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Sample records for 11-a ctx 11-a

  1. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  2. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  3. Analysis list: Bcl11a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Bcl11a Breast + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl11a.1....tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl11a.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bcl1...1a.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Bcl11a.Breast.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Breast.gml ...

  4. Col11a1 Regulates Bone Microarchitecture during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hafez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Collagen XI alpha 1 (Col11a1 is an extracellular matrix molecule required for embryonic development with a role in both nucleating the formation of fibrils and regulating the diameter of heterotypic fibrils during collagen fibrillar assembly. Although found in many different tissues throughout the vertebrate body, Col11a1 plays an essential role in endochondral ossification. To further understand the function of Col11a1 in the process of bone formation, we compared skeletal mineralization in wild-type (WT mice and Col11a1-deficient mice using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT and histology. Changes in trabecular bone microstructure were observed and are presented here. Additionally, changes to the periosteal bone collar of developing long bones were observed and resulted in an increase in thickness in the case of Col11a1-deficient mice compared to WT littermates. Vertebral bodies were incompletely formed in the absence of Col11a1. The data demonstrate that Col11a1 depletion results in alteration to newly-formed bone and is consistent with a role for Col11a1 in mineralization. These findings indicate that expression of Col11a1 in the growth plate and perichondrium is essential for trabecular bone and bone collar formation during endochondral ossification. The observed changes to mineralized tissues further define the function of Col11a1.

  5. SLC11A1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLC11A1 is a membrane associated divalent transition metal (iron and manganese) transporter involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. SLC11A1 is a member of the solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters) family. Mutations in the SLC11A1 gene are involved in susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease. Several alternatively spliced variants have been identified.

  6. Regulation of the fetal hemoglobin silencing factor BCL11A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Anindita; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical severity of sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, the major disorders of β-globin, can be ameliorated by increased production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). Here, we provide a brief overview of the fetal-to-adult hemoglobin switch that occurs in humans shortly after birth and review our current understanding of one of the most potent known regulators of this switching process, the multiple zinc finger–containing transcription factor BCL11A. Originally identified in genome-wide association studies, multiple orthogonal lines of evidence have validated BCL11A as a key regulator of hemoglobin switching and as a promising therapeutic target for HbF induction. We discuss recent studies that have highlighted its importance in silencing the HbF-encoding genes and discuss opportunities that exist to further understand the regulation of BCL11A and its mechanism of action, which could provide new insight into opportunities to induce HbF for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26963603

  7. Frequent phosphodiesterase 11A gene (PDE11A) defects in patients with Carney complex (CNC) caused by PRKAR1A mutations: PDE11A may contribute to adrenal and testicular tumors in CNC as a modifier of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libé, Rossella; Horvath, Anelia; Vezzosi, Delphine; Fratticci, Amato; Coste, Joel; Perlemoine, Karine; Ragazzon, Bruno; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Groussin, Lionel; Clauser, Eric; Raffin-Sanson, Marie-Laure; Siegel, Jennifer; Moran, Jason; Drori-Herishanu, Limor; Faucz, Fabio Rueda; Lodish, Maya; Nesterova, Maria; Bertagna, Xavier; Bertherat, Jerome; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant multiple neoplasia, caused mostly by inactivating mutations of the regulatory subunit 1A of the protein kinase A (PRKAR1A). Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the most frequent endocrine manifestation of CNC with a great inter-individual variability. Germline, protein-truncating mutations of phosphodiesterase type 11A (PDE11A) have been described to predispose to a variety of endocrine tumors, including adrenal and testicular tumors. Our objective was to investigate the role of PDE11A as a possible gene modifier of the phenotype in a series of 150 patients with CNC. A higher frequency of PDE11A variants in patients with CNC compared with healthy controls was found (25.3 vs. 6.8%, P CNC patients, those with PPNAD were significantly more frequently carriers of PDE11A variants compared with patients without PPNAD (30.8 vs. 13%, P = 0.025). Furthermore, men with PPNAD were significantly more frequently carriers of PDE11A sequence variants (40.7%) than women with PPNAD (27.3%) (P CNC patients, a high frequency of PDE11A variants, suggesting that PDE11A is a genetic modifying factor for the development of testicular and adrenal tumors in patients with germline PRKAR1A mutation.

  8. Analysis list: Zc3h11a [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Zc3h11a Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3...h11a.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3h11a.5.tsv http://dbarch...ive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Zc3h11a.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Zc3...h11a.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Zc3h11a.Plu

  9. Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), Enriched in Ventral Hippocampus Neurons, is Required for Consolidation of Social but not Nonsocial Memories in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shweta; Capell, Will R; Ibrahim, Baher A; Klett, Jennifer; Patel, Neema S; Sougiannis, Alexander T; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-11-01

    The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6-235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories.

  10. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such...

  11. ISA100.11a*: The ISA100.11a extension for supporting energy-harvested I/O devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zand, Pouria; Mathews, Emi; Das, Kallol; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Wireless standards developed for industrial applications such as ISA100.11a and WirelessHART, generally use centralized management approaches. However, such centralized approaches cannot cope with network dynamicity in real-time manner. They also incur high management overhead and latency. Consequen

  12. Characterization of a Rab11 homologue, EoRab11a, in Euplotes octocarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangjiao; Nie, Yu; Dang, Xuhong; Liang, Aihua; Chai, Baofeng; Wang, Wei

    2009-03-01

    Rab GTPases are crucial in the regulation of intracellular vesicular trafficking. A novel Rab GTPase gene, EoRab11a (GenBank accession no. EF061065), was isolated and identified from Euplotes octocarinatus cells in this study. It contains an ORF of 696-bp nucleotides, encoding 231 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 26.8 kDa. Alignment of EoRab11a with other Rab11 proteins from other eukaryotes demonstrated that these proteins shared 53-61% identity at the amino acid level. The recombinant EoRab11a was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal chelate affinity chromatography and iron chromatography. The GTPase activity of EoRab11a was 0.0024 min(-1) detected by HPLC at 30 degrees C. Three mutations were generated at amino acids Ser21 and Gly22 positions in the G1 domain of EoRab11a. All three mutants, S21P, S21G and G22R, increased the GTPase activity in vitro. Immunofluorescence microscopy results indicated that EoRab11a was localized on the phagosomal membrane during phagocytosis of E. octocarinatus. These data show that EoRab11a possesses GTP hydrolysis activity and may participate in vesicle transport events during phagocytosis of E. octocarinatus.

  13. COL11A1 in FAP polyps and in sporadic colorectal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselius Lennart

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously reported that the α-1 chain of type 11 collagen (COL11A1, not normally expressed in the colon, was up-regulated in stromal fibroblasts in most sporadic colorectal carcinomas. Patients with germline mutations in the APC gene show, besides colonic polyposis, symptoms of stromal fibroblast involvement, which could be related to COL11A1 expression. Most colorectal carcinomas are suggested to be a result of an activated Wnt- pathway, most often involving an inactivation of the APC gene or activation of β-catenin. Methods We used normal and polyp tissue samples from one FAP patient and a set of 37 sporadic colorectal carcinomas to find out if the up-regulation of COL11A1 was associated with an active APC/β-catenin pathway. Results In this study we found a statistically significant difference in COL11A1 expression between normal tissue and adenomas from one FAP patient, and all adenomas gave evidence for an active APC/β-catenin pathway. An active Wnt pathway has been suggested to involve stromal expression of WISP-1. We found a strong correlation between WISP-1 and COL11A1 expression in sporadic carcinomas. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of COL11A1 in colorectal tumors could be associated with the APC/β-catenin pathway in FAP and sporadic colorectal cancer.

  14. A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Frischknecht

    Full Text Available We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2. It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA and collagen alpha-2(XI chain gene (COL11A2, respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

  15. A COL11A2 mutation in Labrador retrievers with mild disproportionate dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Drögemüller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso

    2013-01-01

    We describe a mild form of disproportionate dwarfism in Labrador Retrievers, which is not associated with any obvious health problems such as secondary arthrosis. We designate this phenotype as skeletal dysplasia 2 (SD2). It is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait with incomplete penetrance primarily in working lines of the Labrador Retriever breed. Using 23 cases and 37 controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 4.44 Mb interval on chromosome 12. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at 30x coverage and detected 92 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Only two of these variants, located in the lymphotoxin A (LTA) and collagen alpha-2(XI) chain gene (COL11A2), respectively, were perfectly associated with the trait. Previously described COL11A2 variants in humans or mice lead to skeletal dysplasias and/or deafness. The dog variant associated with disproportionate dwarfism, COL11A2:c.143G>C or p.R48P, probably has only a minor effect on collagen XI function, which might explain the comparatively mild phenotype seen in our study. The identification of this candidate causative mutation thus widens the known phenotypic spectrum of COL11A2 mutations. We speculate that non-pathogenic COL11A2 variants might even contribute to the heritable variation in height.

  16. Redefining the initiation and maintenance of zebrafish interrenal steroidogenesis by characterizing the key enzyme cyp11a2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajes, Silvia; Griffin, Aliesha; Taylor, Angela E; Rose, Ian T; Miguel-Escalada, Irene; Hadzhiev, Yavor; Arlt, Wiebke; Shackleton, Cedric; Müller, Ferenc; Krone, Nils

    2013-08-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as a model to study steroid hormone action and associated disease. However, steroidogenesis in zebrafish is not well characterized. Mammalian P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis, the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. Previous studies describe an essential role for zebrafish Cyp11a1 during early development. Cyp11a1 has been suggested to be the functional equivalent of mammalian CYP11A1 in the zebrafish interrenal gland (equivalent to the mammalian adrenal), gonad, and brain. However, reported cyp11a1 expression is inconsistent in zebrafish larvae, after active cortisol synthesis commences. Recently a duplicated cyp11a gene, cyp11a2, has been described, which shares an 85% identity with cyp11a1. We aimed to elucidate the specific role of the two cyp11a paralogs. cyp11a1 was expressed from 0 to 48 hours post-fertilization (hpf), whereas cyp11a2 expression started after the development of the interrenal primordium (32 hpf) and was the only paralog in larvae. cyp11a2 is expressed in adult steroidogenic tissues, such as the interrenal, gonads, and brain. In contrast, cyp11a1 was mainly restricted to the gonads. Antisense morpholino knockdown studies confirmed abnormal gastrulation in cyp11a1 morphants. cyp11a2 morphants showed impaired steroidogenesis and a phenotype indicative of metabolic abnormalities. The phenotype was rescued by pregnenolone replacement in cyp11a2 morphants. Thus, we conclude that cyp11a1 is required for early development, whereas cyp11a2 is essential for the initiation and maintenance of zebrafish interrenal steroidogenesis. Importantly, this study highlights the need for a comprehensive characterization of steroidogenesis in zebrafish prior to its implementation as a model organism in translational research of adrenal disease.

