WorldWideScience

Sample records for 11-kw wind-diesel hybrid

  1. TRNSYS HYBRID wind diesel PV simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, P.J.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.; Blair, N.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Solar Energy Laboratory (SEL) has developed a wind diesel PV hybrid systems simulator, UW-HYBRID 1.0, an application of the TRNSYS 14.2 time-series simulation environment. An AC/DC bus links up to five diesels and wind turbine models, along with PV modules, a battery bank, and an AC/DC converter. Multiple units can be selected. PV system simulations include solar angle and peak power tracking options. Weather data are Typical Meteorological Year data, parametrically generated synthesized data, or external data files. PV performance simulations rely on long-standing SEL-developed algorithms. Loads data are read as scalable time series. Diesel simulations include estimated fuel-use and waste heat output, and are dispatched using a least-cost of fuel strategy. Wind system simulations include varying air density, wind shear and wake effects. Time step duration is user-selectable. UW-HYBRID 1.0 runs in Windows{reg_sign}, with TRNSED providing a customizable user interface. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Optimizing Hybrid Wind/Diesel Generator System Using BAT Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Sharma; Shivani Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid system comprising of Wind/Diesel generation system for a practical standalone application considers Wind turbine generators and diesel generator as primary power sources for generating electricity. Battery banks are considered as a backup power source. The total value of cost is reduced by meeting energy demand required by the customers. Bat optimization technique is implemented to optimize wind and battery modules. Wind and battery banks are considered as primary sources a...

  3. Aerogenerator configurations for hybrid wind-diesel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrap, M.J.; Baird, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Autonomous wind-diesel hybrid power supply systems with limited energy storage are considered. The relationship between the aerogenerator's turbine swept area and rated power is examined using windspeed time series data from three locations. The performance of the hybrid power supply is then considered. Results from this study suggest that an aerogenerator configuration consistent with maximum annual energy production per unit swept area and unlimited storage, is not necessarily optimum when storage is limited. A case study of a small (7500 kWh/annum) hybrid power supply is made and supports the contention that aerogenerators will only prove economically useful in displacing diesel fuel if correctly configured - particularly at sites where mean windspeeds are relatively low.

  4. Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham; Estrada, Luis [Southwest Thechnology Development Institute, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces (United States); Newcomb, Charles; Corbus, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, CO (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the performance and reliability of the Costa de Cocos wind-diesel hybrid system. Located in a remote coastal area in southern Mexico, the system is exposed to high temperatures and humidity, slat spray and occasional storm wind. It continues to supply the load, but has experienced some problems associated with inverter failure, battery degradation and corrosion. Inadequate operation and maintenance practices have also caused some problems. The information collected to date from technical visits and remote data collection is discussed in this paper. The system design and operation are also covered. [Spanish] Este articulo describe el rendimiento y la confiabilidad del sistema hibrido de viento y diesel en Costa de Cocos. Localizado en una costa remota en la parte sur de Mexico, el sistema esta expuesto a altas temperaturas y humedad, fuerte brisa marina y vientos ocasionales de tormenta. Sigue suministrando la carga, pero ha experimentado algunos problemas asociados con fallas del inversor, la degradacion de las baterias y corrosion. La inadecuada operacion y practicas de mantenimiento tambien han causado algunos problemas. Este articulo analiza la informacion reunida a la fecha sobre las visitas tecnicas y la recoleccion remota de datos. Tambien incluye el disel del sistema y su operacion.

  5. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  6. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  7. Techno-economic Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power System in the South Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireddine Allali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy is often produced with the help of diesel generators in isolated areas in the Saharan region. While the latter requiring relatively little investment because is generally expensive to exploit due to the transportation to remote areas adds extra cost, significant fuel consumption and relatively high maintenance cost, etc. Moreover, the electricity production by the diesel is ineffective, presents significant environmental risks. But these isolated areas have significant wind energy potential; which is good position for the exploitation of clean and sustainable wind energy. The use of wind-diesel power system is widely recommended especially to reduce fuel consumption and in this way to reduce system operating costs and environmental impact. The subject of this paper is to present the techno-economic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid power system. In this context, the contribution envisaged with this research is to collaborate on the optimal design of a hybrid power system including a wind turbine generator, a diesel generator and an energy storage system for powering a continuous way an isolated site in the South Algerian installed power of 120 kW.This system has a high control strategy for the management of different power sources (wind, diesel, battery that depending to weather conditions, especially wind speed values and the power demanded by the consumer load.

  8. Hybrid wind diesel system for a village in the Canary Islands. Operation results and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, I.; Arribas, L.; Gonzalez, A. [CIEMAT-IER, Madrid (Spain)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The first release from the operation data from the Hybrid Wind Diesel System carried-out one year ago in Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) are available. In this paper the results of the detailed analysis are presented, concerning the impact of the parameters from the different systems in the whole system. The performance of the operation strategy is demonstrated with computational results. Comparisons between different function modes are also included. These results show that the feasibility of the project is essentially affected by the wind energy penetration and by the reliability of the system. Finally, system energy balances will be given. (Author)

  9. An analysis of the performance benefits of short-term energy storage in wind-diesel hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of prototype high penetration wind-diesel hybrid power systems have been implemented with different amounts of energy storage. They range from systems with no energy storage to those with many hours worth of energy storage. There has been little consensus among wind-diesel system developers as to the appropriate role and amount of energy storage in such systems. Some researchers advocate providing only enough storage capacity to supply power during the time it takes the diesel genset to start. Others install large battery banks to allow the diesel(s) to operate at full load and/or to time-shift the availability of wind-generated electricity to match the demand. Prior studies indicate that for high penetration wind-diesel systems, short-term energy storage provides the largest operational and economic benefit. This study uses data collected in Deering, Alaska, a small diesel-powered village, and the hybrid systems modeling software Hybrid2 to determine the optimum amount of short-term storage for a particular high penetration wind-diesel system. These findings were then generalized by determining how wind penetration, turbulence intensity, and load variability affect the value of short term energy storage as measured in terms of fuel savings, total diesel run time, and the number of diesel starts

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of remote hybrid wind-diesel power stations: Case study Aegean Sea islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one third of world population has no direct access to interconnected electrical networks. Hence, the electrification solution usually considered is based on expensive, though often unreliable, stand-alone systems, mainly small diesel-electric generators. Hybrid wind-diesel power systems are among the most interesting and environmental friendly technological alternatives for the electrification of remote consumers, presenting also increased reliability. More precisely, a hybrid wind-diesel installation, based on an appropriate combination of a small diesel-electric generator and a micro-wind converter, offsets the significant capital cost of the wind turbine and the high operational cost of the diesel-electric generator. In this context, the present study concentrates on a detailed energy production cost analysis in order to estimate the optimum configuration of a wind-diesel-battery stand-alone system used to guarantee the energy autonomy of a typical remote consumer. Accordingly, the influence of the governing parameters-such as wind potential, capital cost, oil price, battery price and first installation cost-on the corresponding electricity production cost is investigated using the developed model. Taking into account the results obtained, hybrid wind-diesel systems may be the most cost-effective electrification solution for numerous isolated consumers located in suitable (average wind speed higher than 6.0 m/s) wind potential regions

  11. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  12. Modeling and analysis of dynamic behavior of hybrid wind-diesel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sergio Leonardo

    This thesis develops small-signal and large-signal models to investigate the dynamic performance of a hybrid wind-diesel energy system interfaced to a utility grid. The study system comprises a 3.5-MVA diesel-generator unit operating in parallel with a 750-kVA variable-speed, squirrel-cage induction generator, wind unit. The wind unit is interfaced to the power network through a back-to-back voltage-sourced converter system. The controllers of the machine-side converter regulate the mechanical torque and the shaft speed of the induction generator to obtain maximum power production under fluctuating wind-speed conditions. The controllers of the grid-side converter maintain the dc-link voltage and the ac-side converter terminal voltage within the specified limits and ensure delivery of the captured wind power to the network. The diesel-generator unit is equipped with excitation and governor systems to compensate for (i) output power changes of the wind unit due to the intermittent nature of the wind, and (ii) changes in the load demand. Based on small-signal (eigen) analyses in the MATLABRTM software environment, the controller parameters of the wind and the diesel units are selected to guarantee (i) minimization of transients due to switch over between two consecutive modes of operation, (ii) voltage/angle stability during islanded (autonomous) mode of operation, and (iii) local load requirements in terms of voltage and real/reactive power. The results obtained from time-domain simulations, in the PSCAD RTM/EMTDCRTM software environment, demonstrate that proper adjustment of the controllers of the wind and diesel units promote "ride-through" capability in the event of (i) pre-planned transitions between different modes of operation, (ii) pre-planned islanding and re-connection of the units to the power network, and (iii) short circuits, accidental islanding and subsequent re-connection attempts to the network. The developed eigen analysis tool is structured to

  13. Prospects of Wind-Diesel Generator-Battery Hybrid Power System: A Feasibility Study in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djohra Saheb-Koussa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the feasibility of a wind-diesel generator-battery hybrid system. The wind energy resource data are collected from the weather station at the Renewable Energy Development Center of Bouzareah in Algeria. The recorded values vary from 5.5 m/s to 7 m/s at 25 m. The hybrid system analysis has shown that for a household consuming 1,270 kWh/yr, the cost of energy is 1.205 USD/kWh and produces 2,493 kWh/yr in which 93% of electricity comes from wind energy. From this study, it is clear that the optimized hybrid system is more cost effective compared to the diesel generator system alone where the NPC and COE are equal, respectively, to 19,561 USD and 1.205 USD/kWh and 47,932 USD and 2.952 USD/kWh. The sensitivity analysis predicts that the grid extension distance varies from 1.25 to 1.85 km depending on wind speed and fuel price which indicate a positive result to implement a stand-alone hybrid power system as an alternative to grid extension. In addition to the feasibility of this system, it can reduce the emission of the CO2, SO2, and NOx, respectively, from 4758 to 147, from 9.45 to 0.294, and from 105 to 3.23 kg/yr. Investments in autonomous renewable energy systems should be considered particularly in remote areas. They can be financed in the framework of the National Energy Action Plan of Algeria.

  14. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Wind Energy TechnoCentre, 51 Chemin de la mine, C.P. 1300, Murdochville, Quebec (Canada); Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada); Younes, R. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); 3M Laboratory - Faculty of Engineering, Lebanese University, Beirut (Lebanon); Ilinca, A. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, allee des Ursulines, Quebec (Canada); Perron, J. [Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boulevard de l' Universite, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada. Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost. (author)

  15. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air energy storage system for remote areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote areas around the world predominantly rely on diesel-powered generators for their electricity supply, a relatively expensive and inefficient technology that is responsible for the emission of 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) annually, only in Canada . Wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) with various penetration rates have been experimented to reduce diesel consumption of the generators. After having experimented wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) that used various penetration rates, we turned our focus to that the re-engineering of existing diesel power plants can be achieved most efficiently, in terms of cost and diesel consumption, through the introduction of high penetration wind systems combined with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This article compares the available technical alternatives to supercharge the diesel that was used in this high penetration wind-diesel system with compressed air storage (WDCAS), in order to identify the one that optimizes its cost and performances. The technical characteristics and performances of the best candidate technology are subsequently assessed at different working regimes in order to evaluate the varying effects on the system. Finally, a specific WDCAS system with diesel engine downsizing is explored. This proposed design, that requires the repowering of existing facilities, leads to heightened diesel power output, increased engine lifetime and efficiency and to the reduction of fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to savings on maintenance and replacement cost.

  16. Generation of electric power through wind-diesel hybrid system for a hospital; Geracao de energia eletrica atraves de sistema hibrido diesel-eolico para um hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de; Freire, Raphael Lopes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: silvioa@gmail.com, e-mail: raphaellfreire@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a wind-diesel hybrid power simulation using the software Homer. The model is applied to the case study of Hospital das Clinicas da UNICAMP Analysis of several alternative energy facilities like wind, photovoltaic (PV), and connection of the isolated system with the grid is done. The costs used in the simulation indicated that the best results were obtained with the wind-diesel system. The payback period for the investment in the system is 8 years. (author)

  17. Modeling and robust control of autonomous hybrid wind-diesel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author.This thesis relies on modeling, control and dynamic analysis of a wind-diesel plant. The objectives is to reduce the effect of wind variations and consumer load disturbances on the power quality, represented by a constant voltage and constant frequency, of the system. The wind-diesel system is characterized by its continuously changing operating point due to the natural fluctuation of available power from the renewable wind energy source and to the non linearities that exist in the wind turbine model and in the saturation of the electric generators. To overcome these problems, conventional robust controllers and fuzzy controllers have been investigated. In this study, the Norwegian wind-diesel prototype was adopted for modeling and simulation. The system model consists of mechanical components represented by the diesel engine and the wind turbine and electrical components represented by the synchronous generator, the induction generator and the load impedance. The design of one conventional non linear robust controller (FLPI) was presented and applied to the wind-diesel plant

  18. A concept of wind-diesel hybrid systems for the electrification of small rural communities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, J.T.; Bezerra, U.H. [Ag. Nucleo Universitario, Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    This work presents the concept of a wind-diesel hybrid system for the electrification of a small rural community in the Northern Region of Brazil, which can be used in many other places with similar characteristics. The system consists of two small diesel units and two wind turbines, one of which was designed and developed as a prototype with the purpose of gaining some insight in the field of wind turbine technology. Some considerations about small communities of the Northern Region of Brazil, and about electrification concepts are also made.

  19. Economic perspective of hybrid wind-diesel technology for commercial loads of Dhahran Saudi Arabia: A step towards sustainable future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaahid S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The governments world-wide are deliberating to promote renewable energy sources such as wind to mitigate increasing demand of energy and to overcome effects of pollution due to to use of fossil fuels. Integration of wind turbine generators (WTG with the diesel plants is pursued widely to reduce dependence on fossil-fuels and to reduce carbon emissions. Literature indicates that commercial/residential buildings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A consume an estimated 10 - 40% of the total electric energy generated. The aim of this study is to analyze wind-speed data of Dhahran (East-Coast, K.S.A. to assess the economic feasibility of utilizing hybrid wind-diesel power systems to meet the load requirements of a typical commercial building (with annual electrical energy demand of 620,000 kWh. The monthly average wind speeds range from 3.3 to 5.6 m/s. The hybrid systems simulated consist of different combinations of 100 kW commercial WTG supplemented with diesel generators. NREL’s (HOMER Energy’s HOMER software has been employed to perform the techno-economic analysis. The simulation results indicate that for a hybrid system comprising of 100 kW wind capacity together with 175 kW diesel system, the wind penetration (at 37 m hub-height, with 0% annual capacity shortage is 25%. The cost of generating energy (COE, $/kWh from this hybrid wind-diesel system has been found to be 0.121 $/kWh (assuming diesel fuel price of 0.1$/liter. The study exhibits that for a given hybrid configuration, the number of operational hours of diesel gensets decreases with increase in wind farm capacity. Emphasis has also been placed on wind penetration, un-met load, energy production and COE, excess electricity generation, percentage fuel savings and reduction in carbon emissions (relative to diesel-only situation of different hybrid systems, cost break-down of wind-diesel systems, COE of different hybrid systems, etc.

  20. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS. To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control. The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach.

  1. Performance Analysis of Solar-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Energy System for KLIA Sepang Station of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shezan, S. K. A.; Saidur, R.; Hossain, A.; Chong, W. T.; Kibria, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    A large number of populations of the world live in rural or remote areas those are geographically isolated. Power supply and uninterrupted fuel transportation to produce electrical power for these remote areas poses a great challenge. Using renewable energy in hybrid energy system might be a pathway to solve this problem. Malaysia is a large hilly land with the gift of renewable energy resources. There is a good chance to utilize these renewable resources to produce electrical power and to limit the dependency on the fossil fuel as well as reduce the carbon emissions. In this perspective, a research is carried out to analyze the performance of a solar-wind-diesel-battery hybrid energy system for a remote area named “KLIA Sepang station” in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. In this study, a 56 kW hybrid energy system has been proposed that is capable to support more than 50 households and 6 shops in that area. Real time field data of solar radiation and wind speed is used for the simulation and optimization of operations using “Homer” renewable energy software. The proposed system can reduce CO2 emission by about 16 tons per year compared to diesel generator only. In the same time the Cost of energy (COE) of the optimized system is USD 5.126/kWh.The proposed hybrid energy system might be applicable for other parts of the world where the climate conditions are similar.

  2. Simulation and optimum design of hybrid solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei

    Solar and wind energy systems are considered as promising power generating sources due to its availability and topological advantages in local power generations. However, a drawback, common to solar and wind options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on weather changes, both of these energy systems would have to be oversized to make them completely reliable. Fortunately, the problems caused by variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating these two resources in a proper combination to form a hybrid system. However, with the increased complexity in comparison with single energy systems, optimum design of hybrid system becomes more complicated. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the renewable energy resources, one optimal sizing method is necessary. This thesis developed an optimal sizing method to find the global optimum configuration of stand-alone hybrid (both solar-wind and solar-wind-diesel) power generation systems. By using Genetic Algorithm (GA), the optimal sizing method was developed to calculate the system optimum configuration which offers to guarantee the lowest investment with full use of the PV array, wind turbine and battery bank. For the hybrid solar-wind system, the optimal sizing method is developed based on the Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP) and the Annualized Cost of System (ACS) concepts. The optimization procedure aims to find the configuration that yields the best compromise between the two considered objectives: LPSP and ACS. The decision variables, which need to be optimized in the optimization process, are the PV module capacity, wind turbine capacity, battery capacity, PV module slope angle and wind turbine installation height. For the hybrid solar-wind-diesel system, minimization of the system cost is achieved not only by selecting an appropriate system configuration, but also by finding a suitable control strategy (starting and stopping point) of the diesel generator. The

  3. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  4. Costa de Cocos 11-kW wind-diesel hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bergey, M. [Bergey Windpower Company, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Costa de Cocos is a small resort located in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Using the existing diesel generator, the resort`s power system was retrofitted to a wind-hybrid diesel system. The reason for this retrofit was to supply 24-hour power, to reduce diesel fuel by using wind energy, and to reduce diesel air and noise emissions in order to promote ecotourism. The wind system was installed in October 1996 with cost-shared funding from the U.S. Department of Energy/U.S. Agency for International Development renewable energy program in Mexico. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project. Discussed in this paper are the system design, installation, and initial performance.

  5. Study and design of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for providing electricity to a remote telecommunication station; Etudes et conception d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour l'electrification d'une station de telecommunications isolee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre eolien Gaspesie-les Iles, Gaspe, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This poster reported on a study that examined the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. Low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems were studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. The use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) was shown to be a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. Different technical solutions for the CAES system were compared. refs., figs.

  6. Potential of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for a remote telecommunication station : part 1; Potentiel d'un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour une station telecom isolee : partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA; Chabour, H.; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their potential for both long and short-term applications. In particular, it discussed the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. The hybrid system has been touted as a substitute for inefficient and costly diesel generators that contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. Some low and high penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems have been studied in order to reduce the diesel consumption. This paper demonstrated that the use of a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a viable alternative to improve the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity in remote areas where a good wind resource is available. In part 1 of this study, the authors compared different technical solutions for the CAES system and described the one that optimizes the performance and the cost of the overall system. 3 figs.

  7. Potential of a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system for a remote telecommunication station : part 2; Potentiel d'un Systeme hybride eolien-diesel-air comprime pour une station telecom isolee : partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA; Chabour, H.; Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LREE; Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire LIMA

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviewed the feasibility of using a hybrid wind-diesel-compressed air system to produce electricity at remote telecommunication stations. The hybrid system has been touted as a substitute for inefficient and costly diesel generators that contribute significant amounts of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. In part 1 of this study, the authors compared different technical solutions for a high penetration wind-diesel system together with compressed air energy storage (CAES) and described the one that optimizes the performance and the cost of the overall system. Part 2 of the study examined the method of storing compressed air and the type of tank used. Results of numerical modeling of the system were then analyzed to determine the economic advantage of the hybrid system in terms of diesel fuel conservation and avoided greenhouse gases. It was concluded that the proposed design provides an increase in diesel power and efficiency, reduced fuel consumption and GHG emissions, in addition to economies on the maintenance and replacement cost of imported diesel. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Using Atmospheric Pressure Tendency to Optimise Battery Charging in Off-Grid Hybrid Wind-Diesel Systems for Telecoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Daniels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Off grid telecom base stations in developing nations are powered by diesel generators. They are typically oversized and run at a fraction of their rated load for most of their operating lifetime. Running generators at partial load is inefficient and, over time, physically damages the engine. A hybrid configuration uses a battery bank, which powers the telecoms’ load for a portion of the time. The generator only operates when the battery bank needs to be charged. Adding a wind turbine further reduces the generator run hours and saves fuel. The generator is oblivious to the current wind conditions, which leads to simultaneous generator-wind power production. As the batteries become charged by the generator, the wind turbine controller is forced to dump surplus power as heat through a resistive load. This paper details how the relationship between barometric pressure and wind speed can be used to add intelligence to the battery charger. A Simulink model of the system is developed to test the different battery charging configurations. This paper demonstrates that if the battery charger is aware of upcoming wind conditions, it will provide modest fuel savings and reduce generator run hours in small-scale hybrid energy systems.

  9. Configuration Optimization of Capacity of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Microgrid%独立风光柴储微网系统容量优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明; 王波; 赵波; 陈自年

    2013-01-01

    独立微网系统通过内部各个电源对本地区负荷进行供电,其主要目标是最大限度地增强发电功率与负荷之间的匹配性.为保证供电可靠性同时提高整个微网系统的经济性,需根据现有的天气和资源条件对系统的容量配置进行优化设计,选取最优的电源容量组合.为此,建立了独立风光柴储微网系统中各个电源的数学模型,以及包含投资成本和不同费用的经济性模型.根据系统的调度策略和约束条件,将不同电源的个数作为变量,以综合成本费用最小为优化目标,利用遗传算法求解系统中各个电源的最优容量配置.算例结果验证了模型和算法的合理性.%Standalone PV-wind-diesel-battery hybrid microgrid supplies power to local loads by power sources within the microgrid,and the primary target is to enhance the accouplement between the generated power and the load maximally.To improve the economy of whole microgrid while the power supply reliability is ensured,it is necessary to perform optimal design of capacity configuration of the microgrid according to existing conditions in whether and resources and to choose optimal source capacity combination.Mathematical models for different kinds of power sources within the standalone PV-wind-diesel-battery hybrid microgrid are established respectively,and two economic models of investment cost and different expenses are built too.Based on the dispatching strategy and constraints of this hybrid system,the numbers of different power sources are taken as variables and the minimum composite cost and expenses as optimization objective,and then the optimal capacity configurations of different power sources in the system are solved by genetic algorithm.The reasonableness of the proposed models is verified by case study results.

