-IDH have 95% sequence identity, these results should be applicable to the human enzyme.

  19. Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase: influence of covalent FAD linkage on catalysis and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krondorfer, Iris; Brugger, Dagmar; Paukner, Regina; Scheiblbrandner, Stefan; Pirker, Katharina F; Hofbauer, Stefan; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2014-09-15

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a monomeric flavoprotein belonging to the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family of oxidoreductases. It catalyzes the oxidation of free, non-phosphorylated sugars to the corresponding keto sugars. The enzyme harbors an FAD cofactor that is covalently attached to histidine 103 via an 8α-N(3) histidyl linkage. Our previous work showed that variant H103Y was still able to bind FAD (non-covalently) and perform catalysis but steady-state kinetic parameters for several substrates were negatively affected. In order to investigate the impact of the covalent FAD attachment in Agaricus meleagris PDH in more detail, pre-steady-state kinetics, reduction potential and stability of the variant H103Y in comparison to the wild-type enzyme were probed. Stopped-flow analysis revealed that the mutation slowed down the reductive half-reaction by around three orders of magnitude whereas the oxidative half-reaction was affected only to a minor degree. This was reflected by a decrease in the standard reduction potential of variant H103Y compared to the wild-type protein. The existence of an anionic semiquinone radical in the resting state of both the wild-type and variant H103Y was demonstrated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and suggested a higher mobility of the cofactor in the variant H103Y. Unfolding studies showed significant negative effects of the disruption of the covalent bond on thermal and conformational stability. The results are discussed with respect to the role of covalently bound FAD in catalysis and stability.

  20. Novel Inhibitors Complexed with Glutamate Dehydrogenase: ALLOSTERIC REGULATION BY CONTROL OF PROTEIN DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J.; Walker, Matthew T.; Smith, Thomas J.; (Danforth)

    2009-12-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P){sup +} as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH.

  1. Effect of glucocorticoid on promoter of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase I gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 孙刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoid on the promoter of the pre-receptor glucocorticoid metabolizing enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) gene. Methods: The 1.2 kb length sequence upstream to the transcription start site of the 11β-HSD1 gene was amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then was cloned into pBLCAT6 plasmid carrying chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene. The plasmid pBLCAT6 carrying the promoter and reporter gene was used to transfect HeLa cells to study the regulation of 11β-HSD1 gene expression by glucocorticoids in terms of reporter gene expression. Results: PCR showed that there was a complete alignment of the amplified sequence with the sequence 1.2 kb upstream to the transcription start site of 11β-HSD1 gene. When cloned into pBLCAT6 plasmid carrying the reporter gene, this part of the promoter is functional in terms of regulation of reporter gene expression upon transfection into HeLa cells. The synthetic glucocorticoid-dexamethasone induced the reporter gene expression in the system described above, which was blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486. Conclusion: Glucocorticoids can modulate the expression of 11β-HSD1 through a mechanism involving activation of GR and interaction of the promoter of 11β-HSD1 gene.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a novel betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Suaeda corniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F W; Wang, M L; Guo, C; Wang, N; Li, X W; Chen, H; Dong, Y Y; Chen, X F; Wang, Z M; Li, H Y

    2016-06-20

    Glycine betaine is an important quaternary ammonium compound that is produced in response to several abiotic stresses in many organisms. The synthesis of glycine betaine requires the catalysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), which can convert betaine aldehyde into glycine betaine in plants, especially in halotolerant plants. In this study, we isolated the full-length cDNA of BADH from Suaeda corniculata (ScBADH) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Next, we analyzed the expression profile of ScBADH using real-time PCR. The results showed that ScBADH expression was induced in the roots, stems, and leaves of S. corniculata seedlings under salt and drought stress. Next, ScBADH was overexpressed in Arabidopsis, resulting in the transgenic plants exhibiting enhanced tolerance over wild-type plants under salt and drought stress. We then analyzed the levels of glycine betaine and proline, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, during salt stress in WT and transgenic Arabidopsis. The results indicated that overexpression of ScBADH produced more glycine betaine and proline, and increased SOD activity under NaCl treatment. Our results suggest that ScBADH might be a positive regulator in plants during the response to NaCl.

  3. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

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    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  4. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine.

  5. Deactivation kinetics of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase in aerosol OT/isooctane reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.; Chen, H.; Huang, T. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-10-10

    The deactivation kinetics of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) in both aerosol OT/isooctane reverse micelles and aqueous buffer were studied. The YADH entrapped in reverse micelles could retain activity for above 24 hr although it was less stable than dissolved in aqueous buffer. Both the activity-time curves for the YADH in reverse micelles and in aqueous buffer exhibited a rather rapid exponential decay within the early 2 hr, followed by a slower exponential decay during the remaining period. A series-type enzyme deactivation model involving two first-order steps and one active intermediate was used to describe the deactivation behavior of YADH. The kinetic parameters of the deactivation rate equations were obtained by optimization method. In aqueous buffer, the deactivation rate of YADH exhibited a maximum around a Tris concentration of 0.1 mol{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The deactivation rate of YADH in reverse micelles was strongly dependent on Tris concentration and the molar ratio of water to surfactant ({omega}0). The residual activity percentage of the active intermediate increased with the increase of {omega}0 and Tris concentration, while both the rate constants for the first and second first-order deactivation steps decreased with the increase of Tris concentration. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Probing conformational states of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase by fragment screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, Darren W.; Davies, Douglas R.; Hartley, Robert C.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Rychel, Amanda L.; Myler, Peter J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J. (Emerald)

    2014-10-02

    Glutaric acidemia type 1 is an inherited metabolic disorder which can cause macrocephaly, muscular rigidity, spastic paralysis and other progressive movement disorders in humans. The defects in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) associated with this disease are thought to increase holoenzyme instability and reduce cofactor binding. Here, the first structural analysis of a GCDH enzyme in the absence of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is reported. The apo structure of GCDH from Burkholderia pseudomallei reveals a loss of secondary structure and increased disorder in the FAD-binding pocket relative to the ternary complex of the highly homologous human GCDH. After conducting a fragment-based screen, four small molecules were identified which bind to GCDH from B. pseudomallei. Complex structures were determined for these fragments, which cause backbone and side-chain perturbations to key active-site residues. Structural insights from this investigation highlight differences from apo GCDH and the utility of small-molecular fragments as chemical probes for capturing alternative conformational states of preformed protein crystals.

  7. A unique homodimeric NAD⁺-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from the smallest autotrophic eukaryote Ostreococcus tauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wang-Gang; Song, Ping; Cao, Zheng-Yu; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2015-06-01

    In eukaryotes, NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is strictly mitochondrial and is a key enzyme in the Krebs cycle. To date, all known NAD(+)-specific IDHs (NAD-IDHs) in the mitochondria are believed to be heteromeric in solution. Here, a unique homodimeric NAD-IDH from Ostreococcus tauri (OtIDH), the smallest autotrophic picoeukaryote, was unveiled. Active OtIDH has a molecular weight of ∼93 kDa with each subunit of 46.7 kDa. In the presence of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+), OtIDH displayed 42-fold and 51-fold preference for NAD(+) over NADP(+), respectively. Interestingly, OtIDH exhibited a sigmoidal kinetic behavior in response to isocitrate unlike other homodimeric homologs, and a remarkably high affinity for isocitrate (S0.5 < 10 μM) unlike other hetero-oligomeric homologs. Furthermore, its coenzyme specificity can be completely converted from NAD(+) (ancient trait) to NADP(+) (adaptive trait) by rational mutagenesis based on the evolutionary trace. Mutants D344R and D344R/M345H displayed a 15-fold and 72-fold preference for NADP(+) over NAD(+), respectively, indicating that D344 and M345 are the determinants of NAD(+) specificity. These findings also suggest that OtIDH may be an ancestral form of type II IDHs (all reported members are NADP(+)-linked enzymes) and may have evolved into NADP(+)-dependent IDH for adaptation to the increased demand of NADPH under carbon starvation.

  8. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 Mutations as Prognostic Biomarker in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients in West Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Polivka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Recent whole-genome studies revealed novel GBM prognostic biomarkers such as mutations in metabolic enzyme IDH—isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH1 and IDH2. The distinctive mutation IDH1 R132H was uncovered to be a strong prognostic biomarker for glioma patients. We investigated the prognostic role of IDH1 R132H mutation in GBM patients in West Bohemia. Methods. The IDH1 R132H mutation was assessed by the RT-PCR in the tumor samples from 45 GBM patients treated in the Faculty Hospital in Pilsen and was correlated with the progression free and overall survival. Results. The IDH1 R132H mutation was identified in 20 from 44 GBM tumor samples (45.4%. The majority of mutated tumors were secondary GBMs (16 in 18, 89.9%. Low frequency of IDH1 mutations was observed in primary GBMs (4 in 26, 15.3%. Patients with IDH R132H mutation had longer PFS, 136 versus 51 days (P<0.021, Wilcoxon, and OS, 270 versus 130 days (P<0.024, Wilcoxon test. Summary. The prognostic value of IDH1 R132H mutation in GBM patients was verified. Patients with mutation had significantly longer PFS and OS than patients with wild-type IDH1 and suffered more likely from secondary GBMs.

  9. Purification and Properties of Malate Dehydrogenase from the Extreme Thermophile Bacillus Caldolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Ponnamperuma, Cyril

    1980-06-01

    The enzyme malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) from an extreme thermophileB. Caldolyticus was purified to about 91% homogeneity. The molar mass of the enzyme was determined as 73 000 daltons and it is composed of two subunits, each with a molar mass of 37 000. Initial velocity studies with oxaloacetic acid and NADH as substrates at pH 8.1, over a range of temperatures, indicate that the enzyme operates via a sequential type mechanism. Van't Hoff plots of the kinetic parameters displayed sharp changes in slope at characteristic temperatures, whereas the Arrhenius plot exhibited no such breaks over the temperature interval investigated. The enzyme was found to be stable at 41°C and lower temperatures. At 51°C and 59°C an almost immediate 20% reduction in activity was obtained, but no further inactivation occurred during the 60 min of incubation. At 59°C the enzyme lost 50% of its initial activity in about 38 s. High concentration of NADH was observed to greatly stabilize the enzyme at that temperature. It is suggested that the slope changes in the Van't Hoff plots and the stability profies at 51°C and 59°C are representative of a temperature induced conformational change in the enzyme.

  10. Plastidial NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is critical for embryo development and heterotrophic metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Seraina; Liu, Hung-Chi; Stadler, Martha; Schreier, Tina; Eicke, Simona; Lue, Wei-Ling; Truernit, Elisabeth; Zeeman, Samuel C; Chen, Jychian; Kötting, Oliver

    2014-03-01

    In illuminated chloroplasts, one mechanism involved in reduction-oxidation (redox) homeostasis is the malate-oxaloacetate (OAA) shuttle. Excess electrons from photosynthetic electron transport in the form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced are used by NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH) to reduce OAA to malate, thus regenerating the electron acceptor NADP. NADP-MDH is a strictly redox-regulated, light-activated enzyme that is inactive in the dark. In the dark or in nonphotosynthetic tissues, the malate-OAA shuttle was proposed to be mediated by the constitutively active plastidial NAD-specific MDH isoform (pdNAD-MDH), but evidence is scarce. Here, we reveal the critical role of pdNAD-MDH in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. A pdnad-mdh null mutation is embryo lethal. Plants with reduced pdNAD-MDH levels by means of artificial microRNA (miR-mdh-1) are viable, but dark metabolism is altered as reflected by increased nighttime malate, starch, and glutathione levels and a reduced respiration rate. In addition, miR-mdh-1 plants exhibit strong pleiotropic effects, including dwarfism, reductions in chlorophyll levels, photosynthetic rate, and daytime carbohydrate levels, and disordered chloroplast ultrastructure, particularly in developing leaves, compared with the wild type. pdNAD-MDH deficiency in miR-mdh-1 can be functionally complemented by expression of a microRNA-insensitive pdNAD-MDH but not NADP-MDH, confirming distinct roles for NAD- and NADP-linked redox homeostasis.

  11. Gain of interaction of ALS-linked G93A superoxide dismutase with cytosolic malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Yael; Zisapels, Nava

    2008-10-01

    Protein interactions of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-linked copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (hSOD1) G93A mutation were studied using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based screening system. The FRET results confirmed by pull-down immunoprecipitation indicated "gain-of-interaction" of the G93A-hSOD1 mutant with cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (cytMDH)-a key enzyme in the malate-aspartate shuttle which is vital to neurons. Furthermore, cytMDH mRNA expression was upregulated in G93A-hSOD1 expressing cells but endogenous cytMDH enzymatic activity was not enhanced, not even with exogenously added-on enzyme. Consistent with inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle, G93A-hSOD1 had lower malate and higher lactate levels compared to non-induced or Wild-Type-hSOD1 expressing cells. Mitochondrial NADH/NAD+ ratio is also elevated. Malate-aspartate shuttle dysfunction may explain the damage to neurons and the vulnerability to impairments of glycolytic pathways in ALS and provide a new target for the development of potential therapies.

  12. Regulation of Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in Insulin Resistance: Effects of Exercise and Dichloroacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Constantin-Teodosiu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC controls the rate of carbohydrate oxidation, impairment of PDC activity mediated by high-fat intake has been advocated as a causative factor for the skeletal muscle insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D. There are also situations where muscle insulin resistance can occur independently from high-fat dietary intake such as sepsis, inflammation, or drug administration though they all may share the same underlying mechanism, i.e., via activation of forkhead box family of transcription factors, and to a lower extent via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The main feature of T2D is a chronic elevation in blood glucose levels. Chronic systemic hyperglycaemia is toxic and can lead to cellular dysfunction that may become irreversible over time due to deterioration of the pericyte cell's ability to provide vascular stability and control to endothelial proliferation. Therefore, it may not be surprising that T2D's complications are mainly macrovascular and microvascular related, i.e., neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, coronary artery, and peripheral vascular diseases. However, life style intervention such as exercise, which is the most potent physiological activator of muscle PDC, along with pharmacological intervention such as administration of dichloroacetate or L-carnitine can prove to be viable strategies for treating muscle insulin resistance in obesity and T2D as they can potentially restore whole body glucose disposal.

