Experimental Study Of A 1.5-mw, 110-ghz Gyrotron Oscillator
Anderson, J P
2005-01-01
This thesis reports the design, construction and testing of a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz gyrotron oscillator. This high power microwave tube has been proposed as the next evolutionary step for gyrotrons used to provide electron cyclotron heating required in fusion devices. A short pulse gyrotron based on the industrial tube design was built at MIT for experimental studies. The experiments are the first demonstration of such high powers at 110 GHz. Using a 96 kV, 40 A electron beam, over 1.4 MW was axially extracted in the design (TE22,6) mode in 3 μs pulses, corresponding to a microwave efficiency of 37%. The beam alpha, the ratio of transverse to axial velocity in the electron beam, was measured with a probe. At the high efficiency operating point the beam alpha was measured as 1.33. This value of alpha is less than the design value of 1.4, possibly accounting for the slightly reduced experimental efficiency. The output power and efficiency, as a function of magnetic field, beam voltage, and beam current, are in...
Gyrotrons for magnetic fusion applications at 110 GHz and 170 GHz
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahalan P.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Two megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies of 110 GHz and 170 GHz have recently been fabricated at CPI. The 110 GHz gyrotron is designed to produce 1.2 MW of output power for 10-second pulses, and will be used for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. This gyrotron has completed factory testing and has been delivered to General Atomics for installation and additional testing. The 170 GHz gyrotron, though specified as a 500 kW CW system, has been designed with the goal of generating up to 1 MW CW. Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use this gyrotron in ITER ECH transmission line testing. This gyrotron has been fabricated and is awaiting factory testing, Design features of each gyrotron are described, and test data for the 110 GHz gyrotron are presented.
Experimental Research on a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz Gyrotron with a Smooth Mirror Internal Mode Converter
Tax, D. S.; Mastovsky, I.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Torrezan, A. C.
2010-11-01
Megawatt gyrotrons are important for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) of fusion plasmas, including ITER. These gyrotrons should operate with high efficiency to reduce the prime power required and to ensure good reliability. The gyrotron efficiency is affected both by the physical principles that govern the device and the performance of components like the internal mode converter (IMC), which must convert the electromagnetic cavity mode into a Gaussian beam. An IMC consisting of a helically-cut launcher and three smooth curved mirrors, which is less susceptible to alignment errors than an IMC using mirrors with phase correcting surfaces, was recently tested on a 1.5 MW, 110 GHz, 3μs pulsed gyrotron operating in the TE22,6 mode, and an output beam with 95.8 ± 0.5 % Gaussian beam content was measured in both hot and cold tests. We are also examining the issue of mode competition in the gyrotron, which can limit the achievable output power and efficiency. The sequence of competing modes excited during the rise time of the voltage pulse has been measured and results are compared with the numerical simulation code MAGY. These results should provide a good test of the accuracy of the code.
Long-Term Operating Experience with High-Power Gyrotron Oscillators
Felch, Kevin
2005-10-01
High-power, megawatt-class gyrotron oscillators have now been used in electron cyclotron heating (ECH) experiments for several years. The long periods of sustained operation have provided important information about the design limits that had initially been placed on the key elements of the gyrotron. In particular, observations made on recent 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotrons used in ECH experiments on DIII-D at General Atomics indicate that several of the important components of the device, including the electron guns, interaction cavities and diamond output windows, have performed quite well, while analyses of the electron beam collectors on some of the devices indicate that design limits have often been exceeded. Observations made on these gyrotrons will be summarized and plans to address problem areas will be discussed.
Gyrotron oscillators for fusion heating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jory, H.; Evans, S.; Felch, K.; Shively, J.; Spang, S.
1982-01-01
Recent experiments have been performed to determine the ultimate power capability of a 28 GHz 200 kW CW gyrotron design. A power output of 342 kW CW was measured in these tests with an efficiency of 37%. Progress in the development of 60 GHz 200 kW pulsed and CW gyrotrons is discussed. An output of 200 kW with 100 msec pulse length has been achieved with the pulsed design.
Design of an electronically tunable millimeter wave Gyrotron Backward Wave Oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caplan, M.
1987-01-01
A non-linear self-consistent computer simulation code is used to analyze the saturated output of the Gyrotron Backward Wave Oscillator (Gyro BWO) which can be used as a tunable driver for a 250 GHz FEL amplifier. Simulations show that the Gyrotron BWO using a Pierce/Wiggler gun configuration can produce at least 10 kW of microwave power over the range 249 GHz to 265 GHz by varying beam voltage alone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jory, H.; Felch, K.; Hess, C.; Huey, H.; Jongewaard, E.; Neilson, J.; Pendleton, R.; Tsirulnikov, M. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (USA))
1990-09-17
To address the electron cyclotron heating requirements of planned fusion experiments such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), Varian is developing gyrotrons at frequencies ranging from 100--300 GHz with output power capabilities up to 1 MW CW. Experimental gyrotrons have been built at frequencies between 100--140 GHz, and a study program has addressed the critical elements of designing 280--300 GHz gyrotrons capable of generating CW power levels up to 1 MW. Initial test vehicles at 140 GHz have utilized TE{sub 15,2,1} interaction cavities, and have been designed to generate short-pulse (up to 20 ms) power levels of 1 MW and up to 400 kW CW. Recently, short-pulse power levels of 1040 kW at 38% efficiency have been obtained and average powers of 200 kW have been achieved. Long-pulse operation has been extended to pulse durations of 0.5 seconds at power levels of 400 kW. Gyrotron oscillators capable of generating output powers of 500 kW CW at a frequency of 110 GHz have recently been designed and a prototype is currently being tested. Design work for a 1 MW CW gyrotron at 110 GHz, is in progress. The 1 MW CW tube will employ an output coupling approach where the microwave output is separated from the microwave output. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.
Design and operation of 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators for power levels up to 1 MW CW
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jory, H.; Bier, R.; Craig, L.J.; Felch, K.; Ives, L.; Lopez, N.; Spang, S.
1986-12-01
Varian has designed and tested 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators that have generated output powers of 100 kW CW and 200 kW for 1 ms pulses. Upcoming tubes will be designed to operate at power levels of 200 kW CW and ultimately up to 1 MW CW. The important design considerations which are addressed in the higher power tubes include the design of the electron gun, interaction circuit, and output window. These issues will be discussed and the results of the earlier 140 GHz gyrotron work at Varian will be summarized.
Efficient Low-Voltage Operation of a CW Gyrotron Oscillator at 233 GHz.
Hornstein, Melissa K; Bajaj, Vikram S; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J
2007-02-01
The gyrotron oscillator is a source of high average power millimeter-wave through terahertz radiation. In this paper, we report low beam power and high-efficiency operation of a tunable gyrotron oscillator at 233 GHz. The low-voltage operating mode provides a path to further miniaturization of the gyrotron through reduction in the size of the electron gun, power supply, collector, and cooling system, which will benefit industrial and scientific applications requiring portability. Detailed studies of low-voltage operation in the TE(2) (,) (3) (,) (1) mode reveal that the mode can be excited with less than 7 W of beam power at 3.5 kV. During CW operation with 3.5-kV beam voltage and 50-mA beam current, the gyrotron generates 12 W of RF power at 233.2 GHz. The EGUN electron optics code describes the low-voltage operation of the electron gun. Using gun-operating parameters derived from EGUN simulations, we show that a linear theory adequately predicts the low experimental starting currents.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Ashutosh, E-mail: asingh.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Faculty of Physical Sciences, Institute of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Uttar Pradesh 225003 (India); Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Jain, P. K. [Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)
2015-09-15
In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.
Design of a second cyclotron harmonic gyrotron oscillator with photonic band-gap cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Gaofeng; Chen Xiaoan; Tang Changjian, E-mail: angelchen765@163.com [College of Physical Science and Technology of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)
2011-07-27
A photonic band-gap cavity (PBGC) gyrotron with a frequency of about 98 GHz is designed. Theoretical analyses and numerical calculations are made for the PBGC operating at fundamental and second cyclotron harmonic with a TE{sub 34} waveguide mode to demonstrate the beam-wave interaction. The results show that mode competition is successfully eliminated in the PBGC using mode selectivity and choosing the appropriate operating parameters. As a result, the second harmonic PBGC gyrotron operating at TE{sub 34} mode achieves a higher output efficiency than that of the fundamental. It is also demonstrated that, in the case of the chosen parameters for TE{sub 34} waveguide mode, the use of PBG structure in the second harmonic gyrotron brings about not only a lower operating B-field but also a weaker mode competition. The results show that the high-order electromagnetic mode can be developed to interact with the high cyclotron harmonic using the selectivity of the PBGC, which gives an encouraging outlook for the development of high-harmonic gyrotrons.
Challenges and Capacity Analysis of 100 Gbps Optical Fibre Wireless Links in 75-110 GHz Band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2011-01-01
We report on the capacity analysis of hybrid optical fiber-wireless links operating at 75-110 GHz band. We provide link design guidelines towards achieving 100 Gbps data transmission using M-ary modulation formats.......We report on the capacity analysis of hybrid optical fiber-wireless links operating at 75-110 GHz band. We provide link design guidelines towards achieving 100 Gbps data transmission using M-ary modulation formats....
A Two Frequency 1.5 MW Gyrotron Experiment
Tax, David; Guss, William; Shapiro, Michael; Temkin, Richard; Rock, Ben; Vernon, Ronald; Neilson, Jeffrey
2012-10-01
Megawatt gyrotrons are an important microwave source for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD) in fusion plasmas due to their ability to produce megawatts of power at millimeter wave frequencies. The MIT gyrotron operates nominally at 96 kV and 40 A with 3 μs pulses and has previously demonstrated 1.5 MW of output power with > 50 % efficiency at 110 GHz with a depressed collector. A new cavity has been designed for 1.5 MW operation at two distinct frequencies: 110 GHz in the TE22,6 mode and 124.5 GHz in the TE24,7 mode. A new internal mode converter (IMC) consisting of a dimpled wall launcher and four smooth curved mirrors has also been designed and was optimized for both modes. Simulations of the IMC indicate that > 98 % Gaussian beam content could be achieved for each mode. Cold test results for the components will be presented as well as the current status of the hot test experiment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu
2013-01-01
We report on the transmission of 8 Gb/s 0 dB PAPR 16QAM-OFDM W-band (75-110 GHz) signals over 22.8km SMF without phase noise compensation by using a phase modulator in the optical heterodyne up-convertor.......We report on the transmission of 8 Gb/s 0 dB PAPR 16QAM-OFDM W-band (75-110 GHz) signals over 22.8km SMF without phase noise compensation by using a phase modulator in the optical heterodyne up-convertor....
Innovation on high-power long-pulse gyrotrons
Litvak, Alexander; Sakamoto, Keishi; Thumm, Manfred
2011-12-01
Progress in the worldwide development of high-power gyrotrons for magnetic confinement fusion plasma applications is described. After technology breakthroughs in research on gyrotron components in the 1990s, significant progress has been achieved in the last decade, in particular, in the field of long-pulse and continuous wave (CW) gyrotrons for a wide range of frequencies. At present, the development of 1 MW-class CW gyrotrons has been very successful; these are applicable for self-ignition experiments on fusion plasmas and their confinement in the tokamak ITER, for long-pulse confinement experiments in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and for EC H&CD in the future tokamak JT-60SA. For this progress in the field of high-power long-pulse gyrotrons, innovations such as the realization of high-efficiency stable oscillation in very high order cavity modes, the use of single-stage depressed collectors for energy recovery, highly efficient internal quasi-optical mode converters and synthetic diamond windows have essentially contributed. The total tube efficiencies are around 50% and the purity of the fundamental Gaussian output mode is 97% and higher. In addition, activities for advanced gyrotrons, e.g. a 2 MW gyrotron using a coaxial cavity, multi-frequency 1 MW gyrotrons and power modulation technology, have made progress.
Recent result of gyrotron operation in NIFS
Ito, Satoshi; Shimozuma, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Nishiura, Masaki; Kobayashi, Sakuji; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Okada, Kota; Kubo, Shin
2015-03-01
In the last Large Helical Device (LHD) experimental campaign, a 154GHz gyrotron which had been conditioned to generate 1 MW/2 s, 0.5 MW/CW was installed for LHD experiments. Four high power gyrotrons (three-77 GHz/1~1.5 MW and one-154 GHz/1 MW) and a CW gyrotron (84 GHz/0.2 MW) are ready. Our experiment requires high energy and various injection patterns for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH). Higher individual injection power and various injection patterns, we developed a power enhancement method by stepped anode acceleration voltage control and operated the gyrotron in the hard excitation region. These operations were realized by a remote controlled waveform generator. However the oscillation map of high power or long pulse operation in the hard excitation region were limited because in order to achieve the hard excitation region by the anode voltage control one must pass through the high anode current phase within a time short enough that the anode or the anode power supply is not overloaded. This limitation becomes more critical when the gyrotron beam current is increased in order to increase the output power. In the long pulse operation it was impossible to reach the hard excitation region in a low beam current (<10A).
Recent result of gyrotron operation in NIFS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ito Satoshi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the last Large Helical Device (LHD experimental campaign, a 154GHz gyrotron which had been conditioned to generate 1 MW/2 s, 0.5 MW/CW was installed for LHD experiments. Four high power gyrotrons (three-77 GHz/1~1.5 MW and one-154 GHz/1 MW and a CW gyrotron (84 GHz/0.2 MW are ready. Our experiment requires high energy and various injection patterns for Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH. Higher individual injection power and various injection patterns, we developed a power enhancement method by stepped anode acceleration voltage control and operated the gyrotron in the hard excitation region. These operations were realized by a remote controlled waveform generator. However the oscillation map of high power or long pulse operation in the hard excitation region were limited because in order to achieve the hard excitation region by the anode voltage control one must pass through the high anode current phase within a time short enough that the anode or the anode power supply is not overloaded. This limitation becomes more critical when the gyrotron beam current is increased in order to increase the output power. In the long pulse operation it was impossible to reach the hard excitation region in a low beam current (<10A.
Iannacci, J.; Tschoban, C.
2017-04-01
RF-MEMS technology is proposed as a key enabling solution for realising the high-performance and highly reconfigurable passive components that future communication standards will demand. In this work, we present, test and discuss a novel design concept for an 8-bit reconfigurable power attenuator, manufactured using the RF-MEMS technology available at the CMM-FBK, in Italy. The device features electrostatically controlled MEMS ohmic switches in order to select/deselect the resistive loads (both in series and shunt configuration) that attenuate the RF signal, and comprises eight cascaded stages (i.e. 8-bit), thus implementing 256 different network configurations. The fabricated samples are measured (S-parameters) from 10 MHz to 110 GHz in a wide range of different configurations, and modelled/simulated with Ansys HFSS. The device exhibits attenuation levels (S21) in the range from ‑10 dB to ‑60 dB, up to 110 GHz. In particular, S21 shows flatness from 15 dB down to 3–5 dB and from 10 MHz to 50 GHz, as well as fewer linear traces up to 110 GHz. A comprehensive discussion is developed regarding the voltage standing wave ratio, which is employed as a quality indicator for the attenuation levels. The margins of improvement at design level which are needed to overcome the limitations of the presented RF-MEMS device are also discussed.
Megawatt, 330 Hz PRF tunable gyrotron experiments
Spark, S. N.; Cross, A. W.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Ronald, K.
1994-12-01
Repetitively pulsed and cw gyrotrons have hitherto used thermionic cathodes, whereas cold cathode gyrotrons have normally operated as ‘single shot’ devices. The novel results presented here show that cold cathode gyrotrons can be successfully pulsed repetitively. A tunable gyrotron with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 150Hz is demonstrated. This system developed >4MW mm-wave output pulses at 100GHz. The gyrotron is based on a two-electrode configuration comprising a field-immersed, field emission, cold cathode and a shaped anode cavity. A superconducting magnet was used to produce the homogeneous intra-cavity magnetic field and a cable pulser was used to drive the electron beam. This pulser produced up to a (200±20)kV pulse with 10ns rise time, a 100ns flat top, a 10ns decay with a characteristic impedance of 200Ω. The energy storage capacity of the cable pulser was 35J. The charging unit limited the maximum PRF to 330Hz. Due to spark gap switching limitations 330Hz was only obtainable in 5 to 10 pulse bursts. For substantial periods of the order of 30 seconds, 100Hz PRF was achieved over an oscillating range of 28 to 100GHz and 150Hz PRF was achieved at 80GHz. No degradation effects on the mm-wave output pulse was evident due to diode recovery time throughout this series of results. A subsequent conclusion is that the diode recovery time in our cold cathode gyrotron is less than 3ms.
Experimental characterization of a hybrid fiber-wireless transmission link in the 75 to 110 GHz band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying;
2012-01-01
We present a detailed experimental investigation of a hybrid optical-fiber wireless communication system operating at the 75 to 110 GHz (W-band) for meeting the emerging demands in short-range wireless applications. Measured W-band wireless channel properties such as channel loss, frequency...... response, phase noise, and capacity are reported. Our proposed system performs a sextuple frequency up-conversion after 20 km of fiber transmission, followed by a W-band wireless link. A 500 Mbit/s amplitude shift keying signal transmission is experimentally demonstrated for performance analysis purposes....
Single- and Multiband OFDM Photonic Wireless Links in the 75−110 GHz Band Employing Optical Combs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beltrán, M.; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan
2012-01-01
The photonic generation of electrical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulated wireless signals in the 75−110 GHz band is experimentally demonstrated employing in-phase/quadrature electrooptical modulation and optical heterodyn upconversion. The wireless transmission of 16......-quadrature-amplitude-modulation OFDM signals is demonstrated with a bit error rate performance within the forward error correction limits. Signals of 19.1 Gb/s in 6.3-GHz bandwidth are transmitted over up to 1.3-m wireless distance. Optical comb generation is further employed to support different channels...
Multigigabit W-Band (75–110 GHz) Bidirectional Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Systems in Access Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Lebedev, Alexander; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;
2014-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate multigigabit capacity bidirectional hybrid fiber-wireless systems with RF carrier frequencies at the W-band (75-110 GHz) that enables the seamless convergence between wireless and fiber-optic data transmission systems in access networks. In this study, we evaluate...... the transmission performances in two scenarios: a fiber-wireless access link that directly provide high-speed connections to wireless end users, and a fiber-wireless-fiber signal relay where a high capacity wireless link can be used to bridge two access fiber spans over physical obstacles. In both scenarios, we...... compare the transmission performances in terms of achievable wireless distances with and without using a high-frequency electrical power amplifier at the wireless transmitter. A downlink 16-Gbit/s QPSK signal and an uplink 1.25-Gbit/s ASK signal transmission over the two implementations are experimentally...
60 GHz gyrotron development program. Final report, April 1979-June 1984
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shively, J.F.; Bier, R.E.; Caplan, M.; Cheng, M.K.; Choi, E.; Conner, C.C.; Craig, L.J.; Evans, S.J.; Evers, S.J.; Felch, K.L.
1986-01-01
The original objective of this program was to develop a microwave amplifier or oscillator capable of producing 200 kW CW power output at 110 GHz. The use of cyclotron resonance interaction was pursued, and the design phases of this effort are discussed. Later, however, the program's objective was changed to develop a family of oscillators capable of producing 200 kw of peak output power at 60 GHz. Gyrotron behavior studies were performed at 28 GHz to obtain generic design information as quickly as possible. The first experimental device at 60 GHz produced over 200 kw of peak power at a pulse duration of 20 ..mu..s. Heating problems and mode interference were encountered. The second experimental tube incorporated an optimized gun location but also suffered from mode interference. The third experimental tube included modifications that reduced mode interference. It demonstrated 200 kw of peak output at 100 ms pulse duration. The fourth experimental tube, which used an older rf circuit design but in a CW configuration, produced 71.5 kW CW. The fifth experimental tube incorporated a thinner double-disc output window which improved window bandwidth and reduced window loss. This tube also incorporated modifications to the drift tunnel and cavity coupling, which had proven successful in the third experimental pulse tube tests. It produced 123 kW of CW output power at 60 GHz rf load coolant boiling and tube window failure terminated the tests. A new waterload was designed and constructed, and alternative window designs were explored. A secondary task of developing a 56 GHz CW tube produced in excess of 100 kW CW at this alternate frequency. Testing of the sixth experimental tube resulted in operation at CW output power in the range of 200 to 206 kW for an hour. Output mode purity of the seventh experimental tube was measured at 95% TE/sub 02/. The tube was operated for about forty-five minutes with CW power output over 200 kW.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta
2012-01-01
We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz.......We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....
Sasaki, K.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.
2014-08-01
Numerous studies have reported the measurements of the dielectric properties of the skin. Clarifying the manner in which the human body interacts with electromagnetic waves is essential for medical research and development, as well as for the safety assessment of electromagnetic wave exposure. The skin comprises several layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous fat. Each of these skin layers has a different constitution; however, the previous measurements of their dielectric properties were typically conducted on tissue which included all three layers of the skin. This study presents novel dielectric property data for the epidermis and dermis with in vitro measurement at frequencies ranging from 0.5 GHz to 110 GHz. Measured data was compared with literature values; in particular, the findings were compared with Gabriel’s widely used data on skin dielectric properties. The experimental results agreed with the data reported by Gabriel for the dermis of up to 20 GHz, which is the upper limit of the range of frequencies at which Gabriel reported measurements. For frequencies of 20-100 GHz, the experimental results indicated larger values than those extrapolated from Gabriel’s data using parametric expansion. For frequencies over 20 GHz, the dielectric properties provided by the parametric model tend toward the experimental results for the epidermis with increasing frequency.
140 GHz gyrotron development program. Quarterly report No. 4, January-March 1985
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felch, K.L.; Bier, R.E.; Craig, L.J.; Fox, L.J.; Hu, G.; Huey, H.E.; Ives, R.L.; Jory, H.R.; Lopez, N.C.; Reysner, P.I.
1986-01-01
The objective of this program is to develop a gyrotron oscillator capable of producing 100 kW CW at 140 GHz. Further analysis of the electron guns, interaction cavity, and beam tunnel designs for the first two experimental tubes, Experimental Tube 1 and preprototype Tube 1, is presented. A window deflection tester has been built and initial deflection test results are given. The first 140 GHz gyrotron magnet has successfully passed the major points in the acceptance test. The detailed results of the magnet acceptance test are discussed. Progress concerning the fabrication of 149 GHz gyrotron components, diagnostics, and protective devices, as well as the status of Experimental Tube 1, are summarized.
A novel vacuum window for megawatt gyrotrons
Haldeman, George Stephenson
2001-08-01
This thesis describes a new microwave output window for megawatt power level, 110 GHz gyrotrons. The window uses two spherically polished sapphire elements separated by a nearly uniform gap of about 1 mm. Pressurized, microwave transparent coolant flows through this gap and across the transmitting aperture, removing absorbed energy at the element face. The design differs from previous face- cooled windows because the sapphire elements have a modestly curved dome, rather than flat shape. This curved shape increases the element's capability to withstand coolant pressures without significantly increasing stresses from differential heating. Consequently, window power can be increased either through enhanced, high pressure cooling or by using thinner elements with reduced microwave absorption. A model was developed to predict window power capability as a function of design geometry. This model predicted an increase from 0.5 to 2.1 MW when flat elements were changed to curved. Both designs used full size, 100mm clear apertures, but the curved elements with 214 mm curvature radii were 1.3 rather than 1.75 mm thick. The model was also used to design a half size prototype experiment. This 50 mm clear aperture system used 60 mm OD x 0.47 mm thick x 107 mm surface radius elements. An initial piece was fabricated and statically tested to a pressure of 1.1 MPa well above the 0.5 MPa analytically predicted to be required for megawatt operation. The complete window structure was then fabricated, including instrumentation to simulate microwave heating and to measure induced temperatures and strains. Test results demonstrated an equivalent continuous Gaussian beam power capability of 700 kW using a coolant flow of 1.1 lps. Scaling from this measurement, fall size boiling limited power is expected to be 1.1 MW for a Gaussian microwave intensity profile, or 2.3 MW for a shaped profile typical of previous flat, face-cooled designs. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm
40 Gb/s W-band (75-110 GHz) 16-QAM radio-over-fiber signal generation and its wireless transmission.
Kanno, Atsushi; Inagaki, Keizo; Morohashi, Isao; Sakamoto, Takahide; Kuri, Toshiaki; Hosako, Iwao; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Yuki; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2011-12-12
The generation of a 40-Gb/s 16-QAM radio-over-fiber (RoF) signal and its demodulation of the wireless signal transmitted over free space of 30 mm in W-band (75-110 GHz) is demonstrated. The 16-QAM signal is generated by a coherent polarization synthesis method using a dual-polarization QPSK modulator. A combination of the simple RoF generation and the versatile digital receiver technique is suitable for the proposed coherent optical/wireless seamless network.
Photonic-Band-Gap Traveling-Wave Gyrotron Amplifier
Nanni, E. A.; Lewis, S. M.; Shapiro, M. A.; Griffin, R. G.; Temkin, R. J.
2014-01-01
We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small signal gain of 38 dB and 45 W output power at 247.7 GHz with an instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 0.4 GHz. The amplifier can be tuned for operation from 245–256 GHz. The widest instantaneous −3 dB bandwidth of 4.5 GHz centered at 253.25 GHz was observed with a gain of 24 dB. The PBG circuit provides stability from oscillations by supporting the propagation of transverse electric (TE) modes in a narrow range of frequencies, allowing for the confinement of the operating TE03-like mode while rejecting the excitation of oscillations at nearby frequencies. This experiment achieved the highest frequency of operation for a gyrotron amplifier; at present, there are no other amplifiers in this frequency range that are capable of producing either high gain or high output power. This result represents the highest gain observed above 94 GHz and the highest output power achieved above 140 GHz by any conventional-voltage vacuum electron device based amplifier. PMID:24476286
Fiber Wireless Transmission of 8.3 Gb/s/ch QPSK-OFDM Signals in 75-110 GHz Band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Lei; Beltrán Ramírez, Marta; Pang, Xiaodan;
2012-01-01
In this paper, we present a scalable high speed Wband (75-110 GHz) fiber wireless communication system. By using an optical frequency comb generator, 3-channel 8.3 Gb/s/ch optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) baseband signals in a 15 GHz bandwidth are seamlessly translated...... from the optical to the wireless domain. The W-band wireless carrier is generated from heterodyne mixing the OOFDM baseband signal with a free-running laser. A W-band electronic down-converter and a digital signal processing (DSP) based receiver is used. 3-channel QPSK-OFDM W-band wireless signals...... are transmitted over 0.5 m and 2 m air distance with and without 22.8 km single mode fiber, respectively, with achieved performance below the forward error correction (FEC) limit....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh
2012-01-01
The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and photo......The performance of wireless signal generation and detection at millimeter-wave frequencies using baseband optical means is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Multigigabit wireless signal generation is achieved based on all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...... scalability and bit-rate transparency of our proposed approach, we experimentally demonstrated generation and detection in the 60 GHz and 75–110 GHz band of an all-optical OFDM quadrature phase shift keying, with two and three subcarriers, for a total bit rate over 20 Gb/ s....
Development program for a 200 kW, cw gyrotron. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeHope, W.J.; Ferguson, P.E.; Hart, S.L.; Matranga, V.A.; Sandoval, J.J.; Schmitt, M.J.; Tancredi, J.J.; Wozniak, M.A.
1984-02-01
Development of a millimeter-wave device to produce 200 kW of continuous wave power at 60 GHz is described. The device, a gyrotron oscillator, is intended for electron-cyclotron heating of fusion plasmas. The design philosophy is herein discussed and experimental results, both diagnostic and long pulse, are given.
Gyrotron development at KIT: FULGOR test facility and gyrotron concepts for DEMO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmid, M., E-mail: martin.schmid@kit.edu [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Franck, J.; Kalaria, P.; Avramidis, K.A.; Gantenbein, G.; Illy, S. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Jelonnek, J. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Pagonakis, I. Gr.; Rzesnicki, T. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Thumm, M. [Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Institute of High Frequency Techniques and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association EURATOM-KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Substantial extension of the KIT gyrotron test facility FULGOR has started. • FULGOR will be able to test gyrotrons with continuous RF output power up to 4 MW. • Design of 240 GHz gyrotrons for efficient electron cyclotron current drive is progressing. • Output power of 240 GHz gyrotrons with conventional cavity up to 830 kW, with coaxial cavity up to 2 MW is feasible. • Multi-frequency operation with gyrotrons is also possible (170–267 GHz). - Abstract: At the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), theoretical and experimental foundations for the development of future gyrotrons for fusion applications are being laid down. This includes the construction of the new Fusion Long Pulse Gyrotron Laboratory (FULGOR) test facility as well as physical design studies towards DEMO-compatible gyrotrons. Initially FULGOR will comprise of a 10 MW CW power supply, a 5 MW water cooling system (upgradeable to 10 MW), a superconducting 10 T magnet, one or two 2 MW ECRH test loads and a new control and data acquisition system for all these elements. The test facility will then be equipped to test the conventional 1 MW or coaxial 2 MW gyrotrons for DEMO, currently under design, as well as possible upgraded gyrotrons for W7-X and ITER. The design of the new high voltage DC power supply (HVDCPS) is flexible enough to handle gyrotrons with 4 MW CW output power (conceivably up to 170 GHz), but also test gyrotrons with higher frequencies (>250 GHz) which, due to physical limitations in the gyrotron design, will require less power but have more stringent demands on voltage stability.
High power 303 GHz gyrotron for CTS in LHD
Yamaguchi, Y.; Kasa, J.; Saito, T.; Tatematsu, Y.; Kotera, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nishiura, M.
2015-10-01
A high-power pulsed gyrotron is under development for 300 GHz-band collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostics in the Large Helical Device (LHD). High-density plasmas in the LHD require a probe wave with power exceeding 100 kW in the sub-terahertz region to obtain sufficient signal intensity and large scattering angles. At the same time, the frequency bandwidth should be less than several tens of megahertz to protect the CTS receiver using a notch filter against stray radiations. Moreover, duty cycles of ~ 10% are desired for the time domain analysis of the CTS spectrum. At present, a 77 GHz gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating is used as a CTS wave source in the LHD. However, the use of such a low-frequency wave suffers from refraction, cutoff and absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. Additionally, the signal detection is severely affected by background noise from electron cyclotron emission. To resolve those problems, high-power gyrotrons in the 300 GHz range have been developed. In this frequency range, avoiding mode competition is critical to realizing high-power and stable oscillation. A moderately over-moded cavity was investigated to isolate a desired mode from neighbouring modes. After successful tests with a prototype tube, the practical one was constructed with a cavity for TE22,2 operation mode, a triode electron gun forming intense laminar electron beams, and an internal mode convertor. We have experimentally confirmed single mode oscillation of the TE22,2 mode at the frequency of 303.3 GHz. The spectrum peak is sufficiently narrow. The output power of 290 kW has been obtained at the moment.
A study of a simple gyrotron equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goetz, Markus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Meyer-Spasche, Rita [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Weitzner, Harold [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York, NY 10012 (United States)
2007-03-02
A simple standard equation for the evolution of the electrons and electromagnetic fields in a gyrotron cavity is studied. A number of mathematical properties are shown: existence and uniqueness of solutions for a limited axial extent and existence and uniqueness for all axial lengths in one case of particular interest. A Poynting theorem is obtained directly from the model and the Hamiltonian character of the electron motion is demonstrated. The start-up and final state in the gyrotron cavity are also examined. The efficiency of energy flux transfer from the electron beam to the wave is estimated.
Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nusinovich, Gregory Semeon [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2016-04-29
This report summarized results of the work performed at the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics of the University of Maryland (College Park, MD) in the framework of the DOE Grant “Theory and Modeling of High-Power Gyrotrons”. The report covers the work performed in 2011-2014. The research work was performed in three directions: - possibilities of stable gyrotron operation in very high-order modes offering the output power exceeding 1 MW level in long-pulse/continuous-wave regimes, - effect of small imperfections in gyrotron fabrication and alignment on the gyrotron efficiency and operation, - some issues in physics of beam-wave interaction in gyrotrons.
High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang [THz Research Center, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2016-01-15
The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.
A review on the sub-THz/THz gyrotrons
Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Bera, Anirban; Sinha, A. K.
2016-05-01
A review on the sub-THz/THz gyrotrons is performed in this manuscript. The present development status of gyrotrons can be divided into three streams for the sake of better understanding: 1. low frequency (industrial applications, 2. very high power (1 MW or more), medium frequency (100-200 GHz) gyrotrons for plasma fusion applications, 3. low power (few tens of watt to kW), high frequency (>200 GHz) gyrotrons for various innovative applications. In this manuscript, the third stream of gyrotron development is reviewed. In last few decades several innovative applications are searched in sub-THz/THz band where the gyrotrons could be used as an efficient source of RF radiation. The applications of sub-THz/THz gyrotrons including the futuristic scope of the device are also discussed in this article. Further, several criticalities arise in the design and development when the gyrotron operation shifts toward the high frequency band. Various such design and technological challenges are also discussed here. Finally the development status of sub-THz/THz gyrotrons as per the use in various scientific and technological applications is also discussed.
Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.
2016-03-01
Gyrotrons are the most powerful sources of coherent CW (continuous wave) radiation in the frequency range situated between the long-wavelength edge of the infrared light (far-infrared region) and the microwaves, i.e., in the region of the electromagnetic spectrum which is usually called the THz-gap (or T-gap), since the output power of other devices (e.g., solid-state oscillators) operating in this interval is by several orders of magnitude lower. In the recent years, the unique capabilities of the sub-THz and THz gyrotrons have opened the road to many novel and future prospective applications in various physical studies and advanced high-power terahertz technologies. In this paper, we present the current status and functionality of the problem-oriented software packages (most notably GYROSIM and GYREOSS) used for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of gyrotrons for diverse applications. They consist of a hierarchy of codes specialized to modelling and simulation of different subsystems of the gyrotrons (EOS, resonant cavity, etc.) and are based on adequate physical models, efficient numerical methods and algorithms.
Scaling Calculations for a Relativistic Gyrotron.
2014-09-26
a relativistic gyrotron. The results of calculations are given in Section 3. The non- linear , slow-time-scale equations of motion used for these...corresponds to a cylindrical resonator and a thin annular electron beam ;, " with the beam radius chosen to coincide with a maximum of the resonator...entering the cavity. A tractable set of non- linear equations based on a slow-time-scale formulation developed previously was used. For this
Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons
Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.
1985-12-01
Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich;
2012-01-01
In this paper, we demonstrate a photonic up-converted 25 Gbit/s fiber-wireless quadrature phase shift-keying (QPSK) data transmission link at the W-band (75–110 GHz). By launching two free-running lasers spaced at 87.5 GHz into a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) at the central office, a W......) limit. The proposed system may have the potential for the integration of the in-building wireless networks with the fiber access networks, e.g., fiber-to-the-building (FTTB).......-band radio-over-fiber (RoF) signal is generated and distributed to the remote antenna unit (RAU). One laser carries 12.5 Gbaud optical baseband QPSK data, and the other acts as a carrier frequency generating laser. The two signals are heterodyne mixed at a photodetector in the RAU, and the baseband QPSK...
Thumm, M K
2002-01-01
The possible applications of high-power millimeter (mm) and sub-mm waves from free-electron masers (FEMs) and gyro-devices span a wide range of technologies. The plasma physics community has already taken advantage of recent advances in applying high-power mm waves generated by long pulse or continuous wave (CW) gyrotron oscillators and short pulse very high-power FEMs in the areas of RF-plasma production, heating, non-inductive current drive, plasma stabilization and active plasma diagnostics for magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion research, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating (28-170 GHz), electron cyclotron current drive , collective Thomson scattering , microwave transmission and heat-wave propagation experiments. Continuously frequency tunable FEMs could widen these fields of applications. Another important application of CW gyrotrons is industrial materials processing, e.g. sintering of high-performance functional and structural nanostructured ceramics. Sub-mm wave sources are employed in...
Effect of ion compensation of the beam space charge on gyrotron operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Nusinovich, G. S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3511 (United States)
2015-04-15
In gyrotrons, the coherent radiation of electromagnetic waves takes place when the cyclotron resonance condition between the wave frequency and the electron cyclotron frequency or its harmonic holds. The voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field changes the relativistic cyclotron frequency and, hence, can play an important role in the beam-wave interaction process. In long pulse and continuous-wave regimes, the beam space charge field can be partially compensated by the ions, which appear due to the beam impact ionization of neutral molecules of residual gases in the interaction space. In the present paper, the role of this ion compensation of the beam space charge on the interaction efficiency is analyzed. We also analyze the effect of the electron velocity spread on the limiting currents and discuss some effects restricting the ion-to-beam electron density ratio in the saturation stage. It is shown that the effect of the ion compensation on the voltage depression caused by the beam space charge field can cause significant changes in the efficiency of gyrotron operation and, in some cases, even result in the break of oscillations.