  10. 计及储能设备运行策略的风/柴/储混合系统可靠性评估%Reliability evaluation of wind-diesel-storage hybrid system considering energy storage system operating strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开贵; 王岸; 胡博

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage system is a crucial device in a wind-diesel-storage hybrid system and has great effect on system reliability, which is highly dependent on the operating strategies and operating characteristics. Based on this, a charge-discharge model of energy storage system is established. Considering charge-discharge cycle times and cost of capacity and power, a cost-benefit model of energy storage system is established. The impacts of different operating strategies on system reliability and economy of energy storage system are compared by evaluating reliability of the wind-diesel-storage hybrid system. The example results show that the operating strategies of energy storage system have great impact on system reliability and cost benefit of energy storage system.This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51077135).%风/柴/储混合系统中,储能设备是关键装置之一,直接关系到系统的可靠运行,但受运行策略和运行特性的影响.针对储能设备这一特点,计及储能设备运行策略和运行特性,建立储能设备的充放电模型;并计及储能设备充放电循环次数、容量和功率成本等,建立储能设备的成本效益模型.通过对风/柴/储混合系统进行可靠性评估,比较不同的运行策略对系统可靠性和储能设备经济性的影响.算例结果表明,储能设备运行策略对系统可靠性和储能设备的成本效益有较大影响.

  11. Optimizing the efficiency of a diesel engine for a hybrid wind-diesel experimental validation; Optimisation de l'efficacite du moteur diesel pour un systeme hybride eolien-diesel-validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H.; Dimitrova, M. [TechnoCentre Eolien, Murdochville, PQ (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada); Perron, J. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using a wind-diesel compressed air storage system in large-scale gas turbines at remote sites where a good wind resource is available. Studies have shown that the system can increase the wind energy penetration rate, particularly when combined with a turbo diesel engine. The system increases the power and performance of the diesel engine and reduces fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases greenhouse gases (GHG). This study included a comparison of different technical solutions for the compressed air energy storage system, and described the one that optimized the performance and cost of the overall system. The optimal solution allowed the turbocharger to operate independently of the engine due to the energy provided by the compressed air in the air turbine. Optimization required maximizing the compressor power as an objective function. The energy balance of the engine itself had to be taken into account, along with the turbo charging system. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  12. Status of the Wind-Diesel Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation offers an overview of the wind-diesel market, including the range of power systems, recent progress, current energy situation of remote communities, operating projects, current market approaches and ongoing challenges.

  13. Robust PI-based Frequency Control of Isolated Wind-Diesel Power System with Coordinated Governor, Pitch and Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandar, Cuk Supriyadi Ali; Hashiguchi, Takuhei; Goda, Tadahiro

    A penetration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind power etc to prevent global warming is become increasing highly. However, a random unpredictable wind power output may cause frequency fluctuation on isolated hybrid wind-diesel power system. This paper proposes design of coordinated control of governor, pitch and battery to stabilize frequency fluctuation in isolated wind-diesel power system. A well coordinated control between governor, pitch and battery controller are able to improve a performance and also minimize an interaction between the controllers. The structure of the proposed controllers are the first-order PI controller. They are simple and easy to implement in power system utilities. The robustness of the proposed PI controllers are guaranteed by applying an inverse additive perturbation to represent possible unstructured uncertainties in the power system such as variation of system parameters, generating and loading conditions etc. The proposed PI control parameters are optimized and achieved by a genetic algorithm (GA). Simulation studies have been done to show the control effect and robustness of the proposed PI controller in isolated hybrid wind-diesel power system against various disturbances and system uncertainties.

  14. Optimal integration of wind farms to isolated wind-Diesel energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind farms installed on isolated systems are subject to significant restrictions, affecting their expected energy yield and, hence, the feasibility of investments. As wind power penetrations increase in isolated power systems, it is very important to understand how variations in wind plant outputs affect the operation of the isolated system on a day to day basis and what the associated added costs are. In this paper, a wind-Diesel coordination generation scheduling (WCGS) software is developed for appropriate assessment of the added cost to cover the unpredictable wind generator output variations. The developed WCGS software is also a useful tool for the system planner to predict the energy cost and the fuel saving from the expected new wind-Diesel systems. Several technique constraints are applied to determine the optimal proportion of wind generator capacity that can be integrated into the existing system. A simple benefit cost ratio (BCR) is used in this study to evaluate the investment effectiveness of the installation of wind farms for an isolated hybrid system. Numerical experiments are included to understand the wind generator output variations in system operating cost analysis and to assess the impact and economic benefits of the installation of wind farms

  15. Status of Wind-Diesel Applications in Arctic Climates: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Corbus, D.

    2007-12-01

    The rising cost of diesel fuel and the environmental regulation for its transportation, use, and storage, combined with the clear impacts of increased arctic temperatures, is driving remote communities to examine alternative methods of providing power. Over the past few years, wind energy has been increasingly used to reduce diesel fuel consumption, providing economic, environmental, and security benefits to the energy supply of communities from Alaska to Antarctica. This summary paper describes the current state of wind-diesel systems, reviews the operation of wind-diesel plants in cold climates, discusses current research activities pertaining to these systems, and addresses their technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems in Alaska will be reviewed. Specific focus will also be given to the control of power systems with large amounts of wind generation and the complexities of replacing diesel engine waste heat with excess wind energy, a key factor in assessing power plants for retrofit. A brief overview of steps for assessing the viability of retrofitting diesel power systems with wind technologies will also be provided. Because of the large number of isolated diesel minigrids, the market for adding wind to these systems is substantial, specifically in arctic climates and on islands that rely on diesel-only power generation.

  16. 独立海岛微电网容量多目标优化配置设计与研究%Configuration Optimization of Capacity of Stand-alone PV-Wind-Diesel-Battery-Seawater Desalination Hybrid Microgrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖锐; 董睿; 殷红旭; 蒋毅舟; 沈福鑫; 张奇峰

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposed a capacity optimization of stand-alone microgrid consisting of wind power generator,PV,diesel generator,energy storage system and seawater desalination system,taking economy,re-liability and environment protection into account.Based on the dispatching strategy and constraints of this hybrid system which includes the range of decision variables,the operation characteristics of micro power sources and desalination units, the capacity of different power sources are optimized with the minimum composite cost and maximum reliability as optimization objective.Composite cost includes initial investment cost,operation and maintenance cost,fuel cost,pollution treatment cost and punishment cost of wasted renewable energy.Reliability takes both the amount and time of power supply interruption into consideration. This model can decrease the cost as much as possible with the load's demand satisfied.Meanwhile,renewable energy can be taken full advantage of and environment pollution can be effectively relieved.The reasonableness of the proposed model is verified by a case study.%针对包含风力发电机、光伏电池、柴油发电机、储能及海水淡化的独立微电网系统,提出了一种兼顾经济性、可靠性和环保性的容量优化配置模型。根据系统的调度策略,在满足决策变量变化范围、各微源及海水淡化机组运行要求的条件下,以最小化系统综合成本和最大化供电可靠性为目标,对风力发电机、光伏电池、柴油发电机和蓄电池的容量进行优化。系统综合成本包括初始投资成本、运行维护成本、燃料成本、治污成本及可再生能源浪费惩罚成本。可靠性综合考虑了缺电量及停电时间的影响。该模型可在满足负荷用电需求的前提下,尽可能地减少冗余投资,并充分利用清洁能源发电,减少环境污染。算例结果验证了模型的合理性。

  17. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  18. Technology, Performance, and Market Report of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind-diesel technology and its applications, the current research activities, and the remaining system technical and commercial challenges. System architectures, dispatch strategies, and operating experience from a variety of wind-diesel systems will be discussed, as well as how recent development to explore distributed energy generation solutions for wind generation can benefit from the performance experience of operating systems. The paper also includes a detailed discussion of the performance of wind-diesel applications in Alaska, where 10 wind-diesel stations are operating and additional systems are currently being implemented. Additionally, because this application represents an international opportunity, a community of interest committed to sharing technical and operating developments is being formed. The authors hope to encourage this expansion while allowing communities and nations to investigate the wind-diesel option for reducing their dependence on diesel-driven energy sources.

  19. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A HYBRID WIND-DIESEL MICROGRID

    OpenAIRE

    Friedel, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Some communities in remote locations with high wind velocities and an unreliable utility supply, will typically install small diesel powered generators and wind generators to form a microgrid. Over the past few years, microgrid projects have been developed in many parts of the world, and commercial solutions have started to appear. Such systems face specific design issues, especially when the wind penetration is high enough to affect the operation of the diesel plant. The dynamic behavior of ...

  20. Main results from Risoe's wind-diesel programme 1984-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the results of the wind-diesel work done in projects at Risoe National Laboratory during the years 1984-90, including important earlier publications as appendices. The partners in the original joint project were Risoe National Laboratory, Denmark, and Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. Chalmers has constructed and laboratory tested an advanced wind-diesel-battery system with variable speed operation of the wind turbine, while Risoe has established a flexible and versatile wind-diesel test facility and field tested Chalmers system. As part of the subsequent EFP projects Risoe designed and constructed a simple wind-diesel system without storage, characterized by several innovative features. This concept was part of a ''simple wind-diesel systems strategy'', in which immediate cost-effectiveness is ensured by the simplicity and reliability of the design. Dynamic computer models were developed for system design and analysis purposes, and a general logistic computer model was developed for the determination of fuel savings and power supply capabilities for a number of system configurations. In addition to a considerable body of experience the main results of activities are: A versatile wind-diesel test facility and a proposed standard wind-diesel test procedure. Two wind-diesel systems at each end of the spectrum of configurations. Computer models for logistic and dynamic modelling. The two systems represent the very simple system concept, believed to be a presently economically optimal configuration, and the very sophisticated concept believed to be a future optimal configuration. (au) (6 tabs., 67 ills., 25 refs.)

  1. Simulation of an isolated Wind Diesel System with battery energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, R.; Alzola, R. Pena [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Control Engineering, Spanish University for Distance Education, 28040 UNED Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    The subject of this paper is to present the modelling and simulation of an isolated Wind Diesel Hybrid System (WDHS) comprising a Diesel Generator (DG), a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG), the consumer Load, a Ni-MH battery based Energy Storage System (BESS) and a Dump Load (DL). The BESS consists of a battery bank and a power converter which performs the DC/AC conversion to interface the battery with the isolated grid. The Ni-MH battery high power capability, low maintenance, resistance to abuse and absence of hazardous substances make it the best choice for WDHS. The modelling of the previously mentioned components is presented and the performance of the WDHS is tested through dynamic simulation. Simulation results with graphs for the frequency and voltage of the Isolated Power System, active powers generated/absorbed by the different elements and the battery voltage/current/state of charge are presented for load and wind speed changes. The simulation results for the BESS/no BESS cases are compared and show a remarkable improvement in the system dynamics due to the use of the BESS. (author)

  2. Challenges and solutions of implementing and supporting wind diesel applications in remote (AK) locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingree, B. [Northern Power Systems, Barre, VT (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the methods used by Northern Power Systems to install and support wind-diesel applications in remote locations in Alaska. Over 90 wind turbines have been installed in the state over the last 5 years. Drivers behind the increase in wind turbine installations include the recent energy crisis as well as the introduction of several financial incentives for renewable energy. The correct equipment is needed to overcome the technical challenges associated with wind-diesel systems in remote cold temperature areas. Multiple projects are synchronized within regions, and remote energy management software is used. Centralized power production is promoted where possible, and technicians are trained locally. The wind-diesel market has become successful in Alaska as a result of leadership, a streamline grant and permitting process, and a program that supports First Nations empowerment. Photographs of various Northern Power Systems projects in Alaska were included. tabs., figs.

  3. A simple, robust and reliable wind diesel concept for remote power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces a Wind Diesel concept suitable for remote communities, the 'Simple, Robust and Reliable Concept' developed at Riso. All components are standard components, the system is self regulating using the component controllers and there is no power electronics. The paper documents...

  4. Increasing the technical and economic performance of wind diesel systems by including fresh water production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.

    1996-01-01

    In many remote regions of the world there is a lack of both electricity and potable water. In order to increase the standard of living and thus maintain the population both power and water have to be supplied at reasonable prices. A good option at many of these places are wind diesel systems...... of the Simple, Robust & Reliable (SR&R) type, [1], combined with a desalination system....

  5. Technology, Performance, and Market of Wind-Diesel Applications for Remote and Island Communities (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.; Dabo, M.

    2009-05-01

    The market for wind-diesel power systems in Alaska and other areas has proven that the integration of wind turbines with conventional isolated generation is a commercial reality. During the past few years, the use of wind energy to reduce diesel fuel consumption has increased, providing economic, environmental, social, and security benefits to communities' energy supply. This poster provides an overview of markets, project examples, technology advances, and industry challenges.

  6. Some results concerning no-storage wind-diesel systems control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deal with the dynamics of an autonomous no storage wind-diesel system, comprising a diesel generator and a controlled wind system with a hypo/hyper synchronous cascade. The objective is to maximize the wind energy penetration rate, by an optimization control system, respecting the quality standard concerning the frequency deviation in the AC local grid. Also, the influence of the diesel drive train on the system’s dynamics performances is discussed.

  7. Feasibility Study of Energy Storage Systems in Wind/Diesel Applications Using the HOMER Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stiel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an increased focus on solutions to the ensuing “climate crisis”, the need for energy storage systems is becoming increasingly important as a means to increase the penetration of renewable technologies such as wind energy. The Vanadium Redox Battery is one such energy storage system showing considerable potential owing to its flexibility in power output and capacity, high efficiency and long operating life. This study models the use of the Vanadium Redox Battery as an integration technology in realistic large-scale remote wind/diesel power systems using the HOMER Micropower Optimization Model computer program developed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Results from this modelling demonstrate the significant financial and environmental benefits to be gained in installing energy storage in a wind farm. The storage system considered here was a Vanadium Redox Battery.

  8. Remote power supply by wind/diesel/battery systems - operational experience and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, R. [CES - Consulting and Engineering Services, Heidelberg (Germany); Cramer, G.; Toenges, K.H. [SMA Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    To continuously supply remote villages and settlements not connected to the public grid with electric power is an ambitious technical task considering ecological and economical points of view. The German company SMA has developed a modular supply system as a solution for this task in the range of 30 kW to 5 MW. Meanwhile more than 20 applications of these `Intelligent Power Systems (IPS)` have proved their technical reliability and economical competitiveness worldwide under different, and also extreme environmental conditions. Actually it is the first commercially available advanced Wind/Diesel/Battery System for remote area electrification. The modular autonomous electric supply systems realized by SMA basically consist of two or more diesel power sets, battery storage with converter, a rotating phaseshifter, and an optional number of wind turbines. All modules are coupled on the 3-phase AC system grid and run in various parallel configurations depending on the wind speed and the consumer power demand. The control system operates fully automatical and offers a very user-friendly graphical interface. This advanced system control also contains a remote control and operating data output via modem and telephone line. SMA and CES have considerable experience with Wind/Diesel/Battery Systems for more than eight years. In many cases wind energy converters in the power range of 30 to 40 kW were used, but it is also possible to use larger wind turbines (e.g. 250 kW). In the following the system technology is described in detail, experience of different system sizes in several countries of application is presented, and economical analyses for power supply by IPS are given in comparison to a conventional fully diesel power supply. (author)

  9. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  10. 海岛风柴蓄发电功率分配方法与运行预测%A method of wind diesel storage power distribution and operation prediction in a solitary island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昌; 李旻; 田蔷蔷; 郑源

    2013-01-01

    Wind diesel storage hybrid power system is one of the reliability approaches to provide electric power and fresh water by seawater desalination. However, wind diesel storage hybrid system power distribution often relies on the experience. This paper applied the real code genetic algorithms (GA) to distribute the wind turbine generator number, diesel generator number and the storage battery capacity, every kWh cost is set as objective function, the least loss of load probability (LLP) is chosen to the constrain term, energy is dispatched according to wind turbine power, storage battery power and diesel generator power sequence in optimization. Results show operation cost under the condition of optimization is lower than the design which relies on the experience. This paperalso predicts the operation costs when the running parameters, such as wind velocity, diesel price, wind turbine reliability and load, are changed, cost change reasons are also analyzed. This article can provide a reference to design the wind-diesel-storage power distribution in a solitary island.%文章基于实数编码的遗传算法,对海岛风柴蓄复合发电的风力发电机组台数、柴油机台数和蓄电池容量进行优化设,设计中以每千瓦时电成本作为目标,最小失电率作为约束条件,能量调度按照风力发电-蓄电池电量-柴油机发电的策略.结果证明,采用优化功率分配方法比经验功率分配方法的运行成本低.文章还讨论了海岛风柴蓄复合发电系统的运行参数如风速、油价、风力机可靠性和负荷等参数变化后,实际的运行成本,并分析了成本变化的原因,为在海岛采用风柴蓄复合发电蓄电的设计提供参考.

  11. Research on wind-diesel-storage power generation using PSO in a solitary island%孤岛风柴蓄复合发电功率粒子群优化分配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许昌; 李旻; 任岩; 刘德有; 郑源

    2013-01-01

      利用可再生能源发电是海岛解决用电和吃水难问题的有效途径之一。对南海某海岛的风力资源和用电负荷分析后,提出采用风柴蓄复合发电蓄电为海岛提供电力,多余电力用于海水淡化的方案。在风柴蓄复合发电的功率设计中往往依靠经验,提出应用改进的粒子群优化方法对孤岛风柴蓄复合发电的风力发电机组台数、柴油机台数和蓄电池容量进行优化设计,优化中采用度电成本最小作为目标,最小失电率作为约束条件,能量调度按照首先应用可再生能源发电,其次是蓄电池电量,最后调用柴油机发电的策略。结果显示,改进优化方法的效率比基本的粒子群优化算法稍低,但是可以得到更加优化的结果。进一步分析了当柴油价格、负荷、蓄电池价格和风力发电机成本变化后,优化出新的风力发电机、柴油发电机和蓄电池配置,分析了优化配置变化的原因。研究可以为在孤立海岛采用风柴蓄复合发电蓄电的设计提供参考。%Renewable energy is one of reliable approaches to provide electric power and fresh water in a solitary island. This paper analyzes the wind resource and power load from an island in South China Sea, proposes a wind-diesel-storage hybrid power system to provide electric power, and additional electric power is used to desalinate seawater. Wind-diesel-storage hybrid system power distribution design often relies on the experience, and this paper applies the improved PSO method to distribute the wind turbine generator number, diesel generator number and the storage battery capacity. The minimum of kWh cost is chosen as objective function, and the minimum loss of load probability (LLP) is chosen for constraint term. The energy is dispatched in order of wind turbine power, storage battery power and diesel generator power sequence during optimizing. Results show the improved PSO method has a

  12. Economic perspective of hybrid wind-diesel technology for commercial loads of Dhahran Saudi Arabia: A step towards sustainable future

    OpenAIRE

    Shaahid S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The governments world-wide are deliberating to promote renewable energy sources such as wind to mitigate increasing demand of energy and to overcome effects of pollution due to to use of fossil fuels. Integration of wind turbine generators (WTG) with the diesel plants is pursued widely to reduce dependence on fossil-fuels and to reduce carbon emissions. Literature indicates that commercial/residential buildings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) consume...

  13. Smoothing of Grid-connected Wind-Diesel Power Output Using Energy Capacitor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Elbaset

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small hybrid power system consists of two types of power generation; wind turbine and diesel generation, DG connected to power distribution system. The fluctuations like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, and sudden changes in load demand create imbalances in power distribution that can affect the frequency and the voltage in the power system. So, addition of Energy capacitor System, ECS is useful for compensation of fluctuating power, since it is capable of controlling both active and reactive power simultaneously and can smooth the output power flow. Hence, this paper proposes herein a dynamic model and simulation of a grid connected wind/DG based-ECS with power flow controllers between load and generation. Moreover, the paper presents a study to analyze the leveling of output fluctuation of wind power with the installation of ECS. To control the power exchanged between the ECS system and the AC grid, a load Following Control, LFC based supervisor is proposed with the aim to minimize variations of the power generated by the diesel generator. The interesting performance of the proposed supervisor is shown with the help of simulations. The computer simulation program is confirmed on a realistic circuit model which implemented in the Simulink environment of Matlab and works as if on line.

  14. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  15. Improvement of adaptive fuzzy control for a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no saitekigata fuzzy seigyo no kairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaike, H.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan).Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system that uses a storage battery as auxiliary power has been proposed to supply power from the system to the independent area. In this system, it is important to generate no insufficient power from the viewpoint of effective energy utilization and minimize the fuel consumption of a diesel generator. Authors have proposed the adaptive fuzzy control that changes the shape of the membership function of input variables according to the parameter indicating the system state. However, a parameter was rapidly changed in the conventional method. This badly influences the control. Therefore, the way to determine the parameter that indicates the state of this system was improved. Assume that an input value is set to the average value between a certain point of time and the {Delta}t time as the method for determining a parameter. If the {Delta}t value is lower, the change in a membership function is more effective. As a result, a greater fuel reduction effect was obtained. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Operating results of a wind-diesel system which supplies the full energy needs of an isolated village community in the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, J.A. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica; Gonzalez, J. [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Departamento de Ingeniera Electronica y Automatica; Gomez, C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Canarias, Santa Lucia, Canary Islands (Spain). Departamento de Energias Renovables y Agua

    2003-01-01

    Following is a discussion of the operational strategies of a wind-diesel system which has been installed in an isolated fishing village community on the island of Fuerteventura in the Canarian Archipelago. The project was implemented with the aim of meeting the complete energy requirements of the community: street lighting and domestic consumption, desalination plant, freezer plant, sewage water purifier, hydrocompressor for the supply of potable water and a winch for small vessels. An analysis is also made of the results which were obtained with respect to the quality of the service supplied, the percentage of wind penetration in the system, fuel savings and the decrease of CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere. A comparison of these results has also been made with the corresponding estimated figures for the performance of the system when originally designed. The conclusion is drawn that, from a technical point of view, the system that has been developed supplies all the service needs of the community on a regular basis with an acceptable level in the quality of the energy and a substantial improvement in the quality of the environment. This is a contributing factor to providing a satisfactory level in the quality of life for the inhabitants of the community. (author)

  17. Wind data analysis for the design of a hybrid generation system at the Algodoal Island - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, U.H.; Pinho, J.T.; J.C. da Cunha, D. de; Araujo, A.C.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The northeastern coast of the State of Para and the Marajo Island - in Brazil, exhibit a wind potential that seems adequate to the generation of electric energy to supply local demands. These local demands are mostly formed by small towns and villages located invariably far from the big urban centers with little or no possibility to be supplied by the utility grid. In this paper it is intended to report the studies being conducted to design a hybrid wind diesel system to attend a small population center, namely the Algodoal Island, that is a representative sample of this region. It will be described the process of data acquisition and statistical treatment as well as some environmental, social and economic aspects regarding the Algodoal Island. Finally it will be presented a preliminary estimate of energy demand for this locality as well as a probable wind-diesel system arrangement to supply this demand.

