Sample records for 116th ncab min

  1. Instant MinGW starter

    Shpigor, Ilya


    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  2. USGS 1-min Dst index

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.


    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  3. Surface waves of Min-proteins

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Nguyen van yen, Romain; Kruse, Karsten


    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the Min-proteins show pronounced pole-to-pole oscillations. They are functional for suppressing cell division at the cell ends, leaving the center as the only possible site for division. Analyzing different models of Min-protein dynamics in a bacterial geometry, we find waves on the cytoplasmic membrane. Interestingly, the surface wave solutions of different models belong to different symmetry classes. We suggest that experiments on Min-protein surface waves in vitro are helpful in distinguishing between different classes of models of Min-protein dynamics.

  4. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg


    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  5. 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base...

  6. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE

    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe


    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  7. Self-organization of the MinE ring in subcellular Min oscillations

    Derr, Julien; Hopper, Jason T.; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.


    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the mid-cell positioning of division is achieved by the sub-cellular oscillation of Min proteins. MinD interacts with the membrane and polymerizes into filaments. MinE binds to membrane bound MinD leading to the depolymerization of the MinD filaments. It has been observed experimentally that MinE forms a ring, known as the E-ring, near the end of the MinD polymers. We model and solve the self-organization of the E-ring. Rebinding of MinE to depolymerizing MinD filament tips controls MinE ring formation. We find two types of E-ring profiles near the filament tip: a strong plateau-like E-ring as seen in vivo, controlled by 1D diffusion along the bacterial length, or a weak cusp-like E-ring controlled by 3D diffusion near the filament tip. We discuss the initial instability that leads to MinD filament depolymerization and the formation of the E-ring. We also discuss the duration of transients leading towards strong or weak E-rings. We compare with experiment both in vivo and in vitro.

  8. 60wrd/min art critic


    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "The following was announced on the windows of a small blue house at dOCUMENTA (13) : The “60 wrd/min art critic” is available. ­Reviews are free of charge, and are written here on Mondays, Wednesdays and Saturdays ­between the hours of 1 and 6 p.m. Lori Waxman will spend 25 minutes ­looking at submitted work and writing a 200-word review. Thoughtful responses are guaranteed. Completed reviews will be ­published in the Hessische/­Niedersächsische­Allgem...

  9. Strength training improves 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling.

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, E A; Raastad, T


    To investigate the effects of heavy strength training on the mean power output in a 5-min all-out trial following 185 min of submaximal cycling at 44% of maximal aerobic power output in well-trained cyclists. Twenty well-trained cyclists were assigned to either usual endurance training combined with heavy strength training [E+S; n=11 (♂=11)] or to usual endurance training only [E; n=9 (♂=7, ♀=2)]. The strength training performed by E+S consisted of four lower body exercises [3 × 4-10 repetition maximum (RM)], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. E+S increased 1 RM in half-squat (P≤0.001), while no change occurred in E. E+S led to greater reductions than E in oxygen consumption, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (P<0.05) during the last hour of the prolonged cycling. Further, E+S increased the mean power output during the 5-min all-out trial (from 371 ± 9 to 400 ± 13 W, P<0.05), while no change occurred in E. In conclusion, adding strength training to usual endurance training improves leg strength and 5-min all-out performance following 185 min of cycling in well-trained cyclists.

  10. Membrane-bound MinDE complex acts as a toggle switch that drives Min oscillation coupled to cytoplasmic depletion of MinD.

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Li, Min; Mizuuchi, Michiyo; Hwang, Ling Chin; Seol, Yeonee; Neuman, Keir C; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi


    The Escherichia coli Min system self-organizes into a cell-pole to cell-pole oscillator on the membrane to prevent divisions at the cell poles. Reconstituting the Min system on a lipid bilayer has contributed to elucidating the oscillatory mechanism. However, previous in vitro patterns were attained with protein densities on the bilayer far in excess of those in vivo and failed to recapitulate the standing wave oscillations observed in vivo. Here we studied Min protein patterning at limiting MinD concentrations reflecting the in vivo conditions. We identified "burst" patterns--radially expanding and imploding binding zones of MinD, accompanied by a peripheral ring of MinE. Bursts share several features with the in vivo dynamics of the Min system including standing wave oscillations. Our data support a patterning mechanism whereby the MinD-to-MinE ratio on the membrane acts as a toggle switch: recruiting and stabilizing MinD on the membrane when the ratio is high and releasing MinD from the membrane when the ratio is low. Coupling this toggle switch behavior with MinD depletion from the cytoplasm drives a self-organized standing wave oscillator.

  11. QoS Guided Min-Min Heuristic for Grid Task Scheduling

    HE XiaoShan(何晓珊); SUN XianHe(孙贤和); Gregor von Laszewski


    Task scheduling is an integrated component of computing. With the emergence of Grid and ubiquitous computing, new challenges appear in task scheduling based on properties such as security, quality of service, and lack of central control within distributed administrative domains. A Grid task scheduling framework must be able to deal with these issues. One of the goals of Grid task scheduling is to achieve high system throughput while matching applications with the available computing resources. This matching of resources in a non-deterministically shared heterogeneous environment leads to concerns over Quality of Service (QoS). In this paper a novel QoS guided task scheduling algorithm for Grid computing is introduced. The proposed novel algorithm is based on a general adaptive scheduling heuristics that includes QoS guidance.The algorithm is evaluated within a simulated Grid environment. The experimental results show that the new QoS guided Min-Min heuristic can lead to significant performance gain for a variety of applications. The approach is compared with others based on the quality of the prediction formulated by inaccurate information.

  12. MinD and MinE interact with anionic phospholipids and regulate division plane formation in Escherichia coli.

    Renner, Lars D; Weibel, Douglas B


    The Min proteins (MinC, MinD, and MinE) form a pole-to-pole oscillator that controls the spatial assembly of the division machinery in Escherichia coli cells. Previous studies identified that interactions of MinD with phospholipids positioned the Min machinery at the membrane. We extend these studies by measuring the affinity, kinetics, and ATPase activity of E. coli MinD, MinE, and MinDE binding to supported lipid bilayers containing varying compositions of anionic phospholipids. Using quartz crystal microbalance measurements, we found that the binding affinity (K(d)) for the interaction of recombinant E. coli MinD and MinE with lipid bilayers increased with increasing concentration of the anionic phospholipids phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The K(d) for MinD (1.8 μM) in the presence of ATP was smaller than for MinE (12.1 μM) binding to membranes consisting of 95:5 phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin. The simultaneous binding of MinD and MinE to membranes revealed that increasing the concentration of anionic phospholipid stimulates the initial rate of adsorption (k(on)). The ATPase activity of MinD decreased in the presence of anionic phospholipids. These results indicate that anionic lipids, which are concentrated at the poles, increase the retention of MinD and MinE and explain its dwell time at this region of bacterial cells. These studies provide insight into interactions between MinD and MinE and between these proteins and membranes that are relevant to understanding the process of bacterial cell division, in which the interaction of proteins and membranes is essential.

  13. MinFinder v2.0: An improved version of MinFinder

    Tsoulos, Ioannis G.; Lagaris, Isaac E.


    A new version of the "MinFinder" program is presented that offers an augmented linking procedure for Fortran-77 subprograms, two additional stopping rules and a new start-point rejection mechanism that saves a significant portion of gradient and function evaluations. The method is applied on a set of standard test functions and the results are reported. New version program summaryProgram title: MinFinder v2.0 Catalogue identifier: ADWU_v2_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC Licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 14 150 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 218 144 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language used: GNU C++, GNU FORTRAN, GNU C Computer: The program is designed to be portable in all systems running the GNU C++ compiler Operating system: Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD RAM: 200 000 bytes Classification: 4.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADWU_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Computer Physics Communications 174 (2006) 166-179 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: A multitude of problems in science and engineering are often reduced to minimizing a function of many variables. There are instances that a local optimum does not correspond to the desired physical solution and hence the search for a better solution is required. Local optimization techniques can be trapped in any local minimum. Global optimization is then the appropriate tool. For example, solving a non-linear system of equations via optimization, one may encounter many local minima that do not correspond to solutions, i.e. they are far from zero. Solution method: Using a uniform pdf, points are sampled from a rectangular domain. A clustering technique, based on a typical distance

  14. Timing matters: negative emotion elicited 5 min but not 30 min or 45 min after learning enhances consolidation of internal-monitoring source memory.

    Wang, Bo; Bukuan, Sun


    Two experiments examined the time-dependent effects of negative emotion on consolidation of item and internal-monitoring source memory. In Experiment 1, participants (n=121) learned a list of words. They were asked to read aloud half of the words and to think about the remaining half. They were instructed to memorize each word and its associative cognitive operation ("reading" versus "thinking"). Immediately following learning they conducted free recall and then watched a 3-min either neutral or negative video clip when 5 min, 30 min or 45 min had elapsed after learning. Twenty-four hours later they returned to take surprise tests for item and source memory. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants, without conducting an immediate test of free recall, took tests of source memory for all encoded words both immediately and 24 h after learning. Experiment 1 showed that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of item memory (as measured by retention ratio of free recall) regardless of delay of emotion elicitation and that negative emotion enhanced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 5 min delay but reduced consolidation of source memory when it was elicited at a 30 min delay; when elicited at a 45 min delay, negative emotion had little effect. Furthermore, Experiment 2 replicated the enhancement effect on source memory in the 5 min delay even when participants were tested on all the encoded words. The current study partially replicated prior studies on item memory and extends the literature by providing evidence for a time-dependent effect of negative emotion on consolidation of source memory based on internal monitoring.

  15. Unifying View on Min-Max Fairness, Max-Min Fairness, and Utility Optimization in Cellular Networks

    Stanczak Slawomir


    Full Text Available We are concerned with the control of quality of service (QoS in wireless cellular networks utilizing linear receivers. We investigate the issues of fairness and total performance, which are measured by a utility function in the form of a weighted sum of link QoS. We disprove the common conjecture on incompatibility of min-max fairness and utility optimality by characterizing network classes in which both goals can be accomplished concurrently. We characterize power and weight allocations achieving min-max fairness and utility optimality and show that they correspond to saddle points of the utility function. Next, we address the problem of the difference between min-max fairness and max-min fairness. We show that in general there is a (fairness gap between the performance achieved under min-max fairness and under max-min fairness. We characterize the network class for which both performance values coincide. Finally, we characterize the corresponding network subclass, in which both min-max fairness and max-min fairness are achievable by the same power allocation.

  16. Teadlastele on Saksamaa kogemus hindamatu / Mart Min, Jaan Aru

    Min, Mart, 1943-


    Oma muljeid Saksamaalt jagavad Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli professor Mart Min, kes on viibinud õppejõuna Saksamaal ja Frankfurdis Max Plancki instituudis doktorantuuris aju ja teadvust uuriv noorteadlane Jaan Aru

  17. Projekti Min-E-Max kohtumine Saksamaal / Katrin Arge

    Arge, Katrin


    Oktoobri keskel toimus Lõuna-Saksamaa väikelinnas Oberderdingenis Hispaania, Portugali, Ungari, Leedu, Eesti ja Saksamaa õpetajate kohtumine seoses Euroopa Liidu poolt rahastatava Comenius1 projektiga Min-E-Max (minimum energy input maximum output)

  18. [Quintessence of academician SHI Xue-min's acupoint needling method].

    Yang, Ming-Xing


    Under guidance of the traditional theories of acupuncture and modern knowledge of anatomy and in combination with his long-term clinical practice and clinical researches, academician SHI Xue-min formulates scien tific and strict acupuncture methods and corresponding quantitative requirement for the acupoints for treatment of stroke and relative diseases and symptoms, including patient's posture, doctor's posture, angle of needle insertion, manipulation, amount of arrival of qi, etc. Correct grasping these needling methods of acupoints is a key to learn and understand SHI Xue-min's Acupuncture Science and "Xingnao Kaiqiao" needling method and quantitative acu puncture manipulation theory. In this paper, SHI Xue-min's partial experiences on needling acupoints are introduced.

  19. Chain rules for smooth min-and max-entropies

    Vitanov, Alexande; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Tomamichel, Marco;


    The chain rule for the Shannon and von Neumann en- tropy, which relates the total entropy of a system to the entropies of its parts, is of central importance to information theory. Here, we consider the chain rule for the more general smooth min- and max-entropies, used in one-shot in formation t...

  20. Multistability and dynamic transitions of intracellular Min protein patterns.

    Wu, Fabai; Halatek, Jacob; Reiter, Matthias; Kingma, Enzo; Frey, Erwin; Dekker, Cees


    Cells owe their internal organization to self-organized protein patterns, which originate and adapt to growth and external stimuli via a process that is as complex as it is little understood. Here, we study the emergence, stability, and state transitions of multistable Min protein oscillation patterns in live Escherichia coli bacteria during growth up to defined large dimensions. De novo formation of patterns from homogenous starting conditions is observed and studied both experimentally and in simulations. A new theoretical approach is developed for probing pattern stability under perturbations. Quantitative experiments and simulations show that, once established, Min oscillations tolerate a large degree of intracellular heterogeneity, allowing distinctly different patterns to persist in different cells with the same geometry. Min patterns maintain their axes for hours in experiments, despite imperfections, expansion, and changes in cell shape during continuous cell growth. Transitions between multistable Min patterns are found to be rare events induced by strong intracellular perturbations. The instances of multistability studied here are the combined outcome of boundary growth and strongly nonlinear kinetics, which are characteristic of the reaction-diffusion patterns that pervade biology at many scales.

  1. Some interesting min-bias distributions for early LHC runs

    Skands, P.Z.; /CERN /Fermilab


    A few observable distributions in min-bias (inelastic, non-diffractive) events which could be well constrained with early LHC data are presented, with some comments on their significance for placing constraints on theoretical models. The effects of fiducial cuts (p{perpendicular} > 0.5 GeV, |{eta}| < 2.5) and extrapolation from the Tevatron are illustrated.

  2. Primary standards for measuring flow rates from 100 nl/min to 1 ml/min - gravimetric principle.

    Bissig, Hugo; Petter, Harm Tido; Lucas, Peter; Batista, Elsa; Filipe, Eduarda; Almeida, Nelson; Ribeiro, Luis Filipe; Gala, João; Martins, Rui; Savanier, Benoit; Ogheard, Florestan; Niemann, Anders Koustrup; Lötters, Joost; Sparreboom, Wouter


    Microflow and nanoflow rate calibrations are important in several applications such as liquid chromatography, (scaled-down) process technology, and special health-care applications. However, traceability in the microflow and nanoflow range does not go below 16 μl/min in Europe. Furthermore, the European metrology organization EURAMET did not yet validate this traceability by means of an intercomparison between different National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). The NMIs METAS, Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, IPQ, Danish Technological Institute, and VSL have therefore developed and validated primary standards to cover the flow rate range from 0.1 μl/min to at least 1 ml/min. In this article, we describe the different designs and methods of the primary standards of the gravimetric principle and the results obtained at the intercomparison for the upper flow rate range for the various NMIs and Bronkhorst High-Tech, the manufacturer of the transfer standards used.

  3. Weighted Max-Min Resource Allocation for Frequency Selective Channels

    Zehavi, Ephi; Levanda, Ronny; Han, Zhu


    In this paper, we discuss the computation of weighted max-min rate allocation using joint TDM/FDM strategies under a PSD mask constraint. We show that the weighted max-min solution allocates the rates according to a predetermined rate ratio defined by the weights, a fact that is very valuable for telecommunication service providers. Furthermore, we show that the problem can be efficiently solved using linear programming. We also discuss the resource allocation problem in the mixed services scenario where certain users have a required rate, while the others have flexible rate requirements. The solution is relevant to many communication systems that are limited by a power spectral density mask constraint such as WiMax, Wi-Fi and UWB.

  4. Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing and Genome Assembly

    Hengyun Lu; Francesca Giordano; Zemin Ning


    The revolution of genome sequencing is continuing after the successful second-generation sequencing (SGS) technology. The third-generation sequencing (TGS) technology, led by Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), is progressing rapidly, moving from a technology once only capable of providing data for small genome analysis, or for performing targeted screening, to one that pro-mises high quality de novo assembly and structural variation detection for human-sized genomes. In 2014, the MinION, the first commercial sequencer using nanopore technology, was released by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT). MinION identifies DNA bases by measuring the changes in electrical conductivity generated as DNA strands pass through a biological pore. Its portability, affordability, and speed in data production makes it suitable for real-time applications, the release of the long read sequencer MinION has thus generated much excitement and interest in the geno-mics community. While de novo genome assemblies can be cheaply produced from SGS data, assem-bly continuity is often relatively poor, due to the limited ability of short reads to handle long repeats. Assembly quality can be greatly improved by using TGS long reads, since repetitive regions can be easily expanded into using longer sequencing lengths, despite having higher error rates at the base level. The potential of nanopore sequencing has been demonstrated by various studies in gen-ome surveillance at locations where rapid and reliable sequencing is needed, but where resources are limited.

  5. Landscape pattern change in the upper valley of Min River

    ZHAO Yong-hua; HE Xing-yuan; HU Yuan-man; CHANG Yu


    The upper valley of Min River (102° 59′ -104° 14′ E, 31° 26′ - 33° 16′ N), which is consisted of the counties Wenchuan, Maoxian, Lixian, Heishui, and Songpan, refers to the part up to Dujiangyan City, and locates on the transition zone from the Tibetan Plateau to the Sichuan Basin. It is one of the most important forest areas in China, especially in Sichuan Province. Over past two decades, the landscape changed remarkably in the region. The 3S techniques (Remote Sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Position System (GPS)) were used to classify the images and analyze the landscape change. The remotely sensed data of Landsat TM 1986 and Landsat ETM+ 2000 were used to analyze the landscape change of the region. The landscape were classified into 10 types of cropland, forest, shrub land, economic forest, grassland, build up land, river, lake, swamp, and unused land. The results showed that: 1) the woodland and grassland were dominating landscape types in the upper valley of Min River, which is more than 91% of the study area; 2) the alteration of the landscape was mainly happened among forest, shrub land, grassland, economic forest, cropland, and build up land, where forest decreased from 51.17% to 47.56%; 3) the landscape fragmentation in the upper valley of Min River was aggravated from 1986 to 2000.

  6. Decay of the 16.3 min Decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta Isomer

    Hoejeberg, M. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Stockholm, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmskog, S.G. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    Some transitions in the decay of the 16.3 min {sup 182}Ta isomer have been studied with a Ge(Li) detector and a double lens electron coincidence spectrometer. Gamma ray and conversion electron intensities were measured. From a delayed coincidence experiment it was concluded that both of the two lowest excited states in {sup 182}Ta had a half life less than 30 psec.

  7. The Asymptotics of Quantum Max-Flow Min-Cut

    Hastings, Matthew B.


    The quantum max-flow min-cut conjecture relates the rank of a tensor network to the minimum cut in the case that all tensors in the network are identical in Calegari et al. (J Am Math Soc 23(1):107-188, 2010). This conjecture was shown to be false in Cui et al. (J Math Phys 57:062206, 2016) by an explicit counter-example. Here, we show that the conjecture is almost true, in that the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut converges to 1 as the dimension N of the degrees of freedom on the edges of the network tends to infinity. The proof is based on estimating moments of the singular values of the network. We introduce a generalization of "rainbow diagrams" to tensor networks to estimate the dominant diagrams. A direct comparison of second and fourth moments lower bounds the ratio of the quantum max-flow to the quantum min-cut by a constant. To show the tighter bound that the ratio tends to 1, we consider higher moments. In addition, we show that the limiting moments as N → ∞ agree with that in a different ensemble where tensors in the network are chosen independently; this is used to show that the distributions of singular values in the two different ensembles weakly converge to the same limiting distribution. We present also a numerical study of one particular tensor network, which shows a surprising dependence of the rank deficit on N mod 4 and suggests further conjecture on the limiting behavior of the rank.

  8. John Disks, the Apollonian Metric, and Min-Max Properties

    M Huang; S Ponnusamy; X Wang


    The main results of this paper are characterizations of John disks–the simply connected proper subdomains of the complex plane that satisfy a twisted double cone connectivity property. One of the characterizations of John disks is an analog of a result due to Gehring and Hag who found such a characterization for quasidisks. In both situations the geometric condition is an estimate for the domain’s hyperbolic metric in terms of its Apollonian metric. The other characterization is in terms of an arc min-max property.

  9. Grayscale Image Compression Based on Min Max Block Truncating Coding

    Hilal Almarabeh


    Full Text Available This paper presents an image compression techniques based on block truncating coding. In this work, a min max block truncating coding (MM_BTC is presented for grayscale image compression relies on applying dividing image into non-overlapping blocks. MM_BTC differ from other block truncating coding such as block truncating coding (BTC in the way of selecting the quantization level in order to remove redundancy. Objectives measures such as: Bit Rate (BR, Mean Square Error (MSE, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, and Redundancy (R, were used to present a detailed evaluation of MM_BTC of image quality.

  10. Min-max redundancy resolution for a mobile manipulator

    Reister, D.B.


    We have considered the problem of determining the values of the joint variables of a mobile manipulator with many redundant degrees of freedom that will minimize an objective function when the position and orientation of the end of the manipulator are given. The objective function is the weighted sum of three components: distance, torque, and reach. Each of the three components is a max or min. We have converted the min-max optimization problem into a nonlinear programming problem and used the Kuhn-Tucker conditions to derive necessary conditions for the optimum solutions. The necessary conditions require that one or more of each of the three sets (distance, torque, and reach) of nonnegative Lagrange multipliers must be positive. If one of the Lagrange multipliers is positive, the corresponding slack variable must be zero. When two or more of the Lagrange multipliers from a single set are positive, the slack variables place constraints on the joint variables. Specification of the Cartesian position and orientation of the end of the arm also places constraints on the joint variables. If the mobile manipulator has N degrees of freedom and the total number of constraints is M, the constraints define a manifold of dimensions N - M. When N = M, the dimension of the manifold is zero (it consists of isolated points). When N > M, a search of the manifold may yield a submanifold that maximizes the Lagrangian function. We discuss examples where the number of slack variable constraints (M) is two or more.

  11. General models in min-max planar location

    Gromicho, J.; Frenk, J.B.G.; Zhang, S.


    In this talk a class of min-max continuous location problems will be discussed. After giving a complete characterization of the stationary points we propose a simple central and deep cut ellipsoid algorithm to solve these problems for the quasiconvex case. Moreover, an elementary convergence proof of this algorithm is sketched. The next part of the exposition addresses the problem of deciding whether the present iteration point in the case of a planar single facility min-max location problem with distances measured by either a Lpp-norm or a polyhedral gauge is optimal or not. It turns out that this problem is equivalent to the decision problem whether 0 belongs to the convex hull of either a finite number of points in the plane or a finite number of different Lpq-circles {improper_subset} R{sup 2} with 1/q + 1/p = 1. Although both membership problems are theoretically solvable in polynomial time the last problem is more difficult to solve in practice than the first one. Moreover, the second problem is only solvable in the weak sense, i.e. up to a predetermined accuracy. Unfortunately these polynomial-time algorithms are not practical. Although this is a negative result we present an efficient and extremely simple linear-time algorithm to solve the first problem. Moreover, this paper also describes an implementable procedure to reduce the second decision problem to the first with any desired precision. Finally computational results are reported.

  12. Min-max event-triggered computation tree logic

    Pallab Dasgupta; P P Chakrabarti; Jatindra Kumar Deka


    Very often timing verification involves the analysis of the timings of discrete events such as signal changes, sending and receiving of signals, and sensitization of edge-triggered circuit components. The main bottleneck in verifying timing properties of timed finite state machines (FSM) has been the inherent complexity of verifying timed properties (PSPACE-complete for timed extensions of computational tree logic (CTL)). Often however, we are interested in the best case or worst case timings between events. In this paper we introduce a temporal query language called Min-max Event-Triggered Computational Tree Logic for expressing such extremal queries on the timings of events and show that such queries can be evaluated in time polynomial in the size of the system times the length of the formula.

  13. Forensic SNP Genotyping using Nanopore MinION Sequencing

    Cornelis, Senne; Gansemans, Yannick; Deleye, Lieselot; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip


    One of the latest developments in next generation sequencing is the Oxford Nanopore Technologies’ (ONT) MinION nanopore sequencer. We studied the applicability of this system to perform forensic genotyping of the forensic female DNA standard 9947 A using the 52 SNP-plex assay developed by the SNPforID consortium. All but one of the loci were correctly genotyped. Several SNP loci were identified as problematic for correct and robust genotyping using nanopore sequencing. All these loci contained homopolymers in the sequence flanking the forensic SNP and most of them were already reported as problematic in studies using other sequencing technologies. When these problematic loci are avoided, correct forensic genotyping using nanopore sequencing is technically feasible. PMID:28155888

  14. Variable operator technique and the min-max theorem

    Sambhu Nath Datta


    We investigate a variation method where the trial function is generated from the application of a variable operator on a reference function. Two conditions are identified, one for obtaining a maximum and another for a minimum. Although the conditions are easy to understand, the overall formulation is somewhat unusual as each condition gives rise to a two-step variation process. As an example, projection operators are used to form the variable operator, and by this tactics one obtains the new interpretation that the pseudopotential formalism is in fact equivalent to a minimax procedure. The two-step variational process is nevertheless more flexible than the pseudopotential formalism, for it can also be used when the variable operator isnot manifestly expressed in terms of projectors. This is illustrated by a comparison of the two-step method with the variational solution of Dirac’s relativistic electron equation. The same comparison leads to an alternative proof that the process of maximizing energy by varying the – coupling operator eliminates all negative-energy contributions from a trial spinor. The latter observation is crucial for the derivation of the min-max theorem in relativistic quantum mechanics.

  15. a Min-Cut Based Filter for Airborne LIDAR Data

    Ural, Serkan; Shan, Jie


    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a routinely employed technology as a 3-D data collection technique for topographic mapping. Conventional workflows for analyzing LiDAR data require the ground to be determined prior to extracting other features of interest. Filtering the terrain points is one of the fundamental processes to acquire higher-level information from unstructured LiDAR point data. There are many ground-filtering algorithms in literature, spanning several broad categories regarding their strategies. Most of the earlier algorithms examine only the local characteristics of the points or grids, such as the slope, and elevation discontinuities. Since considering only the local properties restricts the filtering performance due to the complexity of the terrain and the features, some recent methods utilize global properties of the terrain as well. This paper presents a new ground filtering method, Min-cut Based Filtering (MBF), which takes both local and global properties of the points into account. MBF considers ground filtering as a labeling task. First, an energy function is designed on a graph, where LiDAR points are considered as the nodes on the graph that are connected to each other as well as to two auxiliary nodes representing ground and off-ground labels. The graph is constructed such that the data costs are assigned to the edges connecting the points to the auxiliary nodes, and the smoothness costs to the edges between points. Data and smoothness terms of the energy function are formulated using point elevations and approximate ground information. The data term conducts the likelihood of the points being ground or off-ground while the smoothness term enforces spatial coherence between neighboring points. The energy function is optimized by finding the minimum-cut on the graph via the alpha-expansion algorithm. The resulting graph-cut provides the labeling of the point cloud as ground and off-ground points. Evaluation of the proposed method on

  16. Detection of active bile leak with Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR cholangiography: Comparison of 20–25 min delayed and 60–180 min delayed images

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Stadnik, Anna, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Lezak, Aleksandra, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Maj, Edyta, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Zieniewicz, Krzysztof, E-mail: [Chair and Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Rowinska-Berman, Katarzyna, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Grudzinski, Ireneusz P., E-mail: [Department of Toxicology, Medical University of Warsaw, Faculty of Pharmacy, ul. Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw (Poland); Krawczyk, Marek, E-mail: [Chair and Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland); Rowiński, Olgierd, E-mail: [2nd Department of Clinical Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, ul. Banacha 1A, 02-097 Warszawa (Poland)


    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) performed in different time delays after injection of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) for the diagnosis of active bile leak. Methods: This retrospective analysis included Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR images of 34 patients suspected of bile leak. Images were acquired 20–25 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA injection. If there was inadequate contrast in the bile ducts then delayed images after 60–90 min and 150–180 min were obtained. Results were correlated with intraoperative findings, ERCP results, clinical data, laboratory tests, and follow-up examinations. Results: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.4%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 97.1% for the diagnosis of an active bile leak. The sensitivity of 20–25 min delayed MR images was 42.9%, of combined 20–25 min and 60–90 min delayed images was 92.9% and of combined 20–25 min, 60–90 min and 150–180 min delayed images was 96.4%. Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRC utilizing delayed phase images was effective for detecting the presence and location of active bile leaks. The images acquired 60–180 min post-injection enabled identification of bile leaks even in patients with a dilated biliary system or moderate liver dysfunction.

  17. Maintenance of the cell morphology by MinC in Helicobacter pylori.

    Pei-Yu Chiou

    Full Text Available In the model organism Escherichia coli, Min proteins are involved in regulating the division of septa formation. The computational genome analysis of Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium causing gastritis and peptic ulceration, also identified MinC, MinD, and MinE. However, MinC (HP1053 shares a low identity with those of other bacteria and its function in H. pylori remains unclear. In this study, we used morphological and genetic approaches to examine the molecular role of MinC. The results were shown that an H. pylori mutant lacking MinC forms filamentous cells, while the wild-type strain retains the shape of short rods. In addition, a minC mutant regains the short rods when complemented with an intact minCHp gene. The overexpression of MinCHp in E. coli did not affect the growth and cell morphology. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MinCHp forms helix-form structures in H. pylori, whereas MinCHp localizes at cell poles and pole of new daughter cell in E. coli. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation showed MinC can interact with MinD but not with FtsZ during mid-exponential stage of H. pylori. Altogether, our results show that MinCHp plays a key role in maintaining proper cell morphology and its function differs from those of MinCEc.

  18. Polymerization and oscillation stuttering in a filamentous model of the subcellular Min oscillation

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Sengupta, Supratim; Sain, Anirban; Derr, Julien


    We present a computational model of the E. coli Min oscillation that involves polymerization of MinD filaments followed by depolymerization stimulated by filament-end zones of MinE. Our stochastic model is fully three-dimensional, and tracks the diffusion and interactions of every MinD and MinE molecule. We recover self-organized Min oscillations. We investigate the experimental phenomenon of oscillation stuttering, which we relate to the disruption of MinE tip-binding at the filament scale.

  19. Intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins on the cell division of Helicobacter pylori.

    Nishida, Yoshie; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Norihito; Umeda, Akiko; Kadota, Yoshu; Kira, Mizuki; Okazaki, Ami; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro


    Helicobacter pylori divides in the human stomach resulting in persistent infections and causing various disorders. Bacterial cell division is precisely coordinated by many molecules, including FtsZ and Min proteins. However, the role of Min proteins in H. pylori division is poorly understood. We investigated the functional characteristics of Min proteins in wild-type HPK5 and five HPK5-derivative mutants using morphological and genetic approaches. All mutants showed a filamentous shape. However, the bacterial cell growth and viability of three single-gene mutants (minC, minD, minE) were similar to that of the wild-type. The coccoid form number was lowest in the minE-disruptant, indicating that MinE contributes to the coccoid form conversion during the stationary phase. Immunofluorescence microscopic observations showed that FtsZ was dispersedly distributed throughout the bacterial cell irrespective of nucleoid position in only minD-disruptants, indicating that MinD is involved in the nucleoid occlusion system. A chase assay demonstrated that MinC loss suppressed FtsZ-degradation, indicating that FtsZ degrades in a MinC-dependent manner. Molecular interactions between FtsZ and Min proteins were confirmed by immunoprecipitation (IP)-western blotting (WB), suggesting the functional cooperation of these molecules during bacterial cell division. This study describes the intrinsic characteristics of Min proteins and provides new insights into H. pylori cell division.

  20. Regulation of minD by oxyR in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Parti, Rajinder P; Horbay, Monique A; Liao, Mingmin; Dillon, Jo-Anne R


    In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, cytokinesis involves Escherichia coli homologues of minC, minD and minE which are encoded as part of a min operon. MinD, a 30 kD protein component of the MinC-MinD septum inhibitory complex, together with MinE, mediates cell division site selection. Gonococci mutated in minD display aberrant cytokinesis, abnormal morphology, defective microcolony formation and virulence. minD is 274 bp upstream of oxyR, another min operon gene in N. gonorrhoeae, which encodes a redox-responsive transcriptional regulator implicated in responses to oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to examine the oxyR-mediated regulation of minD. We observed the cotranscription of oxyR with the minCDE gene cluster. The mutation of oxyR resulted in non-midline formation of the division septum, anomalous DNA segregation, and increased aggregation of bacterial cells. qRT-PCR and Western Blot analysis revealed upregulation of minD in an oxyR mutant as compared to its isogenic wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain in stationary phase. Furthermore, the exposure to oxidative stress in the form of H2O2 increased MinD expression levels in wild-type N. gonorrhoeae. Using β-galactosidase activity-based promoter assays, we found that oxyR negatively regulates the promoter region (PminD) upstream of minD. Our results demonstrate the involvement of oxyR in cell division and minD expression in N. gonorrhoeae.

  1. Min mentor er min voksenven

    Kaiser, Birte


    En artikel i bogen: 6 belysninger af vejledning, brydninger, forståelser & praksis. Artiklen er et sammendrag af en diskursanalyse fra 2008 fra projetrapporten: Ind under huden,

  2. Min st-cut oracle for planar graphs with near-linear preprocessing time

    Borradaile, Glencora; Sankowski, Piotr; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian


    . We use a Gomory-Hu tree to represent all the pairwise min st-cuts implicitly. Previously, no subquadratic time algorithm was known for this problem. Our oracle can be extended to report the min st-cuts in time proportional to their size. Since all-pairs min st-cut and the minimum cycle basis are dual...

  3. The Role of the Petite Bourgeoisie within Capitalism: A Response to Pyong Gap Min.

    Bonacich, Edna


    Presents an argument against Pyong Gap Min's interpretations of the author's views on Korean immigrant entrepreneurship in Los Angeles (California). Addresses the issues of empirical accuracy and policy implications that Min criticized. Discusses differences between Min's approach to social knowledge and her own. (JS)

  4. Heart rate recovery after the 6-min walk test is related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery in patients with COPD.

    Shiroishi, Ryota; Kitagawa, Chika; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kakuno, Nao; Koyanagi, Harumi; Rikitomi, Naoto; Senjyu, Hideaki


    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal load exercise affects mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the associations of clinical characteristics with HRR after the 6-min walk test (6MWT), which is defined as a submaximal load test, remain unclear. We showed that HRR in patients with COPD after 6MWT was related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery. HRR after the 6MWT may be useful to assess exercise capacity in COPD.

  5. Stuttering Min oscillations within E. coli bacteria: a stochastic polymerization model

    Sengupta, Supratim; Derr, Julien; Sain, Anirban; Rutenberg, Andrew D.


    We have developed a 3D off-lattice stochastic polymerization model to study the subcellular oscillation of Min proteins in the bacteria Escherichia coli, and used it to investigate the experimental phenomenon of Min oscillation stuttering. Stuttering was affected by the rate of immediate rebinding of MinE released from depolymerizing filament tips (processivity), protection of depolymerizing filament tips from MinD binding and fragmentation of MinD filaments due to MinE. Processivity, protection and fragmentation each reduce stuttering, speed oscillations and MinD filament lengths. Neither processivity nor tip protection were, on their own, sufficient to produce fast stutter-free oscillations. While filament fragmentation could, on its own, lead to fast oscillations with infrequent stuttering; high levels of fragmentation degraded oscillations. The infrequent stuttering observed in standard Min oscillations is consistent with short filaments of MinD, while we expect that mutants that exhibit higher stuttering frequencies will exhibit longer MinD filaments. Increased stuttering rate may be a useful diagnostic to find observable MinD polymerization under experimental conditions.

  6. Particle-based model of Min-protein oscillations in Escherichia coli

    Berman, Adam; Huang, Kerwyn; Wingreen, Ned


    In Escherichia coli cells, the Min proteins, which are required for division site selection, oscillate from pole to pole via a Turing instability. During these oscillations, two of the Min proteins, MinD and MinE self-associate and co- associate on the bacterial inner membrane forming dynamic structures including a ring of MinE protein, compact polar zones of MinD, and zebra stripes in filamentous cells. Such rich behavior in a system with so few species has made the Min proteins a model system for applying computational methods to study intracellular dynamics in bacteria. Though mean-field computational models successfully reproduce the coarse-grained oscillatory dynamics in both rod-shaped and round E. coli cells and also predict that the Min-proteins actively detect cell shape, the mean-field models cannot address questions raised by the recent finding that MinD forms a small number of large polymers on the membrane. First, it is unclear how the intrinsic dynamics of polymer formation, namely polymer nucleation and growth, affect the pole-to-pole oscillations. Second, it is not understood how the oscillations influence the morphology of the MinD polymers. To study this coupling between MinD polymerization and pole-to-pole oscillation, we employ a particle-based computational model. In this talk, we will describe this model, which produces both large polymers and pole-to-pole oscillations.

  7. Fas/CD95 deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice increases intestinal tumor burden.

    Hector Guillen-Ahlers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fas, a member of the tumor necrosis family, is responsible for initiating the apoptotic pathway when bound to its ligand, Fas-L. Defects in the Fas-mediated apoptotic pathway have been reported in colorectal cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, a variant of the Apc(Min/+ mouse, a model for the human condition, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP, was generated with an additional deficiency of Fas (Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr by cross-breeding Apc(Min/+ mice with Fas deficient (Fas(lpr mice. One of the main limitations of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model is that it only develops benign polyps. However, Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice presented with a dramatic increase in tumor burden relative to Apc(Min/+ mice and invasive lesions at advanced ages. Proliferation and apoptosis markers revealed an increase in cellular proliferation, but negligible changes in apoptosis, while p53 increased at early ages. Fas-L was lower in Apc(Min/+/Fas(lpr mice relative to Apc(Min/+ cohorts, which resulted in enhanced inflammation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated that imposition of a Fas deletion in an Apc(Min/+ background results in a more aggressive phenotype of the Apc(Min/+ mouse model, with more rapid development of invasive intestinal tumors and a decrease in Fas-L levels.

  8. Serial Min-max Decoding Algorithm Based on Variable Weighting for Nonbinary LDPC Codes

    Zhongxun Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an analysis on the min-max decoding algorithm for nonbinary LDPC(low-density parity-check codes and propose serial min-max decoding algorithm. Combining with the weighted processing of the variable node message, we propose serial min-max decoding algorithm based on variable weighting for nonbinary LDPC codes in the end. The simulation indicates that when the bit error rate is 10^-3,compared with serial min-max decoding algorithm ,traditional min-max decoding algorithm and traditional minsum algorithm ,serial min-max decoding algorithm based on variable weighting can offer additional coding gain 0.2dB、0.8dB and 1.4dB respectively in additional white Gaussian noise channel and under binary phase shift keying modulation.  

  9. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Y-box Binding Protein Gene in Min Pig

    Zhang Dong-jie; Liu Di; Wang Liang; He Xin-miao; Wang Wen-tao


    In order to study the gene sequence of Min pig Y-box binding protein (YB-1) gene, the complete coding sequence of Min pig YB-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR, the sequence features were analyzed by some software and online website. The results showed that the complete CDS of Min pig Y-box was found to be 975 bp long, encoding 324 amino acids. It contained a conserved cold shock domain and several phosphorylation sites, but had no transmembrane domains, and was consistent with a protein found in the cytoplasm. Min pig YB-1 nucleotides shared high similarity (61.37%-97.66%) with other mammals.

  10. Radiation-induced intestinal neoplasia in a genetically-predisposed mouse (Min)

    Ellender, M.; Larder, S.M.; Harrison, J.D.; Cox, R.; Silver, A.R.J. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)


    A mouse lineage with inherited predisposition to multiple intestinal neoplasia (min) has been proposed as a model to study human colorectal cancer. Min mice are heterozygous for the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene implicated in human familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). There is an increased risk of intestinal cancer in humans following radiation exposure and the min mouse model may be used to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. The present study showed a 2 Gy dose of x-rays doubles the tumour numbers in the murine gastrointestinal tract of F1 min heterozygotes. The distribution of tumours through the gut was also recorded. (authors)

  11. Reliability of the 6-min walk test after total knee arthroplasty

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Kehlet, Henrik; Bandholm, Thomas


    PURPOSE: The 6-min walk test is a simple clinical outcome measure, which has been used frequently to assess functional performance in many different patient groups, including patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The 6-min walk test measures the maximal distance a subject is able to walk...

  12. Breast MRI at Very Short TE (minTE): Image Analysis of minTE Sequences on Non-Fat-Saturated, Subtracted T1-Weighted Images.

    Wenkel, Evelyn; Janka, Rolf; Geppert, Christian; Kaemmerer, Nadine; Hartmann, Arndt; Uder, Michael; Hammon, Matthias; Brand, Michael


    Purpose The aim was to evaluate a minimum echo time (minTE) protocol for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with breast lesions compared to a standard TE (nTE) time protocol. Methods Breasts of 144 women were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. Additionally to the standard gradient-echo sequence with nTE (4.8 ms), a variant with minimum TE (1.2 ms) was used in an interleaved fashion which leads to a better temporal resolution and should reduce the scan time by approximately 50 %. Lesion sizes were measured and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as well as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective confidence was evaluated using a 3-point scale before looking at the nTE sequences (1 = very sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 2 = quite sure that I can identify a lesion and classify it, 3 = definitely want to see nTE for final assessment) and the subjective image quality of all examinations was evaluated using a four-grade scale (1 = sharp, 2 = slight blur, 3 = moderate blur and 4 = severe blur/not evaluable) for lesion and skin sharpness. Lesion morphology and contrast enhancement were also evaluated. Results With minTE sequences, no lesion was rated with "definitely want to see nTE sequences for final assessment". The difference of the longitudinal and transverse diameter did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). With minTE, lesions and skin were rated to be significantly more blurry (p Image Analysis of minTE Sequences on Non-Fat-Saturated, Subtracted T1-Weighted Images. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 137 - 145.

  13. Characterization of ftsZ mutations that render Bacillus subtilis resistant to MinC.

    Inês Filipa Fernandes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell division in Bacillus subtilis occurs precisely at midcell. Positional control of cell division is exerted by two mechanisms: nucleoid occlusion, through Noc, which prevents division through nucleoids, and the Min system, where the combined action of the MinC, D and J proteins prevents formation of the FtsZ ring at cell poles or recently completed division sites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a genetic screen to identify mutations in ftsZ that confer resistance to the lethal overexpression of the MinC/MinD division inhibitor. The FtsZ mutants were purified and found to polymerize to a similar or lesser extent as wild type FtsZ, and all mutants displayed reduced GTP hydrolysis activity indicative of a reduced polymerization turnover. We found that even though the mutations conferred in vivo resistance to MinC/D, the purified FtsZ mutants did not display strong resistance to MinC in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that in B. subtilis, overproduction of MinC can be countered by mutations that alter FtsZ polymerization dynamics. Even though it would be very likely that the FtsZ mutants found depend on other Z-ring stabilizing proteins such as ZapA, FtsA or SepF, we found this not to be the case. This indicates that the cell division process in B. subtilis is extremely robust.

  14. Genetic mapping of Mom5, a novel modifier of Apc(Min)-induced intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Oikarinen, Seija I; Cleveland, Alicia G; Cork, Karlene M; Bynoté, Kimberly K; Rafter, Joseph J; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mutanen, Marja; Gould, Karen A


    The initial purpose of this study was to assess the role of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) in intestinal tumorigenesis by examining the effects of an ERbeta knockout (ERbeta(-/-)) on Apc(Min) mice. In order to accomplish this goal on a uniform genetic background, we were required to backcross the ERbeta knockout from the 129P2 genetic background to the B6 genetic background for 10 generations. Midway through this process, we performed a test cross in which mice from the N(5) backcross generation of the ERbeta knockout strain were intercrossed with Apc(Min/+) mice to obtain Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(+/+), Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(+/-) and Apc(Min/+) ERbeta(-/-) mice. Intestinal tumorigenesis in the N(5)F(2) mice was evaluated at 14 weeks of age. The analysis of the impact of ERbeta in the N(5) cross was complicated by segregating 129P2-derived alleles that affected tumor number and were unlinked to ERbeta. Genetic linkage analysis of this cross permitted the localization of a single genetic modifier of tumor number in Apc(Min/+) mice. This locus, Modifier of Min 5 (Mom5), maps to proximal mouse chromosome 5; the 129P2 allele of this locus is associated with a 50% reduction in mean intestinal tumor number. Through in silico analysis and confirmatory sequencing, we have identified the Rad50-interacting protein-1 gene as a strong candidate for Mom5.

  15. Early cardiology assessment and intervention reduces mortality following myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS)

    Hua, Alina; Pattenden, Holly; Leung, Maria; Davies, Simon; George, David A.; Raubenheimer, Hilgardt; Niwaz, Zakiyah


    Background Myocardial injury after non-cardiac surgery (MINS) is defined as troponin elevation of ≥0.03 ng/mL associated with 3.87-fold increase in early mortality. We sought to determine the impact of cardiology intervention on mortality in patients who developed MINS after general thoracic surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed in patients over 5 years. Troponin was routinely measured and levels ≥0.04 ng/mL classified as positive. Data acquisition and mortality status was obtained via medical records and NHS tracing systems. Thirty-day mortality was compared on MINS cohort using Fisher’s exact square testing and logistic regression analysis. Results Troponin levels were measured in 491 (96%) of 511 patients. Eighty (16%) patients fulfilled the MINS criteria. Sixty-one (76%) received early cardiology consult and “myocardial infarction” stated in four (5%) patients. Risk assessment (for AMI) was undertaken; 20 (25%) patients were commenced on aspirin, four (5%) on β-blockers and one (1%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Forty-nine (61%) patients received primary risk factor modifications and 26 (33%) had outpatient follow-up. There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients who died within 30 days post-operatively in the MINS group of 2.6% compared to the non-MINS group of 1.6% (P=0.625). The odds ratio for 30-day mortality in the MINS group was 1.69 (95% CI: 0.34 to 8.57, P=0.522). Conclusions MINS is common after general thoracic surgery. Early cardiology intervention reduced the expected hazard ratio of early death from 3.87 to an odds ratio of 1.69 with no significant difference in 30-day mortality for patients who developed MINS. PMID:27162667

  16. Mapping of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) to proximal chromosome 18 of the mouse

    Luongo, C.; Gould, K.A.; Moser, A.R. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)); Su, Likuo; Kinzler, K.W.; Vogelstein, B. (Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)); Dietrich, W.; Lander, E.S. (MIT, Cambridge (United States))


    The Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia) mutation of the mouse has been mapped by analyzing the inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence length polymorphisms in progeny from two intraspecific crosses segregating for the Min mutation. Min, a mutant allele of Apc, the mouse homo- log of the human APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene, maps to proximal chromosome 18. The synteny between Apc and Mcc, the mouse homolog of the human MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer) gene, is conserved between mouse and human, although the gene order in the Apc to Mcc interval is different from that in the APC to MCC interval. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Study of 1-min rain rate integration statistic in South Korea

    Shrestha, Sujan; Choi, Dong-You


    The design of millimeter wave communication links and the study of propagation impairments at higher frequencies due to a hydrometeor, particularly rain, require the knowledge of 1-min. rainfall rate data. Signal attenuation in space communication results are due to absorption and scattering of radio wave energy. Radio wave attenuation due to rain depends on the relevance of a 1-min. integration time for the rain rate. However, in practice, securing these data over a wide range of areas is difficult. Long term precipitation data are readily available. However, there is a need for a 1-min. rainfall rate in the rain attenuation prediction models for a better estimation of the attenuation. In this paper, we classify and survey the prominent 1-min. rain rate models. Regression analysis was performed for the study of cumulative rainfall data measured experimentally for a decade in nine different regions in South Korea, with 93 different locations, using the experimental 1-min. rainfall accumulation. To visualize the 1-min. rainfall rate applicable for the whole region for 0.01% of the time, we have considered the variation in the rain rate for 40 stations across South Korea. The Kriging interpolation method was used for spatial interpolation of the rain rate values for 0.01% of the time into a regular grid to obtain a highly consistent and predictable rainfall variation. The rain rate exceeded the 1-min. interval that was measured through the rain gauge compared to the rainfall data estimated using the International Telecommunication Union Radio Communication Sector model (ITU-R P.837-6) along with the empirical methods as Segal, Burgueno et al., Chebil and Rahman, logarithmic, exponential and global coefficients, second and third order polynomial fits, and Model 1 for Icheon regions under the regional and average coefficient set. The ITU-R P. 837-6 exhibits a lower relative error percentage of 3.32% and 12.59% in the 5- and 10-min. to 1-min. conversion, whereas the

  18. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe


    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  19. Maxi-Min Language Use A Critical Remark on a Concept by Philippe van Parijs

    Kruse Jan


    Full Text Available Philippe van Parijs explains in Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World the concept of maxi-min language use as a process of language choice. He suggests that the language chosen as a common language should maximize the minimal competence of a community. Within a multilingual group of people, the chosen language is the language known best by a participant who knows it least. For obvious reasons, only English would qualify for having that status. This article argues that maxi-min is rather a normative concept, not only because the process itself remains empirically unfounded. Moreover, language choice is the result of complex social and psychological structures. As a descriptive process, the maxi-min choice happens in the reality fairly seldom, whereas the max-min use of languages seen as a normative process could be a very effective tool to measure linguistic justice.

  20. Asymptotic identity in min-plus algebra: a report on CPNS.

    Li, Ming; Zhao, Wei


    Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs) are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions.

  1. New cross section data and review of production routes of medically used $^{110m}$In

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Baba, M; Mohsena, B M A; Ignatyuk, A V


    Evaluation of nuclear data for production routes of $^{110m}$In is in progress in the frame of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP). New experimental cross section data for the indirect $^{nat}$In(p,x)$^{110}$Sn $\\longrightarrow$ $^{110m}$In and for the direct $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,n)$^{110m}$In and $^{109}$Ag($^{3}$He,2n)$^{110m}$In production routes and for the satellite impurity reactions $^{107}$Ag($\\alpha$,xn)$^{110g,109}$In and $^{109}$Ag($^{3}$He,xn)$^{110g,111,109}$In have been measured by using the activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. Additional data are reported for production of the $^{111}$In diagnostic gamma-emitter via the $^{109}$Ag($\\alpha$,2n)$^{111}$In reaction. The earlier experimental data were critically reviewed in order to prepare recommended data and optimal production parameters for the different routes.

  2. MinChem: A Prototype Petrologic Database for Hanford Site Sediments

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Serkowski, John A.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.


    A prototype petrologic database (MinChem) has been under continual development for several years. MinChem contains petrologic, mineralogical, and bulk-rock geochemical data for Hanford Site sediments collected over multiple decades. The database is in relational form and consists of a series of related tables modeled after the Hanford Environmental Information System HEIS (BHI 2002) structures. The HEIS-compatible tables were created in anticipation of eventual migration into HEIS, or some future form of HEIS (e.g. HEIS-GEO). There are currently a total of 13,129 results in MinChem from 521 samples collected at 381 different sampling sites. These data come from 19 different original source documents published and unpublished (e.g. letter reports) between 1976 and 2009. The data in MinChem consist of results from analytical methods such as optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, and electron probe microanalysis.

  3. Asymptotic Identity in Min-Plus Algebra: A Report on CPNS

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available Network calculus is a theory initiated primarily in computer communication networks, especially in the aspect of real-time communications, where min-plus algebra plays a role. Cyber-physical networking systems (CPNSs are recently developing fast and models in data flows as well as systems in CPNS are, accordingly, greatly desired. Though min-plus algebra may be a promising tool to linearize any node in CPNS as can be seen from its applications to the Internet computing, there are tough problems remaining unsolved in this regard. The identity in min-plus algebra is one problem we shall address. We shall point out the confusions about the conventional identity in the min-plus algebra and present an analytical expression of the asymptotic identity that may not cause confusions.

  4. Chromosome-Encoded Extended-Spectrum Class A β-Lactamase MIN-1 from Minibacterium massiliensis

    Bercot, Béatrice; Nordmann, Patrice; Drancourt, Michel; Poirel , Laurent


    Minibacterium massiliensis strain CIP107820 is a recently discovered waterborne Gram-negative rod isolated from hospital water samples. It harbors a chromosomally located gene encoding an Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase termed MIN-1, sharing 56%, 54%, and 51% amino acid identities with β-lactamases LUT-1, KPC-2, and CTX-M-2, respectively. β-Lactamase MIN-1 hydrolyzes penicillins, narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, cefotaxime, and, less efficiently, cefepime, while ceftazidime and ca...

  5. Max-min Fair Rate Allocation and Routing in Energy Harvesting Networks: Algorithmic Analysis

    Marasevic, Jelena; Stein, Cliff; Zussman, Gil


    This paper considers max-min fair rate allocation and routing in energy harvesting networks where fairness is required among both the nodes and the time slots. Unlike most previous work on fairness, we focus on multihop topologies and consider different routing methods. We assume a predictable energy profile and focus on the design of efficient and optimal algorithms that can serve as benchmarks for distributed and approximate algorithms. We first develop an algorithm that obtains a max-min f...

  6. Global statistical maps of extreme-event magnetic observatory 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Pulkkinen, Antti


    Analysis is made of the long-term statistics of three different measures of ground level, storm time geomagnetic activity: instantaneous 1 min first differences in horizontal intensity ΔBh, the root-mean-square of 10 consecutive 1 min differences S, and the ramp change R over 10 min. Geomagnetic latitude maps of the cumulative exceedances of these three quantities are constructed, giving the threshold (nT/min) for which activity within a 24 h period can be expected to occur once per year, decade, and century. Specifically, at geomagnetic 55°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and a site-to-site, proportional, 1 standard deviation range [1 σ, lower and upper] to be, respectively, 1000, [690, 1450]; 500, [350, 720]; and 200, [140, 280] nT/min. At 40°, we estimate once-per-century ΔBh, S, and R exceedances and 1 σ values to be 200, [140, 290]; 100, [70, 140]; and 40, [30, 60] nT/min.

  7. 格列吡嗪和格列奇特对MIN6细胞的影响%Effects of glipizide and gliclazide on MIN6 cells

    刘继红; 苏青


    Objective: To explore the effects of different sulphonylureas on pancreatic beta-cells. Methods: M1N6 cells were cultured in DMFM and managed with different concentrations of glipizide and gliclazide, and cell viability was detected by MTT. Dihydroethidium ( 11E ) ,2 ,7-dichlo-rofluorescein diacetate ( DCF11-DA ) or dihydrorhodamine 123 ( D11R123 ) was used as reactive oxygen species ( ROS ) capture. The mean fluorescent intensity of ethidium ,2',7'-dichlorofluorescein or rhoda-mine 123, product of intracellular oxidation by the above probes, was detected by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by Annexin-V-FITC. Results: In glipizide treated M1N6 cells, cell viability was inhibited and intracellular fluorescent intensity and cell apoptosis were markedly elevated in a dose-and time-dependent fashion( P 0.05);细胞内的MFI无明显增加;细胞凋亡率亦无明显增加.结论:格列吡嗪可诱导MIN6细胞发生氧化应激,诱导MIN6细胞凋亡,说明临床上磺脲类药物治疗糖尿病出现失效可能与磺脲类药物诱发胰岛细胞衰竭相关,然而,格列奇特不诱导MIN6细胞损害,说明并非所有磺脲类药物对β细胞都有损害作用.

  8. Effects of two kinds of underwear on metabolic heat production during 60 min recovery after 30 min severe exercise in the cold.

    Ha, M; Tokura, H; Gotoh, J; Holmér, I


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the thermophysiological significance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of underwear materials under the influences of profuse sweating produced during severe exercise in the cold. Two kinds of underwear were used: two layers of cotton underwear with two-piece long-sleeved shirt and full-trousers (C), and two layers of polypropylene underwear with two-piece long-sleeved shirt and full-trousers (P). In addition, the subject put on a two-piece ski suit of 100% polyester including 100% polyester padding. Eight adult females volunteered as subjects in this study. The test was performed in a climatic chamber at an ambient air temperature of 2 degrees C and an air velocity of 0.26 m.s-1. The subject exercised on a cycle ergometer at an intensity of 65% maximal oxygen uptake for 30 min and followed by 60 min recovery. The major findings are summarized as follows: 1) The fall of rectal temperature tended to be greater in P during the recovery. 2) The absolute humidity of innermost layer and middle layer was significantly higher in C than in P during the recovery, but the absolute humidity of middle layer and outermost layer was significantly higher in P than in C during the exercise. 3) Clothing microclimate temperature of innermost at back was significantly higher in C during the exercise and recovery. 4) Metabolic heat production for last 30 min during recovery was significantly higher in P. 5) The degree of skin wettedness sensation and sweating sensation for whole body was significantly higher in P during the exercise. It was concluded that the slower evaporation behavior by absorbing of underwear material in the clothing system has a beneficial influence on thermophysiological responses during severe exercise and its recovery in the cold, although the differences were very small.

  9. Characterization and molecular marker screening of a rice bacteria-resistant gene Xa-min(t)

    CHEN Yan; HU Jun; QIAN Wei; TIAN Yingchuan; HE Chaozu


    To test the resistant spectrum of the Xa-min(t) gene introgressed from Oryza minuta, thirty-four isolates of different bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), from 11 countries were used to inoculate the Xa-min(t) introgression line 78-15. Four rice cultivars, IR24, C64 (IRBB21), Nipponbare and Zhonghua 11 were used as controls. The results showed that the Xa-min(t) gene was broad-spectrum and highly resistant to diverse Xoo isolates. The methods of bulk segregant analysis (BSA), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) were used to analyze F2 individuals of the hybrid IR24×78-15 and molecular genetic markers linked to Xa-min(t) gene were identified. A total of 800 arbitrary decamer oligonucleotide primers were used for RAPD analysis. Two RAPD markers, BE05300 and BE061400, produced by primers BE05 and BE06 respectively, were closely linked to the Xa-min(t) gene. Based on the sequences of these two markers, sequence specific primers were designed and used to screen all F2 plants. One RAPD marker, BE05300, was converted into a stable SCAR marker (ScBE05300). Linkage analysis was carried out using markers ScBE05300 and BE061400 on 948 and 719 F2 individuals of the hybrid IR24×78-15. Our results indicate that the genetic distances from Xa-min(t) to ScBE05300 and BE061400 are 2.2 cM and 3.7 cM respectively on the same side. This study may facilitate the construction of the fine physical map of the Xa-min(t) gene.

  10. Prosodic Realization of Focus in Bilingual Production of Southern Min and Mandarin.

    Chen, Ying; Xu, Yi; Guion-Anderson, Susan


    Previously post-focus compression (PFC) - the lowering of fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity of post-focal words to below those of the same words in identical sentences with neutral focus - was found in Beijing Mandarin but not in Taiwan Southern Min and Taiwan Mandarin. This study investigated whether the presence of PFC would vary with age and language use of societal bilinguals of Southern Min and Mandarin. Three groups of bilingual speakers of Quanzhou Southern Min and Mandarin, age around 20, 40 and 60, were examined for their prosodic realization of focus. All the speakers acquired Southern Min first, followed by Mandarin in childhood, but the younger speakers used more Mandarin than the older speakers. Comparisons of duration, intensity and F0 in focused, prefocus and post-focus words indicated that all groups produced Taiwan-like focus, i.e., without PFC, in Southern Min, but the youngest group produced Beijing-like PFC in Mandarin. These findings reveal that increased language experience, such as greater amount of second language (L2) use, correlates with increased ability to produce native-like PFC in L2, suggesting that PFC can be used as an indicator in assessing L2 speech acquisition.

  11. Remote Stimulated Triggering of Quantum Entangled Nuclear Metastable States of 115mIn

    Van Gent, D L


    We report experiments in which two indium foils were quantum entangled via photoexcitation of stable 115In to radioactive 115mIn by utilizing Bremsstrahlung gamma photons produced by a Varian Compact Linear Accelerator (CLINAC). After photo-excitation, remote triggering of the "master" foil with low energy gamma photons, yielded stimulated emissions of 336 keV gamma photons from quantum entangled 115mIn in the "slave" foil located up to 1600 m away from the "master" foil. These experiments strongly demonstrate that useful quantum information can be transferred through quantum channels via modulation of quantum noise (accelerated radioactive decay of 115mIn metastable nuclei). Thus, this modality of QE transmission is fundamentally different from optical QE information transfer via quantum entangled space "q-bits" as developed by information theorists for quantum channel information transfer. Additionally, there is no obvious potential for signal degradation with increasing distance nor the problems associated...

  12. Stochastic switching between multistable oscillation patterns of the Min-system

    Amiranashvili, Artemij; Schwarz, Ulrich S


    The spatiotemporal oscillation patterns of the proteins MinD and MinE are used by the bacterium E. coli to sense its own geometry. Strikingly, both computer simulations and experiments have recently shown that for the same geometry of the reaction volume, different oscillation patterns can be stable, with stochastic switching between them. Here we use particle-based Brownian dynamics simulations to predict the relative frequency of different oscillation patterns over a large range of three-dimensional compartment geometries, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Fourier analyses as well as pattern recognition algorithms are used to automatically identify the different oscillation patterns and the switching rates between them. We also identify novel oscillation patterns in three-dimensional compartments with membrane-covered walls and identify a linear relation between the bound Min-protein densities and the volume-to-surface ratio. In general, our work shows how geometry sensing is limited by mult...

  13. Revised Max-Min Average Composition Method for Decision Making Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Matrix Theory

    P. Shanmugasundaram


    Full Text Available In this paper a revised Intuitionistic Fuzzy Max-Min Average Composition Method is proposed to construct the decision method for the selection of the professional students based on their skills by the recruiters using the operations of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Matrices. In Shanmugasundaram et al. (2014, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Max-Min Average Composition Method was introduced and applied in Medical diagnosis problem. Sanchez’s approach (Sanchez (1979 for decision making is studied and the concept is modified for the application of Intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory. Through a survey, the opportunities and selection of the students with the help of Intuitionistic fuzzy soft matrix operations along with Intuitionistic fuzzy max-min average composition method is discussed.