Systematic Observation of Time-Dependent Phenomena in the RF Output Spectrum of High Power Gyrotrons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kern Stefan
2012-09-01
Full Text Available At IHM/KIT, high power gyrotrons with conventional cavity (e.g. 1 MW CW at 140 GHz for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X and coaxial cavity (2 MW shortpulse at 170 GHz for ITER for fusion applications are being developed and verified experimentally. Especially with respect to the problem of parasitic RF oscillations in the beam tunnel of some W7-X tubes, investigations of the gyrotron RF output spectrum have proved to be a valuable source of diagnostic information. Signs of transient effects in millisecond pulses, like frequency switching or intermittent low-frequency modulation, have indicated that truly time-dependent measurements with high frequency resolution and dynamic range could give deeper insight into these phenomena. In this paper, an improved measurement system is presented, which employs a fast oscilloscope as receiver. Shorttime Fourier transform (STFT is applied to the time-domain signal, yielding time-variant spectra with frequency resolutions only limited by acquisition length and STFT segmentation choice. Typical reasonable resolutions are in the range of 100 kHz to 10 MHz with a currently memory-limited maximum acquisition length of 4 ms. A key feature of the system consists in the unambiguity of frequency measurement: The system receives through two parallel channels, each using a harmonic mixer (h = 9 – 12 to convert the signal from RF millimeter wave frequencies (full D-Band, 110 – 170 GHz to IF (0 – 3 GHz. For each IF output signal of each individual mixer, injection side and receiving harmonic are initially not known. Using accordingly determined LO frequencies, this information is retrieved from the redundancy of the channels, yielding unambiguously reconstructed RF spectra with a total span of twice the usable receiver IF bandwidth, up to ≈ 6 GHz in our case. Using the system, which is still being improved continuously, various transient effects like cavity mode switching, parasitic oscillation frequency variation
Further studies of a simple gyrotron equation: nonlinear theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi Meixuan, E-mail: meixuan@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY 10012-1185 (United States)
2010-11-05
A nonlinear version of a standard system of gyrotron model equations is studied using asymptotic analysis and variational methods. The condition for obtaining a high-amplitude wave is achieved in the study. A simple method for obtaining the patterns and amplitude of the wave based on the given free-space wave-number pattern is shown.
Recent Tests on 117.5 GHz and 170 GHz Gyrotrons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felch K.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Two megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies of 117.5 GHz and 170 GHz have recently been fabricated and tested at CPI. The 117.5 GHz gyrotron was designed to produce up to 1.8 MW for 10-second pulses, and will be used for electron cyclotron heating and current drive on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. The 170 GHz gyrotron is specified as a 500 kW CW system, but has been designed with the goal of generating up to 1 MW CW. Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the gyrotron in ITER ECH transmission line testing.
Further studies of a simple gyrotron equation: linear theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weitzner, Harold [New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York, NY 10012 (United States)
2009-07-03
A linearized version of a standard system of gyrotron model equations is studied. The linearization allows the inclusion of some effects of particle bunching. The normal modes of the linearized system are given. It is shown that bunching effects couple incoming and outgoing waves. The waves near resonance duplicate well-known results. Without bunching and with a simple background profile function integral representations of solutions are given and discussed.
Investigations and advanced concepts on gyrotron interaction modeling and simulations
Avramidis, K. A.
2015-12-01
In gyrotron theory, the interaction between the electron beam and the high frequency electromagnetic field is commonly modeled using the slow variables approach. The slow variables are quantities that vary slowly in time in comparison to the electron cyclotron frequency. They represent the electron momentum and the high frequency field of the resonant TE modes in the gyrotron cavity. For their definition, some reference frequencies need to be introduced. These include the so-called averaging frequency, used to define the slow variable corresponding to the electron momentum, and the carrier frequencies, used to define the slow variables corresponding to the field envelopes of the modes. From the mathematical point of view, the choice of the reference frequencies is, to some extent, arbitrary. However, from the numerical point of view, there are arguments that point toward specific choices, in the sense that these choices are advantageous in terms of simulation speed and accuracy. In this paper, the typical monochromatic gyrotron operation is considered, and the numerical integration of the interaction equations is performed by the trajectory approach, since it is the fastest, and therefore it is the one that is most commonly used. The influence of the choice of the reference frequencies on the interaction simulations is studied using theoretical arguments, as well as numerical simulations. From these investigations, appropriate choices for the values of the reference frequencies are identified. In addition, novel, advanced concepts for the definitions of these frequencies are addressed, and their benefits are demonstrated numerically.
Study on the Before Cavity Interaction in a Second Harmonic Gyrotron Using 3D CFDTD PIC Simulations
Lin, M. C.; Illy, S.; Thumm, M.; Jelonnek, J.
2016-10-01
A computational study on before cavity interaction (BCI) in a 28 GHz second harmonic (SH) gryotron for industrial applications has been performed using a 3-D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method. On the contrary to the after cavity interaction (ACI), i.e. beam wave interaction in the non-linear uptaper after the cavity, which has been widely investigated, the BCI, i.e. beam wave interaction in the non-linear downtaper before the cavity connected to the beam tunnel with an entrance, is less noticed and discussed. Usually the BCI might be considered easy to be eliminated. However, this is not always the case. As the SH gyrotron had been designed for SH TE12 mode operation, the first harmonic (FH) plays the main competition. In the 3-D CFDTD PIC simulations, a port boundary has been employed for the gyro-beam entrance of the gyrotron cavity instead of a metallic short one which is not reflecting a realistic situation as an FH backward wave oscillation (BWO) is competing with the desired SH generation. A numerical instability has been found and identified as a failure of the entrance port boundary caused by an evanescent wave or mode conversion. This indicates the entrance and downtaper are not fully cut-off for some oscillations. A further study shows that the undesired oscillation is the FH TE11 BWO mode concentrated around the beam tunnel entrance and downtaper. A mitigation strategy has been found to suppress this undesired BCI and avoid possible damage to the gun region.
Bratman, V. L.; Savilov, A. V.; Chang, T. H.
2016-02-01
Large ohmic losses in the cavities of terahertz gyrotrons may lead to the overlapping of the axial mode spectra. In a number of gyrotron experiments, this effect has been used to provide a fairly broadband frequency tuning by changing appropriately the operating magnetic field and/or accelerating voltage of the gyrotron. Similar to the systems with nonfixed axial structure of the RF electromagnetic field and low diffraction quality, which are due to weak reflections of the operating wave from the collector end of the electrodynamic system, this changing leads to a monotonic change in the axial index of the operating wave and transition from the gyrotron regime to the gyro-BWO regime. According to a theoretical comparison of these two methods performed on the basis of generalization of self-consistent gyrotron equations with allowance for variations in the axial electron momenta, low-reflection systems can provide a higher efficiency and monotonicity of the frequency tuning.
Effects of electron-cyclotron instabilities on gyrotron beam quality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1996-02-01
A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries. It has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D. First results show an electromagnetic backward instability periodically growing and decaying to energy levels close to those obtained from the electrostatic Bernstein wave instability. On the average, the resulting beam degradation is 3 to 4 times larger than that predicted by electrostatic models. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.
Application of Fusion Gyrotrons to Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)
Woskov, P.; Einstein, H.; Oglesby, K.
2013-10-01
The potential size of geothermal energy resources is second only to fusion energy. Advances are needed in drilling technology and heat reservoir formation to realize this potential. Millimeter-wave (MMW) gyrotrons and related technologies developed for fusion energy research could contribute to enabling EGS. Directed MMW energy can be used to advance rock penetration capabilities, borehole casing, and fracking. MMWs are ideally suited because they can penetrate through small particulate extraction plumes, can be efficiently guided long distances in borehole dimensions, and continuous megawatt sources are commercially available. Laboratory experiments with a 10 kW, 28 GHz CPI gyrotron have shown that granite rock can be fractured and melted with power intensities of about 1 kW/cm2 and minute exposure times. Observed melted rock MMW emissivity and estimated thermodynamics suggest that penetrating hot, hard crystalline rock formations may be economic with fusion research developed MMW sources. Supported by USDOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Impact Technologies, LLC.
Hochman, J. M.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Jaynes, R. L.; Rintamaki, J. I.; Luginsland, J. W.; Lau, Y. Y.; Spencer, T. A.
1996-11-01
Experiments utilize large and small orbit e-beam gyrotron devices in a rectangular-cross-section (RCS) gyrotron. This device is being explored to examine polarization control. Other research issues include pulse shortening, and mode competition. MELBA generates electron beams with parameters of: -800kV, 1-10kA diode current, and 0.5-1.0 μ sec pulselengths. The small orbit gyrotron device is converted to a large orbit experiment by running MELBA's annular electron beam through a magnetic cusp. Initial experiments showed an increase in beam alpha (V_perp/V_par) of a factor of ~ 4 between small and large orbit devices. Experimental results from the RCS gyrotron will be compared for large-orbit and small-orbit electron beams. Beam transport data and frequency measurements will be presented. Computer modeling utilizing the MAGIC and E-gun codes will be shown.
Ion Compensation for Space Charge in the Helical Electron Beams of Gyrotrons
Manuilov, V. N.; Semenov, V. E.
2016-06-01
We solve analytically the problem about ion compensation for the space charge of a helical electron beam in a gyrotron operated in the long-pulse regime. Elementary processes, which take place during ionization of residual gas in the tube under typical pressures of 10-6-10-7 mm Hg, are considered. It is shown that distribution of the space charge is affected mainly by the electrons of the initial beam and slow-moving ions produced by ionization of the residual gas. Steady-state density of ions in the operating space of the gyrotron after the end of the transitional processes is found, as well as the electron density profile in the channel of electron beam transportation. The results obtained allow us to evaluate the pitch-factor variations caused by partial compensations for the potential "sagging" in the gyrotron cavity, thus being useful for analysis of starting currents, efficiency, and mode competition in high-power gyrotrons.
Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vivek Yadav; Sudeep Sharan; Hasina Khatun; Nitin Kumar; M K Alaria; B Jha; S C Deorani; A K Sinha; P K Jain
2013-12-01
This paper presents experimental results for cold testing of a gyrotron open resonator. Experiments were carried out to measure resonant frequency and their particular quality factor for TE mode at the frequency 42 GHz. The perturbation technique was used to determine the axial, radial and azimuthal electric field profile for identification of TE031 mode at operating frequency 42 GHz. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical studies was found. The results verify the design and fabrication of the specific gyrotron cavity.
Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.
2016-10-01
As the most powerful CW sources of coherent radiation in the sub-terahertz to terahertz frequency range the gyrotrons have demonstrated a remarkable potential for numerous novel and prospective applications in the fundamental physical research and the technologies. Among them are powerful gyrotrons for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasma in various reactors for controlled thermonuclear fusion (e.g., tokamaks and most notably ITER), high-frequency gyrotrons for sub-terahertz spectroscopy (for example NMR-DNP, XDMR, study of the hyperfine structure of positronium, etc.), gyrotrons for thermal processing and so on. Modelling and simulation are indispensable tools for numerical studies, computer-aided design (CAD) and optimization of such sophisticated vacuum tubes (fast-wave devices) operating on a physical principle known as electron cyclotron resonance maser (ECRM) instability. During the recent years, our research team has been involved in the development of physical models and problem-oriented software packages for numerical analysis and CAD of different gyrotrons in the framework of a broad international collaboration. In this paper we present the current status of our simulation tools (GYROSIM and GYREOSS packages) and illustrate their functionality by results of numerical experiments carried out recently. Finally, we provide an outlook on the envisaged further development of the computer codes and the computational modules belonging to these packages and specialized to different subsystems of the gyrotrons.
Optimization of operation of a three-electrode gyrotron with the use of a flow-type calorimeter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kharchev, Nikolay K.; Batanov, German M.; Kolik, Leonid V.; Malakhov, Dmitrii V.; Petrov, Aleksandr Ye.; Sarksyan, Karen A.; Skvortsova, Nina N.; Stepakhin, Vladimir D. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilova ul. 38, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Belousov, Vladimir I. [Institute of Applied Physics, Ul' yanova ul. 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Malygin, Sergei A.; Tai, Yevgenii M. [GYCOM Company, Ul' yanova ul. 46, Nizhnii Novgorod 603155 (Russian Federation)
2013-01-15
Results are presented for measurements of microwave power of the Borets-75/0.8 gyrotron with recovery of residual electron energy, which were performed by a flow-type calorimeter. This gyrotron is a part of the ECR plasma heating complex put into operation in 2010 at the L-2M stellarator. The new calorimeter is capable of measuring microwave power up to 0.5 MW. Monitoring of the microwave power makes it possible to control the parameters of the gyrotron power supply unit (its voltage and current) and the magnetic field of the cryomagnet in order to optimize the gyrotron operation and arrive at maximum efficiency.
Millimeter-wave gyrotron traveling-wave tube amplifiers
Du, Chao-Hai
2014-01-01
A gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWT) with the high-power and broad-band capabilities is considered as a turn-on key for next generation high-resolution radar. The book presents comprehensive theory, methods, and physics related to gyro-TWT. The most challenging problem of instability competition has been for the first time addressed in a focused and systematic way, and reported via concise states and vivid pictures. The book is likely to meet the interest of researchers and engineers in radar and microwave technology, who would like to study the gyro-TWTs and to promote its application in millimeter-wave radars. Chao-Hai Du is a research professor, and Pu-Kun Liu is a full professor, at Peking University, Beijing, P. R. China.
A Stable 0.2-THz Coaxial-Waveguide Gyrotron Traveling-Wave-Tube Amplifier with Distributed Losses
Hung, C. L.; Yeh, Y. S.; Chang, T. H.; Fang, R. S.
2016-08-01
For high-power operation, a THz gyrotron traveling-wave-tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier must operate in a high-order waveguide mode to enlarge the transverse dimension of an interaction waveguide. However, a gyro-TWT amplifier operating in a high-order waveguide mode is susceptible to spurious oscillations. To improve the device stability, in this study, we investigate the possibility of using a coaxial waveguide with distributed losses as the interaction structure. For the same required attenuation, all threatening oscillating modes can be suppressed using different combinations of losses of inner and outer cylinders. This provides flexibility in designing distributed losses when considering the ohmic loading of the interaction structure. We predict that the 0.2-THz gyro-TWT can stably produce a peak power of 14 kW with an efficiency of 23 %, a 3-dB bandwidth of 3.5 GHz, and a saturated gain of 50 dB for a 20-kV 3-A electron beam with a 5 % velocity spread and 1.0 velocity ratio.
Development of dual frequency gyrotron and high power test of EC components
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakamoto K.
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In JAEA, development of high-power long-pulse gyrotrons is underway. The output power of the gyrotron was applied for high-power long-pulse tests of the transmission line (TL and the equatorial launcher (EL mock up for ITER. The feature of design in the dual frequency gyrotron is the simultaneously satisfying the matching of both frequencies at a window and the same radiation angle at an internal mode convertor for both frequencies. The dual frequency gyrotron was developed and high power operations at 170 GHz and 137 GHz were carried out. The 170 GHz high power experiment of 40 m length ITER relevant TL was carried out and transmission efficiency and mode purity change caused by long pulse operation were measured. The mock-up model of EL was also tested using 170 GHz gyrotron. The power transmission through the quasi-optical beam line in EL was demonstrated using the full scale mock up model. Furthermore, the high power test results of the transmission components will be summarized.
Plasma scattering measurement using a submillimeter wave gyrotron as a radiation source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogawa, I.; Idehara, T.; Itakura, Y.; Myodo, M. [Fukui Univ., Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region (Japan); Hori, T. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Basic and Advanced Research Division, Nukui-Kita, Koganei (Japan); Hatae, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Mukoyama, Naka (Japan)
2004-07-01
Plasma scattering measurement is an effective technique to observe low frequency density fluctuations excited in plasma. The spatial and wave number resolutions and the S/N ratio of measurement depend on the wavelength range, the size and the intensity of a probe beam. A well-collimated, submillimeter wave beam is suitable for improving the spatial and wave number resolutions. Application of high frequency gyrotron is effective in improving the S/N ratio of the measurement because of its capacity to deliver high power. Unlike the molecular vapor lasers, the gyrotrons generate diverging beam of radiation with TE{sub mn} mode structure. It is therefore necessary to convert the output radiation into a Gaussian beam. A quasi-optical antenna is a suitable element for the conversion system under consideration since it is applicable to several TE{sub 0n} and TE{sub 1n} modes. In order to apply the gyrotron to plasma scattering measurement, we have stabilized the output (P = 110 W, f = 354 GHz) of gyrotron up to the level ({delta}P/P < 1 %, {delta}f< 10 kHz). The gyrotron output can be stabilized by decreasing the fluctuation of the cathode potential. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glyavin, M. Yu., E-mail: glyavin@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Denisov, G. G.; Zapevalov, V. E. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Gycom Ltd., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Chirkov, A. V.; Fokin, A. P.; Kholoptsev, V. V.; Kuftin, A. N.; Luchinin, A. G.; Golubyatnikov, G. Yu.; Malygin, V. I.; Morozkin, M. V.; Manuilov, V. N.; Proyavin, M. D.; Sedov, A. S.; Tsvetkov, A. I. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sokolov, E. V.; Tai, E. M. [Gycom Ltd., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2015-05-15
A 263 GHz continuous-wave (CW) gyrotron was developed at the IAP RAS for future applications as a microwave power source in Dynamic Nuclear Polarization / Nuclear magnetic resonance (DNP/NMR) spectrometers. A new experimental facility with a computerized control was built to test this and subsequent gyrotrons. We obtained the maximum CW power up to 1 kW in the 15 kV/0.4 A operation regime. The power about 10 W, which is sufficient for many spectroscopic applications, was realized in the low current 14 kV/0.02 A regime. The possibility of frequency tuning by variation of the coolant temperature about 4 MHz/1 °C was demonstrated. The spectral width of the gyrotron radiation was about 10{sup −6}.
Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF
Idehara, Toshitaka
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at FIR UF that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power Terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a CW regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably DNP-NMR, ESR, XDMR, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, new medical technologies.
三次谐波光子带隙谐振腔回旋管%Third-Harmonic of Photonic-Band-Gap Cavity Gyrotron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏玉玺; 唐昌建
2011-01-01
Effective coupling of interaction between high-order electromagnetic mode gyrotron oscillator and high-effective electron cyclotron mode is achieved through the analysis of mode selection function of the photonic band gap cavity（PBGC）.After band characteristics of the PBGC are investigated,TE34-mode is set as working mode and the mode competition is suppressed successfully.The concept of equivalent radius of PBGC gyrotron is established,self-consistent nonlinear theory and related computer simulation program are completed.Studies have shown that TE34-mode can interact with third electronic cyclotron harmonics effectively,the coupling frequency of which is 130.5GHz,and meanwhile it reduces the required magnetic field greatly.The parameters are optimized when many physical factors are taken into account,and a third-harmonic PBGC gyrotron oscillator with voltage 430KV,current 35A,output power 1.75MW and interaction efficiency 11.5% are obtained consequently.%分析了光子晶体谐振腔（PBGC）的模式选择功能,实现PBGC回旋管振荡器高阶电磁模与高次电子回旋模的有效耦合。通过对PBGC禁带特性的分析,定出了工作模式TE34模,并成功抑制了模式竞争。文中建立了PBGC回旋管的等效半径的概念,完成了自洽非线性理论和相关的计算机数值模拟程序。研究发现TE34模能有效地与电子的3次回旋谐波相互作用,其耦合频率为130.5GHz,并极大地降低了对工作磁场的要求。在考虑诸多物理因素影响的情况下,对该3次谐波PBGC回旋管振荡器进行了参数优化研究,得到了参数为：电压430kV、
A Fully-Sealed Carbon-Nanotube Cold-Cathode Terahertz Gyrotron
Yuan, Xuesong; Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Ningsheng; Yan, Yang; Wu, Jianqiang; Shen, Yan; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi
2016-09-01
Gigahertz to terahertz radiation sources based on cold-cathode vacuum electron technology are pursued, because its unique characteristics of instant switch-on and power saving are important to military and space applications. Gigahertz gyrotron was reported using carbon nanotube (CNT) cold-cathode. It is reported here in first time that a fully-sealed CNT cold-cathode 0.22 THz-gyrotron is realized, typically with output power of 500 mW. To achieve this, we have studied mechanisms responsible for CNTs growth on curved shape metal surface, field emission from the sidewall of a CNT, and crystallized interface junction between CNT and substrate material. We have obtained uniform growth of CNTs on and direct growth from cone-cylinder stainless-steel electrode surface, and field emission from both tips and sidewalls of CNTs. It is essential for the success of a CNT terahertz gyrotron to have such high quality, high emitting performance CNTs. Also, we have developed a magnetic injection electron gun using CNT cold-cathode to exploit the advantages of such a conventional gun design, so that a large area emitting surface is utilized to deliver large current for electron beam. The results indicate that higher output power and higher radiation frequency terahertz gyrotron may be made using CNT cold-cathode electron gun.
太赫兹回旋管研究进展%Development of Terahertz Gyrotrons
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
鄢扬; 傅文杰
2013-01-01
回旋管是一种基于电子回旋谐振受激辐射的快波器件,是目前太赫兹波段输出功率和效率最高的重要器件,本文给出了目前国内外太赫兹回旋管技术的发展状况,分析了太赫兹回旋管的特点和应用前景.%Gyrotrons are fast-wave vacuum electron devices based on the stimulated radiation, of electron cyclotron resonance. They are able to deliver powerful radiation in terahertz frequency bands with high efficiency. In this paper, the current status and development of terahertz gyrotrons are reviewed, the characteristics and prospective applications are discussed.
Damyanova, M.; Sabchevski, S.; Zhelyazkov, I.; Vasileva, E.; Balabanova, E.; Dankov, P.; Malinov, P.
2016-05-01
Powerful gyrotrons are necessary as sources of strong microwaves for electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) of magnetically confined plasmas in various reactors (most notably ITER) for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Adequate physical models and efficient problem-oriented software packages are essential tools for numerical studies, analysis, optimization and computer-aided design (CAD) of such high-performance gyrotrons operating in a CW mode and delivering output power of the order of 1-2 MW. In this report we present the current status of our simulation tools (physical models, numerical codes, pre- and post-processing programs, etc.) as well as the computational infrastructure on which they are being developed, maintained and executed.
Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF
Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Svilen Petrov
2017-01-01
In this review paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at the Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency-tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a continuous-wave regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably dynamic nuclear polarization-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, X-ray detected magnetic resonance, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, and new medical technologies.
Development and simulation of RF components for high power millimeter wave gyrotrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyaslavets, M.; Sato, M.; Shimozuma, T.; Takita, Y.; Idei, H.; Kubo, S.; Ohkubo, K.; Hayashi, K.
1996-11-01
To test gyrotron RF components, efficient low-power generators for rotating high-order modes of high purity are necessary. Designs of generators for the TE{sub 15,3} mode at 84 GHz and for the TE{sub 31,8} mode at 168 GHz are presented and some preliminary test results are discussed. In addition, Toshiba gyrotron cavities at 168 GHz were analyzed for leakage of RF power in the beam tunnel. To decrease RF power leakage, the declination angle of the cut-off cavity cross section has to be decreased. A TE{sub 15,3} waveguide nonlinear uptaper is analyzed at 84 GHz as well as 168 GHz uptapers. Since the calculated conversion losses are slightly higher than designed value, an optimization of those uptapers may be required. (author)
Gyrotrons for High-Power Terahertz Science and Technology at FIR UF
Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Svilen Petrov
2016-10-01
In this review paper, we present the recent progress in the development of a series of gyrotrons at the Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, that have opened the road to many novel applications in the high-power terahertz science and technology. The current status of the research in this actively developing field is illustrated by the most representative examples in which the developed gyrotrons are used as powerful and frequency-tunable sources of coherent radiation operating in a continuous-wave regime. Among them are high-precision spectroscopic techniques (most notably dynamic nuclear polarization-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, X-ray detected magnetic resonance, and studies of the hyperfine splitting of the energy levels of positronium), treatment and characterization of advanced materials, and new medical technologies.
Status of the development of the EU 170 GHz/1 MW/CW gyrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr., E-mail: ioannis.pagonakis@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Albajar, Ferran [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Alberti, Stefano [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Avramidis, Konstantinos [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonicelli, Tullio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Braunmueller, Falk [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Bruschi, Alex [Plasma Physics Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Milano (Italy); Chelis, Ioannis [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Cismondi, Fabio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hermann, Virgile [Thales Electron Devices (TED), Vélizy-Villacoublay (France); Hesch, Klaus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hogge, Jean-Philippe [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Jelonnek, John; Jin, Jianbo; Illy, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ioannidis, Zisis C. [Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Kobarg, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); and others
2015-10-15
The progress in the development of the European 170 GHz, 1 MW/CW gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating & current drive (ECH&CD) on ITER is reported. A continuous wave (CW) prototype is being manufactured by Thales Electron Devices (TED), France, while a short-pulse (SP) prototype gyrotron is in parallel under manufacture at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with the purpose of validating the design of the CW industrial prototype components. The fabrication of most of the sub-assemblies of the SP prototype has been completed. In a first step, an existing magnetron injection gun (MIG) available at KIT was used. Despite this non-ideal configuration, the experiments provided a validation of the design, substantiated by an excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The tube, operated without a depressed collector, is able to produce more than 1 MW of output power with efficiency in excess of 30%, as expected, and compatible with the ITER requirements.
Upgrade of a 30 kV/10 mA anode power supply for triode type gyrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siravo, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.siravo@epfl.ch; Alberti, Stefano; Dubray, Jérémie; Fasel, Damien; Hogge, Jean-Philippe; Marlétaz, Blaise; Marmillod, Philippe; Perez, Albert; Silva, Miguel
2015-10-15
Highlights: • Triode type gyrotron is fed by 3 power supplies: the main, an anode PS(APS) and a heater. • This paper presents the upgrade of 3APS, supplied in 1999, that never fulfilled the specs. • The new working principle is very efficient, easy to implement, for a minimal cost. • Upgraded APS provides extended modulation capabilities, no overshoot and lowerripple. • This upgrade will allow exploring new operation regimes for the 3 TCV X3 gyrotrons. - The RF power of a gyrotron with a triode type magnetron-injection-gun (MIG) can be directly controlled via the voltage applied between its anode and its cathode. Hence, the performance of this type of gyrotron relies directly on the possibilities offered by the power supply controlling the anode to cathode voltage. For a system of gyrotrons connected to the same main high-voltage power supply, with a triode MIG one has the additional advantage of independently controlling each individual gyrotron. This paper presents the modifications brought to the three existing 30 kV/10 mA anode power supplies connected to the 500 kW/118 GHz/2s X3 gyrotrons operated on the TCV Tokamak. The new working principle based on phase-shift modulation (PSM) is described in detail. Experimental results obtained on dummy load are compared to simulations performed during the design phase. With respect to the initial working principle, the modulation frequency capability has been increased by a factor 10 reaching more than 5 kHz, whereas the output voltage ripple as well as the overshoot/undershoot have been significantly reduced.
A 0.33-THz second-harmonic frequency-tunable gyrotron
Zheng-Di, Li; Chao-Hai, Du; Xiang-Bo, Qi; Li, Luo; Pu-Kun, Liu
2016-02-01
Dynamics of the axial mode transition process in a 0.33-THz second-harmonic gyrotron is investigated to reveal the physical mechanism of realizing broadband frequency tuning in an open cavity circuit. A new interaction mechanism about propagating waves, featured by wave competition and wave cooperation, is presented and provides a new insight into the beam-wave interaction. The two different features revealed in the two different operation regions of low-order axial modes (LOAMs) and high-order axial modes (HOAMs) respectively determine the characteristic of the overall performance of the device essentially. The device performance is obtained by the simulation based on the time-domain nonlinear theory and shows that using a 12-kV/150-mA electron beam and TE-3,4 mode, the second harmonic gyrotron can generate terahertz radiations with frequency-tuning ranges of about 0.85 GHz and 0.60 GHz via magnetic field and beam voltage tuning, respectively. Additionally, some non-stationary phenomena in the mode startup process are also analyzed. The investigation in this paper presents guidance for future developing high-performance frequency-tunable gyrotrons toward terahertz applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471007, 61531002, 61522101, and 11275206) and the Seeding Grant for Medicine and Information Science of Peking University, China (Grant No. 2014-MI-01).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, He, E-mail: wangh@swip.ac.cn; Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Chao; Kang, Zihua; Wang, Mingwei; Feng, Kun; Chen, Gangyu; Lu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong
2015-12-15
Highlights: • A test stand for the test of gyrotron is introduced. • Test results show that the output power of gyrotron has a close relation to the high voltage, magnet current and heater power. • The measurement method of operation frequency and output power of gyrotron is introduced. - Abstract: To obtain the optimum operation status of gyrotrons, it is necessary to commissioning the gyrotrons before EC wave injected into plasma for ECRH system on HL-2A tokamak. A test stand has been set up for conditioning the 0.5 MW/68 GHz/1.0 s gyrotrons. The specific test results of gyrotrons are described and discussed in this paper, which include measuring the beam profile by using burn paper at the outlet of MOU and calorimetric dummy load, testing the maximum output power and pulse width on dummy load and getting the dependence between output power and magnetic field current, filament power and high voltage powers. Meanwhile, the operation frequency of gyrotron is also measured in the test.
A 0.52THz third harmonic little-orbit gyrotron%小回旋三次谐波0.52THz回旋管
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁学松; 马春燕; 韩煜; 鄢扬
2012-01-01
A third harmonic little-orbit gyrotron oscillator is investigated theoretically in order to develop high power and efficiency terahertz (THz) radiation sources. Mode competition with different electron-beam parameters have been investigated in a 0.52 THz third harmonic TE37 mode gyrotron oscillator, which can generate 3.7kW of RF power at resonant magnetic field 6.98T. In addition, a high magnetic compression ratio magnetron injection gun (MIG) with 65 kV/2. 5 A has been developed. PIC simulation results show that the velocity ratio of electron beam is 1.24, the average beam radius in the cavity is 0.35 mm. The spread of perpendicular and parallel velocities are 6.1% and 6.6% , respectively.%为了发展大功率高效率太赫兹辐射源,对小回旋电子注激励三次谐波太赫兹电子回旋脉塞进行了研究,分析了不同参数情况下的模式竞争.研究结果表明,采用近轴小回旋电子注能够实现三次谐波单模振荡.在此基础上设计了一只0.52 THz、TE37模三次谐波回旋管,数值计算表明,该回旋管在工作磁场为6.98 T下输出功率可以达到3.7 kW.对产生近轴小回旋电子注的高磁压缩比磁控注入式电子光学系统进行的粒子模拟研究结果表明,该电子枪能够产生满足实验要求的65 kV/2.5 A,横纵速度比为1.24,引导中心半径0.35 mm的小回旋电子注,其纵向速度离散6.6％,横向速度离散6.1％.
500-fold enhancement of in situ 13C liquid state NMR using gyrotron-driven temperature-jump DNP
Yoon, Dongyoung; Soundararajan, Murari; Caspers, Christian; Braunmueller, Falk; Genoud, Jérémy; Alberti, Stefano; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2016-09-01
A 550-fold increase in the liquid state 13C NMR signal of a 50 μL sample was obtained by first hyperpolarizing the sample at 20 K using a gyrotron (260 GHz), then, switching its frequency in order to apply 100 W for 1.5 s so as to melt the sample, finally, turning off the gyrotron to acquire the 13C NMR signal. The sample stays in its NMR resonator, so the sequence can be repeated with rapid cooling as the entire cryostat stays cold. DNP and thawing of the sample are performed only by the switchable and tunable gyrotron without external devices. Rapid transition from DNP to thawing in one second time scale was necessary especially in order to enhance liquid 1H NMR signal.
A double-beam magnetron-injection gun for third-harmonic continuous wave 1-THz gyrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glyavin, M. [Faculty of Radiophysics, N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation); Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region, University of Fukui (FIR FU), Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan); Manuilov, V. [Faculty of Radiophysics, N. I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region, University of Fukui (FIR FU), Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan); Idehara, T. [Research Center for Development of Far Infrared Region, University of Fukui (FIR FU), Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan)
2013-12-15
The concept of a continuous wave 1-kW/1-THz gyrotron operated at the third cyclotron harmonic of the transverse electric TE{sub 9,7} operating mode has been developed. To suppress the mode competition effects in a terahertz gyrotron, we propose a scheme with two generating helical electron beams (HEBs) formed in a double-beam triode magnetron-injection gun (MIG), where both emitters of the electron beams are located on a common cathode of the conventional MIG. An optimal geometry of the MIG electrodes is found. It is shown that in a proposed scheme two HEBs having close pitch factors and a moderate velocity spread can be formed. This makes them suitable for high-efficiency single-mode generation in the high frequency gyrotron at high harmonic.
Coupler for coupling gyrotron whispering gallery mode RF into HE11 waveguide
Neilson, Jeffrey M
2015-02-24
A cylindrical waveguide with a mode converter transforms a whispering gallery mode from a gyrotron cylindrical waveguide with a helical cut launch edge to a quasi-Gaussian beam suitable for conveyance through a corrugated waveguide. This quasi-Gaussian beam is radiated away from the waveguide using a spiral cut launch edge, which is in close proximity to a first mode converting reflector. The first mode converting reflector is coupled to a second mode converting reflector which provides an output free-space HE11 mode wave suitable for direct coupling into a corrugated waveguide. The radiated beam produced at the output of the second mode converting reflector is substantially circular.
Design of a system for conversion of gyrotron output into a gaussian beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ogawa, I. [Faculty of Engineering, Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan); Idehara, T.; Sabchevski, S.; Glyavin, M.; Mitsudo, S. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan); Sato, M.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Brand, G.F. [School of Physics, Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia)
2000-03-01
A quasi-optical system consisting of a quasi-optical antenna, two ellipsoidal mirrors and a filter to block sidelobes can convert four TE{sub 1n} mode outputs of the Gyrotron FU IVA into gaussian-like beams with waist size of 16.3 mm. This system can convert three TE{sub 0n} mode outputs into bigaussian-like beams with waist size of 23.5 mm in width and 16.4 mm in length. (author)
Test of a two-dimensionally focusing quasi-optical antenna using a gyrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T.; Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J.
1989-05-01
A quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for millimeter wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. This letter reports the first demonstration of the properties of such an antenna using a gyrotron millimeter wave source. Its advantages are (1) good two-dimensional focusing (along the major radius and the toroidal directions) and (2) easy movement of the focus across the diameter of the plasma by changing the orientation of the parabolic reflector.
Beam-wave interaction behavior of a 35 GHz metal PBG cavity gyrotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Ashutosh, E-mail: asingh.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Faculty of Physical Sciences, Institute of Natural Sciences and Humanities Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Uttar Pradesh-225003 (India); Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005 (India); Jain, P. K. [Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi-221005 (India)
2014-09-15
The RF behavior of a 35 GHz photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating in TE{sub 041}-like mode has been presented to demonstrate its single mode operation capability. In this PBG cavity gyrotron, the conventional tapered cylindrical cavity is replaced by a metal PBG cavity as its RF interaction structure. The beam-wave interaction behavior has been explored using time dependent multimode nonlinear analysis as well as through 3D PIC simulation. Metal PBG cavity is treated here similar to that of a conventional cylindrical cavity for the desired mode confinement. The applied DC magnetic field profile has been considered uniform along the PBG cavity length both in analysis as well as in simulation. Electrons energy and phase along the interaction length of the PBG cavity facilitates bunching mechanism as well as energy transfer phenomena from the electron beam to the RF field. The RF output power for the TE{sub 041}-like design mode as well as nearby competing modes have been estimated and found above to 100 kW in TE{sub 041}-like mode with ∼15% efficiency. Results obtained from the analysis and the PIC simulation are found in agreement within 8% variation, and also it supports the single mode operation, as the PBG cavity does not switch into other parasitic modes in considerably large range of varying DC magnetic field, contrary to the conventional cylindrical cavity interaction structure.
High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.
Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu
2008-02-01
A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.
Design of the Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system by using 170-GHz gyrotron in the KSTAR
Park, Min; Kim, Sun-Ho; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Lee, Kyu-Dong; Wang, Son-Jong
2014-10-01
The physics of energetic ions is one of the primary subjects to be understood toward the realization of a nuclear fusion power plant. Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) offers the possibility to diagnose the fast ions and the alpha particles in burning plasmas. Spatially- and temporally-resolved one-dimensional velocity distributions of the fast ions can be obtained from the scattered radiation with fewer geometric constraints by utilizing millimeter waves from a high-power gyrotron as a probe beam. We studied the feasibility of CTS fast-ion measurements in the KSTAR by calculating the spectral density functions. Based on that, we suggest a design for the CTS system that uses the currently-operating 170-GHz gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in the KSTAR. The CTS system is presented as two subsystems: the antenna system and the heterodyne receiver system. The design procedure for an off-axis ellipsoidal mirror is described, and the CTS system requirements are discussed.