  13. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  14. Green Tea Polyphenols Control Dysregulated Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Transgenic Mice by Hijacking the ADP Activation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Bennett, Michael J.; Stanley, Charles A.; Smith, Thomas J. (CH-PA); (UPENN); (Danforth)

    2012-05-09

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic {beta}-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  15. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrPSc) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly. PMID:27852982

  16. Mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase is inactivated upon oxidation and reactivated by thioredoxin-dependent reduction in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke eYoshida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of mitochondrial metabolism is essential for ensuring cellular growth and maintenance in plants. Based on redox-proteomics analysis, several proteins involved in diverse mitochondrial reactions have been identified as potential redox-regulated proteins. NAD+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is one such candidate. In this study, we investigated the redox regulation mechanisms of IDH by biochemical procedures. In contrast to mammalian and yeast counterparts reported to date, recombinant IDH in Arabidopsis mitochondria did not show adenylate-dependent changes in enzymatic activity. Instead, IDH was inactivated by oxidation treatment and partially reactivated by subsequent reduction. Functional IDH forms a heterodimer comprising regulatory (IDH-r and catalytic (IDH-c subunits. IDH-r was determined to be the target of oxidative modifications forming an oligomer via intermolecular disulfide bonds. Mass spectrometric analysis combined with tryptic digestion of IDH-r indicated that Cys128 and Cys216 are involved in intermolecular disulfide bond formation. Furthermore, we showed that mitochondria-localized o-type thioredoxin (Trx-o promotes the reduction of oxidized IDH-r. These results suggest that IDH-r is susceptible to oxidative stress, and Trx-o serves to convert oxidized IDH-r to the reduced form that is necessary for active IDH complex.

  17. Green tea polyphenols control dysregulated glutamate dehydrogenase in transgenic mice by hijacking the ADP activation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Li, Ming; Chen, Pan; Narayan, Srinivas; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-09-30

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate and, in animals, is extensively regulated by a number of metabolites. Gain of function mutations in GDH that abrogate GTP inhibition cause the hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), resulting in increased pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to leucine and susceptibility to hypoglycemia following high protein meals. We have previously shown that two of the polyphenols from green tea (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate (ECG)) inhibit GDH in vitro and that EGCG blocks GDH-mediated insulin secretion in wild type rat islets. Using structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that ECG binds to the same site as the allosteric regulator, ADP. Perifusion assays using pancreatic islets from transgenic mice expressing a human HHS form of GDH demonstrate that the hyperresponse to glutamine caused by dysregulated GDH is blocked by the addition of EGCG. As observed in HHS patients, these transgenic mice are hypersensitive to amino acid feeding, and this is abrogated by oral administration of EGCG prior to challenge. Finally, the low basal blood glucose level in the HHS mouse model is improved upon chronic administration of EGCG. These results suggest that this common natural product or some derivative thereof may prove useful in controlling this genetic disorder. Of broader clinical implication is that other groups have shown that restriction of glutamine catabolism via these GDH inhibitors can be useful in treating various tumors. This HHS transgenic mouse model offers a highly useful means to test these agents in vivo.

  18. MxaY regulates the lanthanide-mediated methanol dehydrogenase switch in Methylomicrobium buryatense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Chu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many methylotrophs, microorganisms that consume carbon compounds lacking carbon–carbon bonds, use two different systems to oxidize methanol for energy production and biomass accumulation. The MxaFI methanol dehydrogenase (MDH contains calcium in its active site, while the XoxF enzyme contains a lanthanide in its active site. The genes encoding the MDH enzymes are differentially regulated by the presence of lanthanides. In this study, we found that the histidine kinase MxaY controls the lanthanide-mediated switch in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1C. MxaY controls the transcription of genes encoding MxaFI and XoxF at least partially by controlling the transcript levels of the orphan response regulator MxaB. We identify a constitutively active version of MxaY, and identify the mutated residue that may be involved in lanthanide sensing. Lastly, we find evidence to suggest that tight control of active MDH production is required for wild-type growth rates.

  19. Inhibiting sperm pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase affects fertilization in Syrian hamsters.

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    Archana B Siva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The importance of sperm capacitation for mammalian fertilization has been confirmed in the present study via sperm metabolism. Involvement of the metabolic enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc and its E3 subunit, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD in hamster in vitro fertilization (IVF via in vitro sperm capacitation is being proposed through regulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Capacitated hamster spermatozoa were allowed to fertilize hamster oocytes in vitro which were then assessed for fertilization, microscopically. PDHc/DLD was inhibited by the use of the specific DLD-inhibitor, MICA (5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid. Oocytes fertilized with MICA-treated (MT [and thus PDHc/DLD-inhibited] spermatozoa showed defective fertilization where 2nd polar body release and pronuclei formation were not observed. Defective fertilization was attributable to capacitation failure owing to high lactate and low intracellular pH and calcium in MT-spermatozoa during capacitation. Moreover, this defect could be overcome by alkalinizing spermatozoa, before fertilization. Increasing intracellular calcium in spermatozoa pre-IVF and in defectively-fertilized oocytes, post-fertilization rescued the arrest seen, suggesting the role of intracellular calcium from either of the gametes in fertilization. Parallel experiments carried out with control spermatozoa capacitated in medium with low extracellular pH or high lactate substantiated the necessity of optimal sperm intracellular lactate levels, intracellular pH and calcium during sperm capacitation, for proper fertilization. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the importance of pyruvate/lactate metabolism in capacitating spermatozoa for successful fertilization, besides revealing for the first time the importance of sperm PDHc/ DLD in fertilization, via the modulation of sperm intracellular lactate, pH and calcium during capacitation. In

  20. [Palmitoyl-CoA-dehydrogenase from rabbit adrenals, liver and myocardium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshkevich, N A; Mandrik, K A; Vinogradov, V V

    1988-01-01

    Partially purified preparations of palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase from rabbit adrenal glands, liver and heart tissues exhibited similar kinetic parameters. Km value constituted 6.58, 5.26 and 6.67 microM for the enzyme from adrenal glands, liver and heart tissues, respectively. At the same time, palmitoyl-CoA dehydrogenase possessed lower catalytic capacity in adrenal glands due to the decreased amount of the enzyme as compared with that of liver or heart tissues.

  1. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems.

  2. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yongchao [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Hamilton, Choo Yieng [ORNL; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Liao, James C [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  3. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition: Reversing the Warburg effect in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden Bell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The poor efficacy of many cancer chemotherapeutics, which are often non-selective and highly toxic, is attributable to the remarkable heterogeneity and adaptability of cancer cells. The Warburg effect describes the up regulation of glycolysis as the main source of adenosine 5’-triphosphate in cancer cells, even under normoxic conditions, and is a unique metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. Mitochondrial suppression is also observed which may be implicated in apoptotic suppression and increased funneling of respiratory substrates to anabolic processes, conferring a survival advantage. The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is subject to meticulous regulation, chiefly by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. At the interface between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex functions as a metabolic gatekeeper in determining the fate of glucose, making pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase an attractive candidate in a bid to reverse the Warburg effect in cancer cells. The small pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate has, historically, been used in conditions associated with lactic acidosis but has since gained substantial interest as a potential cancer chemotherapeutic. This review considers the Warburg effect as a unique phenotype of cancer cells in-line with the history of and current approaches to cancer therapies based on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibition with particular reference to dichloroacetate and its derivatives.

  4. Decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase is related to skin pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakama, Mitsuo; Murakami, Yuhko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru

    2012-03-01

    Skin pigmentation is caused by various physical and chemical factors. It might also be influenced by changes in the physiological function of skin with aging. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase is an enzyme related to the mitochondrial electron transport system and plays a key role in cellular energy production. It has been reported that the functional decrease in this system causes Parkinson's disease. Another study reports that the amount of NADH dehydrogenase in heart and skeletal muscle decreases with aging. A similar decrease in the skin would probably affect its physiological function. However, no reports have examined the age-related change in levels of NADH dehydrogenase in human skin. In this study, we investigated this change and its effect on skin pigmentation using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The mRNA expression of NDUFA1, NDUFB7, and NDUFS2, subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and its activity were significantly decreased in late passage keratinocytes compared to early passage cells. Conversely, the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha and endothelin 1, was increased in late passage cells. On the other hand, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase upregulated the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines. Moreover, the level of NDUFB7 mRNA was lower in pigmented than in nonpigmented regions of skin in vivo. These results suggest the decrease in NADH dehydrogenase with aging to be involved in skin pigmentation.

  5. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in traumatic brain injury and Measurement of pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme by dipstick test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pushpa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to investigate the role of a mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH on the severity of brain injury, and the effects of pyruvate treatment in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI. Materials and Methods: We examined rats subjected to closed head injury using a fluid percussion device, and treated with sodium pyruvate (antioxidant and substrate for PDH enzyme. At 72 h post injury, blood was analyzed for blood gases, acid-base status, total PDH enzyme using a dipstick test and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as a marker of oxidative stress. Brain homogenates from right hippocampus (injured area were analyzed for PDH content, and immunostained hippocampus sections were used to determine the severity of gliosis and PDH E1-∞ subunit. Results: Our data demonstrate that TBI causes a significant reduction in PDH enzyme, disrupt-acid-base balance and increase oxidative stress in blood. Also, lower PDH enzyme in blood is related to the increased gliosis and loss of its PDH E1-∞ subunit PDH in brain tissue, and these effects of TBI were prevented by pyruvate treatment. Conclusion: Lower PDH enzyme levels in blood are related to the global oxidative stress, increased gliosis in brain, and severity of brain injury following TBI. These effects can be prevented by pyruvate through the protection of PDH enzyme and its subunit E-1.

  6. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eTechtmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is commonly known as a toxic gas, yet it is used by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and many archaea. In this study, we determined the prevalence of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (anaerobic CODHs, or [Ni,Fe]-CODHs in currently available genomic sequence databases. More than 6% (185 genomes out of 2887 bacterial and archaeal genome sequences in the IMG database possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. The phylogenetic study of this extended protein family revealed nine distinct clades of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. These clades consisted of [Ni,Fe]-CODHs that, while apparently monophyletic within the clades, were encoded by microorganisms of disparate phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA sequences, and widely ranging physiology. Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT affecting [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus carboxydivorans was used as a case study for HGT. The [Ni,Fe]-CODH operon of T. carboxydivorans differs from its whole genome in its G+C content by 8.2 mol%. Here, we apply statistical methods to establish acquisition by T. carboxydivorans of the gene cluster including [Ni,Fe]-CODH via HGT. Analysis of tetranucleotide frequency and codon usage with application of the Kullback-Leibler divergence metric showed that the [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon of T. carboxidyvorans is quite dissimilar to the whole genome. Using the same metrics, the T. carboxydivorans [Ni,Fe]-CODH-1 operon is highly similar to the genome of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic carboxydotroph Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans. These results allow to assume recent HTG of the gene cluster from a relative of C. hydrogenoformans to T. carboxydivorans or a more ancient transfer from a C. hydrogenoformans ancestor to a T. carboxydivorans

  7. Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramm, Anneke; Kisiela, Michael; Schulz, Rüdiger; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    The short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) represent a large superfamily of enzymes, most of which are NAD(H)-dependent or NADP(H)-dependent oxidoreductases. They display a wide substrate spectrum, including steroids, alcohols, sugars, aromatic compounds, and xenobiotics. On the basis of characteristic sequence motifs, the SDRs are subdivided into two main (classical and extended) and three smaller (divergent, intermediate, and complex) families. Despite low residue identities in pairwise comparisons, the three-dimensional structure among the SDRs is conserved and shows a typical Rossmann fold. Here, we used a bioinformatics approach to determine whether and which SDRs are present in cyanobacteria, microorganisms that played an important role in our ecosystem as the first oxygen producers. Cyanobacterial SDRs could indeed be identified, and were clustered according to the SDR classification system. Furthermore, because of the early availability of its genome sequence and the easy application of transformation methods, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, one of the most important cyanobacterial strains, was chosen as the model organism for this phylum. Synechocystis sp. SDRs were further analysed with bioinformatics tools, such as hidden Markov models (HMMs). It became evident that several cyanobacterial SDRs show remarkable sequence identities with SDRs in other organisms. These so-called 'homologous' proteins exist in plants, model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis  elegans, and even in humans. As sequence identities of up to 60% were found between Synechocystis and humans, it was concluded that SDRs seemed to have been well conserved during evolution, even after dramatic terrestrial changes such as the conversion of the early reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing one by cyanobacteria.

  8. Screening and Characterization of Proline Dehydrogenase Flavoenzyme Producing Pseudomonas Entomophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shahbaz- Mohammadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Proline dehydrogenase (ProDH; 1.5.99.8 plays an important role in specific determination of plasma proline level in biosensor and diagnostic kits. The goal of this research was to isolate and characterize ProDH enzyme from Iranian soil microorganisms.Materials and Methods: Screening of L-proline degradative enzymes from soil samples was carried out employing enrichment culture techniques. The isolate was characterized by biochemical reactions and specific PCR amplification. The target ProDH was purified and the effects of pH and temperature on the activity and stability were also tested.Results: Among the 250 isolates recovered from 40 soil samples, only one strain characterized as Pseudomonas entomophila displayed the highest enzyme activity toward L-proline (350 U/l than others. The enzyme of interest was identified as a ProDH and had Km value of 32 mM for L-proline. ProDH exhibited its best activity at temperature range of 25 to 35°C and its highest activity was achieved at 30°C. It was almost stable at temperatures between 25-30°C for 2 hours. The optimum pH activity of ProDH reaction was 8.5 and its activity was stable in pH range of 8.0-9.0 upto 24 hours. The enzyme was purified with a yield of 8.5% and a purification factor of 37.7. The molecular mass of the purified ProDH was about 40 kDa, and determined to be a monomeric protein."nConclusion: This is the first report concerning the ProDH production by a P. entomophila bacterium isolated from soil sample.

  9. The expression of succinate dehydrogenase in breast phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, WooHee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, SDHB, and HIF-1α in phyllodes tumors and the association with clinic-pathologic factors. Using tissue microarray (TMA) for 206 phyllodes tumor cases, we performed immunohistochemical stains for SDHA, SDHB, and HIF-1α and analyzed their expression in regard to clinicopathologic parameters of each case. The cases were comprised of 156 benign, 34 borderline, and 16 malignant phyllodes tumors. The expression of stromal SDHA and epithelial- and stromal- SDHB increased as the tumor progressed from benign to malignant (P⟨0.001). There were five stromal SDHA-negative cases and 31 stromal SDHB-negative cases. SDHB negativity was associated with a lower histologic grade (P=0.054) and lower stromal atypia (P=0.048). Univariate analysis revealed that a shorter disease free survival (DFS) was associated with stromal SDHB high-positivity (P=0.013) and a shorter overall survival (OS) was associated with high-positivity of stromal SDHA and SDHB (P⟨0.001 and P⟨0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox analysis with the variables stromal cellularity, stromal atypia, stromal mitosis, stromal overgrowth, tumor margin, stromal SDHA expression, and stromal SDHB expression revealed that stromal overgrowth was associated with a shorter DFS (hazard ratio: 24.78, 95% CI: 3.126-196.5, P=0.002) and a shorter OS (hazard ratio: 176.7, 95% CI: 8.466-3691, P=0.001). In conclusion, Tumor grade is positively correlated with SDHA and SDHB expression in the tumor stroma in phyllodes tumors of the breast. This result may be attributed to the increased metabolic demand in high grade tumors.