  17. ANALISIS COVERAGE WLAN (WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK 802.11a MENGGUNAKAN OPNET MODELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gde Sukadarmika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the development tendency of information and communication technology is toward its flexibilityand ease of deployment. Cable networks require higher installation cost than wireless network. Therefore,implementation of wireless network, especially a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, becomes more populardue to its coverage and flexibility. The 802.11a is the first published WLAN standard from IEEE which offers widecoverage to stationary consumer terminals. In this paper OPNET Modeler Simulator was used to analyze theapplication standard of 802.11a. Simulation was done to study the characteristic of WLAN 802.11a with severalmeasured parameters such as data dropped (bits/sec, media access delay (sec, delay (sec, and throughput(bits/sec. The simulation was based on the scenario to study the coverage of an access point with the recommendedtransmitted power, and the effect of data rate on the access point’s

  18. A novel COL11A1 missense mutation in siblings with non-ocular Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Tsuji, Atsumi; Morita, Kei-Ichi; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kashimada, Kenichi; Enomoto, Keisuke; Morio, Tomohiro; Harada, Hiroyuki; Imoto, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Stickler syndrome (STL) is an autosomal, dominantly inherited, clinically variable and genetically heterogeneous connective tissue disorder characterized by ocular, auditory, orofacial and skeletal abnormalities. We conducted targeted resequencing using a next-generation sequencer for molecular diagnosis of a 2-year-old girl who was clinically suspected of having STL with Pierre Robin sequence. We detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation, NM_001854.3:n.4838G>A [NM_001854.3 (COL11A1_v001):c.4520G>A], in COL11A1, resulting in a Gly to Asp substitution at position 1507 [NM_001854.3(COL11A1_i001)] within one of the collagen-like domains of the triple helical region. The same mutation was detected in her 4-year-old brother with cleft palate and high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Heng Yuan Xiang Released 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On July 9th,Heng Yuan Xiang Corporation released its 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections for Women’s Wear in Beijing.Nearly 200 brand sagents and franchisers from 16 provinces took part in the press conference,looking for their target series for the coming season.

  20. Heng Yuan Xiang Released 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ On July 9th,Heng Yuan Xiang Corporation released its 10/11 A/W Cashmere Collections for Women's Wear in Beijing.Nearly 200 brands agents and franchisers from 16 provinces took part in the press conference,looking for their target series for the coming season.

  1. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of the c. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may n...

  2. Fibrochondrogenesis results from mutations in the COL11A1 type XI collagen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Stuart W; Bacino, Carlos A; Safina, Nicole P; Bober, Michael B; Proud, Virginia K; Funari, Tara; Wangler, Michael F; Nevarez, Lisette; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Wilcox, William R; Eyre, David R; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H

    2010-11-12

    Fibrochondrogenesis is a severe, autosomal-recessive, short-limbed skeletal dysplasia. In a single case of fibrochondrogenesis, whole-genome SNP genotyping identified unknown ancestral consanguinity by detecting three autozygous regions. Because of the predominantly skeletal nature of the phenotype, the 389 genes localized to the autozygous intervals were prioritized for mutation analysis by correlation of their expression with known cartilage-selective genes via the UCLA Gene Expression Tool, UGET. The gene encoding the α1 chain of type XI collagen (COL11A1) was the only cartilage-selective gene among the three candidate intervals. Sequence analysis of COL11A1 in two genetically independent fibrochondrogenesis cases demonstrated that each was a compound heterozygote for a loss-of-function mutation on one allele and a mutation predicting substitution for a conserved triple-helical glycine residue on the other. The parents who were carriers of missense mutations had myopia. Early-onset hearing loss was noted in both parents who carried a loss-of-function allele, suggesting COL11A1 as a locus for mild, dominantly inherited hearing loss. These findings identify COL11A1 as a locus for fibrochondrogenesis and indicate that there might be phenotypic manifestations among carriers.

  3. File list: Oth.PSC.20.Zc3h11a.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.PSC.20.Zc3h11a.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Zc3h11a Pluripotent stem cell SRX1888...30 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.PSC.20.Zc3h11a.AllCell.bed ...

  4. Prenatal Diagnosis in a Family of TNFRSF11A (RANK Gene Mutation Detection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Karkucak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive osteoporosis (ARO is a severe disease causing death usually at infancy or childhood. RANKL coded by TNFSF11 gene and RANK coded by TNFRSF11A gene are important proteins for osteoclast maturation and it is indicated that mutation on these genes plays an important role for ARO development. It is reported in this article that c.508 A→G homozygote mutation (pArg170Gly is observed in TNFRSF11A gene of 2 children of consanguineous couple. Mutation analysis performed on CVS material during the next pregnancy revealed heterozygous mutation in the fetus. The pregnancy was continued to term and a healthy boy was delivered. Prenatal mutation analysis is important for diseases with known mutations to relieve parental anxiety and provide genetic counselling for the family.

  5. FPGA-based prototyping of IEEE 802.11a base band processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramićanin Dejan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In technical literature and especially in domestic, predominant way to examine performance of 802.11a-based systems are experiments in simulations. In this paper, we present FPGA based 802.11a prototype, which gave us a possibility to gain closer insight into the problems of OFDM system implementation. A specific design of base band modem physical layer is discussed, along with the presentation of the FPGA prototyping platform on which it was developed. Prototype is implemented on the latest generation of FPGA chips, using state-of-the-art tools for DSP development. Custom made development environment, and design flow optimized for rapid prototyping of software defined radios, are also presented in the paper.

  6. Magnetic Logs from the Lopra-1/1A and Vestmanna-1 wells (Faroe Islands)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagstein, R.; Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

      Susceptibility results from cores (representing basalt, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs) and magnetic logs from the Lopra-1/1A well are presented. The basalts fall into a high- and a low-susceptibility group with no overlap. The high-susceptibility basalts (7 cores) have susceptibilities between 4 and 85...... the high-susceptibility basalts. The susceptibility of 9 volcaniclastites of lapilli-tuff or tuff varies from 0.4 to 4 x 10-3 SI. The cores reveal a bimodal distribution of magnetic susceptibily in the Lopra well. Low susceptibilities ranging from 0.4 to 4 in the well  are characteristic to both altered...... basalts poor in magnetite, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs. Thus single measurements of susceptibility are of little use in discriminating between these three types of rock. Susceptibility logs from the Lopra-1/1A  well show that the variation below 3315 m clearly distinguishes between volcaniclastics...

  7. Early onset Paget's disease of bone caused by a novel mutation (78dup27) of the TNFRSF11A gene in a Chinese family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-hua KE; Hua YUE; Jin-wei HE; Yu-juan LIU; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: A previous study showed that individuals of Japanese descent affected by early onset familial Paget's disease of bone (PDB) car-ried a 27-bp duplication at position 75 (75dup27) in the TNFRSF11A gene encoding RANK. Here we report the identification of a novel mutation (78dup27) in exon 1 of TNFRSF11A in a Chinese family with early onset PDB. Methods: We conducted clinical and genetic studies in a non-consanguineous Chinese family with early onset PDB. The entire coding region of TNFRSF11A was amplified and directly sequenced directly.Results: A novel 27-bp duplication in exon 1 (78dup27) in TNFRSF11A was found in four affected individuals and one asymptomatic individual. Although this duplication was the same length as the previously identified mutation (27 bp, from bases 78 to 104), in our patients the nine duplicated amino acids in the RANK signal peptide were LLLLCALLA. The phenotypes of affected individuals in this family overlapped with both early onset PDB and classic PDB, but several distinguishing features were found in our patients. The key difference between our familial PDB and the Japanese early onset PDB was the age of onset, which in most of our patients was during their late 20s (except for the propositus' niece). Another notable difference was that the propositus' son (24 years old), who carried the 78dup27 mutation, had no clinical symptoms or bone abnormalities, except for increased serum ALP, OC and CTX.Conclusion: Our findings may provide a better understanding of the clinical features of early onset PDB and support the notion of a hot spot for mutations in exon 1 of the TNFRSF11A gene.

  8. Chromosomal localisation and genetic variation of the SLC11A1 gene in goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, G M; Pazzola, M; Pisano, C; Carcangiu, V; Diaz, M L; Nieddu, M; Robledo, R; Mezzanotte, R; Dettori, M L

    2011-10-01

    The solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene is associated with resistance to infectious diseases. Chromosomal localisation, genomic regions corresponding to functional domains and the genetic variability of microsatellites in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of this gene were investigated in 427 goats (Capra hircus) of six breeds. Using dual colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation, SLC11A1 was localised to goat chromosome 2. Single strand conformation polymorphism was used to screen for polymorphisms in SLC11A1 exons 2, 10 and 15. There was no variation among goat breeds in the sarcoma homology 3 (SH3) binding motif, the protein kinase C phosphorylation site or the two N-linked glycosylation sites. Exon 15 exhibited variability due to the presence of two polymorphic microsatellites. Genotyping of the upstream guanine-thymine repeat (GTn) at 3'-UTR revealed eight alleles (GT11, GT12, GT14-GT19) in goats, whereas GT13 (present in cattle) was absent. Most goats carried the GT16 allele and no allele was found to be exclusive to only one breed. The coefficient of genetic differentiation value (G(ST)) was 0.084. This microsatellite appears to be an informative DNA marker for genetic linkage analysis in goats.

  9. The oncoprotein BCL11A binds to orphan nuclear receptor TLX and potentiates its transrepressive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara B Estruch

    Full Text Available Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1 functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TLX social network of interactors and only few TLX coregulators are described. To identify and characterize novel TLX-binders and possible coregulators, we performed yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H screens of a human adult brain cDNA library using different TLX constructs as baits. Our screens identified multiple clones of Atrophin-1 (ATN1, a previously described TLX interactor. In addition, we identified an interaction with the oncoprotein and zinc finger transcription factor BCL11A (CTIP1/Evi9, a key player in the hematopoietic system and in major blood-related malignancies. This interaction was validated by expression and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. BCL11A potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX in an in vitro reporter gene assay. Our work suggests that BCL11A is a novel TLX coregulator that might be involved in TLX-dependent gene regulation in the brain.

  10. Eruptive papules during efalizumab (anti-CD11a therapy of psoriasis vulgaris: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dummer Wolfgang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newer biological therapies for moderate-to-severe psoriasis are being used more frequently, but unexpected effects may occur. Case presentations We present a group of 15 patients who developed inflammatory papules while on efalizumab therapy (Raptiva, Genentech Inc, anti-CD11a. Immunohistochemistry showed that there were increased CD11b+, CD11c+ and iNOS+ cells (myeloid leukocytes in the papules, with relatively few CD3+ T cells. While efalizumab caused a decreased expression of CD11a on T cells, other circulating leukocytes from patients receiving this therapy often showed increased CD11b and CD11c. In the setting of an additional stimulus such as skin trauma, this may predispose to increased trafficking into the skin using these alternative β2 integrins. In addition, there may be impaired immune synapse formation, limiting the development of these lesions to small papules. There is little evidence for these papular lesions being "allergic" in nature as there are few eosinophils on biopsy, and they respond to minimal or no therapy even if efalizumab is continued. Conclusion We hypothesize that these papules may represent a unique type of "mechanistic" inflammatory reaction, seen only in the context of drug-induced CD11a blockade, and not during the natural disease process.