The 5.8 T Cryogen-Free Gyrotron Superconducting Magnet System on HL-2A
Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jun; Bai, Xingyu; Zheng, Tieliu; Rao, Jun; Zhuang, Ge
2014-04-01
A 5.8 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (SCM) system with a warm bore hole of 160 mm in diameter, used for gyrotrons operating in the frequency range from 68 GHz to 140 GHz, is installed on the site of the HL-2A tokamak. The SCM consists of two separate solenoidal magnetic coils connected in series, a 4.2 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator, a compressor, a coil power supply and two temperature monitors. The performance, test and preliminary experimental results of this SCM system are described in this paper. The magnetic field distribution was measured along the axis, and a dummy tube was used for adjusting the magnet system. Finally, the magnet was used for the operation of a 68 GHz/500 kW gyrotron, which is part of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system. With an additional auxiliary coil and after adjusting the magnet system, a maximum output power for the ECRH system of up to 400 kW was achieved.
Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz
1995-01-01
Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
G. Yu. YUSHKOV; K. P. SAVKIN; A. G. NIKOLAEV; E. M. OKS; A.V. VODOPYANOV; I. V. IZOTOV; D. A. MANSFELD
2011-01-01
A new method for the generation of high charged state metal ion beams is developed. This method is based on microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance （ECR） conditions. Two gyrotrons for plasma heating were used, which were with the following parameters. The first is with a wave frequency of 37.5 GHz, a pulse duration of 1 ms and power of 100 kW, another is with 75 GHz, 0.15 ms and 400 kW. Two different magnetic traps were considered for vacuum arc plasma confinement. The first one is a simple mirror trap. Such system was already investigated and could provide high charge state ions. The second trap was with a cusp magnetic field configuration with native ＂minimum-B＂ field structure. Two different ways of metal plasma injection into the magnetic trap were used. The first one is an axial injection from an arc source located out of the trap, and the second is a radial injection from four arc sources mounted at the center of the trap. Both traps provide up to 200 eMA of ion beam current for platinum ions with highest charge state 10＋. Ion beams were successfully extracted from the plasma and accelerated by a voltage of up to 20 kV.
Velocity-space tomography of fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of gyrotron radiation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, A.S.; Jensen, Thomas;
2016-01-01
We propose a diagnostic capable of measuring 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions 푓2퐷푣 in the MeV-range in magnetized fusion plasmas. Today velocity-space tomography based on fast-ion D훼 spectroscopy is regularly used to measure 푓2퐷푣 for ion energies below 100 keV. Unfortunately, the signal......-tonoise ratio becomes fairly low for MeV-range ions. Ions at any energy can be detected well by collective Thomson scattering of mm-wave radiation from a high-power gyrotron. We demonstrate how collective Thomson scattering can be used to measure 푓2퐷푣 in the MeV-range in reactor relevant plasmas...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atakishiyev, N.M. [Instituto de Matematicas. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Jafarov, E.I.; Nagiyev, S.M. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences. Baku, Azerbaijan (Azerbaijan); Wolf, K.B. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
1998-10-01
Meixner oscillators have a ground state and an energy spectrum that is equally spaced; they are a two-parameter family of models that satisfy a Hamiltonian equation with a difference operator. Meixner oscillators include as limits and particular cases the Charlier, Kravchuk and Hermite (common quantum-mechanical) harmonic oscillators. By the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation they are also related with a relativistic model of the linear harmonic oscillator, built in terms of the Meixner-Pollaczek polynomials, and their continuous weight function. We construct explicitly the corresponding coherent states with the dynamical symmetry group Sp(2,R). The reproducing kernel for the wavefunctions of these models is also found. (Author)
Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Nitin; Singh, Udaybir; Khatun, Hasina; Vyas, V.; Sinha, A. K.
2012-04-01
In this paper thermal and structural analysis for 170 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron interaction cavity and the effect of structural deformation on beam wave interaction is presented. Finite element analysis codes ANSYS has been used for the thermal and structural analysis. Electromagnetic simulator-MAGIC, a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, has been used to carry out the effect of the radial expansion of the interaction cavity on beam wave interaction. The change in output power and resonant frequency for operating mode TE34,10 due to thermal expansion is 10 kW and 0.07 GHz, respectively. These values are under the tolerance limit of power and frequency of the gyrotron. The major variation is found in the power growth stability time.
Kalaria, P. C.; Avramidis, K. A.; Franck, J.; Gantenbein, G.; Illy, S.; Pagonakis, I. Gr.; Thumm, M.; Jelonnek, J.
2016-09-01
High frequency (>230 GHz) megawatt-class gyrotrons are planned as RF sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive in DEMOnstration fusion power plants (DEMOs). In this paper, for the first time, a feasibility study of a 236 GHz DEMO gyrotron is presented by considering all relevant design goals and the possible technical limitations. A mode-selection procedure is proposed in order to satisfy the multi-frequency and frequency-step tunability requirements. An effective systematic design approach for the optimal design of a gradually tapered cavity is presented. The RF-behavior of the proposed cavity is verified rigorously, supporting 920 kW of stable output power with an interaction efficiency of 36% including the considerations of realistic beam parameters.
Li, Fenfang; Nguyen, Dang Minh; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2016-01-01
We report about an intriguing boiling regime occurring for small heaters embedded on the boundary in subcooled water. The microheater is realized by focusing a continuous wave laser beam to about $10\\,\\mu$m in diameter onto a 165\\,nm-thick layer of gold, which is submerged in water. After an initial vaporous explosion a single bubble oscillates continuously and repeatably at several $100\\,$kHz. The microbubble's oscillations are accompanied with bubble pinch-off leading to a stream of gaseous bubbles into the subcooled water. The self-driven bubble oscillation is explained with a thermally kicked oscillator caused by the non-spherical collapses and by surface pinning. Additionally, Marangoni stresses induce a recirculating streaming flow which transports cold liquid towards the microheater reducing diffusion of heat along the substrate and therefore stabilizing the phenomenon to many million cycles. We speculate that this oscillate boiling regime may allow to overcome the heat transfer thresholds observed dur...
170 GHz兆瓦级同轴回旋振荡管的分析计算%Analysis and calculation of a 170 GHz megawatt-level coaxial gyrotron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
覃觅觅; 罗勇; 杨阔; 黄勇
2014-01-01
回旋管是最有希望应用于正在实施的国际热核实验反应堆计划的微波源器件,然而研究设计符合要求的回旋管还存在很多困难需要解决.对170 GHz兆瓦级光滑同轴回旋管的注-波互作用进行了研究.选取模式谱相对稀疏的TE31,12作为工作模式,利用Matlab编制源程序,计算了同轴回旋管的注-波耦合系数、起振电流.在考虑电子速度零散、腔壁电阻率和单模近似的基础上,对光滑同轴谐振腔的优化设计和注-波互作用进行了仿真,给出了磁场、电压、电流和内导体倾角等参量与回旋管效率的关系.结果表明,电压和磁场对回旋管效率影响较大,电子速度零散对回旋管效率影响较小,因而可降低电子枪的设计要求.此外,优化内导体倾角和同轴谐振腔结构参数可提高注-波互作用效率,降低电子速度零散对互作用效率的影响,获得了约50%的电子效率及1.7 MW输出功率.%Gyrotrons are the most promising microwave source devices that can be used in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, but there are many diffculties to be solved in study and design of gyrotrons to meet the require-ments. In this paper, the beam-wave interactions of a 170 GHz megawatt-level smooth-wall coaxial gyrotron are studied numerically. In order to attain high effciency and stable radiation, TE31,12 mode that lies in a relative sparse spectrum is selected as the operating mode, and the beam-wave coupling coeffcient and start oscillation current are calculated by a set of source codes developed by Matlab. Taking into account the electronic velocity spread and cavity wall resistivity, and based on a single-mode approximation, the optimization design and simulation of beam-wave interaction of a 170 GHz megawatt smooth-wall coaxial gyrotron have been fulfilled. The relationships between effciency and magnetic field, and the voltage, current, taper angle of insert, and other parameters are
Towards the optimization of the thermal–hydraulic performance of gyrotron collectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savoldi, Laura; Bertani, Cristina [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Cau, Francesca; Cismondi, Fabio [F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd; Illy, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Monni, Grazia [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Rozier, Yoann [Thales Electron Devices, 78141 Vélizy-Villacoublay (France); Zanino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zanino@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2015-11-15
Different configurations of water-cooled Cu collector for gyrotrons are investigated using the StarCCM + CFD code, aimed at optimizing its thermal–hydraulic (TH) performance. Although the current collectors show a good performance, the collector can be subjected to transient heat loads, due to the spent electron beam, of up to several tens of MW/m{sup 2}, and there is an interest to increase the gyrotron output power in the future. Furthermore, an optimized cooling will lead to improved reliability and lifetime of the collector. Starting from a hypervapotron (HV)-like collector, characterized by 100+ deep rectangular cavities with aspect ratio (AR) = 3, we present in the first part of the paper a single-cavity steady-state parametric analysis of the effect of AR on the heat exhaust capabilities. The investigation is then extended to other collector designs, including circumferential ribs and dimples, in order to assess the options for further improvements of the TH performance. The peak Cu temperature is computed by the code and its minimization is the target of the present optimization exercise. A self-consistent estimate of the heat transfer coefficient between collector and coolant is also obtained, which could be useful for fatigue and lifetime assessments. In the second part of the paper the most promising collector geometries identified in the first part are analyzed in the case of a transient heat load (vertical sweeping), first at the level of a single spatial period of the collector structure, then at the full-collector level. The results of the TH transient analysis are compared with both the results of the first part and with the transient purely thermal analysis of the full collector, showing for all geometries considered in this study a room for cooling efficiency improvement with respect to the HV-like design with AR = 3, at least in the operating conditions considered for this study (V ∼ 4 m/s, almost 100 °C sub-cooling).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savoldi, Laura; Bertani, Cristina [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Cau, Francesca; Cismondi, Fabio [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd; Illy, Stefan [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Monni, Grazia [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Zanino, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.zanino@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
2015-11-15
The present gyrotron designs for EC plasma heating in nuclear fusion reactors require the safe exhaust of a power comparable to that injected into the plasma, in order to keep the maximum temperature below the acceptable value of 300 °C. In this paper, the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software STAR-CCM+{sup ®} is used to analyze the thermal performance of the annular copper collector of a 1 MW ITER gyrotron, equipped with a hypervapotron structure made of annular fins with rectangular cavities of aspect ratio (depth/width) = 3, cooled by highly subcooled (90–100 °C) pressurized water flowing at ∼4 m/s. It is assumed that the simple vertical sweeping strategy is used to reduce the very high peak heat flux on the collector (up to 30 MW/m{sup 2} transient, 5 MW/m{sup 2} time average), due to the spent electron beam. The 2D steady-state conjugate heat transfer problem is solved assuming azimuthal symmetry and accounting for 2-phase flow. The single-cavity flow and heat transfer problem is considered first, to optimize the mesh and the selection of the turbulence model. For the operating conditions considered in this paper, the full collector (100+ cavities) solution shows that boiling occurs only in a limited number of cavities close to the peaks of the heat flux, with the vapor remaining trapped in the bottom of the cavities, i.e. no full hypervapotron regime should be achieved in these operating conditions. The steady-state analysis allows the numerical evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between Cu and water; these are then used as input for the simplified, purely thermal (solid only) analysis of the actual transient problem for the full collector. The results of the simplified model, which allows a huge reduction of the computational effort, are successfully benchmarked against those of a comprehensive thermal–hydraulic simulation. The computed peak Cu temperature is below the acceptable limit under the steady-state (time averaged
Oscillation death in coupled oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei ZOU; Xin-gang WANG; Qi ZHAO; Meng ZHAN
2009-01-01
We study dynamical behaviors in coupled nonlinear oscillators and find that under certain condi- tions, a whole coupled oscillator system can cease oscil- lation and transfer to a globally nonuniform stationary state [I.e., the so-called oscillation death (OD) state], and this phenomenon can be generally observed. This OD state depends on coupling strengths and is clearly differ- ent from previously studied amplitude death (AD) state, which refers to the phenomenon where the whole system is trapped into homogeneously steady state of a fixed point, which already exists but is unstable in the ab- sence of coupling. For larger systems, very rich pattern structures of global death states are observed. These Turing-like patterns may share some essential features with the classical Turing pattern.
Kuwahara, Daisuke; Ito, Naoki; Nagayama, Yoshio; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kohagura, Junko; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Soichiro; Kogi, Yuichiro; Mase, Atsushi
2016-10-01
Microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Our group solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne-type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. However, the LIA still has problems, that the instabilities of the sensitivity and poor channel isolation. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and solutions of above-mentioned problems. This work is performed with the support and under the auspices of the NIFS Collaborative Research Program (NIFS15KOAP029 and NIFS16KUGM115).
Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics
Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.
2015-12-01
Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.
Intense high-frequency gyrotron-based microwave beams for material processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hardek, T.W.; Cooke, W.D.; Katz, J.D.; Perry, W.L.; Rees, D.E.
1997-03-01
Microwave processing of materials has traditionally utilized frequencies in the 0.915 and 2.45 GHz regions. Microwave power sources are readily available at these frequencies but the relatively long wavelengths can present challenges in uniformly heating materials. An additional difficulty is the poor coupling of ceramic based materials to the microwave energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists, working in conjunction with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), have assembled a high-frequency demonstration processing facility utilizing gyrotron based RF sources. The facility is primarily intended to demonstrate the unique features available at frequencies as high as 84 GHz. The authors can readily provide quasi-optical, 37 GHz beams at continuous wave (CW) power levels in the 10 kW range. They have also provided beams at 84 GHz at 10 kW CW power levels. They are presently preparing a facility to demonstrate the sintering of ceramics at 30 GHz. This paper presents an overview of the present demonstration processing facility and describes some of the features they have available now and will have available in the near future.
Experimental results of the 140 GHz, 1 MW long-pulse gyrotron for W7-X
Koppenburg, K.; Arnold, A.; Borie, E.; Dammertz, G.; Giguet, E.; Heidinger, R.; Illy, S.; Kuntze, M.; Le Cloarec, G.; Legrand, F.; Leonhardt, W.; Lievin, C.; Neffe, G.; Piosczyk, B.; Schmid, M.; Thumm, M.
2003-02-01
Gyrotrons at high frequency with high output power are mainly developed for microwave heating and current drive in plasmas for thermonuclear fusion. For the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X now under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany, a 10 MW ECRH system is foreseen. A 1 MW, 140 GHz long-pulse gyrotron has been designed and a pre-prototype (Maquette) has been constructed and tested in an European collaboration between FZK Karlsruhe, CRPP Lausanne, IPF Suttgart, IPP Greifswald, CEA Cadarache and TED Vélizy [1]. The cylindrical cavity is designed for operating in the TE28,8 mode. It is a standard tapered cavity with linear input downtaper and a non-linear uptaper. The diameter of the cylindrical part is 40.96 mm. The transitions between tapers and straight section are smoothly rounded to avoid mode conversion. The TE28,8-cavity mode is transformed to a Gaussian TEM0,0 output mode by a mode converter consisting of a rippled-wall waveguide launcher followed by a three mirror system. The output window uses a single, edge cooled CVD-diamond disk with an outer diameter of 106 mm, a window aperture of 88 mm and a thickness of 1.8 mm corresponding to four half wavelengths. The collector is at ground potential, and a depression voltage for energy recovery can be applied to the cavity and to the first two mirrors. Additional normal-conducting coils are employed to the collector in order to produce an axial magnetic field for sweeping the electron beam with a frequency of 7 Hz. A temperature limited magnetron injection gun without intermediate anode ( diode type ) is used. In short pulse operation at the design current of 40 A an output power of 1 MW could be achieved for an accelerating voltage of 82 kV without depression voltage and with a depression voltage of 25 kV an output power of 1.15 MW at an accelerating voltage of 84 kV has been measured. For these values an efficiency of 49% was obtained. At constant accelerating voltages, the output power did not change up to
Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator
Skalyga, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Sidorov, A.; Maslennikova, A.; Volovecky, A.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O.
2014-12-01
Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D-D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm2 is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·1010 cm-2/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.
Gyrotron-driven high current ECR ion source for boron-neutron capture therapy neutron generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga.vadim@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sidorov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Maslennikova, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, 10/1 Minina Sq., 603005 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Volovecky, A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Tarvainen, O. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)
2014-12-21
Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a perspective treatment method for radiation resistant tumors. Unfortunately its development is strongly held back by a several physical and medical problems. Neutron sources for BNCT currently are limited to nuclear reactors and accelerators. For wide spread of BNCT investigations more compact and cheap neutron source would be much more preferable. In present paper an approach for compact D–D neutron generator creation based on a high current ECR ion source is suggested. Results on dense proton beams production are presented. A possibility of ion beams formation with current density up to 600 mA/cm{sup 2} is demonstrated. Estimations based on obtained experimental results show that neutron target bombarded by such deuteron beams would theoretically yield a neutron flux density up to 6·10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}/s. Thus, neutron generator based on a high-current deuteron ECR source with a powerful plasma heating by gyrotron radiation could fulfill the BNCT requirements significantly lower price, smaller size and ease of operation in comparison with existing reactors and accelerators.
Ginzburg, N. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V.
2015-11-01
A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by "fresh" electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Zaslavsky, V. Yu. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov Str., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zheleznov, I. V.; Samsonov, S. V.; Mishakin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ul' yanov Str., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of the incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Bellini
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the last decades, a very important breakthrough has been brought about in the elementary particle physics by the discovery of the phenomenon of the neutrino oscillations, which has shown neutrino properties beyond the Standard Model. But a full understanding of the various aspects of the neutrino oscillations is far to be achieved. In this paper the theoretical background of the neutrino oscillation phenomenon is described, referring in particular to the paradigmatic models. Then the various techniques and detectors which studied neutrinos from different sources are discussed, starting from the pioneering ones up to the detectors still in operation and to those in preparation. The physics results are finally presented adopting the same research path which has been crossed by this long saga. The problems not yet fixed in this field are discussed, together with the perspectives of their solutions in the near future.
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Freire, Joana G.; Cabeza, Cecilia; Marti, Arturo; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2013-06-01
The investigation of regular and irregular patterns in nonlinear oscillators is an outstanding problem in physics and in all natural sciences. In general, regularity is understood as tantamount to periodicity. However, there is now a flurry of works proving the existence of ``antiperiodicity'', an unfamiliar type of regularity. Here we report the experimental observation and numerical corroboration of antiperiodic oscillations. In contrast to the isolated solutions presently known, we report infinite hierarchies of antiperiodic waveforms that can be tuned continuously and that form wide spiral-shaped stability phases in the control parameter plane. The waveform complexity increases towards the focal point common to all spirals, a key hub interconnecting them all.
Glyavin, M. Yu.; Kuntsevich, A. D.; Manuilov, V. N.
2015-01-01
We present the results of based on the PIC method numerical simulation of the dynamic processes of trapping of electrons into the adiabatic trap of a technological gyrotron for different configurations of the electric and magnetic fields in the electron beam formation region. The electrode geometry providing a low reflection coefficient of the magnetic mirror to suppress oscillatory modes in the space-charge cloud and ensure the stability of the electron beam with a high fraction of oscillatory energy in such a system has been found.
Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.
Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O
2015-12-01
BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stock, Andreas; Neudorfer, Jonathan; Riedlinger, Marc;
2012-01-01
Fast design codes for the simulation of the particle–field interaction in the interior of gyrotron resonators are available. They procure their rapidity by making strong physical simplifications and approximations, which are not known to be valid for many variations of the geometry and the operat...
Custom Chipset and Compact Module Design for a 75-110 GHz Laboratory Signal Source
Morgan, Matthew A; Castro, Jason J
2016-01-01
We report on the development and characterization of a compact, full-waveguide bandwidth (WR-10) signal source for general-purpose testing of mm-wave components. The MMIC-based multichip module is designed for compactness and ease-of-use, especially in size-constrained test sets such as a wafer probe station. It takes as input a cm-wave CW reference and provides a factor of three frequency multiplication as well as amplification, output power adjustment, and in-situ output power monitoring. It utilizes a number of custom MMIC chips such as a Schottky-diode limiter and a broadband mm-wave detector, both designed explicitly for this module, as well as custom millimeter-wave multipliers and amplifiers reported in previous papers.
Power oscillation damping controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
1997-01-01
In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....
Study on the After Cavity Interaction in a 140 GHz Gyrotron Using 3D CFDTD PIC Simulations
Lin, M. C.; Illy, S.; Avramidis, K.; Thumm, M.; Jelonnek, J.
2016-10-01
A computational study on after cavity interaction (ACI) in a 140 GHz gryotron for fusion research has been performed using a 3-D conformal finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The ACI, i.e. beam wave interaction in the non-linear uptaper after the cavity has attracted a lot of attention and been widely investigated in recent years. In a dynamic ACI, a TE mode is excited by the electron beam at the same frequency as in the cavity, and the same mode is also interacting with the spent electron beam at a different frequency in the non-linear uptaper after the cavity while in a static ACI, a mode interacts with the beam both at the cavity and at the uptaper, but at the same frequency. A previous study on the dynamic ACI on a 140 GHz gyrotron has concluded that more advanced numerical simulations such as particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling should be employed to study or confirm the dynamic ACI in addition to using trajectory codes. In this work, we use a 3-D full wave time domain simulation based on the CFDTD PIC method to include the rippled-wall launcher of the quasi-optical output coupler into the simulations which breaks the axial symmetry of the original model employing a symmetric one. A preliminary simulation result has confirmed the dynamic ACI effect in this 140 GHz gyrotron in good agreement with the former study. A realistic launcher will be included in the model for studying the dynamic ACI and compared with the homogenous one.
Oscillating Permanent Magnets.
Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.
1989-01-01
Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)
Solar neutrinos: Oscillations or No-oscillations?
Smirnov, A Yu
2016-01-01
The Nobel prize in physics 2015 has been awarded "... for the discovery of neutrino oscillations which show that neutrinos have mass". While SuperKamiokande (SK), indeed, has discovered oscillations, SNO observed effect of the adiabatic (almost non-oscillatory) flavor conversion of neutrinos in the matter of the Sun. Oscillations are irrelevant for solar neutrinos apart from small $\
Oscillations of Eccentric Pulsons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Groenbech-Jensen, Niels; Lomdahl, Peter;
1997-01-01
Perturbation theory for elliptic pulsons is developed and predicts pulson and eccentricity oscillations. The pulson oscillation period is predicted qualitatively correct.......Perturbation theory for elliptic pulsons is developed and predicts pulson and eccentricity oscillations. The pulson oscillation period is predicted qualitatively correct....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ros, A.; Fernandez, A.; Tolkachev, A.; Catalan, G.
2006-07-01
The TJ-II ECRH heating system consists of two gyrotrons, which can deliver a maximum power of 300 kW at a frequency of 53.2 GHz. Another 28 GHz gyrotron is going to be used in the Bernstein waves heating system. In order to get the required frequency, the gyrotrons need and homogeneous magnetic field of several tesla, which is generated by a superconducting coil field by a current source. This document describes the current source control as well as the high precision ammeters control. These ammeters measure the current in the superconducting coils. The user interface and the programming of the control system are described. The communication between devices is also explained. (author) 9 Refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stock, Andreas
2013-04-26
Within this thesis a parallelized, transient, three-dimensional, high-order discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell solver is developed and used to simulate the resonant cavity of a gyrotron. The high-order discontinuous Galerkin approach - a Finite-Element type method - provides a fast and efficient algorithm to numerically solve Maxwell's equations used within this thesis. Besides its outstanding dissipation and dispersion properties, the discontinuous Galerkin approach easily allows for using unstructured grids, as required to simulate complex-shaped engineering devices. The discontinuous Galerkin approach approximates a wavelength with significantly less degrees of freedom compared to other methods, e.g. Finite Difference methods. Furthermore, the parallelization capabilities of the discontinuous Galerkin framework are excellent due to the very local dependencies between the elements. These properties are essential for the efficient numerical treatment of the Vlasov-Maxwell system with the Particle-in-Cell method. This system describes the self-consistent interaction of charged particles and the electromagnetic field. As central application within this thesis gyrotron resonators are simulated with the discontinuous Galerkin Particle-in-Cell method on high-performance-computers. The gyrotron is a high-power millimeter wave source, used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasma, e.g. in the Wendelstein 7-X experimental fusion-reactor. Compared to state-of-the-art simulation tools used for the design of gyrotron resonators the Particle-in-Cell method does not use any significant physically simplifications w.r.t. the modelling of the particle-field-interaction, the geometry and the wave-spectrum. Hence, it is the method of choice for validation of current simulation tools being restricted by these simplifications. So far, the Particle-in-Cell method was restricted to be used for demonstration calculations only, because
Phenomenology of neutrino oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
G Rajasekaran
2000-07-01
The phenomenology of solar, atmospheric, supernova and laboratory neutrino oscillations is described. Analytical formulae for matter effects are reviewed. The results from oscillations are confronted with neutrinoless double beta decay.
Ma, Hongbin
2015-01-01
This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation, theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer, neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes. The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...
Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.;
2006-01-01
Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injecti...
Yeh, Y. S.; Kao, W. J.; Li, L. J.; Guo, Y. W.
2017-01-01
The harmonic multiplying operation in a gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) permits magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. This study presents a comparative analysis of fourth-harmonic multiplying gyro-TWAs with three schemes of operation. An improved mode-selective circuit using circular waveguides with various radii provides the rejection points within the range of operating frequencies to suppress the competing modes of gyro-TWAs. The simulated results reveal that gyro-TWAs are the most susceptible to the fundamental-harmonic TE11 competing mode, regardless of the operating scheme, and that the mode-selective circuit can provide an attenuation of more than 20 dB to suppress the competing modes. The amplification of the waves in a gyro-TWA depends on the lengths of the sections, and the simulated results show that the gain increases for all schemes, as the length of the lossy section or the length of the copper section increases. All schemes exhibit nearly the same saturated output powers and bandwidths; however, the saturated gain of the scheme at a high frequency multiplication ratio is less than that of the scheme at a low frequency multiplication ratio. Extensive numerical calculations of power and gain scaling are conducted for all schemes.
The colpitts oscillator family
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...
Neutrino Masses and Oscillations
Valle, J W F
2005-01-01
I summarize the status of three--neutrino oscillations that follow from combining the relevant world's data. The discussion includes the small parameters Delta_m-sol/Delta_m-atm and \\sin^2\\theta_{13}, which characterize the strength of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, the impact of oscillation data on the prospects for probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass in \
Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tran, T.M.; Jost, G.; Appert, K.; Sauter, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuthrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1995-10-01
Experimental observations seem to indicate that the beam velocity and energy spreads are larger than those calculated from the electron trajectory codes which do not take into account the effects of beam instabilities. On the other hand, parasitic oscillations of the beam with frequencies close to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce} have been observed experimentally, suggesting the possibility that instabilities can be excited in the beam tunnels and are responsible for the beam degradation. 2D electrostatic and electromagnetic time-dependent PIC codes have been developed to simulate the beam transport in the beam tunnel. The results of extensive parametric runs, using these codes (which were ported on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer), together with the role of the beam instabilities around {omega}{sub ce} on the beam degradation will be reported. (author) 2 figs., 9 refs.
Neutrino oscillations: theory and phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akhmedov, E.K., E-mail: akhmedov@ictp.trieste.it [Department of Theoretical Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
2011-12-15
A brief overview of selected topics in the theory and phenomenology of neutrino oscillations is given. These include: oscillations in vacuum and in matter; phenomenology of 3-flavour neutrino oscillations; CP and T violation in neutrino oscillations in vacuum and in matter; matter effects on {nu}{sub {mu}}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations; parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations inside the earth; oscillations below and above the MSW resonance; unsettled issues in the theory of neutrino oscillations.
Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators
Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.
1995-01-01
It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.
Nature's Autonomous Oscillators
Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.
2012-01-01
Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.
A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-10-06
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
Kato, Shoji
2016-01-01
This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...
Jenkins, Alejandro
2013-04-01
Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain dynamical systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy into the vibration: no external rate needs to be adjusted to the resonant frequency. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the swaying of the London Millennium Footbridge in 2000. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments. The heart is a “relaxation oscillator”, i.e., a non-sinusoidal self-oscillator whose period is determined by sudden, nonlinear switching at thresholds. We review the general criterion that determines whether a linear system can self-oscillate. We then describe the limiting cycles of the simplest nonlinear self-oscillators, as well as the ability of two or more coupled self-oscillators to become spontaneously synchronized (“entrained”). We characterize the operation of motors as self-oscillation and prove a theorem about their limit efficiency, of which Carnot’s theorem for heat engines appears as a special case. We briefly discuss how self-oscillation applies to servomechanisms, Cepheid variable stars, lasers, and the macroeconomic business cycle, among other applications. Our emphasis throughout is on the energetics of self-oscillation, often neglected by the literature on nonlinear dynamical systems.
W波段三次谐波回旋管实验研究%Experimental study on W-band third-harmonic gyrotron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
孙迪敏; 胡鹏; 马国武; 陈洪斌; 孟凡宝; 陈怀璧
2013-01-01
It is the first time that the W-band,third harmonic gyrotron radiation is observed in China.The operation mode of the third harmonic gyrotron is TE61.The magnetic field is 1.2 T and the frequency is 94.86 GHz.When beam current changes from 1.6 A to 4.4 A,keeping the anode voltage 45 kV,the third harmonic radiation can be observed.The largest output power is 4.9 kW,and the efficiency is about 3％.%国内首次成功进行W波段三次谐波回旋管实验.回旋管工作模式为TE61,磁场1.2T,采用拍频法测定工作频率为94.86 GHz.电子束电压为45 kV时,电流1.6～4.4A范围内都观测到了三次谐波振荡信号.采用焦热计测定最大输出功率4.9 kW,效率约3％.
Houdek, G
2010-01-01
In this short review on stellar convection dynamics I address the following, currently very topical, issues: (1) the surface effects of the Reynolds stresses and nonadiabaticity on solar-like pulsation frequencies, and (2) oscillation mode lifetimes of stochastically excited oscillations in red giants computed with different time-dependent convection formulations.
Dwyer, D A
2015-01-01
A concise summary of the "Oscillation at low energies" parallel session at the 2014 Neutrino Oscillation Workshop is provided. Plans to use man-made neutrinos and antineutrinos to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, search for sterile neutrinos, and to observe coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering were discussed. Potential measurements of solar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and geoneutrinos are also summarized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Cuite, PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Educacao]. E-mail: rafael@df.ufcg.edu.br; rafaelr@cbpf.br
2007-07-01
In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)
Hyperchaotic Oscillator with Gyrators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A; Cenys, A; Mykolaitis, G.;
1997-01-01
A fourth-order hyperchaotic oscillator is described. It contains a negative impedance converter, two gyratots, two capacitors and a diode. The dynamics of the oscillator is shown to be characterised by two positive Lyapunov exponents. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means...
Disentangling neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Andrew G. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)], E-mail: cohen@bu.edu; Glashow, Sheldon L. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)], E-mail: slg@bu.edu; Ligeti, Zoltan [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: ligeti@lbl.gov
2009-07-13
The theory underlying neutrino oscillations has been described at length in the literature. The neutrino state produced by a weak decay is usually portrayed as a linear superposition of mass eigenstates with, variously, equal energies or equal momenta. We point out that such a description is incorrect, that in fact, the neutrino is entangled with the other particle or particles emerging from the decay. We offer an analysis of oscillation phenomena involving neutrinos (applying equally well to neutral mesons) that takes entanglement into account. Thereby we present a theoretically sound proof of the universal validity of the oscillation formulae ordinarily used. In so doing, we show that the departures from exponential decay reported by the GSI experiment cannot be attributed to neutrino mixing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the 'Moessbauer' neutrino oscillation experiment proposed by Raghavan, while technically challenging, is correctly and unambiguously describable by means of the usual oscillation formalae.
Gavrilik, A M; Rebesh, A P
2010-01-01
We study the properties of sequences of the energy eigenvalues for some generalizations of q-deformed oscillators including the p,q-oscillator, the 3-, 4- and 5-parameter deformed oscillators given in the literature. It is shown that most of the considered models belong to the class of so-called Fibonacci oscillators for which any three consequtive energy levels satisfy the relation E_{n+1}=\\lambda E_n+\\rho E_{n-1} with real constants \\lambda, \\rho. On the other hand, for certain \\mu-oscillator known from 1993 we prove the fact of its non-Fibonacci nature. Possible generalizations of the three-term Fibonacci relation are discussed among which for the \\mu$-oscillator we choose, as the most adequate, the so-called quasi-Fibonacci (or local Fibonacci) property of the energy levels. The property is encoded in the three-term quasi-Fibonacci (QF) relation with non-constant, n-dependent coefficients \\lambda and \\rho. Various aspects of the QF relation are elaborated for the \\mu-oscillator and some of its extensions.
Gavrilik, A. M.; Kachurik, I. I.; Rebesh, A. P.
2010-06-01
We study the properties of the sequences of the energy eigenvalues for some generalizations of q-deformed oscillators including the p, q-oscillator, and the three-, four- and five-parameter deformed oscillators given in the literature. It is shown that most of the considered models belong to the class of so-called Fibonacci oscillators for which any three consecutive energy levels satisfy the relation En + 1 = λEn + ρEn - 1 with real constants λ, ρ. On the other hand, for a certain μ-oscillator known since 1993, we prove its non-Fibonacci nature. Possible generalizations of the three-term Fibonacci relation are discussed, among which for the μ-oscillator we choose, as the most adequate, the so-called quasi-Fibonacci (or local Fibonacci) property of the energy levels. The property is encoded in the three-term quasi-Fibonacci (QF) relation with the non-constant, n-dependent coefficients λ and ρ. Various aspects of the QF relation are elaborated for the μ-oscillator and some of its extensions.
Boxing with neutrino oscillations
Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.
1999-06-01
We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.
Oscillating Filaments: I - Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation
Gritschneder, Matthias; Burkert, Andreas
2016-01-01
We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid based AMR-code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, e.g. with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process `geometrical fragmentation'. In our realization the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristical scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. ...
High frequency nanotube oscillator
Peng, Haibing; Zettl, Alexander K.
2012-02-21
A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.
Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.;
1997-01-01
Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...
Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.
1995-01-01
We report a novel oscillator for photonic RF systems. This oscillator is capable of generating high-frequency signals up to 70 GHz in both electrical and optical domains and is a special voltage-controlled oscillator with an optical output port. It can be used to make a phase-locked loop (PLL) and perform all functions that a PLL is capable of for photonic systems. It can be synchronized to a reference source by means of optical injection locking, electrical injection locking, and PLL. It can also be self-phase locked and self-injection locked to generate a high-stability photonic RF reference. Its applications include high-frequency reference regeneration and distribution, high-gain frequency multiplication, comb-frequecy and square-wave generation, carrier recovery, and clock recovery. We anticipate that such photonic voltage-controlled oscillators (VCOs) will be as important to photonic RF systems as electrical VCOs are to electrical RF systems.
Neural Oscillators Programming Simplified
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick McDowell
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The neurological mechanism used for generating rhythmic patterns for functions such as swallowing, walking, and chewing has been modeled computationally by the neural oscillator. It has been widely studied by biologists to model various aspects of organisms and by computer scientists and robotics engineers as a method for controlling and coordinating the gaits of walking robots. Although there has been significant study in this area, it is difficult to find basic guidelines for programming neural oscillators. In this paper, the authors approach neural oscillators from a programmer’s point of view, providing background and examples for developing neural oscillators to generate rhythmic patterns that can be used in biological modeling and robotics applications.
Neutrino anomalies without oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sandip Pakvasa
2000-01-01
I review explanations for the three neutrino anomalies (solar, atmospheric and LSND) which go beyond the `conventional' neutrino oscillations induced by mass-mixing. Several of these require non-zero neutrino masses as well.
Oscillations in counting statistics
Wilk, Grzegorz
2016-01-01
The very large transverse momenta and large multiplicities available in present LHC experiments on pp collisions allow a much closer look at the corresponding distributions. Some time ago we discussed a possible physical meaning of apparent log-periodic oscillations showing up in p_T distributions (suggesting that the exponent of the observed power-like behavior is complex). In this talk we concentrate on another example of oscillations, this time connected with multiplicity distributions P(N). We argue that some combinations of the experimentally measured values of P(N) (satisfying the recurrence relations used in the description of cascade-stochastic processes in quantum optics) exhibit distinct oscillatory behavior, not observed in the usual Negative Binomial Distributions used to fit data. These oscillations provide yet another example of oscillations seen in counting statistics in many different, apparently very disparate branches of physics further demonstrating the universality of this phenomenon.