  10. Residues that influence coenzyme preference in the aldehyde dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Segura, Lilian; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A

    2015-06-01

    To find out the residues that influence the coenzyme preference of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), we reviewed, analyzed and correlated data from their known crystal structures and amino-acid sequences with their published kinetic parameters for NAD(P)(+). We found that the conformation of the Rossmann-fold loops participating in binding the adenosine ribose is very conserved among ALDHs, so that coenzyme specificity is mainly determined by the nature of the residue at position 195 (human ALDH2 numbering). Enzymes with glutamate or proline at 195 prefer NAD(+) because the side-chains of these residues electrostatically and/or sterically repel the 2'-phosphate group of NADP(+). But contrary to the conformational rigidity of proline, the conformational flexibility of glutamate may allow NADP(+)-binding in some enzymes by moving the carboxyl group away from the 2'-phosphate group, which is possible if a small neutral residue is located at position 224, and favored if the residue at position 53 interacts with Glu195 in a NADP(+)-compatible conformation. Of the residues found at position 195, only glutamate interacts with the NAD(+)-adenosine ribose; glutamine and histidine cannot since their side-chain points are opposite to the ribose, probably because the absence of the electrostatic attraction by the conserved nearby Lys192, or its electrostatic repulsion, respectively. The shorter side-chains of other residues-aspartate, serine, threonine, alanine, valine, leucine, or isoleucine-are distant from the ribose but leave room for binding the 2'-phosphate group. Generally, enzymes having a residue different from Glu bind NAD(+) with less affinity, but they can also bind NADP(+) even sometimes with higher affinity than NAD(+), as do enzymes containing Thr/Ser/Gln195. Coenzyme preference is a variable feature within many ALDH families, consistent with being mainly dependent on a single residue that apparently has no other structural or functional roles, and therefore can

  11. Over-expression of PsGPD, a mushroom glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, enhances salt tolerance in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Il; Lim, Hye-Min; Siddiqui, Zamin Shaheed; Park, Sung-Han; Kim, A-Ram; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic potatoes expressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), isolated from the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, had increased tolerance to salt stress (Jeong et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:192-196, 2000). To examine the physiological mechanisms enhancing salt tolerance in GPD-transgenic rice plants, the salt tolerance of five GPD transgenic rice lines (T1-T5) derived from Dongjin rice cultivar were evaluated in a fixed 150 mM saline environment in comparison to two known wild-type rice cultivars, Dongjin (salt sensitive) and Pokali (salt tolerant). Transgenic lines, T2, T3, and T5, had a substantial increase in biomass and relative water content compared to Dongjin. Stomatal conductance and osmotic potential were higher in the GPD transgenic lines and were similar to those in Pokali. The results are discussed based on the comparative physiological response of GPD transgenic lines with those of the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars.

  12. Toxic response caused by a misfolding variant of the mitochondrial protein short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stinne P; Corydon, Thomas J; Pedersen, Christina B;

    2011-01-01

    the disease-associated misfolding variant of SCAD protein, p.Arg107Cys, disturbs mitochondrial function. METHODS: We have developed a cell model system, stably expressing either the SCAD wild-type protein or the misfolding SCAD variant protein, p.Arg107Cys (c.319 C > T). The model system was used......BACKGROUND: Variations in the gene ACADS, encoding the mitochondrial protein short-chain acyl CoA-dehydrogenase (SCAD), have been observed in individuals with clinical symptoms. The phenotype of SCAD deficiency (SCADD) is very heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic to severe, without a clear...... for investigation of SCAD with respect to expression, degree of misfolding, and enzymatic SCAD activity. Furthermore, cell proliferation and expression of selected stress response genes were investigated as well as proteomic analysis of mitochondria-enriched extracts in order to study the consequences of p.Arg107...

  13. Identification and Validation of Aspartic Acid Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase as a New Anti-Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianzhou; Yang, Yanhui; Xiao, Chunling; Guan, Yan; Hao, Xueqin; Deng, Qi; Lu, Zhongyang

    2015-09-30

    Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80%) in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs.

  14. Identification and Validation of Aspartic Acid Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase as a New Anti-Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhou Meng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspartic acid semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH lies at the first branch point in the essential aspartic acid biosynthetic pathway that is found in bacteria and plants but is absent from animals. Mutations in the asadh gene encoding ASADH produce an inactive enzyme, which is lethal. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the hypothesis that ASADH represents a new anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB target. An asadh promoter-replacement mutant MTB, designated MTB::asadh, in which asadh gene expression is regulated by pristinamycin, was constructed to investigate the physiological functions of ASADH in the host bacteria. Bacterial growth was evaluated by monitoring OD600 and ASADH expression was analyzed by Western blotting. The results showed that the growth and survival of MTB::asadh was completely inhibited in the absence of the inducer pristinamycin. Furthermore, the growth of the mutant was rigorously dependent on the presence of the inducer in the medium. The starved mutant exhibited a marked reduction (approximately 80% in the cell wall materials compared to the wild-type, in addition to obvious morphological differences that were apparent in scanning electron microscopy studies; however, with the addition of pristinamycin, the cell wall contents and morphology similar to those of the wild-type strain were recovered. The starved mutant also exhibited almost no pathogenicity in an in vitro model of infection using mouse macrophage J774A.1 cells. The mutant showed a concentration-dependent recovery of pathogenicity with the addition of the inducer. These findings implicate ASADH as a promising target for the development of novel anti-MTB drugs.

  15. Basis for half-site ligand binding in yeast NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, An-Ping; McAlister-Henn, Lee

    2011-09-27

    Yeast NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase is an allosterically regulated octameric enzyme composed of four heterodimers of a catalytic IDH2 subunit and a regulatory IDH1 subunit. Despite structural predictions that the enzyme would contain eight isocitrate binding sites, four NAD(+) binding sites, and four AMP binding sites, only half of the sites for each ligand can be measured in binding assays. On the basis of a potential interaction between side chains of Cys-150 residues in IDH2 subunits in each tetramer of the enzyme, ligand binding assays of wild-type (IDH1/IDH2) and IDH1/IDH2(C150S) octameric enzymes were conducted in the presence of dithiothreitol. These assays demonstrated the presence of eight isocitrate and four AMP binding sites for the wild-type enzyme in the presence of dithiothreitol and for the IDH1/IDH2(C150S) enzyme in the absence or presence of this reagent, suggesting that interactions between sulfhydryl side chains of IDH2 Cys-150 residues limit access to these sites. However, only two NAD(+) sites could be measured for either enzyme. A tetrameric form of IDH (an IDH1(G15D)/IDH2 mutant enzyme) demonstrated half-site binding for isocitrate (two sites) in the absence of dithiothreitol and full-site binding (four sites) in the presence of dithiothreitol. Only one NAD(+) site could be measured for the tetramer under both conditions. In the context of the structure of the enzyme, these results suggest that an observed asymmetry between heterotetramers in the holoenzyme contributes to interactions between IDH2 Cys-150 residues and to half-site binding of isocitrate, but that a form of negative cooperativity may limit access to apparently equivalent NAD(+) binding sites.

  16. Microfluidics for rapid detection of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation for intraoperative application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibaidula, Abudumijiti; Zhao, Wang; Wu, Jin-Song; Chen, Hong; Shi, Zhi-Feng; Zheng, Lu-Lu; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Sui, Guo-Dong

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Conventional methods for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) detection, such as DNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry, are time- and labor-consuming and cannot be applied for intraoperative analysis. To develop a new approach for rapid analysis of IDH1 mutation from tiny tumor samples, this study used microfluidics as a method for IDH1 mutation detection. METHODS Forty-seven glioma tumor samples were used; IDH1 mutation status was investigated by immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing. The microfluidic device was fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane following standard soft lithography. The immunoanalysis was conducted in the microfluidic chip. Fluorescence images of the on-chip microcolumn taken by the charge-coupled device camera were collected as the analytical results readout. Fluorescence signals were analyzed by NIS-Elements software to gather detailed information about the IDH1 concentration in the tissue samples. RESULTS DNA sequencing identified IDH1 R132H mutation in 33 of 47 tumor samples. The fluorescence signal for IDH1-mutant samples was 5.49 ± 1.87 compared with 3.90 ± 1.33 for wild type (p = 0.005). Thus, microfluidics was capable of distinguishing IDH1-mutant tumor samples from wild-type samples. When the cutoff value was 4.11, the sensitivity of microfluidics was 87.9% and the specificity was 64.3%. CONCLUSIONS This new approach was capable of analyzing IDH1 mutation status of tiny tissue samples within 30 minutes using intraoperative microsampling. This approach might also be applied for rapid pathological diagnosis of diffuse gliomas, thus guiding personalized resection.

  17. Isocitrate binding at two functionally distinct sites in yeast NAD+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, An-Ping; McAlister-Henn, Lee

    2002-06-21

    Yeast NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an octamer containing two types of homologous subunits. Ligand-binding analyses were conducted to examine effects of residue changes in putative catalytic and regulatory isocitrate-binding sites respectively contained in IDH2 and IDH1 subunits. Replacement of homologous serine residues in either subunit site, S98A in IDH2 or S92A in IDH1, was found to reduce by half the total number of holoenzyme isocitrate-binding sites, confirming a correlation between detrimental effects on isocitrate binding and respective kinetic defects in catalysis and allosteric activation by AMP. Replacement of both serine residues eliminates isocitrate binding and measurable catalytic activity. The putative isocitrate-binding sites of IDH1 and IDH2 contain five identical and four nonidentical residues. Reciprocal replacement of the four nonidentical residues in either or both subunits (A108R, F136Y, T241D, and N245D in IDH1 and/or R114A, Y142F, D248T, and D252N in IDH2) was found to be permissive for isocitrate binding. This provides further evidence for two types of binding sites in IDH, although the authentic residues have been shown to be necessary for normal kinetic contributions. Finally, the mutant enzymes with residue replacements in the IDH1 site were found to be unable to bind AMP, suggesting that allosteric activation is dependent both upon binding of isocitrate at the IDH1 site and upon the changes in the enzyme normally elicited by this binding.

  18. Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) for vanillin tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh Thi My; Kitajima, Sakihito; Izawa, Shingo

    2014-09-01

    Vanillin is derived from lignocellulosic biomass and, as one of the major biomass conversion inhibitors, inhibits yeast growth and fermentation. Vanillin was recently shown to induce the mitochondrial fragmentation and formation of mRNP granules such as processing bodies and stress granules in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furfural, another major biomass conversion inhibitor, also induces oxidative stress and is reduced in an NAD(P)H-dependent manner to its less toxic alcohol derivative. Therefore, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), through which most NADPH is generated, plays a role in tolerance to furfural. Although vanillin also induces oxidative stress and is reduced to vanillyl alcohol in a NADPH-dependent manner, the relationship between vanillin and PPP has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we examined the importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), which catalyzes the rate-limiting NADPH-producing step in PPP, for yeast tolerance to vanillin. The growth of the null mutant of G6PDH gene (zwf1Δ) was delayed in the presence of vanillin, and vanillin was efficiently reduced in the culture of wild-type cells but not in the culture of zwf1Δ cells. Furthermore, zwf1Δ cells easily induced the activation of Yap1, an oxidative stress responsive transcription factor, mitochondrial fragmentation, and P-body formation with the vanillin treatment, which indicated that zwf1Δ cells were more susceptible to vanillin than wild type cells. These findings suggest the importance of G6PDH and PPP in the response of yeast to vanillin.

  19. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase obliterates insulin resistance-induced cardiac dysfunction through deacetylation of PGC-1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance contributes to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, leading to cardiac anomalies. Emerging evidence depicts a pivotal role for mitochondrial injury in oxidative metabolism and insulin resistance. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is one of metabolic enzymes detoxifying aldehydes although its role in insulin resistance remains elusive. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of ALDH2 overexpression on insulin resistance-induced myocardial damage and mechanisms involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice overexpressing ALDH2 were fed sucrose or starch diet for 8 weeks and cardiac function and intracellular Ca2+ handling were assessed using echocardiographic and IonOptix systems. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate Akt, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), PGC-1α and Sirt-3. Our data revealed that sucrose intake provoked insulin resistance and compromised fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte function and intracellular Ca2+ handling (p 0.05), mitochondrial injury (elevated ROS generation, suppressed NAD+ and aconitase activity, p < 0.05 for all), the effect of which was ablated by ALDH2. In vitro incubation of the ALDH2 activator Alda-1, the Sirt3 activator oroxylin A and the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor CPTH2 rescued insulin resistance-induced changes in aconitase activity and cardiomyocyte function (p < 0.05). Inhibiting Sirt3 deacetylase using 5-amino-2-(4-aminophenyl) benzoxazole negated Alda-1-induced cardioprotective effects. Taken together, our data suggest that ALDH2 serves as an indispensable cardioprotective factor against insulin resistance-induced cardiomyopathy with a mechanism possibly associated with facilitation of the Sirt3-dependent PGC-1α deacetylation. PMID:27634872

  20. L-lactate metabolism can occur in normal and cancer prostate cells via the novel mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bari, Lidia; Chieppa, Gabriella; Marra, Ersilia; Passarella, Salvatore

    2010-12-01

    Both normal (PTN1A) and cancer (PC3) prostate cells produce high levels of L-lactate because of a low energy supply via the citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Since some mammalian mitochondria possess a mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH), we investigated whether prostate cells can take up L-lactate and metabolize it in the mitochondria. We report here that externally added L-lactate can enter both normal and cancer cells and mitochondria, as shown by both the oxygen consumption and by the increase in fluorescence of NAD(P)H which occur as a result of L-lactate addition. In both cell types L-lactate enters mitochondria in a carrier-mediated manner, as shown by the inhibition of swelling measurements due to the non-penetrant thiol reagent mersalyl. An L-lactate dehydrogenase exists in mitochondria of both cell types located in the inner compartment, as shown by kinetic investigation and by immunological analysis. The mLDHs proved to differ from the cytosolic enzymes (which themselves differ from one another) as functionally investigated with respect to kinetic features and pH profile. Normal and cancer cells were found to differ from one another with respect to mLDH protein level and activity, being the enzyme more highly expressed and of higher activity in PC3 cells. Moreover, the kinetic features and pH profiles of the PC3 mLDH also differ from those of the PNT1A enzyme, this suggesting the occurrence of separate isoenzymes.