  18. 风/柴联合电力系统运行策略评估%Operating Strategy Evaluation of Integrated Wind/Diesel Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗文义; 张保会; 巴根

    2006-01-01

    Many remote communities around the world cannot be physically or economically connected to an electric power grid. The electricity demand in these areas is conventionally supplied by small isolated diesel plants. Rapidly escalating fossil fuel costs together with difficulties in fuel delivery and equipment maintenance results in unacceptably high generating costs at these diesel plants. Considerable fuel savings can be achieved by integrating renewable sources such as wind and/or solar energy with existing diesel plants. Due to the fluctuating nature of the site resources in the form of wind and/or sunlight, there are several operating problems on reliability and economics.This paper presents a sequential simulation technique to evaluate the different operating strategies for integrated wind/diesel power systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these strategies are analyzed with regard to reliability, diesel fuel saving, back-up diesel average start-stop cycles, average running time, etc.%世界上许多偏远地方的社区远离电网,不具备由电网供电的条件.这些地区的电力负荷传统上由小型孤立柴油电站供电.快速上升的矿石燃料成本以及运输和设备维护问题导致这些柴油电站发电成本很高.通过把风或太阳能这样的可再生能源与现有的柴油电站并联运行,可节省大量的燃料.文中提出一个评估风/柴联合电力系统不同运行策略的顺序仿真方法,运用该方法分析了这些运行策略在可靠性、柴油燃料节省、备用柴油发电机平均起停周期和平均运行时间等方面的优缺点.

  19. Economic and technical study of a hybrid system (wind-photovoltaic-diesel) for rural electrification in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb-Koussa, D.; Belhamel, M. [Centre of Development of Renewable energies, Route de l' observatoire, BP.62 Bouzareah, Algiers (Algeria); Haddadi, M. [Laboratoire de Dispositif de Communication et de Conversion Photovoltaique E. N. P, 10 Avenue Hassen Badi, El Harrach, Alger (Algeria)

    2009-07-15

    This paper deals with design of hybrid energy system consisting of wind and photovoltaic with battery storage. A diesel generator is added to ensure continuous power supply and to take care of intermittent nature of wind and photovoltaic. The paper reports results of the technical-economic optimization study of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage in Algeria. The primary objective of this study is to estimate the appropriate dimension of stand-alone hybrid photovoltaic/wind/diesel with battery storage that guarantee the energy autonomy of typical remote consumer with lowest cost of energy. A secondary aim is to study the impact of renewable energy potential quality on the system size. The optimum dimensions of the system are defined for six sites in Algeria. In this context, a complete sizing model is developed in Matlab/Simulink V.6.5, able to predict the optimum system configuration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best option for all the sites considered in this study. Thus, it provides higher system performance than photovoltaic or wind alone. It s shown that the principal advantage of photovoltaic/wind/diesel hybrid with battery storage are used all together, the reliability of the system is enhanced. The economic analysis has resulted in the calculation of kWh cost of energy for different types of resources and optimized cost of hybrid energy system. It s revealed too that the energy cost depends largely on the renewable energy potential quality. So, our objective for the optimization parameters is not the production cost but the offered service. (author)

  20. Control and Simulation of Energy Storing Device of Wind/Diesel/Energy Storage Generating System%风/柴/储能风力发电系统储能装置控制与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鑫; 栗文义; 赵振兴; 赵鹏

    2011-01-01

    Based on the control methods of both volt outer loop and current inner loop, this paper designs controller circuit for the wind/diesel/energy storage general system. The controller is suitable to control the storage batl connected to the DC bus of the power system. Simulation of controller is conducted in Matlab, and the result shows that controller can ensure the stable operation of energy stor devices and meet the requirement of voltage stability for whole wind power generating system.%采用电压外环和电流内环的控制方法,设计了风/柴/储能发电系统储能装置控制器电路,该控制器适用于连接在系统直流母线上蓄电池等储能装置的控制.在Matlab环境下,对该控制器进行了仿真,结果表明,该控制器能确保储能装置稳定运行,满足风/柴、储能风力发电系统对电压稳定的要求.

  1. Characterization of Hybrid Systems for Rural Electrification with Renewable Energies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borda Angel, J. P.; Dominguez, J.; Amador, J.; Arribas, L.; Pinedo Pascua, I.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this project is to redefine the algorithm of wind-diesel hybrid system implemented in IntiGIS. This methodology was developed by CIEMAT for the evaluation of rural electrification projects, comparing different renewable and conventional technologies based on their LEC or equivalent electrification cost. The analysis considers the social and geographical particularities of the study area. The core of the new model is the definition of renewable fraction in the wind-diesel hybrid system. To this end, it was assumed that the fraction of renewable will depend, first of all, of the wind speed. In this case, the objectives were to find a relationship between the renewable fraction and wind speed, expressed as a function, and also trying to demonstrate the influence of other parameters such as fuel price and consumption. The methodology used to achieve these objectives was to use HOMER to simulate technology and size of system components in order to obtain the optimal fraction renewable scenarios. Next, we examined how it varied with wind speed; we assessed the influence of other parameters and, finally, it is represented as a function of wind speed. After the redefinition of the algorithm, the changes were planned for inclusion in IntiGIS and tests were performed to validate the new model. (Author)

  2. 10-Minute Interval Reliability Assessment of Wind-diesel-storage Power Generation System Influenced by Energy Storage Devices%储能设备对风/柴/储能联合发电系统10min间隔可靠性影响的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍莎日娜; 粟文义; 巴根; 高飞

    2011-01-01

    根据风电场10 min风速历史数据,采用序贯Monte-Carlo模拟法对风/柴/储能发电系统进行可靠性评估。由10 min风速时间序列建立风电场的风速时间序列模型,计算风力发电机的10 min输出功率。在考虑机组随机故障的情况下,由发电机和负荷模型得到蓄电池组的10 min时间序列模型。针对样例系统,从蓄电池组容量、蓄电池组最大充(放)电功率出发,研究了储能设备对风/柴/储能发电系统可靠性的影响;并计算了一些与蓄电池组相关的可靠性指标。采用10 min的时间间隔段进行可靠性评估,评估结果可为风/柴/储能%Based on 10 min historical wind speed data,this paper adopts the sequential Monte-Carlo simulation method to evaluate the reliability of wind-diesel-storage system.The wind speed time series model of wind farm is established based on the 10 min wind speed time series,and is applied to calculate 10 min output power of wind turbine.With regard to the unit random failure,10 min storage battery time series model is set up based on generator and load models.As for a sample system,the research is started from battery capacity and battery maximum charging(discharging) rate in order to analyze the energy storage device influence on wind-diesel-storage system and calculate some reliability indicators related with storage batteries.The reliability evaluation at 10 min intervals is aimed to provide basis for reliable wind-diesel-storage system operation and energy storage device outfit.

  3. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  4. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    ) Optimization of a wind/diesel hybrid configuration in a remote grid with battery implementation: Case study of Melinka Island; (23) Provisional acceptance of installations and online data submission of PV and hybrid kits in remote areas of Latin-America under the EC's EURO-SOLAR programme; (24) Experience of the Canary Islands in the development of insular 100 % RES systems and micro-grids; (25) Assessment of photovoltaic hybrid power systems in the United States; (26) Solar hybrid school project in East Malaysia; (27) Eigg Island - Electrification of a British Island by a unique PV wind hydro diesel hybrid system; (28) A pragmatic performance reporting approach for describing PV hybrid systems within mini-grids: Work in progress from IEA's PVPS Task 11 Act. 31; (29) Hybrid renewable energy systems for the supply of services in rural settlements of Mediterranean partner countries. The HYRESS project - The case study of the hybrid system - Micro grid in Egypt. Beside these lectures, the following poster contributions were presented: (1) Performance of conventional MPPT techniques in the presence of partial shielding; (2) Photovoltaic and thermal collector (PV/T) hybrid system's performance analysis under the mild climate conditions of Izmir City; (3) Influential parameters on a building integrated hybrid PVT concentrator; (4) The solution to combine and manage renewable energies in hybrid applications and mini-grids; (5) Stabilization of distribution networks with PV and vanadium redox-battery backup systems - Simulation and first experiences; (6) Control, monitoring and data acquisition architecture design for clean production of hydrogen from mini-wind energy; (7) Remote Telecom System including photovoltaic energy and H{sub 2} production by electrolysis; (8) Effective combination of solar and wind energy systems; (9) Standardisation of distributed grid support - An analogous approach for the smart grid; (10) Optimizing energy management of decentralized

  5. Design of a hybrid wind power storage and generation system for a remote community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgan, S.S.; Walker, D.R. Jr. [Tennessee State Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There are thousands of small communities in various parts of the world, even in developed countries, that are too far away to be economically connected to an electric supply system. Clean water is essential for health and well being and electric energy is essential for economic development of the community. This paper describes the design of a {open_quotes}hybrid{close_quotes} Wind/Diesel power generation and storage system. and the electric power distribution system for a small rural community of 50 persons and live stock. The most cost effective and reliable system designed to satisfy reasonable growth over the next twenty-five years consists of three 10 kW wind turbines, a 30 kWh storage battery and a 17.5 kW backup diesel generator. This paper also describe efforts to train a neural network to predict wind power over the next time interval and few more time intervals. This is very essential for significant penetration of wind power systems.

  6. Wind diesel systems - design assessment and future potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infield, D.G.; Scotney, A.; Lundsager, P.;

    1992-01-01

    Diesels are the obvious form. of back-up electricity generation in small to medium sized wind systems. High wind penetrations pose significant technical problems for the system designer, ranging from component sizing to control specification and dynamic stability. A key role is seen for proven sy...... countries. Support for this work is being provided by the CEC's JOULE programme. Experience gained from a wide range of designs is drawn on to illustrate the problems and point to more attractive solutions....

  7. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part Two: A Net Zero Energy Tourist Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to discuss the economical and the environmental analysis of a net zero energy (NZE tourist village in Alexandria, Egypt, by maximizing the renewable energy fraction and minimizing the greenhouse gases (GHG emissions. The hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery system is found to be the optimum hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for the proposed tourist village under the study. The optimum HRES consists of 1600 kW of PV panels (58.09% solar energy penetration, 1000 kW of wind turbines (41.34% wind energy penetration, 1000 kW of power converters, 200 kW diesel generator (only 0.57% diesel generator penetration in addition to 2000 batteries with the capacity of 589 Ah each. The levelized cost of energy (COE from the optimum HRES is $0.17/kWh and the total net present cost (NPC of this system is $15,383,360. Additionally, the maximum renewable energy fraction is 99.1% and the amount of GHG emitted from the optimum HRES is only 31,289 kg/year, which is negligible in comparison with the other system configurations, therefore the optimum HRES can be considered as a green system. In addition to this, the achieved percentage of the capacity shortage and the unmet load in the optimal HRES is only 0% for both.

  8. Load Frequency Control of a Two-Area Thermal-Hybrid Power System Using a Novel Quasi-Opposition Harmony Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahto, Tarkeshwar; Mukherjee, V.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, a two-area thermal-hybrid interconnected power system, consisting of a thermal unit in one area and a hybrid wind-diesel unit in other area is considered. Capacitive energy storage (CES) and CES with static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) are connected to the studied two-area model to compensate for varying load demand, intermittent output power and area frequency oscillation. A novel quasi-opposition harmony search (QOHS) algorithm is proposed and applied to tune the various tunable parameters of the studied power system model. Simulation study reveals that inclusion of CES unit in both the areas yields superb damping performance for frequency and tie-line power deviation. From the simulation results it is further revealed that inclusion of SSSC is not viable from both technical as well as economical point of view as no considerable improvement in transient performance is noted with its inclusion in the tie-line of the studied power system model. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the potential of the proposed QOHS algorithm and show its effectiveness and robustness for solving frequency and power drift problems of the studied power systems. Binary coded genetic algorithm is taken for sake of comparison.

  9. Economic Feasibility of Stand-Alone Wind Energy Hybrid with Bioenergy from Anaerobic Digestion for Electrification of Remote Area of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy systems (HRES are gaining importance throughout the world because of the finite sources of oil and gas reservoirs. These have the great ability in the production of electrical energy and cleaning the environment. It is difficult to get grid electricity in the remote areas where no infrastructure exists. The utilization of renewable sources is the ultimate solution for the generation of electricity. In this paper, the economic modeling of Hybrid system consisting of Wind/biomass is explored for the remote area ‘Jangiah’ of Balochistan province, Pakistan. Anaerobic Digestion of biomass is used to get biogas. This source is used to complement the uncertainties in the wind production. Homer is used to simulate the hybrid model. Economic analysis is performed to get the net present value (NPV and cost of energy. It is observed that wind/biomass alone is capable to meet the demand of community which consumes 60 kW peak daily along with the storage backup. This system is the most economical with COE equal to 0.118 US$/kWh following the hybrid biomass/wind/diesel system with COE 0.202 US$/kWh. The sensitivity analysis is carried out and shows that the proposed system is sensitive to the prices of fossil fuel and project lifespan. The net present value increases as the lifetime of the project increases from 15 years to 30 years. It can also be concluded that if the price of the diesel drops below 0.8 US$/liter, the traditional system using fossil fuels will become the most suitable system for the generation of electricity in remote areas.

  10. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  11. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  12. Hybride betongkonstruksjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerve, Tor Øystein

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg beregning og testing av hybride betongkonstruksjoner. Den inneholder også beskrivelse av materialtester. Bjelkene som testes er tenkt å være utsnitt av dekkekonstruksjoner. Konstruksjonene skal bestå av et lag fiberarmert lettbetong, som er tenkt å opptre som en prefabrikert betongforskaling, samt en påstøp som kan fungere som ferdig gulv.I teoridelen av oppgaven er det sett på utfordringer og fordeler ved å benytte hybride konstruksjoner. I tillegg er beregningsvei...

  13. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  14. Feasibility of satisfying electrical energy needs with hybrid systems for a medium-size hotel on Kish Island, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of renewable resources is growing, in part due to the environmental impacts caused by fossil fuels. The largest sources of renewable energy are wind and solar and many predict that these energy sources will be increasingly used for distributed generation. In this paper, the feasibility is examined of a grid-independent system applied for a medium-size hotel in Kish Island, Iran. Furthermore, economic optimization is included in the assessment by using the Homer software as the optimization tool. Renewable and non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels) are considered, and the final adoption of both cases is primarily based on their associated cost and efficiency. Sensitivity analyses are performed to determine the impact on performance of several key parameters: wind speed, solar radiation and fuel costs. The target location in this study is a hotel that has 125 rooms with the total annual electrical energy consumption of 2,628,000 kWh, and a peak demand of about 620 kW. The results of a comprehensive feasibility data analysis along with its economic evaluation indicate that the wind-diesel hybrid system with battery storage is most efficient energy system for supplying the hotel's electrical energy demands. - Highlights: • The required energy for a hotel in Kish Island, Iran is determined. • HOMER software is used in the analyses for both technical and economic criteria. • Four feasible systems are classified and the most economic system is identified. • Annual greenhouse gas emissions are considered for all systems

  15. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  16. Optimal management of compressed air energy storage in a hybrid wind-pneumatic-diesel system for remote area's power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity in Canadian remote areas is, historically, produced using Diesel generators. Its total production cost is very high not only due to inherent cost of fuel but also due to transportation and maintenance costs. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrid systems that combine wind turbines and diesel generators reduce fuel consumption, operational cost and pollution. Adding a storage element to this hybrid system increases the penetration level of renewable sources, i.e. the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. Among all energy storage techniques, CAES (compressed air energy storage) has several advantages to be combined with hybrid WDS (wind-diesel systems), due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. In a previous work, we have exposed and have evaluated a new technique to transform the existing Diesel engine to a HPCE (hybrid pneumatic combustion engine), able to operate as a bi-source engine (compressed air and fuel). Based on ideal cycle modeling, we provided a first estimation of the annual fuel economy obtained with this multi-hybrid system (WDS–HPCE). As a continuity to this work, we will compare, in this article, several strategies of management of the CAES. We will demonstrate that one of these strategies that uses an algorithm based on wind speed forecast, is the most efficient. We will, also, provide an evaluation of the fuel economy generated by the WDS–HPCE, as a function of the wind power penetration ratio, the air-storage capacity, and the average wind speed on site. - Highlights: • We model thermodynamic cycle of a new hybrid pneumatic combustion engine. • we evaluate all ratios of pneumatic power to fuel power and select two highlighted. • we calculate maps of fuel and air consumption for the highlighted strategies. • We evaluate fuel consumption for each strategy and for a combination between both. • we get

  17. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  18. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  19. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  20. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.

  1. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  2. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  3. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  4. Differential Hybrid Games

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces differential hybrid games, which combine differential games with hybrid games. In both kinds of games, two players interact with continuous dynamics. The difference is that hybrid games also provide all the features of hybrid systems and discrete games, but only deterministic differential equations. Differential games, instead, provide differential equations with continuous-time game input by both players, but not the luxury of hybrid games, such as mode switches and d...

  5. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  6. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  7. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  8. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  9. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  10. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  11. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  12. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities. PMID:27468307

  13. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  14. Feasibility Study of Energy Storage Systems in Wind/Diesel Applications Using the HOMER Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Stiel; Maria Skyllas-Kazacos

    2012-01-01

    With an increased focus on solutions to the ensuing “climate crisis”, the need for energy storage systems is becoming increasingly important as a means to increase the penetration of renewable technologies such as wind energy. The Vanadium Redox Battery is one such energy storage system showing considerable potential owing to its flexibility in power output and capacity, high efficiency and long operating life. This study models the use of the Vanadium Redox Battery as an integration technolo...

  15. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  16. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran Venugopal; K.K. Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  17. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  19. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  20. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  1. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  2. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  3. A hybrid bat algorithm:

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.

  4. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  5. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  6. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  7. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  8. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  9. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions in action systems are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. Recently, we introduced...... a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  10. Functional Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-04-01

    Functional Hybrid Materials consist of both organic and inorganic components, assembled for the purpose of generating desirable properties and functionalities. The aim is twofold: to bring out or enhance advantageous chemical, electrochemical, magnetic or electronic characteristics and at the same time to reduce or wholly suppress undesirable properties or effects. Another target is the creation of entirely new material behavior. The vast number of hybrid material components available has opened up a wide and diversified field of fascinating research. In this book, a team of highly renowned experts gives an in-depth overview, illustrating the superiority of well-designed hybrid materials and their potential applications.

  11. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  12. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  15. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  16. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  17. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  18. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  19. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  20. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  1. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  2. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  3. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational power...... of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t secure with agreement on abort (privacy and correctness only) for up to t secure...

  4. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  5. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  6. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  7. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  8. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  9. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  10. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  11. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  12. Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Herder, E., & Kärger, P. (2008). Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 20-25). October, 6-10, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: Universität Würzburg. Website with link

  13. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  14. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  15. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  16. Glueballs and Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, C

    1992-01-01

    We discuss states in the meson spectrum which have explicit gluonic components. Glueballs (with no valence quarks) and hybrid mesons (with valence quarks) are both reviewed. We present in some detail lattice simulation results. ( to appear in proceedings of QCD-20 years, Aachen Workshop)

  17. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...

  18. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  19. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  20. Hybrid Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.

  1. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  2. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  3. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  4. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  5. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  6. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  7. Hybrid Neurofibroma-Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Namath S; Specht, Charles S; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Glantz, Michael; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas and schwannomas are common lesions that may be idiopathic or may occur in association with neural crest genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, and schwannomatosis. A hybrid tumor that contains pathological characteristics of both neurofibroma and schwannoma has been described as a rare entity. We present the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings of such a case. PMID:27158577

  8. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  9. Hybrid and Creative Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Laura; Galán Hergueta, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper examines the hybrid condition of Taipei's built environment within its socio-cultural context and daily activity of the city. It also points out certain forward-looking policies adopted by the City Government that over the last decades gave way to interesting and radical ambiances within the city. To illustrate this fact three case studies are described from the point of view of a pedestrian and on the basis of a journey. By identifying the key qualities t...

  10. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  11. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  12. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Mateescu; Marius Vladescu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the...

  13. Hybrid bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening

  14. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  15. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  16. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  17. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  18. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Hybrid GTO cycloconverter. Hybrid shiki GTO cycloconverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H.; Endo, K. (Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-09-20

    In the field of alternating current variable speed drives, cycloconverters have been used for running middle to low speed machines exceeding several thousands KW in electric capacity. However, the conventional cycloconverter has a disadvantage of low power factor in power source. To improve this disadvantage, a hybrid cycloconverter which is composed of thyristors and self-turn-off devices mutually connected in antiparallel was proposed, and its characteristics were discussed. Also, an experiment was carried out with an application of GTOs to self-turn-off devices, and its fundamental properties were verified. As a result, the followings were found out: in the case of three phase output, the basic wave power factor of power source was unity theoretically and high power factors were obtained at the actual measurement; the output current had no circulating current which reduces capacity and efficiency of the device, there was no need to waste time for switching plus and minus groups of convertors and the output current had no interruption; in case of multiplication, when line-commutated converters and self -commutated converters were connected in series, the characteristic higher harmonic was null theoretically; etc. 11 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hybrid drive train configurations for hybrid vehicles; Antriebskonfigurationen fuer Hybridfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the following contribution, the hybrid drives will be sorted as follows: Hybrid drives by using classical car transmissions, Hybrid drives by using power split transmissions, Hybrid drives without mechanical transmissions. Within this paper only newest drive configurations will be considered. For example, solutions without torque converter in connection to an automatic transmission, CVT or an automated manual transmission are counted among to new drive configurations. Further, solutions to consist of a combination of electric machines and one - or two planetary gear sets are counted among too. Also newest developments of electric transmissions are considered which contain a special electrical drive structure without any mechanical transmission. (orig.)