Oscillating Filaments. I. Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation
Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas
2017-01-01
We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.
Scuflaire, R; Théado, S; Bourge, P -O; Miglio, A; Godart, M; Thoul, A; Noels, A
2007-01-01
The Liege Oscillation code can be used as a stand-alone program or as a library of subroutines that the user calls from a Fortran main program of his own to compute radial and non-radial adiabatic oscillations of stellar models. We describe the variables and the equations used by the program and the methods used to solve them. A brief account is given of the use and the output of the program.
Ultrastable Multigigahertz Photonic Oscillator
Logan, Ronald T., Jr.
1996-01-01
Novel photonic oscillator developed to serve as ultrastable source of microwave and millimeter-wave signals. In system, oscillations generated photonically, then converted to electronic form. Includes self-mode-locked semiconductor laser producing stream of pulses, detected and fed back to laser as input. System also includes fiber-optic-delay-line discriminator, which detects fluctuations of self-mode-locking frequency and generates error signal used in negative-feedback loop to stabilize pulse-repetition frequency.
Indirect neutrino oscillations
Babu, K S; Wilczek, Frank; Pati, Jogesh C; Wilczek, Frank
1995-01-01
We show how two different scales for oscillations between e and \\mu neutrinos, characterized by different mixing angles and effective mass scales, can arise in a simple and theoretically attractive framework. One scale characterizes direct oscillations, which can accommodate the MSW approach to the solar neutrino problem, whereas the other can be considered as arising indirectly, through virtual transitions involving the \\tau neutrino with a mass \\sim 1 eV. This indirect transition allows the possibility of observable \\bar \
Oscillators and operational amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2005-01-01
A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation...... of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed....
Glyavin, M. Yu.; Morozkin, M. V.; Tsvetkov, A. I.; Lubyako, L. V.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Kuftin, A. N.; Zapevalov, V. E.; V. Kholoptsev, V.; Eremeev, A. G.; Sedov, A. S.; Malygin, V. I.; Chirkov, A. V.; Fokin, A. P.; Sokolov, E. V.; Denisov, G. G.
2016-02-01
We study experimentally the automated microwave complex for microwave spectroscopy and diagnostics of various media, which was developed at the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with GYCOM Ltd. on the basis of a gyrotron with a frequency of 263 GHz and operated at the first gyrofrequency harmonic. In the process of the experiments, a controllable output power of 0 .1 -1 kW was achieved with an efficiency of up to 17 % in the continuous-wave generation regime. The measured radiation spectrum with a relative width of about 10 -6 and the frequency values measured at various parameters of the device are presented. The results of measuring the parameters of the wave beam, which was formed by a built-in quasioptical converter, as well as the data obtained by measuring the heat loss in the cavity and the vacuum output window are analyzed.
Jenkins, Alejandro
2011-01-01
Physicists are very familiar with forced and parametric resonance, but usually not with self-oscillation, a property of certain linear systems that gives rise to a great variety of vibrations, both useful and destructive. In a self-oscillator, the driving force is controlled by the oscillation itself so that it acts in phase with the velocity, causing a negative damping that feeds energy from the environment into the vibration: no external rate needs to be tuned to the resonant frequency. A paper from 1830 by G. B. Airy gives us the opening to introduce self-oscillation as a sort of "perpetual motion" responsible for the human voice. The famous collapse of the Tacoma Narrows bridge in 1940, often attributed by introductory physics texts to forced resonance, was actually a self-oscillation, as was the more recent swaying of the London Millenium Footbridge. Clocks are self-oscillators, as are bowed and wind musical instruments, and the heartbeat. We review the criterion that determines whether an arbitrary line...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan;
2011-01-01
We present a W-band fiber-wireless transmission system based on a nonlinear frequency multiplier for high-speed wireless short range access applications. By implementing a baseband digital signal predistortion scheme, intensive nonlinear distortions induced in a sextuple frequency multiplier can...... be effectively pre-compensated. Without using costly W-band components, a transmission system with 26km fiber and 4m wireless transmission operating at 99.6GHz is experimentally validated. Adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvements for IQ-modulated vector signals are guaranteed and transmission...... performances for fiber and wireless channels are studied. This W-band predistortion technique is a promising candidate for applications in high capacity wireless-fiber access systems....
Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Yu, Xianbin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur
2011-12-12
We present a W-band fiber-wireless transmission system based on a nonlinear frequency multiplier for high-speed wireless short range access applications. By implementing a baseband digital signal predistortion scheme, intensive nonlinear distortions induced in a sextuple frequency multiplier can be effectively pre-compensated. Without using costly W-band components, a transmission system with 26 km fiber and 4 m wireless transmission operating at 99.6 GHz is experimentally validated. Adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvements for IQ-modulated vector signals are guaranteed and transmission performances for fiber and wireless channels are studied. This W-band predistortion technique is a promising candidate for applications in high capacity wireless-fiber access systems.
Uplink transmission in the W‐band (75–110 GHz) for hybrid optical fiber‐wireless access networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich;
2013-01-01
We report on an experimental, W‐band, uplink for hybrid fiber‐wireless systems which enables high speed communication from the wireless end users to the central server. Overall system performances for an OFDM signal format are discussed in detail.......We report on an experimental, W‐band, uplink for hybrid fiber‐wireless systems which enables high speed communication from the wireless end users to the central server. Overall system performances for an OFDM signal format are discussed in detail....
Channel Measurements for a Optical Fiber-Wireless Transmission System in the 75-110 GHz Band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Yu, Xianbin; Zhao, Ying;
2011-01-01
We report on measured optical fiber W-band wireless channel characteristics such as frequency response, channel loss and fading, directivity, channel capacity and phase noise. Our proposed system performs a sextuple frequency up-conversion after 20 km of fiber transmission, followed by a W......-band wireless link. Our experimental measurements are intended to provide engineering rules for designing hybrid multi-gigabit W band transmission links....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei;
2011-01-01
We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated.......We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated....
100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link in the W-band (75-110 GHz).
Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton; Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Pedersen, Jesper S; Deng, Lei; Karinou, Fotini; Roubeau, Fabien; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur
2011-12-05
We experimentally demonstrate an 100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link by employing photonic heterodyning up-conversion of optical 12.5 Gbaud polarization multiplexed 16-QAM baseband signal with two free running lasers. Bit-error-rate performance below the FEC limit is successfully achieved for air transmission distances up to 120 cm.
Modeling, design, fabrication, and testing of InP Gunn devices in the D-band (110 GHz - 170 GHz)
Kamoua, R.; Eisele, H.; East, J. R.; Haddad, G. I.; Munns, G.; Sherwin, M.
1992-01-01
The development of fundamental Gunn sources for D-band frequencies requires improvements of doping profiles, processing technology, and circuit design. We have developed a technology for fabricating InP Gunn diodes using an InGaAs etch-stop layer between the InP substrate and the device layers. The epitaxial layers were grown by CBE. During device processing, the substrate is completely removed. Substrateless devices with an n(+) InGaAs cap layer are expected to have reduced contact and series resistances, and skin effect losses. This technology gives better uniformity and control of the device geometry across the processed chip. InP Gunn devices with a 1.7 micron long active region (doping : 9 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -3)) have been mounted on copper heat sinks. Two tapered leads were then bonded to the diode and to four quartz standoffs. As a preliminary result, an output power of 13 mW at 82 GHz was obtained. Based on these RF measurements, we determine appropriate material parameters to be used in the Ensemble Monte Carlo model. Subsequently, we use this model to design and evaluate the performance of InP Gunn Devices for D-band frequencies. Using the same technology, we are currently processing Gunn devices with a 1 micron long active region for operation at higher frequencies.
Cai, Longzhu; Xu, Huan; Li, Jinfeng; Chu, Daping
2017-01-01
A liquid crystal (LC) based tunable microstrip line (ML) phase shifter featuring high performance is presented. The experimental results show an electrically tunable differential phase up to 360° at 10 GHz with an overall insertion loss impedance matching structure is applied, and the measured return loss is considerably improved. The FoM and phase tuning property of the fabricated device as optimized are compared with the state-of-art results published recently and show better performance for both of them.
42.13 gbit/s 16qam-OFDM photonics-wireless transmission in 75-110 GHz band
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Lei; Liu, D. M.; Pang, Xiaodan;
2012-01-01
.808 bits/s/Hz. Transparent photonic heterodyne up-conversion based on two free-running lasers is employed to synthesize the W-band wireless signal. In the experiment, we program an improved DSP receiver and successfully demonstrate photonics-wireless transmission of 8.9 Gbit/s, 26.7 Gbit/s and 42.13 Gbit....../s 16QAM-OOFDM W-band signals, with achieved bit-error-rate (BER) performance below the forward error correction (FEC) limit....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio
2011-01-01
We present a radio-frequency (RF) and bit-rate scalable technique for multigigabit wireless signal generation based on all-optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) and photonic up-conversion. Coherent detection supported by digital signal processing is used for signal demodulation...
100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link in the W-band (75–110 GHz)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pang, Xiaodan; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Dogadaev, Anton Konstantinovich;
2011-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate an 100 Gbit/s hybrid optical fiber-wireless link by employing photonic heterodyning up-conversion of optical 12.5 Gbaud polarization multiplexed 16-QAM baseband signal with two free running lasers. Bit-error-rate performance below the FEC limit is successfully achieved...
Frequency of self-oscillations
Groszkowski, Janusz
2013-01-01
Frequency of Self-Oscillations covers the realm of electric oscillations that plays an important role both in the scientific and technical aspects. This book is composed of nine chapters, and begins with the introduction to the alternating currents and oscillation. The succeeding chapters deal with the free oscillations in linear isolated systems. These topics are followed by discussions on self-oscillations in linear systems. Other chapters describe the self-oscillations in non-linear systems, the influence of linear elements on frequency of oscillations, and the electro mechanical oscillato
Oscillations in stellar superflares
Balona, L A; Kosovichev, A; Nakariakov, V M; Pugh, C E; Van Doorsselaere, T
2015-01-01
Two different mechanisms may act to induce quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in whole-disk observations of stellar flares. One mechanism may be magneto-hydromagnetic (MHD) forces and other processes acting on flare loops as seen in the Sun. The other mechanism may be forced local acoustic oscillations due to the high-energy particle impulse generated by the flare (known as `sunquakes' in the Sun). We analyze short-cadence Kepler data of 257 flares in 75 stars to search for QPP in the flare decay branch or post-flare oscillations which may be attributed to either of these two mechanisms. About 18 percent of stellar flares show a distinct bump in the flare decay branch of unknown origin. The bump does not seem to be a highly-damped global oscillation because the periods of the bumps derived from wavelet analysis do not correlate with any stellar parameter. We detected damped oscillations covering several cycles (QPP), in seven flares on five stars. The periods of these oscillations also do not correlate with any ...
Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.
Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando
2009-06-01
Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.
Oscillate boiling from microheaters
Li, Fenfang; Gonzalez-Avila, S. Roberto; Nguyen, Dang Minh; Ohl, Claus-Dieter
2017-01-01
We report about an intriguing boiling regime occurring for small heaters embedded on the boundary in subcooled water. The microheater is realized by focusing a continuous wave laser beam to about 10 μ m in diameter onto a 165-nm-thick layer of gold, which is submerged in water. After an initial vaporous explosion a single bubble oscillates continuously and repeatedly at several 100 kHz albeit with constant laser power input. The microbubble's oscillations are accompanied with bubble pinch-off, leading to a stream of gaseous bubbles in the subcooled water. The self-driven bubble oscillation is explained with a thermally kicked oscillator caused by surface attachment and by the nonspherical collapses. Additionally, Marangoni stresses induce a recirculating streaming flow which transports cold liquid towards the microheater, reducing diffusion of heat along the substrate and therefore stabilizing the phenomenon to many million cycles. We speculate that this oscillate boiling regime may overcome the heat transfer thresholds observed during the nucleate boiling crisis and offers a new pathway for heat transfer under microgravity conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atakishiyev, Natig M [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Klimyk, Anatoliy U [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Wolf, Kurt Bernardo [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2004-05-28
The finite q-oscillator is a model that obeys the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator, with the operators of position, momentum and Hamiltonian being functions of elements of the q-algebra su{sub q}(2). The spectrum of position in this discrete system, in a fixed representation j, consists of 2j + 1 'sensor'-points x{sub s} = 1/2 [2s]{sub q}, s element of {l_brace}-j, -j+1, ..., j{r_brace}, and similarly for the momentum observable. The spectrum of energies is finite and equally spaced, so the system supports coherent states. The wavefunctions involve dual q-Kravchuk polynomials, which are solutions to a finite-difference Schroedinger equation. Time evolution (times a phase) defines the fractional Fourier-q-Kravchuk transform. In the classical limit as q {yields} 1 we recover the finite oscillator Lie algebra, the N = 2j {yields} {infinity} limit returns the Macfarlane-Biedenharn q-oscillator and both limits contract the generators to the standard quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.
Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Klimyk, Anatoliy U.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2004-05-01
The finite q-oscillator is a model that obeys the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator, with the operators of position, momentum and Hamiltonian being functions of elements of the q-algebra suq(2). The spectrum of position in this discrete system, in a fixed representation j, consists of 2j + 1 'sensor'-points x_s={\\case12}[2s]_q, s\\in\\{-j,-j+1,\\ldots,j\\} , and similarly for the momentum observable. The spectrum of energies is finite and equally spaced, so the system supports coherent states. The wavefunctions involve dual q-Kravchuk polynomials, which are solutions to a finite-difference Schrödinger equation. Time evolution (times a phase) defines the fractional Fourier-q-Kravchuk transform. In the classical limit as q rarr 1 we recover the finite oscillator Lie algebra, the N = 2j rarr infin limit returns the Macfarlane-Biedenharn q-oscillator and both limits contract the generators to the standard quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillator.
Arbitrary Spin Galilean Oscillator
Hagen, C R
2014-01-01
The so-called Dirac oscillator was proposed as a modification of the free Dirac equation which reproduces many of the properties of the simple harmonic oscillator but accompanied by a strong spin-orbit coupling term. It has yet to be extended successfully to the arbitrary spin S case primarily because of the unwieldiness of general spin Lorentz invariant wave equations. It is shown here using the formalism of totally symmetric multispinors that the Dirac oscillator can, however, be made to accommodate spin by incorporating it into the framework of Galilean relativity. This is done explicitly for spin zero and spin one as special cases of the arbitrary spin result. For the general case it is shown that the coefficient of the spin-orbit term has a 1/S behavior by techniques which are virtually identical to those employed in the derivation of the g-factor carried out over four decades ago.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine
1999-07-01
We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)
1985-04-15
Substituting tAW into Eq. (30) we obtain Berstein Mode Quasi-Optical Gyroklystron 427 If we assume w 2 n /y and note that to lowest order d /dt = /y, Eq...Radiofiz., vol. 15, No. 8, 1247, 1972. [44] V. K. Lygin and S. E. Tsimring, Isv. VUZ, Radiofizika, 21, 1363, 1978. [45] S. D. Conte and Carl de Boor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
2014-12-24
Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) is needed for plasma heating, current drive, plasma stability control, and other applications in fusion energy sciences research. The program of fusion energy sciences supported by U. S. DOE, Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences relies on the development of ECH technology to meet the needs of several plasma devices working at the frontier of fusion energy sciences research. The largest operating ECH system in the world is at DIII-D, consisting of six 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons capable of ten second pulsed operation, plus two newer gyrotrons. The ECH Technology Development research program investigated the options for upgrading the DIII-D 110 GHz ECH system. Options included extending present-day 1 MW technology to 1.3 – 1.5 MW power levels or developing an entirely new approach to achieve up to 2 MW of power per gyrotron. The research consisted of theoretical research and designs conducted by Communication and Power Industries of Palo Alto, CA working with MIT. Results of the study would be validated in a later phase by research on short pulse length gyrotrons at MIT and long pulse / cw gyrotrons in industry. This research follows a highly successful program of development that has led to the highly reliable, six megawatt ECH system at the DIII-D tokamak. Eventually, gyrotrons at the 1.5 megawatt to multi-megawatt power level will be needed for heating and current drive in large scale plasmas including ITER and DEMO.
Krauss, L.; Wilczek, F.
1985-01-01
The theory of oscillations of solar neutrinos is developed as it applies to the electron-recoil spectrum in neutrino-electron scattering. The spectral information obtained by such measurements (as opposed to counting total event rates) is crucial for allowing observation of neutrino oscillations for masses down to 500 neV. In this regard, the effects of different masses and mixing angles, as well as such subtleties as thermal and pressure broadening, finite solar-core size, and variable indices of refraction are investigated.
Friedel oscillations in graphene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.
2013-01-01
Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...
Nonlinear harmonic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' (Italy); Inozemtsev, V I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)
2002-12-06
The existence is noted of assemblies of an arbitrary number of complex oscillators, or equivalently, of an arbitrary even number of real oscillators, characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ('acceleration equal force') with one-body velocity-dependent linear forces and many-body velocity-independent cubic forces, all the nonsingular solutions of which are isochronous (completely periodic with the same period). As for the singular solutions, as usual they emerge, in the context of the initial-value problem, from a closed domain in phase space having lower dimensionality.
Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2017-03-27
PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).
From excitability to oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.;
2013-01-01
One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow...
Neutrino oscillation experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camilleri, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)
1996-11-01
Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.
Multiphoton coherent population oscillation
Sharypov, A V
2014-01-01
We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.
Jones, R. T.
1976-01-01
For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.
Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef;
2007-01-01
A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...
[Oscillating physiotherapy for secretolysis].
Brückner, U
2008-03-01
Assisted coughing and mechanical cough aids compensate for the weak cough flow in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD). In cases with preserved respiratory muscles also breathing techniques and special devices, e. g., flutter or acapella can be used for secretion mobilisation during infections of the airways. These means are summarised as oscillating physiotherapy. Their mechanisms are believed to depend on separation of the mucus from the bronchial wall by vibration, thus facilitating mucus transport from the peripheral to the central airways. In mucoviscidosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease their application is established, but there is a paucity of data regarding the commitment in patients with neuromuscular diseases. The effective adoption of simple oscillation physiotherapeutic interventions demands usually a sufficient force of the respiratory muscles--exceptions are the application of the percussionaire (intrapulmonary percussive ventilator, IPV) or high frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO). In daily practice there is evidence that patients with weak respiratory muscles are overstrained with the use of these physiotherapeutic means, or get exhausted. A general recommendation for the adoption of simple oscillating physiotherapeutic interventions cannot be made in patients with NMDs. Perhaps in the future devices such as IPV or HFCWO will prove to be more effective in NMD patients.
Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.;
2007-01-01
to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...
Microwave transistor oscillator frequency tripling
B. A. Kotserzhynskyi
2010-01-01
The frequency tripler state of the art is consided. The oscillator-frequency tripler design is now at the state of scientific research. Microwave companies release the devices of the such structure: oscillator, buffer, amplifier-tripler.
Microwave transistor oscillator frequency tripling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. A. Kotserzhynskyi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency tripler state of the art is consided. The oscillator-frequency tripler design is now at the state of scientific research. Microwave companies release the devices of the such structure: oscillator, buffer, amplifier-tripler.
Neutrino Velocity and Neutrino Oscillations
Minakata, H
2012-01-01
We study distances of propagation and the group velocities of the muon neutrinos in the presence of mixing and oscillations assuming that Lorentz invariance holds. Oscillations lead to distortion of the $\
Neutrino Oscillations with Nil Mass
Floyd, Edward R.
2016-09-01
An alternative neutrino oscillation process is presented as a counterexample for which the neutrino may have nil mass consistent with the standard model. The process is developed in a quantum trajectories representation of quantum mechanics, which has a Hamilton-Jacobi foundation. This process has no need for mass differences between mass eigenstates. Flavor oscillations and ν ,bar{ν } oscillations are examined.
170 GHz回旋管电子枪的设计%Design of the magnetron injection gun for 170 GHz gyrotron
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
曾旭; 王峨锋; 刘本田; 李志良; 冯进军
2013-01-01
A 170 GHz gryotron is an ideal power source for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) in the plasma fusion. The required output power from a single gyrotron tube at 170 GHz operating frequency for ECRH application is 1 MW or more. For generating the high output power,a Magnetron Injection Gun(MIG) which can provide the electron beam with large enough transverse energy for interacting with the transverse filed of the electromagnetic wave is designed. Ideal parameters of the double-anode MIG are obtained according to the adiabatic compression theory and the correlative simulation software. The designed MIG can provide the necessary beams for the 170 GHz fundamental harmonic gyrotron under 80 kV of voltage and 40 A of current with the guidance center radius of 8.27 mm and the pitch factor of 1.5.% 170 GHz回旋管是等离子体核聚变中电子回旋谐振加热的理想功率源，在功率上要求具有1 MW以上的输出功率。要产生这么大的输出功率，就需要具有足够大横向能量的电子注与高频场的横向电场进行互作用，因此要对电子枪进行专门的设计。利用绝热压缩理论及相关的仿真软件对双阳极磁控注入电子枪进行了设计，得到了较好的电子注参数。所设计的电子枪能在工作电压80 kV、工作电流40 A 的条件下为170 GHz 基波回旋管提供所需的回旋电子注，其引导中心半径为8.27 mm，横纵速度比1.5。
Voltage-controlled photonic oscillator.
Savchenkov, A A; Ilchenko, V S; Liang, W; Eliyahu, D; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L
2010-05-15
We report the development and demonstration of an X-band voltage-controlled photonic oscillator based on a whispering gallery mode resonator made of an electro-optic crystalline material. The oscillator has good spectral purity and wide, agile, linear tunability. We have modified the existing theoretical model of the opto-electronic oscillator to describe the performance of our tunable oscillator and have found a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurement results. We show that the device is promising for higher-frequency applications where high-performance tunable oscillators with wide tunability do not exist.
Physics of Neutrino Oscillation
Mondal, Spandan
2015-01-01
The Standard Model of particle physics describes neutrinos as massless, chargeless elementary particles that come in three different flavours. However, recent experiments indicate that neutrinos not only have mass, but also have multiple mass eigenstates that are not identical to the flavour states, thereby indicating mixing. As an evidence of mixing, neutrinos have been observed to change from one flavour to another during their propagation, a phenomenon called neutrino oscillation. We have studied the reasons and derived the probabilities of neutrino flavour change, both in vacuum and in matter. We have also studied the parameters affecting this probability. We have discussed the special case of two-neutrino oscillations. Lastly, we have discussed some basic properties of neutrinos that are reflected in the previous derivations and highlighted a few relevant open problems. To begin with, we have also studied the relevant topics in introductory High Energy Physics and Quantum Mechanics to familiarize with th...
Stable local oscillator module.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brocato, Robert Wesley
2007-11-01
This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.
Entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)
2009-03-15
Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)
Acoustics waves and oscillations
Sen, S.N.
2013-01-01
Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...
Neutrino Masses and Oscillations
CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel
2002-01-01
This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.
Oscillations in the bispectrum
Meerburg, P Daniel
2010-01-01
There exist several models of inflation that produce primordial bispectra that contain a large number of oscillations. In this paper we discuss these models, and aim at finding a method of detecting such bispectra in the data. We explain how the recently proposed method of mode expansion of bispectra might be able to reconstruct these spectra from separable basis functions. Extracting these basis functions from the data might then lead to observational constraints on these models.
Polychromatic optical Bloch oscillations.
Longhi, Stefano
2009-07-15
Bloch oscillations (BOs) of polychromatic beams in circularly curved optical waveguide arrays are smeared out owing to the dependence of the BO spatial period on the wavelength. Here it is shown that restoring of the self-imaging property of the array and approximate BOs over relatively broad spectral ranges can be achieved by the insertion of suitable lumped phase slips uniformly applied across the array.
Temperature sensitive oscillator
Kleinberg, L. L. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
An oscillator circuit for sensing and indicating temperature by changing oscillator frequency with temperature comprises a programmable operational amplifier which is operated on the roll-off portion of its gain versus frequency curve and has its output directly connected to the inverting input to place the amplifier in a follower configuration. Its output is also connected to the non-inverting input by a capacitor with a crystal or other tuned circuit also being connected to the non-inverting input. A resistor is connected to the program input of the amplifier to produce a given set current at a given temperature, the set current varying with temperature. As the set current changes, the gain-bandwidth of the amplifier changes and, in turn, the reflected capacitance across the crystal changes, thereby providing the desired change in oscillator frequency by pulling the crystal. There is no requirement that a crystal employed with this circuit display either a linear frequency change with temperature or a substantial frequency change with temperature.
Nonlinear Oscillators in Space Physics
Lester,Daniel; Thronson, Harley
2011-01-01
We discuss dynamical systems that produce an oscillation without an external time dependent source. Numerical results are presented for nonlinear oscillators in the Em1h's atmosphere, foremost the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBOl. These fluid dynamical oscillators, like the solar dynamo, have in common that one of the variables in a governing equation is strongly nonlinear and that the nonlinearity, to first order, has particular form. of 3rd or odd power. It is shown that this form of nonlinearity can produce the fundamental li'equency of the internal oscillation. which has a period that is favored by the dynamical condition of the fluid. The fundamental frequency maintains the oscillation, with no energy input to the system at that particular frequency. Nonlinearities of 2nd or even power could not maintain the oscillation.
Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka
2016-09-01
A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.
1997-09-30
SEP 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition of a Nd-Yag Pumped MOPO (Master Oscillator...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ACQUISITION OF A ND-YAG PUMPED MOPO (MASTER OSCILLATOR / POWER OSCILLATOR) OPTICAL...instrument is configured in a master oscillator/power oscillator configuration, hence the designation MOPO . The MOPO will be used in conjunction
Modeling microtubule oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.
1997-01-01
Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....
Góźdź, Marek
2013-01-01
It has been firmly established, that neutrinos change their flavour during propagation. This feature is attributed to the fact, that each flavour eigenstate is a superposition of three mass eigenstates, which propagate with different frequencies. This picture, although widely accepted, is wrong in the simplest approach and requires quite sophisticated treatment based on the wave-packet description within quantum field theory. In this communication we present a novel, much simpler explanation and show, that oscillations among massive particles can be obtained in a natural way. We use the framework of quantum mechanics with time being a physical observable, not just a parameter.
Atakishiyeva, Mesuma K.; Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2014-05-01
The study of irreducible representations of Lie algebras and groups has traditionally considered their action on functions of a continuous manifold (e.g. the 'rotation' Lie algebra so(3) on functions on the sphere). Here we argue that functions of a discrete variable -Kravchuk functions- are on equal footing for that study in the case of so(3). They lead to a discrete quantum model of the harmonic oscillator, and offer a corresponding set of special function relations. The technique is applicable to other special function families of a discrete variable, which stem from low-dimensional Lie algebras and are stationary solutions for the corresponding discrete quantum models.
Linder, E V
2006-01-01
Distance-redshift data can impose strong constraints on dark energy models even when the equation of state is oscillatory. Despite the double integral dependence of the distance on the equation of state, precision measurement of the distance-redshift relation for z=0-2 is more incisive than the linear growth factor, CMB last scattering surface distance, and the age of the universe in distinguishing oscillatory behavior from an average behavior. While oscillating models might help solve the coincidence problem (since acceleration occurs periodically), next generation observations will strongly constrain such possibilities.
Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.
Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin
2015-01-01
This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.
Olfactory system oscillations across phyla.
Kay, Leslie M
2015-04-01
Neural oscillations are ubiquitous in olfactory systems of mammals, insects and molluscs. Neurophysiological and computational investigations point to common mechanisms for gamma or odor associated oscillations across phyla (40-100Hz in mammals, 20-30Hz in insects, 0.5-1.5Hz in molluscs), engaging the reciprocal dendrodendritic synapse between excitatory principle neurons and inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB), antennal lobe (AL), or procerebrum (PrC). Recent studies suggest important mechanisms that may modulate gamma oscillations, including neuromodulators and centrifugal input to the OB and AL. Beta (20Hz) and theta (2-12Hz) oscillations coordinate activity within and across brain regions. Olfactory beta oscillations are associated with odor learning and depend on centrifugal OB input, while theta oscillations are strongly associated with respiration.
C P -violating baryon oscillations
McKeen, David; Nelson, Ann E.
2016-10-01
We enumerate the conditions necessary for C P violation to be manifest in n -n ¯ oscillations and build a simple model that can give rise to such effects. We discuss a possible connection between neutron oscillations and dark matter, provided the mass of the latter lies between mp-me and mp+me. We apply our results to a possible baryogenesis scenario involving C P violation in the oscillations of the Ξ0.
Linearization of conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, A; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E; Pascual, I [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-03-11
A linearization method of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force which allows us to obtain a frequency-amplitude relation which is valid not only for small but also for large amplitudes and, sometimes, for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the technique.
How pervasive are circadian oscillations?
2014-01-01
Circadian oscillations play a critical role in coordinating the physiology, homeostasis, and behavior of biological systems. Once thought to only be controlled by a master clock, recent high-throughput experiments suggest many genes and metabolites in a cell are potentially capable of circadian oscillations. Each cell can reprogram itself and select a relatively small fraction of this broad repertoire for circadian oscillations, as a result of genetic, environmental, and even diet changes.
Experiments on Deflecting & Oscillating Waterjet
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A new type jet,the oscillating & deflecting jet ,is put forward and its oscillating and deflecting characteristics are investigated.The nozzle of the self-oscillating & deflecting water jet consists of an upstream nozzle,a downstream nozzle,an oscillating chamber and two switches,It is experimentally shown that the deflective angle may reach 9.53 degeree,the generated pressure fluctuation is very regular and the jet can efficiently increase the ability for bradking and cutting by eliminating the water cushion effect associated with a continuous jet.
Oscillating nonlinear acoustic shock waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri; Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2016-01-01
We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show that at resona......We investigate oscillating shock waves in a tube using a higher order weakly nonlinear acoustic model. The model includes thermoviscous effects and is non isentropic. The oscillating shock waves are generated at one end of the tube by a sinusoidal driver. Numerical simulations show...
Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.;
1999-01-01
A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...
MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.
2004-07-23
This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.
de Cheveigné, Alain; Arzounian, Dorothée
2015-12-01
Objective. Oscillations are an important aspect of brain activity, but they often have a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to source-to-electrode mixing with competing brain activity and noise. Filtering can improve the SNR of narrowband signals, but it introduces ringing effects that may masquerade as genuine oscillations, leading to uncertainty as to the true oscillatory nature of the phenomena. Likewise, time-frequency analysis kernels have a temporal extent that blurs the time course of narrowband activity, introducing uncertainty as to timing and causal relations between events and/or frequency bands. Approach. Here, we propose a methodology that reveals narrowband activity within multichannel data such as electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, electrocorticography or local field potential. The method exploits the between-channel correlation structure of the data to suppress competing sources by joint diagonalization of the covariance matrices of narrowband filtered and unfiltered data. Main results. Applied to synthetic and real data, the method effectively extracts narrowband components at unfavorable SNR. Significance. Oscillatory components of brain activity, including weak sources that are hard or impossible to observe using standard methods, can be detected and their time course plotted accurately. The method avoids the temporal artifacts of standard filtering and time-frequency analysis methods with which it remains complementary.
Nanoscale relaxation oscillator
Zettl, Alexander K.; Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul
2009-04-07
A nanoscale oscillation device is disclosed, wherein two nanoscale droplets are altered in size by mass transport, then contact each other and merge through surface tension. The device may also comprise a channel having an actuator responsive to mechanical oscillation caused by expansion and contraction of the droplets. It further has a structure for delivering atoms between droplets, wherein the droplets are nanoparticles. Provided are a first particle and a second particle on the channel member, both being made of a chargeable material, the second particle contacting the actuator portion; and electrodes connected to the channel member for delivering a potential gradient across the channel and traversing the first and second particles. The particles are spaced apart a specified distance so that atoms from one particle are delivered to the other particle by mass transport in response to the potential (e.g. voltage potential) and the first and second particles are liquid and touch at a predetermined point of growth, thereby causing merging of the second particle into the first particle by surface tension forces and reverse movement of the actuator. In a preferred embodiment, the channel comprises a carbon nanotube and the droplets comprise metal nanoparticles, e.g. indium, which is readily made liquid.
Physics of bubble oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas [Third Physical Institute, University of Goettingen (Germany)
2010-10-01
Bubbles in liquids, soft and squeezy objects made of gas and vapour, yet so strong as to destroy any material and so mysterious as at times turning into tiny light bulbs, are the topic of the present report. Bubbles respond to pressure forces and reveal their full potential when periodically driven by sound waves. The basic equations for nonlinear bubble oscillation in sound fields are given, together with a survey of typical solutions. A bubble in a liquid can be considered as a representative example from nonlinear dynamical systems theory with its resonances, multiple attractors with their basins, bifurcations to chaos and not yet fully describable behaviour due to infinite complexity. Three stability conditions are treated for stable trapping of bubbles in standing sound fields: positional, spherical and diffusional stability. Chemical reactions may become important in that respect, when reacting gases fill the bubble, but the chemistry of bubbles is just touched upon and is beyond the scope of the present report. Bubble collapse, the runaway shrinking of a bubble, is presented in its current state of knowledge. Pressures and temperatures that are reached at this occasion are discussed, as well as the light emission in the form of short flashes. Aspherical bubble collapse, as for instance enforced by boundaries nearby, mitigates most of the phenomena encountered in spherical collapse, but introduces a new effect: jet formation, the self-piercing of a bubble with a high velocity liquid jet. Examples of this phenomenon are given from light induced bubbles. Two oscillating bubbles attract or repel each other, depending on their oscillations and their distance. Upon approaching, attraction may change to repulsion and vice versa. When being close, they also shoot self-piercing jets at each other. Systems of bubbles are treated as they appear after shock wave passage through a liquid and with their branched filaments that they attain in standing sound fields. The N
Solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Srubabati Goswami
2004-02-01
This article summarises the status of the solar neutrino oscillation phenomenology at the end of 2002 in the light of the SNO and KamLAND results. We first present the allowed areas obtained from global solar analysis and demonstrate the preference of the solar data towards the large-mixing-angle (LMA) MSW solution. A clear confirmation in favour of the LMA solution comes from the KamLAND reactor neutrino data. the KamLAND spectral data in conjunction with the global solar data further narrows down the allowed LMA region and splits it into two allowed zones - a low $ m^{2}$ region (low-LMA) and high $ m^{2}$ region (high-LMA). We demonstrate through a projected analysis that with an exposure of 3 kton-year (kTy) KamLAND can remove this ambiguity.
Coronal Waves and Oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakariakov Valery M.
2005-07-01
Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.
Collective supernova neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany)
2009-07-01
Neutrinos emitted by core-collapse supernovae (SNe) represent an important laboratory for both particle physics and astrophysics. While propagating in the dense SN environment, they can feel not only the presence of background matter (via ordinary Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects) but also of the gas of neutrinos and antineutrinos (via neutrino-neutrino interaction effects). The neutrino-neutrino interactions appear to modify the flavor evolution of SN neutrinos in a collective way, completely different from the ordinary matter effects. In these conditions, the flavor evolution equations become highly nonlinear, sometimes resulting in surprising phenomena when the entire neutrino system oscillates coherently as a single collective mode. In this talk, I present the recent results on collective supernova neutrino flavor conversions and I discuss about the sensitivity of these effects to the ordering of the neutrino mass spectrum.
Longitudinal oscillation of launch vehicles
Glaser, R. F.
1973-01-01
During powered flight a vehicle may develop longitudinal self-excited oscillations, so-called oscillations, of its structure. The energy supplying the vibration is tapped from the thrust by the activity of the system itself; that is, oscillation of the structure causes oscillation of the propellant system, especially of the pumps. In this way an oscillating thrust can be created that, by a feedback loop, may sustain the structural oscillation under certain circumstances. Two special features of the system proved to be essential for creation of instability. One is the effect of the inherent time interval that the thrust oscillation is lagging behind the structural oscillation. The other is the decreased of system mass caused by the exhausting of gas. The latter feature may cause an initially stable system to become unstable. To examine the stability of the system, a single mass-spring model, which is the result of a one-term Galerkin approach to the equation of motion, has been considered. The Nyquist stability criterion leads to a stability graph that shows the stability conditions in terms of the system parameter and also demonstrates the significance of time lag, feedback magnitude, and loss of mass. An important conclusion can be drawn from the analysis: large relative displacements of the pump-engine masses favor instability. This is also confirmed by flight measurements.
Solar Neutrino Oscillation - An Overview
Roy, D P
2005-01-01
After a brief summary of the neutrino oscillation formalism and the solar neutrino sources and experiments I discuss the matter effect on solar neutrino oscillation. Then I discuss how the resulting alternative solutions are experimentally resolved in favour of the LMA solution, with particular exphasis on the SK, SNO and KL data.