  11. PDE11A regulates social behaviors and is a key mechanism by which social experience sculpts the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shweta; Ji, Hao; Oliver, David; Patel, Neema S; Poupore, Nicolas; Shtutman, Michael; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-10-29

    Despite the fact that appropriate social behaviors are vital to thriving in one's environment, little is understood of the molecular mechanisms controlling social behaviors or how social experience sculpts these signaling pathways. Here, we determine if Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), an enzyme that is enriched in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) and that breaks down cAMP and cGMP, regulates social behaviors. PDE11 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and knockout (KO) mice were tested in various social approach assays and gene expression differences were measured by RNA sequencing. The effect of social isolation on PDE11A4 compartmentalization and subsequent social interactions and social memory was also assessed. Deletion of PDE11A triggered age- and sex-dependent deficits in social approach in specific social contexts but not others. Mice appear to detect altered social behaviors of PDE11A KO mice, because C57BL/6J mice prefer to spend time with a sex-matched PDE11A WT vs. its KO littermate; whereas, a PDE11A KO prefers to spend time with a novel PDE11A KO vs. its WT littermate. Not only is PDE11A required for intact social interactions, we found that 1month of social isolation vs. group housing decreased PDE11A4 protein expression specifically within the membrane fraction of VHIPP. This isolation-induced decrease in PDE11A4 expression appears functional because social isolation impairs subsequent social approach behavior and social memory in a PDE11A genotype-dependent manner. Pathway analyses following RNA sequencing suggests PDE11A is a key regulator of the oxytocin pathway and membrane signaling, consistent with its pivotal role in regulating social behavior.

  12. Bcl11a (Ctip1) Controls Migration of Cortical Projection Neurons through Regulation of Sema3c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegreffe, Christoph; Simon, Ruth; Peschkes, Katharina; Kling, Carolin; Strehle, Michael; Cheng, Jin; Srivatsa, Swathi; Liu, Pentao; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G; Tarabykin, Victor; Britsch, Stefan

    2015-07-15

    During neocortical development, neurons undergo polarization, oriented migration, and layer-type-specific differentiation. The transcriptional programs underlying these processes are not completely understood. Here, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11a regulates polarity and migration of upper layer neurons. Bcl11a-deficient late-born neurons fail to correctly switch from multipolar to bipolar morphology, resulting in impaired radial migration. We show that the expression of Sema3c is increased in migrating Bcl11a-deficient neurons and that Bcl11a is a direct negative regulator of Sema3c transcription. In vivo gain-of-function and rescue experiments demonstrate that Sema3c is a major downstream effector of Bcl11a required for the cell polarity switch and for the migration of upper layer neurons. Our data uncover a novel Bcl11a/Sema3c-dependent regulatory pathway used by migrating cortical neurons.

  13. Transcription factor ATF-3 regulates allele variation phenotypes of the human SLC11A1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Styliani; Gazouli, Maria; Politis, Panagotis K; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P

    2013-03-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the human solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene predispose to susceptibility to infectious/inflammatory diseases and cancer. Human susceptibility to these diseases exhibits allelic association with a polymorphic regulatory Z-DNA-forming microsatellite of a (GT/AC)n repeat. The carriage of different alleles may influence chromatin remodeling and accessibility by transcription factors. Of particular importance is the binding site for the Activating Protein 1 (AP-1) elements, (ATF-3 and c-Jun), adjacent to the 5' sequence of the Z-DNA-forming polymorphism. The aim of the study was to characterize the transcriptional mechanisms controlling different alleles of SLC11A1 expression by ATF-3 and c-Jun. Allele 2, [T(GT)5AC(GT)5AC(GT)10GGCAGA(G)6], and Allele 3, [T(GT)5AC(GT)5AC(GT)9GGCAGA(G)6], were subcloned into the PGL2Basic vector. Transient transfections of THP-1 cells with the constructs, in the presence or absence of pATF-3 were preformed. Luciferase expression was determined. To document the recruitment of ATF-3 and c-Jun, to the polymorphic promoter alleles in vivo, we performed ChIP assays with transient transfected THP-1 cells treated with or without lipopolyssacharides. Our data documented that ATF-3 suppresses the transcriptional activation of Allele-3, and this suppression is enhanced in the presence of lipopolyssacharides. Our findings suggest that ATF-3 and c-Jun may influence heritable variation in SLC11A1-dependent innate resistance to infection and inflammation both within and between populations.

  14. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay.

  15. Typing Method for the QUB11a Locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: IS6110 Insertions and Tandem Repeat Analysis

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    Eriko Maeda-Mitani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available QUB11a is used as a locus for variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage. However, amplification of QUB11a occasionally produces large fragments (>1,400 bp that are not easily measured by capillary electrophoresis because of a lack of the typical stutter peak patterns that are used for counting repeat numbers. IS6110 insertion may complicate VNTR analysis of large QUB11a fragments in M. tuberculosis. We established a method for determining both tandem repeat numbers and IS6110 insertion in the QUB11a locus of M. tuberculosis using capillary electrophoresis analysis and BsmBI digestion. All 29 large QUB11a fragments (>1,200 bp investigated contained IS6110 insertions and varied in the number of repeats (18 patterns and location of IS6110 insertions. This method allows VNTR analysis with high discrimination.

  16. Efficacy of Resistance to Francisella Imparted by ITY/NRAMP/SLC11A1 Depends on Route of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel A.; Frelinger, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) encoded by the Slc11a1 gene is a membrane-associated transporter of divalent metal ions. Murine Slc11a1 has two known alleles, a functional Slc11a1Gly169, which is found in DBA2/J, NOD/LtJ, and 129p3/J and related mouse strains, and a non-functional Slc11a1Asp169, that is found in C56Bl/6J (B6) and BALB/cJ mice. B6 mice congenic for Slc11a1Gly169 (B6-Slc11a1G169) are markedly resistant to the intracellular pathogens Salmonella, Leishmania, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We examined the host cell response and replication of Francisella in B6-Slc11a1G169 mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from either B6-Slc11a1G169 or B6 mice were both effectively invaded by Francisella live vaccine strain (LVS). However, at 16 hours post-infection (hpi), the number of LVS bacteria recovered from B6 macrophages had increased roughly 100-fold, while in B6-Slc11a1G169 mice the number decreased 10-fold. When the mice were challenged intranasally (i.n.) B6 mice lost significant amounts (~15%) of weight, where as B6-Slc11a1G169 mice lost no weight. Three days after infection in B6-Slc11a1G169 mice, we failed to recover viable Francisella from the lungs, livers, or spleens. By contrast, B6 mice had bacterial burdens approaching 1 × 106 CFU/organ in all three organs. To further examine the degree of resistance imparted by Slc11a1Gly169 expression, we challenged mice deficient in TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9, but expressing the functional Slc11a1 (B6-Slc11a1G169Tlr2/4/9−/−). Surprisingly, B6-Slc11a1G169Tlr2/4/9−/− mice had no notable weight loss. Eighty percent of B6-Slc11a1G169Tlr2/4/9−/− mice yielded no detectable Francisella in any organ tested. Additionally, Slc11a1G169 produced little detectable cytokine either in the lung or serum compared to B6 mice. Mice expressing Slc11a1Gly169 survived even high doses (~80 LD50) of LVS inoculation. These data taken together serve to highlight that functional Slc11a1Gly169 can

  17. QoS Guarantee for IEEE 802.11a Based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOZhongbang; CAOZhigang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a Distributed scheduling and optimization scheme (DSOQoS) for QoS guarantee in IEEE 802.11a based MANETs. In DSOQoS, for each station, the network layer takes different scheduling actions according to its local channel conditions estimated by the MAC layer, and the MAC layer takes different packet transmission actions based on the network load conditions estimated by the network layer. The optimizations are based on the following information sharing and interaction: traffic types, QoS parameters, network packet timeout periods, and predicted packet transmission periods. We evaluate the scheme under different network loads and different station moving speeds. The simulation results show that DSOQoS can guarantee the QoS requirements in terms of packet delivery ratio, packet delay and delay jitter.

  18. MREG V1.1 : a multi-scale image registration algorithm for SAR applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, Paul H.

    2013-08-01

    MREG V1.1 is the sixth generation SAR image registration algorithm developed by the Signal Processing&Technology Department for Synthetic Aperture Radar applications. Like its predecessor algorithm REGI, it employs a powerful iterative multi-scale paradigm to achieve the competing goals of sub-pixel registration accuracy and the ability to handle large initial offsets. Since it is not model based, it allows for high fidelity tracking of spatially varying terrain-induced misregistration. Since it does not rely on image domain phase, it is equally adept at coherent and noncoherent image registration. This document provides a brief history of the registration processors developed by Dept. 5962 leading up to MREG V1.1, a full description of the signal processing steps involved in the algorithm, and a user's manual with application specific recommendations for CCD, TwoColor MultiView, and SAR stereoscopy.

  19. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF DISTRIBUTED COORDINATION FUNCTION OVER IEEE 802.11A PHYSICAL LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SELVAKENEDDY

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11a is one of the latest standards to be released by the IEEE Project 802 for wireless LANs. It has specified an additional physical layer (PHY to support higher data rates, and is termed as the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. In order to exploit its benefits, one of the medium access control (MAC protocols specified in the IEEE 802.11 specification is called distributed coordination function (DCF. DCF is a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA scheme with slotted binary exponential backoff. The frames can be transmitted using the basic access scheme or the RTS/CTS scheme in DCF. It was demonstrated previously that the RTS/CTS mechanism works well in most scenarios for the previously specified PHYs. In this work, a simple simulator is developed to verify the scalability of the RTS/CTS mechanism over OFDM PHY, which supports much higher data rates.

  20. Penetration of three transmembrane segments of Slc11a1 in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haiyan; Wang, Ying; Chu, Hongtao; Wang, Wenhua; Mao, Qidong

    2014-03-25

    Slc11a1 is a divalent metal cation transporter with 12 putative transmembrane domains (TM) and plays a role in host defense. In present work, we investigated the secondary structure and topology of the peptides associated to Slc11a1-TM2, TM3 and TM4 (wildtype peptides and function-relating mutants) in the phospholipid vesicles (DMPC, DMPG and their mixtures) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. We found that TM3 is obviously different in secondary structure and topology from TM2 to TM4 in the lipid membranes. The peptide TM3 is less structured and embedded in the lipid membranes less deeply than TM2 and TM4 at pH 5.5 and 7. The insertion position of TM3 in the lipid membranes is adjusted by pH, more deeply at more acidic pH environment, whereas the locations of TM2 and TM4 in the lipid membranes are less changed with pH. The E139A substitution of TM3 significantly impairs the pH dependence of the buried depth of TM3 and causes a pronounced increase in helicity in all DMPG-containing lipid vesicles at pH 5.5 and 7 and in DMPC at pH 4. In contrast, TM2 and TM4 are similar in topology. The G169D mutation has little effect on the topological arrangement of TM4 in membranes. The property of headgroups of the phospholipids has an effect on the secondary structure and topology of the peptides. All peptides could be structured with more helicity and embedded more deeply in DMPG-containing lipid vesicles than in DMPC membrane at pH 5.5 and 7.