  1. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  2. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  3. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  4. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  5. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  6. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  7. Hybrid silicon modulators Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Wen Chen; Yinghao Kuo; J. E. Bowers

    2009-01-01

    A number of active elements have been demonstrated using the hybrid silicon evanescent platform, includ- ing lasers, amplifiers, and detectors. In this letter, two types of hybrid silicon modulators, fulfilling the building blocks in optical communication on this platform, are presented. A hybrid silicon electroabsorp-tion modulator, suitable for high speed interconnects, with 10-dB extinction ratio at -5 V and 16-GHz modulation bandwidth is demonstrated. In addition, a hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator utilizing carrier depletion in multiple quantum wells is proved with 2 V.mm voltage-length product, 150-nm optical bandwidth, and a large signal modulation up to 10 Gb/s.

  8. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  9. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  10. Hybrid Textures of Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, S; Tanimoto, M; Kaneko, Satoru; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2005-01-01

    We present numerical and comprehensive analyses of the sixty hybrid textures of neutrinos, which have an equality of matrix elements and one zero. These textures are possibly derived from the discrete symmetry. Only six textures among sixty ones are excluded by the present experimental data. Since there are many textures which give similar predictions, the textures are classified based on the numerical results. The neutrinoless double beta decay is also examined in these textures. Our results suggest that there remain still rich structures of the neutrino mass matrix in the phenomenological point of view.

  11. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  12. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  13. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  14. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  15. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker;

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  16. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  17. Hybrid microcircuit intraconnection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonham, H.B.

    1976-08-01

    Hybrid intraconnections join thin film networks and applique components into an electrically functional hybrid microcircuit (HMC). Applique components were intraconnected with thermocompression (TC) bonds to chromium/gold metallized thin film networks. The project determined critical processes, material parameters, quality criteria, and characterization techniques. The program began on July 1, 1970, and initial efforts consisted of organizing the development program and forecasting needed equipment and manpower. The total time schedule was then PERT-charted. Gold beam-lead devices, gold wire, and chromium/gold films had already been selected for these intraconnection technologies. Thermocompression bonding was developed to provide intraconnections between the HMC gold conductor metallization and gold beam-lead active devices, gold plated external leads, and gold terminated applique devices, such as capacitors. An optimum combination of bonding parameters based on the fundamental physics of the process was developed. This philosophy required bonding equipment to be thoroughly characterized so that the value of bonding parameters (such as force and temperature) indicated on the bonder could be translated into measurable values of the force and temperature within the bond zone.

  18. Towards Cancer Hybrid Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Olde Loohuis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Cancer Hybrid Automata (CHAs, a formalism to model the progression of cancers through discrete phenotypes. The classification of cancer progression using discrete states like stages and hallmarks has become common in the biology literature, but primarily as an organizing principle, and not as an executable formalism. The precise computational model developed here aims to exploit this untapped potential, namely, through automatic verification of progression models (e.g., consistency, causal connections, etc., classification of unreachable or unstable states and computer-generated (individualized or universal therapy plans. The paper builds on a phenomenological approach, and as such does not need to assume a model for the biochemistry of the underlying natural progression. Rather, it abstractly models transition timings between states as well as the effects of drugs and clinical tests, and thus allows formalization of temporal statements about the progression as well as notions of timed therapies. The model proposed here is ultimately based on hybrid automata, and we show how existing controller synthesis algorithms can be generalized to CHA models, so that therapies can be generated automatically. Throughout this paper we use cancer hallmarks to represent the discrete states through which cancer progresses, but other notions of discretely or continuously varying state formalisms could also be used to derive similar therapies.

  19. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  20. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  1. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphe

  2. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  3. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  4. Massive Hybrid Stars with Strangeness

    CERN Document Server

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Masuda, Kota

    2014-01-01

    How massive the hybrid stars could be is discussed by a "3-window model" proposed from a new strategy to construct the equation of state with hadron-quark transition. It is found that hybrid stars have a strong potentiality to generate a large mass compatible with two-solar-mass neutron star observations.

  5. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  6. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes....... Hybrid systems are also an important modeling class for nonlinear systems because a wide variety of nonlinearities are either piecewise-affine (e.g., a saturated linear actuator characteristic) or can be approximated as hybrid systems. The complexity of verifying and assessing general properties...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  7. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  8. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera....... Interspecific hybridization is one of the most important breeding strategies to increase the genetic variation. The main difficulty in obtaining interspecific hybrids is due to occurrence of reproductive barriers. In the study, the possibilities of developing novel interspecific hybrids were studied within two...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  9. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  10. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini S. Durgam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be charge from solar panel (40W or by power supply. The household single phase A.C. power supply of 230V is converted into 12V D.C. using step down transformer and rectifying circuit. The working model can achieve energy saving, low carbon emission, environmental protection for the upcoming future of human life.

  11. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  12. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  13. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives...... in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  14. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  15. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  16. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  18. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    This book presents a cultural perspective on scientific and technological development. As opposed to the “story-lines” of economic innovation and social construction that tend to dominate the both the popular and scholarly literature on science, technology and society (or STS, the authors offer......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...... since the Second World War and the contending approaches to “greening” science and technology in relation to the global quest for sustainable development. The book is based on a series of lectures that were given by Andrew Jamison at the Danish Technological University (DTU) in 2010 and draws...

  19. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  20. Displacement of diesel fuel with wind energy in rural Alaskan villages. Final progress and project closeout report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Dennis; Drouhilet, Steve; Reeve, Brad; Bergen, Matt

    2002-03-11

    The basic concept behind this project was to construct a wind diesel hybrid power system which combines and maximizes the intermittent and variable energy output of wind turbine(s) with diesel generator(s) to provide continuous high quality electric power to weak isolated mini-grids.

  1. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  2. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  3. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  4. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics)

  5. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  6. Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Sounding Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the H-225K hybrid rocket motor, produced by the American Rocket Company, is given. The H-225K motor is presented in terms of the following topics: (1) hybrid rocket fundamentals; (2) hybrid characteristics; and (3) hybrid advantages.

  7. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  8. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  9. A hybrid Brayton engine concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Elkins, R.

    1980-01-01

    A first generation open cycle Brayton engine concept for use in full scale solar module testing was defined. The concept extended to include solar/fossil hybrid capability. The combustion system defined for hybrid operation consists of a wide range combustor liner, a single airblast atomizer, an ignitor and a high-voltage ignition unit. Wide range combustor operation would be achieved through combining pilot and primary zones. The hybrid control mode and the solar only control mode are both based on the concept of maintaining constant turbine inlet temperature and varying the engine speed for part-power operation. In addition, the hybrid control concept will allow the operator to set a minimum thermal power input to the engine by setting a corresponding minimum engine speed. When the solar thermal power input falls below this minimum, fossil fuel would be utilized to augment the solar thermal power input.

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  12. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has...

  13. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C; Zhou, S.; Miller, J. C.; Cox, I J; Chain, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  14. RHO—Radiation Hybrid Ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Dor, Amir; Chor, Benny; Pelleg, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is a somatic cell technique that is used for ordering markers along a chromosome and estimating the physical distances between them. With the advent of this mapping technique, analyzing the experimental data is becoming a challenging and demanding computational task. In this paper we present the software package RHO (radiation hybrid ordering). The package implements a number of heuristics that attempt to order genomic markers along a chromosome, given as input t...

  15. Hybrid systems controller design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Pluska, Michal; Sinclair, David

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Around ninety percent of vehicle innovations are driven mainly by electronics. The software implementing control algorithms combines the sensor values and calculates some meaningful actuator signals. On the other hand software in the vehicle can be seen as a part of a hybrid system. The hybrid system is a dynamic system that can have both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviour, its mean a system is described by both a differential equation and a difference equation. Moreov...

  16. Analysing hybrid drive system topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, Karin

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis a simulation model is presented that enables a comparison of different hybrid topologies, with respect to fuel consumption, emissions and performance. The obtained results stress the properties of the different topologies and form a foundation for the choice of hybrid topology. The simulation models included in this thesis are the result of collaboration with Petter Strandh at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund University. The stu...

  17. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  18. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  19. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  20. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  2. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  3. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  4. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  5. Fuel Consumption Reduction By Use Of Hybrid Drive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Renken, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles with hybrid drive systems are characterized by their driving dynamics, their energy efficiency and their environment-friendliness especially. Dependent on the electrical power and the drive train structure these hybrid drives are grouped into different classes. Designations such as micro-hybrid, mild- hybrid, full-hybrid, serial-hybrid, serial/parallel-hybrid or power-split-hybrid reflect the large variance of these different drive train possibilities. In hybrid drive systems electro...

  6. Hybridization in a warmer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species.

  7. Fission fusion hybrids- recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2012-03-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power, and can do this at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant- so it could be a nearer term application. For waste incineration, hybrids can burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs) with far fewer hybrid reactors than a comparable system within the realm of fission alone. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for ˜4 times as many LWRs with NO fuel reprocessing. For both waste incineration or fuel production, the most severe kind of nuclear accident- runaway criticality- can be excluded, unlike either fast reactors or typical accelerator based reactors. The proliferation risks for hybrid fuel production are, we strongly believe, far less than any other fuel production method, including today's gas centrifuges. US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ˜ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  8. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  9. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  10. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  11. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  12. New Supercapacitors of Hybrid Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Naoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of the energydensity of nano-composite battery materials hasbeen object of great study. Hybridizing battery andcapacitor materials overcome the energy densitylimitation of existing generation-I capacitors withoutmuch sacrificing the cycling performances. Normalbattery-capacitor hybrids employ high-energy &sluggish redox electrode and low-energy & fastdouble-layer electrodes, possibly producing a largerworking voltage and higher over-all capacitance. Inorder to smoothly operate such asymmetric systems,however, the rates of the two different electrodes mustbe highly balanced. Especially, the redox rates of thebattery electrodes must be substantially increasedto the levels of double-layer process. In this report,we attempt to identify the essential issues for therealizable hybrids and suggest ways to overcomethe rate enhancement by exemplifying ultrafastperformance of the Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystal preparedvia a unique in-situ material processing technologyunder ultra-centrifuging.

  13. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  15. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  16. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  17. Hybrid biotic/abiotic nanofactory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.-J.; Montemagno, C. D.

    2006-03-01

    In vitro biochemical synthesis is considered a major challenge in replicating cellular functions in engineered systems. Presented is the first nanosized hybrid factory where biochemical reactions take place resulting in the production of biomolecules. A cellular ATP synthesis process is reconstructed in vitro within a bubble architecture using engineered artificial organelles. This is the first introduction of biochemical synthesis from a multiprotein polymersome system and the demonstration of complex proteins' stable functionality in an artificial structure. This hybrid system is expected to have wide application in a number of fields ranging from the in vitro investigation of cellular metabolism to the synthesis of a new class of functional materials.

  18. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  19. Wind-Solar Hybrid Streetlights

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangchen

    2015-01-01

    The wind and solar energy are called green energies. They have many advantages and have become important newly arisen energy types. When using wind and solar energy alone, they greatly depend on the weather. But the wind-solar hybrid system can make up for this disadvantage, because it can effectively use the solar energy when daytime and summer, and the wind energy when night and winter. The wind-solar hybrid system was designed in this thesis.This system uses an AC bus.It is permitted t...

  20. Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 - 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed

  1. Apomixis and F1 hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apomixis, or asexual reproduction through seeds, has the potential to revolutionize crop production worldwide. It can maximize production through fixation of hybrid vigour and greatly simplify the hybrid seed production process. Genes controlling apomixis are being transferred by traditional backcrossing methods from wild to cultivated species in maize, wheat and pearl millet. Progress is being made in developing molecular markers and maps so that the gene(s) controlling apomixis can be cloned and transferred to any sexual species. Increased emphasis on apomixis by a number of research programmes around the world is helping to develop this reproductive mechanism as an important plant breeding tool. (author). 18 refs

  2. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  3. Charge-qubit-atom hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve a strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  4. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  5. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH......Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...

  6. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  7. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  8. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  9. Field Errors in Hybrid Insertion Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  10. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  11. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  12. Hybrid reactors: nuclear breeding or energy production?

    OpenAIRE

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente Mazuecos, Antonio; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion–fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-...

  13. Global Optimization with Hybrid Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Hassan Abdullahi

    2014-01-01

    An investigation has been made into hybrid systems which include stochastic and deterministic optimization. This thesis aims to provide new and relevant insights into the design of the nature-inspired hybrid optimization paradigms. It combines evolutionary and gradient-based methods. These hybrid evolutionary methods yield improved performance when applied to complex global optimization tasks and recent research has shown many of such hybridization policies.The thesis has three broad contribu...

  14. Metabolic costs of hybridization in newts

    OpenAIRE

    Gvoždík, L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterospecific hybrids often suffer from a lowered fitness relative to parental species. Contextdependent intrinsic costs of hybridization are partially due to a malfunction in cell biochemical machinery that affects metabolic rates at the organismal level. This study examines whether heterospecific hybridization influences the metabolic costs of maintenance in F1 hybrids between closely related newts, Triturus carnifex and T. dobrogicus. When controlled for body size, oxygen consumption in h...

  15. Hybrid Cars Now, Fuel Cell Cars Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöven, Nurettin; Deutch, John

    2004-08-01

    We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.

  16. Generating series for bilinear hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petreczky, M.; Schuppen, J.H. van

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the novel concept of a hybrid generating series and show that continuous state and output trajectories of bilinear hybrid systems can be described in terms of these series. The results represent an extension of the Fliess-series expansion for bilinear systems to hybrid sys

  17. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  18. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  19. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the T

  20. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  1. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  2. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  3. A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.

  4. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  5. Hybrid I/O automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, N.A.; Segala, R.; Vaandrager, F.W.; Weinberg, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new hybrid I/O automaton model that is capable of describing both continuous and discrete behavior. The model, which extends the timed I/O automaton model of Lynch et al and the phase transition system models of Manna et al, allows communication among components using both shared variab

  6. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous...

  7. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  8. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael;

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  9. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma...

  10. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  11. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  12. Collective Identity Formation in Hybrid Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw...... organizations. Our findings point to two factors that limit knowledge sharing and hence to new collective identity formation in a hybrid space: 1) ambiguous or multiple organizational roles and 2) strong identities of the collaborating organizations. These findings contribute to illuminating the initial...... formation of a new collective identity in hybrid organizing, and hence how new hybrid organizational forms may emerge non-intentionally....

  13. Structure Optimization of Stand-Alone Renewable Power Systems Based on Multi Object Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the size optimization of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system while considering the following factors: total annual cost (TAC, loss of power supply probability (LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator required by the user. A new optimization algorithm and an object function (including a penalty method are also proposed; these assist with designing the best structure for a hybrid system satisfying the constraints. In hybrid energy system sources such as photovoltaic (PV, wind, diesel, and energy storage devices are connected as an electrical load supply. Because the power produced by PV and wind turbine sources is dependent on the variation of the resources (sun and wind and the load demand fluctuates, such a hybrid system must be able to satisfy the load requirements at any time and store the excess energy for use in deficit conditions. Therefore, reliability and cost are the two main criteria when designing a stand-alone hybrid system. Moreover, the operation of a diesel generator is important to achieve greater reliability. In this paper, TAC, LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator are considered as the objective variables and a hybrid teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed and used to choose the best structure of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system. Simulation results from MATLAB support the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirm that it is more efficient than conventional methods.

  14. Simple hybrid propulsion model for hybrid aircraft design space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    International audience This article introduces a semi-empirical model for an electric fan and a minimalistic model for a turbofan. The electric fan model provides an easy selection of optimal characteristics based on power loading. The turbofan model has provision for power extraction, and exhibit a physical behaviour. These two models allowed exploring the performance of a hybrid-electric aircraft featuring two turbofans under the wing and one electric fan at the rear of the fuselage. Ass...

  15. Hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the developments and theoretical investigations of a fundamentally new class of microwave devices, namely, hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode, which combine the useful properties of virtual cathodes with the advantages of those traditional microwave oscillators that operate with subcritical-current beams and have a high efficiency in generating ultrarelativistic electron beams. Among such devices are the following: a hybrid diffractional microwave oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid gyro-device with a virtual cathode, a hybrid beam-plasma vircator, a hybrid gyrocon with a virtual cathode, a hybrid Cherenkov oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid microwave oscillator of the 'vircator + traveling-wave tube' type, an original two-beam tube with a virtual cathode, and a klystron-like vircator

  16. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  17. Diesel Hybrid. The next generation of hybrid powertrains by Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Uwe; Goedecke, Tobias; Weiss, Michael; Enderle, Christian; Henning, Gerhard [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The next generation of hybrid system by Mercedes-Benz combines a parallel hybrid with a 4-cylinder diesel engine. The newly developed hybrid transmission is based on the 7G-TRONIC PLUS transmission and the vast experience of former hybrid projects within the company. Most applications of hybrid powertrains are focused on gasoline engines. These hybrid systems achieve a huge reduction in fuel consumption. However the conventional powertrains are also undergoing tremendous efforts to increase fuel efficiency. As a consequence thereof a diesel parallel hybrid system was developed. The combination of the 7G-TRONIC Hybrid and the 4-cylinder diesel engine OM651 a powertrain with highest fuel efficiency, flexibility and modularity has been achieved. The presentation outlines the specific characteristics of the new hybrid powertrain. Furthermore the functionality is described and the achieved fuel reductions are presented. Finally an insight into the system modularity is rounded up by an outlook on the manifold applications of the system. (orig.)

  18. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  19. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent...... interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...

  20. Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronda Sturgill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing need for flexibility and adaptability in the dynamic world of program development in higher education. Students today have more responsibilities and obligations outside of the classroom. Therefore, educational programs that offer alternative class meeting times and other flexible options are attractive to the nontraditional student. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a model for a graduate program delivered by a hybrid, or blended, format. The model will be a master's degree program in exercise and nutrition science where the program is delivered through blending both face to face classroom learning and e-learning teaching methodologies. Challenges of development, lessons learned, and future recommendations will also be presented. This hybrid model is interdisciplinary and can be adapted and utilized across a variety of disciplines.

  1. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  2. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  3. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  4. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  5. Hybrid Models of Tumor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intra- and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or ...

  6. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  7. Hybrid Materials for Integrated Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bettotti

    2014-01-01

    In this review materials and technologies of the hybrid approach to integrated photonics (IP) are addressed. IP is nowadays a mature technology and is the most promising candidate to overcome the main limitations that electronics is facing due to the extreme level of integration it has achieved. IP will be based on silicon photonics in order to exploit the CMOS compatibility and the large infrastructures already available for the fabrication of devices. But silicon has severe limits especiall...

  8. Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  9. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  10. Electroactive functional hybrid layered nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destri, Giovanni Li; Torrisi, Vanna; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN) - University of Catania and CSGI - Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-11

    Two methodologies to build new nanostructured hybrid layered nanocomposites are presented. The first one involves the preparation of hybrid metal/polymer nanolayers (NLs) by combining two monolayer preparation techniques: Horizontal Precipitation Langmuir Blodgett method (HP-ML), for copolymer monolayers and sputter deposition technique, for Au NLs deposition. The second methodology is aimed to prepare regular arrays of nanopores, with diameter ranging between 40-100 nm, in ultra-thin films of electroactive polymers, to obtain embedded regular arrays of nanopores filled by a further electroactive organic component. The produced hybrid MLs have been characterized by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GI-XRD). In the first case, current-voltage (I-V) measurements demonstrate that the multilayers exhibit a bipolar conduction behaviour (electrons and holes carriers), with a peculiar transition in the nature of the majority carriers (from holes to electrons) above a threshold number of bilayers. In the second case, it is found that the degree of pore filling, as well as the polymer crystallinity can be easily modulated, prompting the tuning of the photoresponse of the nanocomposites.

  11. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  12. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  13. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Lobo, Francisco S N; Mak, M K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein Condensate stars in the hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini $f(R)$ formalisms. The theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. We derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. Stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, the bag model and the Bose-Einstein Condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both General Relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini...

  14. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.

  15. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  16. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  17. A Hybrid Architecture Approach for Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R.S. Aghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a general plan of hybrid architecture for quantum algorithms is proposed. Approach: Analysis of the quantum algorithms shows that these algorithms were hybrid with two parts. First, the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the hybrid algorithms was extracted. Then a general plan of hybrid structure was designed. Results: This plan was illustrated the hybrid architecture and the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the algorithms. This general plan was used to increase implementation performance of quantum algorithms. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, simulation results of quantum algorithms on the hybrid architecture proved that quantum algorithms can be implemented on the general plan as well.

  18. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  19. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak;

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  20. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  1. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Heather; Park Haram; Paolini Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  2. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  3. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  4. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...

  5. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    The M. Nguyen; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technolo...

  6. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  7. The human in multiple, hybrid topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    hybrid associations with a museum exhibition, fellow visitors and portable, mediating technologies such as exercise pamphlets, mobile phone cameras and animal costumes. Museum visitors couple up with various entities and participate in multiple enactments; they associate and dissociate, and thus...... constitute shifting fluid and flickering human hybrid topologies. The ethnography of hybrid, morphing museum visitors is related to literature on the relations between people and places. Multiplicity-oriented and heterogeneous ways of conceptualizing the human subject are considered for their implications...

  8. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Sun; Chun Huang; Guangzhao Cui

    2014-01-01

    Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been...

  9. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  10. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  11. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...

  12. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  13. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...... be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis. (C...

  14. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  15. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  16. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  17. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  18. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  19. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  20. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Transgression concepts - such as ‘hybridity', ‘diaspora', ‘creolization', ‘transculturalization' and ‘syncretism' - have to an increasing extent become key concepts in various attempts at escaping the problems of suppression and exclusion involved in notions of purity - be it the purity of race......, culture or whatever. The purpose of focusing on concepts of transgression is usually to try to develop conceptual spaces within which it is possible to grasp and to study cultural identity without resorting to cultural essentialism. These attempts open up new possibilities but also new problems - e...

  1. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, E.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Floether, F.F.; Lee, J P; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G.A.C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Bennett, A J; Shields, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulat...