On The Harmonic Oscillator Group
Lopez, Raquel M; Vega-Guzman, Jose M
2011-01-01
We discuss the maximum kinematical invariance group of the quantum harmonic oscillator from a view point of the Ermakov-type system. The invariance group of generalized driven harmonic oscillator is shown to be isomorphic to the corresponding Schroedinger group of the free particle.
The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2006-01-01
A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...
Lorentz violation and neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mewes, Matthew [Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2011-12-15
Lorentz violation naturally leads to neutrino oscillations and provides an alternative mechanism that may explain current data. This contribution to the proceedings of The XXII International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics provides a brief review of possible signals of Lorentz violation in neutrino-oscillation experiments.
Neutrino Oscillations with Nil Mass
Floyd, Edward R
2016-01-01
An alternative neutrino oscillation process is presented as a counterexample for which the neutrino may have nil mass consistent with the standard model. The process is developed in a quantum trajectories representation of quantum mechanics, which has a Hamilton-Jacobi foundation. This process has no need for mass differences between mass eigenstates. Flavor oscillations and $\\bar{\
Oscillator With Low Phase Noise
Kleinberg, Leonard L.
1987-01-01
Phase errors cancelled for high frequency stability. Radio-frequency oscillator achieves high stability of frequency through parallel, two-amplifier configuration in which effects cause phase noise tend to cancel each other. Circuit includes two amplifiers with resonating elements, each constitutes part of feedback loop of other. Generate same frequency because each circuit provides other with conditions necessary for oscillation.
Hyperchaotic system with unstable oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; Mykolaitis, G.;
2000-01-01
A simple electronic system exhibiting hyperchaotic behaviour is described. The system includes two nonlinearly coupled 2nd order unstable oscillators, each composed of an LC resonance loop and an amplifier. The system is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential e...... equations, PSPICE simulations and hardware experiments. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic mode of the oscillations....
Mechanical Parametric Oscillations and Waves
Dittrich, William; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.
2013-01-01
Usually parametric oscillations are not the topic of general physics courses. Probably it is because the mathematical theory of this phenomenon is relatively complicated, and until quite recently laboratory experiments for students were difficult to implement. However parametric oscillations are good illustrations of the laws of physics and can be…
Coupled oscillators on evolving networks
Singh, R. K.; Bagarti, Trilochan
2016-12-01
In this work we study coupled oscillators on evolving networks. We find that the steady state behavior of the system is governed by the relative values of the spread in natural frequencies and the global coupling strength. For coupling strong in comparison to the spread in frequencies, the system of oscillators synchronize and when coupling strength and spread in frequencies are large, a phenomenon similar to amplitude death is observed. The network evolution provides a mechanism to build inter-oscillator connections and once a dynamic equilibrium is achieved, oscillators evolve according to their local interactions. We also find that the steady state properties change by the presence of additional time scales. We demonstrate these results based on numerical calculations studying dynamical evolution of limit-cycle and van der Pol oscillators.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization.
Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin
2015-08-10
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ratio beyond optical absorption only, which is experimentally demonstrated in this paper.
Photoacoustic elastic oscillation and characterization
Gao, Fei; Zheng, Yuanjin
2014-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging and sensing have been studied extensively to probe the optical absorption of biological tissue in multiple scales ranging from large organs to small molecules. However, its elastic oscillation characterization is rarely studied and has been an untapped area to be explored. In literature, photoacoustic signal induced by pulsed laser is commonly modelled as a bipolar "N-shape" pulse from an optical absorber. In this paper, the photoacoustic damped oscillation is predicted and modelled by an equivalent mass-spring system by treating the optical absorber as an elastic oscillator. The photoacoustic simulation incorporating the proposed oscillation model shows better agreement with the measured signal from an elastic phantom, than conventional photoacoustic simulation model. More interestingly, the photoacoustic damping oscillation effect could potentially be a useful characterization approach to evaluate biological tissue's mechanical properties in terms of relaxation time, peak number and ra...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Abedini
2000-06-01
Full Text Available This work is a study of the Earths free oscillations considering a merge of solid and liquid model. At the turn of 19th century Geophysicists presented the theory of the free oscillations for a self-gravitating, isotropic and compressible sphere. Assuming a steel structure for an Earth size sphere, they predicted a period of oscillation of about 1 hour. About 50 years later, the free oscillations of stars was studied by Cowling and others. They classified the oscillation modes of the stars into acoustic and gravity modes on the basis of their driving forces. These are pressure and buoyancy forces respectively. The earliest measurements for the period of the free oscillations of the Earth was made by Benyove from a study of Kamchathca earthquake. Since then, the Geophysicists have been trying to provide a theoretical basis for these measurements. Recently, the theory concerning oscillations of celestial fluids is extended by Sobouti to include the possible oscillations of the Earthlike bodies. Using the same technique, we study the free oscillations of a spherically symmetric, non-rotating and elastic model for the Earth. We used the actual data of the Earths interior structure in our numerical calculations. Numerical results show that there exist three distinct oscillation modes namely acoustic, gravity and toroidal modes. These modes are driven by pressure, buoyancy and shear forces respectively. The shear force is due to the elastic properties of the solid part of the Earth. Our numerical results are consistent with the seismic data recorded from earthquake measurements.
Polynomially deformed oscillators as k-bonacci oscillators
Gavrilik, A M
2009-01-01
A family of multi-parameter, polynomially deformed oscillators (PDOs) given by polynomial structure function \\phi(n) is studied from the viewpoint of being (or not) in the class of Fibonacci oscillators. These obey the Fibonacci relation/property (FR/FP) meaning that the n-th level energy E_n is given linearly, with real coefficients, by the two preceding ones E_{n-1}, E_{n-2}. We first prove that the PDOs do not fall in the Fibonacci class. Then, three different paths of generalizing the usual FP are developed for these oscillators: we prove that the PDOs satisfy respective k-term generalized Fibonacci (or "k-bonacci") relations; for these same oscillators we examine two other generalizations of the FR, the inhomogeneous FR and the "quasi-Fibonacci" relation. Extended families of deformed oscillators are studied too: the (q;\\mu)-oscillator with \\phi(n) quadratic in the basic q-number [n]_q is shown to be Tribonacci one, while the (p,q;\\mu)-oscillators with \\phi(n) quadratic (cubic) in the p,q-number [n]_{p,q...
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations.
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L C; Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten
2016-04-20
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.
Forced synchronization of quasiperiodic oscillations
Stankevich, N. V.; Kurths, J.; Kuznetsov, A. P.
2015-01-01
A model of a generator of quasiperiodic oscillations forced by a periodic pulse sequence is studied. We analyze synchronization when the autonomous generator demonstrates periodic, quasiperiodic, respective weakly chaotic oscillations. For the forced quasiperiodic oscillations a picture of synchronization, consisting of small-scale and large-scale structures was uncovered. It even includes the existence of stable the three-frequency tori. For the regime of weak chaos a partial destruction of this features and of the regime of three-frequency tori are found.
Collective oscillations in a plasma
Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of
Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lin Xiao-Gang; Liu Wen-Jun; Lei Ming
2016-03-01
Oscillating solitons are obtained in nonlinear optics. Analytical study of the variable coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which is used to describe the soliton propagation in those systems, is carried out using the Hirota’s bilinear method. The bilinear forms and analytic soliton solutions are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.
Gravitational Wave - Gauge Field Oscillations
Caldwell, R R; Maksimova, N A
2016-01-01
Gravitational waves propagating through a stationary gauge field transform into gauge field waves and back again. When multiple families of flavor-space locked gauge fields are present, the gravitational and gauge field waves exhibit novel dynamics. At high frequencies, the system behaves like coupled oscillators in which the gravitational wave is the central pacemaker. Due to energy conservation and exchange among the oscillators, the wave amplitudes lie on a multi-dimensional sphere, reminiscent of neutrino flavor oscillations. This phenomenon has implications for cosmological scenarios based on flavor-space locked gauge fields.
Osborne, Andrew G
2016-01-01
Under the right conditions, self sustaining fission waves can form in fertile nuclear materials. These waves result from the transport and absorption of neutrons and the resulting production of fissile isotopes. When these fission, additional neutrons are produced and the chain reaction propagates until it is poisoned by the buildup of fission products. It is typically assumed that fission waves are soliton-like and self stabilizing. However, we show that in uranium, coupling of the neutron field to the 239U->239Np->239Pu decay chain can lead to a Hopf bifurcation. The fission reaction then ramps up and down, along with the wave velocity. The critical driver for the instability is a delay, caused by the half-life of 239U, between the time evolution of the neutron field and the production of 239Pu. This allows the 239Pu to accumulate and burn out in a self limiting oscillation that is characteristic of a Hopf bifurcation. Time dependent results are obtained using a numerical implementation of a reduced order r...
Oscillations in Mathematical Biology
1983-01-01
The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...
Chromosome oscillations in mitosis
Campas, Otger
2008-03-01
Successful cell division necessitates a tight regulation of chromosome movement via the activity of molecular motors. Many of the key players at the origin of the forces generating the motion have been identified, but their spatial and temporal organization remains elusive. In animal cells, chromosomes periodically switch between phases of movement towards and away from the pole. This characteristic oscillatory behaviour cannot be explained by the current models of chromosome positioning and congression. We perform a self-contained theoretical analysis in which the motion of mono-oriented chromosomes results from the competition between the activity of the kinetochore and chromokinesin motors on the chromosome arms. Our analysis, consistent with the available experimental data, proposes that the interplay between the aster-like morphology of the spindle and the collective kinetics of molecular motors is at the origin of chromosome oscillations, positioning and congression. It provides a natural explanation for the so-called chromosome directional instability and for the mechanism by which chromosomes sense their position in space. In addition, we estimate the in vivo velocity of chromokinesins at vanishing load and propose new experiments to assess the mechanism at the origin of chromosome movement in cell division.
Gamma Oscillations and Visual Binding
Robinson, Peter A.; Kim, Jong Won
2006-03-01
At the root of visual perception is the mechanism the brain uses to analyze features in a scene and bind related ones together. Experiments show this process is linked to oscillations of brain activity in the 30-100 Hz gamma band. Oscillations at different sites have correlation functions (CFs) that often peak at zero lag, implying simultaneous firing, even when conduction delays are large. CFs are strongest between cells stimulated by related features. Gamma oscillations are studied here by modeling mm-scale patchy interconnections in the visual cortex. Resulting predictions for gamma responses to stimuli account for numerous experimental findings, including why oscillations and zero-lag synchrony are associated, observed connections with feature preferences, the shape of the zero-lag peak, and variations of CFs with attention. Gamma waves are found to obey the Schroedinger equation, opening the possibility of cortical analogs of quantum phenomena. Gamma instabilities are tied to observations of gamma activity linked to seizures and hallucinations.
Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations
Chavda, L. K.
1978-01-01
A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)
Global Analysis of Neutrino Oscillation
Goswami, S; Choubey, S; Goswami, Srubabati; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya
2005-01-01
We present the constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters $\\Delta m^2_{\\odot}$ and $\\theta_{\\odot}$ governing the solar neutrino oscillations from two generation analysis of solar and KamLAND data. We include the latest 766.3 ton year KamLAND data in our analysis. We also present the allowed values of parameters $\\Delta m^2_{atm}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{atm}$ from two generation oscillation analysis of SuperKamiokande atmospheric and K2K data. For both cases we discuss the precision achieved in the present set of experiments and also how the precision can be improved in future. We also obtain the bounds on $\\theta_{13}$ from three generation analysis of global oscillation data. We emphasise on the roles played by different data sets in constraining the allowed parameter ranges.
Global Analysis of Neutrino Oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goswami, Srubabati [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit [Theory Group, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Choubey, Sandhya [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, I-34014, Trieste (Italy)
2005-06-15
We present the constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters {delta}m{sub -}bar {sup 2} and {theta}{sub -}bar governing the solar neutrino oscillations from two generation analysis of solar and KamLAND data. We include the latest 766.3 ton year KamLAND data in our analysis. We also present the allowed values of parameters {delta}m{sub atm}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub atm} from two generation oscillation analysis of SuperKamiokande atmospheric and K2K data. For both cases we discuss the precision achieved in the present set of experiments and also how the precision can be improved in future. We also obtain the bounds on {theta}{sub 13} from three generation analysis of global oscillation data. We emphasise on the roles played by different data sets in constraining the allowed parameter ranges.
Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions
Cveticanin, Livija
2014-01-01
This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...
Oscillations of a chemical garden
Pantaleone, J.; Toth, A.; Horvath, D.; Rother McMahan, J.; Smith, R.; Butki, D.; Braden, J.; Mathews, E.; Geri, H.; Maselko, J.
2008-04-01
When soluble metal salts are placed in a silicate solution, chemical gardens grow. These gardens are treelike structures formed of long, thin, hollow tubes. Here we study one particular case: a calcium nitrate pellet in a solution of sodium trisilicate. We observe that tube growth results from a relaxation oscillation. The average period and the average growth rate are approximately constant for most of the structures growth. The period does fluctuate from cycle to cycle, with the oscillation amplitude proportional to the period. Based on our observations, we develop a model of the relaxation oscillations which calculates the average oscillation period and the average tube radius in terms of fundamental membrane parameters. We also propose a model for the average tube growth rate. Predictions are made for future experiments.
Matter Effects On Neutrino Oscillations
Gordon, Michael
An introduction to neutrino oscillations in vacuum is presented, followed by a survey of various techniques for obtaining either exact or approximate expressions for numu → nue oscillations in matter. The method developed by Arafune, Koike, and Sato uses a perturbative analysis to find an approximation for the evolution operator. The method used by Freund yields an approximate oscillation probability by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian, finding the eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and then using those to find modified mixing angles with the matter effect taken into account. The method devised by Mann, Kafka, Schneps, and Altinok produces an exact expression for the oscillation by determining explicitly the evolution operator. These methods are compared to each other using the T2K, MINOS, NOnuA, and LBNE parameters.
Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations in Antares
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunner, J.
2013-04-15
The data taken with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2010, a total live time of 863 days, are used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos. Muon tracks are reconstructed with energies as low as 20 GeV. Neutrino oscillations will cause a suppression of vertical upgoing muon neutrinos of such energies crossing the Earth. The parameters determining the oscillation of atmospheric neutrinos are extracted by fitting the event rate as a function of the ratio of the estimated neutrino energy and reconstructed flight path through the Earth. Measurement contours of the oscillation parameters in a two-flavour approximation are derived. Assuming maximum mixing, a mass difference of Δm{sub 32}{sup 2}=(3.1±0.9)⋅10{sup −3}eV{sup 2} is obtained, in good agreement with the world average value.
Oscillations of thick accretion discs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaroszynski, M.
1986-06-15
The non-axisymmetric oscillations of polytropic, ideal fluid tori rotating in the external gravitational field of a point mass are investigated both numerically and analytically. Normal modes of oscillations are found; their classification into 'radial', 'p', 'g' and 'f' modes is done in analogy to the stellar case. The non-discrete spectrum of modes which are neutral in the limit of axisymmetric perturbations is also present.
Harmonic Oscillators and Elementary Particles
Sobouti, Y
2016-01-01
Two dynamical systems with same symmetry should have features in common, and as far as their shared symmetry is concerned, one may represent the other. The three light quark constituents of the hadrons, a) have an approximate flavor SU(3) symmetry, b) have an exact color SU(3) symmetry, and c) as spin 1/2 particles, have a Lorentz SO(3,1) symmetry. So does a 3D harmonic oscillator. a) Its Hamiltonian has the SU(3) symmetry, breakable if the 3 fundamental modes of oscillation are not identical. b) The 3 directions of oscillation have the permutation symmetry. This enables one to create three copies of unbreakable SU(3) symmetry for each mode of the oscillation, and mimic the color of the elementary particles. And c) The Lagrangian of the 3D oscillator has the SO(3,1) symmetry. This can be employed to accommodate the spin of the particles. In this paper we draw up a one-to-one correspondence between the eigen modes of the Poisson bracket operator of the 3D oscillator and the flavor multiplets of the particles, ...
Magnetically Coupled Magnet-Spring Oscillators
Donoso, G.; Ladera, C. L.; Martin, P.
2010-01-01
A system of two magnets hung from two vertical springs and oscillating in the hollows of a pair of coils connected in series is a new, interesting and useful example of coupled oscillators. The electromagnetically coupled oscillations of these oscillators are experimentally and theoretically studied. Its coupling is electromagnetic instead of…
On the nonlinear modeling of ring oscillators
Elwakil, Ahmed S.
2009-06-01
We develop higher-order nonlinear models of three-stage and five-stage ring oscillators based on a novel inverter model. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency are derived and compared to classical linear model analysis. Two important special cases for five-stage ring oscillators are also studied. Numerical simulations are shown. © 2009 World Scientific Publishing Company.
A theory of generalized Bloch oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duggen, Lars; Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Lassen, Benny;
2016-01-01
Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact cal...... oscillations. We stipulate that the presented theory of generalized Bloch oscillations can be extended to other systems such as acoustics and photonics.......Bloch oscillations of electrons are shown to occur for cases when the energy spectrum does not consist of the traditional evenly-spaced ladders and the potential gradient does not result from an external electric field. A theory of such generalized Bloch oscillations is presented and an exact...... calculation is given to confirm this phenomenon. Our results allow for a greater freedom of design for experimentally observing Bloch oscillations. For strongly coupled oscillator systems displaying Bloch oscillations, it is further demonstrated that reordering of oscillators leads to destruction of Bloch...
Regulation Mechanisms of Stomatal Oscillation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hui-Min YANG; Jian-Hua ZHANG; Xiao-Yan ZHANG
2005-01-01
Stomata function as the gates between the plant and the atmospheric environment. Stomatal movement, including stomatal opening and closing, controls CO2 absorption as the raw material for photosynthesis and water loss through transpiration. How to reduce water loss and maintain enough CO2 absorption has been an interesting research topic for some time. Simple stomatal opening may elevate CO2 absorption,but, in the meantime, promote the water loss, whereas simple closing of stomatal pores may reduce both water loss and CO2 absorption, resulting in impairment of plant photosynthesis. Both processes are not economical to the plant. As a special rhythmic stomatal movement that usually occurs at smaller stomatal apertures, stomatal oscillation can keep CO2 absorption at a sufficient level and reduce water loss at the same time, suggesting a potential improvement in water use efficiency. Stomatal oscillation is usually found after a sudden change in one environmental factor in relatively constant environments. Many environmental stimuli can induce stomatal oscillation. It appears that, at the physiological level, feedback controls are involved in stomatal oscillation. At the cellular level, possibly two different patterns exist: (i) a quicker responsive pattern; and (ii) a slower response. Both involve water potential changes and water channel regulation, but the mechanisms of regulation of the two patterns are different. Some evidence suggests that the regulation of water channels may play a vital and primary role in stomatal oscillation. The present review summarizes studies on stomatal oscillation and concludes with some discussion regarding the mechanisms of regulation of stomatal oscillation.
El Nino Southern Oscillation as Sporadic Oscillations between Metastable States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
The main objective of this article is to establish a new mechanism of ENSO,as a self-organizing and self-excitation system,with two highly coupled processes.The first is the oscillation between the two metastable warm（El Ni（？）o phase） and cold events（La Ni（？）a phase）,and the second is the spatiotemporal oscillation of the sea surface temperature（SST） field.The symbiotic interplay between these two processes gives rises the climate variability associated with the ENSO,leads to both the random and deterministic features of the ENSO,and defines a new natural feedback mechanism,which drives the sporadic oscillation of the ENSO.The new mechanism is rigorously derived using a dynamic transition theory developed recently by the authors,which has also been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in nonlinear sciences.
El Nino Southern Oscillation as Sporadic Oscillations between Metastable States
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Tian; Shouhong WANG
2011-01-01
The main objective of this article is to establish a new mechanism of ENSO, as a self-organizing and selfexcitation system, with two highly coupled processes. The first is the oscillation between the two mctastable warm (El Nino phase) and cold events (La Nina phase), and the second is the spatiotemporal oscillation of the sea surface temperature (SST) field. The symbiotic interplay between these two processes gives rises the climate variability associated with the ENSO, leads to both the random and deterministic features of the ENSO, and defines a new natural feedback mechanism, which drives the sporadic oscillation of the ENSO. The new mechanism is rigorously derived using a dynamic transition theory developed recently by the authors, which has also been successfully applied to a wide range of problems in nonlinear sciences.
Arrays of coupled chemical oscillators
Forrester, Derek Michael
2016-01-01
Oscillating chemical reactions result from complex periodic changes in the concentration of the reactants. In spatially ordered ensembles of candle flame oscillators the fluctuations in the ratio of oxygen atoms with respect to that of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen produces an oscillation in the visible part of the flame related to the energy released per unit mass of oxygen. Thus, the products of the reaction vary in concentration as a function of time, giving rise to an oscillation in the amount of soot and radiative emission. Synchronisation of interacting dynamical sub-systems occurs as arrays of flames that act as master and slave oscillators, with groups of candles numbering greater than two, creating a synchronised motion in three-dimensions. In a ring of candles the visible parts of each flame move together, up and down and back and forth, in a manner that appears like a "worship". Here this effect is shown for rings of flames which collectively empower a central flame to pulse to greater heights. In ...
ALG-2 oscillates in subcellular localization, unitemporally with calcium oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Berchtold, Martin Werner
2007-01-01
localization in an oscillatory fashion unitemporally with Ca2+ oscillations, whereas a Ca2+-binding deficient mutant of ALG-2 did not redistribute. Using tagged ALG-2 as bait we identified its novel target protein Sec31A and based on the partial colocalization of endogenous ALG-2 and Sec31A we propose that ALG......A variety of stimuli can trigger intracellular calcium oscillations. Relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms decoding these events. We show that ALG-2, a Ca2+-binding protein originally isolated as a protein associated with apoptosis, is directly linked to Ca2+ signalling. We...
Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.
2014-02-01
We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.
Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes.
Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rojas, Fernando
2009-05-27
Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case.
Classical scattering from oscillating targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papachristou, P.K.; Diakonos, F.K.; Constantoudis, V.; Schmelcher, P.; Benet, L
2002-12-30
We study planar classical scattering from an oscillating heavy target whose dynamics defines a five-dimensional phase space. Although the system possesses no periodic orbits, and thus topological chaos is not present, the scattering functions display a variety of structures on different time scales. These structures are due to scattering events with a strong energy transfer from the projectile to the moving disk resulting in low-velocity peaks. We encounter initial conditions for which the projectile exhibits infinitely many bounces with the oscillating disk. Our numerical investigations are supported by analytical results on a specific model with a simple time-law. The observed properties possess universal character for scattering off oscillating targets.
Prediction of pilot induced oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentin PANĂ
2011-03-01
Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.
Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jodar, Esther; Perez-Garrido, Antonio [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Antiguo Hospital de Marina Campus Muralla del Mar, UPCT, Cartagena 30202 Murcia (Spain); Rojas, Fernando [Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia-UNAM, Apartado Postal 356, Ensenada, Baja California 22800 (Mexico)], E-mail: ejodar@upct.es
2009-05-27
Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case. (fast track communication)
Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1988-01-01
A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.
Design cusp electron gun for of 0.6 THz 3rd-harmonic large orbit gyrotron%0.6THz三次谐波大回旋电子枪设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马春燕; 胡强; 袁学松; 韩煜; 鄢扬
2012-01-01
Large orbit axis-encircling electron beams can provide improved coupling and mode selectivity in a high harmonic terahertz gyrotron. For developing a 0. 6 THz 3rd-harmonic large orbit gyrotron, a cusp gun with a beam voltage of 55 kV and a beam current of 1 A has been designed based on a comparatively simple Pierce-type electron gun and cusp magnetic field. The optimized result shows that the velocity ratio, axial velocity spread and transverse velocity spread are 1. 53, 7. 10% and 3. 39% , respectively.%基于会切磁场的理论模型,采用粒子模拟软件对0.6 THz三次谐波的太赫兹回旋管所需的大回旋电子光学系统进行研究.文中通过大量的模拟计算,分析讨论了不同参数对电子注的横向速度离散、纵向速度离散及横纵速度比的影响,优化了电子光学系统的性能参量,得到符合设计要求且具有工程实际应用的电子枪,该电子枪能够产生55 kV,1A,横向速度离散为3.39％、纵向速度离散为7.10％、横纵速度比为1.53的大回旋电子注.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maccari, A. [Istituto Tecnico `G. Cardano`, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy)
1996-08-01
The most important characteristics of the non-local oscillator, an oscillator subjected to an additional non-local force, are extensively studied by means of a new asymptotic perturbation method that is able to furnish an approximate solution of weakly non-linear differential equations. The resulting motion is doubly periodic, because a second little frequency appears, in addition to the fundamental harmonic frequency. Comparison with the numerical solution obtained by the Runge-Kitta method confirms the validity of the asymptotic perturbation method and its importance for the study of non-linear dynamical systems.
Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster
Shavlov, A. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.; Romanyuk, S. N.
2012-06-01
There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60-100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 102-103 units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method.
Cherenkov radiation oscillator without reflectors
Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Hangyo, M.; Wei, Y.; Yang, Z.; Miyamoto, S.
2014-05-01
This Letter presents a Cherenkov radiation oscillator with an electron beam travelling over a finitely thick plate made of negative-index materials. In such a scheme, the external reflectors required in the traditional Cherenkov oscillators are not necessary, since the electromagnetic energy flows backward in the negative-index materials, leading to inherent feedback. We theoretically analyzed the interaction between the electron beam and the electromagnetic wave, and worked out the growth rate and start current through numerical calculations. With the help of particle-in-cell simulation, the theoretical predictions are well demonstrated.
Primordial Lepton Oscillations and Baryogenesis
Hamada, Yuta
2016-01-01
The baryon asymmetry of the Universe should have been produced after the inflation era. We consider the possibility that the asymmetry is generated by the flavor oscillations in the reheating process after inflation, so that the baryon asymmetry is realized already at the beginning of the radiation dominated era. In the seesaw model, we show that the propagators of the left-handed leptons generically have flavor mixings in the thermal background, that can generate flavor-dependent lepton asymmetry through the $CP$ violation in the oscillation phenomena. The flavor dependent rates for the wash-out process can leave the net asymmetry today.
Smart contact oscillations by IPMCs
Asanuma, H.; Asaka, K.; Su, J.; Poubel, L.; Shahinpoor, M.
2016-02-01
An ion migration-induced self-oscillation phenomenon observed in ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) is reported. These oscillations are generated from a purely static equilibrium configuration of IPMCs in loose contact with a stationary electrode, and in particular the anode of an imposed DC voltage source. Many interesting possibilities emerge, which are described in this paper. Of particular importance is the emergence of the possibility of creating tailor-made electric signals or pulse-width modulation-type signals from a DC source.
Primordial lepton oscillations and baryogenesis
Hamada, Yuta; Kitano, Ryuichiro
2016-11-01
The baryon asymmetry of the Universe should have been produced after the inflation era. We consider the possibility that the asymmetry is generated by the flavor oscillations in the reheating process after inflation, so that the baryon asymmetry is realized already at the beginning of the radiation dominated era. In the seesaw model, we show that the propagators of the left-handed leptons generically have flavor mixings in the thermal background, that can generate flavor-dependent lepton asymmetry through the CP violation in the oscillation phenomena. The flavor dependent rates for the wash-out process can leave the net asymmetry today.
Anomalous Dissipative Quantum Harmonic Oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Dian-Yong; BAI Zhan-Wu; DONG Yu-Bing
2008-01-01
We investigate the low-temperature statistical properties of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a heat bath, where the low-frequency spectrum vanishes. We obtain the exact result of the zero point energy. Due to the low frequency shortage of environmental oscillators' spectral density, the coordinate and momentum correlation functions decay as r-4and r-6 respectively at zero temperature, where T is the correlation time. The low-temperature behavior of the mean energy does not violate the third law of thermodynamics, but differs largely from the Ohmic spectrum case.
Resonant solar neutrino oscillation versus laboratory neutrino oscillation experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lim, Chong-Sa
1987-02-01
The interplay between resonant solar neutrino oscillations and neutrino oscillations in laboratory experiments is investigated in a 3 generation model. Due to the assumed hierarchy of neutrino masses, together with our choice of a convenient parameterization of the 3 generation mixing matrix, we can derive a simple analytic formula which reduces the solar neutrino problem to an effective 2 generation problem. The reduction makes it apparent that the allowed range of mixing and mass parameters crucially depend on whether the survival probability of solar neutrinos S satisfies S greater than or equal to 1/3 or not. The formulae for probabilities of laboratory neutrino oscillations are also greatly simplified. We argue that a combination of the observed solar neutrino depletion and data obtained from reactor experiments seems to rule out some range of neutrino masses. If a sizable nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub e/ oscillation is observed at accelerators, as suggested at this Workshop, it severely restricts the range of 2 mixing angles.
Green's Function for the Quartic Oscillator
Anderson, Robert L.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a quantum mechanical Green's function $G_{qo}(y_b,t_b;$ $y_a,t_a)$ for the quartic oscillator is presented. This result is built upon two previous papers: first [1], detailing the linearization of the quartic oscillator $(qo)$ to the harmonic oscillator $(ho)$, second [2], the integration of the classical action function for the quartic oscillator. Here an equivalent form for the quartic oscillator action function $S_{qo}(y_b,t_b;$ $y_a,t_a)$ in terms of harmonic oscillator var...
Willocq, S
2002-01-01
We review new studies of the time dependence of B0s - B0s-bar mixing by the ALEPH, DELPHI and SLD Collaborations, with an emphasis on the different analysis methods used. Combining all available results yields a preliminary lower limit on the oscillation frequency of dms > 14.4 ps-1 at the 95% C.L.
Observation of anharmonic Bloch oscillations.
Dreisow, Felix; Wang, Gang; Heinrich, Matthias; Keil, Robert; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2011-10-15
We report on the experimental observation of Bloch oscillations of an optical wave packet in a lattice with second-order coupling. To this end, we employ zigzag waveguide arrays, in which the second-order coupling can be precisely tuned.
Testing Localization in Neutrino Oscillations
Zhuridov, Dmitry V.
2012-01-01
The neutrino wave packet localization in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, such as MiniBooNE, is investigated. It is shown that the transition from localization to delocalization may be observed for large neutrino mass splitting of order 1 eV, e.g., in theories with sterile neutrinos.
Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shavlov, A.V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N. [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation)
2012-06-04
There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.
Optoelectronic Oscillators for Communication Systems
Romeira, Bruno; Figueiredo, José
We introduce and report recent developments on a novel five port optoelectronic voltage controlled oscillator consisting of a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) optical-waveguide integrated with a laser diode. The RTD-based optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) has both optical and electrical input and output ports, with the fifth port allowing voltage control. The RTD-OEO locks to reference radio-frequency (RF) sources by either optical or electrical injection locking techniques allowing remote synchronization, eliminating the need of impedance matching between traditional RF oscillators. RTD-OEO functions include generation, amplification and distribution of RF carriers, clock recovery, carrier recovery, modulation and demodulation and frequency synthesis. Self-injection locking operation modes, where small portions of the output electrical/optical signals are fed back into the electrical/optical input ports, are also proposed. The self-phase locked loop configuration can give rise to low-noise high-stable oscillations, not limited by the RF source performance and with no need of external optoelectronic conversion.
Solar Magnetic Waves and Oscillations
Erdelyi von Fay-Siebenburgen, R.
2006-11-01
Recent solar and space satellite missions (e.g. SOHO, Trace) and high- resolution ground-based observations (e.g. Swedish Solar Telescope, Dutch Open Telescope) have opened new avenues for 21st century plasma physics. With unprecedented details a very rich and abundant structure of the solar atmosphere is unveiled. Revolutionary observations clearly confirmed the existence of MHD waves and oscillations in a wide range of solar atmospheric magnetic structures, commonly described in the form of solar flux tubes. The objectives of this review are to give an up-to-date account of the theory of MHD waves and oscillations in solar and astrophysical magnetic wave-guides. Since magnetic structuring acts as excellent wave guides, plasma waves and oscillations are able to propagate from sub-surface solar regions through the solar atmosphere deep into the interplanetary space. Observations and theoretical modeling of waves can provide excellent diagnostic tools about the state of solar plasma. Key examples of the various types of MHD waves and oscillations will be discussed both from observational and theoretical perspectives and the concept of atmospheric (coronal) and magneto-seismology will be introduced. The lecture will also contain a few short exercises in order to highlight the important points of the applications of solar MHD wave theory.
Tunable Oscillations in the Purkinje Neuron
Abrams, Ze'ev R; Wang, Yuan; Trauner, Dirk; Zhang, Xiang
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the dynamics of slow oscillations in Purkinje neurons in vitro, and derive a strong association with a forced parametric oscillator model. We demonstrate the precise rhythmicity of the oscillations in Purkinje neurons, as well as a dynamic tunability of this oscillation using a photo-switchable compound. We show that this slow oscillation can be induced in every Purkinje neuron, having periods ranging between 10-25 seconds. Starting from a Hodgkin-Huxley model, we also demonstrate that this oscillation can be externally modulated, and that the neurons will return to their intrinsic firing frequency after the forced oscillation is concluded. These results signify an additional functional role of tunable oscillations within the cerebellum, as well as a dynamic control of a time scale in the brain in the range of seconds.
Cyanohydrin reactions enhance glycolytic oscillations in yeast
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hald, Bjørn Olav; Nielsen, Astrid Gram; Tortzen, Christian;
2015-01-01
Synchronous metabolic oscillations can be induced in yeast by addition of glucose and removal of extracellular acetaldehyde (ACAx). Compared to other means of ACAx removal, cyanide robustly induces oscillations, indicating additional cyanide reactions besides ACA to lactonitrile conversion. Here...
Opto-Electronic Oscillator and its Applications
Yao, X. S.; Maleki, L.
1996-01-01
We present the theoretical and experimental results of a new class of microwave oscillators called opto-electronic oscillators (OEO). We discuss techniques of achieving high stability single mode operation and demonstrate the applications of OEO in photonic communication systems.
Nonlinear analysis of ring oscillator circuits
Ge, Xiaoqing
2010-06-01
Using nonlinear systems techniques, we analyze the stability properties and synchronization conditions for ring oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. By making use of its cyclic structure, we investigate local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator. We present a sufficient condition for global asymptotic stability of the origin and obtain necessity if the ring oscillator consists of identical inverter elements. We then give a synchronization condition for identical interconnected ring oscillators.
Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations.
Sapienza, Riccardo; Costantino, Paola; Wiersma, Diederik; Ghulinyan, Mher; Oton, Claudio J; Pavesi, Lorenzo
2003-12-31
We report on the observation of Bloch oscillations in light transport through periodic dielectric systems. By introducing a linear refractive index gradient along the propagation direction the optical equivalent of a Wannier-Stark ladder was obtained. Bloch oscillations were observed as time-resolved oscillations in transmission, in direct analogy to electronic Bloch oscillations in conducting crystals where the Wannier-Stark ladder is obtained via an external electric field. The observed oscillatory behavior is in excellent agreement with transfer matrix calculations.
Internal dynamics of long Josephson junction oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, Alwyn C.;
1981-01-01
Numerical computations on a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson junction fluxon oscillator are compared with experimental measurements. Good agreement is found for the voltage current characteristic, oscillator power output, and range of current bias over which oscillation is observed. Our numeric...... results imply a ''bunched-fluxon'' mode of oscillation at larger values of bias current. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E Kh Akhmedov
2000-01-01
Neutrino oscillations in matter can exhibit a specific resonance enhancement - parametric resonance, which is different from the MSW resonance. Oscillations of atmospheric and solar neutrinos inside the earth can undergo parametric enhancement when neutrino trajectories cross the core of the earth. In this paper we review the parametric resonance of neutrino oscillations in matter. In particular, physical interpretation of the effect and the prospects of its experimental observation in oscillations of solar and atmospheric neutrinos in the earth are discussed.
Bloch-Zener oscillations in binary superlattices.
Dreisow, F; Szameit, A; Heinrich, M; Pertsch, T; Nolte, S; Tünnermann, A; Longhi, S
2009-02-20
Bloch-Zener oscillations, i.e., the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling between minibands of a binary lattice, are experimentally demonstrated for light waves in curved femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays. Visualization of double-periodicity breathing and oscillation modes is reported, and synchronous tunneling leading to wave reconstruction is demonstrated.
On the excitation of Goodwin's oscillations
Antonova, A. O.; Reznik, S. N.; Todorov, M. D.
2014-11-01
We consider the necessary condition for excitation of long-periodic Goodwin's oscillations and short-periodic sawtooth oscillations in the Goodwin model with fixed delay in the induced investment. Also, using the method of equivalent linearization we evaluate the amplitude of steady-state oscillation.