  1. Alteration in substrate specificity of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase by an acyclic nicotinamide analog of NAD(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J

    2014-11-01

    A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases.

  2. Production of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide by the mitochondrial 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Renata L S; Bunik, Victoria I; Brand, Martin D

    2016-02-01

    In humans, mutations in dehydrogenase E1 and transketolase domain containing 1 (DHTKD1) are associated with neurological abnormalities and accumulation of 2-oxoadipate, 2-aminoadipate, and reactive oxygen species. The protein encoded by DHTKD1 has sequence and structural similarities to 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex can produce superoxide/H2O2 at high rates. The DHTKD1 enzyme is hypothesized to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoadipate, a shared intermediate of the degradative pathways for tryptophan, lysine and hydroxylysine. Here, we show that rat skeletal muscle mitochondria can produce superoxide/H2O2 at high rates when given 2-oxoadipate. We identify the putative mitochondrial 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex as one of the sources and characterize the conditions that favor its superoxide/H2O2 production. Rates increased at higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratios and were higher at each NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) ratio when 2-oxoadipate was present, showing that superoxide/H2O2 was produced during the forward reaction from 2-oxoadipate, but not in the reverse reaction from NADH in the absence of 2-oxoadipate. The maximum capacity of the 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex for production of superoxide/H2O2 is comparable to that of site IF of complex I, and seven, four and almost two-fold lower than the capacities of the 2-oxoglutarate, pyruvate and branched-chain 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes, respectively. Regulation by ADP and ATP of H2O2 production driven by 2-oxoadipate was very different from that driven by 2-oxoglutarate, suggesting that site AF of the 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase complex is a new source of superoxide/H2O2 associated with the NADH isopotential pool in mitochondria.

  3. Simultaneous immobilization of dehydrogenases on polyvinylidene difluoride resin after separation by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, Youji [Graduate School of Science and Engineering (Science Section) and Venture Business Laboratory, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama City 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: yoji@dpc.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kadota, Mariko [Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama (Japan)

    2008-06-16

    We detected mouse liver malate, sorbitol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by negative staining, analysis of malate and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities using each substrate, and electron transfers including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nitroblue tetrazolium in non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel. Dehydrogenases were also identified by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) after 2-DE separation and protein detection by negative staining. Spots of dehydrogenases separated by 2-DE were excised, and simultaneously transferred and immobilized on polyvinylidene difuoride (PVDF) resin by electrophoresis. The dehydrogenase activities remained intact after immobilization. In conclusion, resin-immobilized dehydrogenases can be simultaneously obtained after separation by non-denaturing 2-DE, detection by negative staining and transferring to resins.

  4. Tear Malate Dehydrogenase,Lactate Dehydrogenase and Their Isoenzymes in Normal Chinese Subjects and Patients of Ocular Surface Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QingGuo; HanchengZhang

    1995-01-01

    Purose:To determine levels of malate dehydrogenase(MDH),lactate dehydroge-nase(LDH)and their isoenzymes in tears of normal Chinese subjects and patients with ocular surface disorders.Methods:The age range of normal subjects was10-88,with136mal and 128fe-male subjects.123patients suffered from ocular surface disorders.Tears were col-lected from lower fornix on Xinghua filter disc(0.1mm thick,5mm in diameter).The values of tearMDHand LDHwere determined by MONARCH-2000Ana-lyzer(U.S.A)Their isoenzymes were separated by acetate cellulose elec-trophoresis and were determined by Model CDS-200light densitometer.Results:The normal values of tear LDH and MDH were 45.51+23.00-81.35+37.84umol·s-1/Land11.00+5.33-19.50+9.17umol·s-1/Lrespectively,dis-regarding sex or eye distriction(P>0.05).The values of tear LDHandMDH in the group aged10-19were significantly lower than in another groups(P<0.05),95%normal ranges of tearMDHaged below19and above20were3.63-19.90umol·s-1/L.THe MDH isoenzymes comprised MDHs and MDHm,the former accounting for80.0-89.1%.The LDH isoenzymes comprised 5varieties.of which the ratioH/Mof subunit H tosubunit Mwas0.196+0.02.Levels of tear LDH,MDHand their isoenzymes in different diseases were various.Conclusions;Tear LDH/MDHratio reflected sensitively the matabolism of corneae and conjunetival epithelium.The changes in LDH isoenzymes were hel-ful to the differential diagnosis of external eye diseases,and the increase of MDHm reflected sensitively the degree of injury to the corneal epithelium.

  5. Mechanism of hyperinsulinism in short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency involves activation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changhong; Chen, Pan; Palladino, Andrew; Narayan, Srinivas; Russell, Laurie K; Sayed, Samir; Xiong, Guoxiang; Chen, Jie; Stokes, David; Butt, Yasmeen M; Jones, Patricia M; Collins, Heather W; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S; Nissim, Itzhak; Smith, Thomas J; Strauss, Arnold W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. hadh(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to oral amino acid with decrease of glucose level and elevation of insulin. Hypersensitivity to oral amino acid in hadh(-/-) mice can be explained by abnormal insulin responses to a physiological mixture of amino acids and increased sensitivity to leucine stimulation in isolated perifused islets. Measurement of cytosolic calcium showed normal basal levels and abnormal responses to amino acids in hadh(-/-) islets. Leucine, glutamine, and alanine are responsible for amino acid hypersensitivity in islets. hadh(-/-) islets have lower intracellular glutamate and aspartate levels, and this decrease can be prevented by high glucose. hadh(-/-) islets also have increased [U-(14)C]glutamine oxidation. In contrast, hadh(-/-) mice have similar glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Perifused hadh(-/-) islets showed no differences from controls in response to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, even with addition of either a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoate) or a long-chain fatty acid (palmitate). Pull-down experiments with SCHAD, anti-SCHAD, or anti-GDH antibodies showed protein-protein interactions between SCHAD and GDH. GDH enzyme kinetics of hadh(-/-) islets showed an increase in GDH affinity for its substrate, α-ketoglutarate. These studies indicate that SCHAD deficiency causes hyperinsulinism by activation of GDH via loss of inhibitory regulation of GDH by SCHAD.

  6. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  8. Relationship Between Polymorphism of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase and Congenital Heart Defect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN CHENG; WEN-LI ZHU; JING-JING DAO; SHU-QING LI; YONG LI

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between G1958A gene polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and occurrence of congenital heart disease (CHD) in North China. Methods One hundred and ninety-two CHD patients and their parents were included in this study as case group in Liaoning Province by birth defect registration cards, and 124 healthy subjects (age and gender matched) and their parents were simultaneously selected from the same geographic area as control. Their gene polymorphism of MTHFD G1958A locus was examined with PCR-RFLP, and serum folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels were tested with radio-immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Results There existed gene polymorphism at MTHFD G1958A locus in healthy subjects living in North China. The percentages of GG, GA, and AA genotype were 57.98%, 35.57%, and 6.45% respectively, and the A allele frequency was 24.23%, which was significantly different from Western population. No difference was observed when comparing genotype distribution and allele frequency between the case and control groups, so was the result from the comparison between genders. The A allele frequency of arterial septal defect patients' mothers (10.87%) was significantly lower than that of controls (28.15%) (P=0.014), with OR=0.31 (95% CI: 0.09-0.84), and no difference in the other subgroups. The percentage of at least one parent carrying A allele in arterial septal defect subgroup (43.48%) was significantly lower than that in controls (69.64%) (P=0.017), with OR=0.34 (95% CI: 0.12-0.92). The analysis of genetic transmission indicated that there was no transmission disequillibrium in CHD nuclear families. Their serum folic acid level was significantly higher than that of controls (P=0.000), and Hcy level of the former was higher than that of the latter with no statistical significance (P>0.05). Serum Hcy and folic acid levels of mothers with gene mutation were lower than those of mothers

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula, E; Aguilar L, J C; Vaca, G

    2000-08-01

    In a screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in 1985 unrelated male subjects from the general population (Groups A and B) belonging to four states of the Pacific coast, 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects were detected. Screening for mutations at the G-6-PD gene by PCR-restriction enzyme in these 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects as well as in 14 G-6-PD-deficient patients with hemolytic anemia belonging to several states of Mexico showed two common G-6-PD variants: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (19 cases) and G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (9 cases). In 7 individuals the mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency remain to be determined. Furthermore, four silent polymorphic sites at the G-6-PD gene (PvuII, PstI, 1311, and NlaIII) were investigated in the 28 individuals with G-6-PD A- variants and in 137 G-6-PD normal subjects. As expected, only 10 different haplotypes were observed. To date, in our project aiming to determine the molecular basis of G-6-PD deficiency in Mexico, 60 unrelated G-6-PD-deficient Mexican males-25 in previous studies and 35 in the present work-have been studied. More than 75% of these individuals are from states of the Pacific coast (Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas). The results show that although G-6-PD deficiency is heterogeneous at the DNA level in Mexico, only three polymorphic variants have been observed: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (36 cases), G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (13 cases), and G-6-PD Seattle(844C) (2 cases). G-6-PD A- variants are relatively distributed homogeneously and both variants explain 82% of the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency. The variant G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) represents 73% of the G-6-PD A- alleles. Our data also show that the variant G-6-PD A-(376G/968C)-which has been observed in Mexico in the context of two different haplotypes-is more common than previously supposed. The three polymorphic variants that we observed in Mexico are on the same haplotypes as found in subjects from

  10. Heme binding properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Luciana; Collins, Daniel; Brassard, Julie; Chakravarti, Ritu; Vempati, Rajesh; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Dawson, John H; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2012-10-30

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a glycolytic enzyme that also functions in transcriptional regulation, oxidative stress, vesicular trafficking, and apoptosis. Because GAPDH is required for the insertion of cellular heme into inducible nitric oxide synthase [Chakravarti, R., et al. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 18004-18009], we extensively characterized the heme binding properties of GAPDH. Substoichiometric amounts of ferric heme bound to GAPDH (one heme per GAPDH tetramer) to form a low-spin complex with UV-visible maxima at 362, 418, and 537 nm and when reduced to ferrous gave maxima at 424, 527, and 559 nm. Ferric heme association and dissociation rate constants at 10 °C were as follows: k(on) = 17800 M(-1) s(-1), k(off1) = 7.0 × 10(-3) s(-1), and k(off2) = 3.3 × 10(-4) s(-1) (giving approximate affinities of 19-390 nM). Ferrous heme bound more poorly to GAPDH and dissociated with a k(off) of 4.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). Magnetic circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic data on the ferric, ferrous, and ferrous-CO complexes of GAPDH showed that the heme is bis-ligated with His as the proximal ligand. The distal ligand in the ferric complex was not displaced by CN(-) or N(3)(-) but in the ferrous complex could be displaced by CO at a rate of 1.75 s(-1) (for >0.2 mM CO). Studies with heme analogues revealed selectivity toward the coordinating metal and porphyrin ring structure. The GAPDH-heme complex was isolated from bacteria induced to express rabbit GAPDH in the presence of δ-aminolevulinic acid. Our finding of heme binding to GAPDH expands the protein's potential roles. The strength, selectivity, reversibility, and redox sensitivity of heme binding to GAPDH are consistent with it performing heme sensing or heme chaperone-like functions in cells.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatundun Williams

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5% followed by those Igbo descent (10.6% and those of Igede (10.2% and Tiv (1.8% ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females. Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9% than Igede (10.5%, Igbo (10.1% and Tiv (5.0% children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500. The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively. Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351. In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  12. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a glucose dehydrogenase from a hay infusion metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Alexander; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate exhibited an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding for a peptide of 328 amino acids. The isolated enzyme showed typical sequence motifs of short-chain-dehydrogenases using NAD(P) as a co-factor and had a sequence similarity between 33 and 35% to characterized glucose dehydrogenases from different Bacillus species. The identified glucose dehydrogenase gene was expressed in E. coli, purified and subsequently characterized. The enzyme, belonging to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases, shows a broad substrate range with a high affinity to glucose, xylose and glucose-6-phosphate. Due to its ability to be strongly associated with its cofactor NAD(P), the enzyme is able to directly transfer electrons from glucose oxidation to external electron acceptors by regenerating the cofactor while being still associated to the protein.

  13. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a glucose dehydrogenase from a hay infusion metagenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Basner

    Full Text Available Glucose hydrolyzing enzymes are essential to determine blood glucose level. A high-throughput screening approach was established to identify NAD(P-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for the application in test stripes and the respective blood glucose meters. In the current report a glucose hydrolyzing enzyme, derived from a metagenomic library by expressing recombinant DNA fragments isolated from hay infusion, was characterized. The recombinant clone showing activity on glucose as substrate exhibited an open reading frame of 987 bp encoding for a peptide of 328 amino acids. The isolated enzyme showed typical sequence motifs of short-chain-dehydrogenases using NAD(P as a co-factor and had a sequence similarity between 33 and 35% to characterized glucose dehydrogenases from different Bacillus species. The identified glucose dehydrogenase gene was expressed in E. coli, purified and subsequently characterized. The enzyme, belonging to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases, shows a broad substrate range with a high affinity to glucose, xylose and glucose-6-phosphate. Due to its ability to be strongly associated with its cofactor NAD(P, the enzyme is able to directly transfer electrons from glucose oxidation to external electron acceptors by regenerating the cofactor while being still associated to the protein.