  2. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  3. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  4. Hybrid Materials for Integrated Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bettotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review materials and technologies of the hybrid approach to integrated photonics (IP are addressed. IP is nowadays a mature technology and is the most promising candidate to overcome the main limitations that electronics is facing due to the extreme level of integration it has achieved. IP will be based on silicon photonics in order to exploit the CMOS compatibility and the large infrastructures already available for the fabrication of devices. But silicon has severe limits especially concerning the development of active photonics: its low efficiency in photons emission and the limited capability to be used as modulator require finding suitable materials able to fulfill these fundamental tasks. Furthermore there is the need to define standardized processes to render these materials compatible with the CMOS process and to fully exploit their capabilities. This review describes the most promising materials and technological approaches that are either currently implemented or may be used in the coming future to develop next generations of hybrid IP devices.

  5. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, D F S; Maluf, R V; Almeida, C A S

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behaviour is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although are not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behaviour from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's ...

  6. Hybrid plants as a means of power supply; Hybridanlagen zur Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, G. [SMA System-, Mess- und Anlagentechnik - Regelsysteme GmbH, Niestetal (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    SMA Regelsysteme GmbH has developed a modular system for the power output range from 30 kW to 5 MW as a means of power supply for remote locations and settlements that are not connected to the public grid. Around the globe more than 30 of these systems have demonstrated their availability and cost effectiveness under sometimes extreme operating conditions. The Intelligent Power System is currently the only series-produced, commercially available wind/diesel/battery system worldwide capable of supplying remote regions with electrical energy. The Intelligent Power System consists of one or several diesel generators, a battery storage with power converter, a rotating phase shifter and in some cases one or several aerogenerators. In some applications there is also an integrated photovoltaic generator. The results obtained with systems of this kind around the globe show that despite the high initial investment costs power production costs are up to 50% lower than in the case of conventional diesel-fueled power plants. This is achieved by savings on diesel fuel, short overall operating times of the diesel aggregates and drastically reduced labour costs. The paper also addresses the experiences gained with battery storages and the R and D requirements for optimising the operation of battery storages. SMA is currently cooperating with ISET in developing a new systems approach for very small power supply systems which will be distinguished by its modular expandability, amongst other features. [German] Zur elektrischen Energieversorgung entlegener Ortschaften und Ansiedlungen, die nicht an ein oeffentliches Verbundnetz angeschlossen sind, hat SMA Regelsysteme GmbH ein modulares System fuer den Leistungsbereich von 30 kW bis 5 MW entwickelt. Mehr als 30 dieser Systeme haben ihre Verfuegbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit unter z.T. extremen Einsatzbedingungen weltweit unter Beweis gestellt. Das Intelligent Power System (IPS) ist das z.Zt. einzige serienproduzierte und kommerziell

  7. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  8. The potential of participatory hybrid breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Huang, K.; Qin, L.; Song, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the potential of involving smallholder farmers in hybrid development for their low-external input farming systems. We have developed a conceptual model of the procedures, based on five assumptions: (a) the hybrids are bred for adaptation to local needs and preferences; (b) the

  9. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  10. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  11. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...

  12. Turbo Codes with Hybrid Interleaving Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the investigation of turbo codes, either random interleavers or structured interleavers are used. Combined two kinds of interleavers in one turbo encoder, a hybrid interleaving mode is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations show that the performance of turbo codes with the hybrid interleaving mode is better than that with the typical interleaving mode.

  13. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  14. Bisimulation for general stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, Manuela L.; Lygeros, John; Bujorianu, Marius C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a bisimulation concept for some very general models for stochastic hybrid systems (general stochastic hybrid systems). The definition of bisimulation builds on the ideas of Edalat and of Larsen and Skou and of Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The main result is that this bisimulat

  15. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be invest

  16. Hybrid RRM Architecture for Future Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tragos, Elias; Mihovska, Albena D.; Mino, Emilio;

    2007-01-01

    and wide area respectively. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it presents an architectural solution for scalable and hybrid radio resource management to efficiently integrate the different WINNER modes; second, it proposes a hybrid handover mechanism to exploit the availability of the different...

  17. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  18. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  19. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  20. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  1. Coumarin hybrids as novel therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sonali; Bansal, Yogita; Silakari, Om; Bansal, Gulshan

    2014-08-01

    Naturally occurring coumarins, having wide spectrum of activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, MAO-B inhibitory and antimicrobial, are frequently used by the researchers to develop novel synthetic and semisynthetic coumarin based therapeutic agents. Many of these agents are hybrid molecules, which are designed through concept of molecular hybridization and have shown multiple pharmacological activities. This multifunctional attribute of these hybrid compounds makes them potential drug candidates for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndromes, AIDS, malaria, and cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles research reports on development of different coumarin hybrids, classify these on the basis of their therapeutic uses and propose structure-activity relationships. It is intended to help medicinal chemist in designing and synthesizing novel and potent hybrid compounds for the treatment of different disorders. PMID:24934993

  2. Flexural performance of woven hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Dan-mallam, Y.; Mazawati, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the flexural performance of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Hybrid composites consist of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp fibers was prepared by infusion process using epoxy as polymer matrix. Woven kenaf, jute and hemp composites were also prepared for comparison. Both woven and hybrid composites were subjected to three point flexural test. From the result, bending resistance of hybrid kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp composites was higher compared to their individual fiber. Hybridization with high strength fiber such as kenaf enhanced the capability of jute and hemp fibers to withstand bending load. Interlocking between yarns in woven fabric make pull out fibers nearly impossible and increase the flexural performance of the hybrid composites.

  3. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  4. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  5. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  6. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Fujii, M; Imakita, K

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. PMID:27121127

  7. Named Models in Coalgebraic Hybrid Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid logic extends modal logic with support for reasoning about individual states, designated by so-called nominals. We study hybrid logic in the broad context of coalgebraic semantics, where Kripke frames are replaced with coalgebras for a given functor, thus covering a wide range of reasoning principles including, e.g., probabilistic, graded, default, or coalitional operators. Specifically, we establish generic criteria for a given coalgebraic hybrid logic to admit named canonical models, with ensuing completeness proofs for pure extensions on the one hand, and for an extended hybrid language with local binding on the other. We instantiate our framework with a number of examples. Notably, we prove completeness of graded hybrid logic with local binding.

  8. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  9. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  10. Acoustic metasurface with hybrid resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Yang, Min; Xiao, Songwen; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    An impedance-matched surface has the property that an incident wave generates no reflection. Here we demonstrate that by using a simple construction, an acoustically reflecting surface can acquire hybrid resonances and becomes impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies, such that no reflection is generated. Each resonant cell of the metasurface is deep-subwavelength in all its spatial dimensions, with its thickness less than the peak absorption wavelength by two orders of magnitude. As there can be no transmission, the impedance-matched acoustic wave is hence either completely absorbed at one or multiple frequencies, or converted into other form(s) of energy, such as an electrical current. A high acoustic-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 23% is achieved. PMID:24880731

  11. Nonlinear lower hybrid wave depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two numerical ray tracing codes with focusing are used to compute lower hybrid daughter wave amplification by quasi-mode parametric decay. The first code, LHPUMP provides a numerical pump model on a grid. This model is used by a second code, LHFQM which computes daughter wave amplification inside the pump extent and follows the rays until their energy is absorbed by the plasma. An analytic model is then used to estimate pump depletion based on the numerical results. Results for PLT indicate strong pump depletion at the plasma edge at high density operation for the 800 Mhz wave frequency, but weak depletion for the 2.45 Ghz experiment. This is proposed to be the mechanism responsible for the high density limit for current drive as well as for the difficulty to heat ions

  12. Hybrid Forwarding in Cooperative Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Cong; ZHAO Ming; YAO Yan

    2008-01-01

    A cooperative communication scheme was developed in which the relay node performs hybrid forwarding, where the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the corresponding direct transmission fails, and the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the quality of the channel between the corresponding source and the relay is good. A performance analysis of the outage probability and the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for the scheme shows that the forwarding mechanism efficiently reduces fading in wireless channels by achieving full diversity order of magnitude improvement. A considerable signal-to-noise ratio gain is provided by this scheme compared with existing cooperation schemes with fixed forwarding. This flexible forwarding mechanism enables the scheme to provide the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff performance.

  13. Engineering semiconductor hybrids for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of screening of the coulomb interaction between two layers of two-dimensional electrons, such as in graphene, by a highly doped semiconducting substrate is investigated. We employ the random-phase approximation to calculate the dispersion equation of this hybrid structure in order to determine the plasmon excitation spectrum. When an electric current is passed through a layer, the low-frequency plasmons in the layer may bifurcate into separate streams due to the current-driving effect. At a critical wave vector, determined by the separation between layers and their distance from the surface, their phase velocities may be in opposite directions and a surface plasmon instability leads to the emission of radiation. Applications to detectors and other electromagnetic devices exploiting nano-plasmonics are discussed.

  14. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  15. Construction of radiation hybrid panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, John E; Murphy, William J

    2008-01-01

    Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be a powerful tool for mapping genes and comparing genome architecture. We describe a protocol for constructing RH panels by rescuing irradiated fibroblast donor cells of any mammalian species by polyethylene glycol fusion to a thymidine kinase-deficient hamster cell line. Characterization and expansion of a panel of 90-100 cell lines can be used to map virtually any PCR-based marker that can be distinguished from the recipient hamster genome. The described procedure has been used successfully to create RH panels from diverse mammalian species such as macaques, elephants, alpacas, and armadillos, and may be applicable to nonmammalian vertebrates as well. PMID:18629660

  16. Hybrid Multifoil Aerogel Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Paik, Jong-Ah; Jones, Steven; Nesmith, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This innovation blends the merits of multifoil insulation (MFI) with aerogel-based insulation to develop a highly versatile, ultra-low thermally conductive material called hybrid multifoil aerogel thermal insulation (HyMATI). The density of the opacified aerogel is 240 mg/cm3 and has thermal conductivity in the 20 mW/mK range in high vacuum and 25 mW/mK in 1 atmosphere of gas (such as argon) up to 800 C. It is stable up to 1,000 C. This is equal to commercially available high-temperature thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of the aerogel is 36 percent lower compared to several commercially available insulations when tested in 1 atmosphere of argon gas up to 800 C.

  17. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1993-11-01

    A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

  18. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement

  19. through the Hybrid Ideation Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Dorta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa un innovador modelo inmersivo para realizar bocetos y crear sistemas: la Hybrid Ideation Space(HIS. El sistema permite a los diseñadores hacer croquis y modelos en torno a todos ellos en tiempo y a escala real utilizando una tableta digital (boceto, la captura de la imagen (modelos físicos y un dispositivo de proyección esférica (inmersión. Se efectuó un experimento para evaluarlo utilizando el concepto de Diseño de flujo y el volumen de trabajo con los estudiantes de diseño industrial en equipos de trabajo durante la etapa de ideación del diseño de un coche. Este HIS se comparó con instrumentos analógicos y técnicas híbridas

  20. Hybrid-Source Impedance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters with another three types summarized...... for current-type inverters. These impedance networks can in principle be combined into two generic network entities, before multiple of them can further be connected together by applying any of the two proposed generalized cascading concepts. The resulting two-level and three-level inverters implemented using...... the cascaded networks would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not been investigated yet. It is anticipated that these advantages would help the formed inverters find applications in photovoltaic and other renewable systems, where a high voltage gain is usually...

  1. A Theory of Hybrid Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yidong

    1999-01-01

    This paper establishes a formal modelfor hybrid diagnosis, novel features including: (1) It provides aunified theoretical framework for utilizing device models and heuristicsin diagnosis, which naturally integrates all the important components ofdiagnosis --- the structural and behavioral description of devices,fault modes, the lower and upper fault bounds, fault possibilities andheuristic rules --- into a diagnostic system. Device models predictoutputs from inputs, heuristic rules infer the possibilities of certaincomponents being faulty from symptoms, and yet the combination of bothconstrains each other for us to reduce the hypothesis space. (2) Itpresents a typical way of modeling behavior of devices, to which the keyis the introduction of I-O functions with indefinite inputs/outputs. (3)It can easily be implemented over a forward-chaining inference engine.

  2. Primakoff production of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of Primakoff technique in searching for hybrid states, and exotic JPC = 1-+ isovector meson bar ρ in particular, is discussed. Results of searches for Primakoff production of an bar ρ in ρπ and ηπ final states produced in high energy interactions of pions with large-Z nuclei are reviewed, and the limits for the radiative coupling Γ( bar ρ+ → π+γ) are presented. Based on available experimental information, electromagnetic production rate estimates are given for the favored bar ρ → πf1(1285) channel. It is argued that a dedicated Primakoff production experiment can be sensitive to values of Γ( bar ρ+ → π+γ) ∼ keV, which makes such measurement a very interesting option for doing spectroscopy of gluonic (and conventional) meson states in the 1.5 ∼ 3 GeV mass range. 18 references, 2 figures

  3. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, E.; Floether, F. F. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Bennett, A. J., E-mail: anthony.bennet@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Shields, A. J. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Lee, J. P. [Cambridge Research Laboratory, Toshiba Research Europe Limited, 208 Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom); Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-26

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO{sub 2} cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.

  4. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  5. Hybrid chernoff tau-leap

    KAUST Repository

    Moraes, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Markovian pure jump processes model a wide range of phenomena, including chemical reactions at the molecular level, dynamics of wireless communication networks, and the spread of epidemic diseases in small populations. There exist algorithms such as Gillespie\\'s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) and Anderson\\'s modified next reaction method (MNRM) that simulate a single path with the exact distribution of the process, but this can be time consuming when many reactions take place during a short time interval. Gillespie\\'s approximated tau-leap method, on the other hand, can be used to reduce computational time, but it may lead to nonphysical values due to a positive one-step exit probability, and it also introduces a time discretization error. Here, we present a novel hybrid algorithm for simulating individual paths which adaptively switches between the SSA and the tau-leap method. The switching strategy is based on a comparison of the expected interarrival time of the SSA and an adaptive time step derived from a Chernoff-type bound for the one-step exit probability. Because this bound is nonasymptotic, we do not need to make any distributional approximation for the tau-leap increments. This hybrid method allows us (i) to control the global exit probability of any simulated path and (ii) to obtain accurate and computable estimates of the expected value of any smooth observable of the process with minimal computational work. We present numerical examples that illustrate the performance of the proposed method. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  7. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  8. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  9. Advanced propulsion system concept for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, S.; Chen, H.; Dochat, G.

    1980-01-01

    A series hybrid system, utilizing a free piston Stirling engine with a linear alternator, and a parallel hybrid system, incorporating a kinematic Stirling engine, are analyzed for various specified reference missions/vehicles ranging from a small two passenger commuter vehicle to a van. Parametric studies for each configuration, detail tradeoff studies to determine engine, battery and system definition, short term energy storage evaluation, and detail life cycle cost studies were performed. Results indicate that the selection of a parallel Stirling engine/electric, hybrid propulsion system can significantly reduce petroleum consumption by 70 percent over present conventional vehicles.

  10. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    CERN Document Server

    Khvorostukhin, A S

    2016-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  11. A hybrid piezoelectric structure for wearable nanogenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minbaek; Wang, Sihong; Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Chen, Chih-Yen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China); Cha, Seung Nam; Park, Yong Jun; Kim, Jong Min [Frontier Research Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics, Gyeonggi-Do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Chou, Li-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013 (China)

    2012-04-03

    A hybrid-fiber nanogenerator comprising a ZnO nanowire array, PVDF polymer and two electrodes is presented. Depending on the bending or spreading action of the human arm, at an angle of {proportional_to}90 , the hybrid fiber reaches electrical outputs of {proportional_to}0.1 V and {proportional_to}10 nA cm{sup -2}. The unique structure of the hybrid fiber may inspire future research in wearable energy-harvesting technology. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems-without resorting to point...

  13. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  14. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  15. Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Raugh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.

  16. DSP Control of Line Hybrid Active Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.;

    2005-01-01

    Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter...... is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned Le filter and a small-rated power active filter, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. Thus the required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone...

  17. HYBRID CONTROL APPROACH FOR CONTAINER CRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Shao Huihe

    2005-01-01

    A hybrid control approach is proposed to achieve the desired performance. Firstly a robust input shaper is designed to reduce the transient vibration and residual vibration of the container efficiently. Then a simple fuzzy logic controller is designed to eliminate the residual vibration completely in order to guarantee the positioning precision. Such a hybrid approach is simple in structure and readily realizable. Simulation results verify the fine performance of this hybrid control approach. It can achieve perfect elimination of residual vibration and concise positioning of the container load, and it is robust to parameter variations (mainly for cable length) and external disturbances.

  18. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  19. Configurations of hybrid-electric cars propulsion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cundev, Dobri; Sarac, Vasilija; Stefanov, Goce

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, hybrid electric cars have taken significant role in automotive market. There are successful technological solutions of hybrid-electric propulsion systems implemented in commercial passenger cars. Every automobile manufacturer of hybrid vehicles has unique hybrid propulsion system. In this paper, all implemented systems are described, analyzed and compared.

  20. Progress in energy generation for Canadian remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Y.; Younes, R.; Abboudi, S.; Ilinca, A.; Nohra, C.

    2016-07-01

    Many remote areas around the world are isolated, for various reasons, from electricity networks. They are usually supplied with electricity through diesel generators. The cost of operation and transportation of diesel fuel in addition to its price have led to the procurement of a more efficient and environmentally greener method of supply. Various studies have shown that a wind-diesel hybrid system with compressed air storage (WDCAS) seems to be one of the best solutions, and presents itself as an optimal configuration for the electrification of isolated sites. This system allows significant fuel savings to be made because the stored compressed air is used to supercharge the engine. In order to optimize system performance and minimize fuel consumption, installation of a system for recovering and storing the heat of compression (TES) seems necessary. In addition, the use of hydro-pneumatic energy storage systems that use the same machine as the hydraulic pump and turbine allow us to store energy in tight spaces and, if possible, contribute to power generation. The scrupulous study of this technical approach will be the focus of our research which will validate (or not) the use of such a system for the regulation of frequency of electrical networks. In this article we will skim through the main research that recently examined the wind-diesel hybrid system which addressed topics such as adiabatic compression and hydro-pneumatic storage. Instead, we will offer (based on existing studies) a new ACP-WDCAS (wind-diesel hybrid system with adiabatic air compression and storage at constant pressure), which combines these three concepts in one system for the optimization of wind-diesel hybrid system.

  1. Hybrid lipid-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayani, Yasaman

    Biological membranes serve several important roles, such as structural support of cells and organelles, regulation of ionic and molecular transport, barriers to non-mediated transport, contact between cells within tissues, and accommodation of membrane proteins. Membrane proteins and other vital biomolecules incorporated into the membrane need a lipid membrane to function. Due to importance of lipid bilayers and their vital function in governing many processes in the cell, the development of various models as artificial lipid membranes that can mimic cell membranes has become a subject of great interest. Using different models of artificial lipid membranes, such as liposomes, planar lipid bilayers and supported or tethered lipid bilayers, we are able to study many biophysical processes in biological membranes. The ability of different molecules to interact with and change the structure of lipid membranes can be also investigated in artificial lipid membranes. An important application of lipid bilayer-containing interfaces is characterization of novel membrane proteins for high throughput drug screening studies to investigate receptor-drug interactions and develop biosensor systems. Membrane proteins need a lipid bilayer environment to preserve their stability and functionality. Fabrication of materials that can interact with biomolecules like proteins necessitates the use of lipid bilayers as a mimic of cell membranes. The objective of this research is to develop novel hybrid lipid-based nanostructures mimicking biological membranes. Toward this aim, two hybrid biocompatible structures are introduced: lipid bilayer-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and hydrogel-anchored liposomes with double-stranded DNA anchors. These structures have potential applications in biosensing, drug targeting, drug delivery, and biophysical studies of cell membranes. In the first developed nanostructure, lipid molecules are covalently attached to the surfaces of MWCNTs, and

  2. Russia and hybrid warfare: identifying critical elements in successful applications of hybrid tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Neville, Seth B.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the Russian annexation of Crimea in 2014, hybrid war became a buzzword within political and academic circles. This thesis examines hybrid warfare applications using contemporary and historical examples. The analysis seeks to determine why a country was or was not successful in its execution of hybrid war, and it assesses the geo-political context of cost, benefit, and risk for an aggressor state contributing to its decision to eng...

  3. Hybrid zone and its genetic analysis: implication for conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGDong; LIUXue-dong; MAJian-zhang

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid zone is a very critical concept within the evolutionary biology, because it would offer us a better insight to understand the evolutionary role of gene flow and hybridization based on the cline model. This minireview presents an expatia-tion of history perspectives and research developments upon basic concepts including hybrid zones, hybridization, hybrid and its the genetic cline model. Moreover, by figuring out the existing problem around the hybrids within conservative theory and prac-tices, it suggests that the theory of hybrid zone be introduced into conservation biology and it would be provide a broader and more open theoretical background for conservative research and practices.

  4. Somatic hybrids Solanum nigrum (+) S. tuberosum: morphological assessment and verification of hybridity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbakowa, A; Maciejewska, U; Zimnoch-Guzowska, E; Wielgat, B

    2003-02-01

    Somatic hybrids between the cultivated potato diploid hybrid clone, ZEL-1136, and hexaploid non-tuber-bearing wild species Solanum nigrum L. exhibiting resistance to Phytophthora infestans were regenerated after PEG-mediated fusion of mesophyll protoplasts. The objective was to transfer the late-blight resistance genes from the wild species into plants of the cultivated potato clone. From a total of 59 regenerants, 40 clones survived and have been maintained in vitro on hormone-free MS/2 medium. Thirty-two somatic hybrids were identified by their intermediate morphology (leaves of nigrum type and flowers of tuberosum type) and verified by flow cytometry and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns. The RAPD analysis of nuclear DNA confirmed the hybrid nature of 29 clones. Flow cytometry revealed a wide range of ploidy in the generated hybrids, from nearly the tetra- to decaploid level. Most of the hybrid clones were stable in vitro, grew vigorously in soil, and set flowers and parthenocarpic berries. However, all of the flowering hybrids were male-sterile. Nine hybrid clones produced tuber-like structures in soil. The most vigorous flowering somatic hybrids were selected for assessment of the late-blight resistance. PMID:12789433

  5. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Oscar P. R.; Kruithof, Thomas; Turkenburg, Wim C.; Faaij, André P. C.