  1. The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A contributes to virulence with its necrotizing activity, not with its catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Celedonio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Botrytis cinerea xylanase Xyn11A has been previously shown to be required for full virulence of this organism despite its poor contribution to the secreted xylanase activity and the low xylan content of B. cinerea hosts. Intriguingly, xylanases from other fungi have been shown to have the property, independent of the xylan degrading activity, to induce necrosis when applied to plant tissues, so we decided to test the hypothesis that secreted Xyn11A contributes to virulence by promoting the necrosis of the plant tissue surrounding the infection, therefore facilitating the growth of this necrotroph. Results We show here that Xyn11A has necrotizing activity on plants and that this capacity is conserved in site-directed mutants of the protein lacking the catalytic activity. Besides, Xyn11A contributes to the infection process with the necrotizing and not with the xylan hydrolyzing activity, as the catalytically-impaired Xyn11A variants were able to complement the lower virulence of the xyn11A mutant. The necrotizing activity was mapped to a 30-amino acids peptide in the protein surface, and this region was also shown to mediate binding to tobacco spheroplasts by itself. Conclusions The main contribution of the xylanase Xyn11A to the infection process of B. cinerea is to induce necrosis of the infected plant tissue. A conserved 30-amino acids region on the enzyme surface, away from the xylanase active site, is responsible for this effect and mediates binding to plant cells.

  2. BCL11A is a triple-negative breast cancer gene with critical functions in stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Walid T; Choon Lee, Song; Stingl, John; Chen, Xiongfeng; Raza Ali, H; Rueda, Oscar M; Hadi, Fazal; Wang, Juexuan; Yu, Yong; Chin, Suet-Feung; Stratton, Mike; Futreal, Andy; Jenkins, Nancy A; Aparicio, Sam; Copeland, Neal G; Watson, Christine J; Caldas, Carlos; Liu, Pentao

    2015-01-09

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has poor prognostic outcome compared with other types of breast cancer. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying TNBC pathology are not fully understood. Here, we report that the transcription factor BCL11A is overexpressed in TNBC including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) and that its genomic locus is amplified in up to 38% of BLBC tumours. Exogenous BCL11A overexpression promotes tumour formation, whereas its knockdown in TNBC cell lines suppresses their tumourigenic potential in xenograft models. In the DMBA-induced tumour model, Bcl11a deletion substantially decreases tumour formation, even in p53-null cells and inactivation of Bcl11a in established tumours causes their regression. At the cellular level, Bcl11a deletion causes a reduction in the number of mammary epithelial stem and progenitor cells. Thus, BCL11A has an important role in TNBC and normal mammary epithelial cells. This study highlights the importance of further investigation of BCL11A in TNBC-targeted therapies.

  3. Targeting of GFP-Cre to the mouse Cyp11a1 locus both drives cre recombinase expression in steroidogenic cells and permits generation of Cyp11a1 knock out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura O'Hara

    Full Text Available To permit conditional gene targeting of floxed alleles in steroidogenic cell-types we have generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre Recombinase under the regulation of the endogenous Cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1 promoter. Mice Carrying the Cyp11a1-GC (GFP-Cre allele express Cre Recombinase in fetal adrenal and testis, and adrenal cortex, testicular Leydig cells (and a small proportion of Sertoli cells, theca cells of the ovary, and the hindbrain in postnatal life. Circulating testosterone concentration is unchanged in Cyp11(+/GC males, suggesting steroidogenesis is unaffected by loss of one allele of Cyp11a1, mice are grossly normal, and Cre Recombinase functions to recombine floxed alleles of both a YFP reporter gene and the Androgen Receptor (AR in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary, adrenal and hindbrain. Additionally, when bred to homozygosity (Cyp11a1(GC/GC , knock-in of GFP-Cre to the endogenous Cyp11a1 locus results in a novel mouse model lacking endogenous Cyp11a1 (P450-SCC function. This unique dual-purpose model has utility both for those wishing to conditionally target genes within steroidogenic cell types and for studies requiring mice lacking endogenous steroid hormone production.

  4. A Novel Current-Mode Differential Transconductance LNA for IEEE 802.11a Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yuxiang; Wang, Chunhua; Chen, Lei; Wu, Zhangbin; Zhang, Guangxiang

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a novel current-mode differential transconductance low noise amplifier (LNA) designed in the chartered 0.18 μm CMOS technology is proposed to realize the receiver front-end. The proposed LNA frequency ranges from 4.7 GHz to 6 GHz,mainly targeting at IEEE802.11a application. It utilizes two stage structure, with a PMOS current-mirrorr using inductive series peaking technique to achieve optimized current output. The noise performance is improved through the use of a gm-boosting technique, while the gain performance is improved and power consumption is saved by using current-reused technique. Measured results demonstrate that the circuit provides flat transconductance gain higher than 17.0 dB, noise figure lower than 2.31 dB and low operating voltage of 0.85 V in frequency band. A comparison with other LNAs in similar and nearby frequency bands shows the proposed LNA has advantages of higher gain, lower noise figure and better other performances.

  5. CYP11A1 in skin: an alternative route to photoprotection by vitamin D compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongkao-On, Wannit; Carter, Sally; Reeve, Vivienne E; Dixon, Katie M; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Halliday, Gary M; Tuckey, Robert C; Mason, Rebecca S

    2015-04-01

    Topical 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) and other vitamin D compounds have been shown to protect skin from damage by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in a process that requires the vitamin D receptor. Yet, while mice which do not express the vitamin D receptor are more susceptible to photocarcinogenesis, mice unable to 1α-hydroxylate 25-hydroxyvitamin D to form 1,25D do not show increased susceptibility to UVR-induced skin tumors. A possible explanation is that an alternative pathway, which does not involve 1α-hydroxylation, may produce photoprotective compounds from vitamin D. The cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 is expressed in skin and produces 20-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20OHD) as a major product of vitamin D3. We examined whether topical 20OHD would affect UVR-induced DNA damage, inflammatory edema or immune suppression produced in Skh:hr1 mice. Photoprotection by 20OHD at 23 or 46pmol/cm(2) against cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (DNA lesions) after UVR in mice was highly effective, up to 98±0.8%, (pskin tumors. This study indicates a potentially anti-photocarcinogenic role of the naturally occurring vitamin D metabolite, 20OHD, which does not depend on 1α-hydroxylation for generation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms and plasma levels of BCL11A contribute to the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Duo; Zhou, Liang; Tao, Lei; Lu, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11A (BCL11A) rs11886868 and rs4671393 polymorphism, plasma BCL11A concentration, and the hazard of developing laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Participants and method In this research, 330 LSCC patients, 310 healthy controls, and 155 vocal leukoplakia patients were genotyped for the BCL11A (rs11886868 C/T and rs4671393 A/G) genotypes by pyrosequencing; the BCL11A concentration was measured using ELISA. Results LSCC Patients had a notably higher occurrence of CT at rs11886868 (OR = 2.64, P = 0.025) than the control group; they also had higher GG at rs4671393 (OR = 2.53, P = 0.018). Advanced (III and IV) stage LSCC patients had a notably greater frequency of CT at rs11886868 than those with initial (I and II) stage LSCC (OR = 2.71, P = 0.044 vs. OR = 2.58, P = 0.051). Additionally, there was a 1.59 fold increase in susceptibility for initial stage LSCC related to the G allele (AG/GG) at rs4671393 (P = 0.005); while for patients of advanced stage LSCC the OR was 1.73 (P = 0.002). Moreover, the OR of lymph node metastasis patients at rs4671393 G alleles was 2.41 (P < 0.01); it was 1.38 (P = 0.035) in patients without lymph metastasis. Patients with high incidences of the rs4671393 variation genotype had high plasma BCL11A levels. Conclusions BCL11A rs11886868 and rs4671393 genotype variations and correspondingly high BCL11A plasma levels are related to LSCC, besides, differences in plasma levels and genotype distribution may be related to lymph node metastasis status and the stage of LSCC. PMID:28225775

  7. Reactivating Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Human Adult Erythroblasts Through BCL11A Knockdown Using Targeted Endonucleases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen F Bjurström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficiency, specificity, and mutational signatures of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs, transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 systems designed to target the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor BCL11A, in human K562 cells and human CD34+ progenitor cells. ZFNs and TALENs were delivered as in vitro transcribed mRNA through electroporation; CRISPR/Cas9 was codelivered by Cas9 mRNA with plasmid-encoded guideRNA (gRNA (pU6.g1 or in vitro transcribed gRNA (gR.1. Analyses of efficacy revealed that for these specific reagents and the delivery methods used, the ZFNs gave rise to more allelic disruption in the targeted locus compared to the TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9, which was associated with increased levels of fetal hemoglobin in erythroid cells produced in vitro from nuclease-treated CD34+ cells. Genome-wide analysis to evaluate the specificity of the nucleases revealed high specificity of this specific ZFN to the target site, while specific TALENs and CRISPRs evaluated showed off-target cleavage activity. ZFN gene-edited CD34+ cells had the capacity to engraft in NOD-PrkdcSCID-IL2Rγnull mice, while retaining multi-lineage potential, in contrast to TALEN gene-edited CD34+ cells. CRISPR engraftment levels mirrored the increased relative plasmid-mediated toxicity of pU6.g1/Cas9 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, highlighting the value for the further improvements of CRISPR/Cas9 delivery in primary human HSPCs.