  14. Isolation and characterization of an inducible NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase from clostridium acetobutylicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, W.; Duerre, P. [Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A NAD-dependent butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (BAD) has been purified from C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 and DSM 173 1. This key enzyme of butanol production, catalyzing the conversion of butyryl-CoA to butyraldehyde, was induced shortly before the onset of butanol production and proved to be oxygen-sensitive. A one step purification procedure on reactive green 19 allowed to purify the enzyme to homogeneity. The purified protein was found to be extremely unstable and could only partially be stabilized by addition of mercaptoethanol and storage below -20{degrees}C. The enzyme subunit had a molecular mass of 39.5 kDa. In the reverse reaction (butyryl-CoA-forming) the apparent pH optimum was 9.75 and Vmax was significantly higher with butyraldehyde and propionaldehyde than with acetaldehyde. BAD could also use NADP+, but NAD+ was the preferred coenzyme for the reverse reaction. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the C. acetobutylicurn DSM 792 protein showed high homology to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAP), especially to the protein of C. pasteurianum. Genomic libraries of C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 were screened by hybridization using PCR-generated heterologous probes encoding the gap gene of C. pasteurianum. Sequence analysis of the positive clones revealed high homology, but no identity to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the butyraldehyde dehydrogenase. Thus, BAD from C. acetobutylicum is distinctly different from other reported aldehyde dehydrogenases with butyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

  15. Analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 gene mutations in gliomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lei; QI Song-tao; LI Zhi-yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective To highlight recent researches which may show promise for histomolecular classification and new treatments for gliomas.Data sources All articles cited in this review were mainly searched from PubMed, which were published in English from 1996 to 2010.Study selection Original articles and critical reviews selected were relevant to the isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 mutation in gliomas and other tumors.Results Extraordinary high rates of somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 occur in the majority of World Health Organization grade Ⅱ and grade Ⅲ gliomas as well as grade Ⅳ secondary glioblastomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 mutations are associated with younger age at diagnosis and a better prognosis in patients with mutated tumors. The functional role of isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 mutations in the pathogenesis of gliomas is still unclear.Conclusion Isocitrate dehydrogenase-1/2 mutations define a specific subtype of gliomas and may have great significance in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of patients with these tumors.

  16. Catalysis of nitrite generation from nitroglycerin by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Ouellet, Marc; Antonic, Marija; Chrétien, Michelle N; English, Ann M

    2013-11-30

    Vascular relaxation to nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate; GTN) requires its bioactivation by mechanisms that remain controversial. We report here that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the release of nitrite from GTN. In assays containing dithiothreitol (DTT) and NAD(+), the GTN reductase activity of purified GAPDH produces nitrite and 1,2-GDN as the major products. A vmax of 2.6nmolmin(-)(1)mg(-)(1) was measured for nitrite production by GAPDH from rabbit muscle and a GTN KM of 1.2mM. Reductive denitration of GTN in the absence of DTT results in dose- and time-dependent inhibition of GAPDH dehydrogenase activity. Disulfiram, a thiol-modifying drug, inhibits both the dehydrogenase and GTN reductase activity of GAPDH, while DTT or tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine reverse the GTN-induced inhibition. Incubation of intact human erythrocytes or hemolysates with 2mM GTN for 60min results in 50% inhibition of GAPDH's dehydrogenase activity, indicating that GTN is taken up by these cells and that the dehydrogenase is a target of GTN. Thus, erythrocyte GAPDH may contribute to GTN bioactivation.

  17. Selective n-butanol production by Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 during continuous synthesis gas fermentation due to expression of synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzin, Vel; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Acetogen Clostridum sp. MT1962 produced 287 mM acetate (p < 0.005) and 293 mM ethanol (p < 0.005) fermenting synthesis gas blend 60% CO and 40% H₂ in single-stage continuous fermentation. This strain was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365. The engineered biocatalyst lost production of ethanol and acetate while initiated the production of 297 mM of n-butanol (p < 0.005). The metabolic engineering comprised Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase along with integration to chromosome synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase. This is the first report on elimination of acetate and ethanol production genes and expression of synthetic gene cluster encoding n-butanol biosynthesis pathway in acetogen biocatalyst for selective fuel n-butanol production with no antibiotic support for the introduced genes.

  18. Fusion of phospholipid vesicles induced by muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the absence of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morero, R D; Viñals, A L; Bloj, B; Farías, R N

    1985-04-01

    Ca2+-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles (phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidic acid, 9:1 mol/mol) prepared by ethanolic injection was followed by five different procedures: resonance energy transfer, light scattering, electron microscopy, intermixing of aqueous content, and gel filtration through Sepharose 4-B. The five methods gave concordant results, showing that vesicles containing only 10% phosphatidic acid can be induced to fuse by millimolar concentrations of Ca2+. When the fusing capability of several soluble proteins was assayed, it was found that concanavalin A, bovine serum albumin, ribonuclease, and protease were inactive. On the other hand, lysozyme, L-lactic dehydrogenase, and muscle and yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were capable of inducing vesicle fusion. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit muscle, the most extensively studied protein, proved to be very effective: 0.1 microM was enough to induce complete intermixing of bilayer phospholipid vesicles. Under conditions used in this work, fusion was accompanied by leakage of internal contents. The fusing capability of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The Ca2+ concentration in the medium, as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, was 5 ppm. Heat-denatured enzyme was incapable of inducing fusion. We conclude that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a soluble protein inherently endowed with the capability of fusing phospholipid vesicles.

  19. Variation of transition-state structure as a function of the nucleotide in reactions catalyzed by dehydrogenases. 1. Liver alcohol dehydrogenase with benzyl alcohol and yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase with benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharschmidt, M; Fisher, M A; Cleland, W W

    1984-11-01

    Primary intrinsic deuterium and 13C isotope effects have been determined for liver (LADH) and yeast (YADH) alcohol dehydrogenases with benzyl alcohol as substrate and for yeast aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) with benzaldehyde as substrate. These values have also been determined for LADH as a function of changing nucleotide substrate. As the redox potential of the nucleotide changes from -0.320 V with NAD to -0.258 V with acetylpyridine-NAD, the product of primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects rises from 4 toward 6.5, while the primary 13C isotope effect drops from 1.025 to 1.012, suggesting a trend from a late transition state with NAD to one that is more symmetrical. The values of Dk (again the product of primary and secondary isotope effects) and 13k for YADH with NAD are 7 and 1.023, suggesting for this very slow reaction a more stretched, and thus symmetrical, transition state. With ALDH and NAD, the primary 13C isotope effect on the hydride transfer step lies in the range 1.3-1.6%, and the alpha-secondary deuterium isotope effect on the same step is at least 1.22, but 13C isotope effects on formation of the thiohemiacetal intermediate and on the addition of water to the thio ester intermediate are less than 1%. On the basis of the relatively large 13C isotope effects, we conclude that carbon motion is involved in the hydride transfer steps of dehydrogenase reactions.

  20. Effects of methoxychlor and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-3 activities in human and rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G-X; Zhao, B; Chu, Y; Li, X-H; Akingbemi, B T; Zheng, Z-Q; Ge, R S

    2011-04-01

    Human and rat testis microsomes were used to investigate direct inhibitory activities of methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) on 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3). The 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD3 enzymes are involved in the reactions that culminate in androgen biosynthesis in Leydig cells. The results demonstrated that MXC and HPTE inhibited human 3β-HSD activity at a concentration of 10 nm. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50) ) for MXC inhibition of 3β-HSD was 53.21 ± 15.52 μm (human) and 46.15 ± 17.94 μm (rat), and for HPTE, it was 8.29 ± 2.49 μm (human) and 13.82 ± 2.26 μm (rat). At the higher concentration of 100 μm, MXC did not affect human and rat 17β-HSD3 activity. However, the IC(50) for HPTE inhibition of 17β-HSD3 was 12.1 ± 1.9 μm (human) and 32 .0 ± 8.6 μm (rat). The mode of action of MXC and HPTE on 3β-HSD activity was non-competitive with the substrate pregnenolone, but was competitive with the cofactor NAD(+) . The mode of HPTE inhibition of 17β-HSD3 was non-competitive with the substrate androstenedione, but was competitive with the cofactor NADPH. In summary, our results showed that HPTE, which is the biologically active metabolite of MXC, has the capacity for direct inhibition of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD3 enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity is presumably associated with suppression of steroidogenesis in gonadal tissues and has implications for testis function.

  1. An experimental test for lineage-specific position effects on alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.; Hartl, Daniel L.

    1998-01-01

    Independent transgene insertions differ in expression based on their location in the genome; these position effects are of interest because they reflect the influence of genome organization on gene regulation. Position effects also represent potentially insurmountable obstacles to the rigorous functional comparison of homologous genes from different species because (i) quantitative variation in expression of each gene across genomic positions (generalized position effects, or GPEs) may overwhelm differences between the genes of interest, or (ii) divergent genes may be differentially sensitive to position effects, reflecting unique interactions between each gene and its genomic milieu (lineage-specific position effects, or LSPEs). We have investigated both types of position-effect variation by applying our method of transgene coplacement, which allows comparisons of transgenes in the same position in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we report an experimental test for LSPE in Drosophila. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes of D. melanogaster and Drosophila affinidisjuncta differ in both tissue distribution and amounts of ADH activity. Despite this striking regulatory divergence, we found a very high correlation in overall ADH activity between the genes of the two species when placed in the same genomic position as assayed in otherwise Adh-null adults and larvae. These results argue against the influence of LSPE for these sequences, although the effects of GPE are significant. Our new findings validate the coplacement approach and show that it greatly magnifies the power to detect differences in expression between transgenes. Transgene coplacement thus dramatically extends the range of functional and evolutionary questions that can be addressed by transgenic technology. PMID:9861000

  2. Pituitary Adenoma With Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma (3PAs) and Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Bullova, Petra; Giubellino, Alessio; Quezado, Martha; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Wassif, Christopher A.; Raygada, Margarita; Rentia, Nadia; Dye, Louis; Cougnoux, Antony; Koziol, Deloris; Sierra, Maria de La Luz; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Malchoff, Carl; Moline, Jessica; Eng, Charis; Maher, Louis James; Pacak, Karel; Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Germline mutations in genes coding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D have been identified in familial paragangliomas (PGLs)/pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and other tumors. We described a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) caused by SDHD mutation in a patient with familial PGLs. Additional patients with PAs and SDHx defects have since been reported. Design: We studied 168 patients with unselected sporadic PA and with the association of PAs, PGLs, and/or pheochromocytomas, a condition we named the 3P association (3PAs) for SDHx germline mutations. We also studied the pituitary gland and hormonal profile of Sdhb+/− mice and their wild-type littermates at different ages. Results: No SDHx mutations were detected among sporadic PA, whereas three of four familial cases were positive for a mutation (75%). Most of the SDHx-deficient PAs were either prolactinomas or somatotropinomas. Pituitaries of Sdhb+/− mice older than 12 months had an increased number mainly of prolactin-secreting cells and several ultrastructural abnormalities such as intranuclear inclusions, altered chromatin nuclear pattern, and abnormal mitochondria. Igf-1 levels of mutant mice tended to be higher across age groups, whereas Prl and Gh levels varied according to age and sex. Conclusion: The present study confirms the existence of a new association that we termed 3PAs. It is due mostly to germline SDHx defects, although sporadic cases of 3PAs without SDHx defects also exist. Using Sdhb+/− mice, we provide evidence that pituitary hyperplasia in SDHx-deficient cells may be the initial abnormality in the cascade of events leading to PA formation. PMID:25695889

  3. Deficiency of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 induces BMP2 and increases bone mass in vivo.

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    Shriram Nallamshetty

    Full Text Available The effects of retinoids, the structural derivatives of vitamin A (retinol, on post-natal peak bone density acquisition and skeletal remodeling are complex and compartment specific. Emerging data indicates that retinoids, such as all trans retinoic acid (ATRA and its precursor all trans retinaldehyde (Rald, exhibit distinct and divergent transcriptional effects in metabolism. Despite these observations, the role of enzymes that control retinoid metabolism in bone remains undefined. In this study, we examined the skeletal phenotype of mice deficient in retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1a1, the enzyme responsible for converting Rald to ATRA in adult animals. Bone densitometry and micro-computed tomography (µCT demonstrated that Aldh1a1-deficient (Aldh1a1(-/- female mice had higher trabecular and cortical bone mass compared to age and sex-matched control C57Bl/6 wild type (WT mice at multiple time points. Histomorphometry confirmed increased cortical bone thickness and demonstrated significantly higher bone marrow adiposity in Aldh1a1(-/- mice. In serum assays, Aldh1a1(-/- mice also had higher serum IGF-1 levels. In vitro, primary Aldh1a1(-/- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs expressed significantly higher levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and demonstrated enhanced osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis versus WT MSCs. BMP2 was also expressed at higher levels in the femurs and tibias of Aldh1a1(-/- mice with accompanying induction of BMP2-regulated responses, including expression of Runx2 and alkaline phosphatase, and Smad phosphorylation. In vitro, Rald, which accumulates in Aldh1a1(-/- mice, potently induced BMP2 in WT MSCs in a retinoic acid receptor (RAR-dependent manner, suggesting that Rald is involved in the BMP2 increases seen in Aldh1a1 deficiency in vivo. Collectively, these data implicate Aldh1a1 as a novel determinant of cortical bone density and marrow adiposity in the skeleton in vivo through modulation of BMP signaling.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase a is dispensable and not a drug target during erythrocytic development

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Storm, Janet

    2011-07-14

    Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum contains three genes encoding potential glutamate dehydrogenases. The protein encoded by gdha has previously been biochemically and structurally characterized. It was suggested that it is important for the supply of reducing equivalents during intra-erythrocytic development of Plasmodium and, therefore, a suitable drug target. Methods The gene encoding the NADP(H)-dependent GDHa has been disrupted by reverse genetics in P. falciparum and the effect on the antioxidant and metabolic capacities of the resulting mutant parasites was investigated. Results No growth defect under low and elevated oxygen tension, no up- or down-regulation of a number of antioxidant and NADP(H)-generating proteins or mRNAs and no increased levels of GSH were detected in the D10Δgdha parasite lines. Further, the fate of the carbon skeleton of [13C] labelled glutamine was assessed by metabolomic studies, revealing no differences in the labelling of α-ketoglutarate and other TCA pathway intermediates between wild type and mutant parasites. Conclusions First, the data support the conclusion that D10Δgdha parasites are not experiencing enhanced oxidative stress and that GDHa function may not be the provision of NADP(H) for reductive reactions. Second, the results imply that the cytosolic, NADP(H)-dependent GDHa protein is not involved in the oxidative deamination of glutamate but that the protein may play a role in ammonia assimilation as has been described for other NADP(H)-dependent GDH from plants and fungi. The lack of an obvious phenotype in the absence of GDHa may point to a regulatory role of the protein providing glutamate (as nitrogen storage molecule) in situations where the parasites experience a limiting supply of carbon sources and, therefore, under in vitro conditions the enzyme is unlikely to be of significant importance. The data imply that the protein is not a suitable target for future drug development against intra

  5. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R J; Adams, B O; Sandham, H J; Abhyankar, S

    1989-03-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation was slightly but not significantly (P greater than or equal to 0.2) less. Multiple oral or fecal samples plated on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium indicator medium revealed no evidence of back mutation from Ldh- to Ldh+ in vivo. Both Ldh+ strain 041 and Ldh- strain 044 demonstrated bacteriocinlike activity in vitro against a number of human strains of mutans streptococci representing serotype a (S. cricetus) and serotypes c and e (S. mutans). Serotypes b (S. rattus) and f (S. mutans) and strains of S. mitior, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius were not inhibited. Thus, Ldh mutant strain 044 possesses a number of desirable traits that suggest it should be investigated further as a possible effector strain for replacement therapy of dental caries. These traits include its stability and low cariogenicity in the sensitive gnotobiotic rat caries model, its bacteriocinlike activity against certain other cariogenic S. mutans (but not against more inocuous indigenous oral streptococci), and the fact that it is a member of the most prevalent human serotype of cariogenic streptococci.