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be seen both as an alternative to petrol, diesel and parallel hybrid cars, as well as an intermediate stage towards fully electric or fuel cell cars. We calculate the fuel consumption and costs of four diesel-fuelled series hybrid, four plug-in hybrid and four fuel cell car configurations, and compared these to three reference cars. We find that series hybrid cars may reduce fuel consumption by 34-47%, but cost €5000-12,000 more. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 89-103 g CO 2 km -1 compared to reference petrol (163 g km -1) and diesel cars (156 g km -1). Series hybrid cars with wheel motors have lower weight and 7-21% lower fuel consumption than those with central electric motors. The fuel cell car remains uncompetitive even if production costs of fuel cells come down by 90%. Plug-in hybrid cars are competitive when driving large distances on electricity, and/or if cost of batteries come down substantially. Well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions may be reduced to 60-69 g CO 2 km -1.

  6. Recent Advances on Hybrid Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Melin, Patricia; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents recent advances on hybrid intelligent systems using soft computing techniques for intelligent control and robotics, pattern recognition, time series prediction and optimization of complex problems. Soft Computing (SC) consists of several intelligent computing paradigms, including fuzzy logic, neural networks, and bio-inspired optimization algorithms, which can be used to produce powerful hybrid intelligent systems. The book is organized in five main parts, which contain groups of papers around a similar subject. The first part consists of papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for control and robotics, which are basically state of the art papers that propose new models and concepts, which can be the basis for achieving intelligent control and mobile robotics. The second part contains papers with the main theme of hybrid intelligent systems for pattern recognition and time series prediction, which are basically papers using nature-inspired techniques, like evolutionary algo...

  7. Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor (HOWS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Phase I effort will investigate and develop the necessary innovations to realize the Hybrid Ocean Wind Sensor system that will provide critical...

  8. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  9. Design of Digital Hybrid Chaotic Sequence Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Nini; ZENG Dong

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of the hybrid chaotic sequences as the spreading codes in code divided multiple access(CDMA) system is analyzed.The design and realization of the digital hybrid chaotic sequence generator by very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language(VHDL) are described.A valid hazard canceledl method is presented.Computer simulations show that the stable digital sequence waveforms can be produced.The correlations of the digital hybrid chaotic sequences are compared with those of m-sequences.The results show that the correlations of the digital hybrid chaotic sequences are almost as good as those of m-sequences.The works in this paper explored a road for the practical applications of chaos.

  10. Probabilistic Analysis Methods for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Frier, Christian; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper discusses a general approach for the application of probabilistic analysis methods in the design of ventilation systems. The aims and scope of probabilistic versus deterministic methods are addressed with special emphasis on hybrid ventilation systems. A preliminary application...

  11. Twin Cities Metro Hybrid Landcover 2000 (Raster)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Hybrid Landcover is an attempt to clean up the University of Minnesota Remote Sensing Lab's 2000 LandSat Land Cover for the Twin Cities 7-county metropolitan...

  12. Hybrid Pulsators -- Pulsating Stars with Multiple Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, A -Y

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a statistic survey on the pulsating variable stars with multiple identities. These stars were identified to exhibit two types of pulsation or multiple light variability types in the literature, and are usually called hybrid pulsators. We extracted the hybrid information based on the Simbad database. Actually, all the variables with multiple identities are retrieved. The survey covers various pulsating stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We aim at giving a clue in selecting interesting targets for further observation. Hybrid pulsators are excellent targets for asteroseismology. An important implication of such stars is their potential in advancing the theories of both stellar evolution and pulsation. By presenting the statistics, we address the open questions and prospects regarding current status of hybrid pulsation studies.

  13. Hybrid Models in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Navascués, B Elizaga; Marugán, G A Mena

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology, inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes, and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first prop...

  14. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systems – systems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  15. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  16. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  17. Travelling waves in hybrid chemotaxis models

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Benjamin; Painter, Kevin J; Erban, Radek

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant) which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybr...

  18. Hybrid High-Fidelity Auscultation Scope Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA Johnson Space Center's need for a space auscultation capability, Physical Optics Corporation proposes to develop a Hybrid High-Fidelity...

  19. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate a rational reconstruction of a previously published control flow analysis for the mobile ambients calculus and we further show how a more precise flow-sensitive analysis, that takes the ordering of action sequences into account, can be formulated...... in a natural way. We show that hybrid logic is very well suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated...... theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis....

  20. Parallel hybrid textures of lepton mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, S; Gautam, Radha Raman

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the parallel hybrid texture structures in the charged lepton and the neutrino sector. These parallel hybrid texture structures have physical implications as they cannot be obtained from arbitrary lepton mass matrices through weak basis transformations. The total sixty parallel hybrid texture structures can be grouped into twelve classes, and all the hybrid textures in the same class have identical physical implications. We examine all the twelve classes under the assumption of non-factorizable phases in the neutrino mass matrix. Five out of the total twelve classes are found to be phenomenologically disallowed. We study the phenomenological implications of the allowed classes for 1-3 mixing angle, Majorana and Dirac-type $CP$ violating phases. Interesting constraints on effective Majorana mass are obtained for all the allowed classes.

  1. Formes coopératives hybrides

    OpenAIRE

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    On constate avec un intérêt croissant la transformation d’organisations du tiers secteur en organisations hybrides. Les chercheurs se sont penchés sur les processus d’« hybridation » ayant mené au développement de l’entreprise sociale, dont l’incarnation la plus remarquable est le modèle italien de la coopérative sociale. Il s’agit d’un modèle doublement « hybride », tant par son mode de gouvernance que par la diversité de ses pourvoyeurs de ressources. D’autres formes hybrides de coopérative...

  2. Pulse detonation assembly and hybrid engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A pulse detonation (PD) assembly includes a number of PD chambers adapted to expel respective detonation product streams and a number of barriers disposed between respective pairs of PD chambers. The barriers define, at least in part, a number of sectors that contain at least one PD chamber. A hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and barriers. The hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly having at least one turbine stage, being in flow communication with the PD chambers and being configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams. A segmented hybrid engine includes a number of PD chambers and segments configured to receive and direct the detonation product streams from respective PD chambers. The segmented hybrid engine further includes a turbine assembly configured to be at least partially driven by the detonation product streams.

  3. Ultra-Lightweight Hybrid Structured Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MMCC is proposing herewith a hybrid structured mirror that combines the advantages of SiC membrane and magnesium graphite composite. The significance of magnesium...

  4. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a safe, highly-reliable, low-cost and uniquely versatile propulsion...

  5. Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) proposes to develop a unique Advanced Vortex Hybrid Rocket Engine (AVHRE) to achieve a highly-reliable, low-cost and...

  6. Confirmation of Clematis hybrids using molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid origin of two progeny from reciprocal crosses of Clematis tubulosa and C. brevicaudata was investigated using molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Morphologi...

  7. Plug-in integrated/hybrid circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Hybrid circuitry can be installed into standard round bayonet connectors, to eliminate wiring from connector to circuit. Circuits can be connected directly into either section of connector pair, eliminating need for hard wiring to that section.

  8. Thermal stability of PMMA–clay hybrids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanushree Choudhury; Nirendra M Misra

    2010-04-01

    Materials with small particle size are being extensively used in composites and hybrid materials. Exfoliated clay–polymer hybrids show enhanced properties. Exfoliation of clay platelets can be affected by selecting dispersing agents. In the present work, clay dispersed by natural dispersant (soap stone powder), cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed clay and acid clay (amorphous clay) are taken. They are then polymerized with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) by solution intercalation method. The thermal stability of these different clay–PMMA hybrids have been studied and compared with that of pure PMMA by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The bonding of clay with PMMA has been studied by IR. Morphology of clay–PMMA hybrids has been shown by SEM and XRD which indicate partially exfoliated structure in T606-4 and intercalated structures in T606-6 and T606-2.

  9. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  10. Parametric optimization of hybrid car engines

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnans, J. Frederic; Guilbaud, Thérèse; Ketfi-Cherif, Ahmed; Von Wissel, Dirk; Sagastizábal, Claudia; Zidani, Hasnaa

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal design of hybrid car engines which combine thermic and electric power. The optimal configuration of the different motors composing the hybrid system involves the choice of certain design parameters. For a given configuration, the goal is to minimize the fuel consumption along a trajectory. This is an optimal control problem with one state variable. The simultaneous optimization of design parameters and trajectories can be formulated as a bilevel optimization...

  11. Acoustical behavior of hybrid composite sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    Patinha, Sérgio; Cunha, Fernando Eduardo Macedo; Fangueiro, Raúl; Rana, Sohel; Prego, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the characterization of acoustic insulation behaviour of hybrid sandwich composite panels for application in modular house construction. These sandwich panels are a sustainable, light-weight and durable solution, since are based on natural fibers structure impregnated with a thermosetting polymer. In this way, three different types of hybrid composite panels containing polyurethane core and laminated composite skins were produced and analyzed, varying the ...

  12. Photovoltaik Hybrid-Solarzellen mit Nanopartikeln

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leute, Angelika

    2004-09-01

    Die organische Photovoltaik auf der Basis halbleitender Polymere bietet eine kostengünstige Alternative zu Solarzellen aus Silizium. Allerdings weisen die organischen Materialien relativ schlechte Ladungstransporteigenschaften auf. Hybrid-Solarzellen, in denen Polymere mit geeigneten anorganischen Halbleitern kombiniert sind, besitzen einerseits die praktischen Vorteile der Organik und andererseits die hohe Elektronenbeweglichkeit der anorganischen Materialien. Wissenschaftler der Technischen Universität Eindhoven haben kürzlich Hybrid-Solarzellen vorgestellt, die aus einem halbleitenden Polymer mit Zinkoxid-Nanopartikeln bestehen.

  13. HOPSPACK: Hybrid Optimization Parallel Search Package.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Genetha Anne.; Kolda, Tamara G.; Griffin, Joshua; Taddy, Matt; Martinez-Canales, Monica L.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the technical details of HOPSPACK (Hybrid Optimization Parallel SearchPackage), a new software platform which facilitates combining multiple optimization routines into asingle, tightly-coupled, hybrid algorithm that supports parallel function evaluations. The frameworkis designed such that existing optimization source code can be easily incorporated with minimalcode modification. By maintaining the integrity of each individual solver, the strengths and codesophistication of the original optimization package are retained and exploited.4

  14. Collective identity formation in hybrid organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw on the literature on knowledge sharing across organizational boundaries, particularly the notions of transfer, translation and transformation, to examine in real time how knowledge shari...

  15. Optimal Supervisory Control of Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Cerofolini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles (HV), comprising a conventional ICE-based powertrain and a secondary energy source, to be converted into mechanical power as well, represent a well-established alternative to substantially reduce both fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions of passenger cars. Several HV architectures are either being studied or already available on market, e.g. Mechanical, Electric, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Hybrid Vehicles. Among the others, Electric (HEV) and Mechanical (HSF-HV) parallel Hy...

  16. Hybrid Photonic Integration on a Polymer Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ziyang Zhang; David Felipe; Vasilis Katopodis; Panos Groumas; Christos Kouloumentas; Hercules Avramopoulos; Jean-Yves Dupuy; Agnieszka Konczykowska; Alberto Dede; Antonio Beretta; Antonello Vannucci; Giulio Cangini; Raluca Dinu; Detlef Schmidt; Martin Moehrle

    2015-01-01

    To fulfill the functionality demands from the fast developing optical networks, a hybrid integration approach allows for combining the advantages of various material platforms. We have established a polymer-based hybrid integration platform (polyboard), which provides flexible optical input/ouptut interfaces (I/Os) that allow robust coupling of indium phosphide (InP)-based active components, passive insertion of thin-film-based optical elements, and on-chip attachment of optical fibers. This ...

  17. VLSI Hybrid DC-DC Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Cosp Vilella, Jordi; Martínez García, Herminio

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid DC-DC regulators are structures that combine both a linear voltage regulator and a switching DC-DC converter. The main objective of this hybrid topology is to converge, in a single circuit topology, the best of both alternatives: a small voltage output ripple, which is a common characteristic of linear regulator circuits, and good energy efficiency, as in switching alternatives. While the linear regulator fixes the required output voltage to a fixed value with negligible steady-state r...

  18. Power Quality Application of Hybrid Drivetrain

    OpenAIRE

    Rassõlkin, Anton; Hõimoja, Hardi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the power conditioning features of hybrid powertrain, especially regarding diesel-electric locomotives. Equipped with an embarked energy buffer for diesel generator support and utility grid interface, such a locomotive can be considered as a plug-in series hybrid vehicle. The driveline inductive components, like generator and motor windings, and capacitive components like dc link capacitors can be used to provide STATCOM functions, and the energy buffer can be u...

  19. Global approach for hybrid vehicle optimal control

    OpenAIRE

    Scordia, Julien; TRIGUI, Rochdi; DESBOIS-RENAUDIN, Matthieu; JEANNERET, Bruno; BADIN, François

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the global approach that has been developed at INRETS-LTE for hybrid powertrain sizing, consumption gain evaluation, and optimal control. The procedure is described in the particular case of a two clutch parallel hybrid architecture, but could apply to any other configuration. Firstly the context and the common issues related to this subject are described. Then our global approach is detailed: sizing procedure, offline global optimization process, method for obtaini...

  20. Issue 5: High Interest in Hybrid Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Paul M.; Haselhoff, Kim

    2005-01-01

    This SCS Fact Sheet provides information on the level of interest in purchasing hybrid automobiles—vehicles that combine gasoline and electric motors to increase fuel mileage and reduce air pollution. A significant minority stated that they are willing to pay more for such a car, with the proportion varying by income and ethnicity. Not surprisingly, those drivers who commute to work and those with environmental concerns are more likely to pay the additional cost for a hybrid car.

  1. Agile in action : Hybrid methodologies in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burman, Emil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years an increase of agile methodologies and their implementation in mainstream software engineering projects have been seen, but this implementation has reportedly changed agility in practice into a hybrid form of agility and more classic methodologies. With a lack of research regarding these hybrid methodologies this multiple case study empirically analyses the practice of methodologies from two different conglomerates and places the results in the Information Technology Managemen...

  2. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  3. Hybrid ECAL: Optimization and Related Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Suehara, T; Sumida, H; Ueno, H; Sudo, Y; Yoshioka, T; Kawagoe, K

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid ECAL is a cost-conscious option of electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) for particle flow calorimetry to be used in a detector of International Linear Collider (ILC). It is a combination of silicon-tungsten ECAL, which realizes high granularity and robust measurement of electromagnetic shower, and scintillator-tungsten ECAL, which gives affordable cost with similar performance to silicon. Optimization and a data acquisition trial in a test bench for the hybrid ECAL are described in this article.

  4. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  5. Static Analysis of Hybrid Composite Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    B.Arun*1,; P. Chithambaranathan2

    2014-01-01

    Leaf spring is a simple form of suspension spring used to absorb vibrations induced during the motion of a vehicle. The automobile industry has shown increased interest in the replacement of steel leaf spring (65Si7) with hybrid composite leaf spring with Jute/E-glass/Epoxy due to high strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. This research is aimed to investigate the suitability of natural and synthetic fiber reinforced hybrid comp...

  6. Molecular mechanisms of polyploidy and hybrid vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Hybrids such as maize (Zea mays) or domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) grow bigger and stronger than their parents. This is also true for allopolyploids such as wheat (Triticum spp.) or frog (i.e. Xenopus and Silurana) that contain two or more sets of chromosomes from different species. The phenomenon, known as hybrid vigor or heterosis, was systematically characterized by Charles Darwin (1876). The rediscovery of heterosis in maize a century ago has revolutionized plant and animal breedin...

  7. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  8. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  9. Assessment on Hybrid E-Learning Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Intan Farahana Kamsin; Rosseni Din

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve Hybrid e-Learning 9.3. A total of 233 students of International Islamic University Malaysia, Gombak who have the experience in hybrid teaching and learning were involved as respondents. Rasch Measurement Model was used for this study. Validity analyses conducted were on (i) the compatibility of the items, (ii) mapping of items and respondents, (iii) scaling of instruments, and (iv) unidimentional items. The findings of the study show that (i) the items developed cor...

  10. Accounting, hybrids and the management of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Peter; Kurunmaki, Liisa; O'Leary, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses the implications of accounting and hybrids for the management of risk. It suggests that the management of organizations is rapidly being transformed into and formalized around the management of risk, while much of the real management of risks occurs elsewhere. We argue firstly and most generally that hybrids in all their varied forms are one of the key sites where uncertainty is managed beyond the formalized practices of risk management. Secondly, we argue that the manage...

  11. Optical Orientation in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2008-01-01

    The physics of optical pumping of semiconductor electrons in the ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids is discussed. Optically oriented semiconductor electrons detect the magnetic state of the ferromagnetic film. In turn, the ferromagnetism of the hybrid can be controlled optically with the help of the semiconductor. Spin-spin interactions near the interface ferromagnet/semiconductor play crucial role in the optical readout and the manipulation of ferromagnetism.

  12. Hybridization and the colonization of novel habitats by annual sunflowers

    OpenAIRE

    Rieseberg, Loren H.; Kim, Seung-Chul; Randell, Rebecca A.; Whitney, Kenneth D; Gross, Briana L.; Lexer, Christian; Clay, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although invasive plant species often have a hybrid ancestry, unambiguous evidence that hybridization has stimulated the evolution of invasive behaviors has been difficult to come by. Here, we briefly review how hybridization might contribute to the colonization of novel habitats, range expansions, and invasiveness and then describe work on hybrid sunflowers that forges a direct link between hybridization and ecological divergence. We first discuss the invasion of Texas by the common sunflowe...

  13. Invasive hybrid tiger salamander genotypes impact native amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Maureen E.; Johnson, Jarrett R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2009-01-01

    Although the ecological consequences of species invasions are well studied, the ecological impacts of genetic introgression through hybridization are less understood. This is particularly true of the impacts of hybridization on “third party” community members not genetically involved in hybridization. We also know little about how direct interactions between hybrid and parental individuals influence fitness. Here, we examined the ecological effects of hybridization between the native, threate...

  14. Improving specificity of DNA hybridization-based methods

    OpenAIRE

    Chalaya, Tatyana; Gogvadze, Elena; Buzdin, Anton; Kovalskaya, Elena; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2004-01-01

    Methods based on DNA reassociation in solution with the subsequent PCR amplification of certain hybrid molecules, such as coincidence cloning and subtractive hybridization, all suffer from a common imperfection: cross-hybridization between various types of paralogous repetitive DNA fragments. Although the situation can be slightly improved by the addition of repeat-specific competitor DNA into the hybridization mixture, the cross-hybridization outcome is a significant number of background chi...

  15. Advances in the study of hybrid finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Some new concepts and research progress in hybrid finite elements advanced in recent years are in troduced. On the basis of incompatible energy consistency analysis, the optimal condition of hybrid elements is derived and the formulation for fulfilling this condition is given. A post-processing penalty equilibrium optimization technique of hybrid element is presented to create high quality hybrid model. For incompressible problems, a method of deviatoric hybrid element is proposed and unification of computation between compressible and incompressible media is achieved.

  16. Developing a Blended Type Course of Introduction to Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Na Zhu

    2016-01-01

    An innovative course of introduction to hybrid vehicles is developed for both associate and bachelor degree programs for engineering technology with automotive/mechanical concentration. The hybrid vehicle course content includes several topics, such as the rational of pure electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle, hybrid vehicle propulsion systems, fundamentals of motor/generator systems, fundamentals of battery and energy management system, and introduction to various configurations of hybrid veh...

  17. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  18. Hybrid graphene plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene make possible the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices. One of the most exciting graphene characteristics is the tunability by gating which allows one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with subwavelength field confinement of plasmonic waveguides remains largely unexplored. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic waveguide modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for telecom applications. The modulator working at the telecom range is demonstrated, showing a modulation depth of >0.03 dB μm-1 at low gating voltages for an active device area of just 10 μm2, characteristics which are already comparable to those of silicon-based waveguide modulators while retaining the benefit of further device miniaturization. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  19. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  20. Hybrid beams in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The first proton-ion beams were successfully circulated in the LHC a couple of weeks ago. Everything went so smoothly that the LHC teams had planned the first p-Pb collisions for Wednesday, 16 November. Unfortunately, a last-minute problem with a component of the PS required for proton acceleration prevented the LHC teams from making these new collisions. However, the way is open for a possible physics run with proton-lead collisions in 2012.   Members of the LHC team photographed when the first hybrid beams got to full energy. The proton and lead beams are visible on the leftmost screen up on the wall (click to enlarge the photo). The technical challenge of making different beams circulate in the LHC is by no means trivial. Even if the machine is the same, there are a number of differences when it is operated with beams of protons, beams of lead or beams of proton and lead. Provided that the beams are equal, irrespective of whether they consist of protons or lead nuclei, they revolve at the...

  1. Aerodynamics of a hybrid airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andan, Amelda Dianne; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of a numerical study of the aerodynamic parameters of a wingless and a winged-hull airship. The total forces and moment coefficients of the airships have been computed over a range of angles. The results obtained show that addition of a wing to a conventional airship increases the lift has three times the lifting force at positive angle of attack as compared to a wingless airship whereas the drag increases in the range of 19% to 58%. The longitudinal and directional stabilities were found to be statically stable, however, both the conventional airship and the hybrid or winged airships were found to have poor rolling stability. Wingless airship has slightly higher longitudinal stability than a winged airship. The winged airship has better directional stability than the wingless airship. The wingless airship only possesses static rolling stability in the range of yaw angles of -5° to 5°. On the contrary, the winged airship initially tested does not possess rolling stability at all. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations show that modifications to the wing placement and its dihedral have strong positive effect on the rolling stability. Raising the wings to the center of gravity and introducing a dihedral angle of 5° stabilizes the rolling motion of the winged airship.

  2. Heterodyne effect in Hybrid CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei; Welch, George; Scully, Marlan

    2009-10-01

    We study the interaction between the resonant Raman signal and non-Raman field, either the concomitant nonresonant four-wave-mixing (FWM) background or an applied external field, in our recently developed scheme of coherent Anti-Stokes Raman scattering, a hybrid CARS. Our technique combines instantaneous coherent excitation of several characteristic molecular vibrations with subsequent probing of these vibrations by an optimally shaped, time-delayed, narrowband laser pulse. This pulse configuration mitigates the non-resonant FWM background while maximizing the Raman-resonant signal, and allows rapid and highly specific detection even in the presence of multiple scattering. We apply this method to non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose levels. Under certain conditions we find that the measured signal is linearly proportional to the glucose concentration due to optical interference with the residual background light, which allows reliable detection of spectral signatures down to medically-relevant glucose levels. We also study the interference between the CARS field and an external field (the local oscillator) by controlling their relative phase and amplitude. This control allows direct observation of the real and imaginary components of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility (χ^(3)) of the sample. We demonstrate that the heterodyne method can be used to amplify the signal and thus increase detection sensitivity.