  8. Characterization of Δ7/11, a functional prolactin-binding protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, JM; Ginsburg, E; McAndrew, CW; Heger, CD; Cheston, L; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Vonderhaar, BK; Goldsmith, P

    2012-01-01

    Prolactin is essential for normal mammary gland development and differentiation, and has been shown to promote tumor cell proliferation and chemotherapeutic resistance. Soluble isoforms of the prolactin receptor have been reported to regulate prolactin bioavailability by functioning as “prolactin binding proteins.” Included in this category is Δ7/11, a product of alternate splicing of the prolactin receptor primary transcript. However, the direct interactions of prolactin withΔ7/11, and the resulting effect on cell behavior, have not been investigated. Herein, we demonstrate the ability of Δ7/11 to bind prolactin using a novel proximity ligation assay and traditional immunoprecipitation techniques. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that Δ7/11 was heavily glycosylated, similar to the extracellular domain of the primary prolactin receptor, and that glycosylation regulated the cellular localization and secretion of Δ7/11. Low levels of Δ7/11 were detected in serum samples of healthy volunteers, but were undetectable in human milk samples. Expression of Δ7/11 was also detected in six of the 62 primary breast tumor biopsies analyzed; however, no correlation was found with Δ7/11 expression and tumor histotype or other patient demographics. Functional analysis demonstrated the ability of Δ7/11 to inhibit prolactin-induced cell proliferation as well as alter prolactin-induced rescue of cell cycle arrest/early senescence events in breast epithelial cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Δ7/11 is a novel regulatory mechanism of prolactin bioavailability and signaling. PMID:23048206

  9. LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) triggers hydrogen peroxide production by canine neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H; Ballantyne, C; Smith, C W

    2000-07-01

    The respiratory burst of neutrophils stimulated by chemotactic factors is markedly augmented by Mac-1-dependent adhesion such as the interaction of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54) expressed on the surface of parenchymal cells (e.g., cardiac myocytes). In the current study, we evaluate the hypothesis that lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) can also trigger the respiratory burst in neutrophils. To isolate LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions from Mac-1/ ICAM-1 interactions, full-length chimeric ICAM-1 was developed and expressed in L cells with domains 1 and 2 from canine ICAM-1 and domains 3-5 from human ICAM-1 (C1,2;H3-5). We have shown that canine neutrophils do not bind to human ICAM-1. We demonstrated that chimeric ICAM-1 C1,2;H3-5 supported only LFA-1-dependent adhesion of canine neutrophils and that such adhesion triggered rapid onset of H2O2 production from canine neutrophils. The following seven experimental conditions distinguished LFA-1-dependent H2O2 production from Mac-1-dependent production: It did not require exogenous chemotactic stimulation; H2O2 release was more rapid, but the amount released was NIF), or cytochalasin B or H7. Thus, canine neutrophils seem to be able to utilize two members of the beta2 integrin family to interact with ICAM-1 and signal H2O2 production, with LFA-1 at an early stage without prior chemotactic stimulation and Mac-1 at a later stage requiring chemotactic stimulation.

  10. Linking chronic infection and autoimmune diseases: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, SLC11A1 polymorphisms and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Paccagnini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is still unknown; numerous studies are performed to unravel the environmental factors involved in triggering the disease. SLC11A1 is a membrane transporter that is expressed in late endosomes of antigen presenting cells involved in the immunopathogenic events leading to T1DM. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP has been reported to be a possible trigger in the development of T1DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifty nine T1DM patients and 79 healthy controls were genotyped for 9 polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene, and screened for the presence of MAP by PCR. Differences in genotype frequency were evaluated for both T1DM patients and controls. We found a polymorphism in the SLC11A1 gene (274C/T associated to type 1 diabetic patients and not to controls. The presence of MAP DNA was also significantly associated with T1DM patients and not with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 274C/T SCL11A1 polymorphism was found to be associated with T1DM as well as the presence of MAP DNA in blood. Since MAP persists within macrophages and it is also processed by dendritic cells, further studies are necessary to evaluate if mutant forms of SLC11A1 alter the processing or presentation of MAP antigens triggering thereby an autoimmune response in T1DM patients.

  11. CD11a and CD49d enhance the detection of antigen-specific T cells following human vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaansen, Allison F; Dixit, Upasna Gaur; Coler, Rhea N; Marie Beckmann, Anna; Reed, Steven G; Winokur, Patricia L; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Varga, Steven M; Wilson, Mary E

    2017-07-24

    Determining the efficacy of human vaccines that induce antigen-specific protective CD4 T cell responses against pathogens can be particularly challenging to evaluate. Surface expression of CD11a and CD49d has been shown to identify antigen-specific CD4 T cells against viral pathogens in mice. We hypothesized that CD11a and CD49d would also serve as markers of human antigen-specific T cells responding to vaccination. A phase I vaccine trial enabled us to evaluate a novel gating strategy based on surface expression of CD11a and CD49d as a means of detecting antigen-specific, cytokine producing CD4 and CD8 T cells induced after vaccination of naïve individuals against leishmaniasis. Three study groups received LEISH-F3 recombinant protein combined with either squalene oil-in-water emulsion (SE) alone, SE with the synthetic TLR-4 ligand glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA-SE), or SE with Salmonella minnesota-derived monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL-SE). Individuals were given 3 vaccine doses, on days 0, 28 and 168. Starting after the first vaccine dose, the frequency of both CD11a(hi)CD49d(+) CD4 and CD11a(hi)CD49d(+) CD8 T cells significantly increased over time throughout the 24-week trial. To confirm the role of CD11a(hi)CD49d(+) expression in the identification of the antigen-specific T cells, cytokine production was measured following LEISH-F3 stimulation. All of the IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 producing cells were found within the CD11a(hi)CD49d(+) population. Our results suggest that the change in the frequency of CD11a(hi)CD49d(+) T cells can be used to track antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses following T cell-targeted vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. BCL11A-siRNA对HEK293细胞增殖的影响%Influence of BCL11A-siRNA on HEK293 cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高杨军; 胡小毛; 吴红; 何冬梅; 赵军; 李扬秋

    2014-01-01

    目的 设计靶向B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病11A基因的小干扰RNA(BCL1 1A-siRNA),并观察其对人胚胎肾细胞株HEK293细胞增殖的影响.方法 利用siRNA Target Finder工具,针对BCL11A设计合成siRNA319、siRNA585、siRNA2292、siRNA475.将HEK293细胞接种不含抗生素的培养基中,分为阳性对照组(PC组)、阴性对照组(NC组)、BCL11A-siRNA319组(si319组)、BCL11A-siRNA585组(si585组)、BCL11A-siRNA2292组(si2292组)、BCL11A-siR-NA475组(si475组)、空转组、细胞组.通过LipofectamineTM 2000,si319组将siRNA319、si585组将siRNA585、si2292组将siRNA2292、si475组将siRNA475分别转染HEK293细胞;转染后6h倒置荧光显微镜观察细胞转染情况并用流式细胞仪检测转染效率;转染后24、48、72 h,采用实时定量RT-PCR法观察BCL11A-siRNA对BCL11A基因表达的影响;CCK8法观察HEK293细胞体外增殖情况.结果 转染后24h,si585组、si2292组的HEK293细胞BCL11A基因表达降低,72 h逐渐恢复;si585组、si2292组细胞增殖受抑,与NC组、空转组、细胞组相比,P均<0.05.结论 BCL11A-siRNA585及BCL11 A-siRNA2292可降低HEK293细胞中BCL1 1A基因表达,抑制细胞增殖.

  13. Efficient I/O joining and reliable data publication in energy harvested ISA100.11a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Kallol; Mathews, Emi; Zand, Pouria; Sanchez Ramirez, Andrea; Havinga, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Energy harvesting technologies have brought a paradigm shift in the industrial automation sector by procreating self-powered wireless input/output (I/O) devices. Unfortunately, current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as ISA100.11a and WirelessHART, are yet far from supporting

  14. Upregulation of CD11A on Hematopoietic Stem Cells Denotes the Loss of Long-Term Reconstitution Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Fathman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Small numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs generate large numbers of mature effector cells through the successive amplification of transiently proliferating progenitor cells. HSCs and their downstream progenitors have been extensively characterized based on their cell-surface phenotype and functional activities during transplantation assays. These cells dynamically lose and acquire specific sets of surface markers during differentiation, leading to the identification of markers that allow for more refined separation of HSCs from early hematopoietic progenitors. Here, we describe a marker, CD11A, which allows for the enhanced purification of mouse HSCs. We show through in vivo transplantations that upregulation of CD11A on HSCs denotes the loss of their long-term reconstitution potential. Surprisingly, nearly half of phenotypic HSCs (defined as Lin−KIT+SCA-1+CD150+CD34− are CD11A+ and lack long-term self-renewal potential. We propose that CD11A+Lin−KIT+SCA-1+CD150+CD34− cells are multipotent progenitors and CD11A−Lin−KIT+SCA-1+CD150+CD34− cells are true HSCs.

  15. Expression of CYP11 a1 in different developmental phases of gonad in zebrafish Danio rerio%斑马鱼CYP11 a1基因在不同性腺发育时期的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝红; 仇雪梅; 郝薇薇; 王秀利

    2015-01-01

    The expression of CYP11 a1 gene was studied and analyzed in four tissues and three development phases in gonad of zebrafish Danio rerio by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). It was found that the CYP11a1 gene was expressed in ovary, testis, muscle and brain, the minimum in brain(P0. 05), 1. 7 times higher be-fore sexual maturity and 1. 5 times higher after sexual maturity compared with that at maturity phase. In the testis, however, the expression of CYP11a1 gene was found to be enhanced first in the early development phases of testis and then decreased in the later development phases of testis, the maximum at the sexual maturity(P0.05),在卵巢成熟前期、卵巢成熟后期的表达量分别为卵巢成熟期表达量的1.7倍、1.5倍;CYP11a1基因在3个精巢发育时期的表达量表现为先升高后降低的趋势,在精巢成熟期表达量最高( P<0.05),分别为精巢成熟前期、精巢成熟后期表达量的6.5倍、13.4倍。研究表明,尽管CYP11a1基因在卵巢和精巢发育过程中的表达规律不同,但CYP11a1基因在一定程度上与斑马鱼的性腺发育相关,其可能在促进斑马鱼精子成熟中发挥一定作用。

  16. 9-Methoxy-6a,11a-dimethyl-6a,11a-dihydro-6H-1-benzofuro[3,2-c]chromen-3-ol from Dalbergia oliveri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujittra Deesamer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, commonly known as (+-(6aS,11aS-medicarpin, C16H14O4, was isolated from Dalbergia oliveri and displays a rigid molecule consisting of four fused rings. The benzofuran system is inclined at an angle of 76.49 (2° with respect to the chroman unit. The compound exists as a polymeric chain arising from intermolecular O—H...O bonding.

  17. Adaptive high definition MPEG-2 streaming using frame-based prioritization over IEEE 802.11a WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SangHoon; Lee, Seungjoo; Kim, JongWon

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical implementation of network-adaptive high definition (HD) MPEG-2 streaming using frame-based prioritized packetization over the IEEE 802.11a WLAN. The proposed adaptive streaming system nicely combines frame-based prioritized packetization and priority-based dropping based on the end-toend network monitoring. With the popular VideoLAN open software, we develop a real-time MPEG-2 TS (transport stream) parsing tool to provide the guide for required frame-based prioritization. The implemented system is evaluated over an IEEE 802.11a WLAN testbed and the experiment results verifies the intended the end-to-end QoS adaptation capability.