  14. The influence of low versus high carbohydrate diet on a 45-min strenuous cycling exercise.

    Kavouras, Stavros A; Troup, John P; Berning, Jacqueline R


    To examine the effects of a 3-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) and low carbohydrate (L-CHO) diet on 45 min of cycling exercise, 12 endurance-trained cyclists performed a 45-min cycling exercise at 82 +/- 2% VO2peak following an overnight fast, after a 6-day diet and exercise control. The 7-day protocol was repeated under 2 randomly assigned dietary trials H-CHO and L-CHO. On days 1-3, subjects consumed a mixed diet for both trials and for days 4-6 consumed isocaloric diets that contained either 600 g or 100 g of carbohydrates, for the H-CHO and the L-CHO trials, respectively. Muscle biopsy samples, taken from the vastus lateralis prior to the beginning of the 45-min cycling test, indicated that muscle glycogen levels were significantly higher (p cycling exercise that was not observed with H-CHO when the total energy intake was adequate.

  15. Effects of Simvastatin on Glucose Metabolism in Mouse MIN6 Cells

    Jieqiong Zhou


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of simvastatin on insulin secretion in mouse MIN6 cells and the possible mechanism. MIN6 cells were, respectively, treated with 0 μM, 2 μM, 5 μM, and 10 μM simvastatin for 48 h. Radio immunoassay was performed to measure the effect of simvastatin on insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Luciferase method was used to examine the content of ATP in MIN6 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to measure the mRNA and protein levels of inward rectifier potassium channel 6.2 (Kir6.2, voltage-dependent calcium channel 1.2 (Cav1.2, and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2, respectively. ATP-sensitive potassium current and L-type calcium current were recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that high concentrations of simvastatin (5 μM and 10 μM significantly reduced the synthesis and secretion of insulin compared to control groups in MIN6 cells (P<0.05. ATP content in simvastatin-treated cells was lower than in control cells (P<0.05. Compared with control group, the mRNA and protein expression of Kir6.2 increased with treatment of simvastatin (P<0.05, and mRNA and protein expression of Cav1.2 and GLUT2 decreased in response to simvastatin (P<0.05. Moreover, simvastatin increased the ATP-sensitive potassium current and reduced the L-type calcium current. These results suggest that simvastatin inhibits the synthesis and secretion of insulin through a reduction in saccharometabolism in MIN6 cells.

  16. Spontaneous initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer in the novel A/J Min/+ mouse.

    Sødring, Marianne; Gunnes, Gjermund; Paulsen, Jan Erik


    The C57BL/6J multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min/+) mouse is a widely used murine model for familial adenomatous polyposis, a hereditary form of human colorectal cancer. However, it is a questionable model partly because the vast majority of tumors arise in the small intestine, and partly because the fraction of tumors that progress to invasive carcinomas is minuscule. A/J mice are typically more susceptible to carcinogen-induced colorectal cancer than C57BL/6J mice. To investigate whether the novel Min/+ mouse on the A/J genetic background could be a better model for colorectal cancer, we examined the spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in 81 A/J Min/+ mice ranging in age from 4 to 60 weeks. The A/J Min/+ mouse exhibited a dramatic increase in number of colonic lesions when compared to what has been reported for the conventional Min/+ mouse; however, an increase in small intestinal lesions did not occur. In addition, this novel mouse model displayed a continual development of colonic lesions highlighted by the transition from early lesions (flat ACF) to tumors over time. In mice older than 40 weeks, 13 colonic (95% CI: 8.7-16.3) and 21 small intestinal (95% CI: 18.6-24.3) tumors were recorded. Notably, a considerable proportion of those lesions progressed to carcinomas in both the colon (21%) and small intestine (51%). These findings more closely reflect aspects of human colorectal carcinogenesis. In conclusion, the novel A/J Min/+ mouse may be a relevant model for initiation, promotion and progression of colorectal cancer.

  17. A BPTT-like Min-Max Optimal Control Algorithm for Nonlinear Systems

    Milić, Vladimir; Kasać, Josip; Majetić, Dubravko; Šitum, Željko


    This paper presents a conjugate gradient-based algorithm for feedback min-max optimal control of nonlinear systems. The algorithm has a backward-in-time recurrent structure similar to the back propagation through time (BPTT) algorithm. The control law is given as the output of the one-layer neural network. Main contribution of the paper includes the integration of BPTT techniques, conjugate gradient methods, Adams method for solving ODEs and automatic differentiation (AD), to provide an effective, novel algorithm for solving numerically optimally min-max control problems. The proposed algorithm is applied to the rotational/translational actuator (RTAC) nonlinear benchmark problem with control and state vector constraints.

  18. Empirical Study of FFANN Tolerance to Weight Stuck at Max/Min Fault

    Amit Prakash Singh


    Full Text Available Fault tolerance property of artificial neural networks has been investigated with reference to the hardware model of artificial neural networks. Weight fault is an important link, which causes breakup between two nodes. In this paper three types of weight faults have been explained. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate fault tolerance behavior of feedforward artificial neural network for weight-stuck-MAX/MIN fault. Effect of weight-stuckMAX/MIN fault on trained network has been analyzed in this paper. The obtained results suggest that networks are not fault tolerant to this type of fault.

  19. AtMIN7 mediated disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis

    He, Sheng Yang; Nomura, Kinya


    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for enhancing plant defenses against pathogens. More particularly, the invention relates to enhancing plant immunity against bacterial pathogens, wherein AtMIN7 mediated protection is enhanced and/or there is a decrease in activity of an AtMIN7 associated virulence protein such as a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 HopM1. Reagents of the present invention provide a means of studying cellular trafficking while formulations of the present inventions provide increased pathogen resistance in plants.

  20. Minimum Cycle Basis and All-Pairs Min Cut of a Planar Graph in Subquadratic Time

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian


    algorithm, we obtain the fol- lowing result: with O(n3/2 log n) time and O(n3/2) space for prepro- cessing, the weight of a min cut between any two given vertices of G can be reported in constant time. Previously, such an oracle required quadratic time and space for preprocessing. The oracle can also...

  1. Optimal value functions of generalized semi-infinite min-max programming on a noncompact set

    WANG; Changyu; YANG; Xiaoqi; YANG; Xinmin


    In this paper, we study optimal value functions of generalized semi-infinite min-max programming problems on a noncompact set. Directional derivatives and subdifferential characterizations of optimal value functions are given. Using these properties,we establish first order optimality conditions for unconstrained generalized semi-infinite programming problems.

  2. Dr. Chang Min Chueh——Father of Test Tube Babies


    CHANG Min Chueh (1908-1991)—the father of test tube babies, was a Chinese-born American scientist and inventor who developed the first oral contraceptives. Dr. Chang was from Dunhou Township, Lanxian County, Shanxi Province. In middle school, he was fascinated with biology. Later he was accepted to the Animal Psychology Department at Qinghua University.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Strongly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems using He's Max-Min Method

    Babazadeh, H; Domairry, G; Barari, Amin;


    Nonlinear functions are crucial points and terms in engineering problems. Actual and physical problems can be solved by solving and processing such functions. Thus, most scientists and engineers focus on solving these equations. This paper presents a novel method called the max-min method...

  4. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 accelerates intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice

    Elander, N.; Ungerback, J.; Olsson, H.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Soderkvist, P.


    The induced synthesis of bioactive prostanoids downstream of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) exerts a critical event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here we demonstrate that APC(Min/+) mice with genetic deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which catalys

  5. The Aggregate Homotopy Method for Multi-objective Max-min Problems

    He Li


    Full Text Available Multi-objective programming problem was transformed into a class of simple unsmooth single-objective programming problem by Max-min ways. After smoothing with aggregate function, a new homotopy mapping was constructed. The minimal weak efficient solution of the multi-objective optimization problem was obtained by path tracking. Numerical simulation confirmed the viability of this method.

  6. The effect of soy isoflavones on the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mouse

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Kristiansen, Eva; Mortensen, Alicja


    Data from epidemiological studies suggest that isoflavones in soy may have a protective effect on the development of colon cancer in humans. Therefore, we have investigated whether soy isoflavones will inhibit intestinal tumour development in Apc(Min) mice. The mice were fed a Western-type high r...

  7. Word Prosody in Loanword Phonology: Focus on Japanese Borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min

    Tu, Jung-yueh


    This study investigates the adaptation of word prosody in loanword phonology. First, it explicates several influential loanword theories and reviews some representative cases of prosodic adaptation from different languages. Then, it turns to the focus on the prosodic adaptation of Japanese borrowings into Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM or Taiwanese).…

  8. Visualization of the specific interaction of sulfonylurea-incorporated polymer with insulinoma cell line MIN6.

    Park, Keun-Hong; Akaike, Toshihiro


    A derivative of sulfonylurea (SU) that mimics glibenclamide in chemical structure was synthesized and incorporated into a water-soluble polymeric backbone as a biospecific polymer for stimulating insulin secretion. In this study, a backbone polymer fluorescence-labeled with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was found to be strongly adsorbed onto MIN6 cells, probably due to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. The intensity of fluorescence on the cells was significantly increased by increasing the incubation time and polymer concentration. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K(+) channel closer)-incorporated copolymer and MIN6 cells, the cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(+) channel opener), before adding the polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the interaction between SU and MIN6 cells. A confocal laser microscopic study confirmed this effect. The results of this study provide evidence that SU-incorporated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion through the specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with MIN6 cells.

  9. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees


    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  10. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Christina Pettan-Brewer


    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  11. Design and Implementation of Voltage-Mode MIN/MAX Circuits

    M. Soleimani


    Full Text Available In this paper, a general architecture for analog implementation of MIN/MAX and other rank order circuits is presented. Based on general architecture, proposed MIN/MAX circuits are implemented. The proposed circuits are composed of a differential amplifier with merged n-inputs and a MCSAL circuit to choose the desired input. The advantages of the proposed structure are simplicity, very high resolution, very low supply voltage requirements, very low output resistor, low power dissipation, low active area and simple expansion for multiple inputs by adding only three transistors for each extra input. The post-layout simulation results of proposed circuits are presented by HSPICE software in 0.35-µm CMOS process technology. The total power dissipation of proposed circuits is about 110-µW. Also, the total active area is about 550-µm2 for five-input proposed circuits, and would be negligibly increased for each extra input.

  12. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  13. Max-min energy-aware hybrid routing protocol for ad hoc networks

    Wu, Shaochuan; Wang, Changhong; Bai, Xu


    Max-min energy-aware AODV and OLSR hybrid routing (MEAOHR) protocol aims at prolonging the lifetime of network for AOHR protocol. With a little modification to the AODV protocol part of AOHR protocol, MEAOHR protocol can provide minimal energy information of every routing to destination nodes and source nodes by RREQ packets and RREP packets respectively. In this way, destination nodes and source nodes can choose a routing respectively with the max-min energy value among all routings as the path for packet delivery. Simulation results and analysis prove that MEAOHR protocol can effectively provide longer network's lifetime and steadier end-to-end delay without any performance loss compared to AOHR protocol.

  14. Analisis Aspek Kepribadian Tokoh Utama Pada Novel Empress Orchid Karya Anchee Min Berdasarkan Tinjauan Psikologi Sastra.

    Siregar, Sheyla Silvia


    The research with titled “Analisis Aspek Kepribadian Tokoh Utama Pada Novel Empress Orchid Karya Anchee Min Berdasarkan Tinjauan Psikologi Sastra” focuses on the analysis of main character “Yehonala Princess” wich is also known with “Ci Xi Tai Hou”. The main purpose of this research is to describe personality of main character which based on Psycology Literature by Sigmund Freud (Id, Ego, Superego). Researcher uses descriptive method, namely document analysis. Data sources t...

  15. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes.

    Heros Ribeiro Ferreira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test, and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years' experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m. The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05 after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76, while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46 with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance.

  16. Discovering Non-Redundant Association Rules using MinMax Approximation Rules

    R. Vijaya Prakash; Dr. A. Govardhan3; Prof. SSVN. Sarma


    Frequent pattern mining is an important area of data mining used to generate the Association Rules. The extracted Frequent Patterns quality is a big concern, as it generates huge sets of rules and many of them are redundant. Mining Non-Redundant Frequent patterns is a big concern in the area of Association rule mining. In this paper we proposed a method to eliminate the redundant Frequent patterns using MinMax rule approach, to generate the quality Association Rules.

  17. Transcribing Southern Min Speech Corpora with a Web-Based Language Learning System

    Cai, Jun; Feldmar, Jacques; Laprie, Yves; Fohr, Dominique; Haton, Jean-Paul


    International audience; The paper proposes a human-computation-based scheme for transcribing Southern Min speech corpora. The core idea is to implement a Web-based language learning system to collect orthographic and phonetic labels from a large amount of language learners and choose the commonly input labels as the transcriptions of the corpora. It is essentially a technology of distributed knowledge acquisition. Some computeraided mechanisms are also used to verify the collected transcripti...

  18. Role of P-selectin in intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice%P-选择素对ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的作用

    郭四美; 亓翠玲; 叶杰; 周秦; 王丽京


    ADM: To investigate the role of P ?selectin in intestinal tumorigenesis in Ape Min/+ mice ( C57BL/ 6J -ApcMin/J ). METHODS: Female P - selectin knockout mice ( B6. 129S7 - Selptml Bay/J, that was P - selectin-/- ) were mated with male ApcMin/+ mice. The offspring was genotyped for Min+/- and P -selectin null mutantions, which were ApcMin/+ P - selectin-/- ~ mice. The tumor number and gross tumor volume in the small and large intestines of the ApcMin/ + P - selectin -/- mice and ApcMin/ + mice were determined. RESULTS: P - selectin deficiency in ApcMin/ + mice resulted in significant decreases in the tumor number and gross tumor volume in the small intestine and total intestine. CONCLUSION : Deletion of P - selectin significantly inhibits the tumorigenesis in mouse intestines. In addition, the results also suggest that P - selectin may be a marker for colon cancer.%目的:研究P-选择素(P-selectin)在ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤中的作用.方法:采用P-selectin基因缺失的基因工程小鼠和肠道肿瘤模型ApcMin/+小鼠杂交,计数ApcMin/+小鼠与ApcMin/+ P-selectin-/-杂交小鼠小肠及大肠肿瘤的数目,并测量其肿瘤体积,研究P-selectin对ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的作用.结果:与ApcMin/+小鼠相比,ApcMin/+ P-selectin-/-杂交小鼠在9周龄时肠道肿瘤数目与总负荷明显减少.结论:P-selectin缺失能够显著抑制ApcMin/+小鼠肠道肿瘤的生长.

  19. Distributed Multicell Beamforming Design Approaching Pareto Boundary with Max-Min Fairness

    Huang, Yongming; Bengtsson, Mats; Wong, Kai-Kit; Yang, Luxi; Ottersten, Bjorn


    This paper addresses coordinated downlink beamforming optimization in multicell time-division duplex (TDD) systems where a small number of parameters are exchanged between cells but with no data sharing. With the goal to reach the point on the Pareto boundary with max-min rate fairness, we first develop a two-step centralized optimization algorithm to design the joint beamforming vectors. This algorithm can achieve a further sum-rate improvement over the max-min optimal performance, and is shown to guarantee max-min Pareto optimality for scenarios with two base stations (BSs) each serving a single user. To realize a distributed solution with limited intercell communication, we then propose an iterative algorithm by exploiting an approximate uplink-downlink duality, in which only a small number of positive scalars are shared between cells in each iteration. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed solution achieves a fairness rate performance close to the centralized algorithm while it has a bette...

  20. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Branching Markov Decision Processes and Probabilistic Min(Max) Polynomial Bellman Equations

    Etessami, Kousha; Yannakakis, Mihalis


    We show that one can approximate the least fixed point solution for a multivariate system of monotone probabilistic max(min) polynomial equations, referred to as maxPPSs (and minPPSs, respectively), in time polynomial in both the encoding size of the system of equations and in log(1/epsilon), where epsilon > 0 is the desired additive error bound of the solution. (The model of computation is the standard Turing machine model.) We establish this result using a generalization of Newton's method which applies to maxPPSs and minPPSs, even though the underlying functions are only piecewise-differentiable. This generalizes our recent work which provided a P-time algorithm for purely probabilistic PPSs. These equations form the Bellman optimality equations for several important classes of infinite-state Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Thus, as a corollary, we obtain the first polynomial time algorithms for computing to within arbitrary desired precision the optimal value vector for several classes of infinite-state...

  1. Resource Efficient Hardware Architecture for Fast Computation of Running Max/Min Filters

    Cesar Torres-Huitzil


    Full Text Available Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k×k kernel requires of k2−1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024×1024 images with up to 255×255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding.

  2. Ecological Footprint and Ecological Security Evaluation in the Upper Min River Basin

    TU Jian-jun


    On the basis of the ecological footprint (EF) model, this paper studied the ecological security in the Upper Min River Basin ecosystem. The result shows that with 2.038 2 hm2 per capita ecological capacity (0.422 2 hm2 higher than per capita EF), and 165 825 hm2 ecology surplus, the ecosystem in Upper Min River is generally secure at present. But the arable land is overweighed and omens an eco-security crisis. Meanwhile, problems such as low forest coverage rate, severe loss of water and soil, enlargement of arid-valley area, frequent occurrence of mountain hazards and degradation of pastures have been major threats to the eco-security of this region. The calculation result of ten-thousand-yuan (RMB) GDP shows that the use of natural resources is extensive, and there will be a rapid increase tendency of EF in the future. In order to maintain the present eco-security, the ways of use natural resources must be improved in the Upper Min River Basin.

  3. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens


    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine.

  4. Sensor scheduling in mobile robots using incomplete information via Min-Conflict with Happiness.

    Gage, Aaron; Murphy, Robin Roberson


    This paper develops and applies a variant of the Min-Conflict algorithm to the problem of sensor allocation with incomplete information for mobile robots. A categorization of the types of contention over sensing resources is provided, as well as a taxonomy of available information for the sensor scheduling task. The Min-Conflict with Happiness (MCH) heuristic algorithm, which performs sensor scheduling for situations in which no information is known about future assignments, is then described. The primary contribution of this modification to Min-Conflict is that it permits the optimization of sensor certainty over the set of all active behaviors, thereby producing the best sensing state for the robot at any given time. Data are taken from simulation experiments and runs from a pair of Nomad200 robots using the SFX hybrid deliberative/reactive architecture. Results from these experiments demonstrate that MCH is able to satisfy more sensor assignments (up to 142%) and maintain a higher overall utility of sensing than greedy or random assignments (a 7-24% increase), even in the presence of sensor failures. In addition, MCH supports behavioral sensor fusion allocations. The practical advantages of MCH include fast, dynamic repair of broken schedules allowing it to be used on computationally constrained systems, compatibility with the dominant hybrid robot architectural style, and least-disturbance of prior assignments minimizing interruptions to reactive behaviors.

  5. Corridor connecting giant panda habitats from north to south in the Min Mountains, Sichuan, China.

    Yin, Kaipu; Xie, Yan; Wu, Ning


    The giant panda faces severe threats from habitat fragmentation and isolation. Currently, giant panda populations have been fragmented into 30 habitat patches. The disappearance of isolated small populations and studies on the genetic diversity of various populations have shown that small isolated panda populations are at a high risk of dying out completely. Habitat fragmentation has seriously impaired the ability of the giant panda to resist climate changes and other natural disasters, such as large-scale, synchronous bamboo blooming. The Min Mountains have the largest population of pandas in China, numbering 581 individuals and accounting for 52% of the total (1114) in China. Geographic isolation means that giant pandas in the Min Mountains are divided into two populations (population A in the north and population B in the south). Population B, which had only 42 individuals in 1989, is severely threatened by high-density human populations and the loss of genetic diversity. However, we have identified an important corridor connecting the two populations. This paper explains the importance and the feasibility of reestablishing this corridor. Due to the special geographic locations of these two populations (two rivers block the migration of giant pandas between south and north), the corridor is the only passage for giant pandas in the region. Recent studies have also shown an increase of giant panda activity in the area of the corridor. However, vegetation in the corridor has been severely degraded. Bamboo forest must be restored in this area to provide food for the pandas during migration. The effects of human activities must be reduced in order to maintain panda habitat. We believe that a restored corridor will be of great benefit to the survival of giant pandas in the Min Mountains, especially for population B. Successful re-establishment of a corridor will be a valuable model for corridor construction in the future.

  6. 叶绿体分裂相关蛋白CrMinD的保守功能%The Conservative Function of Chloroplast Division Associated CrMinD Protein

    雷启义; 周江菊; 张文华


    The interacting of MinD and MinC and MinE proteins of Escherichia coli are required for proper placement of the division septum at midcell, The MinD protein plays a key role in the course of bacterial cell and plant chloroplast division. The over production of MinD protein can block the normal cell division and lead to a filamentation cell. In plant cells, There are clear similarities between bacterial and plastid division, but limited information exists regarding the mechanism of plastid division in higher plants. Here we constructed a expression plasmid encoding the full-length CrMinD, an Chhmydonwnas reinhardtii homologue of the bacterial MinD. In agreement with cell division studies in bacteria over expression of CrMinD in E. Coli results in filamentation cell formation. The sesuggestion that CrMinD is an evolutionary conserved cell division protein. Meanwhile, the result lays a certain foundation for studying on the division mechanism of plant chloroplast.%细胞或质体中部正确分裂位点的选择是MinD蛋白与其他Min蛋白(MinC/E)相互作用的结果,MinD蛋白在原核细胞以及植物叶绿体的分裂过程中发挥着重要的作用.细胞中MinD蛋白浓度的明显升高可影响正常细胞的分裂过程而产生丝状体细胞.为了研究叶绿体分裂蛋白CrMinD的保守功能,构建了衣藻CrMinD-gfp的原核表达重组质粒进行了原核功能验证.试验结果表明,衣藻CrMinD蛋白的过量表达严重影响了大肠杆菌的分裂,其在原核细胞中运动和定位与用GFP标记的原核细胞MinD蛋白具有相似性.更进一步证明了叶绿体分裂同源物CrMinD蛋白与原核细胞 MinD蛋白有着相似的功能,是一个进化上功能保守的蛋白.同时,这一结果也为研究植物细胞中质体的分裂机制奠定了一定的基础.

  7. Min-max model predictive control for constrained nonlinear systems via multiple LPV embeddings

    ZHAO Min; LI Ning; LI ShaoYuan


    A min-max model predictive control strategy is proposed for a class of constrained nonlinear system whose trajectories can be embedded within those of a bank of linear parameter varying (LPV) models. The embedding LPV models can yield much better approximation of the nonlinear system dynamics than a single LTV model. For each LPV model, a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function is introduced to obtain poly-quadratically stable control law and to guarantee the feasibility and stability of the original nonlinear system. This approach can greatly reduce computational burden in traditional nonlinear predictive control strategy. Finally a simulation example illustrating the strategy is presented.

  8. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping


    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  9. Performing Mineral Hydration Experiments in the CheMin Diffractometer on Mars

    Vaniman, D. T.; Yen, A. S.; Rampe, E. B.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morookian, J. M.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Geller, R.; Morrison, S. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Archilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Rapin, W.; Rice, M.; Bell, J. F., III; Sarrazin, P.; Farmer, J. D.


    Laboratory work is the cornerstone of experimental planetary geochemistry, mineralogy, and petrology, but much is to be gained by "experiments" while on a planet surface. Earth-bound experiments are often limited in ability to control multiple conditions relevant to planetary bodies (e.g. cycles in temperature and vapor pressure of water), but observations on-planet provide a unique opportunity where conditions are native to the planet and those affected by sampling and analysis can be constrained. The CheMin XRD instrument on Mars Science Laboratory has been able to test mineral hydration in samples held for up to 300 Mars days (sols). Clay minerals sampled at Yellowknife Bay early in the mission had both collapsed (10 Å) and expanded (13.2 Å) basal spacing. Collapsed interlayers were expected, but larger spacing was not; it was uncertain whether larger basal spacing would collapse on prolonged exposure to warmer conditions inside CheMin. Observation over several hundred sols showed no collapse, with the conclusion that expanded interlayer spacing was due to partial intercalation by metal-hydroxyl groups that resist dehydration. More recently, a sample of the Murray Formation, Oudam, provided the first XRD detection of gypsum and a chance to observe gypsum stability. Laboratory work suggests gypsum should be stable at Mars surface conditions, and indeed gypsum has been observed from orbit at higher latitudes and in thick veins at Yellowknife Bay by Mastcam reflectance spectra. Laboratory experiments have shown that on dehydration the gypsum would not become X-ray amorphous but would rather transform to a water-deficient bassanite structure. Over a period of 37 sols, it was observed that the Oudam sample in CheMin transformed from an assemblage of gypsum+anhydrite, to gypsum+bassanite+anhydrite, and finally to bassanite+anhydrite. Mg-sulfates were also anticipated but have not been observed in CheMin despite chemical evidence for their presence. Unlike gypsum

  10. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Aditi A Narsale

    Full Text Available The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein, IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1, and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3. Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin, despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 and S6 (ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Thus

  11. PMMA mPOF Bragg gratings written in less than 10 min

    Bundalo, Ivan-Lazar; Nielsen, Kristian; Markos, Christos;


    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) writing in PMMA microstructured Polymer Optical Fibers (mPOFs) using the UV Phase Mask technique is a time consuming process requiring about 40 minutes to inscribe a grating in an undoped fiber. Here we demonstrate the FBG inscription with the writing times shorter than 10...... min. By careful alligning and increasing the beam intensity in the core of the fiber, writing times as short as 6 minutes and 50 second were achieved. The FBGs were written in a 125 μm PMMA mPOF having 3-rings of holes, the reflection peaks were centred at 632.6 nm and have a reflectivity as high...

  12. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Narsale, Aditi A; Enos, Reilly T; Puppa, Melissa J; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Murphy, E Angela; Fayad, Raja; Pena, Majorette O'; Durstine, J Larry; Carson, James A


    The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia) was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein), IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1), and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase) and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3). Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1) and S6 (ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation. Thus, cancer

  13. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten


    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  14. Auto-Stabilisation et Confinement de Fautes Malicieuses : Optimalit\\'e du Protocole min+1

    Dubois, Swan; Tixeuil, Sébastien


    A self-stabilizing is naturally resilient to transients faults (that is, faults of finite duration). Recently, a new class of protocol appears. These protocols are self-stabilizing and are moreover resilient to a limited number of permanent faults. In this article, we interest in self-stabilizing protocols that tolerate very hard permanent faults: Byzantine faults. We introduce two new scheme of Byzantine containment in self-stabilizing systems. We show that, for the problem of BFS spanning tree construction, the well known self-stabilizing protocol min+1 provides without significant modification the best Byzantine containment with respect to these new schemes.

  15. Effects of hemin and nitrite on intestinal tumorigenesis in the A/J Min/+ mouse model.

    Marianne Sødring

    Full Text Available Red and processed meats are considered risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC; however, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. One cause for the potential link between CRC and meat is the heme iron in red meat. Two pathways by which heme and CRC promotion may be linked have been suggested: fat peroxidation and N-nitrosation. In the present work we have used the novel A/J Min/+ mouse model to test the effects of dietary hemin (a model of red meat, and hemin in combination with nitrite (a model of processed meat on intestinal tumorigenesis. Mice were fed a low Ca2+ and vitamin D semi-synthetic diet with added hemin and/or nitrite for 8 weeks post weaning, before termination followed by excision and examination of the intestinal tract. Our results indicate that dietary hemin decreased the number of colonic lesions in the A/J Min/+ mouse. However, our results also showed that the opposite occurred in the small intestine, where dietary hemin appeared to stimulate tumor growth. Furthermore, we find that nitrite, which did not have an effect in the colon, appeared to have a suppressive effect on tumor growth in the small intestine.

  16. Non-parametric iterative model constraint graph min-cut for automatic kidney segmentation.

    Freiman, M; Kronman, A; Esses, S J; Joskowicz, L; Sosna, J


    We present a new non-parametric model constraint graph min-cut algorithm for automatic kidney segmentation in CT images. The segmentation is formulated as a maximum a-posteriori estimation of a model-driven Markov random field. A non-parametric hybrid shape and intensity model is treated as a latent variable in the energy functional. The latent model and labeling map that minimize the energy functional are then simultaneously computed with an expectation maximization approach. The main advantages of our method are that it does not assume a fixed parametric prior model, which is subjective to inter-patient variability and registration errors, and that it combines both the model and the image information into a unified graph min-cut based segmentation framework. We evaluated our method on 20 kidneys from 10 CT datasets with and without contrast agent for which ground-truth segmentations were generated by averaging three manual segmentations. Our method yields an average volumetric overlap error of 10.95%, and average symmetric surface distance of 0.79 mm. These results indicate that our method is accurate and robust for kidney segmentation.

  17. Lovastatin, but not orlistat, reduces intestinal polyp volume in an ApcMin/+ mouse model.

    Notarnicola, Maria; Barone, Michele; Francavilla, Antonio; Tutino, Valeria; Bianco, Giusy; Tafaro, Angela; Minoia, Mario; Polimeno, Lorenzo; Napoli, Anna; Scavo, Maria Principia; Caruso, Maria Gabriella


    The statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) and orlistat, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), inhibit tumor cell growth by restricting cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, respectively. We previously demonstrated that an omega (ω)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)- or olive oil-enriched diet reduced the polyp number and volume in ApcMin/+ mice. This phenomenon was associated with a significant inhibition of FAS and HMGCoAR, as well as an increase in the estrogen receptor (ER)β/α ratio. Herein, we evaluated the effect of lovastatin and orlistat on polyp development and ER expression in ApcMin/+ mice, in order to confirm previous data obtained with ω‑3-PUFAs and olive oil. As expected, the use of lovastatin and orlistat significantly reduced HMGCoAR and FAS enzymatic activities and gene expression in colonic tissues, but did not affect the number of intestinal polyps, while there was a statistically significant reduction in polyp volume only in the mouse group treated with lovastatin. In the mice receiving orlistat, we observed a significant increase in cell proliferation in the polyp tissue, as well as enhanced expression of ERα. Moreover, the overexpression of ERα was associated with a statistically significant increase in PES1, Shh and Gli1 protein levels, considered ERα-related molecular targets.

  18. Collective Adoption of Max--Min Strategy in an Information Cascade Voting Experiment

    Mori, Shintaro; Hisakado, Masato; Takahashi, Taiki


    We consider a situation where one has to choose an option with multiplier m. The multiplier is inversely proportional to the number of people who have chosen the option and is proportional to the return if it is correct. If one does not know the correct option, we call him a herder, and then there is a zero-sum game between the herder and other people who have set the multiplier. The max--min strategy where one divides one's choice inversely proportional to m is optimal from the viewpoint of the maximization of expected return. We call the optimal herder an analog herder. The system of analog herders takes the probability of correct choice to one for any value of the ratio of herders, pquiz. We show that the probability of selecting a choice by the herders is inversely proportional to m for 4/3 ≤ m ≤ 4 and they collectively adopt the max--min strategy in that range.

  19. 论敏德的功效%On the efficacy of the Min and Morality



    敏德是孔子道德思想中的重要内容,其内涵为迅疾、审慎、勉力地修身、做事. 因为迅疾、审慎、勉力而为的客观性,所以敏德具有一定的道德功效,即:为学达到博学为道、学以致用的效果;修身达到"内圣外王"的理想人格;为政达到"庶之""富之""教之"的治国理想.%Min and Morality is an important content of Confucius moral thought,and its connotation is swift, prudent,hard working.That connotation just corresponds to learning,self-cultivation,pursuing politics.Because of the objectivity of swift,prudent,hard working,Min and morality takes on some moral effects.For learning,we must adhere to the principle of making study serve the practical purpose.For self-cultivation,we must develop the personality of being virtuous inside and benevolent outside.For pursuing politics,we must strive to make the nation sufficient in 3 population,rich in goods,and colorful in spirit.

  20. An elementary proof of MinVol(Rn = 0 for n > 3

    Jiaqiang Mei


    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an elementary proof of the result that the minimal volumes of R³ and R4 are zero. The approach is to construct a sequence of explicit complete metrics on them such that the sectional curvatures are bounded in absolute value by 1 and the volumes tend to zero. As a direct consequence, we get that MinVol (Rn = 0 for n > 3.Neste artigo fornecemos uma demonstração elementar do resultado de que os volumes minimais de R³ e R4 são ambos iguais a zero. A abordagem consiste na construção de uma seqüência de métricas completas explícitas nesses espaços cujas curvaturas seccionais são limitadas em valor absoluto por 1 e os volumes tendem a zero. Como conseqüência direta, estabelecemos que MinVol(Rn = 0 para n > 3.

  1. Differences in walking pattern during 6-min walk test between patients with COPD and healthy subjects.

    Janneke Annegarn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.

  2. Illumination Tolerance for Visual Navigation with the Holistic Min-Warping Method

    Ralf Möller


    Full Text Available Holistic visual navigation methods are an emerging alternative to the ubiquitous feature-based methods. Holistic methods match entire images pixel-wise instead of extracting and comparing local feature descriptors. In this paper we investigate which pixel-wise distance measures are most suitable for the holistic min-warping method with respect to illumination invariance. Two novel approaches are presented: tunable distance measures—weighted combinations of illumination-invariant and illumination-sensitive terms—and two novel forms of “sequential” correlation which are only invariant against intensity shifts but not against multiplicative changes. Navigation experiments on indoor image databases collected at the same locations but under different conditions of illumination demonstrate that tunable distance measures perform optimally by mixing their two portions instead of using the illumination-invariant term alone. Sequential correlation performs best among all tested methods, and as well but much faster in an approximated form. Mixing with an additional illumination-sensitive term is not necessary for sequential correlation. We show that min-warping with approximated sequential correlation can successfully be applied to visual navigation of cleaning robots.

  3. Liang Shu-min and Buddhism%梁漱溟与佛学



    Liang Shu-min was a celebrated figure in modern Chine se history,famous for his life principle “upright and independent, honest and frank". Speaking from his academic thought, he considered the essence of his thought was Confucianism and Buddhism. From the reasons why he believed in Buddhism, his contributions to Buddhism in India and his comparisons between the Buddhism and Confucianism, one can see that Liang Shu-min's Buddhism thought was not only an ideology he accepted but also the essential motive that he practiced all his life.%梁漱溟是中国现代史上一位著名人物。他以“特立独行、一代直声”饮誉后世。在学术思想上,他自认思想的根本是儒家和佛家。从他为什么会信佛和他对印度佛学研究的贡献及对于儒佛异同的比较等几个方面,可以看出梁漱溟佛学思想不只是他终身服膺的一种思想学说,也是他一生践履的根本动力。

  4. MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- origin, development, and environmental impact

    Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team


    The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental impact and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [] or [] or [] or [] MinUrals Team (*): Aug

  5. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; Yen, Albert; Bish, David; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Farmer, Jack; Grotzinger, John; Stolper, Edward; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, Elizabeth; Treiman, Allan; Sarrazin, Philippe


    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each <2 wt% of the crystalline component) include sanidine, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite and ilmenite. Significantly, about a third of the sample is amorphous or poorly ordered in XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to

  6. Laypersons may learn basic life support in 24min using a personal resuscitation manikin

    Isbye, Dan Lou; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen;


    BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation and the c......BACKGROUND: Bystander basic life support (BLS) is an important part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and improves outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the general population has poor BLS skills. Several training initiatives could be used to improve this situation...... assessed after 3 months, a 24 min DVD-based instruction plus subsequent self-training in BLS appears equally effective compared to a 6h BLS course and hence is more efficient. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Jun...

  7. Max-Min Fairness in WMNs with Interference Cancelation Using Overheard Transmissions

    Mateusz Żotkiewicz


    Full Text Available We show an impact of using interference cancelation mechanisms for signals that have been overheard in the past on performance of fair wireless mesh networks. In our research we show that even in those very restricted conditions and max-min cost function, the idea of interference cancelation can significantly increase the capacity of such networks. In order to approximate possible advantages of using interference cancelation in the considered conditions, we propose a novel MIP model that allows for calculating perfect scheduling and maximal throughput in a network. We compare the results with cases when the interference cancelation mechanisms are disabled. Our results show that using interference cancelation mechanisms for signals that have been overheard in the past increases a network throughput by 40% on average in approximately 20% of test cases.

  8. Extension of Max-Min Ant System with Exponential Pheromone Deposition Rule

    Acharya, Ayan; Banerjee, Aritra; Janarthanan, R; Konar, Amit


    The paper presents an exponential pheromone deposition approach to improve the performance of classical Ant System algorithm which employs uniform deposition rule. A simplified analysis using differential equations is carried out to study the stability of basic ant system dynamics with both exponential and constant deposition rules. A roadmap of connected cities, where the shortest path between two specified cities are to be found out, is taken as a platform to compare Max-Min Ant System model (an improved and popular model of Ant System algorithm) with exponential and constant deposition rules. Extensive simulations are performed to find the best parameter settings for non-uniform deposition approach and experiments with these parameter settings revealed that the above approach outstripped the traditional one by a large extent in terms of both solution quality and convergence time.

  9. Simple Max-Min Ant Systems and the Optimization of Linear Pseudo-Boolean Functions

    Kötzing, Timo; Sudholt, Dirk; Wagner, Markus


    With this paper, we contribute to the understanding of ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms by formally analyzing their runtime behavior. We study simple MAX-MIN ant systems on the class of linear pseudo-Boolean functions defined on binary strings of length 'n'. Our investigations point out how the progress according to function values is stored in pheromone. We provide a general upper bound of O((n^3 \\log n)/ \\rho) for two ACO variants on all linear functions, where (\\rho) determines the pheromone update strength. Furthermore, we show improved bounds for two well-known linear pseudo-Boolean functions called OneMax and BinVal and give additional insights using an experimental study.

  10. Minerals detection for hyperspectral images using adapted linear unmixing: LinMin

    Frederic, Schmidt; Stephane, Le Mouelic


    Minerals detection over large volume of spectra is the challenge addressed by current hyperspectral imaging spectrometer in Planetary Science. Instruments such OMEGA (Mars Express), CRISM (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter), M^{3} (Chandrayaan-1), VIRTIS (Rosetta) and many more, have been producing very large datasets since one decade. We propose here a fast supervised detection algorithm called LinMin, in the framework of linear unmixing, with innovative arrangement in order to treat non-linear cases due to radiative transfer in both atmosphere and surface. We use reference laboratory and synthetic spectral library. Additional spectra are used in order to mimic the effect of Martian aerosols, grain size, and observation geometry discrepancies between reference and observed spectra. The proposed algorithm estimates the uncertainty on mixing coefficient from the uncertainty of observed spectra. Both numerical and observational tests validate the approach. Fast parallel implementation of the best algorithm (IPLS) on ...

  11. Fabrication of a cantilever-based microfluidic flow meter with nL min(-1) resolution

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja


    A microfluidic flow meter based on cantilever deflection is developed, showing a resolution down to 3 nL min(-1) for flows in the microliter range. The cantilevers are fabricated in SU-8 and have integrated holes with dimensions from 5 x 5 to20x 20 mu m(2). The holes make it possible to measure......). With this etch the cantilever structures are under-etched before they are released by tweezers and the release yield is enhanced from 41.5% to 84.0%. In a continuous flow mode, the deflection of the cantilevers is directly proportional to the flow rate. By tuning the design of the integrated grid (hole size......, hole-to-hole distance, amount of holes, etc) the sensitivity of the sensor can be changed....

  12. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N;


    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination.......05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate...... does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine....

  13. 5 min loop oscillations and propagating waves in the upper solar atmosphere

    Veselovsky, Igor; Koutchmy, Serge

    Solar resonant P-mode oscillations in the 5min range are excited by the convective motions under its visible surface. Those oscillations are mostly known to be trapped acoustic Eigen-modes and waves propagating near the temperature minimum. They are readily observed in velocity and temperature (intensity) variations at the photospheric level, but not too often in the chromosphere and the corona, where they are documented only under some specific favor-able conditions when waves are guided and transformed by the concentrated magnetic field. Their quantitative role in the physics of the solar atmosphere, its heating and plasma acceler-ation is still unclear. It is due to their mode transformation, reflection and dissipation during the propagation from the source regions which are also not well determined. Estimates of the propagating and standing parts are still not certain. Those estimates are needed for the en-ergy budget evaluations in the solar atmosphere. Observations of 5-min oscillations in the solar corona are scarce and puzzling because of the poor knowledge of many relevant physical param-eters. We discuss the suggested interpretations of available "Hinode" data as well as of recent observations onboard the "Coronas -Photon" satellite in 2009 and indicate their insufficiency for obtaining correct one-valued solutions. We point out the impossibility to identify and split the modes in the inhomogeneous and time variable solar atmosphere because of non-linearity in many instances. Finally, we analyze the question of the role of other waves and non-wave structures linking the levels in the solar atmosphere and conclude that this role is generally increasing with the height. This also means that quasi-steady models of the solar wind outflow formation are of very limited usefulness.

  14. Molecular alterations associated with sulindac-resistant colon tumors in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Greenspan, Emily J; Nichols, Frank C; Rosenberg, Daniel W


    Although nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), including sulindac, have been used extensively as chemopreventive agents for colorectal cancer, results are not consistent. NSAIDs, most reportedly sulindac, often do not cause a complete regression of adenomas and some patients develop resistance to NSAID treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of sulindac on colon tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model. Sulindac (180 ppm) given in drinking water for 9 weeks to Apc(Min/+) mice significantly reduced the size of colon tumors, but actually caused an increase in colon tumor multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 5.5 versus 1.6 tumors per mouse, respectively; P sulindac significantly reduced tumor size and multiplicity relative to untreated controls (average of 2.3 versus 42.0 tumors per mouse, respectively; P sulindac treatment. Sulindac is also known to exert its growth inhibitory effects through regulation of many noncyclooxygenase targets, including p21, beta-catenin, E-cadherin, mitochondrial apoptotic proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. We found that sulindac treatment protected against E-cadherin loss in colon tumors, with associated inhibition of nuclear beta-catenin accumulation. Importantly, p21(WAF1/cip1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression were absent in colon tumors from sulindac-treated mice, suggesting that loss of these proteins is necessary for drug resistance. Together, these observations may be translatable to designing novel clinical therapies using combinations of agents that target multiple molecular pathways to overcome sulindac resistance.

  15. Chemopreventive Effects of RXR-Selective Rexinoid Bexarotene on Intestinal Neoplasia of ApcMin/+ Mice

    Naveena B. Janakiram


    Full Text Available Retinoid X receptor (RXR has been implicated in several neoplastic diseases. Previously, we have shown that RXR-α is downregulated in human and rodent colonic tumors, suggesting a potential target for colon cancer prevention ( Experiments were designed to assess the chemopreventive efficacy of the selective RXR agonist bexarotene for the suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Before the efficacy studies, we determined that the maximal tolerated dose in C57BL/6J mice was less than 400 ppm. For the efficacy study, 6-week-old male and female C57BL/6J-ApcMin/+ mice (nine mice per group were fed diets containing 0, 30, and 60 ppm of bexarotene or 200 ppm of bexarotene for 80 days before intestinal tumors were evaluated. Dietary administration of 30 and 60 ppm of bexarotene suppressed the intestinal polyp formation by 38% (P < .015 and 60% (P < .0001 in males, respectively, and by 8.5% and 37% (P < .007 in females, respectively. Also, significant inhibition (50%–100% of colonic tumor formation was observed in both male and female mice with bexarotene treatment. Administration of 200 ppm of bexarotene showed significant suppression of tumor formation (66%, P < .0001; however, it had significant toxicity. Intestinal tumors of bexarotene-fed mice showed significantly reduced expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (60%, P < .0001, cyclin D1, and cyclooxygenase 2 and increased RXR-α messenger RNA and uptake of oleate (34%, P < .01. Also, bexarotene-fed mice showed dose-dependent suppression of serum triglycerides (25%–72%, P < .0001 and inflammatory cytokines.

  16. MicroPET/CT Colonoscopy in long-lived Min mouse using NM404

    Christensen, Matthew B.; Halberg, Richard B.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Weichert, Jamey P.


    Colon cancer is a leading cause of death in the US, even though many cases are preventable if tumors are detected early. One technique to promote screening is Computed Tomography Colonography (CTC). NM404 is a second generation phospholipid ether analogue which has demonstrated selective uptake and prolonged retention in 43/43 types of malignant tumors but not inflammatory sites or premalignant lesions. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate (SWR x B6 )F1.Min mice as a preclinical model to test MicroPET/CT dual modality virtual colonoscopy. Each animal was given an IV injection of 124I-NM404 (100 uCi) 24, 48 and 96 hours prior to scanning on a dedicated microPET/CT system. Forty million counts were histogrammed in 3D and reconstructed using an OSEM 2D algorithm. Immediately after PET acquisition, a 93 m volumetric CT was acquired at 80 kVp, 800 uA and 350 ms exposures. Following CT, the mouse was sacrificed. The entire intestinal tract was excised, washed, insufflated, and scanned ex vivo A total of eight tissue samples from the small intestine were harvested: 5 were benign adenomas, 2 were malignant adenocarcinomas, and 1 was a Peyer's patch (lymph tissue) . The sites of these samples were positioned on CT and PET images based on morphological cues and the distance from the anus. Only 1/8 samples showed tracer uptake. several hot spots in the microPET image were not chosen for histology. (SWR x B6)F1.Min mice develop benign and malignant tumors, making this animal model a strong candidate for future dual modality microPET/CT virtual colonography studies.


    Hsiang LEE; Way KUO; Chunghun HA


    Two heuristics, the max-min approach and the Nakagawa and Nakashima method, are consideredfor the redundancy allocation problem with series-parallel structure. The max-min approach canformulate the problem as an integer linear programming problem instead of an integer nonlinearproblem. This paper presents a comparison between those methods from the standpoint of solutionquality and computational complexity. The experimental results show that the max-min approach issuperior to the Nakagawa and Nakashima method in terms of solution quality in small-scale problems,but analysis of computational complexity shows that the max-min approach is inferior to other greedyheuristics.

  18. Max-min SINR low complexity transceiver design for single cell massive MIMO

    Sifaou, Houssem


    This work focuses on large scale multi-user MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) outfitted with M antennas communicates with K single antenna user equipments (UEs). In particular, we aim at designing the linear precoder and receiver that maximizes the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) subject to a given power constraint. To gain insights into the structure of the optimal precoder and receiver as well as to reduce the computational complexity for their implementation, we analyze the asymptotic regime where M and K grow large with a given ratio and make use of random matrix theory (RMT) tools to compute accurate approximations. Although simpler, the implementation of the asymptotic precoder and receiver requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to show that the proposed TPE-based precoder and receiver almost achieve the same performance as the optimal ones while requiring a lower complexity.

  19. Quasi-Polynomial Local Search for Restricted Max-Min Fair Allocation

    Polacek, Lukas


    The restricted max-min fair allocation problem (also known as the restricted Santa Claus problem) is one of few problems that enjoys the intriguing status of having a better estimation algorithm than approximation algorithm. Indeed, Asadpour et al. proved that a certain configuration LP can be used to estimate the optimal value within a factor ${1}/{(4+\\epsilon)}$, for any $\\epsilon>0$, but at the same time it is not known how to efficiently find a solution with a comparable performance guarantee. A natural question that arises from their work is if the difference between these guarantees is inherent or because of a lack of suitable techniques. We address this problem by giving a quasi-polynomial approximation algorithm with the mentioned performance guarantee. More specifically, we modify the local search of Asadpour et al. and provide a novel analysis that lets us significantly improve the bound on its running time: from $2^{O(n)}$ to $n^{O(\\log n)}$. Our techniques also have the interesting property that a...

  20. Monitoring the informational efficiency of European corporate bond markets with dynamical permutation min-entropy

    Zunino, Luciano; Bariviera, Aurelio F.; Guercio, M. Belén; Martinez, Lisana B.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.


    In this paper the permutation min-entropy has been implemented to unveil the presence of temporal structures in the daily values of European corporate bond indices from April 2001 to August 2015. More precisely, the informational efficiency evolution of the prices of fifteen sectorial indices has been carefully studied by estimating this information-theory-derived symbolic tool over a sliding time window. Such a dynamical analysis makes possible to obtain relevant conclusions about the effect that the 2008 credit crisis has had on the different European corporate bond sectors. It is found that the informational efficiency of some sectors, namely banks, financial services, insurance, and basic resources, has been strongly reduced due to the financial crisis whereas another set of sectors, integrated by chemicals, automobiles, media, energy, construction, industrial goods & services, technology, and telecommunications has only suffered a transitory loss of efficiency. Last but not least, the food & beverage, healthcare, and utilities sectors show a behavior close to a random walk practically along all the period of analysis, confirming a remarkable immunity against the 2008 financial crisis.

  1. Collective Adoption of Max-Min Strategy in an Information Cascade Voting Experiment

    Mori, Shintaro; Takahashi, Taiki


    When one have to choose an option, he shows a strong tendency to choose the majority if he does not know the correct one. If each option has a multiplier m and the return for choosing a correct choice is set to be m, which option does one choose? Game theory predicts that the max-min strategy where one divides one's choice inversely proportional to m is optimal. We study the prediction by a voting experiment in which 50 to 60 subjects answer a two-choice quiz sequentially with and without information about prior subjects' choices. The information is given to the subjects in two patterns, C and M. In case C, the subjects know how many previous subjects have chosen each choice and the payoff for the correct choice is constant. In case M, each choice has a multiplier m that is inversely proportional to the number of prior subjects who have chosen it. The payoff for the correct choice is proportional to the multiplier. In case C, the probability of selecting a choice by the subject who did not know the correct ch...

  2. Max-Min Optimality of Service Rate Control in Closed Queueing Networks

    Xia, Li


    In this technical note, we discuss the optimality properties of service rate control in closed Jackson networks. We prove that when the cost function is linear to a particular service rate, the system performance is monotonic w.r.t. (with respect to) that service rate and the optimal value of that service rate can be either maximum or minimum (we call it Max-Min optimality); When the second-order derivative of the cost function w.r.t. a particular service rate is always positive (negative), which makes the cost function strictly convex (concave), the optimal value of such service rate for the performance maximization (minimization) problem can be either maximum or minimum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most general result for the optimality of service rates in closed Jackson networks and all the previous works only involve the first conclusion. Moreover, our result is also valid for both the state-dependent and load-dependent service rates, under both the time-average and customer-average performance criteria.

  3. MEGCOM: Min-Energy Group COMmunication in Multi-hop Wireless Networks

    Han, Kai; Luo, Jun; Liu, Yang; Huang, Liusheng


    Given the increasing demand from wireless applications, designing energy-efficient group communication protocols is of great importance to multi-hop wireless networks. A group communication session involves a set of member nodes, each of them needs to send a certain number of data packets to all other members. In this paper, we consider the problem of building a shared multicast tree spanning the member nodes such that the total energy consumption of a group communication session using the shared multicast tree is minimized. Since this problem was proven as NP-complete, we propose, under our Min-Energy Group COMmunication (MEGCOM) framework, three distributed approximation algorithms with provable approximation ratios. When the transmission power of each wireless node is fixed, our first two algorithms have the approximation ratios of O(ln(\\Delta+ 1)) and O(1), respectively, where \\Delta is the maximum node degree in the network. When the transmission power of each wireless node is adjustable, our third algor...

  4. Spectroscopic study on the interaction between mononaphthalimide spermidine (MINS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    Tian, Zhiyong; Zang, Fenglei; Luo, Wen; Zhao, Zhonghua; Wang, Yueqiao; Xu, Xuejun; Wang, Chaojie


    The interaction mononaphthalimide spermidine (MINS, 1) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV/vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra (CD) under physiological conditions (pH=7.4). The observed spectral quenching of BSA by compound 1 indicated compound 1 could bind to BSA. Further fluorescent tests revealed that the quenching mechanism of BSA by compound 1 was overall static. Meanwhile, the obtained binding constant and thermodynamic parameters on compound-BSA interaction showed that the type of interaction force of compound 1 and BSA was mainly hydrophobic. The analysis of synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence and CD showed that compound 1 had weak influence on the conformational changes in BSA. Molecular docking simulation was performed and docking model in silico suggested that the configuration of compound 1 was localized in enzymatic drug site II in BSA. Furthermore, naphthalimide moiety of compound 1 greatly contributed to the hydrophobic interaction between compound 1 and BSA protein, as confirmed by experimental data.

  5. Convergence of Weighted Min-Sum Decoding Via Dynamic Programming on Trees

    Jian, Yung-Yih


    Applying the max-product (and belief-propagation) algorithms to loopy graphs is now quite popular for best assignment problems. This is largely due to their low computational complexity and impressive performance in practice. Still, there is no general understanding of the conditions required for convergence and/or the optimality of converged solutions. This paper presents an analysis of both attenuated max-product (AMP) decoding and weighted min-sum (WMS) decoding for LDPC codes which guarantees convergence to a fixed point when a weight parameter, {\\beta}, is sufficiently small. It also shows that, if the fixed point satisfies some consistency conditions, then it must be both the linear-programming (LP) and maximum-likelihood (ML) solution. For (dv,dc)-regular LDPC codes, the weight must satisfy {\\beta}(dv-1) \\leq 1 whereas the results proposed by Frey and Koetter require instead that {\\beta}(dv-1)(dc-1) 1 is also given. Finally, connections are explored with recent work by Arora et al. on the threshold of...

  6. The Prevalence and Disadvantage of Min-Counting in Seventh Grade: Problems with Confidence as Well as Accuracy?

    Hopkins, Sarah; Bayliss, Donna


    In this research, we examined how 200 students in seventh grade (around 12 years old) solved simple addition problems. A cluster approach revealed that less than half of the cohort displayed proficiency with simple addition: 35% predominantly used min-counting and were accurate, and 16% frequently made min-counting errors. Students who frequently…

  7. Consecutive 15 min is necessary for focal low frequency stimulation to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats.

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Xu, Zhenghao; Xu, Cenglin; Ying, Xiaoying; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Shihong; Xiao, Bo; Chen, Zhong


    Low-frequency stimulation (LFS) is emerging as a new option for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. The stimulation duration may influence the anti-epileptic effect of LFS but is poorly studied. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-epileptic effect of focal LFS with different stimulation duration on amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats. We found 15 and 30 min but not 1 or 5 min LFS delivered immediately after the kindling stimulation slowed the progression of behavioral seizure stages and reduced mean afterdischarge duration (ADD) during kindling acquisition. In fully kindled animals, 15 and 30min rather than 1 and 5 min LFS decreased the incidence of generalized seizures and the average seizure stage as well as shortened the cumulative generalized seizure duration (GSD). Meanwhile, EEG analysis showed 15 and 30 min LFS specifically lowered the power in delta band. However, if 15min LFS delivered intermittently by 5 min interval, it had no suppressing effect on kindling rat. Thus, it is likely that consecutive 15 min is necessary for LFS to inhibit amygdaloid-kindling seizures in rats, indicating the stimulation duration may be a key fact affecting the clinical effect of LFS on epilepsy.

  8. Vidas célebres, vidas minúsculas: Vasari, Foucault, Michon

    Kelvin Falcão


    Full Text Available O primeiro movimento deste ensaio consiste no esboço de um percurso breve a partir da obra de Michel Foucault, rastreando o uso do significante “vidas” em alguns textos do autor francês. Dois eixos são delineados a partir daí: o primeiro deles diz respeito à leitura foucaultiana das “vidas célebres” de Giorgio Vasari; o segundo diz respeito às “vidas infames”, que Foucault rastreia nos arquivos policiais franceses. Em seguida, inicia-se um desvio em direção à literatura do século XX, considerando o envolvimento da ficção com a emergência da discursividade biográfica, sua ressonância política e o emprego crítico, mais uma vez, do significante “vidas”. Com esse contexto de fundo estabelecido, o ensaio conclui-se com uma análise de Vidas minúsculas, do escritor francês Pierre Michon. The first movement of this essay is to outline a brief path from the work of Michel Foucault, tracking the use of the signifier “lives” in some texts of the French author. Two axes are delineated from there, the first one concerns Foucault’s reading of “renowed lives” by Giorgio Vasari; the second concerns the “infamous lives”, which Foucault traces from the French police files. Then begins a shift toward twentiethcentury literature, considering the involvement of fiction with the emergence of biographical discourse, its political resonance and, again, the critical use of the signifier “lives”. With this background context established, the essay concludes with a analysis of Small Lives, by French writer Pierre Michon.

  9. MinC protein shortens FtsZ protofilaments by preferentially interacting with GDP-bound subunits.

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M; García-Montañés, Concepción; Reija, Belén; Monterroso, Begoña; Margolin, William; Alfonso, Carlos; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán


    The interaction of MinC with FtsZ and its effects on FtsZ polymerization were studied under close to physiological conditions by a combination of biophysical methods. The Min system is a widely conserved mechanism in bacteria that ensures the correct placement of the division machinery at midcell. MinC is the component of this system that effectively interacts with FtsZ and inhibits the formation of the Z-ring. Here we report that MinC produces a concentration-dependent reduction in the size of GTP-induced FtsZ protofilaments (FtsZ-GTP) as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Our experiments show that, despite being shorter, FtsZ protofilaments maintain their narrow distribution in size in the presence of MinC. The protein had the same effect regardless of its addition prior to or after FtsZ polymerization. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that MinC bound to FtsZ-GDP with a moderate affinity (apparent KD ∼10 μM at 100 mm KCl and pH 7.5) very close to the MinC concentration corresponding to the midpoint of the inhibition of FtsZ assembly. Only marginal binding of MinC to FtsZ-GTP protofilaments was observed by analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Remarkably, MinC effects on FtsZ-GTP protofilaments and binding affinity to FtsZ-GDP were strongly dependent on ionic strength, being severely reduced at 500 mM KCl compared with 100 mM KCl. Our results support a mechanism in which MinC interacts with FtsZ-GDP, resulting in smaller protofilaments of defined size and having the same effect on both preassembled and growing FtsZ protofilaments.

  10. MinC Protein Shortens FtsZ Protofilaments by Preferentially Interacting with GDP-bound Subunits*

    Hernández-Rocamora, Víctor M.; García-Montañés, Concepción; Reija, Belén; Monterroso, Begoña; Margolin, William; Alfonso, Carlos; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán


    The interaction of MinC with FtsZ and its effects on FtsZ polymerization were studied under close to physiological conditions by a combination of biophysical methods. The Min system is a widely conserved mechanism in bacteria that ensures the correct placement of the division machinery at midcell. MinC is the component of this system that effectively interacts with FtsZ and inhibits the formation of the Z-ring. Here we report that MinC produces a concentration-dependent reduction in the size of GTP-induced FtsZ protofilaments (FtsZ-GTP) as demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Our experiments show that, despite being shorter, FtsZ protofilaments maintain their narrow distribution in size in the presence of MinC. The protein had the same effect regardless of its addition prior to or after FtsZ polymerization. Fluorescence anisotropy measurements indicated that MinC bound to FtsZ-GDP with a moderate affinity (apparent KD ∼10 μm at 100 mm KCl and pH 7.5) very close to the MinC concentration corresponding to the midpoint of the inhibition of FtsZ assembly. Only marginal binding of MinC to FtsZ-GTP protofilaments was observed by analytical ultracentrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Remarkably, MinC effects on FtsZ-GTP protofilaments and binding affinity to FtsZ-GDP were strongly dependent on ionic strength, being severely reduced at 500 mm KCl compared with 100 mm KCl. Our results support a mechanism in which MinC interacts with FtsZ-GDP, resulting in smaller protofilaments of defined size and having the same effect on both preassembled and growing FtsZ protofilaments. PMID:23853099

  11. Benchmarking of the Oxford Nanopore MinION sequencing for quantitative and qualitative assessment of cDNA populations.

    Oikonomopoulos, Spyros; Wang, Yu Chang; Djambazian, Haig; Badescu, Dunarel; Ragoussis, Jiannis


    To assess the performance of the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION sequencing platform, cDNAs from the External RNA Controls Consortium (ERCC) RNA Spike-In mix were sequenced. This mix mimics mammalian mRNA species and consists of 92 polyadenylated transcripts with known concentration. cDNA libraries were generated using a template switching protocol to facilitate the direct comparison between different sequencing platforms. The MinION performance was assessed for its ability to sequence the cDNAs directly with good accuracy in terms of abundance and full length. The abundance of the ERCC cDNA molecules sequenced by MinION agreed with their expected concentration. No length or GC content bias was observed. The majority of cDNAs were sequenced as full length. Additionally, a complex cDNA population derived from a human HEK-293 cell line was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500, PacBio RS II and ONT MinION platforms. We observed that there was a good agreement in the measured cDNA abundance between PacBio RS II and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.82, isoforms with length more than 700bp) and between Illumina HiSeq 2500 and ONT MinION (rpearson = 0.75). This indicates that the ONT MinION can sequence quantitatively both long and short full length cDNA molecules.