  3. Postcolonial Hybrids in The Lowland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper delves into Jhumpa Lahiri’s 2013 novel, The Lowland, to analyze the diasporic experience of the Indian-born characters. Homi Bhabha’s postcolonial approach is utilized to demonstrate the ways in which the characters perceive the immigration experience, and to unravel the causes of their despair, the disintegration of their family, and the underlying reasons behind the decisions that they make to compensate for their marginal status in the adopted land. It is attempted to shed light on the characters’ insecurities and mental challenges brought forth by their ‘liminal’ condition, in which they find themselves caught in a dilemma between the Indian lifestyle on the one hand, and the American dominant culture, on the other. Furthermore, ‘hybridity’ is discussed, which entails the characters’ partial adoption of the foreign culture that gives birth to mixed identities in the ‘third space.’ This research concludes that in spite of the disturbing aspects of diasporic life including uncertainty, marginality, and unbelonging over which the characters possess no control, they are capable of surviving and even flourishing in the foreign social milieu.Keywords: Adopted Land; Diaspora; Liminality; Hybridity; Third Space

  4. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  5. A Novel Numerical Algorithm for Optimal Sizing of a Photovoltaic/Wind/Diesel Generator/Battery Microgrid Using Loss of Load Probability Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for determining optimal sizes of PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and storage battery installed in a building integrated system. The objective of the proposed optimization is to design the system that can supply a building load demand at minimum cost and maximum availability. The mathematical models for the system components as well as meteorological variables such as solar energy, temperature, and wind speed are employed for this purpose. Moreover, the results showed that the optimum sizing ratios (the daily energy generated by the source to the daily energy demand for the PV array, wind turbine, diesel generator, and battery for a system located in Sohar, Oman, are 0.737, 0.46, 0.22, and 0.17, respectively. A case study represented by a system consisting of 30 kWp PV array (36%, 18 kWp wind farm (55%, and 5 kVA diesel generator (9% is presented. This system is supposed to power a 200 kWh/day load demand. It is found that the generated energy share of the PV array, wind farm, and diesel generator is 36%, 55%, and 9%, respectively, while the cost of energy is 0.17 USD/kWh.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF WIND-DIESEL SYSTEM; Desarrollo de un sistema eolico-diesel de alta penetracion eolica mediante un sistema de almacenamiento cinetico de alta velocidad de rotacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Cruz, I.

    2001-07-01

    The challenge of the project presented here is the use of a conventional air generator operating in parallel with a diesel group of equivalent power. The system will be able to stop the diesel group, whenever the power of the air generator surpasses the demanded one, diminishing the consumption of energy of fossil origin. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Hybrid Data Assimilation without Ensemble Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office is preparing to upgrade its three-dimensional variational system to a hybrid approach in which the ensemble is generated using a square-root ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the variational problem is solved using the Grid-point Statistical Interpolation system. As in most EnKF applications, we found it necessary to employ a combination of multiplicative and additive inflations, to compensate for sampling and modeling errors, respectively and, to maintain the small-member ensemble solution close to the variational solution; we also found it necessary to re-center the members of the ensemble about the variational analysis. During tuning of the filter we have found re-centering and additive inflation to play a considerably larger role than expected, particularly in a dual-resolution context when the variational analysis is ran at larger resolution than the ensemble. This led us to consider a hybrid strategy in which the members of the ensemble are generated by simply converting the variational analysis to the resolution of the ensemble and applying additive inflation, thus bypassing the EnKF. Comparisons of this, so-called, filter-free hybrid procedure with an EnKF-based hybrid procedure and a control non-hybrid, traditional, scheme show both hybrid strategies to provide equally significant improvement over the control; more interestingly, the filter-free procedure was found to give qualitatively similar results to the EnKF-based procedure.

  8. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  9. A Research on Airborne Squint Hybrid SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIANYong; ZHOUYinqing; LIChunsheng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we establish the squint mode hybrid SAR (Synthetic aperture radar) geometry. Based on the squint mode SAR geometry, the hybrid SAR signal model in squint case is derived. Based on this signal model, the hybrid SAR imaging process parameter is discussed. Aimed at the squint case, we analyze not only the relationship between the resolution and SAR system parameters, but also the relation between the time extension of the maximum azimuth signal and SAR system parameters. This research establishes the theoretical foundation for the design of squint hybrid SAR and serves as a good guide for the future work of improving the resolution of squint hybrid SAR. Based on the two-step algorithm, by considering the squint angle and cubic phase term, we are going to use the deramp SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for squint hybrid SAR imaging. This algorithm uses the deramp method for the first step processing, and the SC-Chirp Scaling algorithm for the second step processing. The process procedure of this algorithm includes the squint angle, has the explicit physical meaning, therefore is convenient for analysis. The computer simulation result proves the validity of the analysis.

  10. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Wörterbuchform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: In diesem Beitrag wird die Bildung, Darstellung und Leistung von hybriden textuellen Strukturen, die akzessive Einträge aufweisen, am Beispiel von Wörterbuchartikeln behandelt sowie erklärt, welche Eigenschaften hybride textuelle Einheiten haben. Ein Wörterbuchartikel eines Printwörterbuchs weist immer dann neben einer hierarchischen reinen eine hierarchische hybride Textkonstituentenstruktur auf, wenn in ihm mindestens ein funktionaler Angabezusatz auftritt, z.B. ein oben oder unten erweiternder oder ein binnenerweiternder. Da funktionale Angabezusätze Textsegmente mit Angabefunktion aber ohne Textkonstituentenstatus sind, werden sie durch nichtfunktionale Segmentation ermittelt, so dass neben funktionalen auch nichtfunktionale Textsegmente gegeben sind, die dann bei der Strukturbildung in die Trägermengen eingehen, so dass die Trägermengen aller hybriden hierarchischen Strukturen elementenheterogen, während die Trägermengen aller hierarchischen reinen Strukturen elementenhomogen sind. In den Strukturgraphen für hierarchische hybride Artikelstrukturen sind dann die Knoten für diejenigen Textsegmente, die den Hybridstatus der Strukturen bewirken, entweder durch Pfeilkanten für die textarchitektonischen oberhalb/unterhalb-Relationen mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbunden, so dass die Strukturgraphen architektonisch angereichert sind, oder durch besonders markierte Kanten, die die Knoten für die nichtfunktionalen Textsegmente und die für die binnenerweiternden funktionalen Angabezusätze mit den Knoten für die Textkonstituenten verbinden. Zu jedem Typ von hierarchischer reiner Artikelstruktur gehören mehrere Typen von hybriden Artikelstrukturen; entsprechendes gilt für hierarchische reine Angabestrukturen. Nur eine Auswahl aus den Typologien der hybriden Artikel- und Angabestrukturen wird behandelt sowie eine kleine Auswahl von hybriden textuellen Einheiten, die kriteriale Eigenschaften von zwei

  11. Genetic evidence for the hybrid nature of somatic hybrids from Datura innoxia Mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieder, O

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid nature of tetraploid somatic hybrids of two genetically different chlorophyll-deficient mutants from Datura innoxia Mill. was demonstrated with the aid of anther culture. Green and chlorophyll-deficient androgenetic lines could be regenerated from the pollen grains.

  12. Genetic structure in a dynamic baboon hybrid zone corroborates behavioural observations in a hybrid population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charpentier, M J E; Fontaine, M C; Cherel, E; Renoult, J P; Jenkins, T; Benoit, L; Barthès, N; Alberts, S C; Tung, J

    2012-01-01

    Behaviour and genetic structure are intimately related: mating patterns and patterns of movement between groups or populations influence the movement of genetic variation across the landscape and from one generation to the next. In hybrid zones, the behaviour of the hybridizing taxa can also impact

  13. Painting of parental chromatin in Beta hybrids by multi-colour fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desel, Christine; Jansen, Rita; Dedong, Gue; Schmidt, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a relatively young crop and has a narrow gene pool. In order to introduce genetic variability into the crop, interspecific hybrids, selected from crosses with wild beets of the sections Corollinae and Procumbentes, have been generated. The introgressed B. procumbens chromatin carries resistance genes to beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schm. These lines are important for breeding of nematode-resistant sugar beet, while Corollinae species are potential donors of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses such as drought or saline soils. We have used in situ hybridization of genomic DNA to discriminate the parental chromosomes in these interspecific hybrids. Suppression of cross-hybridization by blocking DNA was not necessary indicating that the investigated Beta genomes contain sufficient species-specific DNA enabling the unequivocal determination of the genomic composition of the hybrids. Interspecific hybrid lines with an additional chromosome (2n = 18 + 1), chromosome fragment (2n = 18 + fragment) or translocation of B. procumbens (2n = 18) were analysed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis and meiosis. Species-specific satellites and ribosomal genes used in combination with genomic DNA or in rehybridization experiments served as landmark probes for chromosome identification in hybrid genomes. The detection of a B. procumbens translocation of approx. I Mbp demonstrated the sensitivity and resolution of GISH and showed that this approach is a powerful method in genome analysis projects of the genus Beta.

  14. Gonad morphogenesis defects drive hybrid male sterility in asymmetric hybrid breakdown of Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Alivia; Jin, Qi; Chen, Yen-Chu; Cutter, Asher D

    2014-01-01

    Determining the causes and evolution of reproductive barriers to gene flow between populations, speciation, is the key to understanding the origin of diversity in nature. Many species manifest hybrid breakdown when they intercross, characterized by increasingly exacerbated problems in later generations of hybrids. Recently, Caenorhabditis nematodes have emerged as a genetic model for studying speciation, and here we investigate the nature and causes of hybrid breakdown between Caenorhabditis remanei and C. latens. We quantify partial F1 hybrid inviability and extensive F2 hybrid inviability; the ~75% F2 embryonic arrest occurs primarily during gastrulation or embryonic elongation. Moreover, F1 hybrid males exhibit Haldane's rule asymmetrically for both sterility and inviability, being strongest when C. remanei serves as maternal parent. We show that the mechanism by which sterile hybrid males are incapable of transferring sperm or a copulatory plug involves defective gonad morphogenesis, which we hypothesize results from linker cell defects in migration and/or cell death during development. This first documented case of partial hybrid male sterility in Caenorhabditis follows expectations of Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule for asymmetric male fitness, providing a powerful foundation for molecular dissection of intrinsic reproductive barriers and divergence of genetic pathways controlling organ morphogenesis.

  15. Hybridization and genome evolution I: The role of contingency during hybrid speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice EROUKHMANOFF, Richard I. BAILEY, Glenn-Peter SæTRE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS involves the recombination of two differentiated genomes into a novel, functional one without a change in chromosome number. Theoretically, there are numerous ways for two parental genomes to recombine. Hence, chance may play a large role in the formation of a hybrid species. If these genome combinations can evolve rapidly following hybridization and sympatric situations are numerous, recurrent homoploid hybrid speciation is a possibility. We argue that three different, but not mutually exclusive, types of contingencies could influence this process. First, many of these “hopeful monsters” of recombinant parent genotypes would likely have low fitness. Only specific combinations of parental genomic contributions may produce viable, intra-fertile hybrid species able to accommodate potential constraints arising from intragenomic conflict. Second, ecological conditions (competition, geography of the contact zones or the initial frequency of both parent species might favor different outcomes ranging from sympatric coexistence to the formation of hybrid swarms and ultimately hybrid speciation. Finally, history may also play an important role in promoting or constraining recurrent HHS if multiple hybridization events occur sequentially and parental divergence or isolation differs along this continuum. We discuss under which conditions HHS may occur multiple times in parallel and to what extent recombination and selection may fuse the parent genomes in the same or different ways. We conclude by examining different approaches that might help to solve this intriguing evolutionary puzzle [Current Zoology 59 (5: 667-674, 2013]. 

  16. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  17. Control approach for comfortable power shifting in hybrid transmissions - ML 450 hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenger Zetina, Siegfried; Neiss, Konstantin [Daimler AG, Hybrid Development Center, Troy, MI (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The comfortable shifting control in a luxury class vehicle is extremely important, due to competitive automatic transmissions with torque converters; clutch automated manual transmissions and dual clutch transmissions. Hybrid transmissions play a key role in comfort and performance enhancement while at the same time being fuel efficient with the aid of electric machines and battery packs. Here, the alternative to conventional add-on hybrid power head transmissions: the power split hybrid transmission is studied. As a practical example, the Two Mode of the Hybrid Development Center is used within the ML450 Hybrid. For achieving a smooth shifting, there are model based algorithms needed. As objective measure to evaluate the shifting the VDV (Vibration Dose Value) is used. (orig.)

  18. Production of fertile somatic hybrid plants between Oriental hybrid lily and Liliumxformolongi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Mitsugu; Morohashi, Hitomi; Komai, Fuminori

    2003-08-01

    Somatic hybridizations via electrofusion were performed in combinations of Oriental hybrid lilies (cvs. Acapulco and Shirotae) and Liliumxformolongi hort. (cv. Hakucho). Electrofusion-treated protoplasts divided only under nurse culture. The divided protoplasts grew into calli on the culture medium containing picloram, and the calli were then transferred to the hormone-free culture medium for induction of plant regeneration. The regenerants were transferred to a greenhouse, and were grown until the flower stage. In the fusion combinations of Acapulco + Hakucho and Shirotae + Hakucho, four regenerants apparently showed different morphological features compared with their parents. The results of molecular analyses by means of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences markers and flow cytometry confirmed that these regenerants were somatic hybrid plants. Furthermore, we examined the stability of the morphological features of the hybrids in the next generations. This is the first report to describe the successful realization of Lilium somatic hybridization via protoplast fusion. PMID:12684784

  19. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been studied for the drive memristor chaotic oscillator system and the same response memristor chaotic oscillator system. For the different dimensions, the memristor chaotic oscillator system and the other chaotic system have realized general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization. Numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of these methods.

  20. Evolution and Molecular Control of Hybrid Incompatibility in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; E, Zhiguo; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with “parasitic” selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities. PMID:27563306

  1. Status and Prospects of Hybrid Rice Breeding in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cai-lin

    2005-01-01

    Research on hybrid rice in Jiangsu Province, China began in 1970. Great progress has been made since then, which can be divided into three stages according to the development of hybrid rice breeding and production in Jiangsu Province. The first stage was beginning stage from 1970 to 1980, when progress was mainly made in cytoplasmic male sterile line breeding. The second stage could be described as developing stage, from 1980 to 1995, when indica hybrid rice was rapidly popularized, and japonica hybrid rice became popular later. From 1996, hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province entered the third stage, when both indica and japonica hybrid rice breeding in the three-line system or intersubspecific hybrid rice breeding in the two-line system made a great breakthrough with the successful breeding of the hybrids Teyou 559, 9 You 138 and Liangyoupeijiu. The developing trend of hybrid rice breeding in Jiangsu Province is also discussed.

  2. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  3. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Jian Liu; Li-Ya Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) eradication remains a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance.Hybrid therapy has attracted widespread attention because of initial report with good efficacy and safety.However,many issues on hybrid therapy are still unclear such as the eradication efficacy,safety,compliance,influencing factors,correlation with antibiotic resistance,and comparison with other regimens.Therefore,a comprehensive review on the evidence of hybrid therapy for H.pylori infection was conducted.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to September 30,2015,searching by the terms of"Helicobacterpylori" or "H.pylori",and "hybrid".Study Selection:Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results:Totally,1871 patients of 12 studies received hybrid therapy.The eradication rates were 77.6-97.4% in intention-to-treat and 82.6-99.1% in per-protocol analyses.Compliance was 93.3-100.0%,overall adverse effects rate was 14.5-67.5%,and discontinued medication rate due to adverse effects was 0-6.7%.H.pylori culture and sensitivity test were performed only in 13.3% patients.Pooled analysis showed that the eradication rates with dual clarithromycin and metronidazole susceptible,isolated metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance,and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were 98.5%,97.6%,92.9%,and 80.0%,respectively.Overall,the efficacy,compliance,and safety of hybrid therapy were similar with sequential or concomitant therapy.However,hybrid therapy might be superior to sequential therapy in Asians.Conclusions:Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions.Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy.Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy,safety,and compliance.

  4. Development and characterization of hybrid thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhanis, Priyanka Chandrashekhar

    This work is aimed at studying the possibility of using interply hybrid woven thermoplastic semi-pregs in secondary structures in aircrafts at TenCate Advanced Composites, Netherlands and Purdue University. Three different interply hybrids were designed from combination of Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg, Owen corning's woven glass with PPS sheets and discontinuous chopped Cetex(c) carbon-PPS semi-preg to get desired flexural, out of plane and bearing properties. The design calculations are done based on classical laminate theory and the selection of materials to be used with carbon-PPS was done based on cost and availability. The Hybrid laminate performances are analyzed and compared to the conventional Cetex (c) Carbon-PPS semi-preg laminates. Observations are reported on three point bend test (European standard 2562), four point bend test(ASTM D6415-99) and bearing test (Airbus standards AITM 1-0009) for the laminates and it was found that hybrid laminates show a reduction of 5-10% in bending stiffness, 20-40% reduction in out-of-plane strength and 2-5%reduction in bearing with a cost reduction of 20-30%. The research identifies and documents the different factors responsible for failures and reduction in strength in the Hybrids.

  5. Euro hybrid materials and structures. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, Joachim M.; Siebert, Marc (eds.)

    2016-08-01

    In order to use the materials as best as possible, several different materials are usually mixed in one component, especially in the field of lightweight design. If these combinations of materials are joined inherently, they are called multi material design products or hybrid structures. These place special requirements on joining technology, design methods and manufacturing and are challenging in other aspects, too. The eight chapters with manuscripts of the presentations are: Chapter 1- Interface: What happens in the interface between the two materials? Chapter 2 - Corrosion and Residual Stresses: How about galvanic corrosion and thermal residual stresses in the contact zone of different materials? Chapter 3 - Characterization: How to characterize and test hybrid materials? Chapter 4 - Design: What is a suitable design and dimensioning method for hybrid structures? Chapter 5 - Machining and Processing: How to machine and process hybrid structures and materials? Chapter 6 - Component Manufacturing: What is a suitable manufacturing route for hybrid structures? Chapter 7 - Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance: How to assure the quality of material and structures? Chapter 8 - Joining: How to join components of different materials?.

  6. Hybrid models in loop quantum cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.

    2016-06-01

    In the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC), inhomogeneous models are usually quantized by means of a hybrid approach that combines loop quantization techniques with standard quantum field theory methods. This approach is based on a splitting of the phase space in a homogeneous sector, formed by global, zero-modes and an inhomogeneous sector, formed by the remaining, infinite number of modes, that describe the local degrees of freedom. Then, the hybrid quantization is attained by adopting a loop representation for the homogeneous gravitational sector, while a Fock representation is used for the inhomogeneities. The zero-mode of the Hamiltonian constraint operator couples the homogeneous and inhomogeneous sectors. The hybrid approach, therefore, is expected to provide a suitable quantum theory in regimes where the main quantum effects of the geometry are those affecting the zero-modes, while the inhomogeneities, still being quantum, can be treated in a more conventional way. This hybrid strategy was first proposed for the simplest cosmological midisuperspaces: the Gowdy models, and it has been later applied to the case of cosmological perturbations. This paper reviews the construction and main applications of hybrid LQC.

  7. Formes coopératives hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    On constate avec un intérêt croissant la transformation d’organisations du tiers secteur en organisations hybrides. Les chercheurs se sont penchés sur les processus d’« hybridation » ayant mené au développement de l’entreprise sociale, dont l’incarnation la plus remarquable est le modèle italien de...... la coopérative sociale. Il s’agit d’un modèle doublement « hybride », tant par son mode de gouvernance que par la diversité de ses pourvoyeurs de ressources. D’autres formes hybrides de coopératives se sont développées au cours de ces dernières années, en particulier dans le secteur des coopératives...... agricoles, qui ont adopté certaines pratiques des entreprises privées (par exemple au niveau des droits de vote). D’autres formes d’hybridation ont concerné les coopératives de consommateurs ou les coopératives ouvrières. Parfois, ce processus s’opère au niveau multi-organisationnel, avec le développement...

  8. Hybrid discourse practice and science learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberelis, George; Wehunt, Mary D.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on a study of how creative linguistic practices (which we call hybrid discourse practices) were enacted by students in a fifth-grade science unit on barn owls and how these practices helped to produce a synergistic micro-community of scientific practice in the classroom that constituted a fertile space for students (and the teacher) to construct emergent but increasingly legitimate and dynamic disciplinary knowledges and identities. Our findings are important for the ways in which they demonstrate (a) how students use hybrid discourse practices to self-scaffold their work within complex curricular tasks and when they are not completely sure about how to enact these tasks (b) how hybrid discourse practices can promote inquiry orientations to science, (c) how hybrid discourse practices index new and powerful forms of science pedagogy, and (d) how hybrid discourse practices are relevant to more global issues such as the crucial roles of language fluency and creativity, which are known prerequisites for advanced science learning and which aid students in developing skills that are necessary for entry into science and technology careers.

  9. Vaccine engineering improved by hybrid technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2004-08-01

    The term 'vaccination' describes the induction of protective immune responses against infectious diseases, but is also used to define antigen-specific forms of immunotherapy for allergy, cancer and autoimmunity. Successful vaccination requires either immune modulation or the induction of robust specific immunity to several disease-causing antigens. However, natural antigen sources may contain greatly varying amounts of these antigens and some of them may exhibit low immunogenicity. An approach for overcoming the latter problems has been developed for allergy vaccines recently. This approach is based on the genetic engineering of hybrid molecules, consisting of several major disease-eliciting antigens/epitopes. Such hybrid molecules can be built to include the most relevant epitopes of complex antigen sources. Moreover, fusion of different antigens in the form of hybrid molecules strongly increases their immunogenicity. The hybrid approach can also be used for the generation of mosaic antigens with altered immunological properties, which consist of re-shuffled antigen pieces. We exemplify the use of hybrid technology for the generation of new allergy vaccines and discuss its potential applicability for the development of vaccines for infectious diseases, cancer and autoimmunity.