  18. SF-1 deficiency causes lipid accumulation in Leydig cells via suppression of STAR and CYP11A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Megumi; Migita, Toshiro; Ohishi, Tomokazu; Shima, Yuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Morohashi, Ken-Ichirou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2016-11-01

    Genetic mutations of steroidogenic factor 1 (also known as Ad4BP or Nr5a1) have increasingly been reported in patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development (46,XY disorders of sex development). However, because the phenotype of 46,XY disorders of sex development with a steroidogenic factor 1 mutation is wide-ranging, its precise diagnosis remains a clinical problem. We previously reported the frequent occurrence of lipid accumulation in Leydig cells among patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development with a steroidogenic factor 1 mutation, an observation also reported by other authors. To address the mechanism of lipid accumulation in this disease, we examined the effects of steroidogenic factor 1 deficiency on downstream targets of steroidogenic factor 1 in in vitro and in vivo. We found that lipid accumulation in Leydig cells was enhanced after puberty in heterozygous steroidogenic factor 1 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice, and was accompanied by a significant decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A1 expression. In mouse Leydig cell lines, steroidogenic factor 1 knockdown induced a remarkable accumulation of neutral lipids and cholesterol with reduced androgen levels. Steroidogenic factor 1 knockdown reduced the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A1, both of which are transcriptional targets of steroidogenic factor 1 and key molecules for steroidogenesis from cholesterol in the mitochondria. Knockdown of either steroidogenic acute regulatory protein or CYP11A1 also induced lipid accumulation, and knockdown of both had an additive effect. Our data suggested that lipid accumulation in the Leydig cells of the 46,XY disorders of sex development phenotype with a steroidogenic factor 1 mutation is due, at least in part, to the suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and CYP11A1, and a resulting increase in unmetabolized cholesterol.

  19. Evaluation of the association of SLC11A1 gene polymorphism with incidence of paratuberculosis in goats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASHA ABRAHAM; THOMAS NAICY; KUNNIYOOR CHEEMANI RAGHAVAN; JOSEPH SIJU; THAZHATHUVEETTIL ARAVINDAKSHAN

    2017-09-01

    Paratuberculosis is one of the chronic granulomatous enteritis that predominantly affects ruminantsworldwide, caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In ruminants, microsatellite polymorphisms of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene were associated with resistance to intracellular pathogen infections. Thisresearch was carried out to detect the polymorphisms in A and B regions of the 3'UTR of SLC11A1 gene and to evaluate the potential association between these polymorphisms and MAP infection in goats. MAP-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA and MAP infection was confirmed by IS900 PCR in 150 adult goats from different regions of Kerala, India. The polymorphism ofmicrosatellite regions A and B at 3'UTR of the SLC11A1 gene was analysed in goats by an automated technique, fragment analysis, using fluorescent-tagged forward primers. Eight alleles with sizes ranging from 221 to 239 bp were found in region A. Region B revealed two alleles, 117 bp (B7) and 119 bp (B8). Animals with B8 alleles were found to have higher incidence of paratuberculosis than animals with B7alleles (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant association found between region A genotypes and paratuberculosis incidence. These results suggest that caprine SLC11A1 gene has significant role in paratuberculosis resistance ingoats and further studies might help in development of a PCR-based genotyping test for paratuberculosis resistance and selection of superior animals for future goat breeding programmes.

  20. Polymorphisms of the coding region of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 gene associated to natural resistance against bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Paixão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Brucelose bovina causada por Brucella abortus é uma importante doença zoonótica, caracterizada pela ocorrência de aborto durante o último trimestre da gestação, o que resulta em diminuição da fertilidade da produção de leite em vacas. A identificação de genes associados à resistência natural contra brucelose tem sido investigada com o objetivo de selecionar animais resistentes à doença. Em bovinos, é controversa a resistência natural contra B. abortus associada ao polimorfismo da região 3' UTR do gene Slc11A1 (Nramp1. Polimorfismos localizados na sequência codificadora de Slc11A1 têm sido identificados em bovinos, contudo a influência sobre a resistência natural contra brucelose não é conhecida. No presente estudo, três novos polimorfismos do gene Slc11A1 foram genotipados por análise conformacional de fita simples em vacas experimentalmente ou naturalmente infectadas por B. Abortus, e foram avaliadas a frequência de cada genótipo e sua associação com o fenótipo de resistência ou susceptibilidade à brucelose bovina. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que alguns genótipos foram mais frequentes em animais considerados fenotipicamente susceptiveis à brucelose.

  1. Simulasi Kinerja Jaringan Nirkabel IEEE-802.11a dan IEEE-802.11g Menggunakan NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm Fitriawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network uses transmission media based on radio waves. This type of networks is mainly useddue to its efficiency and mobility in data exchanging. This paper reports the modeling and simulation of wirelessnetworks based on Cisco Aironet 1130ag access point devices with IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g standards. Themodeling and simulation are performed using network simulator version 2 (NS-2 that is installed on operationsystem Linux Ubuntu v.10.10. The NS-2 is commonly used and works well in numerous types of network simulation. From simulation, we obtain quality of service parameters by employing several simulation scenarios in terms ofnumber of nodes, distances, and packet data sizes. It can be concluded from simulation results that the IEEE 802.11gnetworks transfer data with better quality than those of IEEE 802.11a networks.  Furthermore, the IEEE 802.11gnetworks provide a higher throughput, with smaller amount of delay and packet loss percentage compared to thoseof IEEE 802.11a networks.

  2. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  3. PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A expression in rat trigeminovascular pain signalling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Lars S; Møller, Morten; Tibaek, Maiken

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the trigeminovascular pain signalling system, including cerebral arteries, meninges, trigeminal ganglion, and brain stem, is involved in migraine. Furthermore, stimulation of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP and cGMP) production as well as inhibition of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) induces head......, the expression of PDE9A, PDE10A, and PDE11A in the trigeminovascular system. The functional implications are yet unknown, but their localisation indicates that they may have a role in the pain pathway of migraine as well as trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias....

  4. Development and characterization of K562 cell clones expressing BCL11A-XL: Decreased hemoglobin production with fetal hemoglobin inducers and its rescue with mithramycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotti, Alessia; Gasparello, Jessica; Breveglieri, Giulia; Cosenza, Lucia Carmela; Montagner, Giulia; Bresciani, Alberto; Altamura, Sergio; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Martini, Elisa; Gallerani, Eleonora; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is considered a promising strategy in the treatment of β-thalassemia, in which production of adult hemoglobin (HbA) is impaired by mutations affecting the β-globin gene. Recent results indicate that B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A (BCL11A) is a major repressor of γ-globin gene expression. Therefore, disrupting the binding of the BCL11A transcriptional repressor complex to the γ-globin gene promoter provides a novel approach for inducing expression of the γ-globin genes. To develop a cellular screening system for the identification of BCL11A inhibitors, we produced K562 cell clones with integrated copies of a BCL11A-XL expressing vector. We characterized 12 K562 clones expressing different levels of BCL11A-XL and found that a clear inverse relationship does exist between the levels of BCL11A-XL and the extent of hemoglobinization induced by a panel of HbF inducers. Using mithramycin as an inducer, we found that this molecule was the only HbF inducer efficient in rescuing the ability to differentiate along the erythroid program, even in K562 cell clones expressing high levels of BCL11A-XL, suggesting that BCL11A-XL activity is counteracted by mithramycin. PMID:26342260

  5. Abnormal apoptosis of trophoblastic cells is related to the up-regulation of CYP11A gene in placenta of preeclampsia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin He

    Full Text Available Abnormal placenta trophoblast proliferation and apoptosis is related to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Emerging evidence has also indicated that key pregnancy-associated hormones, such as hCG, progesterone, are found in high concentration at the maternal-fetal interface. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of CYP11A, a key enzyme in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism, in normal pregnancy and severe preeclampsia placenta and to explore the underlying mechanism of the relationship between the altered CYP11A expression and onset of preeclampsia. Immunohistochemistry method was used to study the localization of CYP11A-encoded protein P450scc in the placenta; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine CYP11A expression at mRNA and protein levels in patients with severe preeclampsia and normal placental tissue. CYP11A overexpression in trophoblastic cells was used to evaluate the effect on viability. TUNEL staining was used to determine whether overexpression of CYP11A could affect trophoblastic cell apoptosis. The results showed that CYP11A was selectively expressed in the cytoplasm of the placental trophoblastic cells. CYP11A expression were significantly increased in severe preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy in both mRNA and protein levels. Multiple regression analysis indicated that CYP11A gene expression was positively correlated to ALT level and Plt, while negatively correlated to INR. Overexpression of CYP11A reduced trophoblastic cell proliferation and induced HTR8/SVneo cells apoptosis through activation of activated caspase-3 expression. These results suggest that abnormally high expression of CYP11A inhibits trophoblastic proliferation and increases apoptosis and therefore could be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.

  6. Stratification Studies with Sub Grade Iron Ore from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, Chhattisgarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Markandeya, Ravvala; Sharma, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Experiments were carried out with two different sizes of (-30 + 6 and -6 + 1 mm) sub grade iron ore sample from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, India to study the stratification behaviour at optimised parameters in a under bed air pulsed jig at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes residence time. This paper deals with the rate at which stratification takes place and determines the optimum stratification time (residence time) for above two size fractions. Average apparent density along with Jig Stratification Index (JSI) of both the size fractions was calculated. It was observed that the stratification rate is high for fines (-6 + 1 mm) and stratification index was higher for lump (-30 + 6 mm) when compared with the other size fraction. The maximum JSI observed was 0.35 for lump (-30 + 6 mm) and 0.30 for fines (-6 + 1 mm).

  7. Heterogeneous LTE/802.11a mobile relays for data rate enhancement and energy-efficiency in high speed trains

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-12-01

    Performance enhancements of cellular networks for passengers in high speed railway systems are investigated. Relays placed on top of each train car are proposed. These relays communicate with the cellular base station (BS) over Long Term Evolution (LTE) long range links and with the mobile terminals (MTs) inside the train cars using IEEE 802.11a short range links. Scenarios with unicasting and multicasting from the BS are studied, both in the presence and absence of the relays. In addition, LTE resource allocation is taken into account. The presence of the relays is shown to lead to significant enhancements in the effective data rates of the MTs, in addition to leading to huge savings in the energy consumption from the batteries of the MTs. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul; Hikmah; Harun; Abdi; Wira; Septama; Ibrahim; Jantan

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 20 methanolic extracts from Malaysian selected plants on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis activity of leukocytes using flow cytometry analysis.Methods:The effects of methanolic extracts on CD18/11 a expression and phagocytosis of leukocytes were measured by labelling the cells with CD18-fluorescein isolhiocyanaie and ingestion labelled with Escherichia coli-fluorescein isothiocyanate and then analyzed using flow cytometer.Results:About 12 out of 20 methanolic extracts of selected Malaysian medicinal plants significantly(P≤0.05) inhibited the CD18/1 la expression of leukocytes at both concentrations of 6.25 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in dose dependent manner.The most active inhibitory was shown in Citrus aurantifolia(Christm.) Swingle and Alpinia galangal(L.) Willd.at dosage 100ug/mL.Moreover,the Orthosiphon aristatus(Blume) Miq(O.aristatus).showed the highest stimulatory activity at the concentration of 100 μg/mL.Other than that,four plant extracts significantly(P<0.05) rose the phagocytosis activities of leukocytes in dose dependent manner.However,Annona muricata L.and O.aristatus showed the highest stimulated activities at the 100 pg/mL concentration.Conclusions:The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Cirrus aurantifolia.Alpinia gaiangal,O.aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11A isolates in Korea, during 2004-2013, due to the increase of multidrug-resistant clone, CC166.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin Yang; Kim, So Hyun; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo-Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Ko, Kwan Soo; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in Korea in 2003, the proportion of non-vaccine serotypes has increased. Among non-vaccine serotypes, serotype 11A is highly prevalent in Korea. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11A isolates in a Korean tertiary-care hospital, during 2004-2013. A total of 1579 non-duplicate clinical S. pneumoniae isolates, collected from 2004 to 2013, were included in this study. Serotype was determined by the capsular Quellung method, and in vitro susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method. Multilocus sequence typing was performed to determine the genotypes of the S. pneumoniae isolates. We identified 90 serotype 11A isolates (5.7%). During this period, the proportion of serotype 11A has increased from 3.2% up to 13.2% (in 2012). Among the serotype 11A isolates, two main clonal complexes (CCs), CC166 and CC99, were identified. The increase of serotype 11A was mainly due to the increase of CC166 isolates, which have high antimicrobial resistance rates. In addition, we identified that 14 isolates, belonging to ST8279, ST9875, and ST3598 of CC166, were non-susceptible to all antimicrobial agents tested in this study. We identified the increase of S. pneumoniae serotype 11A in Korea, which mainly due to the expansion of a resistant clonal group, CC166.