  6. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase multigene family involved in the assimilation of n-alkanes in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2014-11-28

    In the n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, n-alkanes are oxidized to fatty acids via fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes, after which they are utilized as carbon sources. Here, we show that four genes (HFD1-HFD4) encoding fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) are involved in the metabolism of n-alkanes in Y. lipolytica. A mutant, in which all of four HFD genes are deleted (Δhfd1-4 strain), could not grow on n-alkanes of 12-18 carbons; however, the expression of one of those HFD genes restored its growth on n-alkanes. Production of Hfd2Ap or Hfd2Bp, translation products of transcript variants generated from HFD2 by the absence or presence of splicing, also supported the growth of the Δhfd1-4 strain on n-alkanes. The FALDH activity in the extract of the wild-type strain was increased when cells were incubated in the presence of n-decane, whereas this elevation in FALDH activity by n-decane was not observed in Δhfd1-4 strain extract. Substantial FALDH activities were detected in the extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the HFD genes. Fluorescent microscopic observation suggests that Hfd3p and Hfd2Bp are localized predominantly in the peroxisome, whereas Hfd1p and Hfd2Ap are localized in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisome. These results suggest that the HFD multigene family is responsible for the oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids in the metabolism of n-alkanes, and raise the possibility that Hfd proteins have diversified by gene multiplication and RNA splicing to efficiently assimilate or detoxify fatty aldehydes in Y. lipolytica.

  7. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1: Friend or Foe to Female Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Petrosino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding vitamin A-dependent regulation of sex-specific differences in metabolic diseases, inflammation, and certain cancers. We focus on the characterization of the aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 family of enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3 that catalyze conversion of retinaldehyde to retinoic acid. Additionally, we propose a “horizontal transfer of signaling” from estrogen to retinoids through the action of ALDH1A1. Although estrogen does not directly influence expression of Aldh1a1, it has the ability to suppress Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3, thereby establishing a female-specific mechanism for retinoic acid generation in target tissues. ALDH1A1 regulates adipogenesis, abdominal fat formation, glucose tolerance, and suppression of thermogenesis in adipocytes; in B cells, ALDH1A1 plays a protective role by inducing oncogene suppressors Rara and Pparg. Considering the conflicting responses of Aldh1a1 in a multitude of physiological processes, only tissue-specific regulation of Aldh1a1 can result in therapeutic effects. We have shown through successful implantation of tissue-specific Aldh1a1−/− preadipocytes that thermogenesis can be induced in wild-type adipose tissues to resolve diet-induced visceral obesity in females. We will briefly discuss the emerging role of ALDH1A1 in multiple myeloma, the regulation of reproduction, and immune responses, and conclude by discussing the role of ALDH1A1 in future therapeutic applications.

  8. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is a novel predictor for poor prognosis in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Y

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yun Xian,1,* Shu Zhang,2,* Xudong Wang,3 Jin Qin,2 Wei Wang,2 Han Wu4 1School of Public Health, Nantong University, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, 4Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH acts as a key metabolic enzyme in the rate-limiting step in serine biosynthesis and plays an important role in metastasis of several cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of PHGDH in gastric cancer (GC. Methods: The messenger RNA expression of PHGDH was determined in 20 pairs of cancerous and adjacent nontumor tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry of PHGDH was performed on tissue microarray, composed of 482 GC and 64 matched adjacent nontumor tissues acquired from surgery, 20 chronic gastritis, 18 intestinal metaplasia, and 31 low-grade and 66 high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias acquired through gastric endoscopic biopsy. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to perform survival analyses. Results: Both PHGDH messenger RNA and protein product exhibited GC tissue-preferred expression, when compared with benign tissues. The high PHGDH expression was significantly correlated with histological type (P=0.011, tumor stage (P=0.014, and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (P<0.001. A negative correlation was found between PHGDH expression and the 5-year survival rate of patients with GC. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that PHGDH was an independent prognostic factor for outcome in GC. Conclusion: PHGDH is important in predicting patient outcomes and is a potential target for the development of therapeutic approaches to GC. Keywords: metabolism, gastric cancer, prognosis, serine biosynthesis

  9. Suppression of tumorigenesis in mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seontae; Kim, Sung Youl; Ku, Hyeong Jun; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Jaetae; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Park, Kwon Moo; Park, Jeen-Woo

    2014-02-01

    The tumor host microenvironment is increasingly viewed as an important contributor to tumor growth and suppression. Cellular oxidative stress resulting from high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to various processes involved in the development and progress of malignant tumors including carcinogenesis, aberrant growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this regard, the stroma induces oxidative stress in adjacent tumor cells, and this in turn causes several changes in tumor cells including modulation of the redox status, inhibition of cell proliferation, and induction of apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Because the levels of ROS are determined by a balance between ROS generation and ROS detoxification, disruption of this system will result in increased or decreased ROS level. Recently, we demonstrated that the control of mitochondrial redox balance and cellular defense against oxidative damage is one of the primary functions of mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) that supplies NADPH for antioxidant systems. To explore the interactions between tumor cells and the host, we evaluated tumorigenesis between IDH2-deficient (knock-out) and wild-type mice in which B16F10 melanoma cells had been implanted. Suppression of B16F10 cell tumorigenesis was reproducibly observed in the IDH2-deficient mice along with significant elevation of oxidative stress in both the tumor and the stroma. In addition, the expression of angiogenesis markers was significantly down-regulated in both the tumor and the stroma of the IDH2-deficient mice. These results support the hypothesis that redox status-associated changes in the host environment of tumor-bearing mice may contribute to cancer progression.

  10. Disruption of NAD~+ binding site in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase affects its intranuclear interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manali; Phadke; Natalia; Krynetskaia; Anurag; Mishra; Carlos; Barrero; Salim; Merali; Scott; A; Gothe; Evgeny; Krynetskiy

    2015-01-01

    AIM:To characterize phosphorylation of human glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH),and mobility of GAPDH in cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. METHODS:We used proteomics analysis to detect and characterize phosphorylation sites within human GAPDH. Site-specific mutagenesis and alanine scanning was then performed to evaluate functional significance of phosphorylation sites in the GAPDH polypeptide chain. Enzymatic properties of mutated GAPDH variants were assessed using kinetic studies. Intranuclear dynamics parameters(diffusion coefficient and the immobile fraction) were estimated using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) experiments and confocal microscopy. Molecular modeling experiments were performed to estimate the effects of mutations on NAD+ cofactor binding.RESULTS:Using MALDI-TOF analysis,we identified novel phosphorylation sites within the NAD+ binding center of GAPDH at Y94,S98,and T99. Using polyclonal antibody specific to phospho-T99-containing peptide within GAPDH,we demonstrated accumulation of phospho-T99-GAPDH inthe nuclear fractions of A549,HCT116,and SW48 cancer cel s after cytotoxic stress. We performed site-mutagenesis,and estimated enzymatic properties,intranuclear distribution,and intranuclear mobility of GAPDH mutated variants. Site-mutagenesis at positions S98 and T99 in the NAD+ binding center reduced enzymatic activity of GAPDH due to decreased affinity to NAD+(Km = 741 ± 257 μmol/L in T99 I vs 57 ± 11.1 μmol/L in wild type GAPDH. Molecular modeling experiments revealed the effect of mutations on NAD+ binding with GAPDH. FRAP(fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching) analysis showed that mutations in NAD+ binding center of GAPDH abrogated its intranuclear interactions. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest an important functional role of phosphorylated amino acids in the NAD+ binding center in GAPDH interactions with its intranuclear partners.

  11. Optimization of benzoxazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Kavitha, Mandapati; Zhang, Minjia; Chin, James En Wai; Liu, Xiaoping; Striepen, Boris; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D

    2013-05-23

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric protozoan parasite that has emerged as a major cause of diarrhea, malnutrition, and gastroenteritis and poses a potential bioterrorism threat. C. parvum synthesizes guanine nucleotides from host adenosine in a streamlined pathway that relies on inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We have previously identified several parasite-selective C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) inhibitors by high-throughput screening. In this paper, we report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a series of benzoxazole derivatives with many compounds demonstrating CpIMPDH IC50 values in the nanomolar range and >500-fold selectivity over human IMPDH (hIMPDH). Unlike previously reported CpIMPDH inhibitors, these compounds are competitive inhibitors versus NAD(+). The SAR study reveals that pyridine and other small heteroaromatic substituents are required at the 2-position of the benzoxazole for potent inhibitory activity. In addition, several other SAR conclusions are highlighted with regard to the benzoxazole and the amide portion of the inhibitor, including preferred stereochemistry. An X-ray crystal structure of a representative E·IMP·inhibitor complex is also presented. Overall, the secondary amine derivative 15a demonstrated excellent CpIMPDH inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) and moderate stability (t1/2 = 44 min) in mouse liver microsomes. Compound 73, the racemic version of 15a, also displayed superb antiparasitic activity in a Toxoplasma gondii strain that relies on CpIMPDH (EC50 = 20 ± 20 nM), and selectivity versus a wild-type T. gondii strain (200-fold). No toxicity was observed (LD50 > 50 μM) against a panel of four mammalian cells lines.

  12. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency without Hemolysis in Icteric Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Eghbalian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is an inherited deficiency that may be the cause of neonatal jaundice. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency without hemolysis in relation to neonatal jaundice. Material & Methods: This prospective descriptive study has been conducted on 272 icteric newborns admitted to the Ekbatan Hospital from October 2002 to September 2004. The dataset included: age, sex, total and direct bilirubin, hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, blood group and Rh of mother and newborn, direct Coombs, G6PD level and the type of treatment. All data was analyzed by using statistical method. Findings: From 272 neonates, 12 neonates (4.4% were found to have G6PD deficiency. The male to female ratio was 5 to 1 (10 male and 2 female neonates. From 12 neonates with G6PD deficiency, hemolysis was seen in 5 neonates (41.7% and the rate of G6PD deficiency without hemolysis was 2.6%. There was no difference in the mean bilirubin level, hemoglobin level and also reticulocyte count between patients with G6PD deficiency and those without G6PD deficiency (p>0.05. Out of 12 patients with G6PD deficiency, 2 patients (16.7% had blood exchange transfusion. Rh and ABO incompatibility were not seen in any of the12 patients with G6PD deficiency. Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in icteric newborns was considerably high and most of them were non hemolytic, so we recommend G6PD test as a screening program for every newborn at the time of delivery.

  13. Phenotypic and clinical implications of variants in the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuilenburg, André B P van; Meijer, Judith; Tanck, Michael W T; Dobritzsch, Doreen; Zoetekouw, Lida; Dekkers, Lois-Lee; Roelofsen, Jeroen; Meinsma, Rutger; Wymenga, Machteld; Kulik, Wim; Büchel, Barbara; Hennekam, Raoul C M; Largiadèr, Carlo R

    2016-04-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of the pyrimidine bases uracil, thymine and the antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil. Genetic variations in the gene encoding DPD (DPYD) have emerged as predictive risk alleles for 5FU-associated toxicity. Here we report an in-depth analysis of genetic variants in DPYD and their consequences for DPD activity and pyrimidine metabolites in 100 Dutch healthy volunteers. 34 SNPs were detected in DPYD and 15 SNPs were associated with altered plasma concentrations of pyrimidine metabolites. DPD activity was significantly associated with the plasma concentrations of uracil, the presence of a specific DPYD mutation (c.1905+1G>A) and the combined presence of three risk variants in DPYD (c.1905+1G>A, c.1129-5923C>G, c.2846A>T), but not with an altered uracil/dihydrouracil (U/UH2) ratio. Various haplotypes were associated with different DPD activities (haplotype D3, a decreased DPD activity; haplotype F2, an increased DPD activity). Functional analysis of eight recombinant mutant DPD enzymes showed a reduced DPD activity, ranging from 35% to 84% of the wild-type enzyme. Analysis of a DPD homology model indicated that the structural effect of the novel p.G401R mutation is most likely minor. The clinical relevance of the p.D949V mutation was demonstrated in a cancer patient heterozygous for the c.2846A>T mutation and a novel nonsense mutation c.1681C>T (p.R561X), experiencing severe grade IV toxicity. Our studies showed that the endogenous levels of uracil and the U/UH2 ratio are poor predictors of an impaired DPD activity. Loading studies with uracil to identify patients with a DPD deficiency warrants further investigation.

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-independent bioactivation of nitroglycerin in porcine and bovine blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Regina; Wölkart, Gerald; Opelt, Marissa; Schwarzenegger, Christine; Hofinger, Marielies; Neubauer, Andrea; Kollau, Alexander; Schmidt, Kurt; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd

    2015-02-15

    The vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), yielding 1,2-glycerol dinitrate and nitric oxide or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) in rodent and human blood vessels. The essential role of ALDH2 has been confirmed in many studies and is considered as general principle of GTN-induced vasodilation in mammals. However, this view is challenged by an early report showing that diphenyleneiodonium, which we recently characterized as potent ALDH2 inhibitor, has no effect on GTN-induced relaxation of bovine coronary arteries (De La Lande et al., 1996). We investigated this issue and found that inhibition of ALDH2 attenuates GTN-induced coronary vasodilation in isolated perfused rat hearts but has no effect on relaxation to GTN of bovine and porcine coronary arteries. This observation is explained by low levels of ALDH2 protein expression in bovine coronary arteries and several types of porcine blood vessels. ALDH2 mRNA expression and the rates of GTN denitration were similarly low, excluding a significant contribution of ALDH2 to the bioactivation of GTN in these vessels. Attempts to identify the responsible pathway with enzyme inhibitors did not provide conclusive evidence for the involvement of ALDH3A1, cytochrome P450, or GSH-S-transferase. Thus, the present manuscript describes a hitherto unrecognized pathway of GTN bioactivation in bovine and porcine blood vessels. If present in the human vasculature, this pathway might contribute to the therapeutic effects of organic nitrates that are not metabolized by ALDH2.