  12. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu


    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  13. Mammary tumorigenesis in APC{sup min/+} mice is enhanced by X-irradiation with a characteristic age dependence

    Tatsuhiko, Imaoka; Mayumi, Nishimura; Shizuko, Kakinuma; Yoshiya, Shimada [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Experimental Radiobiology for Children' s Health Research Group, Research, Center for Radiation Protection (Japan); Mieko, Okamoto [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (Japan)


    The ApcM{sup min/+} (Min) mouse is a genetically predisposed model of both intestinal and mammary tumorigenesis. We investigated age-related changes in the susceptibility of mice (before, during and after puberty) to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis using this model. Female Min and wild-type mice having the C57BL/6J background were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays at 2, 5, 7 and 10 weeks and sacrificed at 18 weeks of age. Min mice irradiated at 7 to 10 weeks of age (after puberty) developed mammary tumors with squamous metaplasia, whereas their wild-type litter-mates did not. Interestingly, irradiation of Min mice at 2 to 5 weeks (before and during puberty, respectively) did not induce mammary tumors but rather cystic nodules with metaplasia. The mammary tumors exhibited increased nuclear beta-catenin protein and loss of the wild-type Apc allele. Our results show that susceptibility to radiation-induced mammary tumorigenesis increases after puberty in Min mice, suggesting that the tumorigenic effect of ionizing radiation targets the lobular-alveolar progenitor cells, which increase in number with age and are controlled by beta-catenin signaling. (author)

  14. The MoCA 5-min protocol is a brief, valid, reliable and feasible cognitive screen for telephone administration

    Wong, Adrian; Nyenhuis, David; Black, Sandra E; Law, Lorraine S.N.; Lo, Eugene S.K.; Kwan, Pauline W.L.; Au, Lisa; Chan, Anne YY; Wong, Lawrence KS; Nasreddine, Ziad; Mok, Vincent


    Background and Purpose The NINDS-CSN vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) Harmonization working group proposed a brief cognitive protocol for screening of VCI. We investigated the validity, reliability and feasibility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment 5-minute protocol (MoCA 5-min protocol) administered over the telephone. Methods Four items examining attention, verbal learning and memory, executive functions/language and orientation were extracted from the MoCA to form the MoCA 5-min protocol. One hundred and four patients with stroke or TIA, including 53 with normal cognition (CDR 0) and 51 with cognitive impairment (CDR 0.5 or 1), were administered the MoCA in clinic and a month later, the MoCA 5-min protocol over the telephone. Results Administration of the MoCA 5-min protocol took five minutes over the telephone. Total score of the MoCA 5-min protocol correlated negatively with age (r=-0.36, p0.05 for difference; Cohen's d for group difference 0.801.13). It differentiated cognitively impaired patients with executive domain impairment from those without (AUC=0.89, p<0.001; Cohen's d=1.7 for group difference). 30-day test-retest reliability was excellent (Intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89). Conclusions The MoCA 5-min protocol is a free, valid and reliable cognitive screen for stroke and TIA. It is brief and highly feasible for telephone administration. PMID:25700290

  15. Use of MinMaxEnt distributions defined on basis of MaxEnt method in wind power study

    Shamilov, Aladdin; Kantar, Yeliz Mert; Usta, Ilhan [Department of Statistics, Anadolu University, Eskisehir 26470 (Turkey)


    Knowledge of the wind speed distribution is an important information needed in evaluation of wind power potential. Several statistical distributions have been used to study wind data. The Weibull distribution is the most popular due to its ability to fit most accurately the variety of wind speed data measured at different geographical locations throughout the world. Recently, maximum entropy (MaxEnt) distributions based on the maximum entropy method have been widely used to determine wind speed distribution. Li and Li used the MaxEnt distribution for the first time in the wind energy field and proposed a theoretical approach to determine the distribution of wind speed data analytically. Ramirez and Carta discussed the use of wind probability distributions derived from the maximum entropy principle in the analysis of wind energy. In this study, MinMaxEnt distributions defined on the basis of the MaxEnt method are introduced and applied to find wind distribution and wind power density. A comparison of the MinMaxEnt and Weibull distributions on wind speed data taken from different sources and measured in various regions is conducted. The wind power densities of the considered regions obtained from the Weibull and MinMaxEnt distributions are also compared. The results indicate that the MinMaxEnt distributions obtained show better results than the known Weibull distribution for wind speed distributions and wind power density. Therefore, MinMaxEnt distributions can be used to estimate wind distributions and wind power potential. (author)

  16. Interaction of sulfonylurea-conjugated polymer with insulinoma cell line of MIN6 and its effect on insulin secretion.

    Park, K H; Kim, S W; Bae, Y H


    A carboxylated derivative of sulfonylurea (SU), an insulinotropic agent, was synthesized and grafted onto a water-soluble polymer as a biospecific and stimulating polymer for insulin secretion. To evaluate the effect of the SU-conjugated polymer on insulin secretion, its solution in dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the culture of insulinoma cell line of MIN6 cells to make 10 nM of SU units in the medium and incubated for 3 h at 37 degrees C. The culture medium was conditioned with glucose concentration of 3.3 or 25 mM. To verify the specific interaction between the SU (K+ channel closer)-conjugated polymer and MIN6 cells, the cells were pretreated with diazoxide, an agonist of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel (K+ channel opener), before adding the SU-conjugated polymer to the cell culture medium. This treatment suppressed the action of SUs on MIN6 cells. Fluorescence-labeled polymer with rodamine-B isothiocyanate was used to visualize the interactions, and we found that the labeled polymer strongly absorbed to MIN6 cells, probably owing to its specific interaction mediated by SU receptors on the cell membrane. The fluorescence intensity on the cells significantly increased with an increase in incubation time and polymer concentration. A confocal laser microscopic study further confirmed this interaction. The results from this study provided evidence that SU-conjugated copolymer stimulates insulin secretion by specific interactions of SU moieties in the polymer with MIN6 cells.

  17. Bactericidal efficacy of a 1.5min surgical hand-rubbing protocol under in-use conditions.

    Kac, G; Masmejean, E; Gueneret, M; Rodi, A; Peyrard, S; Podglajen, I


    In healthy volunteers, surgical hand rubbing with Sterillium for 1.5min has been shown to be as effective as a 3min procedure. The aim of this study was to assess whether this result was reproducible under in-use conditions. During nine weeks in the ambulatory surgery theatre of a 750-bed tertiary care university hospital, the two surgical hand-rubbing procedures were compared with each other, and with a hand-scrubbing procedure using a povidone-iodine (4%) scrub prior to and after 25 different surgical operations for each. Imprints of the surgeon's dominant hand were taken on culture plates before and within 1min following the end of the hand-rubbing/scrubbing procedures (immediate effect) and at the end of surgery (sustained effect). Plates were incubated aerobically at 37 degrees C for 48h. Colonies were counted at 24h and 48h. Results were expressed as the number of colony-forming units per hand. No significant difference in baseline hand bacterial load was found before the hand-rubbing/scrubbing procedures among the three groups (P=0.19). With respect to immediate and sustained antimicrobial effects, a significantly greater reduction in microbial loads on the hands was achieved with the 3min hand-rubbing protocol as opposed to hand-scrubbing protocol (P=0.04 and P=0.02, respectively), but there was no difference between the reductions obtained with 1.5 and 3min rubbing protocols (P=0.41 and P=0.36, respectively). Surgical hand rubbing with Sterillium using a 1.5min protocol should be considered as an attractive alternative method for surgical hand disinfection.

  18. Influence of min-a-zel plus and maize meal addition on the quality of lucerne silage

    Đorđević Nenad 1


    Full Text Available The influence of mineral adsorbent Min-A-Zel Plus (5 g/kg and maize meal (25 and 50 g/kg used alone or combined, on chemical composition, biochemical changes and quality of lucerne silage was investigated. Based on the obtained data, it can be concluded that addition of Min-A-Zel Plus reduces aminogenesis, while the use of maize meal alone or with zeolite favorable conditions are achieved for lactic acid fermentation, so that the quality of obtained silages is better by one quality class. To achieve better effects of silage quality, the use of combination of mineral adsorbent with carbohydrate additives is recommended.

  19. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    Deighton, K; Zahra, JC; Stensel, DJ


    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake ...

  20. Effective photoexcitation cross section of 115In(γ,γ′115mIn from photoactivation data

    Versteegen M.


    Full Text Available Photoexcitation yields of the 115mIn metastable state were measured with Bremsstrahlung γ beams over a range of endpoint energies between 4.5 and 18 MeV. An effective cross section of the 115In(γ,γ′115mIn photoexcitation cross section was determinedto reproduce the data. This cross section is built from a cross section calculated with the TALYS code, to which an enhancement is added at about 8.5 MeV.

  1. Quantitative study of the f occupation in CeMIn5 and other cerium compounds with hard x-rays


    We present bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) data of the Ce3d core levels and lifetime-reduced L edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in the partial fluorescence yield (PFY) mode of the CeMIn5 family with M = Co, Rh, and Ir. The HAXPES data are analyzed quantitatively with a combination of full multiplet and configuration interaction model which allows correcting for the strong plasmons in the CeMIn5 HAXPES data, and reliable weights wn of the different fn cont...

  2. Establishment of clonal MIN-O transplant lines for molecular imaging via lentiviral transduction & in vitro culture.

    Boucher, David L; Chen, Jane Qian; Cherry, Simon R; Borowsky, Alexander D


    As the field of molecular imaging evolves and increasingly is asked to fill the discovery and validation space between basic science and clinical applications, careful consideration should be given to the models in which studies are conducted. The MIN-O mouse model series is an established in vivo model of human mammary precancer ductal carcinoma in situ with progression to invasive carcinoma. This series of transplant lines is propagated in vivo and experiments utilizing this model can be completed in non-engineered immune intact FVB/n wild type mice thereby modeling the tumor microenvironment with biological relevance superior to traditional tumor cell xenografts. Unfortunately, the same qualities that make this and many other transplant lines more biologically relevant than standard cell lines for molecular imaging studies present a significant obstacle as somatic genetic re-engineering modifications common to many imaging applications can be technically challenging. Here, we describe a protocol for the efficient lentiviral transduction of cell slurries derived from precancerous MIN-O lesions, in vitro culture of "MIN-O-spheres" derived from single cell clones, and the subsequent transplantation of these spheres to produce transduced sublines suitable for optical imaging applications. These lines retain the physiologic and pathologic properties, including multilineage differentiation, and complex microanatomic interaction with the host stroma characteristic of the MIN-O model. We also present the in vivo imaging and immunohistochemical analysis of serial transplantation of one such subline and detail the progressive multifocal loss of the transgene in successive generations.

  3. Establishment of clonal MIN-O transplant lines for molecular imaging via lentiviral transduction & in vitro culture.

    David L Boucher

    Full Text Available As the field of molecular imaging evolves and increasingly is asked to fill the discovery and validation space between basic science and clinical applications, careful consideration should be given to the models in which studies are conducted. The MIN-O mouse model series is an established in vivo model of human mammary precancer ductal carcinoma in situ with progression to invasive carcinoma. This series of transplant lines is propagated in vivo and experiments utilizing this model can be completed in non-engineered immune intact FVB/n wild type mice thereby modeling the tumor microenvironment with biological relevance superior to traditional tumor cell xenografts. Unfortunately, the same qualities that make this and many other transplant lines more biologically relevant than standard cell lines for molecular imaging studies present a significant obstacle as somatic genetic re-engineering modifications common to many imaging applications can be technically challenging. Here, we describe a protocol for the efficient lentiviral transduction of cell slurries derived from precancerous MIN-O lesions, in vitro culture of "MIN-O-spheres" derived from single cell clones, and the subsequent transplantation of these spheres to produce transduced sublines suitable for optical imaging applications. These lines retain the physiologic and pathologic properties, including multilineage differentiation, and complex microanatomic interaction with the host stroma characteristic of the MIN-O model. We also present the in vivo imaging and immunohistochemical analysis of serial transplantation of one such subline and detail the progressive multifocal loss of the transgene in successive generations.

  4. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian


    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science…

  5. Influence of Caffeine Ingestion on Perceived Mood States, Concentration, and Arousal Levels during a 75-Min University Lecture

    Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian


    This investigation aimed to assess the effect of a caffeine supplement on perceived mood state, concentration, and arousal during a 75-min university lecture. Methods. This randomized, blind, cross-over design investigation ran over a course of 2 consecutive weeks. During "week" 1, 10 third-year Human Movement and Exercise Science students were…

  6. Streaming algorithms for identification of pathogens and antibiotic resistance potential from real-time MinION(TM) sequencing.

    Cao, Minh Duc; Ganesamoorthy, Devika; Elliott, Alysha G; Zhang, Huihui; Cooper, Matthew A; Coin, Lachlan J M


    The recently introduced Oxford Nanopore MinION platform generates DNA sequence data in real-time. This has great potential to shorten the sample-to-results time and is likely to have benefits such as rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection and identification of drug resistance. However, there are few tools available for streaming analysis of real-time sequencing data. Here, we present a framework for streaming analysis of MinION real-time sequence data, together with probabilistic streaming algorithms for species typing, strain typing and antibiotic resistance profile identification. Using four culture isolate samples, as well as a mixed-species sample, we demonstrate that bacterial species and strain information can be obtained within 30 min of sequencing and using about 500 reads, initial drug-resistance profiles within two hours, and complete resistance profiles within 10 h. While strain identification with multi-locus sequence typing required more than 15x coverage to generate confident assignments, our novel gene-presence typing could detect the presence of a known strain with 0.5x coverage. We also show that our pipeline can process over 100 times more data than the current throughput of the MinION on a desktop computer.

  7. An Optimal Free Energy Dissipation Strategy of the MinCDE Oscillator in Regulating Symmetric Bacterial Cell Division.

    Liping Xiong


    Full Text Available Sustained molecular oscillations are ubiquitous in biology. The obtained oscillatory patterns provide vital functions as timekeepers, pacemakers and spacemarkers. Models based on control theory have been introduced to explain how specific oscillatory behaviors stem from protein interaction feedbacks, whereas the energy dissipation through the oscillating processes and its role in the regulatory function remain unexplored. Here we developed a general framework to assess an oscillator's regulation performance at different dissipation levels. Using the Escherichia coli MinCDE oscillator as a model system, we showed that a sufficient amount of energy dissipation is needed to switch on the oscillation, which is tightly coupled to the system's regulatory performance. Once the dissipation level is beyond this threshold, unlike stationary regulators' monotonic performance-to-cost relation, excess dissipation at certain steps in the oscillating process damages the oscillator's regulatory performance. We further discovered that the chemical free energy from ATP hydrolysis has to be strategically assigned to the MinE-aided MinD release and the MinD immobilization steps for optimal performance, and a higher energy budget improves the robustness of the oscillator. These results unfold a novel mode by which living systems trade energy for regulatory function.

  8. Identification of five novel modifier loci of Apc(Min) harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain.

    Nnadi, Stephanie C; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M; Siracusa, Linda D


    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc ( Min ) mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc ( Min ) mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc ( Min ) mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc ( Min ) males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene-gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies.

  9. A facile synthesis of MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) via low temperature pyrolysis of single source molecular precursors, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4

    Shamik Ghoshal; Liladhar B Kumbhare; Vimal K Jain; Gautam K Dey


    The reaction of KSeCOAr with InCl3 and [MCl(PR3)2] in benzene afforded bimetallic complexes, [(R3P)2MIn(SeCOAr)4] (PR3 = PEt3 or PPh3; M = Cu or Ag; Ar = –C6H5 (phenyl) or 4-MeC6H4 (tolyl)). The triethylphosphine complexes decomposed rapidly when M = Ag while slowly when M = Cu. All these complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-VIS, NMR (1H, 31P) spectral data. Pyrolysis in a furnace at 300°C gave tetragonal MInSe2 (M = Cu, Ag) structure. Solvothermal decomposition of [(PPh3)2CuIn(SeCOAr)4] in boiling ethylene glycol gave nanorods of CuInSe2 which were characterized by XRD, EDAX, SEM and TEM.

  10. Se min pizzabolle!

    Hoffmeyer, Mikkeline; Brandt, Karen Merete


    arbejdes genrebevidst, hvis arbejdet med digitale repræsentationsformer skal udmønte sig i sikre valg og færdigheder, samt at elevers digitale udtryk måske bedst opnår æstetisk og personlig kvalitet gennem æstetiske greb. Vi har kredset om, hvordan vi kan udvikle en didaktisk model for arbejdet med digital......Emne: Hvordan kan vi udvikle digitale læringsdesigns, der styrker visuelle, sproglige, æstetiske og kommunikative kompetencer i fagene dansk og billedkunst? Metode og baggrund: Ovenstående har været omdrejningspunkt i vores udviklingsarbejde, som har haft afsæt i sociosemiotisk forskning omkring...... didaktisk design og multimodal læring (Selander og Kress) og studier af digital læremiddelkultur (Gynther og Holm Sørensen m.fl.). En vigtig pointe er, at fremtidens elever skal blive i stand til frit at vælge teknologi og repræsentationsform. Resultater: Vores udviklingsarbejde tyder på, at der skal...

  11. Min eneste ven, slutningen


    Slutningen er en dåseåbner, der kan trænge ind i litterært stof og medierede udtryk på en ny og interessant måde. Terminus er – sagt på en anden måde – kulturel epistemologi, der understreger, hvordan forestillinger om slutningen kan være et redskab til at fortælle om kulturelle mekanismer, forst...

  12. Min Morfars Film

    Juel, Henrik


    Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film.......Reflektioner over filmhistoriebegrebet og gennemgang af konkrete filmoplevelser i 1957 og i nutiden med udgangspunkt i mødet med en gammel familiefilm. Reflektioner over valg af motiver i en social- og personhistorisk dateret film....

  13. Science Goals and First Light Analysis from the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat

    Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Warren, Harry; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Jones, Andrew; Mason, James; McTiernan, James; Moore, Christopher; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3U CubeSat with deployment from the ISS planned in Q2 2016. Its goal is to measure the solar soft X-ray (SXR) spectral irradiance, an observational signature of hot plasma in the solar corona. Over the last few decades, there have been very few spectrally resolved observations from ~0.2 to ~4 keV (~0.3-6 nm). This range is sensitive to high-temperature plasma and contains many spectral lines (e.g., Mg, Si, Fe, S, Ar), the abundances of which probe plasma transport and provide valuable constraints on plasma heating mechanisms during both flares and quiescence. This solar SXR emission is primarily absorbed in the E-region of Earth's ionosphere, and the subsequently driven dynamical processes are still poorly understood, in large part because the energy distribution of the incident SXRs is not yet well characterized.MinXSS flies a miniature commercial off-the-shelf soft X-ray (SXR) spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD. The silicon drift detector has 0.5 mm fully depleted thickness and a 25 mm^2 physical area, with a ~16 micron Be entrance window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar SXRs from ~0.5 to 30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution. MinXSS also includes a broadband SXR photometer, providing an integrated intensity over a similar energy range for comparison, cross-calibration, and additional data, especially useful during more intense flares at the upper end of the X123 dynamic range.We present the MinXSS science goals for studying hot plasma in the solar corona, including impulsive flare heating and quiescent coronal heating, and the impact of the resultant SXR emission on Earth's ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere. We present analysis of MinXSS first light results (depending on deployment date from the ISS), as well as modeling and predictions of future observations over the MinXSS 6-12 month mission lifetime.

  14. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Jaroslav Janáček


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  15. Polynomial Time Algorithm for Determining Max-Min Paths in Networks and Solving Zero Value Cyclic Games

    Dmitrii D. Lozovanu


    Full Text Available We study the max-min paths problem, which represents a game version of the shortest and the longest paths problem in a weighted directed graph. In this problem the vertex set V of the weighted directed graph G=(V,E is divided into two disjoint subsets VA and VB which are regarded as positional sets of two players. The players are seeking for a directed path from the given starting position ν 0 to the final position ν f , where the first player intends to maximize the integral cost of the path while the second one has aim to minimize it. Polynomial-time algorithm for determining max-min path in networks is proposed and its application for solving zero value cyclic games is developed. Mathematics Subject Classification 2000: 90B10, 90C35, 90C27.

  16. Stability analysis of a max-min fair Rate Control Protocol (RCP) in a small buffer regime

    Voice, Thomas


    In this note we analyse various stability properties of the max-min fair Rate Control Protocol (RCP) operating with small buffers. We first tackle the issue of stability for networks with arbitrary topologies. We prove that the max-min fair RCP fluid model is globally stable in the absence of propagation delays, and also derive a set of conditions for local stability when arbitrary heterogeneous propagation delays are present. The network delay stability result assumes that, at equilibrium, there is only one bottleneck link along each route. Lastly, in the simpler setting of a single link, single delay model, we investigate the impact of the loss of local stability via a Hopf bifurcation.

  17. Five quantitative trait loci control radiation-induced adenoma multiplicity in Mom1R Apc Min/+ mice.

    Eiram Elahi

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is a carcinogen capable of inducing tumours, including colorectal cancer, in both humans and animals. By backcrossing a recombinant line of Apc(Min/+ mice to the inbred BALB/c mouse strain, which is unusually sensitive to radiation-induced tumour development, we obtained panels of 2Gy-irradiated and sham-irradiated N2 Apc(Min/+ mice for genotyping with a genome-wide panel of microsatellites at approximately 15 cM density and phenotyping by counting adenomas in the small intestine. Interval and composite interval mapping along with permutation testing identified five significant susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs responsible for radiation induced tumour multiplicity in the small intestine. These were defined as Mom (Modifier of Min radiation-induced polyposis (Mrip1-5 on chromosome 2 (log of odds, LOD 2.8, p = 0.0003, two regions within chromosome 5 (LOD 5.2, p<0.00001, 6.2, p<0.00001 and two regions within chromosome 16 respectively (LOD 4.1, p = 4x10(-5, 4.8, p<0.00001. Suggestive QTLs were found for sham-irradiated mice on chromosomes 3, 6 and 13 (LOD 1.7, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively; p<0.005. Genes containing BALB/c specific non-synonymous polymorphisms were identified within Mrip regions and prediction programming used to locate potentially functional polymorphisms. Our study locates the QTL regions responsible for increased radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice and identifies candidate genes with predicted functional polymorphisms that are involved in spindle checkpoint and chromosomal stability (Bub1b, Casc5, and Bub1, DNA repair (Recc1 and Prkdc or inflammation (Duox2, Itgb2l and Cxcl5. Our study demonstrates use of in silico analysis in candidate gene identification as a way of reducing large-scale backcross breeding programmes.

  18. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    Nnadi, Stephanie C.; Watson, Rayneisha; Innocent, Julie; Gonye, Gregory E; Buchberg, Arthur M.; Linda D. Siracusa


    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a p...

  19. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.


    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  20. Maslinic acid-enriched diet decreases intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice through transcriptomic and metabolomic reprogramming.

    Susana Sánchez-Tena

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid-supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01. Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in Apc(Min/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the Apc(Min/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer.

  1. Maslinic Acid-Enriched Diet Decreases Intestinal Tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice through Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Reprogramming

    Sánchez-Tena, Susana; Reyes-Zurita, Fernando J.; Díaz-Moralli, Santiago; Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Reed, Michelle; García-García, Francisco; Dopazo, Joaquín; Lupiáñez, José A.; Günther, Ulrich; Cascante, Marta


    Chemoprevention is a pragmatic approach to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in western countries. In this regard, maslinic acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from wax-like coatings of olives, is known to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines without affecting normal intestinal cells. The present study evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy and associated mechanisms of maslinic acid treatment on spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. Twenty-two mice were randomized into 2 groups: control group and MA group, fed with a maslinic acid–supplemented diet for six weeks. MA treatment reduced total intestinal polyp formation by 45% (P<0.01). Putative molecular mechanisms associated with suppressing intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice were investigated by comparing microarray expression profiles of MA-treated and control mice and by analyzing the serum metabolic profile using NMR techniques. The different expression phenotype induced by MA suggested that it exerts its chemopreventive action mainly by inhibiting cell-survival signaling and inflammation. These changes eventually induce G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, the metabolic changes induced by MA treatment were associated with a protective profile against intestinal tumorigenesis. These results show the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of MA against intestinal tumor development in the ApcMin/+ mice model, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against colorectal cancer. PMID:23527181

  2. Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state.

    Deighton, Kevin; Zahra, Jessica C; Stensel, David J


    This study investigated the effect of fasted and postprandial exercise on appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses. Twelve healthy males (mean±SD: age 23±3 years, body mass index 22.9±2.1 kg m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 57.5±9.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) performed three 10 h experimental trials (control, fasted exercise and postprandial exercise) in a Latin Square design. Trials commenced at 8 am after an overnight fast. Sixty min of treadmill running at ∼70% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed at 0-1 h in the fasted exercise trial and 4-5 h in the postprandial exercise trial. A standardised breakfast was provided at 1.5 h and ad libitum buffet meals at 5.5 and 9.5 h. Appetite ratings and resting expired air samples were collected throughout each trial. Postprandial exercise suppressed appetite to a greater extent than fasted exercise. Ad libitum energy intake was not different between trials, resulting in a negative energy balance in exercise trials relative to control after accounting for differences in energy expenditure (control: 9774±2694 kJ; fasted exercise: 6481±2318 kJ; postprandial exercise: 6017±3050 kJ). These findings suggest that 60 min treadmill running induces a negative daily energy balance relative to a sedentary day but is no more effective when performed before or after breakfast.

  3. Redistribution of cathepsin B activity from the endosomal-lysosomal pathway in chick intestine within 3 min of calcium absorption.

    Nemere, I; Norman, A W


    Earlier work has suggested that calcium-containing lysosomes are involved in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-stimulated intestinal absorption of the divalent cation. In the present report immunofluorescent labelling studies on fixed frozen sections of chick intestine were undertaken to determine whether lysosomes could respond to calcium transport conditions in less than 5 min. Tissue prepared from vitamin D-deficient chicks dosed with vehicle or 1.3 nmol of 1,25(OH)2D3 15 h prior to use was immunofluorescently labelled for cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease. In the absence of calcium absorption, punctate staining was found in the region below the terminal web, and more diffusely in the cytoplasm. The intensity of staining was noticeably greater in sections from 1,25(OH)2D3-treated than control chicks. In sections prepared after 3 min of calcium absorption, cathepsin B staining was localized near the basal and lateral membranes of the epithelial cells. After 30 min of transport, the protease was found in the villus core regardless of vitamin D status; however, immunoreactivity within the epithelial cells of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chick intestine had returned to pretransport intensity, whereas that of controls had not. To further investigate the specificity of the cathepsin B antibody, the intracellular compartmentalization of the protease was determined by biochemical methods. Using dosing procedures and calcium transport times equivalent to those for the immunofluorescent studies mucosae were collected by scraping, homogenized, and subcellular fractions prepared by a combination of differential and Percoll gradient centrifugation. In the absence of calcium transport, cathepsin B-specific activity was enhanced in whole homogenates, endocytic vesicles, and a lysosomal fraction prepared from intestinal epithelium of 1,25(OH)2D3-treated chicks, relative to vitamin D-deficient controls. After 3 min of calcium absorption, a profound (approximately 4-fold) decrease in

  4. The CheMin Mineralogy Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory: Analysis of Clays and Sulfates at Gale Crater

    Blake, D. F.; CheMin Science Team


    A principal goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover is to identify and characterize present or past habitable environments on Mars. Mineralogy is important in this regard because minerals are thermodynamic phases, stable under specific (and known) conditions of temperature, pressure and composition. By determining the mineralogical composition of a rock or soil, one can often deduce the conditions under which it formed or its subsequent diagenetic or metamorphic history. The CheMin instrument on MSL will return accurate mineral determinations and quantitative mineralogical information from scooped soil samples and drilled rock powders collected at Gale crater during Curiosity's 1-Mars-year nominal mission. Individual analyses will require several hours over one or more Mars sols. For typical well-ordered minerals, CheMin will have a Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) of 4X MDL (12%). The resolution of the diffraction patterns is 0.3° 2θ. This performance is sufficient to allow for the detection and quantification of virtually all minerals. Orbital imagery and analysis of reflectance spectra from Gale Crater reveal a wealth of mineralogical and morphological features suggestive of ancient habitable environments and water. CheMin is quite capable of discriminating and quantifying the clay and sulfate mineralogies expected within the landing ellipse and in the strata of the central mound, the primary target at Gale. Both polyhydrated and monohydrated (kieserite) sulfate minerals are distributed in mappable strata at Gale. Virtually all hydrated and nonhydrated sulfates are uniquely identifiable and quantifiable with CheMin. Breadboard and commercial equivalents of the CheMin instrument have already been used extensively in evaporite field localities ranging from Death Valley to Antarctica and Spitsbergen; at all these sites the identification and characterization of sulfate, carbonate, and halide mineralogy has been comparable to that of laboratory

  5. Temperature, salinity, sigma_t, pressure measurement collected using CTD from an unknown platform in the Min Fang Bay from 1984 to 1985 (NODC Accession 0048830)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Ocean data - Min Fang Bay , temperature and salinity measurements collected using CTD from unknown platform in the Min Fang Bay from 1984 to 1985

  6. Transfer of a eubacteria-type cell division site-determining factor CrMinD gene to the nucleus from the chloroplast genome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    LIU WeiZhong; HU Yong; ZHANG RunJie; ZHOU WeiWei; ZHU JiaYing; LIU XiangLin; HE YiKun


    MinD is a ubiquitous ATPase that plays a crucial role in selection of the division site in eubacteria, chloroplasts, and probably Archaea. In four green algae, Mesostigma viride, Nephroselmis olivacea, Chlorella vulgaris and Prototheca wickerhamii, MinD homologues are encoded in the plastid genome. However, in Arabidopsis, MinD is a nucleus-encoded, chloroplast-targeted protein involved in chloroplast division, which suggests that MinD has been transferred to the nucleus in higher land plants. Yet the lateral gene transfer (LGT) of MinD from plastid to nucleus during plastid evolution remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a nucleus-encoded MinD homologue from unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a basal species in the green plant lineage. Overexpression of CrMinD in wild type E. coli inhibited cell division and resulted in the filamentous cell formation, clearly demonstrated the conservation of the MinD protein during the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. The transient expression of CrMinD-egfp confirmed the role of CrMinD protein in the regulation of plastid division. Searching all the published plastid genomic sequences of land plants, no MinD homologues were found, which suggests that the transfer of MinD from plastid to nucleus might have occurred before the evolution of land plants.

  7. Aldosterone-induced apoptosis of MIN6 cells and its mechanism%醛固酮诱导MIN6细胞凋亡及作用机制研究

    潘瑜; 刘晓莉; 束金莲; 张霞; 金惠敏


    Objective To investigate the effects of aldosterone on apoptosis of tnurine pancreatic islets B cell line MIN6, and explore its possible mechanism. Methods Murine pancreatic islets B cell line MIN6 cultured in vitro was divided into control group (treated with serum-free DMEM culture medium), aldosterone group (treated with 10, 100 or 1 000 nmol/L aldosterone) and aldosterone + aldosterone antagonist group ( treated with 100 nmol/L aldosterone and 100 nmol/L aldactone). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion ( GSIS) was measured by radioimmunoassay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry in combination with FITC-Annexin V/PI fluorescein staining, Caspase-3 activity in supernatant of culture fluid was determined by ELISA, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins of cytochrome C(Cyt-C), Bcl-2, Bax and phosphorylated protein kinase C ( p-Akt) was detected by Western blotting. Results The viability of MIN6 cells decreased with the increase of concentrations of aldosterone, with a concentration-dependent manner. Under physical glucose concentration (5.6 mmol/L) and high glucose concentration (28 mmol/L) environment, GSIS of aldosterone group was significantly lower than that of control group ( P <0. 01), and GSIS of aldosterone + aldosterone antagonist group was significantly higher than that of aldosterone group ( P < 0. 01). The cell apoptosis ratio of aldosterone group was significantly higher than that of control group ( P <0.01), and the cell apoptosis ratio of aldosterone + aldosterone antagonist group was significantly lower than that of aldosterone group (P < 0. 01). Compared with control group, the Caspase-3 activity and expression of Cyt-C were significantly higher, and Bcl-2/ Bax and the expression of p-Akt were significantly lower ( P < 0. 01 for all), while aldosterone antagonist significantly inhibited aldosterone-mediated Caspase-3 activity increase and abnormal expression of related proteins

  8. Krüppel-like factor 5 is a crucial mediator of intestinal tumorigenesis in mice harboring combined ApcMin and KRASV12 mutations

    Robine Sylvie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both mutational inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumor suppressor gene and activation of the KRAS oncogene are implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Mice harboring a germline ApcMin mutation or intestine-specific expression of the KRASV12 gene have been developed. Both mouse strains develop spontaneous intestinal tumors, including adenoma and carcinoma, though at a different age. The zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5 has previously been shown to promote proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and modulate intestinal tumorigenesis. Here we investigated the in vivo effect of Klf5 heterozygosity on the propensity of ApcMin/KRASV12 double transgenic mice to develop intestinal tumors. Results At 12 weeks of age, ApcMin/KRASV12 mice had three times as many intestinal tumors as ApcMin mice. This increase in tumor number was reduced by 92% in triple transgenic ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. The reduction in tumor number in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice was also statistically significant compared to ApcMin mice alone, with a 75% decrease. Compared with ApcMin/KRASV12, tumors from both ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- and ApcMin mice were smaller. In addition, tumors from ApcMin mice were more distally distributed in the intestine as contrasted by the more proximal distribution in ApcMin/KRASV12 and ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. Klf5 levels in the normal-appearing intestinal mucosa were higher in both ApcMin and ApcMin/KRASV12 mice but were attenuated in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. The levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were also reduced in the normal-appearing intestinal mucosa of ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice when compared to ApcMin/KRASV12 mice. Levels of pMek and pErk1/2 were elevated in the normal-appearing mucosa of ApcMin/KRASV12 mice and modestly reduced in ApcMin/KRASV12/Klf5+/- mice. Tumor tissues displayed higher levels of both Klf5 and β-catenin, irrespective of the

  9. The role of NAG-1/GDF15 in the inhibition of intestinal polyps in APC/Min mice by sulindac.

    Wang, Xingya; Kingsley, Philip J; Marnett, Larry J; Eling, Thomas E


    The antitumor effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are assumed to be due to the inhibition of COX activity, but COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) is induced by NSAIDs and has antitumorigenic activities. To determine the contribution of COX-2 inhibition and NAG-1/GDF15 expression to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis by NSAIDs, we evaluated several sulindac derivatives [des-methyl (DM)-sulindac sulfide and its prodrug DM-sulindac] that do not inhibit COX-2 activity. Sulindac sulfide and DM-sulindac induced the expression of NAG-1/GDF15 in HCT116 cells as determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We fed APC/Min mice with 320 ppm of sulindac and doses of DM-sulindac. Only sulindac significantly inhibited tumor formation inAPC/Min mice. To determine the pharmacokinetic properties of sulindac and DM-sulindac in vivo, wild-type C57/B6 mice were fed with sulindac and DM-sulindac at 80, 160, and 320 ppm. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the conversion of DM-sulindac to DM-sulindac sulfide (active form) was less efficient than the conversion of sulindac to sulindac sulfide (active form) in the mice. Lower levels of DM-sulindac sulfide accumulated in intestinal and colon tissues in comparison with sulindac sulfide. In addition, NAG-1/GDF15 was induced in the liver of sulindac-fed mice but not in the DM-sulindac-fed mice. Collectively, our results suggest that the tumor-inhibitory effects of sulindac in APC/Min mice may be due to, in part, NAG-1/GDF15 induction in the liver. Our study also suggests that pharmacologic properties should be carefully evaluated when developing drug candidates.

  10. Assessment of aortitis by semiquantitative analysis of 180-min {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT acquisition images

    Martinez-Rodriguez, Isabel [University of Cantabria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain); Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, S. Medicina Nuclear, Santander (Spain); Martinez-Amador, N.; Banzo, I.; Quirce, R.; Jimenez-Bonilla, J.; Arcocha-Torres, M. de; Ibanez-Bravo, S.; Lavado-Perez, C.; Bravo-Ferrer, Z.; Carril, J.M. [University of Cantabria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain); Blanco, R.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A. [University of Cantabria, Department of Rheumatology, Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital, Santander (Spain)


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of semiquantitative analysis of 180-min {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT images for the assessment of aortitis in cases of suspected large vessel vasculitis (LVV) and to establish a threshold index for application in the clinical setting. This prospective study included 43 patients (mean age 67.5 ± 12.9 years) with suspicion of LVV (25 with a final diagnosis of aortitis). {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scan was acquired 180 min after injection of 7 MBq/kg of {sup 18}F-FDG. A semiquantitative analysis was performed calculating the aortic wall maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) (T), the lumen SUV{sub max} (B) and the target to background ratio (TBR). These results were also compared with those obtained in a control population. The mean aortic wall SUV{sub max} was 2.00 ± 0.62 for patients with aortitis and 1.45 ± 0.31 for patients without aortitis (p < 0.0001). The TBR was 1.66 ± 0.26 for patients with aortitis and 1.24 ± 0.08 for patients without aortitis (p < 0.0001). The differences were also statistically significant when the patients with aortitis and controls were compared. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the area under the curve was greater for the TBR than for the aortic wall SUV{sub max} (0.997 vs 0.871). The highest sensitivity and specificity was obtained for a TBR of 1.34 (sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94.4 %). Semiquantitative analysis of PET/CT images acquired 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG injection and the TBR index of 1.34 show very high accuracy and, therefore, are strongly recommended for the diagnosis of aortitis in the clinical setting. (orig.)

  11. The regulation of skeletal muscle protein turnover during the progression of cancer cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse.

    James P White

    Full Text Available Muscle wasting that occurs with cancer cachexia is caused by an imbalance in the rates of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The Apc(Min/+ mouse is a model of colorectal cancer that develops cachexia that is dependent on circulating IL-6. However, the IL-6 regulation of muscle protein turnover during the initiation and progression of cachexia in the Apc(Min/+ mouse is not known. Cachexia progression was studied in Apc(Min/+ mice that were either weight stable (WS or had initial (≤5%, intermediate (6-19%, or extreme (≥20% body weight loss. The initiation of cachexia reduced %MPS 19% and a further ∼50% with additional weight loss. Muscle IGF-1 mRNA expression and mTOR targets were suppressed with the progression of body weight loss, while muscle AMPK phosphorylation (Thr 172, AMPK activity, and raptor phosphorylation (Ser 792 were not increased with the initiation of weight loss, but were induced as cachexia progressed. ATP dependent protein degradation increased during the initiation and progression of cachexia. However, ATP independent protein degradation was not increased until cachexia had progressed beyond the initial phase. IL-6 receptor antibody administration prevented body weight loss and suppressed muscle protein degradation, without any effect on muscle %MPS or IGF-1 associated signaling. In summary, the %MPS reduction during the initiation of cachexia is associated with IGF-1/mTOR signaling repression, while muscle AMPK activation and activation of ATP independent protein degradation occur later in the progression of cachexia. IL-6 receptor antibody treatment blocked cachexia progression through the suppression of muscle protein degradation, while not rescuing the suppression of muscle protein synthesis. Attenuation of IL-6 signaling was effective in blocking the progression of cachexia, but not sufficient to reverse the process.

  12. The effects of initial conditions and control time on optimal actuator placement via a max-min Genetic Algorithm

    Redmond, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parker, G. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    This paper examines the role of the control objective and the control time in determining fuel-optimal actuator placement for structural vibration suppression. A general theory is developed that can be easily extended to include alternative performance metrics such as energy and time-optimal control. The performance metric defines a convex admissible control set which leads to a max-min optimization problem expressing optimal location as a function of initial conditions and control time. A solution procedure based on a nested Genetic Algorithm is presented and applied to an example problem. Results indicate that the optimal locations vary widely as a function of control time and initial conditions.

  13. Channeling 5-min photospheric oscillations into the solar outer atmosphere through small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes

    Khomenko, E; Collados, M; Bueno, J Trujillo


    We report two-dimensional MHD simulations which demonstrate that photospheric 5-min oscillations can leak into the chromosphere inside small-scale vertical magnetic flux tubes. The results of our numerical experiments are compatible with those inferred from simultaneous spectropolarimetric observations of the photosphere and chromosphere obtained with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at 10830 A. We conclude that the efficiency of energy exchange by radiation in the solar photosphere can lead to a significant reduction of the cut-off frequency and may allow for the propagation of the 5 minutes waves vertically into the chromosphere.

  14. Clinical Research into Ke Min Yin for Treatment of Persistent Allergic Rhinitis in Patients with Qi Deficiency and Blood Stasis

    刘巧平; 刘建华; 刘大新


    @@ Persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) is one of the common diseases at ear-nose-throat department. From August 1998 to May 2001, we randomly selected 60 cases of PAR with qi deficiency and blood stasis for a clinical observation. 30 patients in the treatment group were treated with Ke Min Yin (克敏饮), a herbal medicine, to supplement qi, expel wind, nourish blood and promote blood circulation; and the other 30 cases in the control group were treated with cetrine. Through systematic observation and statistical processing, the clinical research is summarized and reported in the following.

  15. Molecular Cloning, Expression of minD Gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Analyses to Identify Lactobacillus rhamnosus PN04 from Vietnam Hottuynia cordata Thunb.

    Nguyen, Tu Hoang Khue; Doan, Vinh Thi Thanh; Ha, Ly Dieu; Nguyen, Huu Ngoc


    The minD gene encoding an inhibitor cell division MinD homolog from Lactobacillus acidophilus VTCC-B-871 was cloned. We showed that there were 97 % homology between minD genes of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequence data from the L. rhamnosus genome project and sequenced minD gene of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871, a pair of primers was designed to identified the different minD genes from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. rhamnosus ATCC 11443. Besides, the polymerase chain reaction product of minD gene was also obtained in L. rhamnosus PN04, a strain was isolated from Vietnamese Hottuynia cordata Thunb. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of MinD homologs from L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 with the other strains and compared the predicted three-dimension structure of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD with Escherichia coli MinD, there are similarity that showed evolution of these strains. The overexpression of L. acidophilus VTCC-B-871 MinD in E. coli led to cell filamentation in IPTG and morphology changes in different sugar stresses, interestingly. The present study is the first report characterizing the Lactobacilus MinD homolog that will be useful in probiotic field.

  16. Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) - A Science-Oriented, University 3U CubeSat

    Mason, James P; Caspi, Amir; Chamberlin, Phillip C; Moore, Christopher; Jones, Andrew; Kohnert, Rick; Li, Xinlin; Palo, Scott; Solomon, Stanley


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat developed at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado, Boulder (CU). Over 40 students contributed to the project with professional mentorship and technical contributions from professors in the Aerospace Engineering Sciences Department at CU and from LASP scientists and engineers. The scientific objective of MinXSS is to study processes in the dynamic Sun, from quiet-Sun to solar flares, and to further understand how these changes in the Sun influence the Earth's atmosphere by providing unique spectral measurements of solar soft x-rays (SXRs). The enabling technology providing the advanced solar SXR spectral measurements is the Amptek X123, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon drift detector (SDD). The Amptek X123 has a low mass (~324 g after modification), modest power consumption (~2.5 W), and small volume (2.7" x 3.9" x 1.0"), making it ideal for a CubeSat. This paper provides an overvi...

  17. Analyzing Sub-Threshold Bitcell Topologies and the Effects of Assist Methods on SRAM VMIN

    James Boley


    Full Text Available The need for ultra low power circuits has forced circuit designers to scale voltage supplies into the sub-threshold region where energy per operation is minimized [1]. The problem with this is that the traditional 6T SRAM bitcell, used for data storage, becomes unreliable at voltages below about 700 mV due to process variations and decreased device drive strength [2]. In order to achieve reliable operation, new bitcell topologies and assist methods have been proposed. This paper provides a comparison of four different bitcell topologies using read and write VMIN as the metrics for evaluation. In addition, read and write assist methods were tested using the periphery voltage scaling techniques discussed in [4–13]. Measurements taken from a 180 nm test chip show read functionality (without assist methods down to 500 mV and write functionality down to 600 mV. Using assist methods can reduce both read and write VMIN by 100 mV over the unassisted test case.

  18. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species disturb Ca2+ oscillations in insulin-secreting MIN6 β-cells

    Antonucci, Salvatore; Tagliavini, Alessia; Pedersen, Morten Gram


    Disturbances in pulsatile insulin secretion and Ca2+ oscillations in pancreatic β-cells are early markers of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are still incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are implicated in reduced β-cell function, and ROS/RNS target several Ca2+ pumps and channels. Thus, we hypothesized that ROS/RNS could disturb Ca2+ oscillations and downstream insulin pulsatility. We show that ROS/RNS production by photoactivation of aluminum phthalocyanine chloride (AlClPc) abolish or accelerate Ca2+ oscillations in the MIN6 β-cell line, depending on the amount of ROS/RNS. Application of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin modifies the Ca2+ response to high concentrations of ROS/RNS. Further, thapsigargin produces effects that resemble those elicited by moderate ROS/RNS production. These results indicate that ROS/RNS interfere with endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ handling. This idea is supported by theoretical studies using a mathematical model of Ca2+ handling adapted to MIN6 cells. Our results suggest a putative link between ROS/RNS and disturbed pulsatile insulin secretion. PMID:26732126

  19. Statistical properties of superflares on solar-type stars based on the Kepler 1-min cadence data

    Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari


    We searched for superflares on solar-type stars using the Kepler short-cadence (1-min sampling) data in order to detect superflares with short duration. We found 187 superflares on 23 solar-type stars whose bolometric energy ranges from the order of $10^{32}$ erg to $10^{36}$ erg. Using these new data combined with the results from the data with 30-min sampling, we found the occurrence frequency ($dN/dE$) of superflares as a function of flare energy ($E$) shows the power-law distribution ($dN/dE \\propto E ^{-\\alpha}$) with $\\alpha=1.5$ for $10^{33}

  20. Influence of myeloperoxidase on colon tumor occurrence in inflamed versus non-inflamed colons of Apc(Min/+) mice.

    Al-Salihi, Mazin; Reichert, Ethan; Fitzpatrick, F A


    Control of colorectal cancer needs to be tailored to its etiology. Tumor promotion mechanisms in colitis-associated colon cancer differ somewhat from the mechanisms involved in hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer. Unlike sporadic or inherited tumors, some experimental models show that colitis-associated colon tumors do not require cyclooxygenase (COX) expression for progression, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which prevent sporadic or inherited colon cancer do not prevent colitis-associated colon cancer. We report that myeloperoxidase (MPO), an ancestor of the COX isoenzymes, is a determinant of colitis-associated colon tumors in Apc(Min/+) mice. During experimentally induced colitis, inhibition of MPO by resorcinol dampened colon tumor development. Conversely, in the bowels of Apc(Min/+) mice without colitis, resorcinol administration or 'knockout' of MPO gene coincided with a slight, but discernible increase in colon tumor incidence. Acrolein, a by-product of MPO catalysis, formed a covalent adduct with the phosphatase tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor and enhanced the activity of the Akt kinase proto-oncogene in vitro and in vivo. Thus, MPO may be an important determinant of diet and inflammation on colon cancer risk via its effect on endogenous exposure to oxidants and acrolein. We propose a hypothetical model to explain an apparent dichotomy between colon tumor occurrence and MPO inhibition in inflamed versus non-inflamed colons.

  1. A Graph-Based Min-# and Error-Optimal Trajectory Simplification Algorithm and Its Extension towards Online Services

    Fan Wu


    Full Text Available Trajectory simplification has become a research hotspot since it plays a significant role in the data preprocessing, storage, and visualization of many offline and online applications, such as online maps, mobile health applications, and location-based services. Traditional heuristic-based algorithms utilize greedy strategy to reduce time cost, leading to high approximation error. An Optimal Trajectory Simplification Algorithm based on Graph Model (OPTTS is proposed to obtain the optimal solution in this paper. Both min-# and min-ε problems are solved by the construction and regeneration of the breadth-first spanning tree and the shortest path search based on the directed acyclic graph (DAG. Although the proposed OPTTS algorithm can get optimal simplification results, it is difficult to apply in real-time services due to its high time cost. Thus, a new Online Trajectory Simplification Algorithm based on Directed Acyclic Graph (OLTS is proposed to deal with trajectory stream. The algorithm dynamically constructs the breadth-first spanning tree, followed by real-time minimizing approximation error and real-time output. Experimental results show that OPTTS reduces the global approximation error by 82% compared to classical heuristic methods, while OLTS reduces the error by 77% and is 32% faster than the traditional online algorithm. Both OPTTS and OLTS have leading superiority and stable performance on different datasets.

  2. The Max-Min High-Order Dynamic Bayesian Network for Learning Gene Regulatory Networks with Time-Delayed Regulations.

    Li, Yifeng; Chen, Haifen; Zheng, Jie; Ngom, Alioune


    Accurately reconstructing gene regulatory network (GRN) from gene expression data is a challenging task in systems biology. Although some progresses have been made, the performance of GRN reconstruction still has much room for improvement. Because many regulatory events are asynchronous, learning gene interactions with multiple time delays is an effective way to improve the accuracy of GRN reconstruction. Here, we propose a new approach, called Max-Min high-order dynamic Bayesian network (MMHO-DBN) by extending the Max-Min hill-climbing Bayesian network technique originally devised for learning a Bayesian network's structure from static data. Our MMHO-DBN can explicitly model the time lags between regulators and targets in an efficient manner. It first uses constraint-based ideas to limit the space of potential structures, and then applies search-and-score ideas to search for an optimal HO-DBN structure. The performance of MMHO-DBN to GRN reconstruction was evaluated using both synthetic and real gene expression time-series data. Results show that MMHO-DBN is more accurate than current time-delayed GRN learning methods, and has an intermediate computing performance. Furthermore, it is able to learn long time-delayed relationships between genes. We applied sensitivity analysis on our model to study the performance variation along different parameter settings. The result provides hints on the setting of parameters of MMHO-DBN.

  3. Un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée dans le sud de la France

    Pocholle E.


    Full Text Available Cet article rapporte un cas de leishmaniose féline disséminée chez un chat (Felis catus de 14 ans, séropositif pour le FIV et vivant dans les Alpes-Maritimes (sud de la France. Le chat présente des papules érythémateuses ulcérées sur la face et l’encolure, et une lésion proliférative ulcérée sur l’oreille gauche. C’est l’examen histopathologique des lésions cutanées qui permet le diagnostic d’une leishmaniose disséminée, associée à un carcinome épidermoïde de l’oreille. 100 mg d’allopurinol administrés une fois par jour per os pendant quatre mois ont permis la rémission totale des lésions cutanées. Des prélèvements post mortem ont révélé la persistance du parasite dans l’organisme après six mois de traitement. Cet article discute de la sensibilité du chat à la leishmaniose et de son rôle potentiel de réservoir.

  4. Quasi-Min-Max Robust Model Predictive Control of Linear Parameter Varying Time-delay Systems%LPV时滞系统的准Min-Max鲁棒模型预测控制

    邵晓巍; 张军; 王彪; 张新



  5. Las genealogías de cAbd al-Mu'min, primer califa almohade

    Fierro, Maribel


    Full Text Available The Almohad caliphs claimed that agnatically they belonged to the Arab tribe of Quraysh. Qays cAylān does not include the tribe of Qurayš, with which the Mu'minids claimed to be linked cognatically. According to the classical doctrine of the caliphate, to be found for example in Ibn Hazm, the caliphs should belong to Quraysh through their paternal lineage. In this article, the advantages of a Qaysi genealogy (with a long tradition among the Berber populations of North Africa for the Mu'minid caliphs are analyzed. Among those advantages there are the links that such genealogy established with the Arab tribes of Sulaym and Hilāl, crucial elements in the Mu'minid army, and with the pre-Islamic Arab Prophet Khālid b. Sinīn al-cAbsī (descendants of whom appear in connection with the episode of the Berber rebellion of the Kāhina.

    Los califas almohades afirmaron pertenecer a la tribu árabe de Qays cAylān por descendencia agnática. Qays cAylān no incluye a la tribu de Qurayš, con la que los mu'miníes afirmaban estar emparentados por línea materna. Según la doctrina clásica del califato, recogida por ejemplo por Ibn Hazm, los califas deben ser qurayšíes por línea paterna. En este artículo se analizan las ventajas que ofrecía a los califas mu'miníes esa ascendencia qaysí, de larga tradición entre las poblaciones beréberes del Norte de África. Entre esas ventajas se cuentan la vinculación de parentesco con las tribus árabes de Sulaym y Hilāl, elementos fundamentales del ejército mu'miní, y con el profeta árabe pre-islámico Jālid b. Sinān al-cAbsī (descendientes de este último aparecen en estrecha relación con el episodio de la rebelión beréber de la Kāhina.

  6. [Distribution Characteristics of Sedimentary Pigments in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coast and its Implications].

    Li, Dong; Yao, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Jin-peng; Pan, Hui-hui


    Compositions and contents of sedimentary pigments were examined using high performance liquid chromatography in order to discuss the spatial distributions of phytoplankton primary production, phytoplankton functional type and the preservation efficiency of phytoplankton pigments and their influencing factors. The results showed that: chloropigments [Chlorins, including chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and pheopigments (Pheo-a), such as pheophytin-a (PHtin-a), pheophorbide-a (PHide-a), pPheophytin-a (pPHtin-a), sterol chlorin esters (SCEs) and carotenol chlorin esters (CCEs)] were the major type of sedimentary pigments. The nutrients inputs from Changjiang Diluted Water and upwelling in the Zhe-Min coastal mud area were the major cause for the patchy distribution with high sedimentary chloropigment contents. Carotenoid contents showed no trending changes and exhibited high values in the Changjiang Estuary and Zhe-Min Coasts. Based on the relative proportions of each diagnostic carotenoid to the total diagnostic carotenoids in the sediments, the relative contributions of diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias in the phytoplankton fuctional types were 48.8% +/- 17.4%, 10.7% +/- 11.5%, 8.1% +/- 7.2%, 18.6% +/- 8.2%, 9.4% +/- 6.4% and 4.3% +/- 3.2%, respectively. The preference for external environmental conditions (e.g., nutrient level and water salinity) was the main cause for the decreasing trends of diatoms and dinoflagellates proportions and the increasing trends of prasinophytes, cryptophytes and cyanobacterias seawards. Based on the spatial distribution of Chl-a/Pheo-a ratios, the higher preservation efficiencies of sedimentary pigments in the coastal regions (e.g., outer edge of maximum turbidity zone in the Changjiang Estuary, mouth of the Hangzhou Bay and upwelling region in the Zhe-Min Coast) were mainly due to the higher sedimentation rate and seasonal occurrences of hypoxia in bottom water, and these regions with

  7. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao


    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  8. Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells.

    Kang, Soo-Young; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D


    Anthocyanins, which are bioactive phytochemicals, are widely distributed in plants and especially enriched in tart cherries. Based on previous observations that tart cherry anthocyanins and their respective aglycone, cyanidin, can inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, we conducted experiments to test the potential of anthocyanins to inhibit intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and growth of human colon cancer cell lines. Mice consuming the cherry diet, anthocyanins, or cyanidin had significantly fewer and smaller cecal adenomas than mice consuming the control diet or sulindac. Colonic tumor numbers and volume were not significantly influenced by treatment. Anthocyanins and cyanidin also reduced cell growth of human colon cancer cell lines HT 29 and HCT 116. The IC(50) of anthocyanins and cyanidin was 780 and 63 microM for HT 29 cells, respectively and 285 and 85 microM for HCT 116 cells, respectively. These results suggest that tart cherry anthocyanins and cyanidin may reduce the risk of colon cancer.

  9. Phenotypic and gene expression changes between low (glucose-responsive) and High (glucose non-responsive) MIN-6 beta cells

    O´Driscoll, L.; Gammell, p.; McKierman, E.


    The long-term potential to routinely use replacement beta cells/islets as cell therapy for type 1 diabetes relies on our ability to culture such cells/islets, in vitro, while maintaining their functional status. Previous beta cell studies, by ourselves and other researchers, have indicated......, high passage) were determined by ELISA (assessing GSIS and cellular (pro)insulin content), proliferation assays, phase contrast light microscopy and analysis of alkaline phosphatase expression. Differential mRNA expression was investigated using microarray, bioinformatics and real-time PCR technologies......, to be significantly affected by passaging/ long-term culture. Loss/reduced levels, in high passage cells, of certain transcripts associated with the mature beta cell, together with increased levels of neuron/glia-associated mRNAs, suggest that, with time in culture, MIN-6 cells may revert to an early (possibly multi...

  10. Excited states in 168Yb from electron-capture decay of 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.


    The electron-capture decay of the 168Lum (T1/2=6.7 min, Jπ=3+) isomer was studied with high purity sources, obtained by using a new radiochemical method consisting of fast continous on-line separation of reaction products. A complex spectrum composed of about 200 γ rays was observed. From these, 162 transitions were assigned to a level scheme of 39 excited levels of 168Yb, primarily by γ-γ coincidence spectroscopic measurements. About 60 transitions were placed for the first time and >90% of the decay intensity was clearly identified. The structure of the levels directly fed by the electron-capture decay was reviewed as particle-hole excitations of the core.

  11. Caracterização de uma tipologia de minério de manganês do Brasil

    Reis, Érica Linhares; Faria, Geraldo Lúcio de; Araújo, Fernando Gabriel da Silva; Tenório,Jorge Alberto Soares; Vieira,Claúdio Batista; Jannotti Júnior,Nelson


    Visando a melhorias no beneficiamento e no processo de fabricação de ferroligas de manganês, foi realizada a caracterização de uma tipologia predominante de minério de manganês, de ocorrência na região de Carajás, PA, BR. Obteve-se uma amostra representativa da tipologia e foram realizadas análise granulométrica por peneiramento e análise química, por ICP-AES. Foram identificadas por difratometria de raios X as fases minerais majoritárias. Um estudo termogravimétrico foi desenvolvido para ver...

  12. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José


    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  13. Most probable number - loop mediated isothermal amplification (MPN-LAMP) for quantifying waterborne pathogens in <25min.

    Ahmad, Farhan; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Waseem, Hassan; Williams, Maggie R; Cupples, Alison M; Tiedje, James M; Hashsham, Syed A


    We are reporting a most probable number approach integrated to loop mediated isothermal technique (MPN-LAMP) focusing on Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis bacterial cells without nucleic acids extraction. LAMP assays for uidA from E. coli and gelE from E. faecalis were successfully performed directly on cells up to single digit concentration using a commercial real time PCR instrument. Threshold time values of LAMP assays of bacterial cells, heat treated bacterial cells (95°C for 5min), and their purified genomic DNA templates were similar, implying that amplification could be achieved directly from bacterial cells at 63°C. Viability of bacterial cells was confirmed by using propidium monoazide in a LAMP assay with E. faecalis. To check its functionality on a microfluidic platform, MPN-LAMP assays targeting <10CFU of bacteria were also translated onto polymeric microchips and monitored by a low-cost fluorescence imaging system. The overall system provided signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios up to 800, analytical sensitivity of <10CFU, and time to positivity of about 20min. MPN-LAMP assays were performed for cell concentrations in the range of 10(5)CFU to <10CFU. MPN values from LAMP assays confirmed that the amplifications were from <10CFU. The method described here, applicable directly on cells at 63°C, eliminates the requirement of complex nucleic acids extraction steps, facilitating the development of sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and field-deployable systems. This rapid MPN-LAMP approach has the potential to replace conventional MPN method for waterborne pathogens.

  14. Plant stanols induce intestinal tumor formation by up-regulating Wnt and EGFR signaling in Apc Min mice.

    Marttinen, Maija; Päivärinta, Essi; Storvik, Markus; Huikko, Laura; Luoma-Halkola, Heli; Piironen, Vieno; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Mutanen, Marja


    The rate of APC mutations in the intestine increases in middle-age. At the same period of life, plant sterol and stanol enriched functional foods are introduced to diet to lower blood cholesterol. This study examined the effect of plant stanol enriched diet on intestinal adenoma formation in the Apc(Min) mouse. Apc(Min) mice were fed 0.8% plant stanol diet or control diet for nine weeks. Cholesterol, plant sterols and plant stanols were analyzed from the caecum content and the intestinal mucosa. Levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were measured from the intestinal mucosa by Western blotting. Gene expression was determined from the intestinal mucosa using Affymetrix and the data were analyzed for enriched categories and pathways. Plant stanols induced adenoma formation in the small intestine, however, the adenoma size was not affected. We saw increased levels of nuclear β-catenin, phosphorylated β-catenin (Ser675 and Ser552), nuclear cyclin D1, total and phosphorylated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK1/2 in the intestinal mucosa after plant stanol feeding. The Affymetrix data demonstrate that several enzymes of cholesterol synthesis pathway were up-regulated, although the cholesterol level in the intestinal mucosa was not altered. We show that plant stanols induce adenoma formation by activating Wnt and EGFR signaling. EGFR signaling seems to have promoted β-catenin phosphorylation and its translocation into the nucleus, where the expression of cyclin D1 was increased. Up-regulated cholesterol synthesis may partly explain the increased EGFR signaling in the plant stanol-fed mice.

  15. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Juan-Ni Gong; Zhen-Guo Zhai; Yuan-Hua Yang; Yan Liu; Song Gu; Tu-Guang Kuang; Wan-Mu Xie


    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction.However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined.Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH.Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study.Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected.Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment.All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period.Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died.Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] =7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR =1.001, P =0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR =0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR =1.074, P =0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR =1.001, P =0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality.Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR =4.755, P =0.007) and 6MWD (HR =0.994, P =0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients.Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μ mol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia.Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH.

  16. [An analysis of a North Korean Medical Journal: In-Min-Bo-Gun (People's Health) in 1950s].

    Kim, Ock-Joo


    Studies on medicine in North Korea have suffered from the lack of material and from the lack of reliability of information. So far, studies on North Korean medicine have centered on the health care system, and medical education system based upon the official data and interviews on refugees from North Korea. The author had a travel grant for archive research to National Archive Center II and Library of Congress from Association of Asian Studies in U.S.A. and photocopied volumes of a North Korean medical journal called In-Min-Bo-Gun(People's Health) published in 1949-1950, and 1957-1960. Captured by the U.S. Army during the Korean War and declassified in 1977, the journal volumes are rare and valuable resources for historical study. This study aims to analyze the form and contents of the available volumes of the journal. As an official journal of the Ministry of Health, North Korea, the primary purpose of the journal was to mobilize all the people who worked in medicine and public health, and to make them implement the public health policies of North Korean government. Accordingly, various categories of people wrote and read the journal from high officials to local public health workers. The genre of the articles published in the journal was also various including papers, declarations, speeches, reports, scientific papers, case reports, news, criticism, conte, poem, essays, and many more. This study showed that In-Min-Bo-Gun(People's Health) was at the center of the Hygiene Reform Movement during the Cultural Revolution from 1958-1959 as an important media that connected health workers and the North Korean government.

  17. Uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using clearance-sealed piston provers in the range from 0.0012 g min-1 to 60 g min-1

    Bobovnik, G.; Kutin, J.; Bajsić, I.


    This paper deals with an uncertainty analysis of gas flow measurements using a compact, high-speed, clearance-sealed realization of a piston prover. A detailed methodology for the uncertainty analysis, covering the components due to the gas density, dimensional and time measurements, the leakage flow, the density correction factor and the repeatability, is presented. The paper also deals with the selection of the isothermal and adiabatic measurement models, the treatment of the leakage flow and discusses the need for averaging multiple consecutive readings of the piston prover. The analysis is prepared for the flow range (50 000:1) covered by the three interchangeable flow cells. The results show that using the adiabatic measurement model and averaging the multiple readings, the estimated expanded measurement uncertainty of the gas mass flow rate is less than 0.15% in the flow range above 0.012 g min-1, whereas it increases for lower mass flow rates due to the leakage flow related effects. At the upper end of the measuring range, using the adiabatic instead of the isothermal measurement model, as well as averaging multiple readings, proves important.