  10. Travelling Waves in Hybrid Chemotaxis Models

    KAUST Repository

    Franz, Benjamin

    2013-12-18

    Hybrid models of chemotaxis combine agent-based models of cells with partial differential equation models of extracellular chemical signals. In this paper, travelling wave properties of hybrid models of bacterial chemotaxis are investigated. Bacteria are modelled using an agent-based (individual-based) approach with internal dynamics describing signal transduction. In addition to the chemotactic behaviour of the bacteria, the individual-based model also includes cell proliferation and death. Cells consume the extracellular nutrient field (chemoattractant), which is modelled using a partial differential equation. Mesoscopic and macroscopic equations representing the behaviour of the hybrid model are derived and the existence of travelling wave solutions for these models is established. It is shown that cell proliferation is necessary for the existence of non-transient (stationary) travelling waves in hybrid models. Additionally, a numerical comparison between the wave speeds of the continuum models and the hybrid models shows good agreement in the case of weak chemotaxis and qualitative agreement for the strong chemotaxis case. In the case of slow cell adaptation, we detect oscillating behaviour of the wave, which cannot be explained by mean-field approximations. © 2013 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  11. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  12. Analysis and design of hybrid control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmborg, J.

    1998-05-01

    Different aspects of hybrid control systems are treated: analysis, simulation, design and implementation. A systematic methodology using extended Lyapunov theory for design of hybrid systems is developed. The methodology is based on conventional control designs in separate regions together with a switching strategy. Dynamics are not well defined if the control design methods lead to fast mode switching. The dynamics depend on the salient features of the implementation of the mode switches. A theorem for the stability of second order switching together with the resulting dynamics is derived. The dynamics on an intersection of two sliding sets are defined for two relays working on different time scales. The current simulation packages have problems modeling and simulating hybrid systems. It is shown how fast mode switches can be found before or during simulation. The necessary analysis work is a very small overhead for a modern simulation tool. To get some experience from practical problems with hybrid control the switching strategy is implemented in two different software environments. In one of them a time-optimal controller is added to an existing PID controller on a commercial control system. Successful experiments with this hybrid controller shows the practical use of the method 78 refs, 51 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Evolution of a Laser Hybrid Welding Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Frostevarg, Jan; Ilar, Torbjörn; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    Laser arc hybrid welding combines the advantages but also the complex physical mechanisms of gas metal arc welding and laser keyhole welding. From manifold mainly experimental but also theoretical research results a map with versatile functions was initiated for the first time. The purpose is to survey the overall context and to facilitate navigation to the various phenomena that are shown through case studies accompanied by theoretical explanations and guidelines for optimization. Though not complete, the map enables systematic and graphical navigation to relevant publications. Based on a fundamental structure of the map, which was decided early, it is inherently extendable in the future by adding existing and new knowledge, also from other research groups, enabling evolution. The fundament of the map structure comprises gouge thickness, joint type and metal grade, in coherence with product and weld designers' starting points. The next hierarchy level of the map offers options in the joint type as well as in hybrid welding techniques. The latter contains techniques like double-sided welding, pulse shaping management of the arc or laser, CMT arcs, tandem arcs, or remelting of undercuts. In addition to laser-arc hybrid welding, other hybrid laser techniques like multilayer hot-wire laser welding of narrow gaps or hybrid laser friction stir welding can be taken into account. At the other end of the hierarchy, the map offers via a database-like archive electronic navigation to research results like weld macrographs, high speed imaging or numerical simulation results of the welding process.

  14. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  15. The lightest hybrid meson supermultiplet in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Jozef J

    2011-10-01

    We interpret the spectrum of meson states recently obtained in non-perturbative lattice QCD calculations in terms of constituent quark-antiquark bound states and states, called 'hybrids', in which the q{bar q} pair is supplemented by an excitation of the gluonic field. We identify a lightest supermultiplet of hybrid mesons with J{sup PC} = (0,1,2){sup {-+}}, 1{sup -} built from a gluonic excitation of chromomagnetic character coupled to q{bar q} in an S-wave. The next lightest hybrids are suggested to be quark orbital excitations with the same gluonic excitation, while the next distinct gluonic excitation is significantly heavier. Existing models of gluonic excitations are compared to these findings and possible phenomenological consequences explored.

  16. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to...... approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes the...... asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments...

  17. High-MTF hybrid ferroelectric IRFPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott B.; Hayden, Terrence

    1998-07-01

    Low cost, uncooled hybrid infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA's) are in full-scale production at Raytheon Systems Company (RSC), formerly Texas Instruments Defense Systems and Electronics Group. Detectors consist of reticulated ceramic barium strontium titanate (BST) arrays of 320 X 240 pixels on 48.5 micrometer pitch. The principal performance shortcoming of the hybrid arrays has been low MTF due to thermal crosstalk between pixels. In the past two years, significant improvements have been made to increase MTF making hybrids more competitive in performance with monolithic arrays. The improvements are (1) the reduction of the thickness of the IR absorbing layer electrode that maintains electrical continuity and increases thermal isolation between pixels, (2) reduction of the electrical crosstalk from the ROIC, and (3) development of a process to increase the thermal path-length between pixels called 'elevated optical coat.' This paper describes all three activities and their efficacy. Also discussed is the uncooled IRFPA production capability at RSC.

  18. Simulation of a Hybrid Locomotion Robot Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, P.

    2002-10-01

    This study describes a simulation process of a mobile robot. The focus is in kinematic and dynamic behavior simulations of hybrid locomotion robot vehicles. This research is motivated by the development needs of the WorkPartner field service robot. The whole robot system consists of a mobile platform and a two-hand manipulator. The robot platform, called Hybtor, is a hybrid locomotion robot capable of walking and driving by wheels as well as combining these two locomotion modes. This study describes first the general problems and their solutions in the dynamic simulation of mobile robots. A kinematic and dynamic virtual model of the Hybtor robot was built and simulations were carried out using one commercial simulation tool. Walking, wheel driven and rolking mode locomotion, which is a special hybrid locomotion style, has been simulated and analyzed. Position and force control issues during obstacle overrun and climbing were also studied.

  19. DNA hybridization sensing for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dapra, Johannes; Brøgger, Anna Line;

    2013-01-01

    are rearrangements between two chromosome arms that results in two derivative chromosomes having a mixed DNA sequence. The current detection method is a Fluorescent In situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the DNA sequences of two chromosomes involved...... in the translocation (Kwasny et al., 2012). We have developed a new double hybridization assay that allows for sorting of the DNA chromosomal fragments into separate compartment, moreover allowing for detection of the translocation. To detect the translocation it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences...... forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The first example of the translocation detection was presented on lab-on-a-disc using fluorescently labeled DNA fragments, representing the derivative chromosome (Brøgger et al., 2012). To allow...

  20. Hybrid Switch Reluctance Drives For Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    magnet motors. The focus of this thesis is regarding the design and control of a single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM) intended to drive e.g. a centrifugal pump. A single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor was designed with a novel stator pole shaping method and a new arrangement...... magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the HSRM needs information about rotor position to be properly controlled. For BLDC, PMSM, induction motors, and the normal SRM position sensorless methods are relatively well established and have been used for some time. For the single phase switched reluctance motor...... be the single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor (HSRM). Due to the simple construction of the single phase HSRM, manufacturing may be simplified compared to a three phase permanent magnet motor and consumption of copper may be lowered when compared to both the induction motor and some three phase permanent...

  1. Liquid fuel utilization in SOFC hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Marco; Traverso, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana [TPG-DIMSET, University of Genoa, Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    The interest in solid oxide fuel cell systems comes from their capability of converting the chemical energy of traditional fuels into electricity, with high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. In this paper, a study of the design space of solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine hybrids fed by methanol and kerosene is presented for stationary power generation in isolated areas (or transportation). A 500 kW class hybrid system was analysed using WTEMP original software developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa. The choice of fuel-processing strategy and the influence of the main design parameters on the thermoeconomic characteristics of hybrid systems were investigated. The low capital and fuel cost of methanol systems make them the most attractive solutions among those investigated here. (author)

  2. Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Alfredo A; Cortés, Cristián E

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid Predictive Control for Dynamic Transport Problems develops methods for the design of predictive control strategies for nonlinear-dynamic hybrid discrete-/continuous-variable systems. The methodology is designed for real-time applications, particularly the study of dynamic transport systems. Operational and service policies are considered, as well as cost reduction. The control structure is based on a sound definition of the key variables and their evolution. A flexible objective function able to capture the predictive behaviour of the system variables is described. Coupled with efficient algorithms, mainly drawn from the area of computational intelligence, this is shown to optimize performance indices for real-time applications. The framework of the proposed predictive control methodology is generic and, being able to solve nonlinear mixed-integer optimization problems dynamically, is readily extendable to other industrial processes. The main topics of this book are: ●hybrid predictive control (HPC) ...

  3. Building human genome maps with radiation hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slonim, D.; Kruglyak, L.; Stein, L.; Lander, E. [MIT Center for Genome Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Genome maps are crucial tools in human genetic research, providing known landmarks for locating disease genes and frameworks for large-scale sequencing. Radiation hybrid mapping is one technique for building genome maps. In this paper, we describe the methods used to build radiation hybrid maps of the entire human genome. We present the hidden Markov model that we employ to estimate the likelihood of a map despite uncertainty about the data, and we discuss the problem of searching for maximum-likelihood maps. We describe the graph algorithms used to find sparse but reliable initial maps and our methods of extending them. Finally, we show results validating our software on simulated data, and we describe our genome-wide human radiation hybrid maps and the evidence supporting them. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Solar powered hybrid sensor module program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    Geo-orbital systems of the near future will require more sophisticated electronic and electromechanical monitoring and control systems than current satellite systems with an emphasis in the design on the electronic density and autonomy of the subsystem components. Results of a project to develop, design, and implement a proof-of-concept sensor system for space applications, with hybrids forming the active subsystem components are described. The design of the solar power hybrid sensor modules is discussed. Module construction and function are described. These modules combined low power CMOS electronics, GaAs solar cells, a crystal oscillatory standard UART data formatting, and a bidirectional optical data link into a single 1.25 x 1.25 x 0.25 inch hybrid package which has no need for electrical input or output. Several modules were built and tested. Applications of such a system for future space missions are also discussed.

  5. Chromosome doubling in vine cacti hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Zur, N; Abbo, S; Bar-Zvi, D; Mizrahi, Y

    2003-01-01

    We performed reciprocal crosses between the tetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus species, H. undatus and H. polyrhizus. S. megalanthus x H. undatus gave rise to viable hexaploids and 6x-aneuploid hybrids rather than to the expected triploids. No genuine hybrids were obtained in the reciprocal cross. The pollen diameter of the tetraploid S. megalanthus varied widely, indicating the occurrence of unreduced gametes, while that of H. undatus pollen was very uniform, indicating an extremely low frequency of unreduced gametes. This finding suggests that the hexaploids were formed by chromosome doubling after the formation of the hybrid triploid zygote rather than by fusion of unreduced gametes of the two species. PMID:12920104

  6. Sneutrino hybrid inflation and nonthermal leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In sneutrino hybrid inflation the superpartner of one of the right-handed neutrinos involved in the seesaw mechanism plays the role of the inflaton field. It obtains its large mass after the ''waterfall'' phase transition which ends hybrid inflation. After this phase transition the oscillations of the sneutrino inflaton field may dominate the universe and efficiently produce the baryon asymmetry of the universe via nonthermal leptogenesis. We investigate the conditions under which inflation, with primordial perturbations in accordance with the latest WMAP results, as well as successful nonthermal leptogenesis can be realized simultaneously within the sneutrino hybrid inflation scenario. We point out which requirements successful inflation and leptogenesis impose on the seesaw parameters, i.e. on the Yukawa couplings and the mass of the right-handed (s)neutrino, and derive the predictions for the CMB observables in terms of the right-handed (s)neutrino mass and the other relevant model parameters

  7. Biodegradable Polyphosphazene Based Peptide-Polymer Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Linhardt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of peptide based hybrid polymers designed to undergo enzymatic degradation is presented, via macrosubstitution of a polyphosphazene backbone with the tetrapeptide Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly. Further co-substitution of the hybrid polymers with hydrophilic polyalkylene oxide Jeffamine M-1000 leads to water soluble and biodegradable hybrid polymers. Detailed degradation studies, via 31P NMR spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and field flow fractionation show the polymers degrade via a combination of enzymatic, as well as hydrolytic pathways. The peptide sequence was chosen due to its known property to undergo lysosomal degradation; hence, these degradable, water soluble polymers could be of significant interest for the use as polymer therapeutics. In this context, we investigated conjugation of the immune response modifier imiquimod to the polymers via the tetrapeptide and report the self-assembly behavior of the conjugate, as well as its enzymatically triggered drug release behavior.

  8. Smart self-assembled hybrid hydrogel biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeček, Jindřich; Yang, Jiyuan

    2012-07-23

    Hybrid biomaterials are systems created from components of at least two distinct classes of molecules, for example, synthetic macromolecules and proteins or peptide domains. The synergistic combination of two types of structures may produce new materials that possess unprecedented levels of structural organization and novel properties. This Review focuses on biorecognition-driven self-assembly of hybrid macromolecules into functional hydrogel biomaterials. First, basic rules that govern the secondary structure of peptides are discussed, and then approaches to the specific design of hybrid systems with tailor-made properties are evaluated, followed by a discussion on the similarity of design principles of biomaterials and macromolecular therapeutics. Finally, the future of the field is briefly outlined.

  9. Hybrid SPECT/CT imaging in neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmiello, Andrea; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Meniconi, Martina; Cuccurullo, Vincenzo; Gaeta, Maria Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the SPECT/CT hybrid modality has led to a rapid development of imaging techniques in nuclear medicine, opening new perspectives for imaging staff and patients as well. However, while, the clinical role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is well consolidated, the diffusion and the consequent value of single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) has yet to be weighed, Hence, there is a need for a careful analysis, comparing the "potential" benefits of the hybrid modality with the "established" ones of the standalone machine. The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of this hybrid tool on the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, comparing strengths and weaknesses of both modalities through the use of SWOT analysis. PMID:25143053

  10. Luminescent hybrid materials based on laponite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanrong; Li, Man; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Wenjun

    2014-08-11

    The spectroscopic behavior of ionic Eu(3+) or Tb(3+) complexes of an aromatic carboxyl-functionalized organic salt as well as those of the hybrid materials derived from adsorption of the ionic complexes on Laponite clay are reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns suggest that the complexes are mainly adsorbed on the outer surfaces of the Laponite disks rather than intercalated within the interlayer spaces. Photophysical data showed that the energy-transfer efficiency from the ligand to Eu(3+) ions in the hybrid material is increased remarkably with respect to the corresponding ionic complex. The hybrid material containing the Eu(3+) complex shows bright red emission from the prominent (5) D0 →(7) F2 transition of Eu(3+) ions, and that containing the Tb(3+) complex exhibits bright green emission due to the dominant (5) D4 →(7) F5 transition of Tb(3+) ions. PMID:25043683

  11. Hybrid Multiprocessor Real-Time Scheduling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A Safaei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time scheduling is one of the most important aspects of a real-time system design. To achieve a real-time system's requirement, especially to be fast, multiprocessor systems are used. Generally, multiprocessor real-time scheduling algorithms fall into one the two well-known approaches: Partitioning or Global. The partitioning approach has acceptable overhead for underlying system but can NOT guarantee to provide an optimal schedule. The global approach can provide this guarantee by holding some preconditions and considerable overheads. In this paper, an intermediate hybrid multiprocessor real-time scheduling approach is proposed in which optimality will be reached via the minimum overheads for underlying system. Presenting and analyzing different feasible paradigms for combination of the two existing approaches, the proposed hybrid approach satisfies the two major goals of this combination: optimality and lightweightness. Experimental results show that the hybrid approach outperforms the two existing ones.

  12. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  13. Evidence for a bimodal distribution of hybrid indices in a hybrid zone with high admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jessica L; Dhillon, Rashpal S; Schulte, Patricia M

    2015-12-01

    The genetic structure of a hybrid zone can provide insights into the relative roles of the various factors that maintain the zone. Here, we use a multilocus approach to characterize a hybrid zone between two subspecies of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus, Walbaum 1792) found along the Atlantic coast of North America. We first analysed clinal variation along the Atlantic coast using a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) displacement loop (D-loop) and a panel of nine nuclear microsatellite markers. A model constraining all clines to the same width and centre was not significantly different from a model in which the clines were allowed to vary independently. Locus-by-locus analysis indicated that the majority of nuclear clines shared the same centre as the mtDNA cline, and the widths of these clines were also narrower than that predicted by a neutral model, suggesting that selection is operating to maintain the hybrid zone. However, two of the nuclear clines had widths greater than the neutral prediction and had centres that were displaced relative to the mtDNA cline centre. We also found that a marsh located near the centre of the mtDNA cline demonstrated a bimodal distribution of nuclear hybrid index values, suggesting a deficit of first-generation hybrids and backcrossed genotypes. Thus, selection against hybrid genotypes may be playing a role in maintaining this hybrid zone and the associated steep nuclear and mtDNA clines. PMID:27019720

  14. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Heather

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used for transportation applications and addresses some of the technological, environmental and political drivers in battery development and the deployment of HEVs. Methods This paper examines the claim, often voiced by HEV proponents, that by taking into account savings on gasoline and vehicle maintenance, hybrid cars are cheaper than traditional gasoline cars. This is done by a quantitative benefit-cost analysis, in addition to qualitative benefit-cost analysis from political, technological and environmental perspectives. Results The quantitative benefit-cost analysis shows that, taking account of all costs for the life of the vehicle, hybrid cars are in fact more expensive than gasoline-powered vehicles; however, after five years, HEVs will break even with gasoline cars. Conclusions Our results show that it is likely that after 5 years, using hybrid vehicles should be cheaper in effect and yield a positive net benefit to society. There are a number of externalities that could significantly impact the total social cost of the car. These externalities can be divided into four categories: environmental, industrial, R&D and political. Despite short-term implications and hurdles, increased HEV usage forecasts a generally favorable long-term net benefit to society. Most notably, increasing HEV usage could decrease greenhouse gas emissions, while also decreasing U.S. dependence on foreign oil.

  15. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de

    2000-06-01

    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  16. Outlook on the advanced energy supply systems of European archipelagos. Renewable energy sources; Zukunft der Energieversorgung auf europaeischen Inseln. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, G.P. [Inst. Tecnologico de Canarias S.A. (ITC), Santa Lucia (Spain). Direccion Tecnica

    2002-06-03

    Energy plays a role of vital importance in the sustainable development of islands. In a not too far future, the millions of tourists that visit European archipelagos will have the occasion, apart of having holidays, of consuming electricity provenient from hybrid wind-photovoltaic minigrids, from wind-diesel systems, from wind-hydro systems, from wave energy power stations, or from fuel cells supplied by hydrogen produced in wind farms. (orig.) [German] Energie spielt eine lebenswichtige Rolle bei der umweltgerechten Entwicklung aller inseln. In naher Zukunft werden Millionen von Touristen, die die europaeischen Archipele besuchen, nicht nur die Moeglichkeit haben, ihren Urlaub an einem privilegierten Ort zu verbringen, sondern auch Elektrizitaet konsumieren. Diese wird an kleinen PV-Wind-Hybridnetzen, Wind-Diesel-Systemen, Wind-Pumpspeicherkraftwerken, Wellenenergieanlagen oder Brenstoffzellen mit Zufuhr von in Windparks produziertem Wasserstoff erzeugt werden. (orig.)

  17. Genetic identification of spotted owls, barred owls, and their hybrids: Legal implications of hybrid identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, Susan M.; Wennerberg, L.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Forsman, E.D.; Trail, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent population expansion of Barred Owls ( Strix varia) into western North America has led to concern that they may compete with and further harm the Northern Spotted Owl ( S. occidentalis caurina), which is already listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because they hybridize, there is a legal need under the ESA for forensic identification of both species and their hybrids. We used mitochondrial control-region DNA and amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses to assess maternal and biparental gene flow in this hybridization process. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (524 base pairs) indicated large divergence between Barred and Spotted Owls (13.9%). Further, the species formed two distinct clades with no signs of previous introgression. Fourteen diagnostic AFLP bands also indicated extensive divergence between the species, including markers differentiating them. Principal coordinate analyses and assignment tests clearly supported this differentiation. We found that hybrids had unique genetic combinations, including AFLP markers from both parental species, and identified known hybrids as well as potential hybrids with unclear taxonomic status. Our analyses corroborated the findings of extensive field studies that most hybrids genetically sampled resulted from crosses between female Barred Owls and male Spotted Owls. These genetic markers make it possible to clearly identify these species as well as hybrids and can now be used for research, conservation, and law enforcement. Several legal avenues may facilitate future conservation of Spotted Owls and other ESA-listed species that hybridize, including the ESA similarity-of-appearance clause (section 4[e]) and the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. The Migratory Bird Treaty Act appears to be the most useful route at this time.

  18. Thorium--uranium cycle ICF hybrid concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of preliminary studies of a laser-driven fusion-fission hybrid concept utilizing the 232Th-233U breeding cycle are reported. Neutron multiplication in the breeding blanket is provided by a region containing 238UO2 and the equilibrium concentration of 239PuO2. Established fission reactor technology is utilized to determine limits on operating conditions for high-temperature fuels and structures. The implications of nonproliferation policies for the operation of fusion-fission hybrid reactors are discussed

  19. Peptoid-Peptide hybrid backbone architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam

    2010-01-01

    -amino acids (alpha/beta-peptides) have been investigated in some detail as well. The present Minireview is a survey of the literature concerning hybrid structures of alpha-amino acids and peptoids, including beta-peptoids (N-alkyl-beta-alanine oligomers), and is intended to give an overview of this area......Peptidomimetic oligomers and foldamers have received considerable attention for over a decade, with beta-peptides and the so-called peptoids (N-alkylglycine oligomers) representing prominent examples of such architectures. Lately, hybrid or mixed backbones consisting of both alpha- and beta...

  20. Hybridizing matter-wave and classical accelerometers

    CERN Document Server

    Lautier, Jean; Hardin, Thomas; Merlet, Sebastien; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Landragin, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a hybrid accelerometer that benefits from the advantages of both conventional and atomic sensors in terms of bandwidth (DC to 430 Hz) and long term stability. First, the use of a real time correction of the atom interferometer phase by the signal from the classical accelerometer enables to run it at best performances without any isolation platform. Second, a servo-lock of the DC component of the conventional sensor output signal by the atomic one realizes a hybrid sensor. This method paves the way for applications in geophysics and in inertial navigation as it overcomes the main limitation of atomic accelerometers, namely the dead times between consecutive measurements.