  15. Salicylic Acid-Dependent Plant Stress Signaling via Mitochondrial Succinate Dehydrogenase1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are known for their role in ATP production and generation of reactive oxygen species, but little is known about the mechanism of their early involvement in plant stress signaling. The role of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in salicylic acid (SA) signaling was analyzed using two mutants: disrupted in stress response1 (dsr1), which is a point mutation in SDH1 identified in a loss of SA signaling screen, and a knockdown mutant (sdhaf2) for SDH assembly factor 2 that is required for FAD insertion into SDH1. Both mutants showed strongly decreased SA-inducible stress promoter responses and low SDH maximum capacity compared to wild type, while dsr1 also showed low succinate affinity, low catalytic efficiency, and increased resistance to SDH competitive inhibitors. The SA-induced promoter responses could be partially rescued in sdhaf2, but not in dsr1, by supplementing the plant growth media with succinate. Kinetic characterization showed that low concentrations of either SA or ubiquinone binding site inhibitors increased SDH activity and induced mitochondrial H2O2 production. Both dsr1 and sdhaf2 showed lower rates of SA-dependent H2O2 production in vitro in line with their low SA-dependent stress signaling responses in vivo. This provides quantitative and kinetic evidence that SA acts at or near the ubiquinone binding site of SDH to stimulate activity and contributes to plant stress signaling by increased rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production, leading to part of the SA-dependent transcriptional response in plant cells. PMID:28209841

  16. Mutagenesis and functional studies with succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors in the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Gabriel; Bowler, Judith; Luksch, Torsten; Kirchhofer-Allan, Lucy; Steinhauer, Diana; Ward, Keith; Niklaus, Michael; Verras, Andreas; Csukai, Michael; Daina, Antoine; Fonné-Pfister, Raymonde

    2012-01-01

    A range of novel carboxamide fungicides, inhibitors of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH, EC 1.3.5.1) is currently being introduced to the crop protection market. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of structurally distinct carboxamides on target site resistance development and to assess possible impact on fitness. We used a UV mutagenesis approach in Mycosphaerella graminicola, a key pathogen of wheat to compare the nature, frequencies and impact of target mutations towards five subclasses of carboxamides. From this screen we identified 27 amino acid substitutions occurring at 18 different positions on the 3 subunits constituting the ubiquinone binding (Qp) site of the enzyme. The nature of substitutions and cross resistance profiles indicated significant differences in the binding interaction to the enzyme across the different inhibitors. Pharmacophore elucidation followed by docking studies in a tridimensional SDH model allowed us to propose rational hypotheses explaining some of the differential behaviors for the first time. Interestingly all the characterized substitutions had a negative impact on enzyme efficiency, however very low levels of enzyme activity appeared to be sufficient for cell survival. In order to explore the impact of mutations on pathogen fitness in vivo and in planta, homologous recombinants were generated for a selection of mutation types. In vivo, in contrast to previous studies performed in yeast and other organisms, SDH mutations did not result in a major increase of reactive oxygen species levels and did not display any significant fitness penalty. However, a number of Qp site mutations affecting enzyme efficiency were shown to have a biological impact in planta.Using the combined approaches described here, we have significantly improved our understanding of possible resistance mechanisms to carboxamides and performed preliminary fitness penalty assessment in an economically important plant pathogen years ahead of

  17. Mutagenesis and functional studies with succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors in the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Scalliet

    Full Text Available A range of novel carboxamide fungicides, inhibitors of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (SDH, EC 1.3.5.1 is currently being introduced to the crop protection market. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of structurally distinct carboxamides on target site resistance development and to assess possible impact on fitness. We used a UV mutagenesis approach in Mycosphaerella graminicola, a key pathogen of wheat to compare the nature, frequencies and impact of target mutations towards five subclasses of carboxamides. From this screen we identified 27 amino acid substitutions occurring at 18 different positions on the 3 subunits constituting the ubiquinone binding (Qp site of the enzyme. The nature of substitutions and cross resistance profiles indicated significant differences in the binding interaction to the enzyme across the different inhibitors. Pharmacophore elucidation followed by docking studies in a tridimensional SDH model allowed us to propose rational hypotheses explaining some of the differential behaviors for the first time. Interestingly all the characterized substitutions had a negative impact on enzyme efficiency, however very low levels of enzyme activity appeared to be sufficient for cell survival. In order to explore the impact of mutations on pathogen fitness in vivo and in planta, homologous recombinants were generated for a selection of mutation types. In vivo, in contrast to previous studies performed in yeast and other organisms, SDH mutations did not result in a major increase of reactive oxygen species levels and did not display any significant fitness penalty. However, a number of Qp site mutations affecting enzyme efficiency were shown to have a biological impact in planta.Using the combined approaches described here, we have significantly improved our understanding of possible resistance mechanisms to carboxamides and performed preliminary fitness penalty assessment in an economically important plant pathogen

  18. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Kangiella koreensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ho-Phuong-Thuy; Hong, Seung-Hye; Hong, Myoung-Ki; Pham, Tan-Viet; Oh, Deok-Kun; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In bacteria, some alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the opposite reaction as part of fermentation to ensure a constant supply of NAD(+). The adh gene from Kangiella koreensis was cloned and the protein (KkADH) was expressed, purified and crystallized. A KkADH crystal diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 94.1, b = 80.9, c = 115.6 Å, β = 111.9°. Four monomers were present in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding VM of 2.55 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51.8%.

  19. Crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction analysis of human pyruvate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, E.; Korotchkina, L. G.; Hong, Y. S.; Joachimiak, A.; Patel, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is a component enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. The enzyme catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. E1 is an alpha(2)beta(2) tetramer ( approximately 154 kDa). Crystals of this recombinant enzyme have been grown in polyethylene glycol 3350 using a vapor-diffusion method at 295 K. The crystals are characterized as orthorhombic, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 64.2, b = 126.9, c = 190.2 A. Crystals diffracted to a minimum d spacing of 2.5 A. The asymmetric unit contains one alpha(2)beta(2) tetrameric E1 assembly; self-rotation function analysis showed a pseudo-twofold symmetry relating the two alphabeta dimers.

  20. Construction of an integrated enzyme system consisting azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase for dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Wei, Buqing; Zhao, Yuhua; Wang, Jun

    2013-02-01

    Azo dyes are toxic and carcinogenic and are often present in industrial effluents. In this research, azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase were coupled for both continuous generation of the cofactor NADH and azo dye removal. The results show that 85% maximum relative activity of azoreductase in an integrated enzyme system was obtained at the conditions: 1U azoreductase:10U glucose 1-dehydrogenase, 250mM glucose, 1.0mM NAD(+) and 150μM methyl red. Sensitivity analysis of the factors in the enzyme system affecting dye removal examined by an artificial neural network model shows that the relative importance of enzyme ratio between azoreductase and glucose 1-dehydrogenase was 22%, followed by dye concentration (27%), NAD(+) concentration (23%) and glucose concentration (22%), indicating none of the variables could be ignored in the enzyme system. Batch results show that the enzyme system has application potential for dye removal.

  1. Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency with adult onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smelt, A H; Poorthuis, B J; Onkenhout, W;

    1998-01-01

    Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9), tetrade......Very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a severe disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation in infants. We report adult onset of attacks of painful rhabdomyolysis. Gas chromatography identified strongly elevated levels of tetradecenoic acid, 14:1(n-9......), tetradecadienoic acid, 14:2(n-6), and hexadecadienoic acid, 16:2(n-6). Palmitoyl-CoA and behenoyl-CoA dehydrogenase in fibroblasts were deficient. Muscle VLCAD activity was very low. DNA analysis revealed compound heterozygosity for two missense mutations in the VLCAD gene. The relatively mild clinical course may...

  2. Hydrostatic pressure induces conformational and catalytic changes on two alcohol dehydrogenases but no oligomeric dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallet, S; Legoy, M D

    1996-05-01

    A comparison between the pressure effects on the catalysis of Thermoanaerobium brockii alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH: a thermostable tetrameric enzyme) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH: a mesostable tetrameric enzyme) revealed a different behaviour. YADH activity is continuously inhibited by an increase of pressure, whereas YADH affinity seems less sensitive to pressure. TBADH activity is enhanced by pressure up to 100 MPa. TBADH affinity for alcoholic substrates increases if pressure increases, was TBADH affinity for NADP decreases when pressure increases. Hypothesis has been raised concerning the dissociation of oligomeric enzymes under high hydrostatic pressure ( YADH at all pressures and TBADH for pressures above 100 MPa is not correlated to subunit dissociation. Hence we suggest that enzymes under pressure encounter a molecular rearrangement which can either have a positive or a negative effect on activity. Finally, we have observed that the catalytic behaviour of alcohol dehydrogenases under pressure is connected to their thermostability.

  3. Aluminum decreases the glutathione regeneration by the inhibition of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Yoshino, Masataka

    2004-12-15

    Effect of aluminum on the NADPH supply and glutathione regeneration in mitochondria was analyzed. Reduced glutathione acted as a principal scavenger of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Aluminum inhibited the regeneration of glutathione from the oxidized form, and the effect was due to the inhibition of NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase the only enzyme supplying NADPH in mitochondria. In cytosol, aluminum inhibited the glutathione regeneration dependent on NADPH supply by malic enzyme and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase, but did not affect the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase dependent glutathione formation. Aluminum can cause oxidative damage on cellular biological processes by inhibiting glutathione regeneration through the inhibition of NADPH supply in mitochondria, but only a little inhibitory effect on the glutathione generation in cytosol.

  4. Relayed 13C magnetization transfer: Detection of malate dehydrogenase reaction in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jehoon; Shen, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes rapid interconversion between dilute metabolites oxaloacetate and malate. Both oxaloacetate and malate are below the detection threshold of in vivo MRS. Oxaloacetate is also in rapid exchange with aspartate catalyzed by aspartate aminotransferase, the latter metabolite is observable in vivo using 13C MRS. We hypothesized that the rapid turnover of oxaloacetate can effectively relay perturbation of magnetization between malate and aspartate. Here, we report indirect observation of the malate dehydrogenase reaction by saturating malate C2 resonance at 71.2 ppm and detecting a reduced aspartate C2 signal at 53.2 ppm due to relayed magnetization transfer via oxaloacetate C2 at 201.3 ppm. Using this strategy the rate of the cerebral malate dehydrogenase reaction was determined to be 9 ± 2 μmol/g wet weight/min (means ± SD, n = 5) at 11.7 Tesla in anesthetized adult rats infused with [1,6- 13C 2]glucose.

  5. Purification and properties of thiosulfate dehydrogenase from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans JCM7814.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, M; Yoshikawa, H; Amano, Y

    2001-01-01

    A key enzyme of the thiosulfate oxidation pathway in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans JCM7814 was investigated. As a result of assaying the enzymatic activities of thiosulfate dehydrogenase, rhodanese, and thiosulfate reductase at 5.5 of intracellular pH, the activity of thiosulfate dehydrogenase was measured as the key enzyme. The thiosulfate dehydrogenase of A. thiooxidans JCM7814 was purified using three chromatographies. The purified sample was electrophoretically homogeneous. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 27.9 kDa and it was a monomer. This enzyme had cytochrome c. The optimum pH and temperature of this enzyme were 3.5 and 35 degrees C. The enzyme was stable in the pH range from 5 to 7, and it was stable up to 45 degrees C. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 8.9. This enzyme reacted with thiosulfate as a substrate. The Km was 0.81 mM.

  6. Disruption of seven hypothetical aryl alcohol dehydrogenase genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and construction of a multiple knock-out strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delneri, D; Gardner, D C; Bruschi, C V; Oliver, S G

    1999-11-01

    By in silicio analysis, we have discovered that there are seven open reading frames (ORFs) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose protein products show a high degree of amino acid sequence similarity to the aryl alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Yeast cultures grown to stationary phase display a significant aryl alcohol dehydrogenase activity by degrading aromatic aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols. To study the biochemical and the biological role of each of the AAD genes, a series of mutant strains carrying deletion of one or more of the AAD-coding sequences was constructed by PCR-mediated gene replacement, using the readily selectable marker kanMX. The correct targeting of the PCR-generated disruption cassette into the genomic locus was verified by analytical PCR and by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) followed by Southern blot analysis. Double, triple and quadruple mutant strains were obtained by classical genetic methods, while the construction of the quintuple, sextuple and septuple mutants was achieved by using the marker URA3 from Kluyveromyces lactis, HIS3 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe and TRP1 from S. cerevisiae. None of the knock-out strains revealed any mutant phenotype when tested for the degradation of aromatic aldehydes using both spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific tests for changes in the ergosterol and phospholipids profiles did not reveal any mutant phenotype and mating and sporulation efficiencies were not affected in the septuple deletant. Compared to the wild-type strain, the septuple deletant showed an increased resistance to the anisaldehyde, but there is a possibility that the nutritional markers used for gene replacement are causing this effect.

  7. Characterisation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human orbital adipose tissue: a comparison with subcutaneous and omental fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalska, Iwona J; Durrani, Omar M; Abbott, Joseph; Onyimba, Claire U; Khosla, Pamela; Moosavi, Areeb H; Reuser, Tristan T Q; Stewart, Paul M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Walker, Elizabeth A; Rauz, Saaeha

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have a profound effect on adipose biology increasing tissue mass causing central obesity. The pre-receptor regulation of GCs by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that activates cortisol from cortisone has been postulated as a fundamental mechanism underlying the metabolic syndrome mediating adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy in the omental (OM) depot. Orbital adipose tissue (OF) is the site of intense inflammation and tissue remodelling in several orbital inflammatory disease states. In this study, we describe features of the GC metabolic pathways in normal human OF depot and compare it with subcutaneous (SC) and OM depots. Using an automated histological characterisation technique, OF adipocytes were found to be significantly smaller (parameters: area, maximum diameter and perimeter) than OM and SC adipocytes (P<0·001). Although immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated resident CD68+ cells in all three whole tissue adipose depots, OF CD68 mRNA and protein expression exceeded that of OM and SC (mRNA, P<0·05; protein, P<0·001). In addition, there was higher expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)α mRNA in the OF whole tissue depot (P<0·05). Conversely, 11β-HSD1 mRNA together with the markers of late adipocyte differentiation (FABP4 and G3PDH) were significantly lower in OF. Primary cultures of OF preadipocytes demonstrated predominant 11β-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity with minimal dehydrogenase activity. Orbital adipocytes are smaller, less differentiated, and express low levels of 11β-HSD1 but abundant GRα compared with SC and OM. OF harbours a large CD68+ population. These characteristics define an orbital microenvironment that has the potential to respond to sight-threatening orbital inflammatory disease. PMID:17283228

  8. Analysis of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase N-glycosylation sites and performance of partially non-glycosylated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Maresch, Daniel; Schropp, Katharina; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2017-04-01

    Pyranose Dehydrogenase 1 from the basidiomycete Agaricus meleagris (AmPDH1) is an oxidoreductase capable of oxidizing a broad variety of sugars. Due to this and its ability of dioxidation of substrates and no side production of hydrogen peroxide, it is studied for use in enzymatic bio-fuel cells. In-vitro deglycosylated AmPDH1 as well as knock-out mutants of the N-glycosylation sites N(75) and N(175), near the active site entrance, were previously shown to improve achievable current densities of graphite electrodes modified with AmPDH1 and an osmium redox polymer acting as a redox mediator, up to 10-fold. For a better understanding of the role of N-glycosylation of AmPDH1, a systematic set of N-glycosylation site mutants was investigated in this work, regarding expression efficiency, enzyme activity and stability. Furthermore, the site specific extend of N-glycosylation was compared between native and recombinant wild type AmPDH1. Knocking out the site N(252) prevented the attachment of significantly extended N-glycan structures as detected on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but did not significantly alter enzyme performance on modified electrodes. This suggests that not the molecule size but other factors like accessibility of the active site improved performance of deglycosylated AmPDH1/osmium redox polymer modified electrodes. A fourth N-glycosylation site of AmPDH1 could be confirmed by mass spectrometry at N(319), which appeared to be conserved in related fungal pyranose dehydrogenases but not in other members of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase structural family. This site was shown to be the only one that is essential for functional recombinant expression of the enzyme.