  18. Effects of gender on stroke rates, critical speed and velocity of a 30-min swim in young swimmers.

    Greco, Camila C; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Figueira, Tiago R; Denadai, Benedito S


    Our objective was to analyze the effect of gender on the relationship between stroke rates corresponding to critical speed (SRCS) and maximal speed of 30 min (SRS30) in young swimmers. Twenty two males (GM1) (Age = 15.4 ± 2.1 yr., Body mass = 63.7 ± 12.9 kg, Stature = 1.73 ± 0.09 m) and fourteen female (GF) swimmers (Age = 15.1 ± 1.6 yr., Body mass = 58.3 ± 8.8 kg, Stature = 1.65 ± 0.06 m) were studied. A subset of males (GM2) was matched to the GF by their velocity for a 30 min swim (S30). The critical speed (CS) was determined through the slope of the linear regression line between the distances (200 and 400 m) and participant's respective times. CS was significantly higher than S30 in males (GM1 - 1.25 and 1.16 and GM2 - 1.21 and 1.12 m·s(-1)) and females (GF - 1.15 and 1.11 m·s(-1)). There was no significant difference between SRCS and SRS30 in males (GM1 - 34.16 and 32.32 and GM2 - 34.67 and 32.46 cycle·s(-1), respectively) and females (GF - 34.18 and 33.67 cycle·s(-1), respectively). There was a significant correlation between CS and S30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.94 and GM2 - r = 0.90) and between SRCS and SRS30 (GM1 - r = 0.89, GF - r = 0.80 and GM2 - r = 0.88). Thus, the relationship between SRCS and SRS30 is not influenced by gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels. Key pointsThe main finding of this study was that the relationship between SRCS and SRS30, which is not dependent on gender, in swimmers with similar and different aerobic capacity levels.In swimmers who had different S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls, and CS and S30 were higher in boys than girls, but SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.In swimmers who had similar S30 values, CS was higher than S30 in boys and girls. However, boys still presented higher values of CS than girls. SRCS was higher than SRS30 in boys, but these variables were similar in girls. SRCS and SRS30 were similar between genders.Girls presented lower

  19. IL-6 regulation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling during cancer cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mouse

    White James P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle protein turnover regulation during cancer cachexia is being rapidly defined, and skeletal muscle mitochondria function appears coupled to processes regulating muscle wasting. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics are disrupted in severely cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. It has not been determined if these changes occur at the onset of cachexia and are necessary for the progression of muscle wasting. Exercise and anti-cytokine therapies have proven effective in preventing cachexia development in tumor bearing mice, while their effect on mitochondrial content, biogenesis and dynamics is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to 1 determine IL-6 regulation on mitochondrial remodeling/dysfunction during the progression of cancer cachexia and 2 to determine if exercise training can attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of proteolytic pathways during IL-6 induced cancer cachexia. Methods ApcMin/+ mice were examined during the progression of cachexia, after systemic interleukin (IL-6r antibody treatment, or after IL-6 over-expression with or without exercise. Direct effects of IL-6 on mitochondrial remodeling were examined in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. Results Mitochondrial content was not reduced during the initial development of cachexia, while muscle PGC-1α and fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 protein expression was repressed. With progressive weight loss mitochondrial content decreased, PGC-1α and fusion proteins were further suppressed, and fission protein (FIS1 was induced. IL-6 receptor antibody administration after the onset of cachexia improved mitochondrial content, PGC-1α, Mfn1/Mfn2 and FIS1 protein expression. IL-6 over-expression in pre-cachectic mice accelerated body weight loss and muscle wasting, without reducing mitochondrial content, while PGC-1α and Mfn1/Mfn2 protein expression was suppressed and FIS1 protein expression

  20. Identification of critical intensity from a single lactate measure during a 3-min, submaximal cycle-ergometer test.

    Fontana, Federico Y; Colosio, Alessandro L; Keir, Daniel A; Murias, Juan M; Pogliaghi, Silvia


    We tested the hypothesis that critical intensity in cycling can be determined from a single delta blood lactate in the third minute of a submaximal cycle ergometer trial. Fourteen healthy young men performed four to six constant-power-output trials on a cycle ergometer to the limit of tolerance. Critical intensity was calculated via a linear model and subsequently validated. Lactate was measured at baseline and at 3 min from exercise onset. Delta lactate was the difference between these measures. Based on individual trials, we obtained the delta lactate-% validated critical intensity relationship and thereafter an estimate of critical intensity was computed. Validated and estimated critical intensity were compared by effects sizes, paired-sample t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. Delta lactate was a linear function of the intensity of exercise, expressed as % validated critical intensity (R(2) = 0.89). Estimated critical intensity was not different from (d = 0.03, P = 0.98) and highly correlated with (R(2) = 0.88) validated critical intensity. The bias between measures was 0.03 W (≠0) with a precision of 7 W. The results suggest that critical intensity in cycling can be accurately and precisely determined from delta lactate during a sub-maximal trial and so provides a practical and valid alternative to direct determination.

  1. 刘以敏主任疳证论治%Treating malnutrition by director of LIU Yi-min

    杨旭东; 何萍


      疳证是由多种慢性疾患引起的一种疾病,历代医家在治疗疳证一般从脾胃论治,以健脾化滞、益气生津为法,著名国家级名中医刘以敏主任在治疗本病上有独到见解,首先是强调治未病的观点,其次是分期治疗的观点,治疗上取得满意效果。%  Malnutrition is a disease that caused by various chronic diseases. It was treated according to spleen gastric theory of historical and recent medical, the principle was Jianpi Huazhi and Yiqi Shengjin, but Liu Yi-Min who is famous traditional medicine doctor all over the country has insightful views in treating malnutrition, that the first was the emphasis on the viewpoint of “treating disease”, secondly is the viewpoint of staging treatment, and have satisfactory effect.

  2. Integración de Estándares de Gestión de TI mediante MIN-ITs

    Antoni Lluís Mesquida


    Full Text Available Las empresas de desarrollo de software han apostado por la implantación de modelos y estándares de calidad con el objetivo de ofrecer productos que se adapten a las necesidades de los clientes y aumenten su satisfacción. Además de mejorar sus procesos de desarrollo de software, estas organizaciones también desean aumentar la capacidad de los procesos de otras disciplinas, como pueden ser la gestión de servicios de Tecnologías de la Información (TI o la gestión de la seguridad de la información. Las normas ISO que definen las mejoras prácticas de estas áreas guardan una gran cantidad de relaciones entre sus recomendaciones, directrices y requisitos. A partir del estudio de todos estos elementos y aspectos comunes, se ha desarrollado el marco MIN-ITs, un marco que facilita la implantación integrada de los diferentes estándares ISO de gestión de TI.

  3. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    Alessandra Borges


    Full Text Available This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001 from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children.

  4. Profiling of volatile compounds in APC(Min/+) mice blood by dynamic headspace extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Kakuta, Shoji; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Masaru; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi


    Various volatile compounds as well as hydrophilic compounds exist in the blood. For example, 2-alkenals, 4-hydroxy-2-alkenals, and ketoaldehydes have been reported as oxidized lipid-derived volatiles in blood. These specific volatiles have been associated with diseases; however, multi-volatile analyses have not been performed. In this study, volatile profiling of APC(Min/+) mouse plasma by dynamic headspace extraction was performed for multi-volatile analysis. In total, 19 volatiles were detected in the plasma of mice, based on information regarding oxidized lipid-derived volatile compounds, and eight of these compounds differed significantly between normal and diseased mice. 2-Methyl-2-butanol and benzyl alcohol were previously unreported in blood samples. Furthermore, 3,5,5-trimethyl-2(5H)-furanone was only detected in normal mice. 5-Methyl-3-hexanone and benzaldehyde have been detected in subjects with gastrointestinal diseases and lung cancer, respectively. Therefore, volatile profiling can be used to detect differences between samples and to identify compounds associated with diseases.

  5. Integrated water vapor from IGS ground-based GPS observations. Initial results from a global 5-min data set

    Heise, S.; Dick, G.; Gendt, G.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Dept. 1 Geodesy and Remote Sensing


    Ground based GPS zenith path delay (ZPD) measurements are well established as a powerful tool for integrated water vapor (IWV) observation. The International GNSS Service (IGS) provides ZPD data of currently more than 300 globally distributed GPS stations. To derive IWV from these data, meteorological information (ground pressure and mean temperature above the station) are needed. Only a limited number of IGS stations is equipped with meteorological ground sensors up to now. Thus, meteorological data for IWV conversion are usually derived from nearby ground meteorological observations (ground pressure) and meteorological analyses (mean temperature). In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the applicability of ground pressure data from ECMWF meteorological analysis fields in this context. Beside simplified data handling (no single station data and quality control) this approach allows for IWV derivation if nearby meteorological stations are not available. Using ECMWF ground pressure and mean temperature data the new IGS 5-min ZPD data set has been converted to IWV for the first time. We present initial results from selected stations with ground meteorological sensors including pressure and temperature comparisons between ECMWF and local measurements. The GPS IWV is generally validated by comparison with ECMWF IWV. The ECMWF derived station meteorological data are compared with local measurements at all accordingly equipped stations. Based on this comparison, the mean error (in terms of standard deviation) introduced by time interpolation of the 6-hourly ECMWF data is estimated below 0.2 mm IWV. (orig.)

  6. Real-time imaging of myeloid cells dynamics in ApcMin/+ intestinal tumors by spinning disk confocal microscopy.

    Bonnans, Caroline; Lohela, Marja; Werb, Zena


    Myeloid cells are the most abundant immune cells within tumors and have been shown to promote tumor progression. Modern intravital imaging techniques enable the observation of live cellular behavior inside the organ but can be challenging in some types of cancer due to organ and tumor accessibility such as intestine. Direct observation of intestinal tumors has not been previously reported. A surgical procedure described here allows direct observation of myeloid cell dynamics within the intestinal tumors in live mice by using transgenic fluorescent reporter mice and injectable tracers or antibodies. For this purpose, a four-color, multi-region, micro-lensed spinning disk confocal microscope that allows long-term continuous imaging with rapid image acquisition has been used. Apc(Min/+) mice that develop multiple adenomas in the small intestine are crossed with c-fms-EGFP mice to visualize myeloid cells and with ACTB-ECFP mice to visualize intestinal epithelial cells of the crypts. Procedures for labeling different tumor components, such as blood vessels and neutrophils, and the procedure for positioning the tumor for imaging through the serosal surface are also described. Time-lapse movies compiled from several hours of imaging allow the analysis of myeloid cell behavior in situ in the intestinal microenvironment.

  7. Three 15-min bouts of moderate postmeal walking significantly improves 24-h glycemic control in older people at risk for impaired glucose tolerance

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. Inactive older (=60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community a...

  8. Analysis of decade-long time series of GPS-based polar motion estimates at 15-min temporal resolution

    Sibois, Aurore E.; Desai, Shailen D.; Bertiger, Willy; Haines, Bruce J.


    We present results from the generation of 10-year-long continuous time series of the Earth's polar motion at 15-min temporal resolution using Global Positioning System ground data. From our results, we infer an overall noise level in our high-rate polar motion time series of 60 μas (RMS). However, a spectral decomposition of our estimates indicates a noise floor of 4 μas at periods shorter than 2 days, which enables recovery of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion. We deliberately place no constraints on retrograde diurnal polar motion despite its inherent ambiguity with long-period nutation. With this approach, we are able to resolve damped manifestations of the effects of the diurnal ocean tides on retrograde polar motion. As such, our approach is at least capable of discriminating between a historical background nutation model that excludes the effects of the diurnal ocean tides and modern models that include those effects. To assess the quality of our polar motion solution outside of the retrograde diurnal frequency band, we focus on its capability to recover tidally driven and non-tidal variations manifesting at the ultra-rapid (intra-daily) and rapid (characterized by periods ranging from 2 to 20 days) periods. We find that our best estimates of diurnal and semidiurnal tidally induced polar motion result from an approach that adopts, at the observation level, a reasonable background model of these effects. We also demonstrate that our high-rate polar motion estimates yield similar results to daily-resolved polar motion estimates, and therefore do not compromise the ability to resolve polar motion at periods of 2-20 days.

  9. Max-Min SINR in Large-Scale Single-Cell MU-MIMO: Asymptotic Analysis and Low Complexity Transceivers

    Sifaou, Houssem


    This work focuses on the downlink and uplink of large-scale single-cell MU-MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) endowed with M antennas communicates with K single-antenna user equipments (UEs). Particularly, we aim at reducing the complexity of the linear precoder and receiver that maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio subject to a given power constraint. To this end, we consider the asymptotic regime in which M and K grow large with a given ratio. Tools from random matrix theory (RMT) are then used to compute, in closed form, accurate approximations for the parameters of the optimal precoder and receiver, when imperfect channel state information (modeled by the generic Gauss-Markov formulation form) is available at the BS. The asymptotic analysis allows us to derive the asymptotically optimal linear precoder and receiver that are characterized by a lower complexity (due to the dependence on the large scale components of the channel) and, possibly, by a better resilience to imperfect channel state information. However, the implementation of both is still challenging as it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients on a per- UE basis that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to show that the proposed TPE transceivers efficiently mimic the optimal ones, while requiring much lower computational complexity.

  10. Early static {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans have a higher accuracy for glioma grading than the standard 20-40 min scans

    Albert, Nathalie L.; Winkelmann, Isabel; Wenter, Vera; Mille, Erik; Todica, Andrei; Brendel, Matthias; Bartenstein, Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Suchorska, Bogdana; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Schmid-Tannwald, Christine [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Tuebingen, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    Current guidelines for glioma imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) using the amino acid analogue O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ({sup 18}F-FET) recommend image acquisition from 20-40 min post injection (p.i.). The maximal tumour-to-background evaluation (TBR{sub max}) obtained in these summation images does not enable reliable differentiation between low and high grade glioma (LGG and HGG), which, however, can be achieved by dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET. We investigated the accuracy of tumour grading using TBR{sub max} values at different earlier time points after tracer injection. Three hundred and fourteen patients with histologically proven primary diagnosis of glioma (131 LGG, 183 HGG) who had undergone 40-min dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET scans were retrospectively evaluated. TBR{sub max} was assessed in the standard 20-40 min summation images, as well as in summation images from 0-10 min, 5-15 min, 5-20 min, and 15-30 min p.i., and kinetic analysis was performed. TBR{sub max} values and kinetic analysis were correlated with histological classification. ROC analyses were performed for each time frame and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were assessed. TBR{sub max} values in the earlier summation images were significantly better for tumour grading (P < 0.001) when compared to standard 20-40 min scans, with best results for the early 5-15 min scan. This was due to higher TBR{sub max} in the HGG (3.9 vs. 3.3; p < 0.001), while TBR{sub max} remained nearly stable in the LGG (2.2 vs. 2.1). Overall, accuracy increased from 70 % in the 20-40 min analysis to 77 % in the 5-15 min images, but did not reach the accuracy of dynamic analysis (80 %). Early TBR{sub max} assessment (5-15 min p.i.) is more accurate for the differentiation between LGG and HGG than the standard static scan (20-40 min p.i.) mainly caused by the characteristic high {sup 18}F-FET uptake of HGG in the initial phase. Therefore, when dynamic {sup 18}F-FET-PET cannot be performed

  11. Assimilation and Syneresis of Inland Min Dialects%内陆闽语的同化与合音现象



    The assimilation of inland Min dialects are usually found in a syllable or between the neighboring syllables. The analogy of neighboring dialects and the influence of common language can also act as an influence. Some words may undergo changes in meaning after the assimilation. The syneresis usually takes the initial of the first syllable and the (medial- final and) tone of the second syllable and thus form a new syllable which usually conforms to the dialect's phonological system. There are often no meaning changes involved after the syneresis. Syneresis forms are often found in the frequently used words or phrases in daily life, some of which cannot be independently used. The syneresis syllable is written as one homophone character, which is sometimes newly coined. The assimilations may not emerge and the syneresis syllables may undergo variation in order to avoid semantic confusion caused by homophony.%内陆闽语的同化现象一般发生于音节内部、相邻的音节之间和语言的子系统内部,也表现在相邻方言间的类推和共同语对方言的影响。有的同化发生前后的语音形式意义有所不同。内陆闽语的合音,从语音看,遵循的是反切式的拼合方式,即“前字声母+(前字介音+后字韵母)+后字声调→合音音节”;合音音节一般不超出该方言的语音系统。从语义看,合音形式与组成它的原词并无二致。从语用看,合音形式均为口语中反映日常生活的高频词或短语,有的不能独立运用。书面形式上,一般用同音字或另造俗字。为避免影响辨义,同化是否发生存在变数,合音音节也时常发生变异。

  12. L'encéphalomyélite aiguë disséminée chez l'enfant

    Tadmori, Ilham; Chaouki, Sana; Abourazzak, Sana; Zahra, Souilmi Fatima; Benmiloud, Sarra; Idrissi, Mounia Lakhdar; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha


    L'encéphalomyélite aiguë disséminée (ADEM) est une maladie inflammatoire, démyélinisante, multifocale intéressant principalement la substance blanche du système nerveux central. Elle est rare mais non exceptionnelle chez l'enfant. Les auteurs rapportent une étude colligeant 9 cas d'ADEM pris en charge au service de Pédiatrie du CHU Hassan II à Fès, sur une période de 4 ans. Il s'agit de cinq garçons et quatre filles; âgés entre 2 ans et 13 ans. Les antécédents (ATCD) d'infection virale sont notés chez quatre patients. La fièvre est constante. Les convulsions sont présentes dans cinq cas et les troubles de conscience dans cinq cas. L'examen neurologique était anormal. L’étude de liquide céphalo-rachidien a révélé une réaction méningée. On ne notait pas de syndrome inflammatoire biologique. L'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) cérébrale a objectivé des lésions en hyper-signal en T2 et T2 FLAIR chez tous les patients. Pour le traitement, des bolus de corticoïdes intraveineux ont été administrés, relayés par une corticothérapie orale et associés à une kinésithérapie motrice et un traitement antiépileptique pour certains patients. L’évolution de nos malades était favorable globalement et on a déploré le décès d'une patiente. L'ADEM est une affection rare du système nerveux central. Les critères diagnostiques sont fondés sur des éléments cliniques et des données d'imagerie. La prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. PMID:25870735

  13. Monitoring of 1-min personal particulate matter exposures in relation to voice-recorded time-activity data.

    Quintana, P J; Valenzia, J R; Delfino, R J; Liu, L J


    Recent studies on the association between exposures to airborne particulate matter (PM) and disease have identified short-term peaks in PM exposures as posing especial health threats. Lightweight personal instruments are needed to characterize short-term exposures to PM and to identify the most important sources of high PM excursions. In this study, we measured exposure to fine PM using a small personal nephelometer (pDR; MIE, Inc) to investigate the utility of this instrument in identifying activities and microenvironments most associated with high PM exposures and the magnitude and duration of peaks in PM exposures. Ten adult volunteers wore a pDR recording PM concentrations at 1-min time intervals for 1 week each. PM concentrations were measured by the pDR in units of microg/m(3) based on light scatter. The use of a time-stamped voice recorder enabled activity and location to be continuously documented in real time. In addition, a small, inexpensive light intensity logger was affixed to the pDR to evaluate the potential of this instrument to assist in verifying wearer- recorded data. For each person, patterns of PM exposure were remarkably consistent over daily activities and showed large excursions associated with specific indoor and outdoor microenvironments and activities, such as cooking. When the magnitude and duration of excursions in PM were analyzed, we found that high PM levels occurred in relatively few of the minutes measured but comprised a substantial fraction of the total exposure to PM. Fifteen-minute averaged PM levels were found to be as much as 10 times the daily average. When the data were analyzed with a generalized estimating equation model to account for effects of autocorrelation and clustering, PM exposure was significantly higher during subject-reported events including barbeque, yard work, being near pets or construction activities, cooking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure, as compared with periods with no pollution events

  14. A Nucleus-encoded Topological Specificity Factor PpMinE in Physcomitrella patens has Conserved Function Similar to Its Chloroplast-encoded Ancestor%小立碗藓叶绿体分裂相关基因PpMinE的克隆及其功能与进化分析

    朱佳瑛; 刘维仲; 周伟巍; 胡勇; 何奕昆


    用RT-PCR技术从小立碗藓中(Physcomitrella patens)克隆了核编码的MinE基因,命名为PpMinE,并克隆了该基因的基因组DNA.序列比对显示该基因编码的蛋白质与真细菌和绿藻叶绿体编码的MinE蛋白具有较高的相似性.pMinE-EGFP融合蛋白在烟草中的瞬时表达证明该蛋白定位于叶绿体内.在大肠杆菌中过量表达PpMinE导致细胞不正常分裂,产生无染色体的小细胞,这表明MinE的功能在进化上是保守的.在系统发育树中,PpMinE和高等陆生植物有较近的亲缘关系.在已知的陆生植物的叶绿体基因组中没有找到MinE的同源蛋白,这暗示在进化过程中MinE从叶绿体到细胞核的水平转移可能发生在陆生植物发生以前.%A nucleus-encoded MinE gene, designated PpMinE, from Physcomitrella patens was identified using RT-PCR. The presence of both N- and C-terminal extensions in PpMinE protein suggested its cyanobacterial origin. The transient expression of PpMinE using green fluorescent protein fusion in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) indicated that the PpMinE was a chloroplast-targeted protein. Overexpression of PpMinE in Escherichia coli caused division site misplacement and minicell formation, suggesting evolutionary functional conservation of MinE during plant phylogenesis. According to the phylogenetic tree, PpMinE protein has a close relationship with the highland plants, which suggests that the transfer events of MinE gene from plastid to nucleus might have occurred before the origin of the land plants.

  15. Rapid (∼10 min) synthesis of single-crystalline, nanorice TiO2 mesoparticles with a high photovoltaic efficiency of above 8%.

    Parmar, K P S; Ramasamy, Easwaramoorthi; Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Jae Sung


    A novel rapid (∼10 min) microwave-hydrothermal synthesis is demonstrated for nanorice TiO(2) mesoparticles as an anode of a dye-sensitized solar cell with an excellent photovoltaic efficiency of above 8%.

  16. Pattern formation in Escherichia coli: A model for the pole-to-pole oscillations of Min proteins and the localization of the division site


    Proper cell division requires an accurate definition of the division plane. In bacteria, this plane is determined by a polymeric ring of the FtsZ protein. The site of Z ring assembly in turn is controlled by the Min system, which suppresses FtsZ polymerization at noncentral membrane sites. The Min proteins in Escherichia coli undergo a highly dynamic localization cycle, during which they oscillate between the membrane of both cell halves. By using computer simulati...

  17. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp) modifies intestinal fatty acid composition and adenoma formation in ApcMin/+ mice.

    Dharmarajan, Sekhar; Newberry, Elizabeth P; Montenegro, Grace; Nalbantoglu, Ilke; Davis, Victoria R; Clanahan, Michael J; Blanc, Valerie; Xie, Yan; Luo, Jianyang; Fleshman, James W; Kennedy, Susan; Davidson, Nicholas O


    Evidence suggests a relationship between dietary fat intake, obesity, and colorectal cancer, implying a role for fatty acid metabolism in intestinal tumorigenesis that is incompletely understood. Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-Fabp), a dominant intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, regulates intestinal fatty acid trafficking and metabolism, and L-Fabp deletion attenuates diet-induced obesity. Here, we examined whether changes in intestinal fatty acid metabolism following L-Fabp deletion modify adenoma development in Apc(Min)(/+) mice. Compound L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice were generated and fed a 10% fat diet balanced equally between saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat. L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice displayed significant reductions in adenoma number and total polyp area compared with Apc(Min)(/+)controls, reflecting a significant shift in distribution toward smaller polyps. Adenomas from L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice exhibited reductions in cellular proliferation, high-grade dysplasia, and nuclear β-catenin translocation. Intestinal fatty acid content was increased in L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice, and lipidomic profiling of intestinal mucosa revealed significant shifts to polyunsaturated fatty acid species with reduced saturated fatty acid species. L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice also showed corresponding changes in mRNA expression of enzymes involved in fatty acid elongation and desaturation. Furthermore, adenomas from L-Fabp(-/-)Apc(Min)(/+) mice displayed significant reductions in mRNA abundance of nuclear hormone receptors involved in cellular proliferation and in enzymes involved in lipogenesis. These findings collectively implicate L-Fabp as an important genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis, and identify fatty acid trafficking and metabolic compartmentalization as an important pathway linking dietary fat intake, obesity, and intestinal tumor formation.

  18. AREVA announces US$ 7.75 Per share friendly cash offer for UraMin; Offre publique d'achat amicale d'AREVA sur UraMin sur la base d'un prix de 7,75US$ par action



    AREVA and UraMin Inc. ('UraMin') entered on June 15, 2007 into an agreement in respect of AREVA's friendly cash offer for 100% of the share capital of UraMin. UraMin is listed in London (AIM) and Toronto (TSX). AREVA (Euronext Paris) already owns 5.5% of UraMin's share capital. This cash offer of AREVA will be made through its indirect wholly-owned subsidiary CFMM Development ('AREVA') based on a price of US$ 7.75 per UraMin share. The total offer consideration amounts to more than USD 2.5 billion for 100% of the fully diluted share capital of UraMin. This represents a premium of 21% over UraMin 20-day weighted average trading price ending on June 8, 2007. The UraMin Board of Directors, after consulting with its financial advisors, has determined that the offer is fair and in the best interest of the UraMin shareholders and it has resolved to recommend acceptance of the Offer. BMO Capital Markets has provided an opinion that the offer is fair, from a financial point of view, to the UraMin shareholders. In connection with the offer, all directors and certain other shareholders representing approximately 25% of the outstanding UraMin shares (calculated on a fully diluted basis) have entered into lock-up agreements with AREVA pursuant to which they have agreed to tender all their UraMin shares to AREVA's offer. The support agreement entered into between AREVA and UraMin provides for, among other things, in case a superior proposal is accepted by UraMin, a right to match in favour of AREVA. The support agreement also includes a break up fee in favour of AREVA of US$ 75 million under certain circumstances. Concurrently with the closing of the proposed offer, UraMin will declare a dividend payable in shares of the capital of Niger Uranium Limited held by UraMin (where permitted by law) or a cash equivalent of the value of such shares.

  19. Yi-Qi-Zeng-Min-Tang,a Chinese medicine,ameliorates insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    Zeng Zhang; Hong-Li Xue; Yi Liu; Wen-Jian Wang


    AIM:To investigate the effects of the Chinese herbal decoction,Yi-Qi-Zeng-Min-Tang (YQZMT),on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary regiments by feeding either normal pellet diet (NPD) or high fat diet (HFD).Four weeks later,the HFD-fed rats were injected intraperitoneally with lowdose streptozotocin (STZ).Rats with non-fasting blood glucose level ≥ 16.67 mmol/L were considered type 2 diabetic and further divided into five subgroups:the type 2 diabetes model group,low-dose,medium-dose and high-dose YQZMT groups,and rosiglitazone group. Age-matched NPD-fed rats served as controls.YQZMT or rosiglitazone were administered for 8 wk.Intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed before and after the treatment to measure the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity.Serum levels of biochemical parameters,adipocytokines,such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),as well as free fatty acids (FFAs),were also analyzed. RESULTS:There was significant elevation of insulin resistance and serum levels of fasting glucose (12.82 ± 1.08 mmol/L vs 3.60 ± 0.31 mmol/L,P < 0.01),insulin (7197.36 ± 253.89 pg/mL vs 4820.49 ± 326.89 pg/mL, P < 0.01),total cholesterol (TC) (8.40 ± 0.49 mmol/L vs 2.14 ± 0.06 mmol/L,P < 0.01),triglyceride (2.24 ± 0.12 mmol/L vs 0.78 ± 0.05 mmol/L,P < 0.01),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (7.84 ± 0.51 mmol/L vs 0.72 ± 0.04 mmol/L,P < 0.01) and decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (0.57 ± 0.03 mmol/L vs 1.27 ± 0.03 mmol/L,P < 0.01) in the low-dose STZ and high-fat diet induced type 2 diabetic group when compared with the control group. Administration of YQZMT induced dose- and timedependent changes in insulin resistance,glucose and lipid profile,and reduced levels of FFA,TNF-α and IL-6 in the type 2 diabetic rats.After the treatment, compared with the diabetic group,the insulin resistance was ameliorated in the

  20. Protective effects of ischemic preconditioning and application of lipoic acid prior to 90 min of hepatic ischemia in a rat model

    Friedrich Duenschede; Ines Gockel; Alexandra K Kiemer; Theodor Junginger; Kirsten Erbes; Nina Riegler; Patrick Ewald; Achim Kircher; Stefanie Westermann; Arno Schad; Imke Miesmer; Simon Albrecht-Sch(o)ck


    AIM: To compare different preconditioning strategies to protect the liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury focusing on the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. Interventions comprised different modes of ischemic preconditioning (IP) as well as pharmacologic pretreatment by αα-lipoic acid (LA).METHODS: Several groups of rats were compared:sham operated animals, non-pretreated animals (nt),animals receiving IP (10 min of ischemia by clamping of the portal triad and 10 min of reperfusion) prior to sustained ischemia, animals receiving selective ischemic preconditioning (IPsel, 10 min of ischemia by selective clamping of the ischemic lobe and 10 min of reperfusion)prior to sustained ichemia, and animals receiving 500μmol α-LA injected i.v. 15 min prior to the induction of 90 min of selective ischemia.RESULTS: Cellular damage was decreased only in the LA group. TUNEL-positive hepatocytes as well as necrotic hepatocyte injury were also decreased only by LA (19±2 vs 10±1, P<0.05 and 29±5 vs 12±1,P<0.05). Whereas caspase 3- activities in liver tissue were unchanged, caspase 9- activity in liver tissue was decreased only by LA pretreatment (3.1±0.3 vs 1.8±0.2, P<0.05). Survival rate as the endpoint of liver function was increased after IP and LA pretreatment but not after IPsel. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in liver tissue were decreased in the IP as well as in the LA group compared to the nt group. Determination of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins showed a shift towards anti-apoptotic proteins by LA. In contrast, both our IP strategies failed to influence apototic cell death.CONCLUSION: IP, consisting of 10 min of ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion, protects only partly against ischemia/reperfusion injury of the liver prior to 90 min of selective ischemia. IPsel did not influence ischemic tolerance of the liver. LA improved tolerance to ischemia,possibly by downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax.

  1. Hispidin isolated from Phellinus linteus protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in pancreatic MIN6N β-cells.

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Jung, Woo Chul; Lee, Keun Eok; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to cause DNA damage, protein denaturation, loss of antioxidative enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. Thus, ROS are associated with tissue damage and are considered to be prime contributing factors in inflammation, diabetes, aging, and cancer. In this study, we investigated whether or not hispidin protects pancreatic MIN6N β-cells from oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide. Treatment of MIN6N β-cells with 0.5 mM hydrogen peroxide for 4 hours caused significant loss of cell viability and an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. However, pretreatment of MIN6N β-cells with hispidin for 24 hours reduced loss of cell viability and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, 70 μM hispidin significantly scavenged intracellular ROS and inhibited apoptosis and caspase-3 induced by hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, the generation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was inhibited in the presence of hispidin in a dose-dependent manner. Also, 70 μM hispidin significantly increased insulin secretion in hydrogen peroxide-treated MIN6N β-cells. These results suggest that hispidin may be effective for protecting MIN6N β-cells from ROS toxicity in diabetes.

  2. The Min system and nucleoid occlusion are not required for identifying the division site in Bacillus subtilis but ensure its efficient utilization.

    Christopher D A Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Precise temporal and spatial control of cell division is essential for progeny survival. The current general view is that precise positioning of the division site at midcell in rod-shaped bacteria is a result of the combined action of the Min system and nucleoid (chromosome occlusion. Both systems prevent assembly of the cytokinetic Z ring at inappropriate places in the cell, restricting Z rings to the correct site at midcell. Here we show that in the bacterium Bacillus subtilis Z rings are positioned precisely at midcell in the complete absence of both these systems, revealing the existence of a mechanism independent of Min and nucleoid occlusion that identifies midcell in this organism. We further show that Z ring assembly at midcell is delayed in the absence of Min and Noc proteins, while at the same time FtsZ accumulates at other potential division sites. This suggests that a major role for Min and Noc is to ensure efficient utilization of the midcell division site by preventing Z ring assembly at potential division sites, including the cell poles. Our data lead us to propose a model in which spatial regulation of division in B. subtilis involves identification of the division site at midcell that requires Min and nucleoid occlusion to ensure efficient Z ring assembly there and only there, at the right time in the cell cycle.

  3. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: spectrometer characterization techniques, spectrometer capabilities, and solar science objectives

    Moore, Christopher S; Caspi, Amir; Mason, James P


    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) are twin 3U CubeSats. The first of the twin CubeSats (MinXSS-1) launched in December 2015 to the International Space Station for deployment in mid-2016. Both MinXSS CubeSats utilize a commercial off the shelf (COTS) X-ray spectrometer from Amptek to measure the solar irradiance from 0.5 to 30 keV with a nominal 0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution at 5.9 keV, and a LASP-developed X-ray broadband photometer with similar spectral sensitivity. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The majority of previous solar soft X-ray measurements have been either at high spectral resolution with a narrow bandpass or spectrally integrating (broadband) photometers. MinXSS will conduct unique soft X-ray measurements with moderate spectral resolution over a relatively large energy range to study solar active region evolution, solar flares, and the effects of solar soft ...

  4. A local and renormalizable framework for the gauge-invariant operator $A^2_{\\min}$ in Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in linear covariant gauges

    Fiorentini, M A L Capri D; Mintz, B W; Palhares, L F; Sorella, S P


    We address the issue of the renormalizability of the gauge-invariant non-local dimension-two operator $A^2_{\\rm min}$, whose minimization is defined along the gauge orbit. Despite its non-local character, we show that the operator $A^2_{\\rm min}$ can be cast in local form through the introduction of an auxiliary Stueckelberg field. The localization procedure gives rise to an unconventional kind of Stueckelberg-type action which turns out to be renormalizable to all orders of perturbation theory. In particular, as a consequence of its gauge invariance, the anomalous dimension of the operator $A^2_{\\rm min}$ turns out to be independent from the gauge parameter $\\alpha$ entering the gauge-fixing condition, being thus given by the anomalous dimension of the operator $A^2$ in the Landau gauge.

  5. Protection of Military Vehicles Against Mine Threats and Improvised Explosive Devices / Ochrona Pojazdów Wojskowych Przed Wybuchem Min i Improwizowanych Urządzeń Wybuchowych

    Niezgoda Tadeusz


    Full Text Available Pojazdy wojskowe są narażone na działanie fali wybuchowej min oraz improwizowanych urządzeń wybuchowych IED (z ang. improvised explosive device. Dotychczasowe rozwiązania konstrukcyjne pancerzy pojazdów wojskowych nie zapewniają ich ochrony na maksymalnym poziomie. W publikacji przedstawiono rozwiązania konstrukcyjne, których celem jest zwiększenie odporności pojazdów wojskowych na eksplozję ładunków wybuchowych. Ponadto scharakteryzowano wymagania dotyczące odporności pojazdów wojskowych na wybuch min i urządzeń IED. Przedstawiono również przykładowe wyniki badań paneli energochłonnych oraz sformułowane na ich podstawie wnioski do dalszego rozwoju konstrukcji ochronnych.

  6. Postprandial hyperglycemia was ameliorated by taking metformin 30 min before a meal than taking metformin with a meal; a randomized, open-label, crossover pilot study.

    Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Okada, Hiroshi; Mistuhashi, Kazuteru; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Fukuda, Takuya; Majima, Saori; Fukuda, Yukiko; Tanaka, Yoshimitsu; Yamada, Shunji; Senmaru, Takafumi; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki


    Taking metformin with a meal has been shown to decrease bioavailability of metformin. We hypothesized that taking metformin 30 min before a meal improves glucose metabolism. As an animal model, 18 Zucker-rats were divided into three groups as follows: no medication (Control), metformin (600 mg/kg) with meal (Met), and metformin 10 min before meal (pre-Met). In addition, five diabetic patients were recruited and randomized to take metformin (1000 mg) either 30 min before a meal (pre-Met protocol) or with a meal (Met protocol). In the animal model, the peak glucose level of pre-Met (7.8 ± 1.5 mmol/L) was lower than that of Control (12.6 ± 2.5 mmol/L, P = 0.010) or Met (14.1 ± 2.9 mmol/L, P = 0.020). Although there was no statistical difference among the three groups, total GLP-1 level at t = 0 min of pre-Met (7.4 ± 2.7 pmol/L) tended to be higher than that of Control (3.7 ± 2.0 pmol/L, P = 0.030) or Met (3.9 ± 1.2 pmol/L, P = 0.020). In diabetic patients, the peak glucose level of pre-Met protocol (7.0 ± 0.4 mmol/L) was lower than that of Met protocol (8.5 ± 0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.021). Total GLP-1 level at t = 30 min of pre-Met protocol (11.0 ± 6.1 pmol/L) was higher than that of Met protocol (6.7 ± 3.9 pmol/L, P = 0.033). Taking metformin 30 min before a meal ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia. This promises to be a novel approach for postprandial hyperglycemia.

  7. Fast-ion transport in q{sub min}>2, high-β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 05843 (United States); Gong, X.; Ren, Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Park, J. M.; Kim, K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, New York 10027 (United States)


    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-q{sub min} confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β{sub N} and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q{sub min}>2 that target the typical range of q{sub 95}= 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable β{sub N}. In contrast, similar plasmas except with q{sub min} just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q{sub min}>3 plasmas to higher β{sub P} with q{sub 95}= 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q{sub min} scenario, the high β{sub P} cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇β{sub fast}, and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β{sub N}, and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q{sub 95}, high-q{sub min} plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes.

  8. Lack of anti-tumor activity with the β-catenin expression inhibitor EZN-3892 in the C57BL/6J Min/+ model of intestinal carcinogenesis

    Hasson, Rian M.; Briggs, Alexandra; Rizvi, Hira; Carothers, Adelaide M.; Davids, Jennifer S.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; Cho, Nancy L., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrantly activated in most colorectal cancers. • Locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based antisense is a novel tool for cancer therapy. • β-Catenin inhibition was observed in mature intestinal tissue of LNA-treated mice. • Further investigation of Wnt/β-catenin targeted therapies is warranted. - Abstract: Background: Previously, we showed that short-term inhibition of β-catenin expression and reversal of aberrant β-catenin subcellular localization by the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib is associated with adenoma regression in the C57BL/6J Min/+ mouse. Conversly, long-term administration resulted in tumor resistance, leading us to investigate alternative methods for selective β-catenin chemoprevention. In this study, we hypothesized that disruption of β-catenin expression by EZN-3892, a selective locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based β-catenin inhibitor, would counteract the tumorigenic effect of Apc loss in Min/+ adenomas while preserving normal intestinal function. Materials and methods: C57BL/6J Apc{sup +/+} wild-type (WT) and Min/+ mice were treated with the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of EZN-3892 (30 mg/kg). Drug effect on tumor numbers, β-catenin protein expression, and nuclear β-catenin localization were determined. Results: Although the tumor phenotype and β-catenin nuclear localization in Min/+ mice did not change following drug administration, we observed a decrease in β-catenin expression levels in the mature intestinal tissue of treated Min/+ and WT mice, providing proof of principle regarding successful delivery of the LNA-based antisense vehicle. Higher doses of EZN-3892 resulted in fatal outcomes in Min/+ mice, likely due to β-catenin ablation in the intestinal tissue and loss of function. Conclusions: Our data support the critical role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and highlight the challenges of effective drug delivery to target disease without permanent

  9. Next generation pharmaceutical impactor: a new impactor for pharmaceutical inhaler testing. Part III. extension of archival calibration to 15 L/min.

    Marple, Virgil A; Olson, Bernard A; Santhanakrishnan, Kumaragovindhan; Roberts, Daryl L; Mitchell, Jolyon P; Hudson-Curtis, Buffy L


    An extension of the archival calibration of the recently developed 30-100-L/min seven-stage impactor, the Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI), has been undertaken at 15 L/min. The NGI stage cut sizes are 0.98-14.1 microm aerodynamic diameter at this flow rate. This 15-L/min calibration was motivated by the desire to sample the entire aerosol produced by a nebulizer when tested in accordance with a new international standard developed by the Comite Européen de Normalisation (CEN), as well as the need to test various types of inhalers at flow rates lower than 30 L/min for pediatric applications. Measurements were undertaken with monodisperse oleic acid droplets in the range of 0.7-22 microm aerodynamic diameter following a procedure established in the original 30-100-L/min calibration study. The NGI was found to be effective for particle size separation at 15 L/min. Users should decide the most applicable configuration that meets their needs, based on the following recommendations: (1) the pre-separator should not normally be used, as its performance is significantly degraded by the influence of gravity, resulting in interference with stage 1; and (2) a filter should be inserted below the micro-orifice collector (MOC), as the size corresponding to 80% collection efficiency of the MOC becomes excessively large with decreasing flow rate, so that this component becomes ineffective as a means of collecting fine particles that penetrate beyond stage 7.

  10. Prolonged Activation of the Htr2b Serotonin Receptor Impairs Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Mitochondrial Function in MIN6 Cells

    Cataldo, Luis Rodrigo; Mizgier, María L.; Bravo Sagua, Roberto; Jaña, Fabián; Cárdenas, César; Llanos, Paola; Busso, Dolores; Olmos, Pablo; Galgani, José E.; Santos, José L.; Cortés, Víctor A.


    Aims Pancreatic β-cells synthesize and release serotonin (5 hydroxytryptamine, 5HT); however, the role of 5HT receptors on glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the mechanisms mediating this function is not fully understood. The aims of this study were to determine the expression profile of 5HT receptors in murine MIN6 β-cells and to examine the effects of pharmacological activation of 5HT receptor Htr2b on GSIS and mitochondrial function. Materials and Methods mRNA levels of 5HT receptors in MIN6 cells were quantified by RT qPCR. GSIS was assessed in MIN6 cells in response to global serotonergic activation with 5HT and pharmacological Htr2b activation or inhibition with BW723C86 or SB204741, respectively. In response to Htr2b activation also was evaluated the mRNA and protein levels of PGC1α and PPARy by RT-qPCR and western blotting and mitochondrial function by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ATP cellular content. Results We found that mRNA levels of most 5HT receptors were either very low or undetectable in MIN6 cells. By contrast, Htr2b mRNA was present at moderate levels in these cells. Preincubation (6 h) of MIN6 cells with 5HT or BW723C86 reduced GSIS and the effect of 5HT was prevented by SB204741. Preincubation with BW723C86 increased PGC1α and PPARy mRNA and protein levels and decreased mitochondrial respiration and ATP content in MIN6 cells. Conclusions Our results indicate that prolonged Htr2b activation in murine β-cells decreases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and mitochondrial activity by mechanisms likely dependent on enhanced PGC1α/PPARy expression. PMID:28129327

  11. 例谈max[f(x),g(x)]、min[f(x),g(x)]型函数题型的解题策略



    @@ 所谓max[f(x),g(x)]或min[f(x),g(x)]型函数,即是在定义域的不同部分,函数取这两个或两个以上函数值最大的函数式(或最小的函数式)作max[f(x),g(x)](或min[f(x),g(x)])的解析式,解这类问题的最佳方法是数形结合,本文例举几例说明这类函数的求解策略.

  12. "Min Vilje, Gud, i din! Min Aand mod dig!"

    Nielsen, Kirsten


    Artiklen analyserer to af Kaj Munks dramaer m.h.p. hans brug af bibelske forlæg. I analysen af "Samson", der bygger på den bibelske fortælling i Dommerbogen 13-16, vises det, hvordan Munk supplerer den knappe bibelske fortælling. Han giver en overraskende skildring af Israels Gud, men uden...... at forlade det bibelske univers. Hans personer er mangefacetterede, og kvinderne, der spiller en meget væsentlig rolle i dramaet, karakteriseres bl.a. gennem stof hentet fra andre bibelske kvinder. I "En Idealist" er hovedmotivet hentet fra fortællingerne om Esau og Jakob i Første Mosebog. Dramaet spiller...

  13. Fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min) right ventricular burst stimulation is useful for ventricular tachycardia induction in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Ling-Min WU; Jing-Ru BAO; Yan YAO; Bing-Bo HOU; Li-Hui ZHENG; Shu ZHANG


    Background One of the major challenges in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) ablation is ventricular tachy-cardia (VT) non-inducibility. The study aimed to assess whether fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min) right ventricular burst stimulation was useful for VT induction in patients with ARVC.Methods Ninety-one consecutive ARVC patients with clinical sustained VT that underwent electro-physiological study were enrolled. The stimulation protocol was implemented at both right ventricular apex and outflow tract as follows: Step A, up to double extra-stimuli; Step B, incremental stimulation with low rate (< 250 beats/min); Step C, burst stimulation with fast rate (≥ 250 beats/min); Step D, repeated all steps above with intravenous infusion of isoproterenol.Results A total of 76 patients had inducible VT (83.5%), among which 49 were induced by Step C, 15 were induced by Step B, 8 and 4 by Step A and D, respectively. Clinical VTs were induced in 60 patients (65.9%). Only two spontaneously ceased ventricular fibrillations were induced by Step C. Multivariate analysis showed that a narrower baseline QRS duration under sinus rhythm was independently associated with VT non-inducibility (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0–1.1;P = 0.019).ConclusionFast rate (≥ 250 beats/min) right ventricular burst stimulation provides a useful supplemental method for VT induction in ARVC patients.

  14. Measuring H2O and CO2 fluxes at field scales with scintillometry: Part II-Validation and application of 1-min flux estimates

    Kesteren, van A.J.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Dinther, van D.; Moene, A.F.; Bruin, de H.A.R.; Holtslag, A.A.M.


    This paper evaluates four methods to obtain accurate averaged flux estimates under conditions of non-stationary turbulence. In Part I (Van Kesteren et al., 2012), we introduced and evaluated these four combined methods for 30-min averaging intervals, notably the flux-variance method, the Bowen-varia

  15. A Study on the Construction of Ecological Protective Screen System in the Arid Valley Area of the Upper Reaches of the Min River

    Zhao Bin


    The Min River is a large tributary in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Its source is the south range of the Min Mountains in the area where Sichuan and Gansu share a bounda ̄ry. The area consists of five counties in the Aba Tibetan-Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, including Wenchuan, Lixian, Maoxian, Songpan, and He ̄ishui. The area covers 25,426 square kilometers. The area in the upper reaches of the Min River is an arid valley, and its ecological position is very important. This area is not only one that is home to world heritage and national scenic spots, but it is also a poor ethnic minority area with relatively backward economic conditions. Moreover,it is also an important ecological screen and water source for the Chengdu plain,as well as an important part of the ecological protective screen in the upper rea ̄ches of the Yangtze River. As a result of natural disasters,pressure on the carrying capacity of the population and the careless manner of economic development,the resources and environment in this area have been exploited irrationally. This has cre ̄ated a series of serious environmental problems,in ̄cluding environmental pollution, and depletion of resources,etc. Therefore, constructing an ecologi ̄cal protective screen in the upper reaches of the Min River becomes very important.

  16. Serotonin- and Dopamine-Related Gene Expression in db/db Mice Islets and in MIN6 β-Cells Treated with Palmitate and Oleate

    Cataldo, L. R.; Olmos, P.; Galgani, J. E.; Valenzuela, R.; Aranda, E.; Cortés, V. A.; Santos, J. L.


    High circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) concentration, often reported in diabetes, leads to impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) through not yet well-defined mechanisms. Serotonin and dopamine might contribute to NEFA-dependent β-cell dysfunction, since extracellular signal of these monoamines decreases GSIS. Moreover, palmitate-treated β-cells may enhance the expression of the serotonin receptor Htr2c, affecting insulin secretion. Additionally, the expression of monoamine-oxidase type B (Maob) seems to be lower in islets from humans and mice with diabetes compared to nondiabetic islets, which may lead to increased monoamine concentrations. We assessed the expression of serotonin- and dopamine-related genes in islets from db/db and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the effect of palmitate and oleate on the expression of such genes, 5HT content, and GSIS in MIN6 β-cell was determined. Lower Maob expression was found in islets from db/db versus WT mice and in MIN6 β-cells in response to palmitate and oleate treatment compared to vehicle. Reduced 5HT content and impaired GSIS in response to palmitate (−25%; p < 0.0001) and oleate (−43%; p < 0.0001) were detected in MIN6 β-cells. In conclusion, known defects of GSIS in islets from db/db mice and MIN6 β-cells treated with NEFAs are accompanied by reduced Maob expression and reduced 5HT content. PMID:27366756

  17. 基于WEB挖掘的网络爬虫设计与实现①%Design and Realization of Web Crawlwer Based on Web Minning

    肖毅; 张林; 聂笑一


    The diffeences between web-minning and data-mining were introduced in this paper firstly, then the necessity of Web crawler during web-minning and the development of modern web-minning technology were analysed. Based on the deep understanding of the principle and its function of Web crawler, a minning model popular in modern website was put forward, and a web crawler was designed by the use of this model. Tested by several examples, this kind of crawler can get more diversified pagedata efficiently.%从介绍Web挖掘与数据挖掘的差异入手,分析Web挖掘中Web爬虫的必要性和现代Web挖掘技术的发展方向,在深入了解Web爬虫的原理及其功能的基础上,提出一个现代网站通用的挖掘模型,并利用该模型设计一种网络爬虫。经实例证明,该爬虫能高效爬取更多的各种页面数据。

  18. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea


    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  19. The pro-apoptotic K-Ras 4A proto-oncoprotein does not affect tumorigenesis in the ApcMin/+ mouse small intestine

    Berry Rachel L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in gene splicing occur in human sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC and may contribute to tumour progression. The K-ras proto-oncogene encodes two splice variants, K-ras 4A and 4B, and K-ras activating mutations which jointly affect both isoforms are prevalent in CRC. Past studies have established that splicing of both the K-ras oncogene and proto-oncogene is altered in CRC in favour of K-ras 4B. The present study addressed whether the K-Ras 4A proto-oncoprotein can suppress tumour development in the absence of its oncogenic allele, utilising the ApcMin/+ (Min mouse that spontaneously develops intestinal tumours that do not harbour K-ras activating mutations, and the K-rastmΔ4A/tmΔ4A mouse that can express the K-ras 4B splice variant only. By this means tumorigenesis in the small intestine was compared between ApcMin/+, K-ras+/+ and ApcMin/+, K-rastmΔ4A/tmΔ4A mice that can, and cannot, express the K-ras 4A proto-oncoprotein respectively. Methods The relative levels of expression of the K-ras splice variants in normal small intestine and small intestinal tumours were quantified by real-time RT-qPCR analysis. Inbred (C57BL/6 ApcMin/+, K-ras+/+ and ApcMin/+, K-rastmΔ4A/tmΔ4A mice were generated and the genotypes confirmed by PCR analysis. Survival of stocks was compared by the Mantel-Haenszel test, and tumour number and area compared by Student's t-test in outwardly healthy mice at approximately 106 and 152 days of age. DNA sequencing of codons 12, 13 and 61 was performed to confirm the intestinal tumours did not harbour a K-ras activating mutation. Results The K-ras 4A transcript accounted for about 50% of K-ras expressed in the small intestine of both wild-type and Min mice. Tumours in the small intestine of Min mice showed increased levels of K-ras 4B transcript expression, but no appreciable change in K-ras 4A transcript levels. No K-ras activating mutations were detected in 27 intestinal tumours derived from

  20. A cross-sectional study of differences in 6-min walk distance in healthy adults residing at high altitude versus sea level


    Background We sought to determine if adult residents living at high altitude have developed sufficient adaptation to a hypoxic environment to match the functional capacity of a similar population at sea level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the 6-min walk test distance (6MWD) in 334 residents living at sea level vs. at high altitude. Methods We enrolled 168 healthy adults aged ≥35 years residing at sea level in Lima and 166 individuals residing at 3,825 m above sea level in Puno, Peru. Participants completed a 6-min walk test, answered a sociodemographics and clinical questionnaire, underwent spirometry, and a blood test. Results Average age was 54.0 vs. 53.8 years, 48% vs. 43% were male, average height was 155 vs. 158 cm, average blood oxygen saturation was 98% vs. 90%, and average resting heart rate was 67 vs. 72 beats/min in Lima vs. Puno. In multivariable regression, participants in Puno walked 47.6 m less (95% CI -81.7 to -13.6 m; p < 0.01) than those in Lima. Other variables besides age and height that were associated with 6MWD include change in heart rate (4.0 m per beats/min increase above resting heart rate; p < 0.001) and percent body fat (-1.4 m per % increase; p = 0.02). Conclusions The 6-min walk test predicted a lowered functional capacity among Andean high altitude vs. sea level natives at their altitude of residence, which could be explained by an incomplete adaptation or a protective mechanism favoring neuro- and cardioprotection over psychomotor activity. PMID:24484777

  1. Ergogenic Effects of Caffeine Consumption in a 3-min All-Out Arm Crank Test in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared With Able-Bodied Individuals.

    Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Liener, Martina; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Krebs, Jörg; Perret, Claudio


    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of caffeine supplementation on 3-min all-out arm crank exercise performance in paraplegic (P) and tetraplegic (T) compared with able-bodied (AB) participants. A placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind study design was chosen to investigate the differences between caffeine (CAF) and placebo (PLC). In total, 34 healthy, trained participants were tested. Seventeen were AB (median [minimum; maximum] VO2peak: 33.9 mL/min/kg [23.6; 57.6]), 10 were P (VO2peak: 34.4 mL/min/kg [19.5; 48.8]), and 7 were T (VO2peak: 13.6 mL/min/kg [8.6; 16.3]). All participants performed two 3-min all-out tests on an arm crank ergometer following the ingestion of either PLC or CAF. Power output parameters, plasma caffeine (PC), epinephrine (EPI), and norepinephrine (NOR) concentrations were assessed. CAF significantly increased average power over the first 30 s (p = .028) and 60 s (p = .005) in P, but not in T (p = .61; p = .87) nor in AB (p = .25; p = .44). Peak power was increased in the CAF trial in AB (+46 W) as well as in P (+21 W) but was not significantly different from PLC (AB: p = .10; P: p = .17). PC significantly increased in all groups (AB: p = .002; P: p = .005; T: p = .018) whereas EPI showed a significant increase only in AB (p = .002) and in P (p = .018). NOR increased significantly in AB (p = .018) but did not increase in the other groups. Caffeine seems to enhance short-duration exercise performance in P. In contrast, T showed a high interindividual variability and overall no ergogenic effect was detected in this group.

  2. Live imaging of chloroplast FtsZ1 filaments, rings, spirals, and motile dot structures in the AtMinE1 mutant and overexpressor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Fujiwara, Makoto T; Sekine, Kohsuke; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu Y; Abe, Tomoko; Sato, Naoki; Itoh, Ryuuichi D


    Chloroplast division involves the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ that assembles into a ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid-chloroplast division site, which is where invagination and constriction of the envelope membranes occur. Z-ring assembly is usually confined to the mid-chloroplast site by a well balanced counteraction of the stromal proteins MinD and MinE. The in vivo mechanisms by which FtsZ nucleates at specific sites, polymerises into a protofilament and organizes a closed ring of filament bundles remain largely unknown. To clarify the dynamic aspects of FtsZ, we developed a living cell system for simultaneous visualisation of various FtsZ configurations, utilising the Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressor and mutant of the MinE (AtMinE1) gene, which were modified to weakly express green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to AtFtsZ1-1. Time-lapse observation in the chloroplasts of both plants revealed disorderly movement of the dots and short filaments of FtsZ. The short filaments often appeared to emanate from the dots and to converge with a long filament, producing a thick cable. In the AtMinE1 overexpressor, we also observed spirals along the longitudinal axis of the organelle that often rolled the closed rings together. In the atminE1 mutant, we visualised the 'isolated' rings with a maximum diameter of approximately 2 mum that did not encircle the organelle periphery, but appeared to be suspended in the stroma. Our observations further demonstrated heterogeneity in chloroplast shapes and concurrently altered configurations of FtsZ in the mutant.

  3. Geometry success in 20 mins

    Editors, LearningExpress


    Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, this completely revised and updated third edition of Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day is an invaluable resource for both students and adults.

  4. Robotten, min best friend forever

    Bødker, Mads


    Er din næste kammesjuk en computer? Om et par år er det ikke svært at forestille sig en virkelighed, hvor vi kan tale med vores computer, som var det en person. Udviklingen peger allerede i den retning, men som det ser ud nu, er vores digitale venner bare lidt for rigide og tørre. Hvad skal der t...

  5. Analysis of highly nonlinear oscillation systems using He’s max–min method and comparison with homotopy analysis and energy balance methods

    L B Ibsen; A Barari; A Kimiaeifar


    Nonlinear functions are crucial points and terms in engineering problems and the solutions of many important physical problems are centered on finding accurate solutions to these functions. In this paper, a new method called max–min method has been presented for deriving accurate/approximate analytical solution to strong nonlinear oscillators. Furthermore, it is shown that a large class of linear or nonlinear differential equations can be solved without the tangible restriction of sensitivity to the degree of the nonlinear term, adding that the method is quite convenient due to reduction in size of calculations. Results obtained by max–min are compared with Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM), energy balance and numerical solution and it is shown that, simply one term is enough to obtain a highly accurate result in contrast to HAM with just one term in series solution. Finally, the phase plane to show the stability of systems is plotted and discussed.

  6. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato type III effector HopM1 suppresses Arabidopsis defenses independent of suppressing salicylic acid signaling and of targeting AtMIN7.

    Anju Gangadharan

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato strain DC3000 (Pto delivers several effector proteins promoting virulence, including HopM1, into plant cells via type III secretion. HopM1 contributes to full virulence of Pto by inducing degradation of Arabidopsis proteins, including AtMIN7, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola strain NPS3121 (Pph lacks a functional HopM1 and elicits robust defenses in Arabidopsis thaliana, including accumulation of pathogenesis related 1 (PR-1 protein and deposition of callose-containing cell wall fortifications. We have examined the effects of heterologously expressed HopM1Pto on Pph-induced defenses. HopM1 suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression, a widely used marker for salicylic acid (SA signaling and systemic acquired resistance. Surprisingly, HopM1 reduces PR-1 expression without affecting SA accumulation and also suppresses the low levels of PR-1 expression apparent in SA-signaling deficient plants. Further, HopM1 enhances the growth of Pto in SA-signaling deficient plants. AtMIN7 contributes to Pph-induced PR-1 expression. However, HopM1 fails to degrade AtMIN7 during Pph infection and suppresses Pph-induced PR-1 expression and callose deposition in wild-type and atmin7 plants. We also show that the HopM1-mediated suppression of PR-1 expression is not observed in plants lacking the TGA transcription factor, TGA3. Our data indicate that HopM1 promotes bacterial virulence independent of suppressing SA-signaling and links TGA3, AtMIN7, and other HopM1 targets to pathways distinct from the canonical SA-signaling pathway contributing to PR-1 expression and callose deposition. Thus, efforts to understand this key effector must consider multiple targets and unexpected outputs of its action.

  7. Partitioning Algorithm for MIN of OEMCM%光电子多芯片组件中MIN系统的划分算法

    徐勇放; 黄培中



  8. A prospective randomized clinical trial into the capacity of a toothpaste containing NovaMin to prevent white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment

    Hoffman, Derek A.; Clark, Andrew E.; Rody, Wellington J.; McGORRAY, SUSAN P.; Wheeler, Timothy T.


    Background White spot lesions and gingivitis represent common, yet challenging, dilemmas for orthodontists. Fluoride has shown some benefit as a protective measure against demineralization; however, this is usually insufficient for orthodontic patients with less than ideal oral hygiene. Dentifrices containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate bioactive glass (NovaMin) have been proposed to aid in prevention of white spot lesions and gingival inflammation. Thus, the purpose of this study was to d...

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Reference Intensity Ratios of Amorphous and Poorly Crystalline Phases: Implications for CheMin on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Morris, R. V.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.


    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of providing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of rocks and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus X-ray tube with a Co target, transmission geometry, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. Piezoelectric vibration of the cell is used to randomize the sample to reduce preferred orientation effects. Instrument details are provided in [1, 2, 3]. Analyses of rock and soil samples by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) show nanophase ferric oxide (npOx) is a significant component of the Martian global soil [4] and is thought to be one of the major contributing phases that the Curiosity rover will encounter if a soil sample is analyzed in Gale Crater. Because of the nature of this material, npOx will likely contribute to an X-ray amorphous or short-order component of a XRD pattern measured by the CheMin instrument.

  10. Self-inducible secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that allows MIN6 cells to maintain insulin secretion and insure cell survival.

    Nakashima, Koji; Shimoda, Masashi; Hamamoto, Sumiko; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Hirukawa, Hidenori; Tawaramoto, Kazuhito; Kanda, Yukiko; Kaku, Kohei


    Based on the hypothesis that MIN6 cells could produce glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) to maintain cell survival, we analyzed the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4 (Ex4), and antagonist, exendin-(9-39) (Ex9) on cell function and cell differentiation. MIN6 cells expressed proglucagon mRNAs and produced GLP-1, which was accelerated by Ex4 and suppressed by Ex9. Moreover, Ex4 further enhanced glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion, suggesting autocrine loop-contributed amplification of the GLP-1 signal. Ex4 up-regulated cell differentiation- and cell function-related CREBBP, Pdx-1, Pax6, proglucagon, and PC1/3 gene expressions. The confocal laser scanning images revealed that GLP-1 positive cells were dominant in the early stage of cells, but positive for insulin were more prominent in the mature stage of cells. Ex4 accelerated cell viability, while Ex9 and anti-GLP-1 receptor antibody enhanced cell apoptosis. MIN6 cells possess a mechanism of GLP-1 signal amplification in an autocrine fashion, by which the cells maintained insulin production and cell survival.