  10. Low-Complexity Hardware Interleaver/Deinterleaver for IEEE 802.11a/g/n WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-dong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-speed low-complexity hardware interleaver/deinterleaver is presented. It supports all 77 802.11n high-throughput (HT modulation and coding schemes (MCSs with short and long guard intervals and the 8 non-HT MCSs defined in 802.11a/g. The paper proposes a design methodology that distributes the three permutations of an interleaver to both write address and read address. The methodology not only reduces the critical path delay but also facilitates the address generation. In addition, the complex mathematical formulas are replaced with optimized hardware structures in which hardware intensive dividers and multipliers are avoided. Using 0.13 um CMOS technology, the cell area of the proposed interleaver/deinterleaver is 0.07 mm2, and the synthesized maximal working frequency is 400 MHz. Comparison results show that it outperforms the three other similar works with respect to hardware complexity and max frequency while maintaining high flexibility.

  11. ZAT11, a zinc finger transcription factor, is a negative regulator of nickel ion tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Min; An, Jonguk; Han, Hay Ju; Kim, Sun Ho; Lim, Chae Oh; Yun, Dae-Jin; Chung, Woo Sik

    2014-12-01

    ZAT11, a Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11, is a dual-function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni (2+) tolerance. Zinc Finger of Arabidopsis Thaliana 11 (ZAT11) is a C2H2-type zinc finger protein that has been reported to function as an active transcriptional repressor. However, the biological function of ZAT11 remains unknown. Here we show that GFP-tagged ZAT11 is targeted to the nucleus. Analysis of plants expressing ZAT11 promoter-GUS showed that ZAT11 is highly expressed in roots and particularly in root tips. To identify the biological function of ZAT11, we constructed three independent lines of ZAT11 overexpressing transgenic plant (ZAT11 OE). ZAT11 OE enhanced the elongation of primary root but reduced the metal tolerance against nickel ion (Ni(2+)). The reduced Ni(2+) tolerance of ZAT11 OE was correlated with decreased accumulation of Ni(2+) in plants. The decreased accumulation of Ni(2+) in ZAT11 OE was caused by the reduced transcription of a vacuolar Ni(2+) transporter gene. Taken together, our results suggest that ZAT11 is a dual function transcriptional regulator that positively regulates primary root growth but negatively regulates Ni(2+) tolerance.

  12. Assembly of ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) inward rectifier K+ channel subunits involves multiple interaction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, J C; Bentle, K A; Nichols, C G; Ho, K

    1998-04-01

    The ROMK1 (Kir 1.1a) channel is formed by a tetrameric complex of subunits, each characterized by cytoplasmic N- and C-termini and a core region of two transmembrane helices flanking a pore-forming segment. To delineate the general regions mediating the assembly of ROMK1 subunits we constructed epitope-tagged N-terminal, C-terminal, and transmembrane segment deletion mutants. Nonfunctional subunits with N-terminal, core region, and C-terminal deletions had dominant negative effects when coexpressed with wild-type ROMK1 subunits in Xenopus oocytes. In contrast, coexpression of these nonfunctional subunits with Kv 2.1 (DRK1) did not suppress Kv 2.1 currents in control oocytes. Interactions between epitope-tagged mutant and wild-type ROMK1 subunits were studied in parallel by immunoprecipitating [35S]-labeled oocyte membrane proteins. Complexes containing both wild-type and mutant subunits that retained H5, M2, and C-terminal regions were coimmunoprecipitated to a greater extent than complexes consisting of wild-type and mutant subunits with core region and/or C-terminal deletions. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple interaction sites located in the core region and cytoplasmic termini of ROMK1 subunits mediate homomultimeric assembly.

  13. Effect of player position on movement behaviour, physical and physiological performances during an 11-a-side football game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruno V; Figueira, Bruno E; Maçãs, Vítor; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in time-motion, modified training impulse, body load and movement behaviour between defenders, midfielders and forwards, during an 11-a-side simulated football game. Twenty elite youth male footballers from the same squad participated in this study (age: 18.1 ± 0.7 years old, body mass: 70.5 ± 4.3 kg, height: 1.8 ± 0.3 m and playing experience: 9.4 ± 1.3 years). All data were collected using GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). The movement behaviour was measured with kinematic data, used to calculate position-specific centroids (defenders, midfielders and forwards), and processed with non-linear statistical procedures (approximate entropy normalised and relative phase). There were significant effects and interactions in all variables across the players' positions. The results showed that displacements of all players (defenders, midfielders and forwards) were nearer and more coordinated with their own position-specific centroids than with the other centroids. However, this coupling effect was stronger in midfield players and weaker in forwards. All players' dynamical positioning showed more irregularity when related to the forwards' centroid, as a consequence of their need to be less predictable when playing. The time-motion and physiological variables showed lower activity in forward players. Adding together, the results may contribute to a better understanding of players' specific performances and football complexity.

  14. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Protein–Protein Interactions in the Cytochrome CYP11A1 (P450scc-Containing Steroid Hydroxylase System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zöllner A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM and photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS were used for monitoring of the procedure for cytochrome CYP11A1 monomerization in solution without phospholipids. It was shown that the incubation of 100 μM CYP11A1 with 12% Emulgen 913 in 50 mM KP, pH 7.4, for 10 min at T = 22°C leads to dissociation of hemoprotein aggregates to monomers with the monomerization degree of (82 ± 4%. Following the monomerization procedure, CYP11A1 remained functionally active. AFM was employed to detect and visualize the isolated proteins as well as complexes formed between the components of the cytochrome CYP11A1-dependent steroid hydroxylase system. Both Ad and AdR were present in solution as monomers. The typical heights of the monomeric AdR, Ad and CYP11A1 images were measured by AFM and were found to correspond to the sizes 1.6 ± 0.2 nm, 1.0 ± 0.2 nm and 1.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. The binary Ad/AdR and AdR/CYP11A1mon complexes with the heights 2.2 ± 0.2 nm and 2.8 ± 0.2 nm, respectively, were registered by use of AFM. The Ad/CYP11A1mon complex formation reaction was kinetically characterized based on optical biosensor data. In addition, the ternary AdR/Ad/CYP11A1 complexes with a typical height of 4 ± 1 nm were AFM registered.

  15. Sp1 upregulates the proximal promoter activity of the mouse collagen α1(XI) gene (Col11a1) in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keijirou; Hida, Mariko; Sasaki, Takako; Yano, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Kenji; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Matsuo, Noritaka

    2016-02-01

    Type XI collagen is a cartilage-specific extracellular matrix, and is important for collagen fibril formation and skeletal morphogenesis. We have previously reported that NF-Y regulated the proximal promoter activity of the mouse collagen α1(XI) gene (Col11a1) in chondrocytes (Hida et. al. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. 2014). However, the mechanism of the Col11a1 gene regulation in chondrocytes has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we further characterized the proximal promoter activity of the mouse Col11a1 gene in chondrocytes. Cell transfection experiments with deletion and mutation constructs indicated that the downstream region of the NF-Y binding site (-116 to +1) is also necessary to regulate the proximal promoter activity of the mouse Col11a1 gene. This minimal promoter region has no TATA box and GC-rich sequence; we therefore examined whether the GC-rich sequence (-96 to -67) is necessary for the transcription regulation of the Col11a1 gene. Luciferase assays using a series of mutation constructs exhibited that the GC-rich sequence is a critical element of Col11a1 promoter activity in chondrocytes. Moreover, in silico analysis of this region suggested that one of the most effective candidates was transcription factor Sp1. Consistent with the prediction, overexpression of Sp1 significantly increased the promoter activity. Furthermore, knockdown of Sp1 expression by siRNA transfection suppressed the proximal promoter activity and the expression of endogenous transcript of the mouse Col11a1 gene. Taken together, these results indicate that the transcription factor Sp1 upregulates the proximal promoter activity of the mouse Col11a1 gene in chondrocytes.

  16. The wild boar (Sus scrofa Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18 receptor: cDNA sequencing, structure analysis and comparison with homologues

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    Bergh Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most predominant beta2-integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, expressed on all leukocytes, is essential for many adhesive functions of the immune system. Interestingly, RTX toxin-producing bacteria specifically target this leukocyte beta2-integrin which exacerbates lesions and disease development. Results This study reports the sequencing of the wild boar beta2-integrin CD11a and CD18 cDNAs. Predicted CD11a and CD18 subunits share all the main structural characteristics of their mammalian homologues, with a larger interspecies conservation for the CD18 than the CD11a. Besides these strong overall similarities, wild boar and domestic pig LFA-1 differ by 2 (CD18 and 1 or 3 (CD11a substitutions, of which one is located in the crucial I-domain (CD11a, E168D. Conclusion As most wild boars are seropositive to the RTX toxin-producing bacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and because they have sustained continuous natural selection, future studies addressing the functional impact of these polymorphisms could bring interesting new information on the physiopathology of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-associated pneumonia in domestic pigs.

  17. Ruthenate-ferrites AMRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (A = Sr, Ba; M = Ni, Zn). Distortion of kagome nets via metal-metal bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyk, Larysa; Strobel, Sabine; Niewa, Rainer [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Crystals of the three novel oxorhutenates SrNiRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7374(2) Aa, c = 13.2088(4) Aa), SrZnRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7271(2) Aa, c = 13.4246(4) Aa), and Sr{sub 0.63(1)}Ba{sub 0.37}ZnRu{sub 5}O{sub 11} (a = 11.7245(4) Aa, 13.5268(4)) were obtained applying a flux-growth technique. A superstructure of the R-type ferrite crystal structure with doubled hexagonal a-axis (space group P6{sub 3}/m, Z = 8) originates from Ru-Ru pair formation within the kagome nets extending in (001). No indication for an intermixing of 3d metals at the Ru sites was observed. (orig.)