Control linearity and jitter of relaxation oscillators
Gierkink, Sander Laurentius Johannes
1999-01-01
The body of this thesis (chapters 3,4 and 5) deals with the analysis and improvement of a specific class of voltage- or current controlled oscillators (VCO’s respectively CCO’s) called relaxation oscillators. Before going into detail on this particular class of oscillators, first the function and ap
The SD oscillator and its attractors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Q [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Shijiazhuang Railway Institute, Shijiazhuang 050043 (China); Wiercigroch, M; Pavlovskaia, E; Grebogi, C; Michael, J; Thompson, T [Centre for Applied Dynamics Research, School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, King' s College, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: qingjiecao@hotmail.com
2008-02-15
We propose a new archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous systems (SD oscillator). This oscillator behaves both smooth and discontinuous system depending on the value of the smoothness parameter. New dynamic behaviour is presented for the transitions from the smooth to discontinuous regime.
On the mechanism of oscillations in neutrophils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brasen, Jens Christian; Barington, Torben; Olsen, Lars Folke
2010-01-01
We have investigated the regulation of the oscillatory generation of H(2)O(2) and oscillations in shape and size in neutrophils in suspension. The oscillations are independent of cell density and hence do not represent a collective phenomena. Furthermore, the oscillations are independent of the e...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2014-01-01
We propose a nonlinearity and phase noise tolerant orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) W-band signal over fiber system based on phase modulation and photonic heterodyne up-conversion techniques. By heterodyne mixing the phase-modulated optical OFDM signal with a free-running laser...... in the photodiode, the constant envelope OFDM W-band wireless signal is obtained to suppress the nonlinear impairments. Moreover, the phase noises of the beating lasers appear as additive terms to the desired signal, and could be easily filtered out without complex phase noise estimation and compensation algorithms...
The effect of phase stabilization of microwave oscillations in nanosecond Gunn oscillators
Konev, V. Yu.; Klimov, A. I.; Koval'chuk, O. B.; Gubanov, V. P.; Kozhevnikov, V. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. V.; Torkhov, N. A.
2013-11-01
The effect of the semiconductor structure of an oscillator diode on the phase stabilization of microwave oscillations in a nanosecond Gunn oscillator by using a modulating voltage pulse edge is investigated. Numerical simulation is employed to determine phase deviations depending on the scatter of pulseedge duration and pulse amplitude. The standard deviation of phase-delay time of microwave oscillations in the oscillator with regard to a constant level at the modulating pulse edge and the standard deviation of phase difference of microwave oscillations in two electrodynamically insulated oscillators connected in parallel to one and the same modulator have been measured.
Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne
2012-07-28
Traditionally, the necessary and sufficient condition for any system to be oscillating is that its poles are located on the imaginary (jω) axis. In this paper, for the first time, we have shown that systems can oscillate with time-domain oscillating poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating resistance and triangular shape of FFT are also demonstrated with mathematical reasoning and simulation results to support the unusual and surprising characteristics. © 2009 IEEE.
Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)
2011-01-01
MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δm_{atm}^{2} and sin^{2} 2θ_{atm}). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of v_{μ} interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the v_{μ}-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm^{2} = 2.32_{-0.08}^{+0.12} x 10^{-3} eV^{2}, sin ^{2} 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$_{μ} beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36_{-0.40}^{+0.46}(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10^{-3}eV^{2}, sin^{2} 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86_{-0.12}^{_0}
Restoration of oscillation in network of oscillators in presence of direct and indirect interactions
Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K.; Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-10-01
The suppression of oscillations in coupled systems may lead to several unwanted situations, which requires a suitable treatment to overcome the suppression. In this paper, we show that the environmental coupling in the presence of direct interaction, which can suppress oscillation even in a network of identical oscillators, can be modified by introducing a feedback factor in the coupling scheme in order to restore the oscillation. We inspect how the introduction of the feedback factor helps to resurrect oscillation from various kinds of death states. We numerically verify the resurrection of oscillations for two paradigmatic limit cycle systems, namely Landau-Stuart and Van der Pol oscillators and also in generic chaotic Lorenz oscillator. We also study the effect of parameter mismatch in the process of restoring oscillation for coupled oscillators.
Photonic cavity synchronization of nanomechanical oscillators.
Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X
2013-11-22
Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gives rise to both reactive and dissipative coupling of the mechanical resonators, leading to coherent oscillation and mutual locking of resonators with dynamics beyond the widely accepted phase oscillator (Kuramoto) model. In addition to the phase difference between the oscillators, also their amplitudes are coupled, resulting in the emergence of sidebands around the synchronized carrier signal.
Memristor-based reactance-less oscillator
Zidan, Mohammed A.
2012-10-02
The first reactance-less oscillator is introduced. By using a memristor, the oscillator can be fully implemented on-chip without the need for any capacitors or inductors, which results in an area-efficient fully integrated solution. The concept of operation of the proposed oscillator is explained and detailed mathematical analysis is introduced. Closed-form expressions for the oscillation frequency and oscillation conditions are derived. Finally, the derived equations are verified with circuit simulations showing excellent agreement. © 2011 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
Electrochemical Oscillations Induced by Surfactants
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
翟俊红; 贺占博
2003-01-01
A new type of electrochemical oscillation induced by surfactant was observed in experiments. The electrochemical system is a Daniell cell with a copper rod in CuSO4 aqueous and an aluminum rod in Al(NO3)3 aqueous as electrodes. The surfactants are CTAB, TX-100, SLS. The addition of trace surfactant solution by a micro-syringe made the original monotonously changing electrochemical system produce obvious periodic phenomena. At the mean time, the copper ion selective electrode and Hg2SO4 reference electrode were used to monitor the copper electrode reaction and determine its rate constant k of first order reaction. According to the experimental results of electrode reaction kinetics, the possible mechanism was found to be the polarization induced from the directional adsorption of trace surfactant on the electrode surface. That is the electrochemical oscillations.
Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter
Lobanov, A. E.
2017-03-01
A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.
Experimental studies of neutrino oscillations
Kajita, Takaaki
2016-01-01
The 2015 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur McDonald "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Takaaki Kajita of Tokyo University is a Japanese physicist, known for neutrino experiments at the Kamiokande and its successor, Super-Kamiokande. This volume of collected works of Kajita on neutrino oscillations provides a good glimpse into as well as a record of the rise and the role of Asian research in the frontiers of neutrino physics. Japan is now a major force in the study of the 3 families of neutrinos. Much remains to be done to clarify the Dirac vs. Majorana nature of the neutrino, and the cosmological implications of the neutrino. The collected works of Kajita and his Super-Kamiokande group will leave an indelible foot-print in the history of big and better science.
Oscillators: Old and new perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Roy, Jyotirmoy [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Santa Cruz(E), Mumbai 400098 (India)
2014-02-11
We consider some of the well known oscillators in literature which are known to exhibit interesting effects of nonlinearity. We review the Lindstedt-Poincare technique for dealing with with the nonlinear effects and then go on to introduce the relevance of the renormalization group for the oscillator following the pioneering work of Chen et al. It is pointed out that the traditional Lindstedt-Poincare and the renormalization group techniques have operational connections. We use this to find an unexpected mode softening in the double pendulum. This mode softening prompted us to look for chaos in the double pendulum at low energies-energies that are just sufficient to allow the outer pendulum to rotate (the double pendulum is known to be chaotic at high energies-energies that are greater than that needed to make both pendulums to rotate). The emergence of the chaos is strongly dependent on initial conditions.
A Tunable Carbon Nanotube Oscillator
Sazonova, Vera
2005-03-01
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. Carbon nanotubes (NT) are perhaps the ultimate material for realizing a NEMS device as they are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus is able to sense its own motion. Here, we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string oscillation modes of doubly-clamped NT oscillators. We observed resonance frequencies in the 5MHz to 150MHz range with quality factors in the 50 to 100 range. We showed that the resonance frequencies can be widely tuned by a gate voltage. We also report on the temperature dependence of the quality factor and present a discussion of possible loss mechanisms.
Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es
2009-09-15
A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.
Status of sterile neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwetz, Thomas
2013-02-15
There are several independent hints for neutrino oscillations with a mass-squared difference at the eV{sup 2} scale. If confirmed, this would imply the existence of sterile neutrinos. I discuss the present status of the hints for ν{sub e} disappearance from reactor experiments and Gallium source experiments, as well as from the LSND and MiniBooNE ν{sub μ}→ν{sub e} appearance searches. A consistent interpretation of the global data in terms of neutrino oscillations is challenged by the non-observation of a positive signal in ν{sub μ} disappearance experiments. There is a strong tension in the global data, irrespective of the number of eV-scale neutrino states.
Mathematical Models of Biochemical Oscillations
Conrad, Emery David
1999-01-01
The goal of this paper is to explain the mathematics involved in modeling biochemical oscillations. We first discuss several important biochemical concepts fundamental to the construction of descriptive mathematical models. We review the basic theory of differential equations and stability analysis as it relates to two-variable models exhibiting oscillatory behavior. The importance of the Hopf Bifurcation will be discussed in detail for the central role it plays in limit cycle behavior and...
Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators
Rosu, H. C.; Socorro, J.
1999-01-01
The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezing features as a p...
Multipartite entanglement in neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasone, Massimo; Dell' Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio, E-mail: blasone@sa.infn.i [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)
2009-06-01
Particle mixing is related to multi-mode entanglement of single-particle states The occupation number of both flavor eigenstates and mass eigenstates can be used to define a multiqubit space. In such a framework, flavor neutrino states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By using two different entanglement measures, we analyze the behavior of multipartite entanglement in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations.
Neutrino Masses and Flavor Oscillations
Wang, Yifang; Xing, Zhi-Zhong
2016-10-01
This essay is intended to provide a brief description of the peculiar properties of neutrinos within and beyond the standard theory of weak interactions. The focus is on the flavor oscillations of massive neutrinos, from which one has achieved some striking knowledge about their mass spectrum and flavor mixing pattern. The experimental prospects towards probing the absolute neutrino mass scale, possible Majorana nature and CP-violating effects, will also be addressed.
Micro-machined resonator oscillator
Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.
1994-01-01
A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.
Automatic oscillator frequency control system
Smith, S. F. (Inventor)
1985-01-01
A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.
Neutrino Oscillation Experiment at JHF
2002-01-01
T2K is a long baseline neutrino experiment designed to investigate how neutrinos change from one flavor to another as they travel (neutrino oscillations). An intense beam of muon neutrinos is generated at the J-PARC nuclear physics site on the East coast of Japan and directed across the country to the Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector in the mountains of western Japan. The beam is measured once before it leaves the J-PARC site, using the near detector ND280, and again at Super-K, 295 km away: the change in the measured intensity and composition of the beam is used to provide information on the properties of neutrinos. The high intensity neutrino beam is produced in an off-axis configuration. The peak neutrino energy is tuned to the oscillation maximum of ∼ 0.6 GeV to maximize the sensitivity to neutrino oscillations. The science goals of T2K can be summarized as follows: •\tsearch for CP violation in the neutrino sector •\tdiscovery of νμ → νe ( i.e. the confirmation that θ13 > 0 ) •\tprecision ...
Quantum dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator
Philbin, T G
2012-01-01
The quantum theory of the damped harmonic oscillator has been a subject of continual investigation since the 1930s. The obstacle to quantization created by the dissipation of energy is usually dealt with by including a discrete set of additional harmonic oscillators as a reservoir. But a discrete reservoir cannot directly yield dynamics such as Ohmic damping (proportional to velocity) of the oscillator of interest. By using a continuum of oscillators as a reservoir, we canonically quantize the harmonic oscillator with Ohmic damping and also with general damping behaviour. The dynamics of a damped oscillator is determined by an arbitrary effective susceptibility that obeys Kramers-Kronig relations. This approach offers an alternative description of nano-mechanical oscillators and opto-mechanical systems.
Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator
Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.
1995-03-01
Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with
Quantizing the damped harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latimer, D C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)
2005-03-04
We consider the Fermi quantization of the classical damped harmonic oscillator (dho). In past work on the subject, authors double the phase space of the dho in order to close the system at each moment in time. For an infinite-dimensional phase space, this method requires one to construct a representation of the CAR algebra for each time. We show that the unitary dilation of the contraction semigroup governing the dynamics of the system is a logical extension of the doubling procedure, and it allows one to avoid the mathematical difficulties encountered with the previous method.
Ermakov approach for minisuperspace oscillators
Rosu, H C
1999-01-01
The WDW equation of arbitrary Hartle-Hawking factor ordering for several minisuperspace universe models, such as the pure gravity FRW and Taub ones, is mapped onto the dynamics of corresponding classical oscillators. The latter ones are studied by the classical Ermakov invariant method, which is a natural aproach in this context. For the more realistic case of a minimally coupled massive scalar field, one can study, within the same type of approach, the corresponding squeezing features as a possible means of describing cosmological evolution. Finally, we comment on the analogy with the accelerator physics
Bloch oscillations in atom interferometry
Cladé, Pierre
2014-01-01
In Paris, we are using an atom interferometer to precisely measure the recoil velocity of an atom that absorbs a photon. In order to reach a high sensitivity, many recoils are transferred to atoms using the Bloch oscillations technique. In this lecture, I will present in details this technique and its application to high precision measurement. I will especially describe in details how this method allows us to perform an atom recoil measurement at the level of $1.3 \\times 10^{-9}$. This measurement is used in the most precise determination of the fine structure constant that is independent of quantum electrodynamics.
Magnus approximation in neutrino oscillations
Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.
2011-04-01
Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some anomalous experimental observations. In a four-neutrino (three active plus one sterile) mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos with energies of the order of a few GeV, taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.
Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors
Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao
2015-01-01
Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.
Carnot cycle for an oscillator
Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice
2002-09-01
In 1824 Carnot established that the efficiency of cyclic engines operating between a hot bath at absolute temperature Thot and a bath at a lower temperature Tcold cannot exceed 1 - Tcold/Thot. We show that linear oscillators alternately in contact with hot and cold baths obey this principle in the quantum as well as classical regime. The expression of the work performed is derived from a simple prescription. Reversible and non-reversible cycles are illustrated. The paper begins with historical considerations and is essentially self-contained.
Strange nonchaotic self-oscillator
Jalnine, Alexey Yu.; Kuznetsov, Sergey P.
2016-08-01
An example of strange nonchaotic attractor (SNA) is discussed in a dissipative system of mechanical nature driven by a constant torque applied to one of the elements of the construction. So the external force is not oscillatory, and the system is autonomous. Components of the motion with incommensurable frequencies emerge due to the irrational ratio of the sizes of the involved rotating elements. We regard the phenomenon as strange nonchaotic self-oscillations, and its existence sheds new light on the question of feasibility of SNA in autonomous systems.
Wave Physics Oscillations - Solitons - Chaos
Nettel, Stephen
2009-01-01
This textbook is intended for those second year undergraduates in science and engineering who will later need an understanding of electromagnetic theory and quantum mechanics. The classical physics of oscillations and waves is developed at a more advanced level than has been customary for the second year, providing a basis for the quantum mechanics that follows. In this new edition the Green's function is explained, reinforcing the integration of quantum mechanics with classical physics. The text may also form the basis of an "introduction to theoretical physics" for physics majors. The concluding chapters give special attention to topics in current wave physics: nonlinear waves, solitons, and chaotic behavior.
Modeling of Coupled Chaotic Oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lai, Y. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy and of Mathematics, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States); Grebogi, C. [Institute for Plasma Research, Department of Mathematics, Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
1999-06-01
Chaotic dynamics may impose severe limits to deterministic modeling by dynamical equations of natural systems. We give theoretical argument that severe modeling difficulties may occur for high-dimensional chaotic systems in the sense that no model is able to produce reasonably long solutions that are realized by nature. We make these ideas concrete by investigating systems of coupled chaotic oscillators. They arise in many situations of physical and biological interests, and they also arise from discretization of nonlinear partial differential equations. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Visual Grouping by Neural Oscillators
Yu, Guoshen
2008-01-01
Distributed synchronization is known to occur at several scales in the brain, and has been suggested as playing a key functional role in perceptual grouping. State-of-the-art visual grouping algorithms, however, seem to give comparatively little attention to neural synchronization analogies. Based on the framework of concurrent synchronization of dynamic systems, simple networks of neural oscillators coupled with diffusive connections are proposed to solve visual grouping problems. Multi-layer algorithms and feedback mechanisms are also studied. The same algorithm is shown to achieve promising results on several classical visual grouping problems, including point clustering, contour integration and image segmentation.
Making space for harmonic oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab
2004-11-01
If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.
Bruno Pontecorvo and Neutrino Oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samoil M. Bilenky
2013-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss briefly in this review, dedicated to the centenary of the birth of the great neutrino physicist Bruno Pontecorvo, the following ideas he proposed: (i the radiochemical method of neutrino detection; (ii the μ - e universality of the weak interaction; (iii the accelerator neutrino experiment which allowed to prove that muon and electron neutrinos are different particles (the Brookhaven experiment. I consider in some details Pontecorvo's pioneering idea of neutrino masses, mixing, and oscillations and the development of this idea by Pontecorvo, by Pontecorvo and Gribov, and by Pontecorvo and myself.
Pair creation and plasma oscillations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prozorkevich, A. V.; Vinnik, D. V.; Schmidt, S. M.; Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.
2000-12-15
We describe aspects of particle creation in strong fields using a quantum kinetic equation with a relaxation-time approximation to the collision term. The strong electric background field is determined by solving Maxwell's equation in tandem with the Vlasov equation. Plasma oscillations appear as a result of feedback between the background field and the field generated by the particles produced. The plasma frequency depends on the strength of the initial background fields and the collision frequency, and is sensitive to the necessary momentum-dependence of dressed-parton masses.
Entangled states of spin and clock oscillators
Polzik, Eugene
2016-05-01
Measurements of one quadrature of an oscillator with precision beyond its vacuum state uncertainty have occupied a central place in quantum physics for decades. We have recently reported the first experimental implementation of such measurement with a magnetic oscillator. However, a much more intriguing goal is to trace an oscillator trajectory with the precision beyond the vacuum state uncertainty in both position and momentum, a feat naively assumed not possible due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. We have demonstrated that such measurement is possible if the oscillator is entangled with a quantum reference oscillator with an effective negative mass. The key element is the cancellation of the back action of the measurement on the composite system of two oscillators. Applications include measurements of e.-m. fields, accelleration, force and time with practically unlimited accuracy. In a more general sense, this approach leads to trajectories without quantum uncertainties and to achieving new fundamental bounds on the measurement precision.
Damped transverse oscillations of interacting coronal loops
Soler, Roberto
2015-01-01
Damped transverse oscillations of magnetic loops are routinely observed in the solar corona. This phenomenon is interpreted as standing kink magnetohydrodynamic waves, which are damped by resonant absorption owing to plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field. The periods and damping times of these oscillations can be used to probe the physical conditions of the coronal medium. Some observations suggest that interaction between neighboring oscillating loops in an active region may be important and can modify the properties of the oscillations compared to those of an isolated loop. Here we theoretically investigate resonantly damped transverse oscillations of interacting non-uniform coronal loops. We provide a semi-analytic method, based on the T-matrix theory of scattering, to compute the frequencies and damping rates of collective oscillations of an arbitrary configuration of parallel cylindrical loops. The effect of resonant damping is included in the T-matrix scheme in the thin boundary approximation. ...
Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators
Rubiola, Enrico
2009-01-01
Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...
Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Duan, Huaiyu
2015-08-01
Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillations.
Lepton asymmetry and neutrino oscillations interplay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirilova, Daniela, E-mail: dani@astro.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Astronomy and NAO (Bulgaria)
2013-03-15
We discuss the interplay between lepton asymmetry L and {nu} oscillations in the early Universe. Neutrino oscillations may suppress or enhance previously existing L. On the other hand L is capable to suppress or enhance neutrino oscillations. The mechanism of L enhancement in MSW resonant {nu} oscillations in the early Universe is numerically analyzed. L cosmological effects through {nu} oscillations are discussed. We discuss how L may change the cosmological BBN constraints on neutrino and show that BBN model with {nu}{sub e}{r_reversible}{nu}{sub s} oscillations is extremely sensitive to L - it allows to obtain the most stringent constraints on L value. We discuss also the cosmological role of active-sterile {nu} mixing and L in connection with the indications about additional relativistic density in the early Universe, pointed out by BBN, CMB and LSS data and the analysis of global {nu} data.
Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
Duan, Huaiyu
2015-01-01
Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...
Characterizing correlations of flow oscillations at bottlenecks
Kretz, Tobias; Wölki, Marko; Schreckenberg, Michael
2006-02-01
'Oscillations' occur in quite different kinds of many-particle systems when two groups of particles with different directions of motion meet or intersect at a certain spot. In this work a model of pedestrian motion is presented that is able to reproduce oscillations with different characteristics. The Wald-Wolfowitz test and Gillis' correlated random walk are shown to include observables that can be used to characterize different kinds of oscillations.
Characterizing correlations of flow oscillations at bottlenecks
Kretz, Tobias; Woelki, Marko; Schreckenberg, Michael
2006-01-01
"Oscillations" occur in quite different kinds of many-particle-systems when two groups of particles with different directions of motion meet or intersect at a certain spot. We present a model of pedestrian motion that is able to reproduce oscillations with different characteristics. The Wald-Wolfowitz test and Gillis' correlated random walk are shown to hold observables that can be used to characterize different kinds of oscillations.
Non-Newtonian mechanics of oscillation centers
Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.
2008-10-01
Classical particles oscillating in high-frequency or static fields effectively exhibit a modified rest mass meff which determines the oscillation center motion. Unlike the true mass, meff depends on the field parameters and can be a nonanalytic function of the particle average velocity and the oscillation energy; hence non-Newtonian "metaplasmas" that permit a new type of plasma maser, signal rectification, frequency doubling, and one-way walls.
Desynchronization of stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snari, Razan; Tinsley, Mark R., E-mail: mark.tinsley@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu; Faramarzi, Sadegh; Showalter, Kenneth, E-mail: mark.tinsley@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu [C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6045 (United States); Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Netoff, Theoden Ivan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2015-12-15
Experimental and theoretical studies are presented on the design of perturbations that enhance desynchronization in populations of oscillators that are synchronized by periodic entrainment. A phase reduction approach is used to determine optimal perturbation timing based upon experimentally measured phase response curves. The effectiveness of the perturbation waveforms is tested experimentally in populations of periodically and stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators. The relevance of the approach to therapeutic methods for disrupting phase coherence in groups of stochastically synchronized neuronal oscillators is discussed.
Bloch oscillations of path-entangled photons.
Bromberg, Yaron; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron
2010-12-31
We show that when photons in N-particle path-entangled |N,0)+|0,N) or N00N states undergo Bloch oscillations, they exhibit a periodic transition between spatially bunched and antibunched states. The period of the bunching-antibunching oscillation is N times faster than the period of the oscillation of the photon density, manifesting the unique coherence properties of N00N states. The transition occurs even when the photons are well separated in space.
FORCED OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM
Since a nonlinear feedback control system may possess more than one type of forced oscillations, it is highly desirable to investigate the type of...method for finding the existence of forced oscillations and response curve characteristics of a nonlinear feedback control system by means of finding the...second order feedback control system are investigated; the fundamental frequency forced oscillation for a higher order system and the jump resonance
Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators
Bloch, Sylvan C
2013-01-01
From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con
High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terahertz sources based on lower frequency oscillators and amplifiers plus a chain of frequency multipliers are the workhorse technology for NASA's terahertz...
Optimal parameters uncoupling vibration modes of oscillators
Le, Khanh Chau
2016-01-01
A novel optimization concept for an oscillator with two degrees of freedom is proposed. By using specially defined motion ratios, we control the action of springs and dampers to each degree of freedom of the oscillator. If the potential action of the springs in one period of vibration, used as the payoff function for the conservative oscillator, is maximized, then the optimal motion ratios uncouple vibration modes. The same result holds true for the dissipative oscillator. The application to optimal design of vehicle suspension is discussed.
Energetics of Synchronization in Coupled Oscillators
Izumida, Yuki; Seifert, Udo
2016-01-01
We formulate the energetics of synchronization in coupled oscillators by unifying the nonequilibrium aspects with the nonlinear dynamics via stochastic thermodynamics. We derive a concise and universal expression of the energy dissipation rate using nonlinear-dynamics quantities characterizing synchronization, and elucidate how synchronization/desynchronization between the oscillators affects it. We apply our theory to hydrodynamically-coupled Stokes spheres rotating on circular trajectories that may be interpreted as the simplest model of synchronization of coupled oscillators in a biological system, revealing that the oscillators gain the ability to do more work on the surrounding fluid as the degree of phase synchronization increases.
Kozai-Lidov Oscillations of Circumstellar Disks
Lubow, Stephen H.; Fu, Wen; Martin, Rebecca G.
2015-01-01
It has been known for over 50 years that the orbit of an object in a binary system can undergo strong tilt and eccentricity oscillations. This effect, known as the Kozai-Lidov effect, may explain several observed astronomical phenomena, including the high eccentricities observed for some extra-solar planets. Martin et al. 2014 recently reported simulation results showing that fluid disks can undergo Kozai-Lidov oscillations. Such oscillations can have important consequences on disk and planet evolution. We have continued investigating the conditions for which such oscillations are possible.
Electronically tunable phase locked loop oscillator
Balasis, M.; Davis, M. R.; Jackson, C. R.
1982-02-01
This report describes the design and development of a low noise, high power, variable oscillator incorporating a high 'Q' electronically tunable resonator as the frequency determining element. The VCO provides improved EMC performance in phase locked synthesizers which are a part of communications equipments. The oscillator combines a low noise VMOS transistor with the selectivity and out-of-band attenuation of a coaxial resonator to provide superior EMC performance. Several oscillator designs were examined and the basis for the final configuration is presented. Oscillator noise is discussed and models for analysis are explained. A brass board model was constructed and tested and the technical results are presented.
Waves and oscillations in nature an introduction
Narayanan, A Satya
2015-01-01
Waves and oscillations are found in large scales (galactic) and microscopic scales (neutrino) in nature. Their dynamics and behavior heavily depend on the type of medium through which they propagate.Waves and Oscillations in Nature: An Introduction clearly elucidates the dynamics and behavior of waves and oscillations in various mediums. It presents different types of waves and oscillations that can be observed and studied from macroscopic to microscopic scales. The book provides a thorough introduction for researchers and graduate students in assorted areas of physics, such as fluid dynamics,
Comparison of Methods for Oscillation Detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Trangbæk, Klaus
2006-01-01
This paper compares a selection of methods for detecting oscillations in control loops. The methods are tested on measurement data from a coal-fired power plant, where some oscillations are occurring. Emphasis is put on being able to detect oscillations without having a system model and without u...... using process knowledge. The tested methods show potential for detecting the oscillations, however, transient components in the signals cause false detections as well, motivating usage of models in order to remove the expected signals behavior....
Scleronomic holonomic constraints and conservative nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz, R; Gonzalez-Garcia, G; Izquierdo-De La Cruz, E Izquierdo-De La [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Centro Historico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, Col Centro, Del Cuauhtemoc, Mexico DF, CP 06080 (Mexico); Fernandez-Anaya, G, E-mail: rodrigo.munoz@uacm.edu.mx, E-mail: gggharper@gmail.com, E-mail: erickidc@gmail.com, E-mail: guillermo.fernandez@uia.mx [Universidad Iberoamericana, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Prolongacon Paseo de de la Reforma 880, Col Lomas de Santa Fe, Del Alvaro Obregn, Mexico DF, CP 01219 (Mexico)
2011-05-15
A bead sliding, under the sole influence of its own weight, on a rigid wire shaped in the fashion of a plane curve, will describe (generally anharmonic) oscillations around a local minimum. For given shapes, the bead will behave as a harmonic oscillator in the whole range, such as an unforced, undamped, Duffing oscillator, etc. We also present cases in which the effective potential acting on the bead is not analytical around a minimum. The small oscillation approximation cannot be applied to such pathological cases. Nonetheless, these latter instances are studied with other standard techniques.
Quantum entanglement of Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators
Dimov, Hristo; Rashkov, Radoslav C; Vetsov, Tsvetan
2016-01-01
We study the quantum entanglement of coupled Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators using the formalism of thermo-field dynamics. The entanglement entropy is computed for the specific cases of two and a ring of $N$ coupled Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators of fourth order. It is shown that the entanglement entropy depends on the temperatures, frequencies and coupling parameters of the different degrees of freedom corresponding to harmonic oscillators. Finally, we advert to the information geometry theory by calculating the Fisher information metric for the considered system of coupled oscillators.
Quantum oscillations in superconductors in magnetic field
Gvozdikov, Vladimir M.; Gvozdikova, Mariya V.
2000-07-01
The Aharonov-Bohm oscillations (ABO) of the free energy, the critical temperature, and the magnetic susceptibility in a stack of hollow mesoscopic cylinders are calculated. It is shown that sinusoidal (in flux) ABO crosses over to the parabolic Little-Parks oscillations (LPO) when the diameter of cylinders exceeds the coherence length. The exponential temperature behaviour of the magnetic susceptibility is like that found in Ag cylinders with thin Nb coating [Czech. J. Physics 46 (1996) 2317]. The formal analogy between oscillations of the free energy in the Aharonov-Bohm system in question and the de Haas-van Alphen oscillations (dHvAO) in layered superconductors is discussed.
Dynamics of Coupled Quantum-Classical Oscillators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Wei-Zhong; XU Liu-Su; ZOU Feng-Wu
2004-01-01
@@ The dynamics of systems consisting of coupled quantum-classical oscillators is numerically investigated. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the quantum oscillator exhibits chaos. When the mass of the classical oscillator increases, the chaos will be suppressed; if the energy of the system and/or the coupling strength between the two oscillators increases, chaotic behaviour of the system appears. This result will be helpful to understand the probability of the emergence of quantum chaos and may be applied to explain the spectra of complex atoms qualitatively.
Coupled oscillators with parity-time symmetry
Tsoy, Eduard N.
2017-02-01
Different models of coupled oscillators with parity-time (PT) symmetry are studied. Hamiltonian functions for two and three linear oscillators coupled via coordinates and accelerations are derived. Regions of stable dynamics for two coupled oscillators are obtained. It is found that in some cases, an increase of the gain-loss parameter can stabilize the system. A family of Hamiltonians for two coupled nonlinear oscillators with PT-symmetry is obtained. An extension to high-dimensional PT-symmetric systems is discussed.
CPT-Odd resonances in neutrino oscillations
Barger; Pakvasa; Weiler; Whisnant
2000-12-11
We consider the consequences for future neutrino factory experiments of small CPT-odd interactions in neutrino oscillations. The nu(&mgr;)-->nu(&mgr;) and nu;(&mgr;)-->nu;(&mgr;) survival probabilities at a baseline L = 732 km can test for CPT-odd contributions at orders of magnitude better sensitivity than present neutrino sector limits. Interference between the CPT-violating interaction and CPT-even mass terms in the Lagrangian can lead to a resonant enhancement of the oscillation amplitude. For oscillations in matter, a simultaneous enhancement of both neutrino and antineutrino oscillation amplitudes is possible.
Microdroplet oscillations during optical pulling
Ellingsen, Simen Å
2011-01-01
It was recently shown theoretically that it is possible to pull a spherical dielectric body towards the source of a laser beam [Nature Photonics {\\bf 5}, 531 (2011)], a result with immediate consequences to optical manipulation of small droplets. Optical pulling can be realised e.g.\\ using a diffraction free Bessel beam, and is expected to be of great importance in manipulation of microscopic droplets in micro- and nanofluidics. Compared to conventional optical pushing, however, the radio of optical net force to stress acting on a droplet is much smaller, increasing the importance of oscillations. We describe the time-dependent surface deformations of a water microdroplet under optical pulling to linear order in the deformation. Shape oscillations have a lifetime in the order of microseconds for droplet radii of a few micrometers. The force density acting on the initially spherical droplet is strongly peaked near the poles on the beam axis, causing the deformations to take the form of jet-like protrusions.
Cardiogenic oscillation induced ventilator autotriggering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narender Kaloria
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cardiogenic oscillation during mechanical ventilation can auto-trigger the ventilator resembling patient initiated breadth. This gives a false sense of intact respiratory drive and determination brain death, even if other tests are positive, is not appropriate in such a situation. It will prolong the ICU stay and confound the brain-death determination. In this case report, we describe a 35 year old man who was brought to the hospital after many hours of critical delay following multiple gun shot injuries. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest while on the way from another hospital. After an emergency laparotomy, patient was shifted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score of E1VTM1 and was mechanically ventilated. Despite absence of brainstem reflexes, the ventilator continued to be triggered on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP mode and the patient maintained normal oxygen saturation and acceptable levels of carbon dioxide. An apnoea test confirmed absent respiratory drive. Ventilatory waveform graph analysis, revealed cardiogenic oscillation as the cause for autotrigerring.
Neutrino Oscillations: A Global Analysis
Fogli, G L; Marrone, A; Montanino, D; Palazzo, A; Rotunno, A M
2003-01-01
We review the status of the neutrino oscillation physics (as of June 2003), with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters in a three generation approach. We consider first the nu_mu-->nu_tau flavor transitions of atmospheric neutrinos. It is found that standard oscillations provide the best description of the SK+K2K data, and that the associated mass-mixing parameters are determined at 1 sigma (and dof=1) as: Delta m^2=(2.6 +-0.4) x 10^-3 eV^2 and sin^2(2theta)=1.00+0.00-0.05. Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we analyze the energy spectrum of reactor neutrino events recently observed at KamLAND and combine them with solar and terrestrial neutrino data. We find that the solution to the solar neutrino problem at large mixing angle (LMA) is basically split into two sub-regions, that we denote as LMA-I and LMA-II. The LMA-I solution, characterized by lower values of the squared neutrino mass gap, is favored by...
Oscillating layer thickness and vortices generated in oscillation of finite plate
Sin, V. K.; Wong, I. K.
2016-06-01
Moving mesh strategy is used in the model of flow induced by oscillating finite plate through software - COMSOL Multiphysics. Flow is assumed to be laminar and arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method is used for moving mesh in the simulation. Oscillating layer thickness is found which is different from the analytical solution by 2 to 3 times depends on the oscillating frequency. Vortices are also observed near the oscillating finite plate because of the edge effect of the finite plate.
Discrete Parametric Oscillation and Nondiffracting Beams in a Glauber-Fock Oscillator
Oztas, Z
2016-01-01
We consider a Glauber-Fock oscillator and show that diffraction can be managed. We show how to design arrays of waveguides where light beams experience zero diffraction. We find an exact analytical family of nondiffracting localized solution. We predict discrete parametric oscillation in the Glauber-Fock oscillator.
Stirring and mixing effects on oscillations and inhomogeneities in the minimal bromate oscillator
Dutt, A. K.; Menzinger, M.
1999-04-01
Stirring and mixing effects on the oscillations and inhomogeneities in the bromate-bromide-cerous system (minimal bromate oscillator) have been investigated in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A movable microelectrode is used to monitor the inhomogeneities inside the CSTR in an oscillating phase. The results are explained in terms of the theory of imperfect mixing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Earlier studies have shown that various stimuli can induce specific cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) oscillations in guard cells and various oscillations in stomatal apertures. Exactly how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling functions in stomatal oscillation is not known. In the present study, the epidermis of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)was used and a rapid ion-exchange treatment with two shifting buffers differing in K+ and Ca2+ concentrations was applied. The treatment for five transients at a 10-min transient period induced clear and regular stomatal oscillation. However, for other transient numbers and periods, the treatments induced some irregular oscillations or even no obvious oscillations in stomatal aperture. The results indicate that stomatal oscillation is encoded by parameter-specific [Ca2+]cyt oscillation: the parameters of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation affected the occurrence rate and the parameters of stomatal oscillation. The water channel inhibitor HgCl2 completely inhibited stomatal oscillation and the inhibitory effect could be partially reversed by β-mercaptoethanol (an agent capable of reversing water channel inhibition by HgCl2). Other inhibitory treatments against ion transport (i.e. the application of LaCl3, EGTA, or tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl))weakly impaired stomatal oscillation when the compounds were added after rapid ion-exchange treatment.If these compounds were added before rapid-ion exchange treatment, the inhibitory effect was much more apparent (except in the case of TEACI). The results of the present study suggest that water channels are involved in stomatal oscillation as a downstream element of [Ca2+]cyt oscillation signaling.
Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the axial component of the blood velocity vector, which is a significant limitation when vessels nearly parallel to the skin surface are scanned. The transverse oscillation method (TO) overcomes this limitation by introducing a transverse...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...... flow in a blood mimicking fluid and the fluid is scanned under different flow-to-beam angles. The relative standard deviation on the transverse velocity estimate is found to be less than 10% for all angles between 50 deg. and 90 deg. Furthermore the TO method is evaluated in the flowrig using pulsatile...