  11. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W


    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing.

  12. The Search for Maximal Values of min(A,B,C) / gcd(A,B,C) for A^x + B^y = C^z

    Townsend, Arthur R


    This paper answers a question asked by Ed Pegg Jr. in 2001: "What is the maximal value of min(A,B,C)/ gcd(A,B,C) for A^x + B^y = C^z with A,B,C >= 1; x,y,z >= 3?" Equations of this form are analyzed, showing how they map to exponential Diophantine equations with coprime bases. A search algorithm is provided to find the largest min/gcd value within a given equation range. The algorithm precalculates a multi-gigabyte lookup table of power residue information that is used to eliminate over 99% of inputs with a single array lookup and without any further calculations. On inputs that pass this test, the algorithm then performs further power residue tests, avoiding modular powering by using lookups into precalculated tables, and avoiding division by using multiplicative inverses. This algorithm is used to show the largest min/gcd value for all equations with C^z <= 2^100.

  13. Proteomic screening of glucose-responsive and glucose non-reponsive MIN-6 beta cells reveals differential expression of protein involved in protein folding, secretion and oxidative stress

    Dowling, P.; O´Driscoll, L.; O´Sullivan, F.;


    The glucose-sensitive insulin-secretion (GSIS) phenotype is relatively unstable in long-term culture of beta cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate relative changes in the proteome between glucose-responsive (low passage) and glucose non-responsive (high passage) murine MIN-6...... pancreatic beta cells. The 2D-DIGE and subsequent DeCyder analysis detected 3351 protein spots in the pH range of 4-7. Comparing MIN-6(H) to MIN-6(L) and using a threshold of 1.2-fold, the number of proteins with a decrease in expression level was 152 (4.5%), similar was 3140 (93.7%) and increased 59 (1.......8%). From the differentially expressed proteins identified in this study, groups of proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and proteins involved in oxidative stress were found to be significantly decreased in the high-passage (H passage) cells. These proteins included endoplasmic reticulum...

  14. A Prediction Method for△f0F2min of a Single Station From Interplanetary Parameters Based on Statistical Study

    LI Zheng; WEI Fengsi; FENG Xueshang; GUO Jianpeng; XU Xiaojun


    Using 86 CME-interplanetary shock events,the correlation between the peak values of (a) the solar wind parameters(Bz,Ey,Pdyn) and the geomagnetic indices(SYM-H,ASY-H,Kp), (b) the coupling functions(Borovsky,Akasofu,Newell) and the geomagnetic indices,(c) the solar wind parameters/coupling functions/geomagnetic indices and the ionospheric parameter(△f0F2min), are investigated.The statistical results show that in group(a),Bz min and SYM-Hmin have the best correlation,that in group(b),the best correlation is between the peak values of Akasofu function (Amin) and SYM-Hmin,and that in group(c),the best correlation is between (pmax and △f0F2min). Based on the statistical results,a method for predicting f0F2 of a single station is attempted to be set up.The input is modified B_(z min) and the outputs are SYM-Hmin and △f0F2min.Then 25 CME-IPS events that caused geomagnetic storms in 1998 and 2009 are used to check the prediction method. The results show that our method can be used to predict SYM-Hmin and △f0F2min

  15. 郑敏早期诗歌的多重艺术来源%Multiple Art Origins of the Early Poetry by Zheng Min



    Zheng Min's poetry was greatly influenced by Feng Zhi (1 905 - 1 993 )and Rainer Maria Rilke (1875 -1 926),which made two of the poets the main but not all art origins for Zheng Min's poetic creation in her later period. Before the above-mentioned two poets,the art origins of Zheng Min's early poetry were rooted in four aspects,thus forming her early three periods in poetic creation.%郑敏诗歌创作的艺术来源虽然深受冯至和里尔克的影响,但这只是她诗歌创作的主要艺术来源,而不是全部来源,并且是在其后期诗歌创作中;在这之前,影响郑敏早期诗歌的有四个艺术来源,从而形成她早期诗歌的三个阶段。

  16. Tidal and low-frequency currents along the CK Line (31 deg 45 min N) over the East China Sea shelf

    Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Matsuno, Takeshi; Wagawa, Taku; Hasegawa, Toru; Nishiuchi, Kou; Okamura, Kazumaro; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Morii, Yasuhiro


    The bottom-mounted and ship-mounted ADCP velocities were analyzed to quantify tidal and low-frequency currents between 124.0 deg E and 128.5 deg E over the CK line (31 deg 45 min N) in the East China Sea shelf. The bottom-mounted ADCP, deployed in summer and autumn at station 1 (127 deg 25 min E) or station 2 (125 deg 30 min E), reveals relatively large (≃0.2ms-1) mean currents to the north or northwest at station 1 and a small (≤0.03ms-1) eastward current at station 2, as well as large tidal currents whose major axis amplitude amounts to 0.25ms-1 at station 1 and 0.5ms-1 at station 2. The bottom-mounted ADCP velocities were used to correct the tidal harmonic coefficients of the NAO.99Jb model under the assumption of uniform correction coefficients. The corrected coefficients were then used to remove the tidal currents in the ship-mounted ADCP velocity obtained over the whole CK-line. The detided ship-mounted ADCP velocities, which agree well with the bottom-mounted ADCP velocities at stations 1 and 2, show a more detailed spatial structure of the low-frequency current and its seasonal variations. The overall structure is characterized by a large northward/northwestward current in the eastern part and a small eastward current in the western part. The northward/northwestward current is largest (0.24ms-1) and most baroclinic in summer, while it becomes weakest (0.11ms-1) and most barotropic in winter. The zonal position of the boundary between the northward/northwestward current and the eastward current changes seasonally.

  17. Reproducibility of automated simplified voxel-based analysis of PET amyloid ligand [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake using 30-min scanning data

    Aalto, Sargo [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Noora M.; Naagren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Kemppainen, Nina M. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Turku (Finland); Kailajaervi, Marita [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland); GE Healthcare, Turku Imanet, Turku (Finland); Leinonen, Mika [4-Pharma Ltd, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Mika [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland)


    Positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ([{sup 11}C]PIB) enables the quantitation of {beta}-amyloid accumulation in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-based image analysis techniques conducted in a standard brain space provide an objective, rapid and fully automated method to analyze [{sup 11}C]PIB PET data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both region- and voxel-level reproducibility of automated and simplified [{sup 11}C]PIB quantitation when using only 30 min of imaging data. Six AD patients and four healthy controls were scanned twice with an average interval of 6 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility of short scanning (convenient for AD patients), [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake was quantitated using 30 min of imaging data (60 to 90 min after tracer injection) for region-to-cerebellum ratio calculations. To evaluate the reproducibility, a test-retest design was used to derive absolute variability (VAR) estimates and intraclass correlation coefficients at both region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel level. The reproducibility both at the region level (VAR 0.9-5.5%) and at the voxel level (VAR 4.2-6.4%) was good to excellent. Based on the variability estimates obtained, power calculations indicated that 90% power to obtain statistically significant difference can be achieved using a sample size of five subjects per group when a 15% change from baseline (increase or decrease) in [{sup 11}C]PIB accumulation in the frontal cortex is anticipated in one group compared to no change in another group. Our results showed that an automated analysis method based on an efficient scanning protocol provides reproducible results for [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake and appears suitable for PET studies aiming at the quantitation of amyloid accumulation in the brain of AD patients for the evaluation of progression and treatment effects. (orig.)

  18. Pharmacological regulation of insulin secretion in MIN6 cells through the fatty acid receptor GPR40: identification of agonist and antagonist small molecules.

    Briscoe, Celia P; Peat, Andrew J; McKeown, Stephen C; Corbett, David F; Goetz, Aaron S; Littleton, Thomas R; McCoy, David C; Kenakin, Terry P; Andrews, John L; Ammala, Carina; Fornwald, James A; Ignar, Diane M; Jenkinson, Stephen


    1. Long chain fatty acids have recently been identified as agonists for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR40 and GPR120. Here, we present the first description of GW9508, a small-molecule agonist of the fatty acid receptors GPR40 and GPR120. In addition, we also describe the pharmacology of GW1100, a selective GPR40 antagonist. These molecules were used to further investigate the role of GPR40 in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the MIN6 mouse pancreatic beta-cell line. 2. GW9508 and linoleic acid both stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells expressing GPR40 (pEC50 values of 7.32+/-0.03 and 5.65+/-0.06, respectively) or GPR120 (pEC50 values of 5.46+/-0.09 and 5.89+/-0.04, respectively), but not in the parent HEK-293 cell line. 3. GW1100 dose dependently inhibited GPR40-mediated Ca2+ elevations stimulated by GW9508 and linoleic acid (pIC50 values of 5.99+/-0.03 and 5.99+/-0.06, respectively). GW1100 had no effect on the GPR120-mediated stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ release produced by either GW9508 or linoleic acid. 4. GW9508 dose dependently potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells, but not in primary rat or mouse islets. Furthermore, GW9508 was able to potentiate the KCl-mediated increase in insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. The effects of GW9508 on insulin secretion were reversed by GW1100, while linoleic acid-stimulated insulin secretion was partially attenuated by GW1100. 5. These results add further evidence to a link between GPR40 and the ability of fatty acids to acutely potentiate insulin secretion and demonstrate that small-molecule GPR40 agonists are glucose-sensitive insulin secretagogues.

  19. A Northern contaminant mixture impairs pancreas function in obese and lean JCR rats and inhibits insulin secretion in MIN6 cells.

    Mailloux, Ryan; Fu, Accalia; Florian, Maria; Petrov, Ivan; Chen, Qixuan; Coughlan, Melanie C; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Yan, Jin; Caldwell, Don; Patry, Dominique; Lalande, Michelle; Wang, Gen-Sheng; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei


    Rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus of Arctic populations are increasing due to multiple reasons including a departure from traditional lifestyles and alcohol consumption patterns. These populations are also exposed to a variety of anthropogenic contaminants through consumption of contaminated country foods. We have previously shown that a Northern contaminant mixture (NCM), containing 22 organic and inorganic contaminants found in the blood of Canadian Arctic populations, induces endothelial cell dysfunction and exacerbates development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in experimental models. In order to determine if these contaminants affect pancreas function and physiology and if obesity and alcohol can influence contaminant toxicity and the development of diabetes, lean and obese JCR rats were orally treated with NCM at 0 (vehicle), 1.6 or 16mg/kg BW for four weeks in the presence or absence of 10% (v/v) alcohol. NCM treatment altered islet morphology, increased iron deposit in pancreas, and reduced circulating and pancreatic insulin levels and circulating glucagon levels as a result of direct islet injury with β and α cell loss with or without exposure to alcohol. Studies conducted with cultured mouse insulin-secreting (MIN6) β cells further demonstrated that NCM inhibited insulin release and induced cell death through oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. 2,3,4,6-Tetrabromophenol, a minor component of the NCM, alone also inhibited insulin release from MIN6 cells after 10min of exposure. These results suggest that Northern contaminants may contribute to pancreatic dysfunction, and possibly development of diabetes, in some of the highly exposed Arctic populations. The implications and relevance of these findings to Northern populations remains to be confirmed through epidemiological studies.

  20. "PolyMin": software for identification of the minimum number of polymorphisms required for haplotype and genotype differentiation

    Frei, Ursala K; Wollenweber, Bernd; Lübberstedt, Thomas


    . To date, software for identification of the minimum number of required markers has been optimized for human genetics and is only partly matching the needs of plant scientists and breeders. In addition, different software packages with insufficient interoperability need to be combined to extract...... this information from available allele sequence data, resulting in an errorprone multi-step process of data handling. Results: PolyMin, a computer program combining the detection of a minimum set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or insertions/deletions (INDELs) necessary for allele differentiation...

  1. Differential Regulation of ERK1/2 and mTORC1 Through T1R1/T1R3 in MIN6 Cells

    Wauson, Eric M.; Guerra, Marcy L.; Dyachok, Julia; McGlynn, Kathleen; Giles, Jennifer; Ross, Elliott M.; Cobb, Melanie H.


    The MAPKs ERK1/2 respond to nutrients and other insulin secretagogues in pancreatic β-cells and mediate nutrient-dependent insulin gene transcription. Nutrients also stimulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) to regulate protein synthesis. We showed previously that activation of both ERK1/2 and mTORC1 in the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell-derived line by extracellular amino acids (AAs) is at least in part mediated by the heterodimeric T1R1/T1R3, a G protein-coupled receptor. We ...

  2. Alternativas de processo para concentração do minério fósforo-uranífero de Itataia


    A busca por seletividade em sistemas de flotação envolvendo minerais levemente solúveis tem sido motivo de diversas investigações. Estudos fundamentais bem como testes em escala de laboratório e piloto têm sido realizados com diferentes tipos de minério e sistemas de reagentes, objetivando subsidiar tal separação. Atribui-se a baixa seletividade obtida às similaridades existentes nas propriedades eletrocinéticas, solubilidade e química de superfície desses minerais. Exemplo disto ocorre com o...

  3. A new 10-min ligation method using a modified buffer system with a very low amount of T4 DNA ligase: the "Coffee Break Ligation" technique.

    Yoshino, Yuki; Ishida, Masaharu; Horii, Akira


    The ligation reaction is widely used in molecular biology. There are several kits available that complete the ligation reaction very rapidly but they are rather expensive. In this study, we successfully modified the ligation buffer with much lower cost than existing kits. The ligation reaction can be completed in 10 min using very low activities such as 0.01 U T4 DNA ligase, and costs only $1 for 100 reactions of 20 microl scale. We name this ligation system the "Coffee Break Ligation" system; one can complete ligation reaction while drinking a cup of coffee, and perform 100 reactions by spending money equivalent to a cup of coffee.

  4. Les consommations d'énergie dans l'industrie minérale (résumé Energy Consumption in the Mineral Industry (Summary

    Gentilhomme P. H.


    Full Text Available Dans le cadre limité de cette présentation, il était préférable de placer l'accent, non sur les évaluations du coût énergétique des diverses substances minérales, mais plutôt sur les paramètres de ces coûts, leur évolution récente et leur devenir dans une prospective à moyen terme, questions susceptibles d'alimenter ensuite les discussions. Après un bref rappel méthodologique, seront successivement examinés : - d'un point de vue global, la consommation d'énergie de l'industrie minérale, sa répartition et son évolution par formes d'énergie mises en oeuvre ; - d'un point de vue analytique, la nature des facteurs qui régissent les coûts énergétiques miniers, minéralurgiques et métallurgiques, les tendances récentes constatées et leurs implications pour l'avenir ; - d'un point de vue prospectif, enfin, quelques-uns des remèdes - ou palliatifs ? - à l'élévation des coûts énergétiques des substances minérales. Within the required time for the presentation of this paper, it was more advisable to emphasize, not the sizing up of the energy cost of mineral raw materials and products, but rather the parameters of thes costs, and their evolution, actual and in a medium-term prospective, questions of eventual interest for the discussions. After a short recall of methodology, we have to examine successively: - on a global standpoint, the energy consumption of the mineral industry, the breakdown of this consumption by forms of energy used, and its evolution; - on an analytical standpoint, the main factors which direct the energy requirements in mining, beneficiating and smeltinq operations, the trends that are observed and their results for the future; - on a prospective standpoint, at last, what are the possibilities to cut off - or palliate? - the increase of the mineral commodities energy costs.

  5. Inhibitory effect of procaterol on exercise dynamic lung hyperinflation during the 6-min walk test in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Satake, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hitomi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Kawagoshi, Atsuoshi; Tamaki, Akira; Homma, Mitsunobu; Morita, Ryou; Sato, Kazuhiro; Sano, Masaaki; Shioya, Takanobu


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of procaterol (procaterol hydrochloride, CAS 62929-91-3) on exercise dynamic lung hyperinflation during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in stable chronic obstructive disease (COPD) patients. Fourteen patients with stable COPD who were referred to our clinic between July 2008 and October 2009 were evaluated in this study. After the inhalation of procaterol, values for the lung function test, including vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, forced vital capacity, and FEV1/FEV1pred showed a significant improvement. Compared to the baseline assessment, the 6-min walk distance increased by a mean of 20.5 m when measured after inhalation of procaterol (512.4 +/- 90.7 m vs. 532.9 +/- 79.8 m, p lung hyperinflation, suggesting the important role of the beta2-receptor agonist procaterol in the treatment of COPD. It is therefore likely that most patients with COPD may derive considerable benefit from bronchodilator therapy with procaterol.

  6. Post-translational glycoprotein modifications regulate colon cancer stem cells and colon adenoma progression in Apc(min/+) mice through altered Wnt receptor signaling.

    Guo, Huabei; Nagy, Tamas; Pierce, Michael


    Deletion of GnT-V (MGAT5), which synthesizes N-glycans with β(1,6)-branched glycans, reduced the compartment of cancer stem cells (CSC) in the her-2 mouse model of breast cancer, leading to delay of tumor onset. Because GnT-V levels are also commonly up-regulated in colon cancer, we investigated their regulation of colon CSC and adenoma development. Anchorage-independent cell growth and tumor formation induced by injection of colon tumor cells into NOD/SCID mice were positively associated with GnT-V levels, indicating regulation of proliferation and tumorigenicity. Using Apc(min/+) mice with different GnT-V backgrounds, knock-out of GnT-V had no significant effect on the number of adenoma/mouse, but adenoma size was significantly reduced and accompanied increased survival of Apc(min/+) mice with GnT-V deletion (p cells, we found that FZD-7 receptors expressed N-linked β(1,6) branching, indicating that FZD-7 can be modified by GnT-V. The aberrant Wnt signaling observed after modulating GnT-V levels is likely to result from altered N-linked β(1,6) branching on FZD-7, thereby affecting Wnt signaling, the compartment of CSC, and tumor progression.

  7. GIS Grid and CWS-based assessment of vulnerability to debris flow hazards in the upper reaches of Min River, China

    Ding, Mingtao; Hübl, Johannes; Fuchs, Sven


    Based on conceptual models of vulnerability assessment for mountain hazards, this paper aims to improve a quantitative assessment model for regional vulnerability by a detailed analysis of the relation between and among vulnerability (V), exposure (E), social coping capacity (C) and resilience (Re) with the expression of V = E(1-° C+Re- 2). Taking the mountain settlements in the upper reaches of Min River, China, as an example and ArcGIS 9.3 as the platform, we applied the technology of GIS Grid and the method of Contributing Weight Superposition (CWS) to establish both a model and a system for the vulnerability assessment of elements at risk. The latter consists of 13 index factors including population, economics and road densities, building and farmland coverage, hazard-affected areas, a monitoring coefficient to take into account early warning measures, the urbanization rate, GDP per capita, and labor aged population ratio. Accordingly, a debris-flow hazard vulnerability zoning map has been obtained and the assessment results had shown that the distribution of high and comparatively high vulnerability zones, where economic activities are the most intensive, had a close correlation to the river geometry and geomorphology and population activities. Such results correspond well with loss data in the region, proving the reasonability and feasibility of assessment methods in this paper. The results thus may serve as the pertinent guidance for settlement relocation, population distribution readjustment, and management to prevent and reduce hazards in the upper reaches of Min River.

  8. BioMinE:An integrated project for developing biohydrometallurgy in Europe—Executive summary of its activities and outputs after three years

    Dominique H.R.MORIN


    Biohydrometallurgy is the offspring of the unexpected union of biotechnology and metallurgy.From specific properties of some extreme biotopes,active principles of interactions between microbial metabolisms and minerals have been extracted to be used as efficient metallurgical processes.Many profitable industrial operations based on these bioprocesses have been running to recover copper,gold,uranium or cobalt for instance and many other applications have been designed.Europe was quite active in this area in the past,but currently the leadership is in South Africa,America and Australia.BioMinE (Biotechnology of Metal-bearing material In Europe) is a large integrated project launched with the support of the European Commision.It is aimed at stimulating synergies between the most relevant universities,research and industrial organizations to develop new concepts in this technical field that allow a better exploitation of the mineral resources in the future.The European non-ferrous metals mining industry has initiated and developed the BioMinE project as they identified the need to find new processes for metal extraction from resources of today and of tomorrow.

  9. Neutron activation of natural materials in a PWR spectrum: feedback on {sup 116m}In relative γ emission intensities and half-life

    Gruel, Adrien; Geslot, Benoit; Di Salvo, Jacques; Blaise, Patrick; Girard, Jean-Michel; Destouches, Christophe [CEA, DEN, SPEx, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)


    During the MAESTRO program, carried out between 2011 and 2014 in MINERVE zero power reactor, common Gen-II and Gen-III light water reactor materials were irradiated. For some of these materials, the decay of their activation products was also measured by γ spectrometry. Initially devoted to the measurement of the integral capture cross section by activation and reactivity-oscillation method, these results can also provide useful information on decay data of various radionuclides. This approach of this experiment led to a common roadmap shared by the Experimental Physics Section and the Henri Becquerel National Laboratory to improve decay data in nuclear data libraries. Results discussed in this paper concern the relative emission intensities of the main γ rays of {sup 116m}In. Six irradiations of samples with various physical forms of {sup nat}In were carried out. Measurements were analyzed using decay data from several evaluations and it is shown that γ ray activities are not consistent. Analyses were carried out to provide new relative γ emission intensities from these measurements. The {sup 116m}In half-life has also been measured and shows a good agreement with existing values. Finally, an overview of the foreseen results on additional decay data from the MAESTRO program is given. (authors)

  10. The Intrauterine and Nursing Period Is a Window of Susceptibility for Development of Obesity and Intestinal Tumorigenesis by a High Fat Diet in Min/+ Mice as Adults

    Ha Thi Ngo


    Full Text Available We studied how obesogenic conditions during various life periods affected obesity and intestinal tumorigenesis in adult C57BL/6J-Min (multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ mice. The mice were given a 10% fat diet throughout life (negative control or a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, during adult life, or during their whole life-span, and terminated at 11 weeks for tumorigenesis (Min/+ or 23 weeks for obesogenic effect (wild-type. Body weight at 11 weeks was increased after a 45% fat diet during nursing, during both in utero and nursing, and throughout life, but had normalized at 23 weeks. In the glucose tolerance test, the early exposure to a 45% fat diet in utero, during nursing, or during both in utero and nursing, did not affect blood glucose, whereas a 45% fat diet given to adults or throughout life did. However, a 45% fat diet during nursing or during in utero and nursing increased the number of small intestinal tumors. So did exposures to a 45% fat diet in adult life or throughout life, but without increasing the tumor numbers further. The intrauterine and nursing period is a window of susceptibility for dietary fat-induced obesity and intestinal tumor development.

  11. One-step kinetics-based immunoassay for the highly sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in less than 30 min.

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Czilwik, Gregor; van Oordt, Thomas; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland; Marion Schneider, E; Luong, John H T


    This article reveals a rapid sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the highly sensitive detection of human C-reactive protein (CRP) in less than 30 min. It employs a one-step kinetics-based highly simplified and cost-effective sandwich ELISA procedure with minimal process steps. The procedure involves the formation of a sandwich immune complex on capture anti-human CRP antibody-bound Dynabeads in 15 min, followed by two magnet-assisted washings and one enzymatic reaction. The developed sandwich ELISA detects CRP in the dynamic range of 0.3 to 81 ng ml(-1) with a limit of detection of 0.4 ng ml(-1) and an analytical sensitivity of 0.7 ng ml(-1). It detects CRP spiked in diluted human whole blood and serum with high analytical precision, as confirmed by conventional sandwich ELISA. Moreover, the results of the developed ELISA for the determination of CRP in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid plasma samples of patients are in good agreement with those obtained by the conventional ELISA. The developed immunoassay has immense potential for the development of rapid and cost-effective in vitro diagnostic kits.

  12. Survival of mouse oocytes after being cooled in a vitrification solution to -196°C at 95° to 70,000°C/min and warmed at 610° to 118,000°C/min: A new paradigm for cryopreservation by vitrification.

    Mazur, Peter; Seki, Shinsuke


    There is great interest in achieving reproducibly high survivals of mammalian oocytes (especially human) after cryopreservation, but the results to date have not matched the interest. A prime cause of cell death is the formation of more than trace amounts of intracellular ice, and one strategy to avoid it is vitrification. In vitrification procedures, cells are loaded with high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes and cooled to -196°C at rates high enough to presumably induce the glassy state. In the last decade, several devices have been developed to achieve very high cooling rates. Nearly all in the field have assumed that the cooling rate is the critical factor. The purpose of our study was to test that assumption by examining the consequences of cooling mouse oocytes in a vitrification solution at four rates ranging from 95 to 69,250°C/min to -196°C and for each cooling rate, subjecting them to five warming rates back above 0°C at rates ranging from 610 to 118,000°C/min. In samples warmed at the highest rate (118,000°C/min), survivals were 70% to 85% regardless of the prior cooling rate. In samples warmed at the lowest rate (610°C/min), survivals were low regardless of the prior cooling rate, but decreased from 25% to 0% as the cooling rate was increased from 95 to 69,000°C/min. Intermediate cooling and warming rates gave intermediate survivals. The especially high sensitivity of survival to warming rate suggests that either the crystallization of intracellular glass during warming or the growth by recrystallization of small intracellular ice crystals formed during cooling are responsible for the lethality of slow warming.

  13. Scenario development for high β p low torque plasma with q min above 2 and large-radius internal transport barrier in DIII-D

    Ding, S.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, Q.; Solomon, W. M.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; McKee, G.; Yan, Z.; Wang, H. Q.; Qian, J.; Wan, B. N.


    A recent experiment on DIII-D, which was conducted by the joint research team from DIII-D and EAST, has extended the previous high {β\\text{p}} , high q min regime, which has been tested in the 2013 DIII-D/EAST joint experiment, to inductive operation at higher plasma current ({{I}\\text{p}}=0.8 MA) and significantly higher normalized fusion performance (G={{H}89}{β\\text{N}}/q952=0.16 ). The experiment aims at exploring high performance scenario with {{q}\\text{min}}>2 and reduced torque for long pulse operation, which can be potentially extrapolated to EAST. The effort was largely motivated by the interest in developing a feasible scenario for long-pulse high performance operation with low torque on EAST. Very high confinement, H 89  =  3.5 or {{H}98,\\text{y2}}=2.1 with {β\\text{N}}∼ 3.0 , has been achieved transiently in this experiment together with {{q}\\text{min}}>2 and reduced NBI torque (3∼ 5 N m). The excellent confinement is associated with the spontaneous formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in plasmas with {{I}\\text{p}}=0.8 MA at large minor radius (normalized ρ ∼ 0.7 ) in all channels (n e, T e, T i, {{V}φ} , especially strong in the T e channel). Fluctuation measurements show a significant reduction in the fluctuation levels, including AE modes and broadband turbulence, at the location where an ITB forms. Linear gyrokinetic simulations also support the decrease of the growth rate of the most unstable mode during strong ITB formation. The simulation implies that strong suppression of turbulence and a positive feedback loop may be active in this process and is responsible for the spontaneous formation of large-radius ITB. In an unstable ITB phase, an ELM crash is observed to have a positive effect on transient formation of large-radius ITB. The formation of this kind of ITB is found to have a shielding (protecting) effect on the core plasma while isolating the perturbation due to ELM crash.

  14. Comparison of bioenergetics of walking during a multistage incremental shuttle walk test and a 6-min walk test in active older adults.

    Leone, Mario; Duvergé, Sébastien; Kalinova, Émilia; Bui, Hung Tien; Comtois, Alain S


    The goal of the present research was to compare the bioenergetics variability of walking, during the 6-min walk test (6-MWT) and a multistage incremental shuttle walk test (MISWT) in an active older population. Twenty-two healthy physically active older adults with a group mean age of 70.4 ± 5.8 years completed the 6-MWT and the MISWT. Heart rate (HR), walking speed and walking [Formula: see text]O2 were measured throughout each test with a portable metabolic cart. Strong correlations were found for the [Formula: see text]O2 peak and the walking speed (r = 0.91 and r = 0.89 respectively for 6-MWT and MISWT). Differences in [Formula: see text]O2 peak values were analysed with a paired Student's t test. Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to detect differences between tests. The Bland and Altman plot indicates that the average difference between both tests was 2.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). MISWT [Formula: see text]O2 peak means were significantly greater than the 6-MWT [Formula: see text]O2 peak mean values (21.6 ± 5.3 vs. 18.9 ± 4.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) which indicate bioenergetics differences between the two walking tests. Thus, the MISWT and 6-MWT elicited different walking [Formula: see text]O2 peak and HR suggesting that the MISWT field test challenge the participants to a higher level of cardiovascular and respiratory stress. The walking [Formula: see text]O2 peak recorded for the MISWT was significantly greater than the 6-MWT. Consequently, both tests seem to measure different facets of the aerobic capacity. MISWT seems to be a better indicator of maximal aerobic power whereas the 6-MWT provides more relevant information regarding aerobic endurance in aging population.

  15. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, nabumetone, differentially inhibits beta-catenin signaling in the MIN mouse and azoxymethane-treated rat models of colon carcinogenesis.

    Roy, Hemant K; Karolski, William J; Wali, Ramesh K; Ratashak, Anne; Hart, John; Smyrk, Thomas C


    The mechanisms through which beta-catenin signaling is inhibited during colorectal cancer chemoprevention by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents is incompletely understood. We report that nabumetone decreased uninvolved intestinal mucosal beta-catenin levels in the MIN mouse with a concomitant increase in glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta levels, an enzyme that targets beta-catenin for destruction. However, in the azoxymethane-treated rat, where beta-catenin is frequently rendered GSK-3beta-insensitive, nabumetone failed to alter beta-catenin levels but did decrease beta-catenin nuclear localization and transcriptional activity as gauged by cyclin D1. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the differential mechanisms for beta-catenin suppression may be determined, at least partly, by GSK-3beta.

  16. Suppression of ERK activation in urethral epithelial cells infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its isogenic minD mutant contributes to anti-apoptosis.

    Liu, GuanQun L; Parti, Rajinder P; Dillon, Jo-Anne R


    In gonococci-infected transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUEC), the role of ERK, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in apoptosis is unknown. We observed lowering of ERK activation in THUEC following infection with anti-apoptosis-inducing Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain CH811. An isogenic cell division mutant of this strain, Ng CJSD1 (minD deficient), which is large and abnormally shaped, reduced ERK phosphorylation levels even more than its parental strain in THUEC. This led to higher anti-apoptosis in mutant-infected cells as compared to the parental strain-infected cells. Our results suggest that N. gonorrhoeae infection reduces ERK activation in THUEC contributing to anti-apoptosis.

  17. Applications of a saving method with max-min ant system to a vehicle routing problem with time windows and speed limits

    Suphan Sodsoon


    Full Text Available This study aims to solve a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and Speed Limits (VRPTWSL, which has received considerable attention in recent years. The vehicle routing problem with time windows is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP and involves a fleet of vehicles set of from a depot to serve a number of customers at different geographic locations with various demands within specific time and speed limits before returning to the depot eventually. To solve the problem, an efficient Saving Method-Max Min Ant System (Saving-MMAS with Local Search algorithm is applied. Using minimization of the total transportation costs as the objective of the extension VRPTWSL, a mathematic model is constructed. Finally, the Saving-MMAS algorithms indicated the good quality of the method in this problem.

  18. Excited states in the doubly odd 168Lu nucleus fed by electron-capture decay of 168Hf (T1/2=25.95 min)

    Barci, V.; Ardisson, G.; Trubert, D.; Hussonnois, M.


    The low-spin levels of the odd-odd nucleus 168Lu from 168Hf (T1/2=25.95 min) electron-capture decay were investigated by direct γ and γ-γ coincidence measurements. The sources of 168Hf were produced with the 156Gd(16O,4n) reaction and radiochemically separated using chromatographic methods. A level scheme of 39 new levels in the 168Lu nucleus was proposed, accounting for 107 of 119 observed γ transitions assigned to 168Hf electron-capture decay. Transition multipolarities, level-spins, and parities were deduced or proposed. A tentative decay scheme was proposed. Level structure was discussed in the framework of the particle-rotor and Nilsson models.

  19. Fibersol-2 induces apoptosis of Apc-deficient colorectal Cancer (SW480) cells and decreases polyp formation in Apc MIN mice.

    Sancho, Sara Cuesta; Olson, Susan Losee; Young So, Eui; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Toru; Preuss, Fabian


    The consumption of dietary fibers has been implicated with a lowered risk of human colorectal cancer. Proposed mechanisms involve alterations in the stool consistency, transit time, and formation of short-chain fatty acid by dietary fiber fermentation, and the reorganization of gut microbiota. Here we show that Fibersol-2, a digest-resistant maltodextrin, not only inhibits proliferation of colorectal SW480 cancer cell lines by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but decreases the numbers of the adenoma count in Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia (MIN) mice carrying a mutation in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene by 84 d of age. These observations provide direct evidence that Fibersol-2 intrinsically contains anti-cancer activity, independent of the intestinal metabolism and any potential interactions with the microbiota.

  20. A new high-speed droplet-real-time polymerase chain reaction method can detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus in less than 10 min.

    Uehara, Masayuki; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki


    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used for diagnosis of infectious diseases of domestic animals. Rapid detection of respiratory pathogens of cattle is useful for making therapeutic decisions. Therefore, we developed a new genetic-based method called droplet-real-time PCR, which can detect bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) within 10 min. Our droplet-real-time PCR markedly reduced the reaction time of reverse transcription-PCR while maintaining the same sensitivity as conventional real-time PCR, and it can be used as a rapid assay for detection of BRSV. Furthermore, our method is potentially applicable for rapid diagnosis of almost all infectious diseases, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.

  1. WEN Jian-min and SHI Da-zhuo : ICWM Should Be Taken as A Discipline Uniformly and The Practice Scope of ICWM Practitioners Be Defined


    @@ According to the current inconsistent status of subject names and stratification of ICWM and based on the principle of classification that a subject can only use one name and one code, Prof. WEN Jian-min and Prof. SHI Da-zhuo, two CPPCC members, proposed that ICWM in the subject categories of National Standardization Committee (defined as a subdiscipline under CM and Chinese materia medica) and that in the subject categories of the Academic Degree Commission of the State Council (defined as a discipline, consisting of two sub-disciplines, the basic ICWM and the clinical ICWM) should be taken as a discipline uniformly, consisting of 12 subdisciplines, Basic Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Diagnostics, Internal Medicine, Surgery, Orthopaedics, Pediatrics,Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, Dermatology and Venereology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Other Subjects.

  2. Insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obese Chinese with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during glucose tolerance tests.

    Hong, Jie; Zhang, Yi-Fei; Gu, Wei-qiong; Zhang, Yu-wen; Su, Yu-xia; Chi, Zhen-ni; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-ying; Ning, Guang


    The purpose of this study was to investigate insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion in obesity with hyperglycemia in 30 and/or 60 min during oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, glucose > or = 11.1 mmol/l, post-loading hyperglycemia, PLH) in Chinese population. A total of 196 nondiabetic subjects were included in the present study, among them 99 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, subdivided into 32 lean NGT and 67 obese NGT), 74 had obesity with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 23 had obesity with PLH. A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed after fasting and at 30 min, 1, 2 and 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) was assessed by the Bergman's minimal model method with frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT), insulin secretion was determined by acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). The disposition index (DI), the product of AIRg and S(I) was used to determine whether AIRg was adequate to compensate for insulin resistance. S(I) was significantly equally lower in three obese subgroups. AIRg was significantly increased in obese NGT as compared with lean NGT controls, and reduced to the same extent in IGT and PLH subjects. There was no significant difference among lean NGT, IGT and PLH subjects. DI value was reduced from obese NGT individuals, IGT and PLH subjects had a similar lower level of DI. In conclusion, our present results demonstrated that the pathophysiological basis of obese subjects with PLH were clearly insulin resistance and defective in first-phase insulin secretion as that in IGT subjects in Chinese population.

  3. Differential Regulation of ERK1/2 and mTORC1 Through T1R1/T1R3 in MIN6 Cells.

    Wauson, Eric M; Guerra, Marcy L; Dyachok, Julia; McGlynn, Kathleen; Giles, Jennifer; Ross, Elliott M; Cobb, Melanie H


    The MAPKs ERK1/2 respond to nutrients and other insulin secretagogues in pancreatic β-cells and mediate nutrient-dependent insulin gene transcription. Nutrients also stimulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) to regulate protein synthesis. We showed previously that activation of both ERK1/2 and mTORC1 in the MIN6 pancreatic β-cell-derived line by extracellular amino acids (AAs) is at least in part mediated by the heterodimeric T1R1/T1R3, a G protein-coupled receptor. We show here that AAs differentially activate these two signaling pathways in MIN6 cells. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin did not prevent the activation of either ERK1/2 or mTORC1 by AAs, indicating that G(I) is not central to either pathway. Although glucagon-like peptide 1, an agonist for a G(s-)coupled receptor, activated ERK1/2 well and mTORC1 to a small extent, AAs had no effect on cytosolic cAMP accumulation. Ca(2+) entry is required for ERK1/2 activation by AAs but is dispensable for AA activation of mTORC1. Pretreatment with UBO-QIC, a selective G(q) inhibitor, reduced the activation of ERK1/2 but had little effect on the activation of mTORC1 by AAs, suggesting a differential requirement for G(q). Inhibition of G(12/13) by the overexpression of the regulator of G protein signaling domain of p115 ρ-guanine nucleotide exchange factor had no effect on mTORC1 activation by AAs, suggesting that these G proteins are also not involved. We conclude that AAs regulate ERK1/2 and mTORC1 through distinct signaling pathways.

  4. Protein kinase A antagonist inhibits β-catenin nuclear translocation, c-Myc and COX-2 expression and tumor promotion in ApcMin/+ mice

    Brudvik Kristoffer W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC protein is part of the destruction complex controlling proteosomal degradation of β-catenin and limiting its nuclear translocation, which is thought to play a gate-keeping role in colorectal cancer. The destruction complex is inhibited by Wnt-Frz and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 - PI-3 kinase pathways. Recent reports show that PGE2-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin by protein kinase A (PKA increases nuclear translocation indicating two mechanisms of action of PGE2 on β-catenin homeostasis. Findings Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice that spontaneously develop intestinal adenomas with a PKA antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS selectively targeting only the latter pathway reduced tumor load, but not the number of adenomas. Immunohistochemical characterization of intestines from treated and control animals revealed that expression of β-catenin, β-catenin nuclear translocation and expression of the β-catenin target genes c-Myc and COX-2 were significantly down-regulated upon Rp-8-Br-cAMPS treatment. Parallel experiments in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 revealed that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS blocked PGE2-induced β-catenin phosphorylation and c-Myc upregulation. Conclusion Based on our findings we suggest that PGE2 act through PKA to promote β-catenin nuclear translocation and tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo, indicating that the direct regulatory effect of PKA on β-catenin nuclear translocation is operative in intestinal cancer.

  5. Academic Experience of Professor Panzhi-min in Treating Abdominal Masses%潘智敏教授治疗积证的学术经验



    潘智敏教授系第四批全国名老中医药学术经验继承指导老师,博士研究生导师,临证30余年,学验俱丰,其在治疗积证方面积累了丰富的学术经验.潘智敏教授在继承前人积证学说的基础上,结合时代、地域特点和长期的临床经验,拓展了积证的范畴,提出了现代积证的病因病机特点,总结了新五积说,研制了治疗各种积证的基本方:五积方.并运用五积方加减治疗各种积证,取得了较好的临床疗效.%Professor Pan zhi - min is the guidance teacher of the 4th Famous TCM Experts Academic Experience and doctoral Advisor. She has clinical experience over 30 years and is high in academic level. Especially she has rich Academic experience in treating Abdominal Masses. On the base of forearms' theory of Abdominal Masses, Professor Pan zhi - min expanded domain of Abdominal Masses , developed characteristic of pathogeny and pathomechanism of morden Abdominal Masses, summarized'new wuji theory and developed basic prescription in treating all kinds of Abdominal Masses: wuji recepto according to characteristic of times and regions and long - time clinical experience. She has cured all kinds of Abdominal Masses by use of wuji recepto and its clinical curative effect was good.

  6. Ryanodine receptor type I and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptors mediate Ca2+ release from insulin-containing vesicles in living pancreatic beta-cells (MIN6).

    Mitchell, Kathryn J; Lai, F Anthony; Rutter, Guy A


    We have demonstrated recently (Mitchell, K. J., Pinton, P., Varadi, A., Tacchetti, C., Ainscow, E. K., Pozzan, T., Rizzuto, R., and Rutter, G. A. (2001) J. Cell Biol. 155, 41-51) that ryanodine receptors (RyR) are present on insulin-containing secretory vesicles. Here we show that pancreatic islets and derived beta-cell lines express type I and II, but not type III, RyRs. Purified by subcellular fractionation and membrane immuno-isolation, dense core secretory vesicles were found to possess a similar level of type I RyR immunoreactivity as Golgi/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes but substantially less RyR II than the latter. Monitored in cells expressing appropriately targeted aequorins, dantrolene, an inhibitor of RyR I channels, elevated free Ca(2+) concentrations in the secretory vesicle compartment from 40.1 +/- 6.7 to 90.4 +/- 14.8 microm (n = 4, p < 0.01), while having no effect on ER Ca(2+) concentrations. Furthermore, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), a novel Ca(2+)-mobilizing agent, decreased dense core secretory vesicle but not ER free Ca(2+) concentrations in permeabilized MIN6 beta-cells, and flash photolysis of caged NAADP released Ca(2+) from a thapsigargin-insensitive Ca(2+) store in single MIN6 cells. Because dantrolene strongly inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (from 3.07 +/- 0.51-fold stimulation to no significant glucose effect; n = 3, p < 0.01), we conclude that RyR I-mediated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from secretory vesicles, possibly potentiated by NAADP, is essential for the activation of insulin secretion.

  7. 不同浓度 DMSO 对 Min6胰岛细胞活力和ROS 产生的影响%The effects of DMSO on cell viability and reactive oxygen species production in Min6 islet cell

    张红; 张丽; 张燕; 张之


    目的:观察不同浓度二甲基亚砜(DMSO)对 Min6胰岛细胞活力和细胞活性氧族(ROS)产生的影响。方法无菌洁净环境下培养 Min6胰岛细胞株,细胞良好生长状态时,分为正常对照组(DMSO 含量为0%)及DMSO 各浓度组,用不同浓度 DMSO(0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125%、0.25%)干预 Min6胰岛细胞48 h,采用细胞增殖和毒性检测试剂盒(Cell Counting Kit-8,CCK8法)检测细胞活力,采用2′,7′-二氯荧光黄双乙酸盐(DCFH-DA)探针法检测 ROS 的产生水平。结果与正常对照组比较(不含 DMSO),0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125%,0.25% DMSO 组细胞活力均降低;0.005%、0.0125%、0.05%、0.125% DMSO 组间细胞活力差别不大,0.25%DMSO组细胞活力进一步下降,同时 ROS 产生明显增加。结论Min6细胞对 DMSO 敏感,DMSO 浓度水平对细胞活力、ROS 水平有一定影响,建议相关实验时注意各组 DMSO 含量本身齐同可比,以免影响结果判断。%Objective To observe the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on Min6 islet cell viability and Reactive Oxygen Species Production (ROS).Methods Min6 islet cell was cultured under sterile clean environment condition,then interfered by DMSO of different concentration,Cell Counting Kit-8 was adopted to detect the cell viability,DCFH-DA probe was used to detect the Production of ROS.Results Compared with 0%DMSO group ,Min6 cell viability decreased in group containing DMSO 0.005%,0.0125%,0.05%, 0.125%,0.25%,there was little difference of cell viability between groups containing 0.005%,0.0125%, 0.05%,0.125% DMSO.Cell viability decreased further in 0.25% DMSO group,at the the same time ROS production increased.Conclusion Min6 cell sensitive to DMSO,different concentration of DMSO may have different influence on cell viability and intracellular ROS is suggested that to keep the same con-centration of

  8. "Mu vend mu õde ja mina põgeneme Valguskoonused kalduvad ..." = "Min bror min syster och jag flyr Ljuskäglor välter över vägkanten ..." : [luuletused] / Catharina Gripenberg ; tlk. Juta-Tiia Mägi

    Gripenberg, Catharina


    Sisu: "Mu vend mu õde ja mina põgeneme Valguskoonused kalduvad ..." = "Min bror min syster och jag flyr Ljuskäglor välter över vägkanten ..."; "Tean, et kajad vastavad, aga väga lühidalt. Valad sa välja oma ..." = "Vet att ekon svarar, men i all korthet. Gjuter du ut ditt hjärta ..."; "Kirjasõber, ma otsin välja jääkraabitsa ..." = "Brevvän, jag lagrar upp med fönsterskapare ..."; "Säravselge hommik. Linnupojad trügivad välja kolbast ..." = "Det var en glasklar morgon. Fågelungarna knuffas från skallen ..."; Armastuskiri = Kärleksbrev

  9. Model of the impact of parameters controlling replenishment in the bs (min-max continuous review system on the actual inventory availibility

    Stanisław Krzyżaniak


    Full Text Available Background: Due to random changes in demand, inventory management is still - despite the development of alternative goods flow management concepts - an important issue both in terms of costs of maintenance and replenishment as well as the level of service measured by inventory availability levels. There are a number of replenishment systems to be used in such conditions, but they are most often formed on the basis of two basic ones: a system based on the reorder point and based on periodic inspection.  This paper refers to the former system, the BS system (min-max, in which an order is placed after reaching inventory level B (information level, reorder point for a quantity allowing to reach level S. This system is very often used in business practice. Observations conducted under realistic conditions indicate the need to improve the classical models describing the system.  This results, among other things, from the fact that the actual level of available inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle may be significantly lower than level B, resulting in lower than expected levels of customer service. Taking account of this phenomenon through model determination of the cumulative distribution function for the observed difference makes it possible to select the correct parameters to control the replenishment system in question and - therefore - to achieve the expected economic effects. Methods: The object of the study is to create a mathematical model allowing the determination of the required inventory level B taking into account the difference D between this level and the actual level of inventory at the start of the replenishment cycle.  To determine the effect of various factors such as demand distribution parameters in the adopted unit of time and the difference between level S (max and B (min, a dedicated tool (simulator in EXCEL spreadsheet for determining the distribution of frequency of value D has been developed.  Then a

  10. Inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice by Riccardin D, a natural product derived from liverwort plant Dumortiera hirsuta.

    Hui-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutation of tumor suppressor gene, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC, is the primary molecular event in the development of most intestinal carcinomas. Animal model with APC gene mutation is an effective tool for study of preventive approaches against intestinal carcinomas. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, as a chemopreventive agent against intestinal adenoma formation in APC(Min/+ mice. METHODS: APC(Min/+ mice were given Riccardin D by p.o. gavage for 7 weeks. Mice were sacrificed, and the number, size and histopathology of intestinal polyps were examined under a microscope. We performed immunohistochemical staining, western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in intestinal polyps to investigate the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of Riccardin D. RESULTS: Riccardin D treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of intestinal adenoma formation, showing a reduction of polyp number by 41.7%, 31.1% and 44.4%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine. The activity of Riccardin D against polyp formation was more profound in colon, wherein Riccardin D decreased polyp number by 79.3%. Size distribution analysis revealed a significant reduction in large-size polyps (2-3 mm by 40.0%, 42.5% and 33.3%, respectively, in proximal, middle and distal portions of small intestine, and 77.8% in colon. Histopathological analysis of the intestinal polyps revealed mostly hyperplastic morphology without obvious dysplasia in Riccardin D-treated mice. Molecular analyses of the polyps suggested that the inhibitory effect of Riccardin D on intestinal adenoma formation was associated with its abilities of reduction in cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antiangiogenesis, inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway and suppression of inflammatory mediators in polyps. CONCLUSIONS: Our results

  11. The CheMin XRD on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity: Construction, Operation, and Quantitative Mineralogical Results from the Surface of Mars

    Blake, David F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory mission was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on Nov. 26, 2011 and landed in Gale crater, Mars on Aug. 6, 2012. MSL's mission is to identify and characterize ancient "habitable" environments on Mars. MSL's precision landing system placed the Curiosity rover within 2 km of the center of its 20 X 6 km landing ellipse, next to Gale's central mound, a 5,000 meter high pile of laminated sediment which may contain 1 billion years of Mars history. Curiosity carries with it a full suite of analytical instruments, including the CheMin X-ray diffractometer, the first XRD flown in space. CheMin is essentially a transmission X-ray pinhole camera. A fine-focus Co source and collimator transmits a 50µm beam through a powdered sample held between X-ray transparent plastic windows. The sample holder is shaken by a piezoelectric actuator such that the powder flows like a liquid, each grain passing in random orientation through the beam over time. Forward-diffracted and fluoresced X-ray photons from the sample are detected by an X-ray sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) operated in single photon counting mode. When operated in this way, both the x,y position and the energy of each photon are detected. The resulting energy-selected Co Kalpha Debye-Scherrer pattern is used to determine the identities and amounts of minerals present via Rietveld refinement, and a histogram of all X-ray events constitutes an X-ray fluorescence analysis of the sample.The key role that definitive mineralogy plays in understanding the Martian surface is a consequence of the fact that minerals are thermodynamic phases, having known and specific ranges of temperature, pressure and composition within which they are stable. More than simple compositional analysis, definitive mineralogical analysis can provide information about pressure/temperature conditions of formation, past climate, water activity and the like. Definitive mineralogical analyses are necessary to establish

  12. Motivational interviewing for screening and feedback and encouraging lifestyle changes to reduce relative weight in 4-8 year old children: design of the MInT study

    Taylor Barry J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because parental recognition of overweight in young children is poor, we need to determine how best to inform parents that their child is overweight in a way that enhances their acceptance and supports motivation for positive change. This study will assess 1 whether weight feedback delivered using motivational interviewing increases parental acceptance of their child's weight status and enhances motivation for behaviour change, and 2 whether a family-based individualised lifestyle intervention, delivered primarily by a MInT mentor with limited support from "expert" consultants in psychology, nutrition and physical activity, can improve weight outcomes after 12 and 24 months in young overweight children, compared with usual care. Methods/Design 1500 children aged 4-8 years will be screened for overweight (height, weight, waist, blood pressure, body composition. Parents will complete questionnaires on feeding practices, physical activity, diet, parenting, motivation for healthy lifestyles, and demographics. Parents of children classified as overweight (BMI ≥ CDC 85th will receive feedback about the results using Motivational interviewing or Usual care. Parental responses to feedback will be assessed two weeks later and participants will be invited into the intervention. Additional baseline measurements (accelerometry, diet, quality of life, child behaviour will be collected and families will be randomised to Tailored package or Usual care. Parents in the Usual care condition will meet once with an advisor who will offer general advice regarding healthy eating and activity. Parents in the Tailored package condition will attend a single session with an "expert team" (MInT mentor, dietitian, physical activity advisor, clinical psychologist to identify current challenges for the family, develop tailored goals for change, and plan behavioural strategies that best suit each family. The mentor will continue to provide support to the

  13. Regulation of gene expression by glucose in pancreatic beta -cells (MIN6) via insulin secretion and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase.

    da Silva Xavier, G; Varadi, A; Ainscow, E K; Rutter, G A


    Increases in glucose concentration control the transcription of the preproinsulin (PPI) gene and several other genes in the pancreatic islet beta-cell. Although recent data have demonstrated that secreted insulin may regulate the PPI gene (Leibiger, I. B., Leibiger, B., Moede, T., and Berggren, P. O. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 933-938), the role of insulin in the control of other beta-cell genes is unexplored. To study the importance of insulin secretion in the regulation of the PPI and liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes by glucose, we have used intranuclear microinjection of promoter-luciferase constructs into MIN6 beta-cells and photon-counting imaging. The activity of each promoter was increased either by 30 (versus 3) mm glucose or by 1-20 nm insulin. These effects of insulin were not due to enhanced glucose metabolism since culture with the hormone had no impact on the stimulation of increases in intracellular ATP concentration caused by 30 mm glucose. Furthermore, the islet-specific glucokinase promoter and cellular glucokinase immunoreactivity were unaffected by 30 mm glucose or 20 nm insulin. Inhibition of insulin secretion with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener diazoxide, or the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine blocked the effects of glucose on L-PK gene transcription. Similarly, 30 mm glucose failed to induce the promoter after inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity with LY294002 and the expression of dominant negative-acting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (Deltap85) or the phosphoinositide 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). LY294002 also diminished the activation of the L-PK gene caused by inhibition of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with anti-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 antibodies. Conversely, stimulation of insulin secretion with 13 mm KCl or 10 microm tolbutamide strongly activated the PPI and L-PK promoters. These data indicate that, in MIN6 beta

  14. Preliminary Inquiry on the Modern Culture Value of the Southern Min Pat Chest Dance%闽南拍胸舞现代文化价值初探



    拍胸舞是流行于福建南部沿海地区的民间舞蹈,其风格独特、色彩浓郁、自娱性强。在时代的发展及历史沉淀中,拍胸舞的表演形态与舞蹈功能都有了不同程度的丰富与改变。作为闽南代表性民间舞蹈,拍胸舞有着文化的传承与保护价值。同时,作为一项旅游文化资源,其对外文化交流价值也不容忽视。%"Pat Chest Dance" is a kind of folk dance which is popular in the coastal areas of Southern Fujian, it has unique style and strong entertainment. With the development of the times, the form of the chest percussion dance and performing function have different levels of wealth and change. As the Southern Min the most representa- tive folk dance, pat chest dance cultural heritage and conservation value. As a tourism and cultural resources, its cultural exchanges with foreign value can not be ignored.

  15. Dietary ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit Tumor Growth in Transgenic Apc(Min/+) Mice, Correlating with CB1 Receptor Up-Regulation.

    Notarnicola, Maria; Tutino, Valeria; De Nunzio, Valentina; Dituri, Francesco; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Giannelli, Gianluigi


    Mediterranean diet components, such as olive oil and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), can arrest cell growth and promote cell apoptosis. Recently, olive oil has been demonstrated to modulate type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor gene expression in both human colon cancer cells and rat colon. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between olive oil and ω-3 PUFAs effects and CB1 receptor expression in both intestinal and adipose tissue of Apc(Min/+) mice. To confirm the role for the CB1 receptor as a negative modulator of cell proliferation in human colon cancer, CB1 receptor gene expression was also detected in tumor tissue and in surrounding normal mucosa of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Dietary ω-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited intestinal polyp growth in mice, correlating with CB1 receptor gene and protein expression induction. CB1 receptor gene up-regulation was also detected in adipose tissue, suggesting a close communication between cancer cells and the surrounding environment. Tissue CB1 receptor induction was associated with a concurrent inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in CB1 receptor gene expression levels in cancer tissue compared to normal surrounding mucosa of patients with CRC, confirming that in cancer the "protective" action of the CB1 receptor is lost.

  16. Sinocentrisma ideja un tās ietekme uz Ķīnas kontaktiem ar Eiropu Min dinastijas laikā

    Pavlova, Ekaterina


    Maģistra darbs „Sinocentrisma ideja un tās ietekme uz Ķīnas kontaktiem ar Eiropu Min dinastijas laikā” ir veltīts tradicionālā ķīniešu pasaules skatījuma pamatiezīmēm, kas noteica Vidusvalsts politisko, intelektuālo un sociālo attīstību, kā arī iespaidam kādu tās atstāja uz saskarsmi ar eiropiešiem 16.-17. gadsimtos. Pētniecībā ar sinocentrismu tiek saprasts priekšstatu kopums, saskaņa ar kuru Ķīna aizņem centrālo vietu pasaulē, pārāko par visiem pārējiem. Dotā darba uzdevumi ir izpētīt šī...

  17. Level structure of odd-mass Pr isotopes: Decay of 3. 0-min /sup 145/Ce to levels of /sup 145/Pr

    Baum, E.M.; Robertson, J.D.; Mantica P.F. Jr.; Faller, S.H.; Stone, C.A.; Walters, W.B.; Meyer, R.A.; Kusnezov, D.F.


    The structure of /sup 145/Pr has been investigated by measuring the gamma-ray singles, gamma-ray coincidence, and gamma-ray angular correlation spectra, along with conversion-electron singles spectra for the decay of 3.0-min /sup 145/Ce to levels of /sup 145/Pr. A level scheme is proposed that includes a number of new levels as well as new spin and parity assignments for several levels. The conversion-coefficient measurements establish the presence of a low-energy (3/2/sup -/) level at 787 keV whose strong population in beta decay confirms negative parity for the ground state of /sup 145/Ce. Interacting boson-fermion model calculations for /sup 143/Pr and /sup 145/Pr are found to be in reasonable agreement with the observed low-energy positive-parity levels, while the presence of the low-energy (3/2/sup -/) level suggests the coexistence of more deformed configurations.

  18. Modification of the Ti40Cu36Zr10Pd14 BMG Crystallization Mechanism with Heating Rates 10-140 K/min

    Czeppe, T.; Sypien, A.; Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.


    The article presents investigations of Ti40Cu36Zr10Pd14 bulk metallic glass crystallization process heated with the rates of 10, 60, 100 and 140 K/min. High heating rates experiments were performed in a new type of differential scanning calorimeter equipped with a fast responding thermal sensor. Phase composition and microstructure were studied with x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The observed crystallization proceeded in two separate steps. Applied high rates of heating/cooling resulted in the crystallization of only one CuTi phase, replacing typical multi-phase crystallization. The microstructure after crystallization was polycrystalline with some amount of amorphous phase retained. Kinetic parameters were determined with the use of the Kissinger and Friedman iso-conversional analysis and Matusita-Sakka iso-kinetic model. The kinetic analysis supplies results concerning autocatalytically activated mechanism of primary crystallization with decreasing activation energy and small density of quenched-in nuclei, in good agreement with previous structural investigations. The mechanism of secondary crystallization required dense nuclei site, increasing activation energy and large nucleation frequency. The amorphous phase of Ti40Cu36Zr10Pd14 BMG revealed high thermal stability against crystallization. Application of high heating rates in DSC experiments might be useful for the determination of mechanism and kinetic parameters in investigations of metallic glasses crystallization, giving reasonable results.

  19. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao


    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase.

  20. ZHAO Xue-min Folk Medicine Achievements%赵学敏在民间医药学方面的成就



    ZHAO Xue-min is Qing Dynasty renowned medicine scientist, in its extant work Native Chinese Plants Appropriated lost articles and String Elegant has preserved the massive folk medicine precious content, the collection, the reorganization, summarized the massive folk medicine experience, the massive folk single proven prescription, specially walked Fang Yi the prevention disease's experience, this studied the folk medicine for us the development, has provided the very valuable material.%赵学敏是清代著名的医药学家,在其现存的著作《本草纲目拾遗》和《串雅》中保存了大量民间医药学的宝贵内容,收集、整理、总结了大量民间医药学经验,大量的民间单验方,特别是走方医的防治疾病的经验,这为我们研究民间医药学的发展,提供了十分可贵的资料.

  1. 试论江泽民的权力监督思想%A Tentative Study of Jiang Ze - min's Supervision Thought of Power



    The strengthening of the supervision of power is the key to punish corruption. Jiang Ze-min has inherited and developed the thought of people's supervision proposed by the first generation and second generation of the Chinese Communist Party's leaders, emphasizing the institution and legalization of people's supervision and advocating the methodology of the power control by virtue, by law and by the people in order to exert an effective supervision and restriction on the abusive use of power.%惩治腐败,关键是加强权力监督。江泽民继承和发展了中国共产党第一、第二代领导人关于人民监督的思想,强调人民监督的制度化、法律化建设,强调通过以德制权、以法制权、以民制权的方法,对权力的滥用进行有效的监督和制约。

  2. Influence of prolonged unilateral cervical muscle contraction on head repositioning--decreased overshoot after a 5-min static muscle contraction task.

    Malmström, Eva-Maj; Karlberg, Mikael; Holmström, Eva; Fransson, Per-Anders; Hansson, Gert-Ake; Magnusson, Måns


    The ability to reproduce a specified head-on-trunk position can be an indirect test of cervical proprioception. This ability is affected in subjects with neck pain, but it is unclear whether and how much pain or continuous muscle contraction factors contribute to this effect. We studied the influence of a static unilateral neck muscle contraction task (5 min of lateral flexion at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction) on head repositioning ability in 20 subjects (10 women, 10 men; mean age 37 years) with healthy necks. Head repositioning ability was tested in the horizontal plane with 30 degrees target and neutral head position tests; head position was recorded by Zebris((R)), an ultrasound-based motion analyser. Head repositioning ability was analysed for accuracy (mean of signed differences between introduced and reproduced positions) and precision (standard deviation of the differences). Accuracy of head repositioning ability increased significantly after the muscle contraction task, as the normal overshoot was reduced. An average overshoot of 7.1 degrees decreased to 4.6 degrees after the muscle contraction task for the 30 degrees target and from 2.2 degrees to 1.4 degrees for neutral head position. The increased accuracy was most pronounced for movements directed towards the activated side. Hence, prolonged unilateral neck muscle contraction may increase the sensitivity of cervical proprioceptors.

  3. The Kπ = 0+ bands of 178Hf and the allowed unhindered beta transformations of 9.3 min 178Ta and 22 d 178W

    Nielsen, H.L.; Wilsky, K.; Zylicz, J.


    The decay of 22 d 178W and 9.3 min 178Ta (1+) has been investigated by means of direct and coincidence spectrometry with Ge(Li) and scintillation detectors. The Q-value of the electron-capture decay of 178W was determined to be 89±2 keV from the K-capture-to-total capture ratio. The corresponding...... log ft value is 4.65. The ground-state-to-ground-state beta decay rates were analysed in light of the pair correlation scheme. Capture-to-positon ratios were deduced for 178Ta and found to agree with theory. Excited states in 178Hf (characterized by their energy in keV, spin and parity) were...... established at 1199(0+), 1276(2+), 1434(0+), 1444(0+), 1496(2+), 1514(2+, 1+ or 1−) and 1561(2+). The 1199 keV state is interpreted as a beta vibration, the 1434 and 1444 keV 0+ states contain probably large amplitudes of the View the MathML source [514] neutron pair of the View the MathML source[514] proton...