  9. Structural Insights into l-Tryptophan Dehydrogenase from a Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium, Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Kitamura, Megumi; Hakumai, Yuichi; Fukui, Kenji; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2017-01-15

    l-Tryptophan dehydrogenase from Nostoc punctiforme NIES-2108 (NpTrpDH), despite exhibiting high amino acid sequence identity (>30%)/homology (>50%) with NAD(P)(+)-dependent l-Glu/l-Leu/l-Phe/l-Val dehydrogenases, exclusively catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of l-Trp to 3-indolepyruvate in the presence of NAD(+) Here, we determined the crystal structure of the apo form of NpTrpDH. The structure of the NpTrpDH monomer, which exhibited high similarity to that of l-Glu/l-Leu/l-Phe dehydrogenases, consisted of a substrate-binding domain (domain I, residues 3 to 133 and 328 to 343) and an NAD(+)/NADH-binding domain (domain II, residues 142 to 327) separated by a deep cleft. The apo-NpTrpDH existed in an open conformation, where domains I and II were apart from each other. The subunits dimerized themselves mainly through interactions between amino acid residues around the β-1 strand of each subunit, as was observed in the case of l-Phe dehydrogenase. The binding site for the substrate l-Trp was predicted by a molecular docking simulation and validated by site-directed mutagenesis. Several hydrophobic residues, which were located in the active site of NpTrpDH and possibly interacted with the side chain of the substrate l-Trp, were arranged similarly to that found in l-Leu/l-Phe dehydrogenases but fairly different from that of an l-Glu dehydrogenase. Our crystal structure revealed that Met-40, Ala-69, Ile-74, Ile-110, Leu-288, Ile-289, and Tyr-292 formed a hydrophobic cluster around the active site. The results of the site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggested that the hydrophobic cluster plays critical roles in protein folding, l-Trp recognition, and catalysis. Our results provide critical information for further characterization and engineering of this enzyme.

  10. Homology modelling and docking analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus thermopilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create a three-dimensional model of L-lactate dehydrogenase from the main yoghurt starter culture - Streptococcus thermopilus, to analyse its structural features and investigate substrate binding in the active site. NCBI BlastP was used against the Protein Data Bank database in order to identify the template for construction of homology models. Multiple sequence alignment was performed using the program MUSCULE within the UGENE 1.11.3 program. Homology models were constructed using the program Modeller v. 9.17. The obtained 3D model was verified by Ramachandran plots. Molecular docking simulations were performed using the program Surflex-Dock. The highest sequence similarity was observed with L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, with 69% identity. Therefore, its structure (PDB ID: 2ZQY:A was selected as a modelling template for homology modelling. Active residues are by sequence similarity predicted: S. thermophilus - HIS181 and S. aureus - HIS179. Binding energy of pyruvate to L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus was - 7.874 kcal/mol. Pyruvate in L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus makes H bonds with catalytic HIS181 (1.9 Å, as well as with THR235 (3.6 Å. Although our results indicate similar position of substrates between L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus and S. aureus, differences in substrate distances and binding energy values could influence the reaction rate. Based on these results, the L-lactate dehydrogenase model proposed here could be used as a guide for further research, such as transition states of the reaction through molecular dynamics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  11. Production of superoxide/H2O2 by dihydroorotate dehydrogenase in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey-Mogensen, Martin; Goncalves, Renata L S; Orr, Adam L; Brand, Martin D

    2014-07-01

    Dehydrogenases that use ubiquinone as an electron acceptor, including complex I of the respiratory chain, complex II, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are known to be direct generators of superoxide and/or H2O2. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase oxidizes dihydroorotate to orotate and reduces ubiquinone to ubiquinol during pyrimidine metabolism, but it is unclear whether it produces superoxide and/or H2O2 directly or does so only indirectly from other sites in the electron transport chain. Using mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle we establish that dihydroorotate oxidation leads to superoxide/H2O2 production at a fairly high rate of about 300pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1) when oxidation of ubiquinol is prevented and complex II is uninhibited. This H2O2 production is abolished by brequinar or leflunomide, known inhibitors of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Eighty percent of this rate is indirect, originating from site IIF of complex II, because it can be prevented by malonate or atpenin A5, inhibitors of complex II. In the presence of inhibitors of all known sites of superoxide/H2O2 production (rotenone to inhibit sites in complex I (site IQ and, indirectly, site IF), myxothiazol to inhibit site IIIQo in complex III, and malonate plus atpenin A5 to inhibit site IIF in complex II), dihydroorotate dehydrogenase generates superoxide/H2O2, at a small but significant rate (23pmol H2O2·min(-1)·mg protein(-1)), from the ubiquinone-binding site. We conclude that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase can generate superoxide and/or H2O2 directly at low rates and is also capable of indirect production at higher rates from other sites through its ability to reduce the ubiquinone pool.

  12. Single arginine mutation in two yeast isocitrate dehydrogenases: biochemical characterization and functional implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Wei, Huanhuan; Cao, Zhengyu; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), a housekeeping gene, has drawn the attention of cancer experts. Mutation of the catalytic Arg132 residue of human IDH1 (HcIDH) eliminates the enzyme's wild-type isocitrate oxidation activity, but confer the mutant an ability of reducing α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). To examine whether an analogous mutation in IDHs of other eukaryotes could cause similar effects, two yeast mitochondrial IDHs, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADP+-IDH1 (ScIDH1) and Yarrowia lipolytica NADP+-IDH (YlIDH), were studied. The analogous Arg residues (Arg148 of ScIDH1 and Arg141 of YlIDH) were mutated to His. The Km values of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for isocitrate were determined to be 2.4-fold and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, than those of the corresponding wild-type enzymes. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for isocitrate oxidation were drastically reduced by 227-fold and 460-fold, respectively, of those of the wild-type enzymes. As expected, both ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H acquired the neomorphic activity of catalyzing α-KG to 2-HG, and the generation of 2-HG was confirmed using gas chromatography/time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS). Kinetic analysis showed that ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H displayed 5.2-fold and 3.3-fold higher affinities, respectively, for α-KG than the HcIDH R132H mutant. The catalytic efficiencies of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for α-KG were 5.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, of that of the HcIDH R132H mutant. Since the HcIDH Arg132 mutation is associated with the tumorigenesis, this study provides fundamental information for further research on the physiological role of this IDH mutation in vivo using yeast.

  13. Single arginine mutation in two yeast isocitrate dehydrogenases: biochemical characterization and functional implication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Song

    Full Text Available Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, a housekeeping gene, has drawn the attention of cancer experts. Mutation of the catalytic Arg132 residue of human IDH1 (HcIDH eliminates the enzyme's wild-type isocitrate oxidation activity, but confer the mutant an ability of reducing α-ketoglutarate (α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. To examine whether an analogous mutation in IDHs of other eukaryotes could cause similar effects, two yeast mitochondrial IDHs, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADP+-IDH1 (ScIDH1 and Yarrowia lipolytica NADP+-IDH (YlIDH, were studied. The analogous Arg residues (Arg148 of ScIDH1 and Arg141 of YlIDH were mutated to His. The Km values of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for isocitrate were determined to be 2.4-fold and 2.2-fold higher, respectively, than those of the corresponding wild-type enzymes. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for isocitrate oxidation were drastically reduced by 227-fold and 460-fold, respectively, of those of the wild-type enzymes. As expected, both ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H acquired the neomorphic activity of catalyzing α-KG to 2-HG, and the generation of 2-HG was confirmed using gas chromatography/time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS. Kinetic analysis showed that ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H displayed 5.2-fold and 3.3-fold higher affinities, respectively, for α-KG than the HcIDH R132H mutant. The catalytic efficiencies of ScIDH1 R148H and YlIDH R141H for α-KG were 5.5-fold and 4.5-fold, respectively, of that of the HcIDH R132H mutant. Since the HcIDH Arg132 mutation is associated with the tumorigenesis, this study provides fundamental information for further research on the physiological role of this IDH mutation in vivo using yeast.

  14. Triiodothyronine (T3)-associated upregulation and downregulation of nuclear T3 binding in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5)--stimulation of malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase by insulin, but not by T3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kristensen, S R; Kvetny, J

    1991-01-01

    The specific nuclear binding of triiodothyronine (T3) (NBT3) and the activity of malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), and 6-phosphogluconate-dehydrogenase (6PGD) were studied in the human fibroblast cell (MRC-5). The overall apparent binding affinity (Ka) was 2.7 x 10(9) L...

  15. Effect of the allelic variants of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2*2 and alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on blood acetaldehyde concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Giia-Sheun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alcoholism is a complex behavioural disorder. Molecular genetics studies have identified numerous candidate genes associated with alcoholism. It is crucial to verify the disease susceptibility genes by correlating the pinpointed allelic variations to the causal phenotypes. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH are the principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit functional polymorphisms among racial populations; these polymorphisms have been shown to be the important genetic determinants in ethanol metabolism and alcoholism. Here, we briefly review recent advances in genomic studies of human ADH/ALDH families and alcoholism, with an emphasis on the pharmacogenetic consequences of venous blood acetaldehyde in the different ALDH2 genotypes following the intake of various doses of ethanol. This paper illustrates a paradigmatic example of phenotypic verifications in a protective disease gene for substance abuse.

  16. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented.

  17. [Isoformes of Malate Dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum Steppense A-20s Grown Chemotrophically under Aerobic Condtions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Lyashchenko, M S; Gataullinaa, M O; Kompantseva, E I

    2016-01-01

    Three malate dehydrogenase isoforms (65-, 60-, and 71-fold purifications) with specific activities of 4.23, 3.88, and 4.56 U/mg protein were obtained in an electrophoretically homogenous state from Rhodovulum steppense bacteria strain A-20s chemotropically grown under aerobic conditions. The physicochemical and kinetic properties of malate dehydrogenase isoforms were determined. The molecular weight and the Michaelis constants were determined; the effect of hydrogen ions on the forward and reverse MDH reaction was studied. The results of the study demonstrated that the enzyme consists of subunits; the molecular weight of subunits was determined by SDS-PAGE.

  18. [Physicochemical, catalytic, and regulatory properties of malate dehydrogenase from Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, A T; Falaleeva, M I; Parfenova, I V; Liashchenko, M S; Kompantseva, E I; Tret'iakova, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical, regulatory, and kinetic properties of malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) from haloalkaliphilic purple nonsulfur Rhodovulum steppense bacteria, strain A-20s, were studied. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH) preparation with a specific activity of 0.775 ± 0.113 U/mg protein was obtained in an electrophoretically homogeneous state using multistep purification. Using homogenous preparations, the molecular weight and the Michaelis constant of the enzyme were determined; the effects of metal ions, the temperature effect, and the thermal stability of the MDH were studied. The dimer structure of the enzyme was demonstrated by DS-Na-electrophoresis.

  19. 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency associated with autism and mental retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanavin, Oivind J; Woldseth, Berit; Jellum, Egil

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency or short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) is caused by a defect in the degradation pathway of the amino acid L-isoleucine. METHODS: We report a four-year-old mentally retarded Somali boy with autism and a history...... cases with SBCADD, both originating from Somalia and Eritrea, indicating that it is relatively prevalent in this population. Autism has not previously been described with mutations in this gene, thus expanding the clinical spectrum of SBCADD....

  20. Function, kinetic properties, crystallization, and regulation of microbial malate dehydrogenase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tóshiko TAKAHASHI-ÍÑIGUEZ; Nelly ABURTO-RODRÍGUEZ; Ana Laura VILCHIS-GONZÁLEZ; María Elena FLORES

    2016-01-01

    题目:微生物苹果酸脱氢酶的功能、动力学特征、晶体结构以及调控概苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)广泛存在于动物、植物以及微生物体内,是生物体进行糖代谢的关键酶之一。在辅酶I(NAD+)或辅酶II(NADP+)的作用下,能够催化草酰乙酸和苹果酸之间相互转化。虽然目前真核微生物中MDH已被广泛研究,但是对原核生物中的这种酶却鲜有报道。因此,有必要对MDH的相关研究信息进行综述,以期更好地了解这种酶的功能。本文综述了细菌相关研究的各种数据信息,进一步挖掘MDH的分子多样性,包括分子量、低聚态、辅因子与底物的结合力,以及酶反应方向的差异等。通过对不同细菌来源的MDH的晶体结构的分析,可鉴别底物与辅因子结合的部位以及形成二聚体的重要残基。对这些结构信息的了解将有利于指导研究人员对酶的结构进行修饰从而提高其催化能力,比如增加酶的活性、辅助因子的结合能力、底物特异性和热稳定性等。另外,本文通过分析比较MDH 系统发生树的重建,将其蛋白超家族分成两个主分支,同时在古生菌、细菌和真核微生物等不同细胞的MDH之间建立联系。%Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) is an enzyme widely distributed among living organisms and is a key protein in the central oxidative pathway. It catalyzes the interconversion between malate and oxaloacetate using NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Surprisingly, this enzyme has been extensively studied in eukaryotes but there are few reports about this enzyme in prokaryotes. It is necessary to review the relevant information to gain a better understanding of the function of this enzyme. Our review of the data generated from studies in bacteria shows much diversity in their molecular properties, including weight, oligomeric states, cofactor and substrate binding affinities, as wel as differ-ences in the direction