Hydrodynamic stability and stellar oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H M Antia
2011-07-01
Chandrasekhar’s monograph on Hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, published in 1961, is a standard reference on linear stability theory. It gives a detailed account of stability of ﬂuid ﬂow in a variety of circumstances, including convection, stability of Couette ﬂow, Rayleigh–Taylor instability, Kelvin–Helmholtz instability as well as the Jean’s instability for star formation. In most cases he has extended these studies to include effects of rotation and magnetic ﬁeld. In a later paper he has given a variational formulation for equations of non-radial stellar oscillations. This forms the basis for helioseismic inversion techniques as well as extension to include the effect of rotation, magnetic ﬁeld and other large-scale ﬂows using a perturbation treatment.
Oscillating water column structural model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-09-01
An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.
Signal velocity in oscillator arrays
Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.
2016-09-01
We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.
Quasi Periodic Oscillations in Blazars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Alok C. Gupta
2014-09-01
Here we report our recent discoveries of Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in blazars time series data in X-ray and optical electromagnetic bands. Any such detection can give important clues of the location and nature of the processes of emission mechanism. In the case of radio-quiet AGN, the detected QPOs are very likely to be associated with the accretion disk. But in the case of blazars, it may be associated with jets in the high and outburst states, and in the low-state, it is probably associated with the accretion disk. In this brief review, I summarize the recent QPO detections in blazars. There is one strong evidence of QPO detection in XMM–Newton time series data of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy RE J1034+396 about which we will also discuss briefly.
Autoresonance versus localization in weakly coupled oscillators
Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I.
2016-04-01
We study formation of autoresonance (AR) in a two-degree of freedom oscillator array including a nonlinear (Duffing) oscillator (the actuator) weakly coupled to a linear attachment. Two classes of systems are studied. In the first class of systems, a periodic force with constant (resonance) frequency is applied to a nonlinear oscillator (actuator) with slowly time-decreasing stiffness. In the systems of the second class a nonlinear time-invariant oscillator is subjected to an excitation with slowly increasing frequency. In both cases, the attached linear oscillator and linear coupling are time-invariant, and the system is initially engaged in resonance. This paper demonstrates that in the systems of the first type AR in the nonlinear actuator entails oscillations with growing amplitudes in the linear attachment while in the system of the second type energy transfer from the nonlinear actuator is insufficient to excite high-energy oscillations of the attachment. It is also shown that a slow change of stiffness may enhance the response of the actuator and make it sufficient to support oscillations with growing energy in the attachment even beyond the linear resonance. Explicit asymptotic approximations of the solutions are obtained. Close proximity of the derived approximations to exact (numerical) results is demonstrated.
Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas
Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.
2009-01-01
A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.
Magnetic dipole oscillations and radiation damping
Stump, Daniel R.; Pollack, Gerald L.
1997-01-01
We consider the problem of radiation damping for a magnetic dipole oscillating in a magnetic field. An equation for the radiation reaction torque is derived, and the damping of the oscillations is described. Also discussed are runaway solutions for a rotating magnetic dipole moving under the influence of the reaction torque, with no external torque.
Averaged Behaviour of Nonconservative Coupled Oscillators
Bakri, T.
2007-01-01
In this Thesis we study the dynamics of systems of two and three coupled oscillators by efficiently applying Normal Form theory. The subject of Coupled oscillators plays an important part in dynamical systems. It has a wide range of applications in various fields like physics, biology, economics and
Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase ...
Photonic Cavity Synchronization of Nanomechanical Oscillators
Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X.
2013-01-01
Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gi...
Quantum noise-induced chaotic oscillations
Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Deb Shankar
1999-01-01
We examine the weak quantum noise limit of Wigner equation for phase space distribution functions. It has been shown that the leading order quantum noise described in terms of an auxiliary Hamiltonian manifests itself as an additional fluctuational degree of freedom which may induce chaotic and regular oscillations in a nonlinear oscillator.
Quantum noise-induced chaotic oscillations
Bag, B C; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Ray, Deb Shankar
1999-01-01
We examine the weak quantum noise limit of Wigner equation for phase space distribution functions. It has been shown that the leading order quantum noise described in terms of an auxilliary Hamiltonian manifests itself as an additional fluctuational degree of freedom which may induce chaotic and regular oscillations in a nonlinear oscillator.
Simple Optoelectronic Feedback in Microwave Oscillators
Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir
2009-01-01
A proposed method of stabilizing microwave and millimeter-wave oscillators calls for the use of feedback in optoelectronic delay lines characterized by high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). The method would extend the applicability of optoelectronic feedback beyond the previously reported class of optoelectronic oscillators that comprise two-port electronic amplifiers in closed loops with high-Q feedback circuits.
Kravchuk functions for the finite oscillator approximation
Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
1995-01-01
Kravchuk orthogonal functions - Kravchuk polynomials multiplied by the square root of the weight function - simplify the inversion algorithm for the analysis of discrete, finite signals in harmonic oscillator components. They can be regarded as the best approximation set. As the number of sampling points increases, the Kravchuk expansion becomes the standard oscillator expansion.
Damping of Crank–Nicolson error oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Dieter; Østerby, Ole; Strutwolf, J.
2003-01-01
The Crank–Nicolson (CN) simulation method has an oscillatory response to sharp initial transients. The technique is convenient but the oscillations make it less popular. Several ways of damping the oscillations in two types of electrochemical computations are investigated. For a simple one...
Electromagnetic Radiation Originating from Unstable Electron Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Pécseli, Hans
1975-01-01
Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function.......Electromagnetic oscillations in the range 300 – 700 MHz were observed from an unmagnetized argon discharge with an unstable electron velocity distribution function....
Multipole expansion method for supernova neutrino oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Huaiyu; Shalgar, Shashank, E-mail: duan@unm.edu, E-mail: shashankshalgar@unm.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)
2014-10-01
We demonstrate a multipole expansion method to calculate collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the neutrino bulb model. We show that it is much more efficient to solve multi-angle neutrino oscillations in multipole basis than in angle basis. The multipole expansion method also provides interesting insights into multi-angle calculations that were accomplished previously in angle basis.
Babaie, M.; Staszewski, R.B.
2013-01-01
An oscillator topology demonstrating an improved phase noise performance is proposed in this paper. It exploits the time-variant phase noise model with insights into the phase noise conversion mechanisms. The proposed oscillator is based on enforcing a pseudo-square voltage waveform around the LC ta
Microwave Oscillator Would Have Reduced Phase Noise
Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon
1991-01-01
Microwave oscillators of proposed new type incorporate suppressed-carrier/negative-feedback feature to reduce phase noise near their carrier frequencies. Concept results in phase noise less than achievable by cryogenically stabilized microwave components or by room-temperature oscillators stabilized by quartz crystals. Implemented in three different versions.
Design of an Oscillator for Satellite Reception
Leong, F.H.E.H.C.
2007-01-01
This thesis presents research on an LC-oscillator for Ku-band (10.7-12.7GHz) satellite reception. The zero-IF receiver architecture, proposed in the joint project involving the University of Twente and NXP Research, requires a 11.7GHz quadrature oscillator that achieves a phase noise of -85dBc/Hz@10
In plane oscillation of a bifilar pendulum
Hinrichsen, Peter F.
2016-11-01
The line tensions, the horizontal and vertical accelerations as well as the period of large angle oscillations parallel to the plane of a bifilar suspension are presented and have been experimentally investigated using strain gauges and a smart phone. This system has a number of advantages over the simple pendulum for studying large angle oscillations, and for measuring the acceleration due to gravity.
Chaos in nonlinear oscillations controlling and synchronization
Lakshamanan, M
1996-01-01
This book deals with the bifurcation and chaotic aspects of damped and driven nonlinear oscillators. The analytical and numerical aspects of the chaotic dynamics of these oscillators are covered, together with appropriate experimental studies using nonlinear electronic circuits. Recent exciting developments in chaos research are also discussed, such as the control and synchronization of chaos and possible technological applications.
A simple approach to nonlinear oscillators
Ren, Zhong-Fu; He, Ji-Huan
2009-10-01
A very simple and effective approach to nonlinear oscillators is suggested. Anyone with basic knowledge of advanced calculus can apply the method to finding approximately the amplitude-frequency relationship of a nonlinear oscillator. Some examples are given to illustrate its extremely simple solution procedure and an acceptable accuracy of the obtained solutions.
Autonomous Duffing-Holmes Type Chaotic Oscillator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamaševičius, A.; Bumelienė, S.; Kirvaitis, R.
2009-01-01
We have designed and built a novel Duffing type autonomous 3rd-order chaotic oscillator. In comparison with the common non-autonomous DuffingHolmes type oscillator the autonomous circuit has an internal positive feedback loop instead of an external periodic drive source. In addition...
Han, Wenchen; Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Li, Haihong; Ju, Ping; Yang, Junzhong
2016-10-01
In this work, we investigate the dynamics in a ring of identical Stuart-Landau oscillators with conjugate coupling systematically. We analyze the stability of the amplitude death and find the stability independent of the number of oscillators. When the amplitude death state is unstable, a large number of states such as homogeneous oscillation death, heterogeneous oscillation death, homogeneous oscillation, and wave propagations are found and they may coexist. We also find that all of these states are related to the unstable spatial modes to the amplitude death state.
Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for earth tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winter, Walter
2016-04-05
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Baryogenesis via Particle-Antiparticle Oscillations
Ipek, Seyda
2016-01-01
CP violation, which is crucial for producing the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, is enhanced in particle-antiparticle oscillations. We study particle-antiparticle oscillations (of a particle with mass O(100 GeV)) with CP violation in the early Universe in the presence of interactions with O(ab-fb) cross-sections. We show that, if baryon-number-violating interactions exist, a baryon asymmetry can be produced via out-of-equilibrium decays of oscillating particles. As a concrete example we study a $U(1)_R$-symmetric, R-parity-violating SUSY model with pseudo-Dirac gauginos, which undergo particle-antiparticle oscillations. Taking bino to be the lightest $U(1)_R$-symmetric particle, and assuming it decays via baryon-number-violating interactions, we show that bino-antibino oscillations can produce the baryon asymmetry of the Universe.
Multistable phase patterns in finite oscillator networks
Goldstein, Daniel
2014-03-01
Recent experiments on spatially extend arrays of droplets containing Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactants have shown a rich variety of spatio-temporal patterns. Motivated by this experimental set up, we study a simple model of chemical oscillators in the highly nonlinear excitable regime in order to gain insight into the mechanism giving rise to the observed multistable attractors. By allowing intrinsic fluctuations to influence a simple activator inhibitor model, switching between stable attractors is observed. When coupled, these two attractors have different preferred phase synchronizations, leading to complex behavior. We study rings of coupled oscillators and observe a rich array of oscillating patterns. We characterize the different modes of oscillation in the mean-field model and compare those to the oscillations observed in stochastic simulations.
Estimating the phase of synchronized oscillators
Revzen, Shai; Guckenheimer, John M.
2008-11-01
The state of a collection of phase-locked oscillators is determined by a single phase variable or cyclic coordinate. This paper presents a computational method, Phaser, for estimating the phase of phase-locked oscillators from limited amounts of multivariate data in the presence of noise and measurement errors. Measurements are assumed to be a collection of multidimensional time series. Each series consists of several cycles of the same or similar systems. The oscillators within each system are not assumed to be identical. Using measurements of the noise covariance for the multivariate input, data from the individual oscillators in the system are combined to reduce the variance of phase estimates for the whole system. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated on experimental and model data from biomechanics of cockroach running and on simulated oscillators with varying levels of noise.
Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations for Earth Tomography
Winter, Walter
2015-01-01
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can robustly measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of 4-5 percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Chemical sensor with oscillating cantilevered probe
Adams, Jesse D
2013-02-05
The invention provides a method of detecting a chemical species with an oscillating cantilevered probe. A cantilevered beam is driven into oscillation with a drive mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A free end of the oscillating cantilevered beam is tapped against a mechanical stop coupled to a base end of the cantilevered beam. An amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured with a sense mechanism coupled to the cantilevered beam. A treated portion of the cantilevered beam is exposed to the chemical species, wherein the cantilevered beam bends when exposed to the chemical species. A second amplitude of the oscillating cantilevered beam is measured, and the chemical species is determined based on the measured amplitudes.
Discontinuous spirals of stable periodic oscillations.
Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G; Lindberg, Erik; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A C
2013-11-27
We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase orderly without bound. Such complex patterns emerge forming self-similar discontinuous phases that combine in an artful way to produce large discontinuous spirals of stability. This unanticipated discrete accumulation of stability phases was detected experimentally and numerically in a Duffing-like proxy specially designed to bypass noisy spectra conspicuously present in driven oscillators. Discontinuous spirals organize the dynamics over extended parameter intervals around a focal point. They are useful to optimize locking into desired oscillatory modes and to control complex systems. The organization of oscillations into discontinuous spirals is expected to be generic for a class of nonlinear oscillators.
Water Oscillation in an Open Tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doh Hoon Chung
2008-01-01
Full Text Available When an open tube is placed in a tank of water, covered on top, raised, and then uncovered, the water inside the tube will oscillate. The characteristics of the oscillation of the water inside the tube were studied. It was shown that, for large oscillations, the top half-period was longer than the bottom half period due to the increased mass of the water column. For small oscillations, it approached simple harmonic motion, with the square of the period varying with mean length, as predicted by theory. An end correction was also shown to exist, due to the motion of the water outside the bottom of the tube during the oscillation. The end correction was shown to be independent of the mean length of the water column, as predicted.
Atmospheric neutrino oscillations for Earth tomography
Winter, Walter
2016-07-01
Modern proposed atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments, such as PINGU in the Antarctic ice or ORCA in Mediterranean sea water, aim for precision measurements of the oscillation parameters including the ordering of the neutrino masses. They can, however, go far beyond that: Since neutrino oscillations are affected by the coherent forward scattering with matter, neutrinos can provide a new view on the interior of the earth. We show that the proposed atmospheric oscillation experiments can measure the lower mantle density of the earth with a precision at the level of a few percent, including the uncertainties of the oscillation parameters and correlations among different density layers. While the earth's core is, in principle, accessible by the angular resolution, new technology would be required to extract degeneracy-free information.
Improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator
Mosad, Ahmed G.
2013-09-01
This paper presents an improved memristor-based relaxation oscillator which offers higher frequency and wider tunning range than the existing reactance-less oscillators. It also has the capability of operating on two positive supplies or alternatively a positive and negative supply. Furthermore, it has the advantage that it can be fully integrated on-chip providing an area-efficient solution. On the other hand, The oscillation concept is discussed then a complete mathematical analysis of the proposed oscillator is introduced. Furthermore, the power consumption of the new relaxation circuit is discussed and validated by the PSPICE circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. MATLAB results are also introduced to demonstrate the resistance range and the corresponding frequency range which can be obtained from the proposed relaxation oscillator. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
OSCILLATION-DRIVEN MAGNETOSPHERIC ACTIVITY IN PULSARS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Meng-Xiang; Xu, Ren-Xin; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: linmx97@gmail.com, E-mail: r.x.xu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2015-02-01
We study the magnetospheric activity in the polar cap region of pulsars under stellar oscillations. The toroidal oscillation of the star propagates into the magnetosphere, which provides additional voltage due to unipolar induction, changes Goldreich-Julian charge density from the traditional value due to rotation, and hence influences particle acceleration. We present a general solution of the effect of oscillations within the framework of the inner vacuum gap model and consider three different inner gap modes controlled by curvature radiation, inverse Compton scattering, and two-photon annihilation, respectively. With different pulsar parameters and oscillation amplitudes, one of three modes would play a dominant role in defining the gap properties. When the amplitude of oscillation exceeds a critical value, mode changing occurs. Oscillations also lead to a change of the size of the polar cap. As applications, we show the inner gap properties under oscillations in both normal pulsars and anomalous X-ray pulsars/soft gamma-ray repeaters (AXPs/SGRs). We interpret the onset of radio emission after glitches/flares in AXPs/SGRs as due to oscillation-driven magnetic activities in these objects, within the framework of both the magnetar model and the solid quark star model. Within the magnetar model, radio activation may be caused by the enlargement of the effective polar cap angle and the radio emission beam due to oscillation, whereas within the solid quark star angle, it may be caused by activation of the pulsar inner gap from below the radio emission death line due to an oscillation-induced voltage enhancement. The model can also explain the glitch-induced radio profile change observed in PSR J1119–6127.
Intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone above Switzerland
Studer, Simone; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus
2012-01-01
GROMOS, the ground-based millimeter-wave ozone spectrometer, continuously measures the stratospheric ozone profile between the altitudes of 20 and 65 km above Bern (46°57‧N, 7°27‧E) since November 1994. Characteristics of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone are derived from the long-term data set. Spectral analysis gives evidence for a dominant oscillation period of about 20 days in the lower and middle stratosphere during winter time. A strong 20-day wave is also found in collocated geopotential height measurements of the microwave limb sounder onboard the Aura satellite (Aura/MLS) confirming the ground-based observations of GROMOS and underlining the link between ozone and dynamics. Remarkably, the ozone series of GROMOS show an interannual variability of the strength of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone. The interannual variability of ozone fluctuations is possibly due to influences of planetary wave forcing and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the meridional Brewer-Dobson circulation of the middle atmosphere. In detail, time series of the mean amplitude of ozone fluctuations with periods ranging from 10 to 60 days are derived at fixed pressure levels. The mean amplitude series are regarded as a measure of the strength of intraseasonal oscillations of stratospheric ozone above Bern. After deseasonalizing the mean amplitude series, we find QBO-like amplitude modulations of the intraseasonal oscillations of ozone. The amplitudes of the intraseasonal oscillations are enhanced by a factor of 2 in 1997, 2001, 2003, and 2005. QBO-like variations of intraseasonal oscillations are also present in wind, temperature and other parameters above Bern as indicated by meteorological reanalyses of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Further, intercomparisons of interannual variability of intraseasonal tropospheric and stratospheric oscillations are performed where the NAO index (North-Atlantic oscillation
Oscillations in a sunspot with light bridges
Yuan, Ding; Huang, Zhenghua; Li, Bo; Su, Jiangtao; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin
2014-01-01
Solar Optical Telescope onboard Hinode observed a sunspot (AR 11836) with two light bridges (LBs) on 31 Aug 2013. We analysed a 2-hour \\ion{Ca}{2} H emission intensity data set and detected strong 5-min oscillation power on both LBs and in the inner penumbra. The time-distance plot reveals that 5-min oscillation phase does not vary significantly along the thin bridge, indicating that the oscillations are likely to originate from the underneath. The slit taken along the central axis of the wide light bridge exhibits a standing wave feature. However, at the centre of the wide bridge, the 5-min oscillation power is found to be stronger than at its sides. Moreover, the time-distance plot across the wide bridge exhibits a herringbone pattern that indicates a counter-stream of two running waves originated at the bridge sides. Thus, the 5-min oscillations on the wide bridge also resemble the properties of running penumbral waves. The 5-min oscillations are suppressed in the umbra, while the 3-min oscillations occupy...
Sausage oscillations of coronal plasma slabs
Hornsey, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Fludra, A.
2014-07-01
Context. Sausage oscillations are observed in plasma non-uniformities of the solar corona as axisymmetric perturbations of the non-uniformity. Often, these non-uniformities can be modelled as field-aligned slabs of the density enhancement. Aims: We perform parametric studies of sausage oscillations of plasma slabs, aiming to determine the dependence of the oscillation period on its parameters, and the onset of leaky and trapped regimes of the oscillations. Methods: Slabs with smooth transverse profiles of the density of a zero-beta plasma are perturbed by an impulsive localised perturbation of the sausage symmetry. In particular, the slab can contain an infinitely thin current sheet in its centre. The initial value problem is then solved numerically. The numerical results are subject to spectral analysis. The results are compared with analytical solutions for a slab with a step-function profile and also with sausage oscillations of a plasma cylinder. Results: We established that sausage oscillations in slabs generally have the same properties as in plasma cylinders. In the trapped regime, the sausage oscillation period increases with the increase in the longitudinal wavelength. In the leaky regime, the dependence of the period on the wavelength experiences saturation, and the period becomes independent of the wavelength in the long-wavelength limit. In the leaky regime the period is always longer than in the trapped regime. The sausage oscillation period in a slab is always longer than in a cylinder with the same transverse profile. In slabs with steeper transverse profiles, sausage oscillations have longer periods. The leaky regime occurs at shorter wavelengths in slabs with smoother profiles.
Observation of Bloch Oscillations in Molecular Rotation.
Floß, Johannes; Kamalov, Andrei; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2015-11-13
We report the observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results introduce room-temperature laser-kicked molecules as a new laboratory for studies of localization phenomena in quantum transport.
Magnetic Bloch oscillations in nanowire superlattice rings.
Citrin, D S
2004-05-14
The recent growth of semiconductor nanowire superlattices encourages hope that Bloch-like oscillations in such structures formed into rings may soon be observed in the presence of a time-dependent magnetic flux threading the ring. These magnetic Bloch oscillations are a consequence of Faraday's law; the time-dependent flux produces an electromotive force around the ring, thus leading to the Bloch-like oscillations. In the spectroscopic domain, generalized Wannier-Stark states are found that are manifestations of the emf-induced localization of the states.
Long-baseline Neutrino Oscillation at DUNE
Worcester, Elizabeth; DUNE Collaboration Collaboration
2017-01-01
The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with primary physics goals of determining the neutrino mass hierarchy and measuring δc P with sufficient sensitivity to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillation. CP violation sensitivity in DUNE requires careful understanding of systematic uncertainty, with contributions expected from uncertainties in the neutrino flux, neutrino interactions, and detector effects. In this presentation, we will describe the expected sensitivity of DUNE to long-baseline neutrino oscillation parameters, how various aspects of the experimental design contribute to that sensitivity, and the planned strategy for constraining systematic uncertainty in these measurements.
Axion Induced Oscillating Electric Dipole Moments
Hill, Christopher T
2015-01-01
The axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for any static magnetic dipole. Static electric dipoles do not produce oscillating magnetic moments. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency $m_a$ and strength $\\sim 10^{-32}$ e-cm, two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, and within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.
Reflection oscillators employing series resonant crystals'
Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A reflection oscillator is provided which employs an active device operated in its roll-off region and two resonant circuits. For an oscillator employing a bipolar transistor, the emitter is connected to a series resonant capacitor-crystal network and the base is connected to an L-C tank circuit with the transistor being operated in the roll-off region of its gain versus frequency curve. This will provide a very high frequency of operation with a relatively inexpensive, low frequency, active device. These oscillators are easily tuned, stable, and require little dc power.
Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation
Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko
2012-01-01
We report experimental observation of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. The shear thickening oscillation is caused by the interplay between the fluid dynamics and the shear thickening, and has been predicted theoretically by the present authors using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid, but never been reported experimentally. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.
Neutrino oscillations: Present status and outlook
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Thomas Schwetz
2009-01-01
The status of neutrino oscillations from global data is summarized, with the focus on the three-flavour picture. The status of sterile neutrino oscillation interpretations of the LSND anomaly in the light of recent MiniBooNE results is also discussed. Further-more, an outlook on the measurement of the mixing angle 13 in the near term future, as well as prospects to discover CP violation in neutrino oscillations and to determine the type of the neutrino mass ordering by long-baseline experiments in the long term future are given.
Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators
Fain, V M; Sanders, J H
2013-01-01
Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma
Oscillations in glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kloster, Antonina; Olsen, Lars Folke
2012-01-01
also decreases by stimulating the ATPase activity, e.g. by FCCP or Amphotericin B. Thus, ATPase activity strongly affects the glycolytic oscillations. We discuss these data in relation to a simple autocatalytic model of glycolysis which can reproduce the experimental data and explain the role...... of membrane-bound ATPases . In addition we also studied a recent detailed model of glycolysis and found that, although thismodel faithfully reproduces the oscillations of glycolytic intermediates observed experimentally, it is not able to explain the role of ATPase activity on the oscillations....
Synchronization of Time-Continuous Chaotic Oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yanchuk, S.; Maistrenko, Yuri; Mosekilde, Erik
2003-01-01
Considering a system of two coupled identical chaotic oscillators, the paper first establishes the conditions of transverse stability for the fully synchronized chaotic state. Periodic orbit threshold theory is applied to determine the bifurcations through which low-periodic orbits embedded...... the interacting chaotic oscillators causes a shift of the synchronization manifold. The presence of a coupling asymmetry is found to lead to further modifications of the destabilization process. Finally, the paper considers the problem of partial synchronization in a system of four coupled Rossler oscillators...
Collective Neutrino Oscillations in two dimensions
Shalgar, Shashank; Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu
2015-10-01
The modification of neutrino flavor oscillation probabilities in the presence of ambient neutrino gas is non-linear in nature. This leads to interesting phenomenology that is not well understood. In this paper we study the effect of removing spatial symmetry in a simplified two dimensional toy model. We focus on the linear stability analysis of the problem and note the presence of instability in both hierarchies. We also note significant modification of neutrino oscillation probabilities due to presence of ambient matter. The presence of spurious oscillations makes the study of the problem using numerical simulations very challenging. DE-SC0008142.
Bifurcations analysis of oscillating hypercycles.
Guillamon, Antoni; Fontich, Ernest; Sardanyés, Josep
2015-12-21
We investigate the dynamics and transitions to extinction of hypercycles governed by periodic orbits. For a large enough number of hypercycle species (n>4) the existence of a stable periodic orbit has been previously described, showing an apparent coincidence of the vanishing of the periodic orbit with the value of the replication quality factor Q where two unstable (non-zero) equilibrium points collide (named QSS). It has also been reported that, for values below QSS, the system goes to extinction. In this paper, we use a suitable Poincaré map associated to the hypercycle system to analyze the dynamics in the bistability regime, where both oscillatory dynamics and extinction are possible. The stable periodic orbit is identified, together with an unstable periodic orbit. In particular, we are able to unveil the vanishing mechanism of the oscillatory dynamics: a saddle-node bifurcation of periodic orbits as the replication quality factor, Q, undergoes a critical fidelity threshold, QPO. The identified bifurcation involves the asymptotic extinction of all hypercycle members, since the attractor placed at the origin becomes globally stable for values Qbifurcation, these extinction dynamics display a periodic remnant that provides the system with an oscillating delayed transition. Surprisingly, we found that the value of QPO is slightly higher than QSS, thus identifying a gap in the parameter space where the oscillatory dynamics has vanished while the unstable equilibrium points are still present. We also identified a degenerate bifurcation of the unstable periodic orbits for Q=1.
Recherche des oscillations de Neutrinos $\
Gangler, E
1997-01-01
Le detecteur nomad, place sur le faisceau de neutrinos wide-band-beam du sps, de contamination en neutrino tau marginale, permet de rechercher des oscillations neutrino muon - tau dans la region de pertinence cosmologique et de distinguer statistiquement les courants charges des neutrinos tau essentiellement par leur mesure cinematique. Une large part du travail de these a donc ete consacree a la reconstruction des evenements dans les chambres a derive, cible instrumentee et cur de l'experience, dont la physique de detection est decrite. Une methode de recherche de traces fut developpee, utilisant certaines informations d'un autre sous-detecteur de nomad, le trd. Pour combler une perte d'efficacite de reconstruction, une methode de recherche de traces courtes s'appuyant sur des vertex deja constitues fut developpee en exploitant les potentialites du filtre de kalman, algorithme iteratif d'ajustement de traces. Ces methodes sont utilisees en production par la collaboration. Cette these porte sur la recherche d...
Airy beam optical parametric oscillator.
Aadhi, A; Chaitanya, N Apurv; Jabir, M V; Vaity, Pravin; Singh, R P; Samanta, G K
2016-05-04
Airy beam, a non-diffracting waveform, has peculiar properties of self-healing and self-acceleration. Due to such unique properties, the Airy beam finds many applications including curved plasma wave-guiding, micro-particle manipulation, optically mediated particle clearing, long distance communication, and nonlinear frequency conversion. However, many of these applications including laser machining of curved structures, generation of curved plasma channels, guiding of electric discharges in a curved path, study of nonlinear propagation dynamics, and nonlinear interaction demand Airy beam with high power, energy, and wavelength tunability. Till date, none of the Airy beam sources have all these features in a single device. Here, we report a new class of coherent sources based on cubic phase modulation of a singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO), producing high-power, continuous-wave (cw), tunable radiation in 2-D Airy intensity profile existing over a length >2 m. Based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal pumped at 1064 nm, the Airy beam OPO produces output power more than 8 W, and wavelength tunability across 1.51-1.97 μm. This demonstration gives new direction for the development of sources of arbitrary structured beams at any wavelength, power, and energy in all time scales (cw to femtosecond).
Polaritonic Rabi and Josephson Oscillations.
Rahmani, Amir; Laussy, Fabrice P
2016-07-25
The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay.
Torsional oscillations of strange stars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mannarelli Massimo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Strange stars are one of the hypothetical compact stellar objects that can be formed after a supernova explosion. The existence of these objects relies on the absolute stability of strange collapsed quark matter with respect to standard nuclear matter. We discuss simple models of strange stars with a bare quark matter surface, thus standard nuclear matter is completely absent. In these models an electric dipole layer a few hundreds Fermi thick should exist close to the star surface. Studying the torsional oscillations of the electrically charged layer we estimate the emitted power, finding that it is of the order of 1045 erg/s, meaning that these objects would be among the brightest compact sources in the heavens. The associated relaxation times are very uncertain, with values ranging between microseconds and minutes, depending on the crust thickness. Although part of the radiated power should be absorbed by the electrosphere surrounding the strange star, a sizable fraction of photons should escape and be detectable.
Are solar neutrino oscillations robust?
Miranda, O G; Valle, J W F
2006-01-01
Prompted by the recent 766.3 ton-yr data sample just released by the KamLAND collaboration we have reconsidered the status of the large mixing angle (LMA) oscillation (OSC) interpretation of the data in a more general framework where non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI) are present. Such interactions may be regarded as a generic feature of actual models of neutrino mass. This implies the existence of three LMA solutions, instead of the unique solution which holds in the absence of NSI, LMA-I. Moreover, in addition to the two ``light-side'' OSC+NSI solutions LMA-0 and LMA-I, there is a new ``dark-side'' solution (LMA-D) with sin^2 theta_Sol = 0.70. We give the status of all LMA OSC and OSC+NSI solutions in view of the latest solar and KamLAND data. It is unlikely that more precise KamLAND measurements will resolve the ambiguity in the determination of the solar neutrino mixing angle theta_Sol, as they are expected to constrain mainly Delta m^2. We comment on the potential of future solar neutrino experimen...
Sawtooth oscillations in shaped plasmasa)
Lazarus, E. A.; Luce, T. C.; Austin, M. E.; Brennan, D. P.; Burrell, K. H.; Chu, M. S.; Ferron, J. R.; Hyatt, A. W.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Lao, L. L.; Lohr, J.; Makowski, M. A.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Prater, R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Scoville, J. T.; Solomon, W. M.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Zhang, C.
2007-05-01
The role of interchange and internal kink modes in the sawtooth oscillations is explored by comparing bean- and oval-shaped plasmas. The n =1 instability that results in the collapse of the sawtooth has been identified as a quasi-interchange in the oval cases and the internal kink in the bean shape. The ion and electron temperature profiles are followed in detail through the sawtooth ramp. It is found that electron energy transport rates are very high in the oval and quite low in the bean shape. Ion energy confinement in the oval is excellent and the sawtooth amplitude (δT/T) in the ion temperature is much larger than that of the electrons. The sawtooth amplitudes for ions and electrons are comparable in the bean shape. The measured q profiles in the bean and oval shapes are found to be consistent with neoclassical current diffusion of the toroidal current, and the observed differences in q largely result from the severe differences in electron energy transport. For both shapes the collapse flattens the q profile and after the collapse return to q0≳1. Recent results on intermediate shapes are reported. These shapes show that the electron energy transport improves gradually as the plasma triangularity is increased.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Yuan Guo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducer and Intelligent Control system, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Zhe-Jie, E-mail: pandanlzj@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-05-15
We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Chimera States in Mechanical Oscillator Networks
Martens, Erik Andreas; Fourrière, Antoine; Hallatschek, Oskar
2013-01-01
The synchronization of coupled oscillators is a fascinating manifestation of self-organization that nature employs to orchestrate essential processes of life, such as the beating of the heart. While it was long thought that synchrony or disorder were mutually exclusive steady states for a network of identical oscillators, numerous theoretical studies in recent years revealed the intriguing possibility of 'chimera states', in which the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into a synchronous and an asynchronous part. However, a striking lack of empirical evidence raises the question of whether chimeras are indeed characteristic to natural systems. This calls for a palpable realization of chimera states without any fine-tuning, from which physical mechanisms underlying their emergence can be uncovered. Here, we devise a simple experiment with mechanical oscillators coupled in a hierarchical network to show that chimeras emerge naturally from a competition between two antagonistic synchronization patte...
Monolithic, Widely Tunable, THz Local Oscillator Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes development of a new type of quantum-cascade laser for use as a local oscillator at frequencies above 2 THz. The THz source described is a...
The Inveterate Tinkerer: 1. Salt Oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aditi Kambli; Chirag Kalelkar
2017-02-01
In this series of articles, the authors discuss various phenomenain fluid dynamics, which may be investigated via tabletopexperiments using low-cost or home-made instruments. Thefirst article in this series is about the salt oscillator – a hydrodynamiccuriosity.
Neutrino oscillations and Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Bell, Nicole F.
2001-01-01
We outline how relic neutrino asymmetries may be generated in the early universe via active-sterile neutrino oscillations. We discuss possible consequences for big bang nucleosynthesis, within the context of a particular 4-neutrino model.
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillator.
Geiger, A R; Hemmati, H; Farr, W H; Prasad, N S
1996-02-01
Diode-pumped optical parametric oscillation has been demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge in a single Nd:MgO:LiNbO(3) nonlinear crystal. The crystal is pumped by a semiconductor diode laser array at 812 nm. The Nd(3+) ions absorb the 812-nm radiation to generate 1084-nm laser oscillation. On internal Q switching the 1084-nm radiation pumps the LiNbO(3) host crystal that is angle cut at 46.5 degrees and generates optical parametric oscillation. The oscillation threshold that is due to the 1084-nm laser pump with a pulse length of 80 ns in a 1-mm-diameter beam was measured to be approximately 1 mJ and produced 0.5-mJ output at 3400-nm signal wavelength.
The Origin of Type I Spicule Oscillations
Jess, D B; Christian, D J; Mathioudakis, M; Keys, P H; Keenan, F P
2011-01-01
We use images of high spatial and temporal resolution, obtained with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere instrument at the Dunn Solar Telescope, to reveal how the generation of transverse waves in Type I spicules is a direct result of longitudinal oscillations occurring in the photosphere. Here we show how pressure oscillations, with periodicities in the range 130 - 440 s, manifest in small-scale photospheric magnetic bright points, and generate kink waves in the Sun's outer atmosphere with transverse velocities approaching the local sound speed. Through comparison of our observations with advanced two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic simulations, we provide evidence for how magnetoacoustic oscillations, generated at the solar surface, funnel upwards along Type I spicule structures, before undergoing longitudinal-to-transverse mode conversion into waves at twice the initial driving frequency. The resulting kink modes are visible in chromospheric plasma, with periodicities of 65 -220 s, and amplitud...
Chimera states in mechanical oscillator networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martens, Erik Andreas; Thutupalli, Shashi; Fourrière, Antoine
2013-01-01
The synchronization of coupled oscillators is a fascinating manifestation of self-organization that nature uses to orchestrate essential processes of life, such as the beating of the heart. Although it was long thought that synchrony and disorder were mutually exclusive steady states for a network...... of identical oscillators, numerous theoretical studies in recent years have revealed the intriguing possibility of "chimera states," in which the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into a synchronous part and an asynchronous part. However, a striking lack of empirical evidence raises the question...... of whether chimeras are indeed characteristic of natural systems. This calls for a palpable realization of chimera states without any fine-tuning, from which physical mechanisms underlying their emergence can be uncovered. Here, we devise a simple experiment with mechanical oscillators coupled...
Phase Multistability in Coupled Oscillator Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, Erik; Postnov, D.E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga
2003-01-01
The phenomenon of phase multistability arises in connection with the synchronization of coupled oscillator systems when the systems individually display complex wave forms associated, for instance, with the presence of subharmonic components or with significant variations of the phase velocity...
Star-shaped Oscillations of Leidenfrost Drops
Ma, Xiaolei; Burton, Justin C
2016-01-01
We experimentally investigate the self-organized, star-shaped oscillations of Leidenfrost drops. The drops levitate on a cushion of evaporated vapor over a heated, curved surface. We observe modes with $n = 2-13$ lobes around the drop periphery. We find that both the wavelength and frequency of the oscillations depend only on the capillary length of the liquid, and are independent of the drop radius and substrate temperature. However, the number of observed modes depend sensitively on the liquid viscosity. The dominant frequency of pressure variations under the drop is approximately twice that the drop oscillation frequency, consistent with a parametric forcing mechanism. Our results suggest that the star-shaped oscillations are hydrodynamic in origin, and are driven by capillary waves beneath the drop. The exact mechanism by which the vapor flow initiates the capillary waves is likely related to static "brim waves" in levitated, viscous drops.