  4. A max-to-min technique for making projections of NDVI change in semi-arid Africa for food security early warning

    Brown, M. E.; Funk, C. C.


    Climatic hazards such as droughts and floods often result in a decline in food production in economically vulnerable pre-industrial economies such as those in Africa. Early warning systems (EWS) have been developed to identify slow onset disasters such famine and epidemic disease that may result from hazardous environmental conditions. These conditions often precede food crises by many months, thus effective monitoring via satellite and in situ observations can allow for successful mitigation activities. Accurate forecasts of NDVI could increase monitoring lead times and allow for effective institutional planning of intervention, making early warning earlier. This paper presents a simple empirical max-to-min model for making 1 to 4 month NDVI projections. These statistical projections are based on parameterized satellite rainfall estimates (RFE) and relative humidity demand (RHD). A heuristic example in central Zimbabwe introduces the RFE growth and RHD loss terms. A quasi-global, one month ahead, 1 degree study then demonstrates reasonable accuracies in many semi-arid regions. In Africa, a 0.1 degree cross-validated skill assessment quantifies the technique's applicability at 1 to 4 month forecast intervals. These results suggest that useful projections can be made over many semi-arid, food insecure regions of Africa, with plausible extensions to drought prone areas of Asia, Australia and South America.

  5. Fluxo de material fragmentado em passagem de minério nas minas subterrâneas: a prática corrente

    José Margarida da Silva


    Full Text Available Esse trabalho é parte de pesquisa realizada para preparação de tese de doutorado e apresenta estudo do fluxo por gravidade de material fragmentado em mineração subterrânea. É descrita a prática corrente em minas brasileiras e estrangeiras, enfocando os índices de acidentes, as ações preventivas e corretivas nas operações que utilizam o fluxo por gravidade de minério desmontado em passagens, presentes em diversos métodos de lavra, como na lavra por subníveis, por corte e enchimento e nos métodos que utilizam o abatimento controlado do teto da escavação subterrânea.This article shows some results of a doctorate thesis about the gravity flow of bulk material in an underground mine. It describes the practices in Brazilian mines and in other countries, focusing on accident data, preventive and corrective actions, in mining operations that use gravity flow to transport fragmented material from the excavation of ore passes in several mining operations, such as in underground mining using cut and fill methods and caving methods.

  6. 1500 r/min核电汽轮机71英寸末级叶片的研发%Development of 1500 r/min 71 Inch Low Pressure End Blade

    管继伟; 张秋鸿; 李宇峰; 刘长春


    简要介绍了哈汽公司1500r/min核电汽轮机71英寸末级叶片在气动、结构和频率特性等方面的设计思路,特别介绍了遵循叶片模化设计相似准则由1500r/min71英寸叶片模化设计的3000 r/min35.5英寸叶片的运行业绩,由此证明了1500r/min71英寸叶片的安全可靠性。%The 1500r/min 71 inch nuclear power steam turbine low pressure end blade has been developed by HTC with advanced design feature of aerodynamic ,structure and frequency character .A 3000 r/min 35.5 inch blade for combined cycle power plant steam turbine is obtained from the 1500 r/min 71 inch blade by law of similarity scale .Application practice of the 3000 r/min 35.5 inch blade for combined cycle power plant steam turbine has provided proof of safety of 1500r/min 71 inch blade.

  7. Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharide from Masson Pine Pollen on Insulin Secretion and [Ca2 +]i in MIN6 Cell%马尾松花粉酯化多糖对MIN6细胞胰岛素分泌和[Ca2+]i的影响

    刘月冉; 冯潍; 耿越


    The former research of our laboratory has found that the Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides precipitated by 60% alcohol (PPM60) and its sulfated derivative (SPPM60) could increase intracellular free calcium concentration in rat myocardial cells, splenocytes of mice and human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells. Intracellular free Ca2+ concentration can be one of the important factors affecting insulin secretion. However it is still unclear how about the PPM60 and SPPM60's role in secretion of insulin of pancreatic p-cells, through changing the intracellular calcium concentration. This research aims at investigating the effects of masson pine pollen polysaccharide and its ester on insulin secretion and [Ca2+]; in MIN6 cell. Sulfated polysaccharide ( SPPM60) was derivated from 60% ethanol precipitation of masson pine pollen polysaccharide ( PPM60) modified by chlorosulfonic acid-pyri-dine method; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to detect the insulin secretion in the MIN6 cells supernatant. MIN6 cells were treated with the calcium fluorescence probe Fura 2-AM, using a fluorescence spectrophotometer to detect [Ca2+]i changes affected by SPPM60. The concentration of insulin in MIN6 cell supernatant and [Ca2+]i in MIN6 cell was measured. Verapamil and Low Molecular Weight Heparin ( LMWH) were used to testify whether insulin secretion and [ Ca2+] i were affected. PPM60 had little impact on insulin secretion. However SPPM60 had significant role in promoting insulin secretion in MIN6 cell. SPPM60 increased [ Ca2+]i significantly compared with the control group (P <0. 05). Verapamil and LMWH showed inhibition of insulin secretion caused by the SPPM60 in certain degree, but no significant difference. Similarly, they significantly inhibited the rise of [Ca2+]i caused by SPPM60 (P < 0. 05). Verapamil significantly inhibited the rise of insulin secretion (P < 0. 05 ) and [Ca2+]i(P<0. 01) caused by glucose (3.6 mg/mL). SPPM60 could stimulate lonely the

  8. Characteristics of Min-nan offshore shallow seismic sequence%闽南海岸带浅层地震层序特征

    许江; 赵绍华; 李海东; 胡毅; 毛建利; 房旭东


    On Min-nan coastal zone, shoreline is zigzag and its types are diverse, coastal waters is rich in natural resources. In history, some engineering and environmental research have been carried on these areas, however, due to the limits of former technical conditions, the accuracy and resolution of exploration can not meet the needs of offshore engineering construction. In this paper, using sub-bottom profiler, shallow stratigraphic sequence of Min-nan coastal zone is surveyed. According to the characteristics of contact relationship between the upper and lower seismic sequences, the whole shallow seismic reflecting layer can be divided into 3 different regional reflecting boundaries,which marked as:T0, T1, T2. Besides, among them there are 2 partial reflecting boundaries: R1, R2 developed off and on. Based on the characteristics of 3 regional reflecting boundaries: T0, T1, T2, the whole shallow seismic sequence can be divided into 3 major seismic sequences: Ua, Ub, Uc. According to the characteristics of R1, R2 reflecting boundaries, seismic sequences Ua, Ub can be separately divided into 4 sub-seismic sequences: U1a, U2a, Ub1 and U2b. At last, through comparative analysis of historical geological data, the geological evolution in the study area is briefly discussed since the Holocene.%闽南海岸带类型多样、岸线曲折,近岸海域资源丰富,历史上曾对该地区作过一些工程环境调查研究,受当时技术条件的限制,探测精度、分辨率,已不能满足近海工程建设的需要.本文主要采用海底浅层剖面仪进行探测,根据上下地震层序之间的接触关系特征,将研究区内浅部地震反射界面主要分为T0、T1和T2三个区域性地震反射界面,其间还断续发育R1和R2两个局部性反射界面.根据T0、T1和T2三个区域性地震反射界面特征,划分出Ua、Ub和Uc三个主要地震层序,根据R1、R2的反射界面特征,可将Ua、Ub分别划分为Ua1、Ua2和Ub1、Ub2四个亚地震层

  9. Characterization of Two Multidrug-Resistant IncA/C Plasmids from the 1960s by Using the MinION Sequencer Device.

    Szabó, Mónika; Nagy, Tibor; Wilk, Tímea; Farkas, Tibor; Hegyi, Anna; Olasz, Ferenc; Kiss, János


    Two A/C incompatibility group (IncA/C family) plasmids from the 1960s have been sequenced and classified into the A/C2 type 1 group. R16a and IP40a contain novel antibiotic resistance islands and a complete GIsul2 genomic island not previously found in the family. In the 173.1-kb R16a, the 29.9-kb antibiotic resistance island (ARI) is located in a unique backbone position not utilized by ARIs. ARIR16a consists of Tn1, Tn6020, and Tn6333, harboring the resistance genes blaTEM-1D and aphA1b and a mer module, respectively; a truncated Tn5393 copy; and a gene cluster with unknown function. Plasmid IP40a is 170.4 kb in size and contains a 5.6-kb ARI inserted into the kfrA gene. ARIIP40a carrying blaTEM-1D and aphA1b genes is composed of Tn1 with a Tn6023 insertion. Additionally, IP40a harbors single IS2, IS186, and Tn1000 insertions scattered in the backbone; an IS150 copy in GIsul2; and a complete Tn6333 carrying a mer module at the position of ARIR16a Loss of resistance markers in R16a, IP40a, and R55 was observed during stability tests. Every phenotypic change proved to be the result of recombination events involving mobile elements. Intramolecular transposition of IS copies that generated IP40a derivatives lacking large parts of the backbone could account for the formation of other family members, too. The MinION platform proved to be a valuable tool in bacterial genome sequencing since it generates long reads that span repetitive elements and facilitates full-length plasmid or chromosome assembly. Nanopore technology enables rapid characterization of large, low-copy-number plasmids and their rearrangement products.

  10. Glowworm swarm optimization algorithm based on max-min luciferin%一种最大最小萤光素值人工萤火虫算法

    刘佳昆; 周永权


    针对基本人工萤火虫算法存在着易陷入局部极小和进化后期收敛速度慢等缺点,提出了一种最大最小萤光素值人工萤火虫算法.该算法在萤光素值更新过程中,对荧光素的变化范围加以限定,给出最大最小萤光素值范围,从而避免算法陷入局部最优.通过八个典型函数测试,实验结果表明所提出的算法具有较强的全局搜索能力,且能有效地避免早熟现象,从而提高了人工萤火虫算法整体性能.%The algorithm of glowworm swarm optimization is easy to fall into local optimization, and has the low speed of convergence in the late. In order to solve these problems, this paper raised a glowworm swarm optimization algorithm based on max-min luciferin. This algorithm in luciferin value update process joined the maximum minimum luciferin value range to avoid the algorithm into local minimum. Through eight typical functions testing, experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has strong global searching capability, and can effectively avoid precocious phenomenon, thus obviously improving the optimization global ability.

  11. Hémophagocytose et coagulation intravasculaire disséminée au cours de la leishmaniose viscérale de l'adulte: trois nouveaux cas

    Boukhris, Imène; Azzabi, Samira; Chérif, Eya; Kéchaou, Ines; Mahjoub, Sonia; Kooli, Chékib; Aoun, Karim; Khalfallah, Narjes


    Les atteintes cliniques et biologiques communes au syndrome d'activation macrophagique (SAM) et à la leishmaniose viscérale (LV) rendent le diagnostic étiologique du SAM très difficile. Cette association est rare et grave. Nous rapportons trois nouvelles observations de SAM secondaire à une LV, compliquées de coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (CIVD). Il s'agissait de trois hommes, âgés respectivement de 31, 20 et 60 ans. Le tableau était fait de fièvre et de splénomégalie associés à une pancytopénie et une CIVD. Le diagnostic de LV était fait par le myélogramme, les sérologies et la polymerase chain reaction. Chez l'un de nos patients, une deuxième sérologie était nécessaire. Tous nos patients étaient traités par Glucantime® avec une bonne évolution. Un cas de pancréatite aigue était noté. En en zones d'endémie, devant un SAM compliqué de CIVD, une LV doit être recherchée, en répétant si nécessaire certaines explorations initialement négatives. Le pronostic dépend de la rapidité du traitement spécifique. PMID:26848343

  12. Factors regulating community composition of methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria in brackish marsh sediments in the Min River estuary, southeastern China

    She, C. X.; Zhang, Z. C.; Cadillo-Quiroz, H.; Tong, C.


    Assessing the diverse communities of methanogenic Archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is important to understand methane (CH4) production in wetland ecosystems. However, the vertical distribution of composition and diversity, and the effects of environmental factors on the methanogen and SRB communities in the sediments of subtropical estuarine brackish marshes have been poorly characterized. To assess the effects of variable environmental conditions on methanogenic and SRB communities in marshes, we studied three brackish marsh zones dominated by Phragmites australis, Cyperus malaccensis and Spartina alterniflora, respectively, in the Min River estuary, southeastern China. Methanogens of the Methanomicrobiales order was the dominant group at sediment depths of 0-30 cm, which indicated that the main pathway of methane production was H2/CO2 in this zone. In general, methanogens of the genus Methanoregula were dominant in the three marsh zones. For SRB, Desulfobacterales was the dominant group, and Desulfobacterium and Desulfosarcina were the predominant genera at the depth of 0-30 cm. The community composition of methanogens and SRB changed with vegetation type and soil depth. Compared with SRB, vegetation type demonstrated a stronger influence on the community composition of methanogens. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further revealed that the main factors affecting the methanogens community composition were EC (electric conductivity) and pH, and the main factors affecting SRB community composition were pH, SOC and TN, suggesting that pH is a common factor influencing the community compositions of both methanogen and SRB in the sediments of brackish marshes.

  13. Modulation of pancreatic MIN6 insulin secretion and proliferation and extrapancreatic glucose absorption with Achillea santolina, Eryngium creticum and Pistacia atlantica extracts: in vitro evaluation

    Lara Majdalawi


    Full Text Available Objective: The present in vitro studies aimed to investigate the pancreatic and extrapancreatic effects of crude aqueous extracts (AE of Achillea santolina L, Eryngium creticum Lam, and Pistacia atlantica Desf utilized in Jordan diabetes ethnomedicine. Methods: Bioassays of β-cell proliferation and insulin secretion as well as glucose diffusion as possible modes of action were recruited. Results: Similar to L-alanine insulinotropic efficacy in MIN6 β-cell, glucose-stimulated Ca2+ regulated- insulin secretion was potentiated by AEs of E.creticum (0.01 mg/ml and P.atlantica (0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/ml. A.santolina AE, however, was found ineffective. Comparable to glucagon-like peptid-1-enhanced β-cell proliferation in 2-day treatment wells, a dose dependent augmentation of bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was obtained with the A.santolina AE (0.05-1 mg/ml, and E.creticum AE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/ml. P.atlantica concentrations lacked pancreatic proliferative capacity. While A.santolina and E.creticum AEs proved inactive, P.atlantica inhibited dose dependently overnight glucose movement in vitro, as effectively as guar gum diffusional hindrance in a simple glucose dialysis model. Conclusion: Current findings signify the in vitro diverse therapeutic antidiabetes properties of the selected medicinal plants. Future directives may assess the use of A.santolina, E.creticum and P.atlantica as new potential sources of functional foods or nutraceuticals or active leads into diabetes type 2 pharmacotherapy. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 245-254

  14. A novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantification of glycine as biomarker in brain microdialysis and cerebrospinal fluid samples within 5min.

    Voehringer, Patrizia; Fuertig, René; Ferger, Boris


    Glycine is an important amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and a useful biomarker to indicate biological activity of drugs such as glycine reuptake inhibitors (GRI) in the brain. Here, we report how a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the fast and reliable analysis of glycine in brain microdialysates and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples has been established. Additionally, we compare this method with the conventional approach of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FD). The present LC-MS/MS method did not require any derivatisation step. Fifteen microliters of sample were injected for analysis. Glycine was detected by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. The total running time was 5min. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was determined as 100nM, while linearity was given in the range from 100nM to 100μM. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the LC-MS/MS method, we measured glycine levels in striatal in vivo microdialysates and CSF of rats after administration of the commercially available glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitor LY 2365109 (10mg/kg, p.o.). LY 2365109 produced 2-fold and 3-fold elevated glycine concentrations from 1.52μM to 3.6μM in striatal microdialysates and from 10.38μM to 36μM in CSF, respectively. In conclusion, we established a fast and reliable LC-MS/MS method, which can be used for the quantification of glycine in brain microdialysis and CSF samples in biomarker studies.

  15. Mineralogy, provenance, and diagenesis of a potassic basaltic sandstone on Mars: CheMin X‐ray diffraction of the Windjana sample (Kimberley area, Gale Crater)

    Bish, David L.; Vaniman, David T.; Chipera, Steve J.; Blake, David F.; Ming, Doug W.; Morris, Richard V.; Bristow, Thomas F.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Baker, Michael B.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Downs, Robert T.; Filiberto, Justin; Glazner, Allen F.; Gellert, Ralf; Thompson, Lucy M.; Schmidt, Mariek E.; Le Deit, Laetitia; Wiens, Roger C.; McAdam, Amy C.; Achilles, Cherie N.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Farmer, Jack D.; Fendrich, Kim V.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Morookian, John Michael; Newcombe, Megan E.; Rice, Melissa S.; Spray, John G.; Stolper, Edward M.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Yen, Albert S.


    Abstract The Windjana drill sample, a sandstone of the Dillinger member (Kimberley formation, Gale Crater, Mars), was analyzed by CheMin X‐ray diffraction (XRD) in the MSL Curiosity rover. From Rietveld refinements of its XRD pattern, Windjana contains the following: sanidine (21% weight, ~Or95); augite (20%); magnetite (12%); pigeonite; olivine; plagioclase; amorphous and smectitic material (~25%); and percent levels of others including ilmenite, fluorapatite, and bassanite. From mass balance on the Alpha Proton X‐ray Spectrometer (APXS) chemical analysis, the amorphous material is Fe rich with nearly no other cations—like ferrihydrite. The Windjana sample shows little alteration and was likely cemented by its magnetite and ferrihydrite. From ChemCam Laser‐Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) chemical analyses, Windjana is representative of the Dillinger and Mount Remarkable members of the Kimberley formation. LIBS data suggest that the Kimberley sediments include at least three chemical components. The most K‐rich targets have 5.6% K2O, ~1.8 times that of Windjana, implying a sediment component with >40% sanidine, e.g., a trachyte. A second component is rich in mafic minerals, with little feldspar (like a shergottite). A third component is richer in plagioclase and in Na2O, and is likely to be basaltic. The K‐rich sediment component is consistent with APXS and ChemCam observations of K‐rich rocks elsewhere in Gale Crater. The source of this sediment component was likely volcanic. The presence of sediment from many igneous sources, in concert with Curiosity's identifications of other igneous materials (e.g., mugearite), implies that the northern rim of Gale Crater exposes a diverse igneous complex, at least as diverse as that found in similar‐age terranes on Earth. PMID:27134806

  16. Mouth rinsing with a sweet solution increases energy expenditure and decreases appetite during 60 min of self-regulated walking exercise.

    Deighton, Kevin; Duckworth, Lauren; Matu, Jamie; Suter, Matthew; Fletcher, Charlotte; Stead, Samuel; Ali, Shaho; Gunby, Neil; Korsness, Keelie


    Carbohydrate mouth rinsing can improve endurance exercise performance and is most ergogenic when exercise is completed in the fasted state. This strategy may also be beneficial to increase exercise capacity and the energy deficit achieved during moderate-intensity exercise relevant to weight control when performed after an overnight fast. Eighteen healthy men (mean (SD); age, 23 (4) years; body mass index, 23.1 (2.4) kg·m(-2)) completed a familiarisation trial and 3 experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants performed 60 min of treadmill walking at a speed that equated to a rating of perceived exertion of 13 ("fairly hard"). Participants manually adjusted the treadmill speed to maintain this exertion. Mouth rinses for the experimental trials contained either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution with sweetener (CHO), a taste-matched placebo (PLA), or water (WAT). Appetite ratings were collected using visual analogue scales and exercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were calculated from online gas analysis. Increased walking distance during CHO and PLA induced greater energy expenditure compared with WAT (mean difference (90% confidence interval); 79 (60) kJ, P = 0.035, d = 0.24; and 90 (63) kJ, P = 0.024, d = 0.27, respectively). Appetite area under the curve was lower in CHO and PLA than WAT (8 (6) mm, P = 0.042, d = 0.43; and 6 (8) mm, P = 0.201, d = 0.32, respectively). Carbohydrate oxidation was higher in CHO than PLA and WAT (7.3 (6.7) g, P = 0.078, d = 0.47; and 10.1 (6.5) g, P = 0.015, d = 0.81, respectively). This study provides novel evidence that mouth rinsing with a sweetened solution may promote a greater energy deficit during moderate-exertion walking exercise by increasing energy expenditure and decreasing appetite. A placebo effect may have contributed to these benefits.

  17. Three dimensional co-culture of MIN6 cells and liver-derived perfusion-decellularized bioscaffold for potential clinical practice%肝脏脱细胞支架与MIN6细胞三维共培养移植治疗Ⅰ型糖尿病实验研究

    朱沙俊; 王雷


    Objective:To observe the growth and function of primary mouse islets in the liver decellularized bioscaf-fold (LDB). At the same time, a new method of tissue engineering for treatment of diabetes was explored. Methods: The whole mouse liver was perfused by using detergent through hepatic portal vein in a continuous way and the whole liver de-cellularized bioscaffold was manufactured with the complete structure. The MIN6 cells cultured in the 3D bioscaffold. Then the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, insulin immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. qRT-PCR was conducted for the functional gene of INS1 and INS2 to further illuminate its function. The function of the recellularized pancreatic scaffold was monitored in vivo. Results:The liver decellularized bioscaffold, the extracellular cell matrix (ECM) of the LDB maintained their original round shape after decellularization and demonstrated a complete lack of nuclear staining as well as a complete network of blood vessel. Insulin gene expression was displayed, and the expression level of insulin in LDB was greater than that of the plate culture with statistical signifi-cance (P<0.05). MIN6 cells grown in the scaffold were better than those cultured on the culture dish. The recellularized pancreatic scaffold can control the blood glucose of the diabetic mice. Conclusion:LDB 3D culture system showed cell vi-ability with effective insulin secretion.%目的:通过体外制备小鼠肝脏脱细胞支架并种植MIN6细胞,观测其定植生长并检测其功效发挥,为体外构建胰岛素分泌器官提供理论基础。方法:灌注法制备全肝脏脱细胞支架,将小鼠MIN6细胞种植入支架中于三维培养体系中培养,通过苏木精-伊红染色、胰岛素免疫组化分析及荧光定量聚合酶链反应检测其功效。检测MIN6细胞功能基因Insulin表达。将种植MIN6细胞的肝脏脱细胞支架移植入糖尿

  18. The clinical application of combined analysis of neonatal umbilical artery blood pH and 1 min Apgar score%新生儿脐动脉血pH值联合1 min Apgar评分检测的应用



    目的 探讨新生儿脐动脉血pH值联合1 min Apgar检测的应用价值.方法 选取分娩新生儿206例为研究对象,其中临床诊断胎儿窘迫92例,无胎儿窘迫114例.胎儿娩出后立即行脐动脉血气分析和1 min Apgar评分,依据是否胎儿窘迫和1 min Apgar评分分组,并追踪新生儿结局.结果 (1)胎儿窘迫组中脐动脉血pH值<7.20者70例(76.1%),无胎儿窘迫组中为56例(49.1%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).(2)新生儿1 min Apgar评分>7分者中脐动脉血pH值<7.20者46例(40.4%),而Apgar评分≤7分者中为73例(79.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).(3)脐动脉血气及Apgar评分对新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病(HIE)的预测:HIE发生26例.Apgar评分≤7分对HIE诊断敏感度为88.5%,特异性为61.7%;pH值<7.20对HIE诊断的敏感度76.9%,特异性45.0%.联合检测对HIE诊断的敏感性为90.5%,特异性为55.0%.结论 血气分析是Apgar评分的补充,二者结合能增加对HIE诊断的特异性.

  19. Minęło już pół wieku... Powstanie i działalność Wydawnictwa Naukowego UAM

    Iwona Wegner-Maruszewska


    Full Text Available W roku 2012 Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM obchodzi 50-lecie istnienia – działa od roku 1962 jako jednostka ogólnouczelniana Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Publikuje przede wszystkim monografie naukowe (w 50 seriach tematycznych, podręczniki, skrypty, słowniki, a także 25 czasopism naukowych (również w językach obcych. Rocznie ukazuje się około 150 tytułów. Za swoje osiągnięcia edytorskie wielokrotnie otrzymywaliśmy nagrody, na Krajowych Targach Książki Akademickiej ATENA, Wrocławskich Targach Książki Naukowej, Nagrody Klio na Targach Książki Historycznej, nagrody Stowarzyszenia Wydawców Szkół Wyższych im. ks. Edwarda Pudełki za najlepszy podręcznik akademicki oraz dyplomy i wyróżnienia w kolejnych edycjach Poznańskiego Przeglądu Nowości Wydawniczych, organizowanego przez Bibliotekę Raczyńskich. Nasze książki prezentowane były na międzynarodowych wystawach polskiej książki naukowej organizowanych przez Stowarzyszenie Wydawców Szkół Wyższych w: Paryżu, Londynie, Lwowie, Rzymie, Sztokholmie, Wilnie, Pradze, Kijowie, Petersburgu, Dniepropietrowsku, Watykanie, Wiedniu, Madrycie, a także na międzynarodowych targach książki we Frankfurcie, Londynie, Moskwie, Zagrzebiu, Győr (Węgry i Pekinie. Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM jest pomysłodawcą i głównym organizatorem Poznańskich Dni Książki Naukowej, odbywających się nieprzerwanie od 1997 roku i gromadzących wydawców z całej Polski. Miejscem corocznych targów książki jest Hol Wielki Collegium Maius. Wydawnictwo jest jednym z członków założycieli Stowarzyszenia Wydawców Szkół Wyższych oraz członkiem Polskiego Towarzystwa Wydawców Książek.

  20. Caracterização e tratamento de alguns minérios de manganês utilizados para a produção de ferro-ligas, com ênfase no comportamento do As, Pb, Cd, Hg e Zn

    Reis, Érica Linhares


    Neste trabalho, foram realizadas a caracterização física, química e mineralógica de 10 tipologias de minérios de manganês, provenientes das três principais minas do Brasil, sendo elas, Morro da Mina, Urucum e Azul. Da mina de Morro da Mina foram examinadas as tipologias de minérios de manganês sílico-carbonatados ROM de 1a, ROM de 2a e ROM de 3a, de Urucum os minérios tipo óxido Standard e Baixo Fósforo e os minérios tipo óxido do Azul, denominados Maciço, Detrítico, Pelito Rico, Pelito Tabul...

  1. The study of effect of glucagon on proliferation and insulin secretion of MIN6 cell%胰升血糖素对MIN6细胞增殖活力及胰岛素分泌影响的研究

    李思源; 吴媛媛; 李军; 张震; 周婷


    目的:讨论不同浓度胰升血糖素(Glg)及葡萄糖(Glu)对MIN6胰岛β细胞株胰岛素分泌和细胞增殖活力的影响。方法采用不同浓度的Glu(2.8、16.7 mmol/L)及Glg(100、500、1000 ng/L)处理MIN6细胞,ELISA测定细胞上清液中胰岛素的含量,MTT 法测定各组细胞增殖活力,收集整理实验数据并进行统计分析。结果(1)胰岛素含量:单纯Glu处理后,16.7 mmol/L组高于2.8 mmol/L组(P<0.001);单纯Glg处理后,1000 ng/L组高于100 ng/L组和500 ng/L组(P<0.01或 P<0.001);2.8 mmol/L Glu加不同浓度Glg处理后,2.8 mmol/L Glu+1000 ng/L Glg组高于2.8 mmol/L Glu+100 ng/L Glg组和2.8 mmol/L Glu+500 ng/L Glg组(P<0.001),2.8 mmol/L Glu+500 ng/L Glg组高于2.8 mmol/L Glu+100 ng/L Glg组(P<0.001);16.7 mmol/L Glu加不同浓度Glg处理后,16.7 mmol/L Glu+1000 ng/L Glg组高于16.7 mmol/L Glu+100 ng/L Glg组和16.7 mmol/L Glu+500 ng/L Glg组(P<0.001),16.7 mmol/L Glu+500 ng/L Glg组高于16.7 mmol/L Glu+100 ng/L Glg组(P<0.001);(2)细胞增殖活力:2.8 mmol/L Glu加不同浓度Glg处理后,各组细胞活力变化比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);生理浓度 Glu(5.6 mmol/L)加不同浓度 Glg 处理后,与无 Glg 组比较,其他 Glg 组增高[(0.36±0.06) vs (0.50±0.06),(0.59±0.10),(0.54±0.03)ng/L ,P<0.05或 P<0.01];16.7 mmol/L Glu加不同浓度Glg处理后,与16.7 mmol/L Glu+1000 ng/L Glg组比较,16.7 mmol/L Glu+100 ng/L Glg、16.7 mmol/L Glu+500 ng/L Glg及无Glg组降低[(0.94±0.15) vs (0.66±0.06),(0.68±0.14),(0.68±0.03)ng/L ,P<0.01]。结论 Glg可能通过葡萄糖依赖的方式促进MIN6胰岛β细胞株胰岛素分泌,并增加细胞的增殖活力。%Objective To explore the influence of glucagon on insulin

  2. Análise das velocidades: referencial de 4mM, de equilíbrio de 30 min e velocidade crítica em nadadoras adolescentes Velocities analysis: 4 mM reference, 30 min steady-state and critical velocity in female adolescent swimmers

    Emilson Colantonio


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados do cálculo da velocidade de limiar anaeróbio (Lan, correspondente a 4mM de lactato, obtidos em testes de 2 x 400m (V4-2, 4 x 400m (V4-4 e a velocidade crítica (VC relacionando-as com a velocidade média determinada no teste de 30 min (VMT30 em nadadoras adolescentes. METODOLOGIA: Participaram deste estudo 20 nadadoras (14,36 ± 1,22 anos; 52,75 ± 5,32kg; 159,97 ± 11,26cm; 22,5 ± 4,73% gordura corporal de nível regional e estadual com pelo menos dois anos de treinamento sistemático. Testes realizados: Teste de 30 min (VMT30, Teste de duas distâncias (V4-2, Teste de quatro distâncias (V4-4 e Velocidade Crítica (VC. Análise estatística: o procedimento adotado para a comparação de todas as metodologias, duas a duas, foi a técnica de análise de regressão simples. RESULTADOS: As velocidades médias dos testes foram: VMT30: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s; V4-2: 1,14 ± 0,12m/s; V4-4: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s e a VC média: 1,14 ± 0,07m/s. Análise de regressão simples entre as metodologias duas a duas: V4-4 e V4-2 (r = 0,324, VC e V4-2 (r = 0,058, VMT30 e V4-2 (r = 0,595, VC e V4-4 (r = 0,807, VMT30 e V4-4 (r = 0,796 e VMT30 e VC (r = 0,677. As retas de regressão ajustadas apresentaram em relação à bissetriz os valores de p = 0,3060; 0,1716 e 0,0058. CONCLUSÕES: A determinação da VMT30 constitui-se em um bom instrumento para a prescrição de treinamento para as nadadoras estudadas, o que nem sempre ocorre com o modelo V4-2; a [La] de 4mM com quatro pontos e o cálculo do limiar de lactato através da técnica de efeitos aleatórios, mostrou-se viável para a determinação do Lan para as nadadoras, quando comparada com a VMT30; a VC e V4-4 apresentaram boa correlação assim como a VC e VMT30.OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the calculation of the anaerobic threshold velocity (AT, corresponding to 4 mM lactate, obtained in 2 x 400 m (V4-2, 4 x 400 m (V4-4 tests and critical velocity (CV relating to the mean

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the gD gene of pseudorabies virus Min-A strain%伪狂犬病病毒Min-A株gD基因的克隆及其真核表达质粒的构建

    胡涛; 崔保安; 王岩; 祁小乐; 王丽娟


    参考GeneBank收录的伪狂犬病病毒gD基因的序列设计了一对引物,对PRV Min-A株进行了PCR扩增,扩增产物克隆于pGEM-T Easy载体.对重组质粒PGTE-gD进行限制性内切酶分析和基因测序,证实了克隆片段的可靠性.测序结果表明目的片段包含一个1203bp的开放性阅读框(ORF),编码400个氨基酸组成的多肽.将gD基因亚克隆至真核表达载体pcDVA3.1-的CMV启动子下游,构建了真核表达质粒pcDNA-gD,为下一步基因免疫奠定了基础.

  4. MInD: moving in the dark.

    Pepino, A; Sicignano, G; Rovani, M; D'Addio, G


    Visually-impaired people can develop several unhealthy behaviors, including the lack of physical activity or sports, due to the incomplete maturity in the control of their body in the space. This research focuses on the creation of an "exergame" - a videogame especially designed to stimulate physical exercise - that, through voice commands, allows the visually impaired users to practice physical activity and train their abilities. This tool has been developed starting from an existing dance-game, by generating some appropriate interfaces that also involve the sensory channel of sight. Our research aims to study the effects related to this exergame on the motor control mechanism in a blind children's group, aged between 8 and 13 years: it focuses also on the joint use of movement analysis systems and of videogames in order to stimulate the physical activity in these subjects.

  5. Max–min distance nonnegative matrix factorization

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been a popular representation method for pattern classification problems. It tries to decompose a nonnegative matrix of data samples as the product of a nonnegative basis matrix and a nonnegative coefficient matrix. The columns of the coefficient matrix can be used as new representations of these data samples. However, traditional NMF methods ignore class labels of the data samples. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised NMF algorithm to improve the discriminative ability of the new representation by using the class labels. Using the class labels, we separate all the data sample pairs into within-class pairs and between-class pairs. To improve the discriminative ability of the new NMF representations, we propose to minimize the maximum distance of the within-class pairs in the new NMF space, and meanwhile to maximize the minimum distance of the between-class pairs. With this criterion, we construct an objective function and optimize it with regard to basis and coefficient matrices, and slack variables alternatively, resulting in an iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on three pattern classification problems and experiment results show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised NMF methods.

  6. 3min. poster presentations of B01

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations from ILEWG International conferences held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. Priorities for scientific investigations include: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), historical records, astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The ILEWG technology task group set priorities for the advancement of instrumenta-tion: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems. The ILEWG ExogeoLab pilot project was developed as support for instru-ments, landers, rovers,and preparation for cooperative robotic village. The ILEWG lunar base task group looked at minimal design concepts, technologies in robotic and human exploration with Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Man-Machine interface and performances. The ILEWG ExoHab pilot project has been started with support from agencies and partners. We discuss ILEWG terrestrial Moon-Mars campaigns for validation of technologies, research and human operations. We indicate how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. Co-Authors: ILEWG Task Groups on: Science, Technology, Robotic village, Lunar Bases , Commercial and Societal aspects, Roadmap synergies with other programmes, Public en-gagemnet and Outreach, Young Lunar Explorers.

  7. Hvorfra min verden går

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    uddannelsessystemet med re-ference til dette systems optik konstitueret gennem forskellen bedre/værre og ikke i den form, de antager i den teoretiske didaktik. Denne forståelse af forholdet mellem didaktik og uddannelse/undervisning bidra-ger til udvikling af didaktikken på flere måder: For det første ved...... bliver kausalitetsrelationer altså no-get, der formes og tilskrives i systemet, det vil sige mellem systemets elementer, frem for en beskrivelse af relationer mellem systemer. Når undervisningen iagtta-ger, at de studerende løser de stillede opgaver rigtigt og tilskriver dette egne ydel-ser, siger denne...

  8. Mure : [luuletused] / Rafit Min ; tlk. Arvo Valton

    Min, Rafit


    Sisu: Mure ; Külas ; "Vaid headust ihkab hing meil ikka alati..." ; "Mu valuvaevas rõõm veel pidu peab..." ; "Vabaks lennuks mul lootused kustuvad taas..." ; Hullumaja õuel ; Kuldne tuul ; Viimne rändaja ; Lollide haigus ; "Me ajas tusases ma pole tuisutuul...". Luuletused paralleelselt udmurdi ja eesti keeles

  9. Association of Pulse Pressure, Arterial Elasticity, and Endothelial Function With Kidney Function Decline Among Adults With Estimated GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Peralta, Carmen A.; Jacobs, David R.; Katz, Ronit; Ix, Joachim H.; Madero, Magdalena; Duprez, Daniel A.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Kramer, Holly J.; Palmas, Walter; Herrington, David; Shlipak, Michael G.


    Background The association of subclinical vascular disease and early declines in kidney function has not been well studied. Study Design Prospective cohort study Setting & Participants MESA participants with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 with follow-up of 5 years Predictors Pulse pressure (pulse pressure), small and large arterial elasticity (SAE, LAE), and flow mediated dilation. Outcomes kidney function decline Measurements SAE and LAE were measured by pulse contour analysis of the radial artery. Kidney function was measured by serum creatinine- and cystatin C-based eGFR. Results Among 4,853 adults, higher pulse pressure and lower SAE and LAE had independent and linear associations with faster rates of kidney function decline. Compared to persons with pulse pressure 40–50mmHg, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.29 (p=0.006), 0.56 (p70mmHg, respectively. Compared to the highest quartile of SAE (most elastic), eGFRSCysC decline was 0.26 (p=0.009), 0.35 (p=0.001), and 0.70 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for the second, third and fourth quartiles respectively. For LAE, compared to the highest quartile, eGFRSCysC decline was 0.28 (p=0.004), 0.58 (p<0.001), and 0.83 (p<0.001) ml/min/1.73m2/year faster for each decreasing quartile of LAE. Findings were similar with creatinine-based eGFR. In contrast, among 2,997 adults with flow-mediated dilation and kidney function measures, flow-mediated dilation was not significantly associated with kidney function decline. For every 1-SD greater flow-mediated dilation, eGFRSCysC and eGFRSCr changed by 0.05 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.3) and 0.06 ml/min/1.73m2/year (p=0.04), respectively. Limitations We had no direct measure of GFR, in common with nearly all large population based studies. Conclusions Higher pulse pressure and lower arterial elasticity, but not flow-mediated dilation, were linearly and independently associated with faster kidney function decline among persons with eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2. Future studies investigate whether

  10. Effect of maternal and post weaning folate supply on gene-specific DNA methylation in the small intestine of weaning and adult Apc+/Min and wild type mice.

    Jill Ann Mckay


    Full Text Available Increasing evidence supports the developmental origins of adult health and disease hypothesis which argues for a causal relationship between adverse early life nutrition and increased disease risk in adulthood. Modulation of epigenetic marks, e.g. DNA methylation and consequential altered gene expression, has been proposed as a mechanism mediating these effects. Via its role as a methyl donor, dietary folate supply may influence DNA methylation. As aberrant methylation is an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC pathogenesis, we hypothesised low maternal and/or post-weaning folate intake may influence methylation of genes involved in CRC development. We investigated the effects of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation on selected gene methylation in the small intestine (SI of wild type (WT and Apc+/Min mice at weaning and as adults. We also investigated the effects of folate depletion post-weaning on gene methylation in adult mice. Female C57Bl6/J mice were fed low or normal folate diets from mating with Apc+/Min males to the end of lactation. A sub set of offspring were killed at weaning. Remaining offspring were weaned on to low or normal folate diets, resulting in 4 treatment groups of Apc+/Min and WT mice. p53 was more methylated in weaning and adult WT compared with Apc+/Min mice (p>0.001. Igf2 and Apc were hypermethylated in adult Apc+/Mi n compared with WT mice (p=0.004 & p=0.012 respectively. Low maternal folate reduced p53 methylation in adults (p=0.04. Low post-weaning folate increased Apc methylation in Apc+/Min mice only (p=0.008 for interaction. These observations demonstrate that folate depletion in early life can alter epigenetic marks in a gene specific manner. Also, the differential effects of altered folate supply on DNA methylation in WT and Apc+/Min mice suggest that genotype may modulate epigenetic responses to environmental cues and may have implications for the development of personalised nutrition.

  11. Caracterização de misturas de rejeitos de minério de ferro melhoradas com adição de cimento com vistas à aplicação em estradas e aterros

    Oliveira,Tales Moreira de


    Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma campanha de ensaios de caracterização das propriedades físico-mecânicas e hidráulicas de misturas de rejeitos provenientes do beneficiamento de minério de ferro, com e sem adição de cimento Portland composto com escória, tipo CP II-E-32, visando à aplicação em camadas de pavimentos rodoviários e à construção de aterros. As amostras de rejeito foram obtidas de pontos específicos dos processos de beneficiamento do minério de ferro pelos processos de flotação e ...

  12. Étude de la composition minérale et organique des liqueurs de thé et de leurs caractéristiques organoleptiques : influence des paramètres physico-chimiques de l'eau

    Mossion, Aurélie


    L'analyse de la composition organique et minérale d'infusions réalisées avec différentes variétés de thés et différentes eaux a permis de montrer que la physico-chimie de l'eau (composition, pH, température) contrôle l'extraction des composés présents dans les feuilles et les propriétés organoleptiques des liqueurs obtenues. Le calcium, en particulier, présent sous forme libre, diminue l'extraction des éléments minéraux, des polyphénols et de la caféine du fait de sa grande affinité pour les ...

  13. Intestinal carcinogenesis of two food processing contaminants, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, in transgenic FVB min mice expressing human sulfotransferases.

    Svendsen, Camilla; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Alexander, Jan; Knutsen, Helle K; Hjertholm, Hege; Rasmussen, Tone; Husøy, Trine


    Humans express sulfotransferases (SULTs) of the SULT1A subfamily in many tissues, whilst the single SULT1A gene present in rodents is mainly expressed in liver. The food processing contaminants, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are bioactivated by human SULT1A1 and SULT1A2. FVB multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, which spontaneously develop tumors and flat aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in intestine, were crossed with transgenic FVB mice expressing human SULT1A1 and 1A2 (hSULT) in several tissues, giving rise to wild-type and Min mice with and without hSULT. One-week-old Min mice with or without hSULT were given HMF (375 or 750 mg/kg bw) or saline by gavage three times a week for 11 wk. In another experiment, the F1 generation received subcutaneous injections of 50 mg/kg bw PhIP or saline 1 wk before birth, and 1, 2, and 3 wk after birth. HMF did not affect the formation of tumors, but may have induced some flat ACF (incidence 15-20%) in Min mice with and without hSULT. No control mouse developed any flat ACF. With the limitation that these putative effects were weak, they were unaffected by hSULT expression. The carcinogenic effect of PhIP increased in the presence of hSULT, with a significant increase in both incidence (31-80%) and number of colonic tumors (0.4-1.3 per animal). Thus, intestinal expression of human SULT1A1 and 1A2 might increase the susceptibility to compounds bioactivated via this pathway implying that humans might be more susceptible than conventional rodent models.

  14. "肤敏"膏抑制小鼠变应性接触性皮炎机制的研究%Experimental Study on "Fu Min" Gao Inhibiting Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Murine Model

    李静平; 李庆生; 李杰


    目的:研究"肤敏"膏滋剂对小鼠变应性接触性皮炎(ACD)的抑制作用,探讨其作用机理.方法:以DNFB和FITC分别建立小鼠ACD模型.采用ELISA法检测ACD小鼠产生干扰素-γ (IFN-γ)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、白介素4和6(IL-4、IL-6)的水平及"肤敏"膏对4种细胞因子的作用.结果:口服不同剂量"肤敏"膏对4种细胞因子均有显著或不同程度的抑制作用(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:"肤敏"膏对小鼠ACD疗效可能通过抑制Th1/Th2细胞因子而发挥作用.%Objective: To investigate the mechanism of "Fu Min" Gao inhibiting allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in murine model. Methods:The murine model of allergic contact dermatitis by topical DNCB and FITC were used. After oral administration of "Fu Min" Gao in different doses, The levels of IFN - γ,TNF - α, IL - 4 and IL - 6 in the serum of these mice were detected by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Result: Different doses of "Fu Min" Gao inhibited the expression of these four cytokines to different degrees. ( P <0.05 or P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of "Fu Min" Gao on murine ACD may be played by inhibiting the expression of some cytokines of helper T lymphocyte.

  15. A Review of Tao min "Flowers" since the 1980s%20世纪80年代以来洮岷"花儿"研究述论



    洮岷"花儿"是流行在洮州、岷州一带的民歌,自上世纪80年代以来洮岷"花儿"的研究摆脱了建国前至建国初期附属于搜集整理的地位,形成了独立的文化领域;研究工作也从个人的单独行为转化为群体性的有组织活动;研究注重论证性和理论性,成果丰硕,不少研究领域都有所突破.对洮岷"花儿"从起源、功能观,音乐结构、演唱风格,思想内容、艺术特点,表演场域、演唱形式、发展前景,美学价值以及对其内容所表现的社会和文化信息等诸方面的研究进行梳理与探讨,有助于洮岷"花儿"研究的进一步深化.%Tao min Flowers is very popular along Taozhou and Minzhou. Since 1980s, research into Tao min Flowers has lifted from the status of collection and sorting out and become an independent cultural field and changed from individual work to mass activity. Some outstanding accomplishments have been obtained. The study of its origin, functions, musical structure, performing style, content, artistic style, performing sites and aesthetic value as well as the social and cultural information can help deepen the research of Tao min Flowers.

  16. Long QT syndrome-associated mutations in the S4-S5 linker of KvLQT1 potassium channels modify gating and interaction with minK subunits.

    Franqueza, L; Lin, M; Shen, J; Splawski, I; Keating, M T; Sanguinetti, M C


    Long QT syndrome is an inherited disorder of cardiac repolarization caused by mutations in cardiac ion channel genes, including KVLQT1. In this study, the functional consequences of three long QT-associated missense mutations in KvLQT1 (R243C, W248R, E261K) were characterized using the Xenopus oocyte heterologous expression system and two-microelectrode voltage clamp techniques. These mutations are located in or near the intracellular linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domains, a region implicated in activation gating of potassium channels. The E261K mutation caused loss of function and did not interact with wild-type KvLQT1 subunits. R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits formed functional channels, but compared with wild-type KvLQT1 current, the rate of activation was slower, and the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation was shifted to more positive potentials. Co expression of minK and KvLQT1 channel subunits induces a slow delayed rectifier K(+) current, I(Ks), characterized by slow activation and a markedly increased magnitude compared with current induced by KvLQT1 subunits alone. Coexpression of minK with R243C or W248R KvLQT1 subunits suppressed current, suggesting that coassembly of mutant subunits with minK prevented normal channel gating. The decrease in I(Ks) caused by loss of function or altered gating properties explains the prolonged QT interval and increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden death associated with these mutations in KVLQT1.

  17. Terminologie minière et métallurgique des auteurs de l'Antiquité, des alchimistes et des minéralogistes jusqu'à Haüy (1743-1822)

    Maréchal, Jean R.


    International audience; Les idées des Anciens sur les métaux en général et les minéraux nous paraissent parfois relever de la pure fantaisie et pourtant elles devaient avoir leurs origines dans l'observation de la nature, mais aussi dans les idées préconçues qu'ils avaient de cette nature, c'est ainsi qu'ils avaient le même nom pour l'or mêlé d'argent et l'ambre (orichalque), le plomb et l'étain (plumbum).

  18. 杨惠民教授治疗老年类风湿关节炎经验%Experience of Therapy Elderly Rheumatoid Arthritis by Professor YANG Hui-min



    Introducing the therapy experience of elderly rheumatoid arthritis hy Professor YANG Hui-min, summarizing the pathogenic factors and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, dividing elderly rheumatoid into activity and stability of treatment.%介绍杨惠民教授治疗老年类风湿关节炎经验,总结老年类风湿关节炎的病因病机,将老年类风湿关节炎分活动期与稳定期进行治疗.

  19. Evaluation of Ecosystem Services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve%闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值评价



    According to the theories of ecological economics and resource economics, a comprehensive evaluation of ecosystem services of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was carried out based on existing survey data in order to protect the wetland and provide a scientific basis for public decision-making. The Ecosystem service value of Min River Estuary Wetland Nature Reserve was estimated at RMB 4966.l×104. The components of the ecosystem services were ranked on their values as: climate regulation> cultural carrier> biodiversity conservation>provision of goods.%研究运用生态经济学和资源环境经济学等有关理论和研究方法,利用前人已有调查资料,对闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值做了较全面的评价,拟为保护湿地和公共决策提供科学依据.闽江河口湿地自然保护区生态系统服务价值为4 966.1万元/a.按照价值量大小排序为:调节气候价值>文化载体价值>保护生物多样性价值>提供产品价值.

  20. Olive oil prevents benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis through altered B(a)P metabolism and decreased oxidative damage in Apc(Min) mouse model.

    Banks, Leah D; Amoah, Priscilla; Niaz, Mohammad S; Washington, Mary K; Adunyah, Samuel E; Ramesh, Aramandla


    Colon cancer ranks third in cancer-related mortalities in the United States. Many studies have investigated factors that contribute to colon cancer in which dietary and environmental factors have been shown to play an integral role in the etiology of this disease. Specifically, human dietary intake of environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has generated interest in looking at how it exerts its effects in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preventative effects of olive oil on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis in adult Apc(Min) mice. Mice were assigned to a control (n=8) or treatment group (n=8) consisting of 25, 50 and 100-μg B(a)P/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in tricaprylin [B(a)P-only group] or olive oil daily via oral gavage for 60 days. Our studies showed that Apc(Min) mice exposed to B(a)P developed a significantly higher number (Polive oil. Treatment of mice with B(a)P and olive oil significantly altered (Polive oil. Lastly, olive oil promoted rapid detoxification of B(a)P by decreasing its organic metabolite concentrations and also decreasing the extent of DNA damage to colon and liver tissues (Polive oil has a protective effect against B(a)P-induced colon tumors.

  1. Contribution of Fragmentary Argumentation of Qi Min Yao Shu to the Construction of Accounting Culture%《齐民要术・杂说》对会计文化建设的贡献


      贾思勰《齐民要术・杂说》对会计文化的贡献很多,包括提高利用固定资产效率、预测决策、实地考察、区别对待、调节市场、提高效益等思想,其对中国会计文化建设的核心贡献就在于合理有效运用“资产”。%Qi Min Yao Shu written by Jia Sixie has made great contributions to accounting culture , including:improving the efficiency of using fixed assets , decision predicting, taking field trips, dealing with different lands in different ways, adjusting the market, improving effectiveness and so on.The contribution of Qi Min Yao Shu to the construction of Chinese accounting culture lies in that it teaches a lesson of how to make use of "assets"reasonably and effectively.

  2. A vida cotidiana na Educação Infantil: da ação reflexiva às minúcias da prática educativa

    Altino José Martins Filho


    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta resultados de pesquisa realizada numa instituição de educação infantil na região da Grande Florianópolis/SC. O estudo descreve e analisa as diferentes minúcias da vida cotidiana no exercício da docência. Na pesquisa estreitou-se elos entre a Pedagogia da Infância e a Sociologia do Cotidiano, buscando interfaces interdisciplinares de modo compreender a docência como atividade reflexiva. A metodologia utilizada foi o estudo de caso, com registros escritos e fotográficos. A principal contribuição situa-se na compreensão que a ação reflexiva em torno das diferentes minúcias da vida cotidiana, possibilita entender a complexidade da própria vida vivida no coletivo da instituição educativa. Palavras-chave: Educação infantil; docência; professora de educação infantil; vida cotidiana.

  3. Mortality rates across 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels among adults with and without estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2: the third national health and nutrition examination survey.

    Holly Kramer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies exploring the association between 25[OH]D levels and mortality in adults with and without kidney disease utilized 25[OH]D thresholds that have recently been scrutinized by the Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary References Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. OBJECTIVE: We explored all-cause mortality rates across the spectrum of 25[OH]D levels over an eighteen-year follow-up among adults with and without an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 20 ng/ml after adjustment for all covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of presence of eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2, mortality rates across groups with 25[OH]D levels 20-40 ng/ml are similar.

  4. Modélisation spatiale des flux organiques et minéraux assurant la productivité durable des agroécosystèmes culture-élevage dans le sahel nigérien

    DJABY Bakary


    L’agriculture et l’élevage occupent plus de 80% de la population des zones semi-arides de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Ces populations en tirent l’essentiel de leur alimentation et de leurs revenus. L’un des problèmes de cette agriculture est la pauvreté des sols. Dans les pays comme le Niger où prédominent les agroécosystèmes culture élevage, le rôle du bétail dans le recyclage de la matière organique et des éléments minéraux azote, phosphore et potassium peut constituer un atout pour l’augmentatio...

  5. Comparaison de l'usage d'huiles d'origine végétale ou minérale pour la lubrification de chaines de tronconneuse.

    Bieswal, Marc; Debouche, Charles; Van Belle, Laurent


    Des études en laboratoire ont montré que les huiles végétales présentent un pouvoir lubrifiant supérieur aux huiles minérales dans le domaine de la lubrification limite (Kabuya 1995). Par ailleurs, des chiffres avancés dans la littérature ou par des fournisseurs de lubrifiants annoncent la possibilité de réduire la consommation de lubrifiant en passant à un lubrifiant à base d'huile végétale. Des chiffres de réduction d'usure sont aussi avancés par des constructeurs de tronçonneuses. L'essai ...

  6. 姜树民教授从痈论治幽门螺杆菌阳性消化性溃疡经验%Experience of Professor JIANG Shu-min Treating Peptic Ulcer with Positive Hp Infection as Carbuncle



    Professor JIANG Shu-min brings up the idea that treat peptic ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori infection as carbuncle, he thinks peptic ulcer with positive Helicobacter pylori infection as internal-carbuncle, then makes treatments based on syndrome differentiation by using herbs which can regulate qi and activate blood circulation, and clear heat and detoxicate.%姜树民教授提出从痈论治幽门螺杆菌阳性的消化性溃疡,认为幽门螺杆菌阳性消化性溃疡乃内痈,运用理气活血、清热解毒药辨证施治.

  7. Ultra-large scale synthesis of high electrochemical performance SnO{sub 2} quantum dots within 5 min at room temperature following a growth self-termination mechanism

    Cui, Hongtao, E-mail:; Xue, Junying; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Minmin


    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} quantum dots were prepared at an ultra-large scale at room temperature within 5 min. • The grinding of SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O and ammonium persulphate with morpholine produces quantum dots. • The reactions were self-terminated through the rapid consumption of water. • The obtained SnO{sub 2} quantum dots own high electrochemical performance. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2} quantum dots are prepared at an ultra-large scale by a productive synthetic procedure without using any organic ligand. The grinding of solid mixture of SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O and ammonium persulphate with morpholine in a mortar at room temperature produces 1.2 nm SnO{sub 2} quantum dots within 5 min. The formation of SnO{sub 2} is initiated by the reaction between tin ions and hydroxyl groups generated from hydrolysis of morpholine in the released hydrate water from SnCl{sub 2}⋅2H{sub 2}O. It is considered that as water is rapidly consumed by the hydrolysis reaction of morpholine, the growth process of particles is self-terminated immediately after their transitory period of nucleation and growth. As a result of simple procedure and high toleration to scaling up of preparation, at least 50 g of SnO{sub 2} quantum dots can be produced in one batch in our laboratory. The as prepared quantum dots present high electrochemical performance due to the effective faradaic reaction and the alternative trapping of electrons and holes.

  8. 基于最小关联窗口的高光谱图像非监督分类%Unsupervised Classification of Hyperspectral Images Based on Min-related-window

    岳江; 柏连发; 张毅; 徐杭威


    为了提高分类精度和减少麻点现象,该文在最小关联窗口模型基础上,提出了一种高光谱图像非监督分类方法.首先该方法推导了一个目标辨识量——泛光谱曲线;基于此辨识量和图像空间一致性,提出了像元最小关联窗口继承式分类.类间距离使用巴氏距离( Bhattacharyya distance)度量,将相似类合并,完成最终分类.最后利用美国AVIRIS数据进行性能评价,并分别与K均值(K-MEANS)和迭代自组织数据分析技术(ISODATA)进行了性能对比.实验结果表明,该方法分类精度和麻点现象均优于K-MEANS和ISODATA.%In order to improve classification accuracy and reduce discrete points, an unsupervised classification of hyperspectral images based on a min-related-window model is proposed. A variable called ex-spectral curve is introduced for target distinguishing;with this variable and spatial coherence property, the algorithm of inherited classification based on a pixel's min-related-window is proposed. Bhattacharyya distance is used to measure an interlayer distance,and similar classes are combined to achieve the classification. AVIRIS data are utilized to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, which is compared with K-MEANS and ISODATA. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms K-MEANS and ISODATA in classification accuracy and has less discrete points.

  9. 基于最大-最小蚁群系统的装配序列规划%Assembly Sequence Planning Based on Max-min Ant Colony System

    于嘉鹏; 王成恩; 王健熙


    An assembly sequence planning (ASP) method that combined the advantages of ant colony system (ACS) and max-min ant system (MMAS) is proposed. Several characteristics that adopted in the literatures of the ASP based on ant colony optimization (ACO) in the last decade are reviewed and compared, such as the optimization criterions, the assembly information models, the numbers of components in cases study. To identify good sequences more obviously, five optimization criterions are automatically quantified, including directionality, parallelism, continuity, stability and auxiliary stroke, and integrated into the multi-objective heuristic and fitness functions of ACO. To improve the search capability for the global best sequence based on geometric assembly feasibility, several measures are presented from the aspects of determining ant number, defining max-min pheromone, and the mechanisms of performance appraisal for initial components allocation and parallel components group enforcement. Then the ASP algorithm based on max-min ant colony system (MMACS) is proposed. An assembly planning system "AutoAssem" is developed based on Siemens NX platform, and the actual effectiveness of each optimization measure is testified through case study of a valve. Compared with priority rules screening, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization, the superiority of the algorithm in executive efficiency and sequence performance are analyzed.%提出一种结合了蚁群系统与最大-最小蚂蚁系统优点的装配序列规划(Assembly sequence planning,ASP)方法.对近十年基于蚁群优化的ASP文献中采用的优化指标、装配信息模型、实例零件数等进行综述和比较.为提高序列的装配效率区分度,研究方向性、并行性、连续性、稳定性和辅助行程等5项指标的自动量化方法,将其融入到蚁群优化多目标启发式函数和适应值函数中.为提高对最优序列的搜索能力,以装配几何可行性为基础,从

  10. Association entre les hormones sexuelles, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez des femmes ménopausées d'origine marocaine (étude transversale)

    El Maataoui, Aissam; Biaz, Asmae; El Boukhrissi, Fatima; El Machtani, Si; Dami, Abdellah; Bouhsain, Sanae; Bamou, Youssef; El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Ouzzif, Zhor


    Introduction Le présent travail se propose d’étudier la relation entre les hormones sexuelles, notamment l’œstradiol et l'indice de l’œstradiol libre, le sulfate de déhydroépiandrosterone et la sex hormone binding globulin, les marqueurs de remodelage osseux et la densité minérale osseuse chez une population de femmes marocaine ménopausées. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, menée sur une période de 6 mois d'octobre 2012 à fin avril 2013 et ayant fait participer deux cent deux (202). Résultats L’œstradiol et l'indice d’œstradiol libre (IEL) ont montré une corrélation négative respectivement à l'ostéocalcine (OC), à la crosslaps (β-CTX) et l'OC (ptravail montre que l'augmentation de l’âge et la diminution de l’œstradiol libre expliquent la diminution de la DMO au niveau du col du fémur, alors que l'augmentation du taux sérique de la SHBG et la diminution du poids expliquent la diminution de la DMO au rachis lombaire. PMID:26848353

  11. MIN {sup 14}C UBT: A combination of gastric basal transit and {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    Zubillaga, M.; Oliveri, P.; Calcagno, M.L.; Goldman, C.; Caro, R.; Mitta, A.; Degrossi, O.; Boccio, J


    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the {sup 14}C-urea breath test (UBT) performed at different times combined with the study of the gastric basal transit, which evaluates the intragastric displacement of a labeled solution under fasting conditions, has the advantage of being representative of the whole stomach surface and constitutes a non-aggressive test for the detection of H. pylori. This test, which has been called MIN {sup 14}C UBT, is a modification of the conventional {sup 14}C UBT in which low volumes of a solution of {sup 14}C-urea together with {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid are administered. The {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and has the great advantage of allowing the 'visualization' of the transit of the {sup 14}C-urea within the gastrointestinal tract. This modification allows the simultaneous determination of the production of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the place where this process occurs. The results show that there is a good correlation between the images obtained and the breath samples collected. We found that this test has a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 96% for H. pylori detection.

  12. 琴音沧海:一种缘分二重叙事--为二胡演奏艺术家闵惠芬而写%On Erhu Artist Min Huifen



    In Chinese erhu music, Min Huifen established a contemporary aesthetic idea of ethnic music with the ideas of impart and inherit, and specialized vocabulary interpretation of the folk art. She pursuit of the erhu art with unique perseverance and pure, her wishful Chinese folk music that through her lively art history showed the unique spiritual feeling of an excellent.%闵惠芬在中国二胡音乐中,以专业化语汇诠释了民间艺术的音韵,以传承、创新的理念树立了当代民族音乐的审美观念。她特有的执着与纯粹,对二胡艺术的追求、对中国民族音乐的希翼,透过她生动的艺术历程,释放出一位优秀艺术家独特的精神情怀。

  13. 从北京游民习艺所看传统慈善向近代慈善的转变%From Beijing You Min Workhouse Seeing Traditional Charity to Modern Charity



      清末到民国时期,中国传统的以收养为主的慈善救助方式已不能满足社会救助的需要,在完善传统慈善救助方式的同时,政府和社会大力提倡教养结合、以教为主的现代新式救助方式,其中,纯粹以教育为目的游民习艺所更能代表传统慈善向近代慈善转变的发展趋势,受到政府的重视和社会的推崇,并取得一定成效。%  In the late Qing dynasty to the period of the Repub-lic, the traditional Chinese charity relief way (adopt mainly) can not meet the needs of the social assistance. At the same time improving the traditional charity relief way, charitable institutions providing both support and education increased, which indicates that traditional Chi-nese charities started its transition to the modern style. Among them, You Min Workhouse who was pure to education for the purpose can better represent the trend. It got government's attention and was highly praised by society, and achieved good results.

  14. 100 m3/min往复式空压机长周期安全稳定运行研究%Study on Long, Safe and Stable Operation of 100 m3/min Reciprocating Air Compressor



    介绍了安徽晋煤中能化工股份有限公司100 m3/min往复式空压机的工况,针对影响机组长周期稳定、安全运行的问题,采取了优化设备结构和工艺结构的措施,优化结果表明:年创造经济效益16.28万元,实现了节能降耗的目的。%This paper introduces the working conditions of 100 m3/min reciprocating air compressor of Anhui Jinmei Zhongneng Chemical Co. , Ltd. To solve the problem affecting long, safe and stable operation of the unit, the author optimizes the structures of the equipment and the process. The opti-mization results show that it has gained 162 800 RMB yuan/a economic benefit and achieved its energy-saving and consumption-reducing purpose.

  15. Development of {sup 115}Cd/{sup 115m}ln generator for industrial and environmental applications; Desenvolvimento de um gerador de {sup 115}Cd/{sup 115m}In para aplicacoes industriais e ambientais

    Camargo, Fernanda Cristina Fonseca


    Indium isotopes, {sup 111}In, '1{sup 13}ln and {sup 115}In are widely used as radiotracers in industrial and environmental applications. {sup 113m}ln generators can be found in the international market. However they are manufactured by only a few companies worldwide, are rated at rather high prices and not always are available for sale (they are frequently manufactured only upon request). Hence it is of interest to produce the equipment in the country in which it will be used, especially if the parent nuclide can be also produced there. In Brazil, the ideal situation would be to produce a {sup 115}Cd/{sup 115m}In generator, whose target precursor is the '1{sup 14}Cd. Preliminary tests using non-enriched and inactive CdO were developed. The parent and daughter nuclides were separated flowing the eluate containing the chemical species Cd (II) and In (III) through ion exchange resins, Ag11A8, Chelex100 and Oowex 1 x8. 0.1 M, 1 M and 2M HCI and 2M HCI + 0.1 M NH{sub 4}CI solutions were tested as the eluant. The amount of Cd (l I) and In (III) eluted were determined by ICP-AES. The irradiation conditions of the target {sup 114}CdO were defined according to the neutron flux provided TRIGA MARK-I-R IPR reactor and the nuclear properties the of target. After to preliminary tests with the {sup 115}Cd/{sup 115m}In pair, column experiments were developed. Analyses were accomplished by gamma spectrometry to determine the presence of the {sup 115}Cd and {sup 115m}ln nuclides in the fractions eluted. Tests using the resin AG IIA8 and HCI I M eluent solution resulted in 100% adsorption of the Cd (11) and nearly 50% elution of In (III), corresponding to the best conditions for elution. Exposure to radiation can damage the resins, as the decrease in ion exchange capacity and change in volume of the polymer grains. Thus, columns packed with the chosen resin were exposed to radiation doses from 15 to 200 Gy, and eluted with the most effective eluent. The results showed that

  16. Individualizing pharmacotherapy in patients with renal impairment: the validity of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula in specific patient populations with a glomerular filtration rate below 60 ml/min. A systematic review.

    Willemijn L Eppenga

    Full Text Available The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formula is widely used in clinical practice to assess the correct drug dose. This formula is based on serum creatinine levels which might be influenced by chronic diseases itself or the effects of the chronic diseases. We conducted a systematic review to determine the validity of the MDRD formula in specific patient populations with renal impairment: elderly, hospitalized and obese patients, patients with cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis and human immunodeficiency virus.We searched for articles in Pubmed published from January 1999 through January 2014. Selection criteria were (1 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 60 ml/min (/1.73 m2, (2 MDRD formula compared with a gold standard and (3 statistical analysis focused on bias, precision and/or accuracy. Data extraction was done by the first author and checked by a second author. A bias of 20% or less, a precision of 30% or less and an accuracy expressed as P30% of 80% or higher were indicators of the validity of the MDRD formula. In total we included 27 studies. The number of patients included ranged from 8 to 1831. The gold standard and measurement method used varied across the studies. For none of the specific patient populations the studies provided sufficient evidence of validity of the MDRD formula regarding the three parameters. For patients with diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis, hospitalized patients and elderly with moderate to severe renal impairment we concluded that the MDRD formula is not valid. Limitations of the review are the lack of considering the method of measuring serum creatinine levels and the type of gold standard used.In several specific patient populations with renal impairment the use of the MDRD formula is not valid or has uncertain validity.

  17. Effects of the addition of nitrogen and sulfate on CH4 and CO2 emissions, soil, and pore water chemistry in a high marsh of the Min River estuary in southeastern China.

    Hu, Minjie; Wilson, Benjamin J; Sun, Zhigao; Ren, Peng; Tong, Chuan


    Exogenous nitrogen (N) and sulfate (SO4(2-)), resulting from human activity, can strongly influence the emission of CH4 and CO2 from soil ecosystems. Studies have reported the effects of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions from inland peatlands and paddies. However, very few studies have presented year-round data on the effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on CH4 and CO2 emissions in estuarine marshes. The effects of the addition of N and SO4(2-) on the emission of CH4 and CO2 were investigated in a Cyperus malaccensis marsh in the high tidal flat of the Min River estuary of southeastern China from September 2014 to August 2015. Dissolved NH4Cl, KNO3, and K2SO4 were applied every month, in doses of 24gN/SO4(2-)m(-2)·yr(-1). The emission of CH4 and CO2 showed distinct monthly and seasonal variations. Compared with the control, the addition of NH4Cl and NH4NO3+K2SO4 showed increases in CH4 fluxes (p0.05). NH4Cl had a positive impact on CO2 emissions (p0.05). Correlation analysis found that soil sulfate concentration, nitrogen availability and enzyme activity were the dominant factors influencing CH4 and CO2 variation. Our findings suggest that CH4 and CO2 emissions were influenced more by ammonium than by nitrate. We propose that the suppressive effect of additional sulfate on CH4 production is insignificant, due to which the inhibition may be overestimated in the estuarine brackish marsh.

  18. Une masculinité en crise à la fin du XVIIe siècle ? La critique de l'efféminé chez La Bruyère

    Cédric Corgnet


    Full Text Available L’efféminé est toujours un cas sexuel limite : homme aux airs féminins, il interroge l’innée de la nature sexuelle, critique les genres et leur définition explicitement physique. La fin du XVIIe siècle illustre cette tension chez les moralistes français et surtout chez La Bruyère dans ses Caractères où celui-ci interroge cette monstruosité générique à travers une analyse sémiologique. Mais cette tératologie n’est pas avant tout clinique mais sociale et morale : il nous avertit, par cet écart de genre, d’une corruption morale du monde tant par une sémiologie clinique que mythologique ovidienne ne cherchant pas le réalisme pathologique mais la filiation antique qui ante son ouvrage sur les Caractères Théophrastiens : philosophe plus que naturaliste.The effeminate is always a sexual limit case: man in the feminine sights, he questions the innate of the sexual nature, criticizes genders and their explicitly physical definition. The end of the XVIIth century illustrates this tension at the French moralists and especially in La Bruyère’s Characters where this one questions this generic monstrousness through a semiological analysis. But this teratology is not above all clinical but social and moral: he warns us, by this distance from gender, from a moral corruption of the world both by a clinical semiology and ovidian mythology not looking for the pathological realism but the antic filiation with Theophrast’s Characters : philosopher more than naturalist.

  19. Estudos por µXRF-Sincrotron de fluidos mineralizadores detectados em minérios uraníferos, ferríferos e depósitos epitermais

    Francisco Javier Rios


    Full Text Available O método de análise não-destrutivo denominado Microfluorescência de Raios X. (µSXRF, radiação Sincrotron tem sido utilizado recentemente em laboratórios de luz Sincrotron de vários países para identificar e, em situações especiais, quantificar elementos menores, maiores e traços em inclusões fluidas. Com esse intuito, a estação de µSXRF do LNLS (Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas foi utilizada para desenvolver estudos composicionais de inclusões fluidas em minerais transparentes (quartzo, adulária, esmeralda, piroxênio de diferentes jazidas minerais e minérios opacos de Ag e Fe.Synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence (SµXRF analysis is a non-destructive method that can be used to identify, and in special cases, to quantify major, minor, and trace elements present in fluid inclusions. In spite of the relevant results, this technique has been used only in a few studies, which, moreover, are mostly focused on either synthetic or natural fluid inclusions in transparent minerals. To investigate fluid inclusions in transparent and opaque minerals, the synchrotron radiation X-ray microprobe station from the µSXRF fluorescence beamline at the LNLS-Campinas was used. This analytical method has been proven to be efficient in the chemical characterization of the fluid inclusions constituents of some transparent (quartz, adularia, emerald, etc. and opaque minerals (pyrargyrite and hematite.

  20. Associations between fruit, vegetable and legume intakes and prostate cancer risk: results from the prospective Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort.

    Diallo, Abou; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Zelek, Laurent; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde


    Although experimental studies suggest that fruits, vegetables and legumes may exert protective effects against prostate carcinogenesis through various bioactive compounds such as dietary fibre and antioxidants, epidemiological evidence is lacking. Notably, very few prospective studies have investigated the relationship between legume intake and prostate cancer risk. Our objective was to prospectively investigate the association between fruit, vegetable, tomato products, potatoes and legume intakes and prostate cancer risk. This study included 3313 male participants to the SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort (follow-up: 1994-2007) who completed at least three 24-h dietary records during the first 2 years of follow-up. Associations between tertiles of intake and prostate cancer risk were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. After a median follow-up of 12·6 years, 139 incident prostate cancers were diagnosed. An inverse association was observed between prostate cancer risk and tertiles of legume intake (hazard ratio (HR)T3v.T1=0·53; 95 % CI 0·34, 0·85; P trend=0·009). This association was maintained after excluding soya and soya products from the legume group (HRT3 v.T1=0·56; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·89; P trend=0·02). No association was observed between prostate cancer risk and tertiles of intakes of fruits (P trend=0·25), vegetables (P trend=0·91), potatoes (P trend=0·77) and tomato products (P trend=0·09). This prospective study confirms the null association between fruit and non-starchy vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk observed in most previous cohorts. In contrast, although very few prospective studies have been published on the topic, our results suggest an inverse association between legume intake and prostate cancer risk, supported by mechanistic plausibility. These results should be confirmed by large-scale observational and intervention studies.

  1. 闽南明海法宝禅师与越南南方佛教史%Minghai Fabao-the Zen master of southern Min and the history of Vietnamese southern Buddhism



    十七世纪下半叶,越南南方阮主政权推动国民与外国商人贸易、发展经济、定居等。当时,外国人经常来往于顺化、会安两港,华商也到两港市定居并认识越南文化。因此中国南方佛教随著商船而传入越南南方并发展。因此广东、福建、浙江等省佛教僧人来越南南方传教,而其中的明海法宝禅师对越南南方佛教有很大的影响。本论文研究闽南人明海法宝在大越国南方传教,其宗派、弟子对越南南方文化有何贡献,以及至今有何影响。%In the second half of seventeenth century,the Nguy n lords of the Southern Vietnamese kingdom encouraged his subjects to do business with foreign traders,supported economic development, and gave priority to settlement of his people.At that time,the foreign travellers often visited two im-portant ports of this area:Thuan Hóa (顺化),and Hoi An (会安),many Chinese traders also settled down in these two entrepots as well.They had a good knowledge on Vietnamese culture.Following Chi-nese merchant vessels,Chinese southern Buddhism was spread into and developed its influence in the south of Vietnam.Many buddhists in Guangdong,Fujian,and Zhejiang came to the southern Vietnam for their Buddhist missions;and the Zen master Minghai Fabao was one of them and he was one of the most famous buddhists who had an important influence to the Vietnamese southern Buddhism.This pa-per examines the missionary activities of Minghai Fabao-the Zen master of southern Min,the development of his own sect of Buddhism,the influence and contribution of his followers toward Viet-namese culture,and the position of Minghai Fabao in the history of contemporary Vietnamese Bud-dhism as well.

  2. Modelo integrado de apoio ao planejamento da rede de serviços no transporte ferroviário de cargas: aplicação para transporte de minério de ferro

    Luciano Bandeira Campos


    Full Text Available

    Resumo: Apresenta-se um modelo de otimização para auxiliar o planejamento tático ferroviário com visão integrada da rede (operações em linha e pátios, e que foi aplicado ao transporte de minério de ferro numa conhecida ferrovia brasileira, considerando o efeito congestionamento. O problema é de programação não linear inteira, e a solução foi obtida por um aplicativo computacional disponível no mercado. O objetivo é facilitar o planejamento da rede de serviços: quais trens (serviços devem ser operados, sua frequência, e a sequência recomendada das operações e serviços desde a origem das cargas até o destino. A pesquisa de literatura identificou um modelo que, mediante adaptações, foi aplicado ao fluxo de trens com diferentes opções preestabelecidas de configuração, desde 11 pontos de origem até um terminal exportador e passando por três pátios intermediários, onde os trens podem ser combinados entre si. Os resultados variam conforme a abordagem adotada para a função objetivo, com diferenças significativas na frequência dos diversos serviços disponíveis e no uso dos pátios intermediários.

    Abstract: This paper presents an optimization model developed to help tactical planning at railroads with an integrated view of the network (line and yard operations. The model was applied to iron ore transportation in a well-known Brazilian railroad, considering congestion effects. This is an integer nonlinear problem, which was solved by an optimization package. The objective is to help decision making related to service network design: which trains (services should run, how frequently and what should be the recommended sequence of activities to be performed at intermediate yards from origin to destination of cargo. Literature research identified a model that could be modified and adapted to the flow of different predefined train consist options, which are operated from 11 mines

  3. 岷江上游景观边界效应影响因子分析%Analysis of Edge Influence's Affecting Factors in Min River upper Reaches' Landscape

    问青春; 李秀珍; 贺红士; 陈欣; 仇伟光; 张丽华; 李丽光; 李月辉


    边界效应受多种因子影响,在不同时空尺度下表现出不同的边界效应深度.目前关于边界效应深度影响因子的研究只有少量定性报道,缺少定量分析.以岷江上游林农边界为例,分析了生物量边界效应深度的影响因子.应用GIS软件,将边界类型图与数字高程图、土地利用图、降雨数据的叠加,获取边界所处海拔、坡度、坡向、降雨以及边界两侧斑块面积.在SPSS软件中对已获得的边界效应深度与以上诸因子进行多元线性回归分析.研究结果表明:林农边界效应深度与海拔和坡度存在显著线性回归关系,呈负相关,即海拔越低、坡度越小边界效应深度越大;坡向对边界效应深度影响较小,降雨和林块面积对边界效应深度影响不明显.%A variety of factors affect edge influence, edge influence depths vary in different time and space scales. At present, only small amount of qualitative researches on edge influence depth's affecting factors were reported, furthermore quantitative analysis researches lack, thus more researches, especially quantitative researches, are needed. This paper analyzed affecting factors of biomass edge influence depth using data of the upper reaches of Min River forest and farmland boundaries. Using GIS software, we o-verlap boundary type map, digital elevation map, land-use map and rainfall data map to get elevations, slopes, aspects and precipitations of the edges and patch areas on both sides of the edges, which are further processed with DEI using multiple linear regression analysis method in SPSS. The results show that edge influence depth between forest and farmland is affected by elevation and slope evidently and there is negative correlation between them. When elevation and slope of the boundary is less, the DEI is broader. Aspect impacts DEI less obviously, while precipitation and patch area have no evident impacts on DEI.

  4. Comparative Study of Histological Characteristics of the Skeletal Muscle in Changbaishan Wild Boar and Northeast Min Pig%长白山野猪和东北民猪骨骼肌组织学特性比较

    秦宁; 徐日福; 张树敏; 李莫南; 包艳波; 王志贤; 姜建萍


    In this study, the technology of paraffin section and the digital imaging optical microscopy was conducted to observe the morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers of Changbaishan wild boars (CW) and Northeast Min pigs (NM), the muscle fiber diameters and densities of the longissimus dorsi, the biceps femoris, the quadriceps and deltoid from two breeds of 30 tested pigs at 40-day-age were determined and analyzed respectively. This result reveals that in the four kinds of skeletal muscle tissues, the diameters of muscle fibers in NM were significantly higher than those of CW breed ( P 0.05) in the same kind of skeletal tissues, respectively. For the same kind of skeletal tissues from the same gender, both the muscle fiber diameter difference and density differences between different porcine breeds were significantly different(P < 0.05), respectively. The muscle fiber diameters and densities of both CW and NM were significantly negatively correlated. Above all, the postnatal growth and development of the diameters and densities of the pigs' skeletal muscle fiber were considerably affected by breed effects, but the gender effect was not significant.%采用石蜡切片技术和光学显微数字成像方法观察长白山野猪和东北民猪骨骼肌组织的肌纤维形态特点,分别对两品种各30头供试猪40日龄时背最长肌、股二头肌、股四头肌和三角肌组织的肌纤维直径和密度进行显微测定和分析.结果表明:在4种骨骼肌组织中,东北民猪的肌纤维直径均显著大于长白山野猪的肌纤维直径(P<0.05),其肌纤维密度均显著低于长白山野猪的肌纤维密度(P<0.05).在同品种内,不同性别猪的同一种骨骼肌组织之间肌纤维的直径和密度差异不显著(P> 0.05);在不同品种间,同性别猪同一种组织之间肌纤维的直径和密度差异显著(P<0.05);长白山野猪和东北民猪的肌纤维直径和密度间均呈显著负相关.可见,至40

  5. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David


    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  6. Caracterização da parcela magnética de minério fosfático de carbonatito Characterization of the magnetic phase from carbonatitic phosphate ore

    Alysson A. Borges


    Full Text Available O rejeito magnético do Complexo Mineração de Tapira, Tapira - MG, onde se processa rocha fosfática, foi estudado. Suas principais características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas foram determinadas, assim como suas respostas a processos de concentração. A primeira etapa do trabalho envolveu análise granulométrica, análise química, difratometria de raios X, espectroscopia Mössbauer, microscopia ótica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Na segunda etapa, ensaios de separação magnética, flotação e lixiviação ácida foram realizados. O material sob estudo revelou-se composto essencialmente por magnetita, hematita (martita e ilmenita. A separação magnética resultou em recuperação metalúrgica de ferro acima de 96 %. Sabão sódico de ácido graxo vegetal (Hidrocol deu melhores resultados no processo de flotação, comparado ao desempenho de amina, quando empregados como coletores de silicatos e apatita, visando à depuração dos minerais portadores de ferro. A atrição preliminar ao condicionamento não influenciou sensivelmente a flotação. Os ensaios de lixiviação visaram a eliminação de fósforo, contaminante crítico nos minérios de ferro. O ácido acético extraiu 0,41 % do fósforo presente, enquanto o ácido clorídrico extraiu em torno de 73 % do fósforo. Estudos ulteriores de otimização de tais ensaios são recomendados, buscando o uso do material sob estudo em siderurgia.The characterization of the magnetic fraction of a tail from phosphate rock processing was done. Samples were from Tapira, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The main physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, as well as this material response to separation processes were determined. The first part of this work encompasses the mineralogical characterization (determination of particle size distribution, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In the second part, concentration

  7. 西秦岭岷县鹿儿坝金矿床地质特征及找矿远景%Geological characteristics and prospecting potentials of Lu'erba Gold Deposit in Min County,western Qinling

    刘云华; 安静; 李宗会; 丁文军; 罗根根; 戚新世; 李真


    鹿儿坝金矿床是西秦岭地区的一处中型金矿床,赋矿围岩主要为中三叠统光盖山组长英砂岩、粉砂岩及粉砂质板岩等。在对矿床野外地质特征、矿石矿物组成、矿石结构构造、成矿元素组合详细研究的基础上,认为该区金矿体主要受近EW向脆性断裂构造控制,与闪长玢岩脉关系密切;矿石中金属矿物主要为黄铁矿、毒砂、辉锑矿、闪锌矿;石英、黄铁矿、毒砂为主要载金矿物,矿石类型主要有蚀变构造角砾岩型、蚀变闪长玢岩型、脉状及浸染状硫化物型、褐铁矿化碎裂岩型;流体测温、矿物组合及蚀变特征显示本区为中低温热液金矿床;硫、铅同位素研究结果表明,成矿物质具有深源特征。结合区域矿床研究结果,认为鹿儿坝金矿床形成于印支末期,为与闪长岩脉有关的斑岩型-蚀变岩型金矿床,矿床剥蚀深度较浅,目前所见到金矿体可能大部分为闪长玢岩脉(体)上部破碎带中的蚀变岩型金矿床,深部具有较大的成矿和找矿潜力。%Lu'erba Gold Deposit in Min County is a middle gold deposit in western Qinling region.The deposit mainly lies in sandstones,siltstones and silty slates of middle triassic felsic Guanggaishan group.This paper based on the detailed study of Lu'erba Gold Deposit's field geological characteristics,ore mineral constituents,ore textures and structures and ore element association,identifies that the gold deposit is mainly controlled by EW brittle faults and has close relations with diorite-porphyrite;The main ore minerals are pyrite,arsenopyrite,stibnite and sphalerite.Pyrite, arsenopyrite and quartz are the main gold-bearing minerals.The types of ore are altered tectonic breccia,altered diori te-porphyrite,veined and disseminated sulfide ores and cataclastic rock of ferritization;Fluid temperature,mineral as-semblages and alteration features indicate that the area is

  8. Grau de saponificação de óleos vegetais na flotação seletiva de apatita de minério carbonatítico

    Jardel Alves de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Ensaios de flotação, em bancada, de amostras de minério fosfático granulado e friável de Tapira-MG foram efetuados, testando-se diferentes graus de saponificação de três coletores aniônicos: "Hidrocol parcialmente hidrogenado", "Hidrocol sem hidrogenação" (obtidos a partir de soja e ácido oléico. Os graus de saponificação usados foram de 40 %, 55 %, 70 %, 85 % e 100 %. Os ensaios foram feitos em pH 9,5. O óleo de babaçu, também cogitado como coletor, não permitiu grau de saponificação além de 40 %, mas serviu de controle da metodologia de quantificação do grau de saponificação. O Hidrocol parcialmente hidrogenado com grau de saponificação de 55 % foi o melhor, em termos de teor e recuperação de fósforo, relação CaO/P2O5 e teor de magnésia no concentrado, motivando testes de flotação em estágio de limpeza, sem e com a adição do coletor KE883B, um sulfosuccinato, também em pH 9,5, utilizando-se os óleos com grau de saponificação de 55 %. O Hidrocol parcialmente hidrogenado sem KE883B deu melhor resultado. Usou-se amido como depressor em todos os ensaios.Bench scale flotation experiments were performed testing three anionic collectors here called "partially hydrogenated Hidrocol", "non hydrogenated Hidrocol" (very similar oils from soybean and oleic acid, with saponification degrees of 40 %, 55 %, 70 %, 85 % and 100 %, in order to purify carbonatitic phosphate ores from Tapira. The value of flotation pH was 9.5. A refined babassu oil sample (extracted from the babassu palm seed kernel did not achieve a saponification degree above 40 %. Using the P2O5 content and recovery, the CaO/P2O5 ratio and MgO content of the concentrate as quality indicators, the best results were achieved with the saponification degree of 55%, for the oils tested. Cleaner lab flotation tests were carried out using the collectors with a saponification degree of 55%, at pH 9.5, in the absence and in the presence of KE883B (alkyl

  9. 煤矿开采对岩溶区水质及土壤的污染与评价%Effect of Coal Minning on Water Quality and Soil in Karst Area

    苏春田; 谢代兴; 唐健生; 李兆林; 潘晓东; 梁小平


    对研究区煤矿开采背景下的土壤和地表河进行了重金属含量分析,并进行了质量评价.结果表明,地表河S1~S8样点Zn、Cd、Cu、As含量最高的为S1,Cr含量最高的为S3,Ni含量最高为S4:S1、S4、S5水样污染因子均为Cd、Zn.S2、S3、S6水样污染因子为Zn,质量级别均为中等.综合因子指数最大的为S1,质量级别为中等,最小的为S8,质量级别为好.土壤T1~T6样地As、Cu、Cr、Cd、Pb、Ni、Zn含量最高的为T1,As、Cu、Cr、Pb、Ni含量最低的为T5,Cd含量最低的为T6,Zn含量最低的为T4,样地污染因子均为Cd,质量级多为很坏,综合质量级别为中等-坏-很坏.%The effect of coal minning on water quality and soil in karst area were studied. In Sl~S8 river samples, the contents of Zn, Cd, Cu, and As were highest in SI, the content of Cr and Ni were highest in S3 and S4 respectively. The pollution factors of S1, S4, and S5 were all Cd and Zn, while S2, S3, S6 was Zn, its quality level were all medium. The comprehensive factor index of S1 was the largest, its quality level was medium, while S8 was the smallest, its quality level was good. In T1~T6 soil samples, the contents of As, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn were the highest in T1 ,while the contents of As, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Ni were the lowest in T5, the contents of Cd and Zn were the lowest in T6 and T4 respectively. The Pollution factors of soil in T1~T6 were all Cd, the quality level were almost very had , and the comprehensive quality level were medium-bad-very bad.

  10. Design and Experiment of Portable Min i Low-sp eed Wind Tunnel%可移动微型低速风洞的设计与试验

    刘海洋; 孔丽丽; 陈智; 宣传忠; 宋涛; 司志民


    针对大型风洞造价昂贵,开机成本高且实验段风速稳定性较差,对低成本热敏风速传感器、集沙仪、皮托管等设备的测量、检验及标定等工作带来不便等问题,结合风洞设计原理,采用小体积多叶风机及高性能变频调速器,设计了一种能够快速准确地提供稳定风源的低成本可移动微型低速风洞,并通过增加大角度扩散段的方法提高收缩比。该风洞为圆形闭口低速风洞,总体尺寸长2.63m,入口直径60mm,实验段直径0.12m、长0.3 m,稳定段直径为0.36m、长0.36m;采用铝箔厚0.06mm的六边形蜂窝器和3层阻尼网对气流进行整流,获得相对稳定均匀的流场。实验表明:该风洞入口风速为0~38.6m/s,实验段风速0~17.6m/s,风速精度达0.2m/s;实验段内部气流均匀性和稳定性较好,中心截面处边界层厚2.26mm,沿气流方向静压梯度小,流场稳定部分占其截面积的70%以上,满足实验设计要求。%Because the large wind tunnels are expensive, high cost and poor stability of wind speed in experiment sec-tion, it brings inconvenient to measure, inspect and calibrate the low-cost thermal equipment, including wind speed sen-sors, sand samplers, pitot tubes.In this paper, according to the principle of wind tunnel design, a low-cost moveable mini low speed wind tunnel which can quickly and accurately provide air stability has been designed, using small volume and multi-blade centrifugal fan and high-performance variable-frequence governor.At the same time, a large angle dif-fuser has been added to improve the contraction ratio of the wind tunnel.It is a closed circular wind tunnel that is only 2. 63m in length and 60 mm in entrance diameter.Experimental section is 0.12m in diameter, and 0.3m in length.While the length and diameter of steady section are all 0.36m.In order to get a relatively stable and uniform flow field, a hexa

  11. A combination of high dose rate (10X FFF/2400 MU/min/10 MV X-rays) and total low dose (0.5 Gy) induces a higher rate of apoptosis in melanoma cells in vitro and superior preservation of normal melanocytes.

    Sarojini, Sreeja; Pecora, Andrew; Milinovikj, Natasha; Barbiere, Joseph; Gupta, Saakshi; Hussain, Zeenathual M; Tuna, Mehmet; Jiang, Jennifer; Adrianzen, Laura; Jun, Jaewook; Catello, Laurice; Sanchez, Diana; Agarwal, Neha; Jeong, Stephanie; Jin, Youngjin; Remache, Yvonne; Goy, Andre; Ndlovu, Alois; Ingenito, Anthony; Suh, K Stephen


    The aim of this study was to determine the apoptotic effects, toxicity, and radiosensitization of total low dose irradiation delivered at a high dose rate in vitro to melanoma cells, normal human epidermal melanocytes (HEM), or normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and to study the effect of mitochondrial inhibition in combination with radiation to enhance apoptosis in melanoma cells. Cells irradiated using 10X flattening filter-free (FFF) 10 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 400 or 2400 MU/min and a total dose of 0.25-8 Gy were analyzed by cell/colony counting, MitoTracker, MTT, and DNA-damage assays, as well as by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR in the presence or absence of mitochondrial respiration inhibitors. A dose rate of 2400 MU/min killed on average five-fold more melanoma cells than a dose rate 400 MU/min at a total dose of 0.5 Gy and preserved 80% survival of HEM and 90% survival of HDF. Increased apoptosis at the 2400 MU/min dose rate is mediated by greater DNA damage, reduced cell proliferation, upregulation of apoptotic genes, and downregulation of cell cycle genes. HEM and HDF were relatively unharmed at 2400 MU/min. Radiation induced upregulation of mitochondrial respiration in both normal and cancer cells, and blocking the respiration with inhibitors enhanced apoptosis only in melanoma cells. A high dose rate with a low total dose (2400 MU/min, 0.5 Gy/10X FFF 10 MV X-rays) enhances radiosensitivity of melanoma cells while reducing radiotoxicity toward HEM and HDF. Selective cytotoxicity of melanoma cells is increased by blocking mitochondrial respiration.

  12. Neonates recovering from neonates 1 minute Apgar scores 0-1 : perinatal factors and neurological outcome%影响1min Apgar评分0~1分新生儿的围产期因素及复苏后结局分析

    余彦亮; 张谦慎; 杨传忠; 朱小瑜


    目的 探讨影响1 min Apgar评分0~1分新生儿复苏结局的围产期因素、复苏过程及5 min Apgar评分对神经系统预后的影响.方法 回顾性分析2010-2013年4年间在本院分娩的1 min Apgar评分0~1分的重度窒息患儿围产期因素和复苏后的临床资料.结果 研究期间共有38例1 min Apgar评分0~1分患儿,1例放弃抢救,6例死亡,31例复苏成功患儿(81.6%)转入NICU进一步治疗,其中2例住院48 h内放弃治疗.1 min Apgar评分0~1分的围产期因素主要有胎盘早剥(9例)、早产(7例),先天畸形(4例)、羊水Ⅲ度污染(4例)、脐带异常(4例)和分娩困难(4例)等.31例成功复苏的0~1分重度窒息患儿中,5 min Apgar评分≤5分者(15例)脐动脉血气pH <7.0、早期有神经系统症状、头颅磁共振改变的比例均高于5 min评分>5分者(16例),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组脑瘫发生率差异无统计学意义(P =0.072).结论 积极有效的复苏可使绝大多数1 min Apgar评分0~1分新生儿抢救成功,5 min Apgar评分≤5分患儿是重点关注人群.

  13. CHOP-like chemotherapy with or without rituximab in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma: 6-year results of an open-label randomised study of the MabThera International Trial (MInT) Group

    Pfreundschuh, Michael; Kuhnt, Evelyn; Trümper, Lorenz;


    The MInT study was the first to show improved 3-year outcomes with the addition of rituximab to a CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone)-like regimen in young patients with good-prognosis diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. Extended follow-up was needed to establish long...

  14. Mexico Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (97)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for Mexico, North-Central America, and the Western Caribbean Sea shows the distribution of about one million terrestrial and marine...

  15. Hawaiian Islands Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (96)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands displays the distribution of about 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the National...

  16. Hip hurra, det er min fødselsdag. Eller?

    Hansen, Nils Gunder


    Den verdensberømte japanske forfatter Haruki Murakami har udvalgt 11 noveller og selv skrevet en 12., der alle kredser om fødselsdage. Det er melankolsk, mørk og frem for alt mesterlig læsning......Den verdensberømte japanske forfatter Haruki Murakami har udvalgt 11 noveller og selv skrevet en 12., der alle kredser om fødselsdage. Det er melankolsk, mørk og frem for alt mesterlig læsning...

  17. Alaska Gravity Data per 2 x 4 min Cell (96)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' gravity density grid for Alaska displays the distribution of about 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the National Geodetic Survey...


    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  19. A Zorgay Tibetan Childhood/ Min tibetanska barndom i Zorgay

    Kondro Tsering


    Full Text Available This autobiographical work describes the author's life growing up on the northeast Tibetan Plateau, in a farming community in Zorgay (Mdzod dge County, Rnga ba Tibetan and QIang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province. The original English text and a Swedish translation are provided.

  20. OnlineMin: A Fast Strongly Competitive Randomized Paging Algorithm

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel; Negoescu, Andrei


    n the field of online algorithms paging is one of the most studied problems. For randomized paging algorithms a tight bound of H k on the competitive ratio has been known for decades, yet existing algorithms matching this bound have high running times. We present the first randomized paging...... approach that both has optimal competitiveness and selects victim pages in subquadratic time. In fact, if k pages fit in internal memory the best previous solution required O(k 2) time per request and O(k) space, whereas our approach takes also O(k) space, but only O(logk) time in the worst case per page...

  1. Rør blot ikke ved min Thailands-tur

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf


    Klimabevidsthed er ved at blive en fast understrøm i danskernes kollektive bevidsthed. Men klimahensyn er dog langt fra lige så selvfølgeligt som hensynet til velfærd eller øget økonomisk vækst. Og hensyn til miljøet er ligefrem et ugyldigt argument i mange sammenhænge. F.eks. udløser det kold...

  2. U.S. Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (96)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for the conterminous United States displays the distribution of the about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  3. 2.5-min gravity grid of N. America

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dgrav gridded data set was produced by NGDC by regridding the Decade of North American (DNAG) 6-km gravity grid of N. America. A grid cell dimension of 2.5...

  4. Thresholded Covering Algorithms for Robust and Max-Min Optimization

    Gupta, Anupam; Ravi, R


    The general problem of robust optimization is this: one of several possible scenarios will appear tomorrow, but things are more expensive tomorrow than they are today. What should you anticipatorily buy today, so that the worst-case cost (summed over both days) is minimized? Feige et al. and Khandekar et al. considered the k-robust model where the possible outcomes tomorrow are given by all demand-subsets of size k, and gave algorithms for the set cover problem, and the Steiner tree and facility location problems in this model, respectively. In this paper, we give the following simple and intuitive template for k-robust problems: "having built some anticipatory solution, if there exists a single demand whose augmentation cost is larger than some threshold, augment the anticipatory solution to cover this demand as well, and repeat". In this paper we show that this template gives us improved approximation algorithms for k-robust Steiner tree and set cover, and the first approximation algorithms for k-robust Ste...

  5. Etude des phénomènes de pré-claquage et claquage de l'huile végétale à base de Jatropha Curcas comme substitut à l'huile minérale dans les équipements électriques haute tension

    SITORUS, Henry-B-H; Beroual, Abderrahmane; Setiabudy, Rudy; Bismo, Setijo


    Cet article porte sur une étude comparative d'une huile végétale à base de jatropha curcas (VO) et de l'huile minérale (MO) sur la base des tensions de claquage et des caractéristiques de génération et de propagation des streamers qui s'y développent. Nous montrons que les tensions de claquage de ce produit naturel et de l'huile minérale, déterminées selon la norme CEI 60156 et CEI 60897 en alternatif, continue et impulsionnel (choc foudre 1,2/50 μs) sont très proches. Aussi, les longueurs fi...

  6. Fatores perinatais associados a recém-nascidos de termo com pH<7,1 na artéria umbilical e índice de Apgar <7,0 no 5º minuto Perinatal factors associated with pH<7.1 in umbilical artery and Apgar 5 min <7.0 in term newborn

    Patrícia de Moraes De Zorzi


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores perinatais associados a recém-nascidos de termo com pHPURPOSE: To assess perinatal factors associated with term newborns with pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery and 5th min Apgar score<7,0. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study carried out after reviewing the medical records of all births from September/1998 to March/2008, that occurred at the General Hospital of Caxias do Sul. The inclusion criterion was term newborns who presented a 5th min Apgar score <7.0 and umbilical artery pH<7.10. In the univariate analysis, we used the Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables, the c² test for dichotomous variables and risk estimation by the odds ratio (OR. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Of a total of 15,495 consecutive births, 25 term neonates (0.16% had pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery and a 5th min Apgar score <7.0. Breech presentation (OR=12.9, p<0.005, cesarean section (OR=3.5, p<0.01 and modified intrapartum cardiotocography (OR=7.8, p<0.02 presented a significant association with the acidosis event. Among the fetal characteristics, need for hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (OR=79.7, p <0.0001, need for resuscitation (OR=12.2, p <0.0001 and base deficit were associated with the event (15.0 versus -4.5, p<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Low Apgar score at the 5th min of life associated with pH<7.1 in the umbilical artery can predict adverse neonatal outcomes.

  7. Patiesība par 15 minūšu slavu populārajā kultūrā: televīzijas realitātes šovu slavenības Latvijā pēdējo piecu gadu laikā (2008. gada 1. janvāris–2012. gada 31. decembris)


    Bakalaura darba „Patiesība par 15 minūšu slavu populārajā kultūrā: televīzijas realitātes šovu slavenības Latvijā pēdējo piecu gadu laikā (2008. gada 1. janvāris–2012. gada 31. decembris)” autore kā darba mērķi izvirzīja noskaidrot to cik ilgi ilgst televīzijas realitātes šovu slavenību 15 slavas minūtes un kādā kontekstā šīs slavenības tiek pozicionētas presē. Bakalaura darbs ir izstrādāts trīs daļās: teorētiskajā, metodoloģiskajā un empīriskajā. Teorētiskā daļa sevī ietver teorētiskā...

  8. Influence du type d’addition minérale sur les propriétés de transfert des Bétons AutoPlaçants Influence of the type of mineral admixtures on the transport properties of self compacting concrete

    Khelafi H.


    Full Text Available La formulation des bétons autoplaçants (BAP présente certaines spécificités dont un volume élevé de pâte et une quantité importante d’ajouts minéraux. Ces deux paramètres influencent sensiblement les propriétés de transfert de ces bétons. Dans ce travail, nous avons étudié l’influence de la nature et du pourcentage de plusieurs additions minérales sur certaines propriétés de transfert (la diffusion des ions chlore et la perméabilité au gaz des BAP. Trois différentes additions minérales ont été testées : des fillers calcaires, de la pouzzolane naturelle et des cendres volantes. Ensuite, nous avons cherché une probable relation analytique entre ces propriétés et la résistance à la compression de ces bétons. Au total, douze formulations ont été étudiées, elles couvrent trois différentes classes de résistances (30 MPa, 50 MPa et 70 MPa et quatre types de bétons: un béton ordinaire vibré, un BAP à base de pouzzolanes naturelles, un BAP à base de fillers calcaires et un BAP à base de cendres volantes. Les résultats montrent que la nature de l’addition minérale dans les BAP influe considérablement sur les propriétés de transferts de ces bétons. Après 28, 90 et 360 jours de cure, les BAP contenant de la pouzzolane naturelle représentent des performances très comparables à celles obtenues sur des BAP à base de cendres volantes et bien meilleures que celles obtenues sur des BAP formulés avec du filler calcaire. Indépendamment du type d’addition minérale, les résultats confirment l’existence d’une forte corrélation entre le développement de la résistance à la compression et les propriétés de transferts des BAP. Formulation of self compacting concrete (SCC has some specific characteristics including a high volume of paste and a large amount of mineral admixtures. These two parameters influence significantly the transport properties of SCC. In this work, we studied the influence of

  9. Influence of Exercise Modalities on Relative Aerobic Energy Contribution in 4 min Running and Cycling Time Trial%4 min跑步和自行车全力运动中运动方式对有氧供能比例的影响

    黎涌明; 陈小平; 乌里·哈特曼


    Aim The relative aerobic energy contribution is a fundamental characteristic of maxi‐mal exercises .Previous investigations have reported some values of relative aerobic energy con‐tribution ,or some correlation equation ,for different duration of maximal exercises ,without ver‐ifying the influence of exercise modalities .The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of exercise modalities on relative aerobic energy contribution in 4min running and cycling time trial .Methods This study recruited 16 amateur athletes from triathlon ,cycling ,and long‐dis‐tance running (33 .5 ± 10 .6 yrs ,180 ± 9cm ,75 .8 ± 8 .4 kg ,training experience 14 ± 10 yrs ) to participate in two 4min time trails ,with the exercise modalities of field‐running ,and ergom‐eter‐cycling .The energy contributions and oxygen uptake kinetics were compared for these two exercise modalities .We utilized a portable gas analyzer and a blood lactate analyzer to measure and assess the relative parameters .The energy contributions were calculated with the method based on the accumulated oxygen uptake ,and blood lactate during the maximal exercise ,as well as the fast component of the oxygen debt during the recovery .Results The results demonstra‐ted similar aerobic energy contributions (77 .0 ± 3 .8% vs .75 .9 ± 2 .6% ,P> 0 .05 ) ,similar phosphate energy contributions (11 .4 ± 2 .6% vs .10 .0 ± 2 .0% ,P>0 .05 ) ,but significantly different glycolysis energy contributions (11 .6 ± 3 .4% vs .14 .1 ± 3 .3% ,P 0 .05) ,but significant different in the slow component (0 .26 ± 0 .09 L/min vs .0 .54 ± 0 .32 L/min ,P< 0 .05) .Conclusion The results from the 4min time trials of running and cycling indicate seemly that the exercise modalities don ’ t influence the relative aerobic energy contribution in maximal exercises .This conclusion warrants future in‐vestigations which emphasize on more exercise modalities ,and more duration .%拟探究4 min全力跑步和自行车运

  10. 浅析闽浙赣革命根据地的党组织和军队建设-以古田会议决议为中心%On the Party Organization Construction and the Construction of the Min-Zhe-Gan Army Revolutionary Base -Around the Resolution of Gutian Meeting



    闽浙赣革命根据地,又被称为“方志敏式根据地”,是在土地革命战争时期中国共产党领导赣东北人民,经过艰难困苦、坎坷曲折的斗争建立和发展起来的。闽浙赣的党组织对革命新道路进行了勇敢探索,并开辟出了一种与“农村包围城市,武装夺取政权”的中国革命正确道路精神内核高度一致的根据地发展模式,其党组织和军队建设也是成功贯彻古田会议决议精神和原则的典范,为今天新形势下党组织建设、国防和军队建设提供了宝贵的经验和借鉴。%Min-Zhe-Gan army revolutionary base, also known as Fang Zhimin army Revolutionary base, was established by the people of north-east Jiangxi who were leadered by the Communist Party of China after difficult and rough fights. The CCP of the Min-Zhe-Gan army revolutionary base paid hard exploration on the new road of revolution and opened up a new pattern of development which was the same as the correct Chinese revolution road "Rural areas surrounding the city, seize political power by armed forces". The party organization construction and the construction of the Min-Zhe-Gan army revolutionary base is the successful implementation of spirit and principle of resolutions of Gutian meeting which provides valuable experience and reference to Party organization construction, national defense and army construction under the new situation.

  11. Effect of Clay Mineralogy and Exchangeable Cations on Permeability of Saudi Sandstone Reservoirs Effet de la minéralogie des argiles et des cations échangeables sur la perméabilité des réservoirs gréseux d'Arabie Saoudite

    Dahab A. S.


    Full Text Available Reservoir rocks are susceptible to formation damage during secondary recovery operations due to the particular mineralogical, textural and electrochemical properties of the clay minerals they contain. This damage can be explained by the swelling of indigeneous clays present, resulting in the constricting of pores, or by the dispersion of indigeneous nonswelling particle rearrangements during fluid flow, resulting in the plugging of the pore system, or by a combination of the two. This article describes a laboratory study showing the effect of clay mineralogy on the permeability of actual Saudi sandstone reservoirs during water flooding operations. The study shows that the permeability damage of Saudi sandstone reservoirs depends upon the amount of swelling clays and exchangeable ions as well as on the nature of these ions. Monovalent cations cause more damage than multivalent ones but within the same group of metals, those with smaller atomic mass cause more damage. Les roches réservoirs peuvent être endommagées pendant les opérations de récupération secondaire à cause des propriétés minéralogiques, texturales et électrochimiques particulières des minéraux argileux qu'elles contiennent. Cet endommagement peut s'expliquer, soit par le gonflement des argiles qui conduit à un rétrécissement des pores, soit par la migration de particules non gonflantes pendant l'écoulement des fluides qui entraîne le colmatage des milieux poreux, soit par une combinaison des deux mécanismes. Cet article présente une étude de laboratoire montrant l'effet de la minéralogie des argiles sur la perméabilité des roches réservoirs réelles d'Arabie Saoudite pendant des opérations d'injection d'eau. L'étude montre que l'endommagement de la perméabilité des roches réservoirs d'Arabie Saoudite dépend de la quantité d'argiles gonflantes et d'ions échangeables, ainsi que de la nature de ces ions. Les cations monovalents provoquent plus d

  12. 实验室信息管理系统在四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴监测工作中的应用%Application of Laboratory Information Management System in Ecological Compensation Water Monitoring of Funds Withholding for Cross -section Surface Water Quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province



    This article introduces the construction goal ,construction process and operation condition of laboratory information management system (LIMS) in ecological compensation water monitoring of funds withholding for cross -section surface water quality of Min and Tuo Rivers in Sichuan Province .On the basis of practice in the last two years ,it puts forward some suggestions for the construction of LIMS in environmental monitoring field .%介绍了四川省跨界断面水质资金扣缴工作环境监测实验室信息管理系统( LIMS)的构建目标、建设过程以及运行情况,在近两年的实际应用基础上,提出了实验室信息管理系统在环境监测领域建立的几点建议。

  13. A Sociolinguistic Survey of the Address Forms for Young Female Customers:A Case Study in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect%青年女性顾客称谓语的社会语言学调查--广东电白闽方言的个案研究



    广东电白闽方言区对青年女性顾客的通用称谓语是“靓妹”“靓姐”,极少使用“美女”称呼。根据电白闽方言区青年女性顾客的称谓语的使用频率来分析其原因,发现交际双方的爱美心理、称谓语本身的语音条件、商业交际场所的不同、发话者性别和年龄的差异、地方民俗文化色彩等因素对青年女性顾客的称谓语的选用有很大的影响和制约。%The common address forms for young female customers in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect area are “li-angmei” and “liangjie”, while “meinu” is rarely used.We analyze the reasons according to the Frequency of ad-dress forms for young female customers in Guangdong Dianbai Min Dialect area , and found that the factors influence and restrict the selection of address forms for young female customers are the love for beauty of the communicative parties, the voice conditions of the address forms , the difference of business communication places , the gender and age differences of the speakers and local folk culture.

  14. Effect of Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate on Cardiopulmonary Function and 6 min Walking Distance in Patients with Severe COPD%沙美特罗替卡松对重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者心肺功能及6 min步行距离的影响

    陈斌; 陈琼


    目的:探讨沙美特罗替卡松对重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者心肺功能及6 min步行距离的影响。方法选取2013年3月至2015年5月收治的重度COPD患者100例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各50例。对照组患者给予茶碱缓释片及N-乙酰半胱氨酸治疗,观察组患者在对照组治疗基础上吸入沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂,均治疗6个月,比较治疗前后血清中白细胞介素8(IL-8)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平的变化,以评估抗炎疗效,并记录心肺功能的变化,同时观察并比较两组患者治疗前后6 min步行距离(6MWD)及不良反应发生率。结果治疗后,观察组IL-8为(133.5±32.1)ng/L,TNF-α为(140.9±21.3)mg/L,显著低于对照组的(156.8±28.4)ng/L和(181.2±25.4)mg/L( P0.05)。结论沙美特罗替卡松对重度COPD患者肺功能及6MWD有一定影响,对患者的右心功能有明显改善作用,且安全性较好,值得临床应用。%Objective To investigate the effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate on cardiopulmonary function and 6 min walking distance in patients with severe COPD. Methods 100 cases of patients with severe COPD who were treated in the hospital from March 2013 to May 2015 were selected as the study objects and were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, 50 cases in each group. The control group was treated with theophylline sustained-release tablets and N-acetylcysteine. Based on this, the observation group inhaled salmeterol and fluticasone propionate powder inhalant. All patients were treated for 6 months. Serum inter-leukin 8(IL-8)and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)were compared before and after treatment between the two groups to evalu-ate the anti-inflammatory effect. The changes of cardiopulmonary function were recorded. Meanwhile,the 6 min walking distance (6MWD) and the incidence of adverse reactions were

  15. Caracterização tecnológica dos tipos de minério de fosfato do Complexo Alcalino de Salitre, MG - Área Fosfertil Technological characterization of phosphate ore types from the Salitre Alkaline Complex, MG - Fosfertil Area

    Daniel Uliana


    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de caracterização tecnológica de seis tipos de minério fosfático provenientes do Complexo de Salitre, tendo em vista definir a composição mineralógica das amostras e as características inerentes à apatita e ao minério relevantes para o beneficiamento mineral. Os teores de P2O5 variam de 9 a 25% e a proporção de finos (-0,020 mm situa-se entre 20 e 34% em massa com perdas associadas de 17 a 22% do total de P2O5 presente. As amostras são compostas, essencialmente, por apatita, oxi-hidróxidos de ferro, ilmenita, argilominerais, carbonatos, quartzo, piroxênio, perovskita, alumino-fosfatos e outros minerais acessórios, variando apenas suas proporções relativas. Verificou-se que a apatita ocorre, predominantemente, liberada já abaixo de 0,21 mm, com superfície límpida a fracamente impregnada por oxi-hidróxidos de ferro; a parcela altamente impregnada (não flotável varia de 6 a 9%. Do total de fósforo contido nas amostras, mais de 97% ocorre sob a forma de apatita (acima de 0,020 mm e a recuperação potencial estimada de P2O5 na etapa de flotação é superior a 90% (recuperação global estimada entre 71-76%.The present study was carried out on six different ore types from the Salitre Alkaline Complex aiming to determine their mineralogical composition and the major features that are relevant in the mineral processing. The P2O5 grades vary from 9 to 25%. The slime content (-0,020 mm varies between 20 and 34% (w/w and carries 17-22% of the P2O5 content. The samples essentially consist of apatite, iron oxi-hydroxides, ilmenite, clayminerals, carbonate, quartz, pyroxene, perovskite, secondary phosphates and other minor accessory minerals. Below 0.21 mm, apatite essentially occurs in free particles showing a clean surface or a weak coating of iron oxi-hydroxides; the highly covered apatite (not recoverable by flotation varies from 6 to 9%. In the deslimed fraction (above 0.020 mm more than 97% of

  16. Influence de la nature chimique et minéralogique des argiles et du processus de fabrication sur la qualité des carreaux céramiques Influence of chemical and mineralogical nature of clay and manufacturing process on the quality of ceramic tiles

    Sadik C.


    Full Text Available La présente étude correspond à une approche pluridisciplinaire menée en étroite collaboration entre des géologues, des chimistes et des industriels de la céramique. Les résultats confirment l’étroite relation existante entre la composition des argiles et la qualité du produit céramique final. Les briquettes obtenues, dans les mêmes conditions, à partir de deux argiles marocaines assez différentes du point de vue chimique et minéralogique, présentent des caractéristiques technologiques bien distinctes. l’utilisation d’adjuvants minéraux, bien sélectionnés, contribue à l’équilibrage des argiles brutes et conduit à une nette amélioration de la qualité du produit céramique, notamment une réduction de leur retrait à la cuisson et une augmentation de leur résistance à la flexion. Concernant l’effet du processus de fabrication, l’application de l’engobe et de l’émail, s’avère être à l’origine de bombement des carreaux lors de la cuisson, en raison vraisemblablement de la différence des coefficients de dilatation des deux milieux argile et émail. This study is conducted in a multidisciplinary collaboration between geologists, chemists and industrial ceramics. The results confirm the close ralatioship existing between the composition of clays and quality of the finished ceramic pieces. The obtained specimens, under the same conditions, from two moroccan clays that are different on the chimico-mineralogical point of view, present distinct technological characteristics. The use of well selected mineral adjuvants, contributes to the balancing of raw clays and leads to a marked improvement in the quality of the ceramic product, including a reduction on their firing shrinkage and an increase of flexural strength. Concerning the effect of the manufacturing process, the application of the glaze, turns out to be the cause of bulging tiles during firing, probably because of the difference in thermal

  17. Study on ecological translation of"Sun Tzu's art of war"--English translation of Min Fude's works%《孙子兵法》的生态翻译英译研究--闵福德的英译作品



    Ecology, combines with other disciplines, translation adapt to the cultural environment, forming the ecological translation. Eco-translatology is the translation of an ecological perspective, the essence is the translator to translate to adapt to the ecological environment. It provides a theoretical tool for the translation of"Sun Tzu's art of war", the translators to make adaptation and selection. English translation of works of Min Fude is the paradigm to use ecological translation in"Sun Tzu's art of war".%生态学与其他学科结合,翻译适应了文化环境,就形成了生态翻译。生态翻译学是一种生态学视角的翻译研究,实质是译者为适应翻译生态环境做出的翻译。它为《孙子兵法》的英译研究提供了理论工具,译者在翻译环境中做出不同的适应和选择,适者生存,优胜劣汰。闵福德的英译作品是运用生态翻译于《孙子兵法》的范例。

  18. Impact of Mineralogy and Diagenesis on Reservoir Quality of the Lower Cretaceous Upper Mannville Formation (Alberta, Canada Impact de la minéralogie et de la diagenèse sur la qualité des réservoirs de la Formation Mannville Supérieur, Crétacé Inférieur (Alberta, Canada

    Deschamps R.


    space where the clay content is reduced. Additional SEM and XRD analyses allowed characterizing and quantifying more accurately the different mineralogical phases occluding the porous network. The characterization of both mineralogy and petrophysical properties gives useful keys to locate the diagenetic phases laterally and vertically, and to predict the petrophysical properties distribution. La Formation Mannville Supérieur du Crétacé Inférieur d’Ouest-Central Alberta a été intensivement forée les précédentes décennies par des puits visant des réservoirs plus profonds. Cependant, les données de production dans ce secteur suggèrent que des volumes significatifs de gaz soient présents dans les réservoirs tant conventionnels que non conventionnels (“tight reservoirs” de cette formation. Les réservoirs de la Formation Mannville Supérieur d’Ouest-Central Alberta sont constitués de grès fluviatiles remplissant des vallées incisées. Ces grès présentent une minéralogie complexe, avec des quantités variables de quartz, de feldspaths, de minéraux argileux et des fragments de roche. Ils ont été soumis à une histoire diagénétique complexe et la paragenèse qui en résulte a eu un impact sur leurs propriétés réservoirs. Par conséquent, les hétérogénéités dans les propriétés réservoirs induisent des risques significatifs en termes d’exploration et de production de ces réservoirs. Nous présentons dans cet article les résultats de l’étude diagénétique, effectuée dans un cadre stratigraphique bien contraint, visant à comprendre l’impact de la minéralogie et de la diagenèse sur l’évolution de la qualité des réservoirs. Soixante et onze échantillons prélevés sur huit puits ont permis de réaliser une analyse pétrographique et proposer une séquence paragénétique. Quatre événements diagénétiques principaux ont été identifiés et sont liés à l’enfouissement du bassin : – coating d’argile autour des

  19. Occurrence and Source Apportionment of HCHs and DDTs in Water and Organisms in Min River of Fujian, China%闽江水体和生物体中六六六和滴滴涕污染特征和来源解析

    黄幸然; 吴旺旺; 胡宝叶; 易志刚


    As refractory environment pollutants, HCHs and DDTs can accumulate in organisms and transfer through the food chain, which is harmful to human health and ecologic environment. Gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-μECD) was used to measure the residue of HCHs and DDTs in the water and fourteen kinds of organisms in the downstream (Bitou-Caoxiazhou) of Min river, and the composition characteristics and source of HCHs and DDTs were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the water ranged from 1.031~1.804 ng·L-1 and 0.767~1.156 ng·L-1 respectively, which was lower than the national “Water Quality Stadards for Surface Water”.∑HCHs and∑DDTs in Bitou were higher than those in Caoxiazhou.∑HCHs in the surface water were higher than those in the deep water, and∑HCHs in the dissolved phase were higher than those in the particle phase. For DDTs, The concentrations in the deep water were higher than those in surface water, and those in the particle phase were higher than those in the dissolved phase. The concentrations of HCHs ranged from 0.725~5.574 ng·g-1 in the organisms, withβ-HCH being the dominant (27.8%~62.6%). For DDTs, the values ranged from 2.266~9.189 ng·g-1, with p,p'-DDT being the most (8.4%~18.6%). The concentrations and accumulation factors of DDTs were higher than those of HCHs, with the highest in the fish, and the lowest in the shrimps. In addition, theAmblygobius albimaculatuswas the most, while theCarassius cuvieriwas the lowest. The HCHs composition analysis showed that the ratios ofα-HCH/γ-HCH was lower than those in industries, with the values from 0.891~1.104 and 0.416~3.871 for water and organisms, respectively, suggesting the input of lindane was the main source for HCHs in Min river. For DDTs, the ratio of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT in the river and organisms ranged from 0.434~739 and 0.396~1.543, respectively, which was higher than the ratio in industries, inditating the historical usage of

  20. Correlation study of Interleukin - 6 levels and 6 - min walk distance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者血清IL-6与6分钟步行距离的相关性研究

    陈建; 葛凯杰


    Objective To investigate the relationship between Intedeukin -6 (IL- 6) levels and 6- min walk distance in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods Between December 2009 and December 2010, 50 stable COPD patients to recruit, we evaluated exercise capacity, using 6 -min walk distance (6MWD); IL- 6 levels were measured in these patients and in 10 controls. Studying the relationship between IL - 6 levels and 6MWD. After logarithmic transformation of IL -6, the data were analyzed using a statistical software package (SPSS 16.0). Results IL -6 levels were higher in COPD patients[4. 34(3.31 ~5.5) ) pg/ml ]than controls [2. 36( 1.42 ~ 3.56) pg/ml ]. The sputum log IL - 6 levels was negatively correlated with 6MWD (r = - 0. 578, P <0. 01 ). Conclusions IL -6 levels were higher in stable COPD patients and can represent systemic inflammation to some degree. IL- 6 levels were correlated with exercise ability. This should be considered when IL- 6 levels are measured in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.%目的 探讨稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者血清白介素-6(IL-6)与6分钟步行距离的关系.方法 2009年12月至2010年12月收集稳定期COPD患者50例,测定6分钟步行距离(6MWD);同时选择10例健康志愿者作对照,用ELISA法检测COPD患者和健康志愿者血清IL-6.分析COPD患者血清IL-6与六分钟步行距离的相关性.血清IL-6经对数转换后应用SPSS16.0统汁软件进行统计学分析.结果 稳定期COPI)患者血清IL-6水平[4.34(3.31~5.5)pg/ml]高十健康对照组[2.36(1.42~3.56)pg/ml],两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=-5.2,P=0.000).log IL-6与6MWD旱负相关(r值=-0.578,P<0.01).结论 血清IL-6在稳定期COPD患者中增高,可在一定程度上反应COPD的全身炎症程度,并且与COPD患者的运动能力相关,可作为预测稳定期COPD患者病情及生活质量的有效指标.

  1. Future Recovery of Energy and Mineral Values from Organic-Rich Shales (Summary L'avenir de la production d'énergie et de la valeur minérale des schistes riches en matière organique (résumé

    Park W. C.