Climate Prediction Center Southern Oscillation Index
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Indices. It contains Southern Oscillation Index which is standardized sea level...
Field theory description of neutrino oscillations
Dvornikov, Maxim
2010-01-01
We review various field theory approaches to the description of neutrino oscillations in vacuum and external fields. First we discuss a relativistic quantum mechanics based approach which involves the temporal evolution of massive neutrinos. To describe the dynamics of the neutrinos system we use exact solutions of wave equations in presence of an external field. It allows one to exactly take into account both the characteristics of neutrinos and the properties of an external field. In particular, we examine flavor oscillations an vacuum and in background matter as well as spin flavor oscillations in matter under the influence of an external electromagnetic field. Moreover we consider the situation of hypothetical nonstandard neutrino interactions with background fermions. In the case of ultrarelativistic particles we reproduce an effective Hamiltonian which is used in the standard quantum mechanical approach for the description of neutrino oscillations. The corrections to the quantum mechanical Hamiltonian a...
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Neutrino production coherence and oscillation experiments
Akhmedov, Evgeny; Smirnov, Alexei
2012-01-01
Neutrino oscillations are only observable when the neutrino production, propagation and detection coherence conditions are satisfied. In this paper we consider in detail neutrino production coherence, taking \\pi\\to \\mu \
Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)
2015-09-28
We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.
Oscillation theory for second order dynamic equations
Agarwal, Ravi P; O''Regan, Donal
2003-01-01
The qualitative theory of dynamic equations is a rapidly developing area of research. In the last 50 years, the Oscillation Theory of ordinary, functional, neutral, partial and impulsive differential equations, and their discrete versions, has inspired many scholars. Hundreds of research papers have been published in every major mathematical journal. Many books deal exclusively with the oscillation of solutions of differential equations, but most of these books appeal only to researchers who already know the subject. In an effort to bring Oscillation Theory to a new and broader audience, the authors present a compact, but thorough, understanding of Oscillation Theory for second order differential equations. They include several examples throughout the text not only to illustrate the theory, but also to provide new direction.
Assessing the quality of stochastic oscillations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Guillermo Abramson; Sebastián Risau-Gusman
2008-06-01
We analyze the relationship between the macroscopic and microscopic descriptions of two-state systems, in particular the regime in which the microscopic one shows sustained `stochastic oscillations' while the macroscopic tends to a fixed point. We propose a quantification of the oscillatory appearance of the fluctuating populations, and show that good stochastic oscillations are present if a parameter of the macroscopic model is small, and that no microscopic model will show oscillations if that parameter is large. The transition between these two regimes is smooth. In other words, given a macroscopic deterministic model, one can know whether any microscopic stochastic model that has it as a limit, will display good sustained stochastic oscillations.
A tunable carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillator
Sazonova, Vera; Yaish, Yuval; Üstünel, Hande; Roundy, David; Arias, Tomás A.; McEuen, Paul L.
2004-09-01
Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. In particular, NEMS oscillators have been proposed for use in ultrasensitive mass detection, radio-frequency signal processing, and as a model system for exploring quantum phenomena in macroscopic systems. Perhaps the ultimate material for these applications is a carbon nanotube. They are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross-sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus may be able to sense its own motion. In spite of this great promise, a room-temperature, self-detecting nanotube oscillator has not been realized, although some progress has been made. Here we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string-like oscillation modes of doubly clamped nanotube oscillators. We show that the resonance frequency can be widely tuned and that the devices can be used to transduce very small forces.
Some Oscillation Results for Linear Hamiltonian Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nan Wang
2012-01-01
oscillation criteria are established for the system. These criteria extend and improve some results that have been required before. An interesting example is included to illustrate the importance of our results.
On the Design of Chaotic Oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Tamasevicius, A; Cenys, A.;
1998-01-01
A discussion of the chaotic oscillator concept from a design methodology pointof view. The attributes of some chaoticoscillators are discussed and a systematicdesign method based on eigenvalue investigation is proposed. The method isillustrated with a chaotic Wien-bridgeoscillator design....
Observation of Bloch oscillations in molecular rotation
Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2015-01-01
The periodically kicked quantum rotor is known for non-classical effects such as quantum localisation in angular momentum space or quantum resonances in rotational excitation. These phenomena have been studied in diverse systems mimicking the kicked rotor, such as cold atoms in optical lattices, or coupled photonic structures. Recently, it was predicted that several solid state quantum localisation phenomena - Anderson localisation, Bloch oscillations, and Tamm-Shockley surface states - may manifest themselves in the rotational dynamics of laser-kicked molecules. Here, we report the first observation of rotational Bloch oscillations in a gas of nitrogen molecules kicked by a periodic train of femtosecond laser pulses. A controllable detuning from the quantum resonance creates an effective accelerating potential in angular momentum space, inducing Bloch-like oscillations of the rotational excitation. These oscillations are measured via the temporal modulation of the refractive index of the gas. Our results int...
Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.
2010-01-01
We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... oscillator strength due to Coulomb effects. This is in stark contrast to the measured oscillator strength, which turns out to be so small that it can be described by excitons in the strong confinement regime. We attribute these findings to exciton localization in local potential minima arising from alloy...
Inter-area oscillations in power systems
Messina, Arturo R
2009-01-01
Deals with the application of fresh techniques based on time-frequency system representations and statistical approaches to the study, characterization, and control of nonlinear and non-stationary inter-area oscillations in power systems.
Damped Oscillator with Delta-Kicked Frequency
Manko, O. V.
1996-01-01
Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation for quantum damped oscillator subject to frequency delta-kick describing squeezed states are obtained. The cases of strong, intermediate, and weak damping are investigated.
Fine tuning of cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations
Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent
2016-01-01
Ca 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the periodic Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic Ca 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of Ca 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of Ca 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the Ca 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768
Solar convection and oscillations in magnetic regions
Jacoutot, L; Wray, A; Mansour, N N
2008-01-01
The goal of this research is to investigate how magnetic field affects the dynamics of granular convection and excitation of solar oscillations by means of realistic numerical simulations. We have used a 3D, compressible, non-linear radiative magnetohydrodynamics code developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. This code takes into account several physical phenomena: compressible fluid flow in a highly stratified medium, sub-grid scale turbulence models, radiative energy transfer between the fluid elements, and a real-gas equation of state. We have studied the influence of the magnetic field of various strength on the convective cells and on the excitation mechanisms of the acoustic oscillations by calculating spectral properties of the convective motions and oscillations. The results reveal substantial changes of the granulation structure with increased magnetic field, and a frequency-dependent reduction in the oscillation power in a good agreement with solar observations. These simulations suggest that the ...
Four-Neutrino Oscillations at SNO
González-Garciá, M Concepción
2001-01-01
We discuss the potential of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) to constraint the four-neutrino mixing schemes favoured by the results of all neutrino oscillations experiments. These schemes allow simultaneous transitions of solar $\
Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations.
Kajita, Takaaki
2010-01-01
Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations.
Another look at synchronized neutrino oscillations
Akhmedov, Evgeny
2016-01-01
In dense neutrino backgrounds present in supernovae and in the early Universe neutrino oscillations may exhibit complex collective phenomena, such as synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations and spectral splits and swaps. We consider in detail possible decoherence effects on the simplest of these phenomena -- synchronized neutrino oscillations that can occur in a uniform and isotropic neutrino gas. We develop an exact formalism of spectral moments of the flavour spin vectors describing such a system and then apply it to find analytical approaches that allow one to study decoherence effects on its late-time evolution. This turns out to be possible in part due to the existence of the (previously unknown) exact conservation law satisfied by the quantities describing the considered neutrino system. Interpretation of the decoherence effects in terms of neutrino wave packet separation is also given, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes of neutrino flavour evolution.
Another look at synchronized neutrino oscillations
Akhmedov, Evgeny; Mirizzi, Alessandro
2016-07-01
In dense neutrino backgrounds present in supernovae and in the early Universe neutrino oscillations may exhibit complex collective phenomena, such as synchronized oscillations, bipolar oscillations and spectral splits and swaps. We consider in detail possible decoherence effects on the simplest of these phenomena - synchronized neutrino oscillations that can occur in a uniform and isotropic neutrino gas. We develop an exact formalism of spectral moments of the flavour spin vectors describing such a system and then apply it to find analytical approaches that allow one to study decoherence effects on its late-time evolution. This turns out to be possible in part due to the existence of the (previously unknown) exact conservation law satisfied by the quantities describing the considered neutrino system. Interpretation of the decoherence effects in terms of neutrino wave packet separation is also given, both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes of neutrino flavour evolution.
Generalized decomposition methods for singular oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D, E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es
2009-10-30
Generalized decomposition methods based on a Volterra integral equation, the introduction of an ordering parameter and a power series expansion of the solution in terms of the ordering parameter are developed and used to determine the solution and the frequency of oscillation of a singular, nonlinear oscillator with an odd nonlinearity. It is shown that these techniques provide solutions which are free from secularities if the unknown frequency of oscillation is also expanded in power series of the ordering parameter, require that the nonlinearities be analytic functions of their arguments, and, at leading-order, provide the same frequency of oscillation as two-level iterative techniques, the homotopy perturbation method if the constants that appear in the governing equation are expanded in power series of the ordering parameter, and modified artificial parameter - Linstedt-Poincare procedures.
Differential Resonant Ring YIG Tuned Oscillator
Parrott, Ronald A.
2010-01-01
A differential SiGe oscillator circuit uses a resonant ring-oscillator topology in order to electronically tune the oscillator over multi-octave bandwidths. The oscillator s tuning is extremely linear, because the oscillator s frequency depends on the magnetic tuning of a YIG sphere, whose resonant frequency is equal to a fundamental constant times the DC magnetic field. This extremely simple circuit topology uses two coupling loops connecting a differential pair of SiGe bipolar transistors into a feedback configuration using a YIG tuned filter creating a closed-loop ring oscillator. SiGe device technology is used for this oscillator in order to keep the transistor s 1/f noise to an absolute minimum in order to achieve minimum RF phase noise. The single-end resonant ring oscillator currently has an advantage in fewer parts, but when the oscillation frequency is greater than 16 GHz, the package s parasitic behavior couples energy to the sphere and causes holes and poor phase noise performance. This is because the coupling to the YIG is extremely low, so that the oscillator operates at near the unloaded Q. With the differential resonant ring oscillator, the oscillation currents are just in the YIG coupling mechanisms. The phase noise is even better, and the physical size can be reduced to permit monolithic microwave integrated circuit oscillators. This invention is a YIG tuned oscillator circuit making use of a differential topology to simultaneously achieve an extremely broadband electronic tuning range and ultra-low phase noise. As a natural result of its differential circuit topology, all reactive elements, such as tuning stubs, which limit tuning bandwidth by contributing excessive open loop phase shift, have been eliminated. The differential oscillator s open-loop phase shift is associated with completely non-dispersive circuit elements such as the physical angle of the coupling loops, a differential loop crossover, and the high-frequency phase shift of the n
Heterodyne detection with a weak local oscillator.
Jiang, Leaf A; Luu, Jane X
2008-04-01
Heterodyne detection in the limit of weak (a few photons) local oscillator and signal power levels has been largely neglected in the past, as authors almost always assumed that the noise was dominated by the shot noise from a strong local oscillator. We present the theory for heterodyne detection of diffuse and specular targets at arbitrary power levels, including the case where the local oscillator power is only a few photons per coherent integration period. The theory was tested with experimental results, and was found to show good agreement. We show how to interpret the power spectral density of the heterodyne signal and how to determine the optimal number of signal and local oscillator photons per coherent integration.
Experiments with elasto-plastic oscillator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup-Thomsen, S.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
1999-01-01
Plastic displacements of a Gaussian white noise excited three degrees of freedom non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator are measured in laboratory experiments and the plastic displacements are compared to computer simulated results for the corresponding ideal elasto-plastic oscillator. The comparative...... analysis leads to an equivalent ideal plastic yield limit that gives good coincidence between the simulated distributions and the experimentally determined distributions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....
Bloch oscillations in optical dissipative lattices.
Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Christodoulides, Demetrios N
2004-11-01
We show that Bloch oscillations are possible in dissipative optical waveguide lattices with a linearly varying propagation constant. These oscillations occur in spite of the fact that the Bloch wave packet experiences coupling gain and (or) loss. Experimentally, this process can be observed in different settings, such as in laser arrays and lattices of semiconductor optical amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate that these systems can suppress instabilities arising from preferential mode noise growth.
Experimental observation of spectral Bloch oscillations.
Bersch, Christoph; Onishchukov, Georgy; Peschel, Ulf
2009-08-01
We report on the first, to our knowledge, experimental observation of spectral Bloch oscillations in an optical fiber employing the interaction between a probe signal and a traveling-wave periodic potential. The spectrum of weak probe pulses is shown to oscillate on account of their group-velocity mismatch to the periodic field. The behavior of a cw probe spectrum reveals the actual discrete nature of the effect. Recurrences of the spectrum after one and two Bloch periods are demonstrated.
Photonic Bloch oscillations of correlated particles.
Longhi, Stefano
2011-08-15
A photonic realization of Bloch oscillations (BOs) of two correlated electrons that move on a one-dimensional periodic lattice, based on spatial light transport in a square waveguide array with a defect line, is theoretically proposed. The signature of correlated BOs, such as frequency doubling of the oscillation frequency induced by particle interaction, can be simply visualized by monitoring the spatial path followed by an optical beam that excites the array near the defect line.
Oscillation Parameters with forthcoming Reactor Neutrino Experiments
Lasserre, Thierry
2010-01-01
I review the status of the forthcoming reactor neutrino experiments that toe the cutting edge of neutrino oscillation research. Kilometer baseline oscillation experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno) will soon play a relevant role providing clean information on the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle !13. A 50-70 km baseline reactor neutrino experiment could later provide the best sensitivity to the !12 mixing angle.
Effective attraction between oscillating electrons in plasma
Dvornikov, Maxim
2011-01-01
We consider the effective interaction between electrons due to the exchange of virtual acoustic waves in low temperature plasma. Electrons are supposed to participate in rapid oscillations and form a spherically symmetric soliton like structure. We show that under certain conditions this effective interaction can result in the attraction between oscillating electrons and can be important for the dynamics of a plasmoid. Some possible applications of the obtained results to the theory of natural long lived plasma structures are also discussed.
Neutrino oscillations: Recent results and future directions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amitava Raychaudhuri
2000-01-01
A brief introduction to the phenomena of vacuum neutrino oscillations and resonant flavour conversion is presented with a heavy pedagogic leaning. Variants of these ideas, e.g., neutrino helicity flip in a magnetic field, violation of the equivalence principle, etc. are outlined. A few vexing issues pertaining to the quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillations are discussed. Expectations from some of the future experiments are summarized.
Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Das
2010-11-01
Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity configuration and type-II phase matching have been discussed for generating tunable narrow linewidth radiation by singly resonant optical parametric oscillation process.
Nuclear propelled vessels and neutrino oscillation experiments.
Detwiler, J; Gratta, G; Tolich, N; Uchida, Y
2002-11-04
We study the effect of naval nuclear reactors on the study of neutrino oscillations. We find that the presence of naval reactors at unknown locations and times may limit the accuracy of future very long baseline reactor-based neutrino oscillation experiments. At the same time, we argue that a nuclear powered surface ship such as a large Russian icebreaker may provide an ideal source for precision experiments.
Some Oscillation Results for Linear Hamiltonian Systems
Nan Wang; Fanwei Meng
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop a generalized matrix Riccati technique for the selfadjoint matrix Hamiltonian system ${U}^{\\prime }=A(t)U+B(t)V$ , ${V}^{\\prime }=C(t)U-{A}^{\\ast }(t)V$ . By using the standard integral averaging technique and positive functionals, new oscillation and interval oscillation criteria are established for the system. These criteria extend and improve some results that have been required before. An interesting example is included to illustrate the...
Pattern formation in arrays of chemical oscillators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neeraj Kumar Kamal
2012-05-01
We describe a simple model mimicking diffusively coupled chemical micro-oscillators. We characterize the rich variety of dynamical states emerging from the model under variation of time delay in coupling, coupling strength and boundary conditions. The spatiotemporal patterns obtained include clustering, mixed dynamics, inhomogeneous steady states and amplitude death. Further, under delay in coupling, the model yields transitions from phase to antiphase oscillations, reminiscent of that observed in experiments [M Toiya et al, J. Chem. Lett. 1, 1241 (2010)].
Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos
Kisslinger, Leonard S.
2016-10-01
This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.
Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos
Kisslinger, Leonard S
2016-01-01
This work estimates the probability of $\\mu$ to $e$ neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5x5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4x4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.
Oscillator Phase Noise: A Geometrical Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens
2009-01-01
We construct a coordinate-independent description of oscillator linear response through a decomposition scheme derived independently of any Floquet theoretic results. Trading matrix algebra for a simpler graphical methodology, the text will present the reader with an opportunity to gain an intuit...... an intuitive understanding of the well-known phase noise macromodel. The topics discussed in this paper include the following: orthogonal decompositions, AM–PM conversion, and nonhyperbolic oscillator noise response....
Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)
2014-03-31
Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.
Chaos control of parametric driven Duffing oscillators
Jin, Leisheng; Mei, Jie; Li, Lijie
2014-03-01
Duffing resonators are typical dynamic systems, which can exhibit chaotic oscillations, subject to certain driving conditions. Chaotic oscillations of resonating systems with negative and positive spring constants are identified to investigate in this paper. Parametric driver imposed on these two systems affects nonlinear behaviours, which has been theoretically analyzed with regard to variation of driving parameters (frequency, amplitude). Systematic calculations have been performed for these two systems driven by parametric pumps to unveil the controllability of chaos.
Neutrino mass and oscillation: An introductory review
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
D P Roy
2000-01-01
After a brief introduction to neutrino mass via the see-saw model I discuss neutrinomixing and oscillation, first in vacuum and then its matter enhancement. Then the solar and atmospheric neutrino oscillation data are briefly reviewed. Finally I discuss the problem of reconciling hierarchical neutrino masses with at least one large mixing, as implied by these data. A minimal see-saw model for reconciling the two is discussed.
Phase stabilization of nanosecond microwave oscillations in Gunn-diode-based oscillators
Konev, V. Yu.; Klimov, A. I.; Koval'chuk, O. B.; Gubanov, V. P.; Kozhevnikov, V. Yu.; Kozyrev, A. V.
2015-03-01
The "intrusion" of the phase of a Gunn-diode nanosecond microwave oscillator by applying a modulating voltage pulse is numerically simulated. The dependences of the microwave oscillation phase on the spread of the pulse rise time and modulating pulse amplitude are revealed. The standard deviation of the phase lag time in a 3-cm-range oscillator relative to a fixed level at the leading edge of the modulating phase is measured. Phase synchronization between two electrodynamically uncoupled oscillators that are simultaneously excited by a single modulator is studied experimentally.
Stable oscillation in spin torque oscillator excited by a small in-plane magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Ito, Takahiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro [Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)
2015-08-07
Theoretical conditions to excite self-oscillation in a spin torque oscillator consisting of a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer are investigated by analytically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The analytical relation between the current and oscillation frequency is derived. It is found that a large amplitude oscillation can be excited by applying a small field pointing to the direction anti-parallel to the magnetization of the pinned layer. The validity of the analytical results is confirmed by comparing with numerical simulation, showing good agreement especially in a low current region.
Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, R. D., E-mail: rsmirnov@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Kukushkin, A. S. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2016-01-15
Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ion transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. The implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.
Impurity-induced divertor plasma oscillations
Smirnov, R. D.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.
2016-01-01
Two different oscillatory plasma regimes induced by seeding the plasma with high- and low-Z impurities are found for ITER-like divertor plasmas, using computer modeling with the DUSTT/UEDGE and SOLPS4.3 plasma-impurity transport codes. The oscillations are characterized by significant variations of the impurity-radiated power and of the peak heat load on the divertor targets. Qualitative analysis of the divertor plasma oscillations reveals different mechanisms driving the oscillations in the cases of high- and low-Z impurity seeding. The oscillations caused by the high-Z impurities are excited near the X-point by an impurity-related instability of the radiation-condensation type, accompanied by parallel impurity ion transport affected by the thermal and plasma friction forces. The driving mechanism of the oscillations induced by the low-Z impurities is related to the cross-field transport of the impurity atoms, causing alteration between the high and low plasma temperature regimes in the plasma recycling region near the divertor targets. The implications of the impurity-induced plasma oscillations for divertor operation in the next generation tokamaks are also discussed.
Oscillating Rim Hook Tableaux and Colored Matchings
Chen, William Y C
2011-01-01
Motivated by the question of finding a type B analogue of the bijection between oscillating tableaux and matchings, we find a correspondence between oscillating m-rim hook tableaux and m-colored matchings, where m is a positive integer. An oscillating m-rim hook tableau is defined as a sequence $(\\lambda^0,\\lambda^1,...,\\lambda^{2n})$ of Young diagrams starting with the empty shape and ending with the empty shape such that $\\lambda^{i}$ is obtained from $\\lambda^{i-1}$ by adding an m-rim hook or by deleting an m-rim hook. Our bijection relies on the generalized Schensted algorithm due to White. An oscillating 2-rim hook tableau is also called an oscillating domino tableau. When we restrict our attention to two column oscillating domino tableaux of length 2n, we are led to a bijection between such tableaux and noncrossing 2-colored matchings on $\\{1, 2,..., 2n\\}$, which are counted by the product $C_nC_{n+1}$ of two consecutive Catalan numbers. A 2-colored matching is noncrossing if there are no two arcs of th...
Neutrino oscillations in core-collapse supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Meng-Ru [TU Darmstadt (Germany); University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Huther, Lutz [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Fischer, Tobias; Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [TU Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Qian, Yong-Zhong [University of Minnesota, MN (United States)
2013-07-01
Neutrino oscillations play an important role in determining the spectra of neutrinos emitted from core-collapse supernova and must be considered in the analysis of supernova neutrino detection to understand both the supernova dynamics and the unknown neutrino mass hierarchy. We have studied neutrino oscillations in supernovae using the emission spectra of neutrinos and the dynamically evolving supernova density profile from a state-of-the-art supernova model. We find that in this model, different regions of neutrino oscillations are well separated. Collective neutrino oscillations happen at the innermost part such that the spectra of electron neutrinos and mu/tau neutrinos are partly swapped for the first few seconds in the cooling phase. Then, the high and low MSW resonances that occur after collective oscillations are both adiabatic. Using these results, we find that in this model, neutrino oscillations have little effect on the nucleosynthesis in the neutrino-driven winds. However, the detection of such a signal could possibly allow us to differentiate the neutrino mass hierarchy and to extract the shock revival time.
Synchronization in Coupled Oscillators with Two Coexisting Attractors
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Han-Han; YANG Jun-Zhong
2008-01-01
Dynamics in coupled Duffing oscillators with two coexisting symmetrical attractors is investigated. For a pair of Dutffng oscillators coupled linearly, the transition to the synchronization generally consists of two steps: Firstly, the two oscillators have to jump onto a same attractor, then they reach synchronization similarly to coupled monostable oscillators. The transition scenarios to the synchronization observed are strongly dependent on initial conditions.
Memristor-based relaxation oscillators using digital gates
Khatib, Moustafa A.
2012-11-01
This paper presents two memristor-based relaxation oscillators. The proposed oscillators are designed without the need of any reactive elements, i.e., capacitor or inductor. As the \\'resistance storage\\' property of the memristor can be exploited to generate the oscillation. The proposed oscillators have the advantage that they can be fully integrated on-chip giving an area-efficient solution. Furthermore, these oscillators give higher frequency other than the existing reactance-less oscillator and provide a wider range of the resistance. The concept of operation and the mathematical analysis for the proposed oscillators are explained and verified with circuit simulations showing an excellent agreement. © 2012 IEEE.
Four-Phase Oscillators Employing Two Active Elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Biolkova
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Two novel four-phase voltage-output oscillators are proposed. These circuits can also be utilized as quadrature oscillators with floating outputs. Each oscillator employs two DO-CIBA (Differential Output- Current Inverter Buffered Amplifier, two grounded capacitors, and four or three resistors. Independent control of the oscillation frequency (OF and oscillation condition is practicable in both oscillators. Real measurements on the oscillator specimens confirm the ability of easy OF control and extra low THD, which is less than 0.07%.
Modified variational iteration method for an El Ni(n)o Southern Oscillation delayed oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cao Xiao-Qun; Song Jun-Qiang; Zhu Xiao-Qian; Zhang Li-Lun; Zhang Wei-Min; ZhaoJun
2012-01-01
This paper studies a delayed air-sea coupled oscillator describing the physical mechanism of El Ni(n)o Southern Oscillation.The approximate expansions of the delayed differential equation's solution are obtained successfully by the modified variational iteration method.The numerical results illustrate the effectiveness and correctness of the method by comparing with the exact solution of the reduced model.
Disturbed solution of the El Ni(n)o-southern oscillation sea-air delayed oscillator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Feng; Lin Wan-Tao; Lin Yi-Hua; Mo Jia-Qi
2011-01-01
A class of delayed oscillators of El Ni(n)o-southern oscillation (ENSO) models is considered. Using the delayed theory, the perturbed theory and other methods, the asymptotic expansions of the solutions for ENSO models are obtained and the asymptotic behaviour of solution of corresponding problem is studied.
Generation of chaotic oscillations in auto-oscillator based on avalanche transit-time diode
Myasin, E. A.
2012-01-01
Time series of chaotic oscillations have been observed for the first time in an auto-oscillator for the 8-mm wavelength range based on an avalanche transit-time diode. The noise generator based on this diode has been used as a signal source for a noise radar prototype.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosu, H.C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Khmelnytskaya, K.V. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Centro Universitario, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, C.P. 76010 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)
2011-09-19
We determine the kind of parametric oscillators that are generated in the usual factorization procedure of second-order linear differential equations when one introduces a constant shift of the Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator. The mathematical results show that some of these oscillators could be of physical nature. We give the solutions of the obtained second-order differential equations and the values of the shift parameter providing strictly periodic and antiperiodic solutions. We also notice that this simple problem presents parity-time (PT) symmetry. Possible applications are mentioned. -- Highlights: → A particular Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator is shifted by a constant. → Such a solution is used in the factorization brackets to get different equations of motion. → The properties of the parametric oscillators obtained in this way are examined.
Nonlinear Analysis of Ring Oscillator and Cross-Coupled Oscillator Circuits
Ge, Xiaoqing
2010-12-01
Hassan Khalil’s research results and beautifully written textbook on nonlinear systems have influenced generations of researchers, including the authors of this paper. Using nonlinear systems techniques, this paper analyzes ring oscillator and cross-coupled oscillator circuits, which are essential building blocks in digital systems. The paper first investigates local and global stability properties of an n-stage ring oscillator by making use of its cyclic structure. It next studies global stability properties of a class of cross-coupled oscillators which admit the representation of a dynamic system in feedback with a static nonlinearity, and presents su cient conditions for almost global convergence of the solutions to a limit cycle when the feedback gain is in the vicinity of a bifurcation point. The result are also extended to the synchronization of interconnected identical oscillator circuits.
94 GHz power amplifier MMIC development in state of the art MHEMT and AlGaN/GaN technology
Heijningen, M. van; Bent, G. van der; Rodenburg, M.; Vliet, F.E. van; Quay, R.; Brückner, P.; Schwantuschke, D.; Jukkala, P.; Narhi, T.
2012-01-01
Solid-state power amplifiers at W-band (75 - 110 GHz) are attractive for the generation of local-oscillator (LO) power for super-heterodyne receivers operating at sub-millimetre wave frequencies, as needed for example in future space instruments for Earth observation. Apart from space applications t
Coupled Oscillator Systems Having Partial PT Symmetry
Beygi, Alireza; Bender, Carl M
2015-01-01
This paper examines chains of $N$ coupled harmonic oscillators. In isolation, the $j$th oscillator ($1\\leq j\\leq N$) has the natural frequency $\\omega_j$ and is described by the Hamiltonian $\\frac{1}{2}p_j^2+\\frac{1}{2}\\omega_j^2x_j^2$. The oscillators are coupled adjacently with coupling constants that are purely imaginary; the coupling of the $j$th oscillator to the $(j+1)$st oscillator has the bilinear form $i\\gamma x_jx_{j+1}$ ($\\gamma$ real). The complex Hamiltonians for these systems exhibit {\\it partial} $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry; that is, they are invariant under $i\\to-i$ (time reversal), $x_j\\to-x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ even). [They are also invariant under $i\\to-i$, $x_j\\to x_j$ ($j$ odd), and $x_j\\to- x_j$ ($j$ even).] For all $N$ the quantum energy levels of these systems are calculated exactly and it is shown that the ground-state energy is real. When $\\omega_j=1$ for all $j$, the full spectrum consists of a real energy spectrum embedded in a complex one; the eigenfunctions correspondi...
The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang [Raffles Institution, 1 Raffles Institution Lane, Singapore 575954 (Singapore); Liang, Samuel Yee Wei [Anglo-Chinese School Independent, 121 Dover Road, Singapore 139650 (Singapore); Juan, Jeremias Wong Say, E-mail: likewei92@gmail.com [NUS High School of Mathematics and Science, 20 Clementi Avenue 1, Singapore 129957 (Singapore)
2011-07-15
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.
SAUSAGE OSCILLATIONS OF CORONAL PLASMA STRUCTURES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakariakov, V. M.; Hornsey, C. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Melnikov, V. F., E-mail: V.Nakariakov@warwick.ac.uk [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 196140 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2012-12-20
The dependence of the period of sausage oscillations of coronal loops on length together with the depth and steepness of the radial profile are determined. We performed a parametric study of linear axisymmetric fast magnetoacoustic (sausage) oscillations of coronal loops modeled as a field-aligned low-{beta} plasma cylinder with a smooth inhomogeneity of the plasma density in the radial direction. The density decreases smoothly in the radial direction. Sausage oscillations are impulsively excited by a perturbation of the radial velocity, localized at the cylinder axis and with a harmonic dependence on the longitudinal coordinate. The initial perturbation results in either a leaky or a trapped sausage oscillation, depending upon whether the longitudinal wavenumber is smaller or greater than a cutoff value, respectively. The period of the sausage oscillations was found to always increase with increasing longitudinal wavelength, with the dependence saturating in the long-wavelength limit. Deeper and steeper radial profiles of the Alfven speed correspond to more efficient trapping of sausage modes: the cutoff value of the wavelength increases with the steepness and the density (or Alfven speed) contrast ratio. In the leaky regime, the period is always longer than the period of a trapped mode of a shorter wavelength in the same cylinder. For shallow density profiles and shorter wavelengths, the period increases with wavelength. In the long-wavelength limit, the period becomes independent of the wavelength and increases with the depth and steepness of the radial profile of the Alfven speed.
A simple theory of Rijke tube oscillation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Maa Dah-You
2002-01-01
A simple theory of Rijke tube oscillation is presented based on mathematical realization of Rayleigh's qualitative explanation of the mechanism of Rijke tube. This is done by assuming a single point of high temperature in an otherwise uniform tube and the sound source produced when cold air flows passing this point. The wave equation thus obtained is then rigorously solved. It is found that the Rijke tube oscillation is a feedback system. There is no feedback nor oscillation when the hot spot is at a node or antinode in the tube. The mean flow is necessary for the oscillation, the particle velocity of which is proportional to the mean velocity, and the ratio is proportional to the gauze temperature when the later is low and the feedback does not affect much the magnitude of the particle velocity. When the temperature is high, the feedback increases rapidly and the particle velocity might grow to several or even tens of times of the mean velocity, and almost indefinitely when the heater temperature is high enough. Otherwise the growth is rather slow, when the mean flow or high temperature is first applied. The oscillations stop immediately when the mean flow is stopped. If the mean flow is controlled by a valve or a paddle at one end of the tube, an interesting sound is produced.
The Dynamics of Coupled Oscillator Phase Control
Pogorzelski, R. J.; Maccarini, P. F.; York, R. A.
1998-01-01
Arrays of coupled oscillators have been proposed as means of realizing high power rf sources via coherent spatial power combining. In such applications, a uniform phase distribution over the aperture is usually desired. However, it has been shown that by detuning some of the oscillators away from the oscillation frequency of the ensemble of oscillators, one may achieve other useful aperture phase distributions. Of particular interest among those achievable are linear phase distributions because these result in steering of the output rf beam away from the broadside direction. The theory describing the behavior of such arrays of coupled oscillators is quite complicated since the phenomena involved are inherently nonlinear. However, a simplified theory has been developed which facilitates intuitive understanding. This simplified theory is based on a "continuum model" in which the aperture phase is represented by a continuous function of the aperture coordinates. A challenging aspect of the development of this theory is the derivation of appropriate boundary conditions at the edges or ends of the array.
Synthesizing Virtual Oscillators to Control Islanded Inverters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, Brian B.; Sinha, Mohit; Ainsworth, Nathan G.; Dorfler, Florian; Dhople, Sairaj V.
2016-08-01
Virtual oscillator control (VOC) is a decentralized control strategy for islanded microgrids where inverters are regulated to emulate the dynamics of weakly nonlinear oscillators. Compared to droop control, which is only well defined in sinusoidal steady state, VOC is a time-domain controller that enables interconnected inverters to stabilize arbitrary initial conditions to a synchronized sinusoidal limit cycle. However, the nonlinear oscillators that are elemental to VOC cannot be designed with conventional linear-control design methods. We address this challenge by applying averaging- and perturbation-based nonlinear analysis methods to extract the sinusoidal steady-state and harmonic behavior of such oscillators. The averaged models reveal conclusive links between real- and reactive-power outputs and the terminal-voltage dynamics. Similarly, the perturbation methods aid in quantifying higher order harmonics. The resultant models are then leveraged to formulate a design procedure for VOC such that the inverter satisfies standard ac performance specifications related to voltage regulation, frequency regulation, dynamic response, and harmonic content. Experimental results for a single-phase 750 VA, 120 V laboratory prototype demonstrate the validity of the design approach. They also demonstrate that droop laws are, in fact, embedded within the equilibria of the nonlinear-oscillator dynamics. This establishes the backward compatibility of VOC in that, while acting on time-domain waveforms, it subsumes droop control in sinusoidal steady state.
Chaotic synchronization of two complex nonlinear oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahmoud, Gamal M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)], E-mail: gmahmoud@aun.edu.eg; Mahmoud, Emad E. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt)], E-mail: emad_eluan@yahoo.com; Farghaly, Ahmed A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmed_1_66@yahoo.com; Aly, Shaban A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71511 (Egypt)], E-mail: shhaly12@yahoo.com
2009-12-15
Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. It is also often artificially induced because it is desirable for a variety of applications in physics, applied sciences and engineering. In a recent paper [Mahmoud GM, Mohamed AA, Aly SA. Strange attractors and chaos control in periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators. Physica A 2001;292:193-206], a system of periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. Their connection to solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation has also been pointed out. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using active control and global synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.
The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets
Kewei, Li; Jiahuang, Lin; Yang, Kang Zi; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Wong Say Juan, Jeremias
2011-07-01
The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.
Mathematical modelling for nanotube bundle oscillators
Thamwattana, Ngamta; Cox, Barry J.; Hill, James M.
2009-07-01
This paper investigates the mechanics of a gigahertz oscillator comprising a nanotube oscillating within the centre of a uniform concentric ring or bundle of nanotubes. The study is also extended to the oscillation of a fullerene inside a nanotube bundle. In particular, certain fullerene-nanotube bundle oscillators are studied, namely C60-carbon nanotube bundle, C60-boron nitride nanotube bundle, B36N36-carbon nanotube bundle and B36N36-boron nitride nanotube bundle. Using the Lennard-Jones potential and the continuum approach, we obtain a relation between the bundle radius and the radii of the nanotubes forming the bundle, as well as the optimum bundle size which gives rise to the maximum oscillatory frequency for both the fullerene and the nanotube bundle oscillators. While previous studies in this area have been undertaken through molecular dynamics simulations, this paper emphasizes the use of applied mathematical modelling techniques which provides considerable insight into the underlying mechanisms. The paper presents a synopsis of the major results derived in detail by the present authors in [1, 2].
Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Himmel, Alexander I. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
2011-05-01
This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for v_{μ} → $\\bar{v}$_{μ} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$_{atm} ^{2}| = (3.36_{-0.40}^{+0.46}(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10^{-3} eV^{2} and sin^{2}(2$\\bar{θ}$_{23}) = 0.860_{-0.12}^{+0.11}(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.