    Full Text Available Oil shale deposits vary significantly in their geological nature and can represent enormous reserves of low grades ores for various minerals such as alumina, sodium carbonates, molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, and uranium. The treatment of these rocks for mineral values can be economically attractive when coupled with the production of synthetic oil. Mutually shared costs for extractinq the mineral values can be favorably affected by utilizing by-products from the oil shale retorting. These can include the residual char for a carbonaceous reductant or fuel, C02 for acidification, or lime and soda ash for caustic. Conversely, an inappropriate choice of oil shale retorting conditions can substantially lower subsequent recovery of mineral values from the spent shale. The proceeding considerations will be discussed for several oil shale deposits including: 1. The Green River formation in the mid-western United States which is not only oil rich but also represents a nearly inexhaustible domestic supply of alumina and sodium carbonates and 2. The block shale of Julia Creek, Queensland, Australia, the Devonian Chattanooga shale in the United States, the Cambrian Kulm shale in Sweden, the Permian Lodeve shale in southern France, and the Paleozoic shales from Korea and USSR for energy and metal values such as molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, and uranium. La nature géologique des dépôts de schistes à huile est très variée ; ces schistes peuvent représenter des réserves énormes de minerais à faible teneur de métaux tels que l'aluminium, le molybdène, le nickel, le vanadium, l'uranium, sans oublier le carbonate de sodium. Le traitement de ces roches pour leur valeur minérale peut être attractif économiquement s'il est associé à la production d'huile synthétique. La répartition des coûts d'extraction des métaux peut être favorablement affectée en utilisant les sous-produits du traitement des schistes à huile. Ceci peut comprendre le goudron

  2. 哲人目光和母性慈怀--郑敏20世纪40年代诗歌的独特性%Philosophical Vision and Maternal Love--The Uniqueness of Zheng Min ’s Poetry during the 1940s



    It is generally agreed that Zheng Min has inherited FengZhi and Rilke ’s tradition of mixing philosophy into poetry and uplifted the tradition to a metaphysical height. But ,this simplified generalization fails to reveal Zheng ’s uniqueness and richness.Since she was a student ,she has never tried to confine herself to the ivory tower and stay away from realities;on the contrary ,the internationalized education of and the wisdom of the great academic masters at South⁃western Associated University cultivated young Zheng ’s concern about the destiny of the human beings and her philo⁃sophical vision. After graduation ,her job of international news translation gave her opportunities to observe and reflect on important historical events happening in the world and to give her response in the form of poetry. Her sonnets ,which were filled with philosophical vision ,maternal love ,and feminine feelings and imagination ,constitutes her poetic uniqueness during the 1940s. Careful perusal of Zheng ’s sonnets will help readers understand the process of the forma⁃tion and development of their uniqueness. Zheng ’s early poems ,as they did not reflect the Anti-Japanese War ,were not quite accepted and appreciated by her contemporaries ,but their concern about human beings ’common destiny and expectation of world civilization have been gaining the recognition of history and time. Zheng Min herself is also a well-deserved poet prophet.%诗界比较普遍的观点认为:郑敏师承冯至和里尔克诗歌与哲学相融合的传统,并达到形而上的高度。但这过于简化的概括,很难揭示郑敏诗作的独特性和丰富性。其实,从学生时代起,郑敏并没有逃避现实,躲进象牙塔。恰恰相反,西南联大的世界性教育和哲学系大师们的智慧,培养了青年郑敏对人类命运的关注和哲人目光。毕业后所从事的国际时事翻译,又使她得以用哲学眼光观察和思考世界所发生的

  3. 基于核磁共振的中、长跑运动员大负荷训练课30 min后尿液代谢组学特征的研究%1 H NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of the Characteristic of Human Urine 30 min after a Heavy Load Training Class on the Middle & Long-distance Race Athletes

    马海峰; 吴瑛


    Objective :This paper ,basing on the means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) , studied a middle&long‐distance race athletes metabonomics characteristic 30min after a class of heavy load training .Methods :14 male athletes from Shanghai athletic team were chosen as subjects .The training class included :A special endurance :8 000m ;B special speed‐endurance (500m faster+ 100m slower)* 16 .The urine samples were collected before and after 30min from training .Aliquots of urine sample were thawed for metabonomic analysis through 1 H NMR spectroscopy .All NMR experiments were carried out at 300K on a Bruker (Karlsruhe , Germany ) Avance III 600 M Hz spectrometer equipped with an ultra‐low temperature probe . The FIDs processing was conducted using the software MestReNova Version 8 .1 .4 (Mestre‐lab Research S .L .) .The normalized integral values were mean centered for principal compo‐nent analysis (PCA ) ,partial least squares‐discrimination analysis (PLS‐DA ) ,and orthogonal projection of latent‐structure‐discrimination analysis (OPLS‐DA ) by SIMCA‐P + software package (ver .12 .0 ,Umetrics AB ,Umeå ,Sweden) .Results :NMR spectra of urine samples were dominated by the numerous signals from lactate ,creatinine ,N‐oxide ,The metabolites of concentration rising included ,butyrate ,leucine ,isobutyrate ,lactate ,succinate ,hypoxanthine ,2‐hydroxybutyrate ,2‐hydroxyisovalerate ;The metabolites of concentration declining included pyruvate ,glutamine ,citrate ,formate and glycine .Conclusion :This class presents the character‐istics of anaerobic ,aerobic and mixed oxygen metabolism ,and conforms to the characteristics of modern middle & long‐distance race ,and achieves the purpose of the training class and gets a effectiveness .The rising of butyrate and isobutyrate after the training may be a key metabolism of aerobic .The declining of creatinine and rising of TMAO may be the key metabolisms of fa‐tigue due to heavy load training .%目

  4. 新建本科院校旅游专业学生就业现状与对策研究——以闽江学院旅游系旅游管理专业为例%Study on Student Employment Situation and Countermeasures of Tourism Specialty in Newly Established Colleges --A Case Study of Tourism Specialty of Min Jiang College

    郭培才; 乐上泓


    Tbe rapid development of tourism brings a broad prospect of student employment of tourism specialty in the new colleges. However, graduates in newly established colleges choosing professional career are in fact fewer and fewer. The phenomenon that graduates do not work in the travel and tuurism sector, shorter employment or high turnover rate are widespread is a great waste of tourism educational resources. Taking tourism specialty of Min Jiang University as an example, this paper analyzes quo status of employment, sums up fourdimensional three - cause of quo status through the survey of three follow - up of graduates. Then the appropriate resolution strategies are pruposed to guide reasonahly students to better serve the tourism industry, to promote sustainable development of tourism education in newly established colleges.%旅游业的快速发展为新建本科院校旅游专业学生带来了广阔的就业前景,但是在实际发展的情况中,新建本科院校旅游专业的毕业生选择旅游酒店及旅行社等专业行业的越来越少,旅游管理专业毕业生“不从事旅游专业工作”、“旅游行业高流失率”等现象十分普遍,这实质是对旅游教育资源的极大浪费。本文以新建本科院校闽江学院为例,基于社会网络理论的视角,通过跟踪调查三届的毕业生,分析了旅游管理专业毕业生的就业现状,总结出旅游专业学生就业现状的四维三象成因,在此基础上提出了相应的解决策略,建议实行旅游专业培养的利益相关者共同参与的人才培养模式,建立好大学生就业关系网络,以期合理的引导旅游专业学生更好地服务旅游产业,促进新建本科院校旅游教育的可持续发展。

  5. 从地域文化走向全国文化——试论闽都文化对中国文化的贡献%From Regional Culture to National Culture ---On the Contribution of Min Capital Culture to Chinese Culture



    纵观中华文明的历史,中国文化的生命力正在于不断的丰富和发展中,在于它的多元性和包容性。福州作为历代福建省首府,其政治、经济、文化、社会等多方面,对全省起到了引领和辐射作用,并形成独具地域特色的闽都文化。闽都文化对中华文化的主要贡献,一个是在宋代,开闽学先河,承理学南传、成理学重镇。另一个是在近代,禁烟拉开中国近代史序幕,《瀛环志略》迎来中国社会启蒙时代,《天演论》开启中华民族心智,有力地推动中国近代社会向规代社会的转型。%In the history of Chinese civilization, Chinese culture's vitality lies in its unceasing enrichment and development, as well as its diversity and inclusiveness. As the ancient capital city of Fujian province, Fuzhou has played a leading and radiative role in the political, economic, cultural, social, and other aspects. At the same time, a unique Min culture with distinguishing regional features has been formed in Fuzhou. One of the main contri- butions of Capital culture to the Chinese culture is the beginning of Minzhong School, and tbrming the Neo-Confu- eianism center in Song Dynasty. Another is the Banning Smoking Movement that opened the prologue of Chinese modem history. The Historical Geography of the World ushered in Chinese social enlightenment age. Evolution Theo- ry opened the national mind, and impelled Chinese social transition to a modem societv powerfully.

  6. Etude de la réactivité hydraulique d’un ciment bélitique synthétisé à basse température par la méthode sèche en utilisant un minéralisateur

    Mazouzi Wafaa


    Full Text Available Pour des raisons écologiques (réduction des émissions de CO2, les ciments bélitiques à faible teneur en alite ont fait l’objet de beaucoup de recherches ces dernières années afin de substituer le clinker Portland ordinaire. Ces recherches ont concernées la production du ciment bélitique à basse temperature et l’amélioration de son activité hydraulique, ainsi que l’étude de la durabilité des matériaux à base de ce ciment. Dans ce travail, le mélange cru des matières premières (calcaire et argile du ciment bélitique a été substitué par un autre mélange composé de poussière de chaux hydraulique des ateliers d’ensachage et de boue de forage des puits de pétrole en Algérie. Le procédé de cuisson par voie sèche en utilisant 2% de sulfate de zinc (ZnSO4 comme minéralisateur a été adopté pour la fabrication de ce ciment bélitique (éco-ciment à basse température (1100°C. L’analyse par diffraction des rayons X (DRX a montré que la phase fortement réactive de la bélite (άL-C2S a été stabilisée, ce qui montre la forte réactivité hydraulique de ce ciment bélitique. Les analyses par DRX, effectuées sur des pâtes du ciment bélitique synthétisé, et les essais physiques (temps de prise et mécaniques sur des pâtes et mortiers, ont confirmé la réactivité hydraulique de ce ciment qui demeure similaire à celle du ciment de type CEM I 42,5.

  7. Géochimie minérale de sédiments à faciès black-shales, Crétacé moyen de l'Atlantique Nord, sites DSDP 386 et 391 Mineral Geochemistry of Black Shales from the Mid-Cretaceous of the North Atlantic, Dsdp Sites 386 and 391

    Brosse E.


    Full Text Available L'analyse chimique de 154 échantillons d'âge Aptien à Turonien, pour l'essentiel des argilites, en provenance des sites DSDP-IPOD 386 (situé sur la ride des Bermudes et 391 (localisé au pied de la marge américaine, met en évidence, d'une manière indépendante des lithofaciès et des compositions minéralogiques, un certain nombre d'influences enregistrées par les sédiments : - influences du potentiel d'oxydo-réduction : enrichissements en Fe et Mn des dépôts oxydés ; en V, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu des sédiments réduits, et notamment des argilites pyriteuses et très carbonées déposées pendant l'événement E2à la limite Cénomanien-Turonien ; - influences du détritisme terrigène, avec trois indices particulièrement intéressants : les comportements comparés des alcalins (Na et K, la teneur en Ga des smectites, et le rapport D = AI/(AI + Fe + Mn ; - influences du volcanisme, soit sous forme de pyroclastes (enrichissement en Ti et Cr, soit sous forme ionique par l'intermédiaire de solutions interstitielles circulantes (enrichissement en Fe, Mn, Ba, Ni, Co, Cu, Pb ; - influence du taux de sédimentation, mise en évidence grâce à Cr. Les résultats obtenus apportent des précisions intéressantes sur l'évolution dans l'espace et dans le temps des milieux de dépôt et de diagenèse. Etant donné, par ailleurs, que les sédiments étudiés se sont déposés dans des conditions de milieux déjà connues grâce aux approches de la sédimentologie, de la minéralogie et de la géochimie organique, la reconnaissance des caractéristiques géochimiques de tels milieux pourra probablement aider à la reconstitution des conditions de dépôt pour des séries d'âges et de faciès comparables, mais transformées par un métamorphisme isochimique, telles les schistes lustrés alpins. One hundred fifty-four samples of Aptian to Turonian black-shales from various lithofacies have been selected for chemical analysis from DSDP sites 386

  8. Temperature sensitivity of soil methane production potential in different marsh vegetation zones in the Min River estuary%闽江口不同沼泽植被带土壤甲烷产生潜力的温度敏感性

    杨平; 何清华; 仝川


    2012年2月采集闽江河口鳝鱼滩短叶茳芏(Cyperus malaccensis),芦苇(Phragmites australis)和互花米草(Scirpus alterniflora)3个典型潮汐沼泽植被带0~30cm(间隔5cm)土壤样品,在不同温度(10,20和30℃)进行15d室内厌氧培养实验,探讨河口区不同沼泽植被带土壤甲烷产生潜力及其温度敏感性(Q10值)的特征.结果表明,指数模型较好地拟合不同沼泽植被带土壤甲烷产生与温度的相关关系;温度由10℃升至20℃时,3个沼泽植被带土壤甲烷产生潜力 Q10值的均值分别为5.04,14.92和14.81,最大值均在培养期间的第13~15d 分别出现于10~15cm,15~20cm和20~25cm三个土层;温度由20℃升至30℃时,3个沼泽植被带土壤甲烷产生潜力Q10值的均值分别为3.56,4.99和3.43,最大值分别在培养期间的第4~6d,第4~6d和第7~9d出现于0~5cm,0~5cm和15~20cm三个土层;植被类型和土壤深度对甲烷产生潜力及Q10值均具有显著的影响(P<0.05).%Quantifying response of soil methane production potential to temperature change in different wetland vegetation are vital to accurately evaluate effect of climate change on wetland ecosystem carbon balance. Soil samples at a depth of 0~30cm (5cm interval) from three typical tidal marsh ecosystems dominated byCyperus malaccensis, Phragmites australis andSpartina alterniflora, respectively, in the Min River estuary were collected in February 2012, and soil methane production potentials were determined using anaerobic incubation method. The results showed that there is an exponential correlation between methane production potential and soil temperature. The averagedQ10 value of three marsh vegetation zones were 5.04, 14.92, 14.81, and 3.56, 4.99, 3.43, respectively, with temperature rasing from 10 to 20℃ and from 20 to 30℃. Vegetation type, incubation temperature and soil depth had significant effects on the methane production potential andQ10 value (P<0.05).

  9. AM fungi colonization and soil factors of Psammochloa villosa(Trin. ) Bor and Hedysalurn laeve Min. in farming-pastoral area of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古农牧交错区沙鞭和羊柴AM真菌侵染及其土壤因子

    徐翥骍; 贺学礼; 郭辉娟; 赵丽莉


    2009年7月在内蒙古锡林郭勒盟正兰旗县城南样地,采集沙鞭(Psammochloa villosa(Trin.) Bor)和羊柴(Hedysalum laeve Min.)根围0~10 cm,10~20 cm,20~30 cm,30~40 cm和40~50 cm等5个土层土壤样品,研究AM真菌空间分布及其与土壤因子的相关性.结果表明:沙鞭和羊柴均能与AM真菌形成典型的I 型丛枝菌根.沙鞭和羊柴之间的菌丝定殖率、泡囊定殖率和总定殖率有显著差异及土壤速效N和速效P也有显著差异,AM真菌定殖率和孢子密度随土层加深而降低.试验中沙鞭和羊柴丛枝定殖率甚低,孢子密度与不同结构定殖率无显著相关性.沙鞭根围孢子密度与土壤速效P、酸性磷酸酶和碱性磷酸酶极显著正相关;羊柴根围孢子密度与有机质、酸性磷酸酶、碱性磷酸酶和脲酶极显著正相关.结论认为,AM真菌的侵染与植物种属存在一定的相关性,土壤因子对AM真菌侵染和菌根形成有显著影响.%Soil samples were collected in July 2009 and divided by a depth of 50 cm into 5 sections, i. e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and 40-50 cm in the rhizosphere of Psarnrnochloa villosa and Hedysalurn laeve from the Zheng-lan Qi south-county of Xilinguole League of Inner Mongolia. The spatial distribution of AM fungi and its relationships with soil factors were analyzed. The results showed that they can form typical intermediate mycorrhizal type. There were significantly different between Psarnrnochloa villosa and Hedysalurn leave at hyphal colonization, vesicular colonization, total colonization, soil available N and soil available P. AM fungal colonization and spore density gradually decreased with soil depth. The arbuscular colonization was much lower. No significant correlation was found between AM fungal colonization and spore density. Spore density of Psarnmochloa villosa had a significantly positive correlation with soil available P, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, and spore density

  10. Raypex® 5’in Minör Çapın Belirlenmesindeki Doğruluğunun Ex Vivo Olarak Değerlendirilmesi Ex Vivo Evaluation Of The Accuracy Of Raypex® 5 In Determining The Minor Diameter

    Nevin Kartal


    Full Text Available


    Amaç: Bu ex vivo çalışmanın amacı, Raypex® 5 adlı elektronik apeks bulucunun minör çapın tespitindeki doğruluğunu değerlendirmektir.

    Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmada 40 adet çekilmiş üst kesici insan dişi kullanıldı. Operasyon mikroskobu altında X5 büyütmede eğe ucu, majör foramene kadar ilerletildi ve silikon stoper düzleştirilmiş koronal yüzeyde sabitlendi. Silikon stoper ve eğe ucu arasındaki mesafe ölçüldü ve referans kanal boyu (RKB olarak adlandırıldı. Daha sonra Raypex® 5 ile elektronik ölçümler alındı ve silikon stoperle eğe ucu arasındaki mesafe ölçülerek bu değer elektronik kanal boyu (EKB olarak adlandırıldı. Ardından kanal aleti, RKB’de akışkan kompozitle dişin koronalinde sabitlendi. Kök kanallarının apikal 4 mm’leri elmas frezlerle ekspoze edildikten sonra X64 büyütmede stereomikroskop altında incelendi ve dijital fotoğrafları alındı. Tüm görüntüler

  11. Min-By-Min Respiratory Exchange and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Steady-State Exercise in Subjects of High and Low Max VO2

    Weltman, Arthur; Katch, Victor


    No statistically meaningful differences in steady-state vo2 uptake for high and low max vo2 groups was indicated in this study, but a clear tendency was observed for the high max vo2 group to reach the steady-state at a faster rate. (MB)

  12. MINS/GPS tightly-coupled integrated navigation system%MINS/GPS一体化紧组合导航系统

    郭美凤; 林思敏; 周斌; 吕少麟; 刘刚


    采用基于MEMS技术的低成本IMU和GPS作为传感器,以DSP和FPGA分别作为计算和通信器件,实现一体化紧凑型的紧组合导航系统.除去外接天线,整个导航系统尺寸为12cm x 12 crx11.6 cm.算法方面,采用扩展卡尔曼滤波器,以伪距、伪距率误差作为观测量进行实时滤波估算导航系统的状态量,进而修正系统误差.采用双子样优化的圆锥效应和划船效应补偿算法,实现100Hz的导航数据输出.通过静态和跑车实验验证,该系统的静态水平定位误差为0.2 m(CEP),动态水平定位误差优于10m(CEP),俯仰角和横滚角误差为0.3°,航向角误差为0.5°.%Using low-cost MEMS-based IMU(inertial measurement unit) and GPS as sensors, and taking DSP and FPGA as computing and communication devices, an tightly-coupled integration navigation system is achieved. The size of the integrated navigation system is 12 cm× 12 cm× 11.6 cm excluding the external antenna Taking the pseudorange and pseudorange-rate of GPS as the observations of extended Kalman filter, the system errors are estimated and corrected. Using second-order coning and sculling correction algorithm, the data output rate of the navigation system is up to 100 Hz. The static and dynamic test results show that the static level positioning error is 0.2 m(CEP), dynamic level positioning error is less than 10m(CEP), pitch and roll angle errors are 0.3 °, heading angle error is 0.5°.

  13. The robust min-max newsvendor problem with balking under a service level constraint

    Taesu Cheong


    Full Text Available In this paper we study an extension of a classic newsvendor model with balking under a service-level constraint. We also relax the assumption that the demand distribution is fully available to a decision-maker; we assume that only the mean and variance of the demand distribution are known, and discuss the procedure for determining the optimal order quantity for the concomitant model. We further extend our base model to two different cases: (i when the fixed ordering cost is included, and (ii when yield is uncertain. We illustrate the solution procedures for each case with numerical examples. Moreover, we discuss the performance and robustness of the approach through randomly generated test instances, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of the changes of a targeted fill-rate and variances of a demand distribution.

  14. MODIS/AQUA MYD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  15. Determinants of poor 6-min walking distance in patients with COPD: the ECLIPSE cohort

    Spruit, Martijn A; Watkins, Michael L; Edwards, Lisa D


    for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale; COPD-specific St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire; modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale as part of the baseline assessment of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) study. RESULTS: Patients...

  16. »Danske elever har rykket sig i min tid«

    Middelboe, Vibe Abildtrup


    Bliver eleverne bedre til at læse og skrive med flere dansktimer i skolen? Ikke nødvendigvis, lyder meldingen fra læseforsker Jan Mejding, der er en af eksperterne bag en omfattende læseundersøgelse, som er blevet hvirvlet ind i en politisk mediestorm. Det, der rykker, er kvalitet i undervisninge...

  17. Hukm Naql A'da'i Mahdur al-Dam min Manzur Islami

    Ahmad Al-Suwaehi Syulaibek


    Full Text Available This research deals with an important issue, namely: (provisions of transferring organs of executed, it has been divided to: introduction, preface, and three section: The Researcher discuss in the preface: the concept of transfer of human organs, showed the meaning of transportation, the organ, and the meaning of organ transplants. The concept of the executed, its types, showed the meaning of shed, and the executed, and its types. And search in second section: transfer organs of a living person to another, showed the rule of transferring individual organ, and organs of non-individual. An  discussed in the third section: Transfer of organs of the executed to another human being, showed the rule of eating the executed when necessary, and the rule of transferring of organs of the executed, and the rule of reconciliation of the executed on the transfer of its organs in exchange for not killing him, starting the opinions of jurists and their evidence, and discuss the evidence and weighting between opinions. The Researcher concluded that it is permissible to transfer organs of the executed and put it in an human body protected blood near death, under certain conditions to be met, and it is permissible to reconcile the infidel military and spy to waive for not killing him.

  18. MODIS/TERRA MOD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...


    Al-Rawashdeh, Ma'moun; Schouten, Jaap; Nijhuis, T. Alexander; Yue, Jun


    Multiphase flow processing in flow reactors holds great promises for diverse applications in fine chemicals and materials synthesis primarily due to its precise control over the flow, mixing and reaction inside or between each phase. Even though, flow reactors have shown superior performance, so far

  20. ATLAS Highlights (plenary talk at PASCOS 2013 conference - talk scheduled for 40 min)

    Wingerter-Seez, I; The ATLAS collaboration


    After three years of data taking at LHC, the ATLAS experiment has accumulated 25 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions data. The ATLAS collaboration has published more than 250 physics papers. A selection of ATLAS performance and physics results will be presented, with emphasis on recent measurements and searches. Prospects for the LHC Run II will be included. (talk is scheduled for 40 minutes)

  1. Belief Propagation for Min-cost Network Flow: Convergence and Correctness

    Gamarnik, David; Wei, Yehua


    Message passing type algorithms such as the so-called Belief Propagation algorithm have recently gained a lot of attention in the statistics, signal processing and machine learning communities as attractive algorithms for solving a variety of optimization and inference problems. As a decentralized, easy to implement and empirically successful algorithm, BP deserves attention from the theoretical standpoint, and here not much is known at the present stage. In order to fill this gap we consider the performance of the BP algorithm in the context of the capacitated minimum-cost network flow problem - the classical problem in the operations research field. We prove that BP converges to the optimal solution in the pseudo-polynomial time, provided that the optimal solution of the underlying problem is unique and the problem input is integral. Moreover, we present a simple modification of the BP algorithm which gives a fully polynomial-time randomized approximation scheme (FPRAS) for the same problem, which no longer...

  2. Minä säveltäjänä : Luomisprosessin analysointi

    Hannula, Ilari


    Opinnäytetyössäni analysoin omaa sävellysprosessiani ja suhtautumistani säveltämiseen. Tarkastelen kolmea jazzvaikutteista kappaletta, jotka olen säveltänyt sooloprojektilleni. Kappaleet ovat nimeltään Tibetan Dreaming, Sacred Mountain ja Through the Veil of Pale Moonlight. Analysoin kappaleiden syntytarinaa, sävellys- ja sovitusprosessin tyylikeinoja sekä äänitysprosessia. Käsittelen lisäksi omaa suhtautumistani säveltämiseen yleisellä tasolla: miksi säveltäjä säveltää ja mitkä hänen moti...

  3. Semi-supervised segmentation of ultrasound images based on patch representation and continuous min cut.

    Anca Ciurte

    Full Text Available Ultrasound segmentation is a challenging problem due to the inherent speckle and some artifacts like shadows, attenuation and signal dropout. Existing methods need to include strong priors like shape priors or analytical intensity models to succeed in the segmentation. However, such priors tend to limit these methods to a specific target or imaging settings, and they are not always applicable to pathological cases. This work introduces a semi-supervised segmentation framework for ultrasound imaging that alleviates the limitation of fully automatic segmentation, that is, it is applicable to any kind of target and imaging settings. Our methodology uses a graph of image patches to represent the ultrasound image and user-assisted initialization with labels, which acts as soft priors. The segmentation problem is formulated as a continuous minimum cut problem and solved with an efficient optimization algorithm. We validate our segmentation framework on clinical ultrasound imaging (prostate, fetus, and tumors of the liver and eye. We obtain high similarity agreement with the ground truth provided by medical expert delineations in all applications (94% DICE values in average and the proposed algorithm performs favorably with the literature.

  4. Semi-supervised segmentation of ultrasound images based on patch representation and continuous min cut.

    Ciurte, Anca; Bresson, Xavier; Cuisenaire, Olivier; Houhou, Nawal; Nedevschi, Sergiu; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach


    Ultrasound segmentation is a challenging problem due to the inherent speckle and some artifacts like shadows, attenuation and signal dropout. Existing methods need to include strong priors like shape priors or analytical intensity models to succeed in the segmentation. However, such priors tend to limit these methods to a specific target or imaging settings, and they are not always applicable to pathological cases. This work introduces a semi-supervised segmentation framework for ultrasound imaging that alleviates the limitation of fully automatic segmentation, that is, it is applicable to any kind of target and imaging settings. Our methodology uses a graph of image patches to represent the ultrasound image and user-assisted initialization with labels, which acts as soft priors. The segmentation problem is formulated as a continuous minimum cut problem and solved with an efficient optimization algorithm. We validate our segmentation framework on clinical ultrasound imaging (prostate, fetus, and tumors of the liver and eye). We obtain high similarity agreement with the ground truth provided by medical expert delineations in all applications (94% DICE values in average) and the proposed algorithm performs favorably with the literature.

  5. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer

    Shazlin Shaharudin


    Full Text Available The slides ergometer (SE was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE and fixed ergometers (FE. The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 % and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %. Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase.

  6. Localization of placenta in scanning by /sup 113m/In radiopharmaceuticals

    Cho, O.K.; Oh, K.K.; Park, C.Y.; Choi, B.S.; Ha, C.H.; Chung, S.O.; Kwak, H.M.


    Placenta previa is a common grave complication of late pregnancy, usually manifestated clinically by painless antenatal vaginal bleeding. Digital and rectal examinations are dangerous, due to the possibility that profuse hemorrhage from the vagina may result. Various radiological examinations have been performed in placenta previa for diagnosis and localization. However radioisotopic methods are superior due to safety, simplicity and a lower radiation dose, both fetal and maternal, compared to plain radiography. Among radiopharmaceuticals, In/sup 113m/ (transferrin for blood pool scan) is useful, giving more satisfactory results without any complications or untoward reactions.

  7. Optimization of min-max vehicle routing problem based on genetic algorithm

    Liu, Xia


    In some cases, there are some special requirements for the vehicle routing problem. Personnel or goods geographically scattered, should be delivered simultaneously to an assigned place by a fleet of vehicles as soon as possible. In this case the objective is to minimize the distance of the longest route among all sub-routes. An improved genetic algorithm was adopted to solve these problems. Each customer has a unique integer identifier and the chromosome is defined as a string of integers. Initial routes are constructed randomly, and then standard proportional selection incorporating elitist is chosen to guarantee the best member survives. New crossover and 2-exchange mutation is adopted to increase the diversity of group. The algorithm was implemented and tested on some instances. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  8. 7.5min Quadrangle Index for Acadia National Park (index24.shp)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — INDEX24 contains 1:24,000 scale neatlines for USGS 7.5 minute quadrangle maps covering Acadia National Park's GIS project area in Maine. The index was originally...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geolocation collection contains geodetic latitude and longitude, surface height above geoid, solar zenith and azimuth angles, satellite zenith and azimuth angles,...

  10. Determinants of poor 6-min walking distance in patients with COPD: the ECLIPSE cohort

    Spruit, Martijn A; Watkins, Michael L; Edwards, Lisa D;


    with COPD have significant differences in performance in the 6MWT even after stratification for GOLD stages. Moreover, severe airflow limitation by GOLD stage, degree of emphysema by CT, oxygen use during/after the 6MWT, presence of depressive symptoms and moderate to severe symptoms of dyspnea (mMRC grade...... >/=2) are significant clinical determinants of poor 6MWD performance (complex and depend on both physical (both pulmonary and non-pulmonary factors) and psychological factors as evaluated from a large multinational cohort of well...

  11. Stationary Random Metrics on Hierarchical Graphs Via {(min,+)}-type Recursive Distributional Equations

    Khristoforov, Mikhail; Kleptsyn, Victor; Triestino, Michele


    This paper is inspired by the problem of understanding in a mathematical sense the Liouville quantum gravity on surfaces. Here we show how to define a stationary random metric on self-similar spaces which are the limit of nice finite graphs: these are the so-called hierarchical graphs. They possess a well-defined level structure and any level is built using a simple recursion. Stopping the construction at any finite level, we have a discrete random metric space when we set the edges to have random length (using a multiplicative cascade with fixed law {m}). We introduce a tool, the cut-off process, by means of which one finds that renormalizing the sequence of metrics by an exponential factor, they converge in law to a non-trivial metric on the limit space. Such limit law is stationary, in the sense that glueing together a certain number of copies of the random limit space, according to the combinatorics of the brick graph, the obtained random metric has the same law when rescaled by a random factor of law {m} . In other words, the stationary random metric is the solution of a distributional equation. When the measure m has continuous positive density on {mathbf{R}+}, the stationary law is unique up to rescaling and any other distribution tends to a rescaled stationary law under the iterations of the hierarchical transformation. We also investigate topological and geometric properties of the random space when m is log-normal, detecting a phase transition influenced by the branching random walk associated to the multiplicative cascade.

  12. A 1-min method for homogenous cell seeding in porous scaffolds

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Kuijer, Roel


    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple and rapid cell seeding procedure for both calcium phosphate ceramic scaffolds and polymer scaffolds. Poly(D,L-lactic acid) and beta-tri-calcium phosphate scaffolds were seeded with MC3T3-E1 cells in a syringe. Scaffolds were put in the syrin

  13. MODIS/Terra Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 1A collection contains digitized raw detector counts for the 36 MODIS spectral bands as well as engineering and spacecraft ancillary data. Only bands 20 to 36...

  14. MODIS/Terra Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V005

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Geolocation collection contains geodetic latitude and longitude, surface height above geoid, solar zenith and azimuth angles, satellite zenith and azimuth angles,...

  15. Min-On Art Group’s Performance Tour Of Beijing and Tianjin

    Yu; Wen


    <正>A performance of songs and dances with conspicuous Japanese national features was staged at Beijing Mei Lanfang Grand Theatre last fall.The gorgeous and passionate performance helped the audience experience a great joy as if they had seen the cherry blossom in spring and good harvest in autumn.The music played by a performer rapidly plucking at the Tsugaru Shamisen,a traditional stringed

  16. A min cut-set-wise truncation procedure for importance measures computation in probabilistic safety assessment

    Duflot, Nicolas [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail:; Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail:; Dieulle, Laurence [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay/LM2S, FRE CNRS 2848, 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, F-10010 Troyes cedex (France)], E-mail:; Vasseur, Dominique [EPSNA Group (Nuclear PSA and Application), EDF Research and Development, 1, avenue du Gal de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart cedex (France)], E-mail:


    A truncation process aims to determine among the set of minimal cut-sets (MCS) produced by a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model which of them are significant. Several truncation processes have been proposed for the evaluation of the probability of core damage ensuring a fixed accuracy level. However, the evaluation of new risk indicators as importance measures requires to re-examine the truncation process in order to ensure that the produced estimates will be accurate enough. In this paper a new truncation process is developed permitting to estimate from a single set of MCS the importance measure of any basic event with the desired accuracy level. The main contribution of this new method is to propose an MCS-wise truncation criterion involving two thresholds: an absolute threshold in addition to a new relative threshold concerning the potential probability of the MCS of interest. The method has been tested on a complete level 1 PSA model of a 900 MWe NPP developed by 'Electricite de France' (EDF) and the results presented in this paper indicate that to reach the same accuracy level the proposed method produces a set of MCS whose size is significantly reduced.

  17. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy


    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  18. Lead–Lag Relationship Using a Stop-and-Reverse-MinMax Process

    Stanislaus Maier-Paape


    Full Text Available The intermarket analysis, in particular the lead–lag relationship, plays an important role within financial markets. Therefore, a mathematical approach to be able to find interrelations between the price development of two different financial instruments is developed in this paper. Computing the differences of the relative positions of relevant local extrema of two charts, i.e., the local phase shifts of these price developments, gives us an empirical distribution on the unit circle. With the aid of directional statistics, such angular distributions are studied for many pairs of markets. It is shown that there are several very strongly correlated financial instruments in the field of foreign exchange, commodities and indexes. In some cases, one of the two markets is significantly ahead with respect to the relevant local extrema, i.e., there is a phase shift unequal to zero between them.

  19. Prdm5 suppresses Apc(Min)-driven intestinal adenomas and regulates monoacylglycerol lipase expression

    Galli, G G; Multhaupt, H A; Carrara, M


    PRDM proteins are tissue-specific transcription factors often deregulated in diseases, particularly in cancer where different members have been found to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. PRDM5 is a poorly characterized member of the PRDM family for which several studies have reported a high ...... PRDM5 target repertoire likely facilitating the tumor-suppressive functions of PRDM5.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 July 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.283....

  20. Measurement of utero-placental blood flow with /sup 113m/In in diabetic pregnancy

    Semmler, K.; Kirsch, G.; Zoellner, P.; Fuhrmann, K.; Jutzi, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Greifswald (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)


    In 122 diabetic pregnancies the placental blood flow has been estimated determining the half-life of the activity inflow (2 MBq /sup 113m/In-transferrin) into the placenta. A highly sensitive detector (modified pinhole collimator) and a computer-supported evaluation were used. 259 flow measurements were compared to the risk of complication in the course of diabetic pregnancy. The half-life values in the diabetic group, calculated by a gamma camera computer system by means of an iterative regression analysis, were significantly different compared to a control group (12 pregnancies without risk.) Severe diabetic angiopathic complications (classes D, F, and R according to White) are accompanied by higher half-life values (placental blood flow reductions) and perinatal complications. Even in pregnant women with gestational diabetes of disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism disturbed placental hemodynamics is to be found.

  1. Jaapani professor esines Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis / Mart Min, Enn Velmre

    Min, Mart, 1943-


    Külas oli Tohoku Ülikooli prorektor ja biomeditsiinielektroonika labori juhataja Nozomu Hoshimiya, kes pidas loengu halvatud inimeste liigutamisvõime osalisest taastamisest lihaste neuromuskulaarse juhtimise abil elektrilise stimulatsiooni abil

  2. Mess TEHNOLOOGIA 2000 - teaduse, tehnika ja rahamaailma kohtumine / Rein Ruubel, Mart Min ; interv. Urmi Reinde

    Ruubel, Rein


    Maikuus Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis toimunud messi eesmärgiks oli ülevaate saamine innovaatilise ettevõtluse seisust ning arengu- ja arendamisvõimalustest Eestis : Vestlus messi projektijuhi Rein Ruubeli ja Elektroonika Instituudi direktori, professor Mart Miniga

  3. Increased variability in ApcMin/+ intestinal tissue can be measured with microultrasound

    Fatehullah, A.; Sharma, S.; Newton, I. P.; Langlands, A. J.; Lay, H.; Nelson, S. A.; McMahon, R. K.; McIlvenny, N.; Appleton, P. L.; Cochran, S.; Näthke, I. S.


    Altered tissue structure is a feature of many disease states and is usually measured by microscopic methods, limiting analysis to small areas. Means to rapidly and quantitatively measure the structure and organisation of large tissue areas would represent a major advance not just for research but also in the clinic. Here, changes in tissue organisation that result from heterozygosity in Apc, a precancerous situation, are comprehensively measured using microultrasound and three-dimensional high-resolution microscopy. Despite its normal appearance in conventionally examined cross-sections, both approaches revealed a significant increase in the variability of tissue organisation in Apc heterozygous tissue. These changes preceded the formation of aberrant crypt foci or adenoma. Measuring these premalignant changes using microultrasound provides a potential means to detect microscopically abnormal regions in large tissue samples, independent of visual examination or biopsies. Not only does this provide a powerful tool for studying tissue structure in experimental settings, the ability to detect and monitor tissue changes by microultrasound could be developed into a powerful adjunct to screening endoscopy in the clinic.

  4. Evolution of the Petrophysical and Mineralogical Properties of Two Reservoir Rocks Under Thermodynamic Conditions Relevant for CO2 Geological Storage at 3 km Depth Évolution des propriétés physiques et minéralogiques de deux roches réservoirs dans des conditions thermodynamiques correspondant à un stockage géologique de CO2 à 3 km de profondeur

    Rimmelé G.


    est considérée comme une solution pour contribuer à la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre dans l’atmosphère. Les interactions entre le CO2 supercritique et la roche-réservoir potentielle doivent être étudiées en détail en conditions de stockage géologique. Quarante échantillons de calcaire de Lavoux et de grès d’Adamswiller, provenant de roches réservoirs du bassin parisien, ont été expérimentalement exposés au CO2 dans un autoclave spécialement construit pour reproduire les conditions thermodynamiques d’un réservoir de stockage de CO2. Les deux types de roches ont été exposés pendant un mois à du CO2 supercritique humide et à de l’eau saturée en CO2, à 28 MPa et 90 °C, ce qui correspond à des conditions d’enfouissement de 3 km de profondeur. L’évolution de leurs propriétés minéralogiques a été suivie par des analyses par diffraction des rayons X, par spectroscopie Raman et par microscopie électronique couplée à un système de microanalyses X. Leurs propriétés physiques et microtexturales ont été estimées en mesurant, avant et après les expériences, le poids, la densité, les propriétés mécaniques, la perméabilité, la porosité globale et la présence d’éventuels gradients de porosité de chaque échantillon. Les résultats montrent que les deux roches ont préservé leurs propriétés mécaniques et minéralogiques, malgré une augmentation de la porosité et de la perméabilité. Des zones microscopiques de dissolution de la calcite observées dans le calcaire sont vraisemblablement responsables de cette augmentation de la perméabilité et de la porosité. Dans le grès, une altération de la pétro-fabrique est supposée se produire due à la réaction des minéraux argileux avec le CO2. Tous les échantillons du calcaire de Lavoux et du grès d’Adamswiller ont montré une altération mesurable dans le CO2 humide et dans l’eau chargée en CO2. Ces expériences en autoclave sont

  5. Locally Constructed Analogs (LOCA) Daily CMIP5 Climate Projections

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — This archive contains 64 projections of daily LOCA CMIP5 climate over the contiguous United States. This archive includes these meteorological variables at 1/16th...

  6. Libraries in Washington: MedlinePlus

    ... this page: Libraries in Washington To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Bellevue Overlake Hospital Medical Center Medical Library 1035 116th Avenue NE Bellevue, WA 98004 425- ...

  7. Locally Constructed Analogs (LOCA) Daily CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — This archive contains 64 projections of daily LOCA CMIP5 climate over the contiguous United States. This archive includes these meteorological variables at 1/16th...

  8. Visit of Dr Stahl, Secretary of State, Federal Ministry for Education Science, Research and Technology, Germany, accompanied by MinDirig Dr Eschelbacher and MinR Dr Freytag

    Laurent Guiraud


    Visiting CERN on 19 January was Helmut Stahl, Secretary of State of the German Federal Ministry of Science, Education, Research and Technology (centre) seen here admiring prototype magnets for CERN's LHC proton collider with new President of CERN Council Hans Eschelbacher (right) and German delegate to CERN Council Arno Freytag. In the background is Dietrich Gusewell, Head of CERN's EST (Engineering Support and Technologies) Division.

  9. Electrophysiological, cognitive and clinical profiles of at-risk mental state: The longitudinal Minds in Transition (MinT) study

    Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Todd, Juanita; Stain, Helen; Langdon, Robyn; Thienel, Renate; Paulik, Georgie; Cooper, Gavin; Schall, Ulrich


    The onset of schizophrenia is typically preceded by a prodromal period lasting several years during which sub-threshold symptoms may be identified retrospectively. Clinical interviews are currently used to identify individuals who have an ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing a psychotic illness with a view to provision of interventions that prevent, delay or reduce severity of future mental health issues. The utility of bio-markers as an adjunct in the identification of UHR individuals is not yet established. Several event-related potential measures, especially mismatch-negativity (MMN), have been identified as potential biomarkers for schizophrenia. In this 12-month longitudinal study, demographic, clinical and neuropsychological data were acquired from 102 anti-psychotic naive UHR and 61 healthy controls, of whom 80 UHR and 58 controls provided valid EEG data during a passive auditory task at baseline. Despite widespread differences between UHR and controls on demographic, clinical and neuropsychological measures, MMN and P3a did not differ between these groups. Of 67 UHR at the 12-month follow-up, 7 (10%) had transitioned to a psychotic illness. The statistical power to detect differences between those who did or did not transition was limited by the lower than expected transition rate. ERPs did not predict transition, with trends in the opposite direction to that predicted. In exploratory analysis, the strongest predictors of transition were measures of verbal memory and subjective emotional disturbance. PMID:28187217

  10. Min-cuts and Shortest Cycles in Planar Graphs in O(n log log n) Time

    \\L\\kacki, Jakub


    We present a deterministic O(n log log n) time algorithm for finding shortest cycles and minimum cuts in planar graphs. The algorithm improves the previously known fastest algorithm by Italiano et al. in STOC'11 by a factor of log n. This speedup is obtained through the use of dense distance graphs combined with a divide-and-conquer approach.

  11. Observatorio de prácticas de desarrollo de software en MinPyme y pymes de Bogotá

    Alexandra Abuchar Porras


    Full Text Available In this articule you will find the results of the investigative Project entitled: observatorio de las prácticas de desarrollo de software en las pequeñas y media- nas empresas de desarrollo de software en la ciudad de Bogotá, approved by the investigation center of the distrit university Francisco Jose de Caldas, made in 2010 and 2011, with the objective of detect development practices of observatorio de las prácticas de desarrollo de software en las pequeñas y medianas empresas de desarrollo de software en la ciudad de Bogotá. The topic investigation was about the approximation to the company con- cept, the production chains, and the software cluster. A survey was made to 100 companies: the 45 % answer to their customers with services and industry, the 24% in the bank and secures area, the 15% with television communications and the 16% in public administration. In the side of requirements, the 40% do it with interviews, 22% with surveys and ques- tionnaires, the 14% do it with use case, and the 7% create prototypes, the 5% organize JAD meetings and the 12% practice brain storm. Also, that software projects are inside the range of the short projects, with the 53% of success deliveries considering the general observation of the long time to give the final work.

  12. MODIS/TERRA MOD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  13. MODIS/AQUA MYD14 Thermal Anomalies & Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km Version 6

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  14. Shore, Gary. Drácula: A história nunca contada. EUA, 2014, 92 min.

    Paulo Henrique Calixto Moreira Monteiro


    Full Text Available A resenha versa acerca dos aspectos relevantes ao contexto social e linguístico da adaptação fílmica realizada por Gary Shore, em 2014, da obra Drácula, publicada por Bram Stoker em 1897. Utilizando-se dos pressupostos da fidelidade literária, da Disneyization e do papel do signo peirceano, a resenha busca expor os elementos que contornam o processo da adaptação cinematográfica e como se completam no público-alvo.

  15. Dietary anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min) mice fed suboptimal levels of sulindac.

    Bobe, Gerd; Wang, Bing; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D


    A promising approach for cancer chemoprevention might be a combination therapy utilizing dietary phytochemicals and anticarcinogenic pharmaceuticals at a suboptimal dosage to minimize any potential adverse side effects. To test this hypothesis, various dosages of anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract were fed in combination with suboptimal levels of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac to APCMin mice for 19 weeks. By the end of the feeding period, fewer mice that were fed the anthocyanin-rich extract in combination with sulindac lost more than 10% of body weight than mice fed sulindac alone. Mice that were fed anthocyanin-rich extract (at any dose) in combination with sulindac had fewer tumors and a smaller total tumor burden (total tumor area per mouse) in the small intestine when compared to mice fed sulindac alone. These results suggest that a dietary combination of tart cherry anthocyanins and sulindac is more protective against colon cancer than sulindac alone.

  16. Experimental capabilities of 0.4 PW, 1 shot/min Scarlet laser facility for high energy density science.

    Poole, P L; Willis, C; Daskalova, R L; George, K M; Feister, S; Jiang, S; Snyder, J; Marketon, J; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Van Woerkom, L; Freeman, R R; Chowdhury, E A


    We report on the recently completed 400 TW upgrade to the Scarlet laser at The Ohio State University. Scarlet is a Ti:sapphire-based ultrashort pulse system that delivers >10  J in 30 fs pulses to a 2 μm full width at half-maximum focal spot, resulting in intensities exceeding 5×1021  W/cm2. The laser fires at a repetition rate of once per minute and is equipped with a suite of on-demand and on-shot diagnostics detailed here, allowing for rapid collection of experimental statistics. As part of the upgrade, the entire laser system has been redesigned to facilitate consistent, characterized high intensity data collection at high repetition rates. The design and functionality of the laser and target chambers are described along with initial data from commissioning experimental shots.

  17. La volatilité du prix des engrais minéraux et les exploitations d’herbivores

    Lecuyer, Bérengère; Chatellier, Vincent; Daniel, Karine


    Cette communication porte sur la dépendance aux engrais des exploitations françaises et européennes orientées vers les productions d’herbivores. Dans un premier temps, les principaux facteurs explicatifs de la forte volatilité du prix des engrais sont présentés, tout en insistant sur la position d’importateur net de l’Union européenne (UE) pour les matières premières mobilisées dans ce secteur (gaz naturel, minerais de phosphate et potasse). L’analyse des données du Réseau d’Information Compt...

  18. 浅论李大钊的"民彝"思想%Easily Discussion of Li Dazhao's "Min Yi" Thinking

    祖雷; 张卫军



  19. Namadhij Min al-Fikr al-Mali fi al-Islam: Waraqah Ma’lumat Asasiyyah

    Mustafa Dasuki Kasabah


    Full Text Available The renaissance of Islam in various countries has become new phenomenon in the global economy. At the same time it also become the challenge for the Western capitalism and Eastern socialism. This resurrection together with revised ideology and economic system is considered as the strategic solution. Frankly, Islam is the religion which has brought back the core of economy to its position proportionally. In order to get concrete and clear idea on Islamic economy, here the writer presents five books written by Muslim scholars, classic as well as contemporary. The first is Kitab al-Amwal written by Abu Ubaid bin Salam, according to Khalil Harras this book is considered as the best and the most comprehensive book of Islamic economy. The second is Kitab Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah written by Imam Mawardi. The third is Al-Fikr al-Mali written by Ibnu Khaldun, which has high scientific authority from other books, it is systematic as well as contextual. The fourth is al-Iradat al-‘Ammah li al-Daulah al-Islamiyyah fi Sadr al-Islam wa Tatbiqatuha al-Mu’asirah written by Monzer Kahf. The fifth is Al-Nafaqat al-‘Ammah fi Al-Islam: Dirasah Muqaranah written by Yusuf Ibrahim Yusuf. The first three authors are classics and the rest are contemporary.

  20. The Role of NAG-1/GDF15 in the Inhibition of Intestinal Polyps in APC/Min Mice by Sulindac

    Wang, Xingya; Kingsley, Philip J.; Marnett, Larry J.; Thomas E Eling


    The antitumor effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are assumed to be due to the inhibition of COX activity, but COX-independent mechanisms may also play an important role. NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1/GDF15) is induced by NSAIDs and has antitumorigenic activities. To determine the contribution of COX-2 inhibition and NAG-1/GDF15 expression to the prevention of colon carcinogenesis by NSAIDs, we evaluated several sulindac derivatives [des-methyl (DM)-sulindac sulfide and its ...

  1. American ginseng significantly reduced the progression of high-fat-diet-enhanced colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+mice

    Chunhao Yu


    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to link our observed effects to the actions of the gut microbiome in converting the parent ginsenosides to bioactive ginseng metabolites. Our data suggest that American ginseng may have potential value in CRC chemoprevention.

  2. Nybroe lyver - det gør min kone og DSB så også

    Farø, Ken Joensen


    Indledning: »Nu ruller nogle af de allersidste danske soldater ud af Irak i ly af nattemørket«. Citatet er på ingen tid blevet bevinget. Det er også kommet til at fremstå som prototypen på løgnagtighed, og det har fået alvorlige konsekvenser for journalisten selv og DR... Udgivelsesdato: 07.09...

  3. Uit de mest- en mineralenprogramma's : Geleide bemesting in de boomteelt: hoe zinvol is het meten van N-min?

    Guiking, F.C.T.


    Boomgewassen staan twee tot drie jaar op hetzelfde veld. Organische mest wordt in de praktijk doorgaans opgebracht voorafgaand aan het planten. Wat betekent dit voor de stikstofvoorziening? En wat is een goede maatstaf voor de hoeveelheid stikstof die beschikbaar is voor het gewas?

  4. P-Selectin-Mediated Adhesion between Platelets and Tumor Cells Promotes Intestinal Tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice.

    Qi, Cuiling; Li, Bin; Guo, Simei; Wei, Bo; Shao, Chunkui; Li, Jialin; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qianqian; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing; Zhang, Yajie


    Studies have indicated that platelets play an important role in tumorigenesis, and an abundance of platelets accumulate in the ovarian tumor microenvironment outside the vasculature. However, whether cancer cells recruit platelets within intestinal tumors and how they signal adherent platelets to enter intestinal tumor tissues remain unknown. Here, we unexpectedly found that large numbers of platelets were deposited within human colorectal tumor specimens using immunohistochemical staining, and these platelets were fully associated with tumor development. We further report the robust adhesion of platelet aggregates to tumor cells within intestinal tumors, which occurs via a mechanism that is dependent on P-selectin (CD62P), a cell adhesion molecule that is abundantly expressed on activated platelets. Using spontaneous intestinal tumor mouse models, we determined that the genetic deletion of P-selectin suppressed intestinal tumor growth, which was rescued by the infusion of wild-type platelets but not P-selectin(-/-) platelets. Mechanistically, platelet adhesion to tumor cells induced the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote angiogenesis and accelerate intestinal tumor cell proliferation. Our results indicate that the adherence of platelets to tumor cells could promote tumor growth and metastasis. By targeting this platelet-tumor cell interaction, recombinant soluble P-selectin may have therapeutic value for the treatment of intestinal tumors.

  5. Classification and Segregation of Abnormal Lymphocytes through Image Mining for Diagnosing Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Min-max Algorithm

    S.P. Chokkalingam


    Full Text Available Advances in the acquisition of complex medical images and storing it for further analysis through image mining have significantly helped to identify the root causes for various diseases. Mining of medical image data set such as scanned images or blood cell images require extraction of implicit knowledge from the data set through hierarchical image processing techniques and identifying the relationships and patterns that are not explicitly stored in a single image. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease and it cause chronic inflammation of the joints. Causes of the RA is unknown due to that need to find out in the early stage is required. Diagnosis of RA based on blood cell types and shapes requires computational analysis. An assistive technology for the doctor to detect and investigate rheumatoid arthritis is therefore required. The objective of the proposed work is to analyze the shapes of lymphocytes, a key component of blood cells that causes RA complications, to automate the process of identifying abnormal lymphocytes by estimating the centroids of lymphocytes using AIT centroid technique and thereby finding a differential count. The process involves cropping nucleus from the blood cell image, segmenting it and to investigate further whether the shapes of the lymphocytes are irregular and dissimilar. Features are extracted from each cell components for comparison and the abnormal lymphocytes are segregated from the normal. To enhance the segregation process, neural network based perceptron classifier tool is used.

  6. Stem cell CD44v isoforms promote intestinal cancer formation in Apc(min) mice downstream of Wnt signaling

    Zeilstra, J; Joosten, S P J; van Andel, H; Tolg, C; Berns, A; Snoek, M; van de Wetering, M; Spaargaren, M; Clevers, H; Pals, S T


    A gene signature specific for intestinal stem cells (ISCs) has recently been shown to predict relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC) but the tumorigenic role of individual signature genes remains poorly defined. A prominent ISC-signature gene is the cancer stem cell marker CD44, which encodes various sp

  7. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS NDFD Forecasts of Daily Min Surface Air Temperature (deg. F) (Time Offsets)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-offsets map service provides maps depicting the NWS daily minimum surface air temperature forecasts from the National Digital...

  8. 董敏的“有机”情怀%Dong Min The“Organic”Feeling of



    “Personally speaking, my persistence for one day will enable large numbers of grainfield and water to be protected and soils to be conserved since our persistence in organic planting. I think it’s worth undertaking, an undertaking with special significance for society and human health.”%“从我个人来讲,我坚持一天,使得成千上万亩的粮田因为我们坚持有机种植能够被保护,水源能被保护,土壤能被涵养,我觉得这个事就值得做,它是一个对社会、对人的健康特别有意义的事儿。”

  9. ZHANG Min-zhou (张敏州)——A Renowned Cardiologist of Integrative Medicine

    Tao Bo


    Professor ZHANGMin-zhou(张敏州),chief physician,doctoral adviser,the successor to the nationally well-known old professor of Chinese Medicine DEND Tie-tao's academic thinking,vicepresident of the Special Committee of Cardiovascular Disease affiliated with the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies,vice chairman of the Cardiovascular Disease Committee attached to the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine,vice chairman of the Emergency Branch of the China Association of Chinese Medicine,a member of the Standing Committee of the Integrative Medicine Doctors Association,Cardiovascular Diseases Association and the Professional Committee of Evidence-Based Medicine attached to the Chinese Medical Doctors Association,respectively;executive director of the Guangdong Province Association of Integrative Medicine,chairman of Critical Care Medicine,director of the Guangdong Province Medical Doctor Association,chairman of the Integrative Medicine Branch,one of the evaluation experts of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,a member of the editorial board of the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine,the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care,the Journal of Emergency in Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Journal of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases,vice editor-in-Chief of the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine on Cardio-/Cerebrovascular Disease.

  10. MODIS/Terra Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 granule clear-sky radiance (thermal bands) and reflectance (visible bands) statistics are indexed to a global grid map. Separate statistics for day and night...

  11. Determination of the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors for detectors used with an 800 MU/min CyberKnife{sup ®} system equipped with fixed collimators and a study of detector response to small photon beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Moignier, C., E-mail:; Huet, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Service de Dosimétrie Externe, 92260, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Makovicka, L. [IRMA/CE UMR 6249 CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, 25200, Montbéliard (France)


    Purpose: In a previous work, output ratio (OR{sub det}) measurements were performed for the 800 MU/min CyberKnife{sup ®} at the Oscar Lambret Center (COL, France) using several commercially available detectors as well as using two passive dosimeters (EBT2 radiochromic film and micro-LiF TLD-700). The primary aim of the present work was to determine by Monte Carlo calculations the output factor in water (OF{sub MC,w}) and the k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors. The secondary aim was to study the detector response in small beams using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: The LINAC head of the CyberKnife{sup ®} was modeled using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code system. The primary electron beam was modeled using a monoenergetic source with a radial gaussian distribution. The model was adjusted by comparisons between calculated and measured lateral profiles and tissue-phantom ratios obtained with the largest field. In addition, the PTW 60016 and 60017 diodes, PTW 60003 diamond, and micro-LiF were modeled. Output ratios with modeled detectors (OR{sub MC,det}) and OF{sub MC,w} were calculated and compared to measurements, in order to validate the model for smallest fields and to calculate k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} correction factors, respectively. For the study of the influence of detector characteristics on their response in small beams; first, the impact of the atomic composition and the mass density of silicon, LiF, and diamond materials were investigated; second, the material, the volume averaging, and the coating effects of detecting material on the detector responses were estimated. Finally, the influence of the size of silicon chip on diode response was investigated. Results: Looking at measurement ratios (uncorrected output factors) compared to the OF{sub MC,w}, the PTW 60016

  12. Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, and Award

    This infographic shows the National Cancer Institute general timeline progression through Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, and Award Infographic. In the first month, Applicant prepares and submits Grant Application to in response to FOA. In month two, The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) assigns applications that fall under the category of R01s, etc. to a Scientific Review Group (SRG) or the CSR assigns applications that fall under the category of Program Projects and Center Grants to NCI Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). Months four through five: First-level review by Scientific Review Group (SRG) for Scientific Merit: SRG assigns Impact Scores. Month five Summary Sstatements are prepared and are available to NCI Program staff and applicants. Month six, second-level review by National Cancer Advisory board (NCAB) for NCI Funding determination begins. NCAB makes recommendation to NCI Director, NCI develops funding plan, Applications selected for Funding, “Paylists” forwarded to Office of Grant Administration (OGA). Month ten, Award Negotiations and Issuance: Award issued, Award received by Institution, and Investigator begins work. Icons made by Freepik from is licensed by CC BY3.0

  13. Localization of the placenta in the 3 trimester of gestation with the use of a gamma-camera and radioactive sup(113m)In indium isotope

    Brudnik, A.; Chromy, G.; Ulfik, A.; Bielawski, J.; Wasylewski, A. (Slaska Akademia Medyczna, Katowice (Poland))


    In 56 women, treated because of uterine bleedings in the 3 trimester of gestation the localization of the placenta was looked for with use of a gamma camera (Toshiba Co.) and indium radioisotope 113-In. The methodic procedures were elaborated for the application of the gamma-camera and the utilization of radioactive marker /sup 125/Sb in the anatomic reference areas. Full conformity of results with findings at cesarean section was met. Isotope placentography with the application of gamma camera gives a high percentage of adequate diagnoses, least dose of exposition, uncomplicated procedures. The negative diagnosis in suspected cases of placenta previa permitted to decrease the time of hospital stay in a number of cases observed because of uterine bleedings in the 3 trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Uteroplacental blood flow in pre-eclampsia measurements with /sup 113 m/In and a computer-linked gamma camera

    Lunell, N.O.; Nylund, L.E.; Lewander, R.; Sarby, B.


    Uteroplacental blood flow was measured with a computer-linked gamma camera after intravenous injection of 1 mCi /sup 113/In. Results of the measurements from 32 pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 37 normal controls are compared. The uteroplacental blood flow was measured as an index calculated from the rise time and maximum activity of the isotope accumulation curve. The uteroplacental blood flow was reduced with 50% in pre-eclampsia. In severe pre-eclampsia it was more compromised than in mild pre-eclampsia. A diminished uteroplacental blood flow was found in pre-eclampsia even in the absence of intrauterine growth retardation. The maternal placental circulation in the supine position was reduced with one third compared to that in the left lateral recumbent position.

  15. Lignan precursors from flaxseed or rye bran do not protect against the development of intestinal neoplasia in Apc(Min) mice

    van Kranen, H.J.; Mortensen, Alicja; Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin;


    Phytoestrogens, like isoflavonoids and lignans, have been postulated as possible colorectal cancer protective constituents. To investigate this hypothesis, two high-fiber sources rich in lignan precursors, i.e., rye bran and flaxseed, were tested for their ability to modulate intestinal tumor...

  16. I-Min: An Intelligent Fermat Point Based Energy Efficient Geographic Packet Forwarding Technique for Wireless Sensor and Ad Hoc Networks

    Ghosh, Kaushik; Das, and Pradip K; 10.5121/jgraphoc.2010.2204


    Energy consumption and delay incurred in packet delivery are the two important metrics for measuring the performance of geographic routing protocols for Wireless Adhoc and Sensor Networks (WASN). A protocol capable of ensuring both lesser energy consumption and experiencing lesser delay in packet delivery is thus suitable for networks which are delay sensitive and energy hungry at the same time. Thus a smart packet forwarding technique addressing both the issues is thus the one looked for by any geographic routing protocol. In the present paper we have proposed a Fermat point based forwarding technique which reduces the delay experienced during packet delivery as well as the energy consumed for transmission and reception of data packets.

  17. Cloning and tissue expression analysis of Min pig NUMB gene%民猪NUMB基因克隆与组织表达分析

    刘娣; 王鑫鑫; 别墅; 张冬杰; 汪亮; 李苓; 曹越


    In this study, RT-PCR technology combined with cloning and sequencing methods, cloned the full-length gene sequence NUMB 2 004 bp, including 1 782 bp open reading frame (ORF), which encodes 592 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis software for prediction and analysis of the amino acid sequence of the gene discovery: NUMB protein secondary structure, a large proportion of the corner, and the proteins more hydrophilic, structural domains of the protein peptides found after analysis there was a chain of N-terminal tyrosine phosphatase domain (PTB), located between the first amino acid 37-162. Constructed based on different species NUMB protein sequence phylogenetic tree showed that kinship pigs with cattle and camels recently, with the zebra fish furthest. At the mRNA level, NUMB had highest gene expression in the lung, lowest expression in colon.%研究采用RT-PCR技术结合克隆测序方法,克隆出全长2 004 bp NUMB基因序列,其中包括1 782 bp开放读码框,该基因编码592个氨基酸.利用生物信息学分析软件对该基因氨基酸序列预测与分析发现:NUMB蛋白二级结构中,转角占很大比例,且蛋白亲水性较强,结构功能域分析发现该蛋白多肽链存在一个N端磷酸酪氨酸结构域(PTB),位于第37~162氨基酸之间.基于不同物种NUMB蛋白序列所构建分子进化树表明,猪与牛、骆驼亲缘关系最近,而与斑马鱼最远.在mRNA水平上,NUMB基因肺中表达量最高,大肠中表达量最低.

  18. 4-Hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal metabolism differs in Apc(+/+) cells and in Apc(Min/+) cells: it may explain colon cancer promotion by heme iron.

    Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Dalleau, Sabine; Taché, Sylviane; Gieules, Mathilde; Debrauwer, Laurent; Canlet, Cécile; Huc, Laurence; Dupuy, Jacques; Pierre, Fabrice H F; Guéraud, Françoise


    Animal and epidemiological studies suggest that dietary heme iron would promote colorectal cancer. Oxidative properties of heme could lead to the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic secondary lipid oxidation products, such as 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal (HNE). This compound is more cytotoxic to mouse wild-type colon cells than to isogenic cells with a mutation on the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene. The latter thus have a selective advantage, possibly leading to cancer promotion. This mutation is an early and frequent event in human colorectal cancer. To explain this difference, the HNE biotransformation capacities of the two cell types have been studied using radiolabeled and stable isotope-labeled HNE. Apc-mutated cells showed better biotransformation capacities than nonmutated cells did. Thiol compound conjugation capacities were higher for mutated cells, with an important advantage for the extracellular conjugation to cysteine. Both cells types were able to reduce HNE to 4-hydroxynonanal, a biotransformation pathway that has not been reported for other intestinal cells. Mutated cells showed higher capacities to oxidize 4-hydroxynonanal into 4-hydroxynonanoic acid. The mRNA expression of different enzymes involved in HNE metabolism such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1, 2 and 3A1, glutathione transferase A4-4, or cystine transporter xCT was upregulated in mutated cells compared with wild-type cells. In conclusion, this study suggests that Apc-mutated cells are more efficient than wild-type cells in metabolizing HNE into thiol conjugates and 4-hydroxynonanoic acid due to the higher expression of key biotransformation enzymes. These differential biotransformation capacities would explain the differences of susceptibility between normal and Apc-mutated cells regarding secondary lipid oxidation products.

  19. Obtenção e avaliação de mutantes de Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans quanto à capacidade de lixiviar minérios de cobre

    Costa, Mariana Araújo [UNESP


    Recent industrialization has demanded great amounts of mineral compounds copper is one of the most utilized in technological components manufacturing. The large increase in mining activities has resulted in lower grade mineral deposits. As a consequence, the demand for technical and economical solutions became critical. In this context, biohydrometalurgy, a process that uses microorganisms to perform mineral sulphide dissolution for improving metal extraction, has been pointed as a promising ...

  20. 刘爱民教授治疗复发性斑秃的经验%Experience of Prof. LIU Ai-min for treating recurrent alopecia areate

    李静; 刘爱民; 吴姣美; 张琳琳


    Prof. LIU is experienced in the treatment of recurrent alopecia areate and has uniquemethods. The clinical efficacy is satisfactory. The methods should be widely applied.%刘爱民教授治疗复发性斑秃经验丰富,选方用药有其独到之处,临床效果满意,值得推广应用。