  18. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri to disease.

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    Amy J Osborne

    Full Text Available The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1 plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance.

  19. Phase noise analysis of a 0.18um CMOS fractional-N PLL for 802.11 a/b/g/n applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hiebert, Mark Allen

    2006-01-01

    In integrated CMOS 802.11 a/b/g/n direct conversion transceivers a key performance characteristic is the RMS value of RF clock phase noise at offsets between 1kHz and 20MHz. Phase noise analysis concepts related to fractional-N PLLs are presented and an optimization exercise determining PLL characteristics for a O.18pm CMOS fractional-N PLL in an 802.11 a/b/g/n RF frequency generation application is described. For fractional-N PLLs, modelling fractional-N phase noise effects and optimizing PL...

  20. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3211 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3223 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  1. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloss-Brandstätter, A.; Erhart, G.; Lamina, C.; Meister, B.; Haun, M.; Coassin, S.; Seifert, M.; Klein-Franke, A.; Paulweber, B.; Kedenko, L.; Kollerits, B.; Swinkels, D.W.; Vermeulen, S.; Galesloot, T.E.; Kronenberg, F.; Weiss, G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA) is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6). Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineo

  2. Candidate gene sequencing of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in a family with severe anaemia: common SNPs, rare haplotypes, no causative mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kloss-Brandstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA is a rare disorder which was linked to mutations in two genes (SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6. Common polymorphisms within these genes were associated with serum iron levels. We identified a family of Serbian origin with asymptomatic non-consanguineous parents with three of four children presenting with IRIDA not responding to oral but to intravenous iron supplementation. After excluding all known causes responsible for iron deficiency anaemia we searched for mutations in SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 that could explain the severe anaemia in these children. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 in all six family members. Thereby, we found seven known and fairly common SNPs, but no new mutation. We then genotyped these seven SNPs in the population-based SAPHIR study (n = 1,726 and performed genetic association analysis on iron and ferritin levels. Only two SNPs, which were top-hits from recent GWAS on iron and ferritin, exhibited an effect on iron and ferritin levels in SAPHIR. Six SAPHIR participants carrying the same TMPRSS6 genotypes and haplotype-pairs as one anaemic son showed lower ferritin and iron levels than the average. One individual exhibiting the joint SLC11A2/TMPRSS6 profile of the anaemic son had iron and ferritin levels lying below the 5(th percentile of the population's iron and ferritin level distribution. We then checked the genotype constellations in the Nijmegen Biomedical Study (n = 1,832, but the profile of the anaemic son did not occur in this population. CONCLUSIONS: We cannot exclude a gene-gene interaction between SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6, but we can also not confirm it. As in this case candidate gene sequencing did not reveal causative rare mutations, the samples will be subjected to whole exome sequencing.

  3. hMena+11a Isoform Serves as a Marker of Epithelial Phenotype and Sensitivity to EGFR Inhibition in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Maria S.; Balsamo, Michele; Di Modugno, Francesca; Mottolese, Marcella; Alessio, Massimo; Melucci, Elisa; Milella, Michele; McConkey, David J.; Philippar, Ulrike; Gertler, Frank B.; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Nistico, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Purpose hMena, member of the Ena/VASP protein family, is a cytoskeletal protein that is involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the expression of hMena isoforms correlated with sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and could serve as markers with potential clinical use. Experimental design Human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines were characterized for in vitro sensitivity to erlotinib, expression of HER family receptors, markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expression of hMena and its isoform hMena+11a. The effects of EGF and erlotinib on hMena expression as well as the effect of hMena knock-down on cell proliferation were also evaluated. Results hMena was detected in all of the pancreatic tumor cell lines tested as well as in the majority of the human tumor samples [primary (92%) and metastatic (86%)]. Intriguingly, in vitro hMena+11a isoform was specifically associated with an epithelial phenotype, EGFR dependency and sensitivity to erlotinib. In epithelial BxPC3 cells EGF upregulated hMena/hMena+11a and erlotinib downregulated expression. hMena knock-down reduced cell proliferation and MAPK and AKT activation in BxPC3 cells and promoted the growth inhibitory effects of erlotinib. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicate that the hMena+11a isoform is associated with an epithelial phenotype and identifies EGFR dependent cell lines that are sensitive to the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. The availability of anti-hMena+11a specific probes may offer a new tool in pancreatic cancer management if these results can be verified prospectively in cancer patients. PMID:18676769

  4. Investigation of the association of the SLC11A1 gene with resistance/sensitivity of goats (Capra hircus) to paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korou, Laskarina Maria; Liandris, Emmanouil; Gazouli, Maria; Ikonomopoulos, John

    2010-08-26

    SLC11A1 (solute carrier family 11 member A1) protein is located on the phagolysosome membrane of macrophages and participates in bacterial killing. Here we have extended our previous work on the investigation of the potential association of polymorphisms of the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of SLC11A1 gene with test-positivity of goats to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Blood, serum and faeces were collected from 223 adult goats, from nine goat farms from Greece with a long-term record of paratuberculosis but no vaccination or tuberculin testing. The samples were subjected to sequence and structure analysis of the SLC11A1 gene and were evaluated by ELISA, culture and real time polymerase chain reaction. The 3'UTR region of the targeted gene revealed 2 microsatellites consisting of a variable number of guanine-thymine repeats named regions A and B. Statistically significant association was recorded between genotypes of region B and ELISA results, whereas the presence of B(7) allele was found to contribute to ELISA negativity. The comparison of the SLC11A1 mRNA level pre- and post-exposure to MAP shows elevated gene expression especially at the 3-h time point, in all macrophages tested regardless of their genotype. Unfortunately the latter could not be linked at a statistically significant level with any of the targeted genetic polymorphisms separately. In conclusion it can be stated that the evidence reported here provide the first indications on the association of B genotypes of the SLC11A1 gene and the detection of MAP-specific antibody by ELISA in goats.

  5. Polymorphisms at the 3' untranslated region of SLC11A1 gene are associated with protection to Brucella infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboni, Paola A; Hasenauer, Flavia C; Caffaro, M Eugenia; Gaido, Analia; Rossetto, Cristina; Neumann, Roberto D; Salatin, Antonio; Bertoni, Emiliano; Poli, Mario A; Rossetti, Carlos A

    2014-08-15

    Goats are susceptible to brucellosis and the detection of Brucella-infected animals is carried out by serological tests. In other ruminant species, polymorphisms in microsatellites (Ms) of 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1) gene were associated with resistance to Brucella abortus infection. Goats present two polymorphic Ms at the 3'UTR end of SLC11A1 gene, called regions A and B. Here, we evaluated if polymorphisms in regions A and/or B are associated with Brucella infection in goats. Serum (for the detection of Brucella-specific antibodies) and hair samples (for DNA isolation and structure analysis of the SLC11A1 gene) were randomly collected from 229 adult native goats from the northwest of Argentina. Serological status was evaluated by buffer plate antigen test (BPAT) complemented by the fluorescent polarization assay (FPA), and the genotype of the 3'UTR of the SLC11A1 gene was determined by capillary electrophoresis and confirmed by sequence analysis. Polymorphisms in regions A and B of the 3'UTR SLC11A1 gene were found statistically significant associated with protection to Brucella infection. Specifically, the association study indicates statistical significance of the allele A15 and B7/B7 genotype with absence of Brucella-specific antibodies (p=0.0003 and 0.0088, respectively). These data open a promising opportunity for limiting goat brucellosis through selective breeding of animals based on genetic markers associated with natural resistance to B. melitensis infection.

  6. Adaptación y validación española de la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt en adolescentes tempranos (BIS-11-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martínez-Loredo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La impulsividad ha sido relacionada con multitud de trastornos psiquiátricos como el abuso de sustancias. La Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt (BIS-11 es uno de los autoinformes más comúnmente administrados para la evaluación de la impulsividad, tanto en el ámbito clínico como de investigación. Hay una versión para adolescentes llamada BIS- 11-A, que aún no ha sido convenientemente adaptada a población española. El objetivo de este estudio es ofrecer una versión española alternativa y más adecuada del BIS-11-A, así como la evaluación de sus características psicométricas tales como estructura factorial, fiabilidad y validez predictiva sobre el uso de sustancias (uso en el último mes de alcohol, tabaco y cánnabis, presencia de borracheras en el último mes, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol. El BIS-11-A e ítems de la Encuesta Escolar Europea sobre Alcohol y otras Drogas (ESPAD fueron aplicados a 1.183 estudiantes (edad 12-14 años en 16 institutos españoles de educación secundaria. El BIS-11-A ha mostrado una estructura bidimensional, alta fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach = 0,87 y buena capacidad para identificar el uso de sustancias, consumo intensivo y problemático de alcohol (sensibilidad = 67,3-75%; especificidad = 83,4-85,4%. La versión española del BIS-11-A es un instrumento fiable y válido para su uso con adolescentes tempranos.

  7. A small molecule p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, reverses cholinergic neurite dystrophy in Alzheimer's disease mouse models with mid- to late-stage disease progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Simmons

    Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contributes significantly to the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD and has been attributed to aberrant signaling through the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. Thus, modulating p75NTR signaling is considered a promising therapeutic strategy for AD. Accordingly, our laboratory has developed small molecule p75NTR ligands that increase survival signaling and inhibit amyloid-β-induced degenerative signaling in in vitro studies. Previous work found that a lead p75NTR ligand, LM11A-31, prevents degeneration of cholinergic neurites when given to an AD mouse model in the early stages of disease pathology. To extend its potential clinical applications, we sought to determine whether LM11A-31 could reverse cholinergic neurite atrophy when treatment begins in AD mouse models having mid- to late stages of pathology. Reversing pathology may have particular clinical relevance as most AD studies involve patients that are at an advanced pathological stage. In this study, LM11A-31 (50 or 75 mg/kg was administered orally to two AD mouse models, Thy-1 hAPPLond/Swe (APPL/S and Tg2576, at age ranges during which marked AD-like pathology manifests. In mid-stage male APPL/S mice, LM11A-31 administered for 3 months starting at 6-8 months of age prevented and/or reversed atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurites and cortical dystrophic neurites. Importantly, a 1 month LM11A-31 treatment given to male APPL/S mice (12-13 months old with late-stage pathology reversed the degeneration of cholinergic neurites in basal forebrain, ameliorated cortical dystrophic neurites, and normalized increased basal forebrain levels of p75NTR. Similar results were seen in female Tg2576 mice. These findings suggest that LM11A-31 can reduce and/or reverse fundamental AD pathologies in late-stage AD mice. Thus, targeting p75NTR is a promising approach to reducing AD-related degenerative processes that have

  8. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Nytoft, H. Peter; Bojesen-Koefoed, Jørgen A.

    2006-01-01

    The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m), may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been repo...

  9. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  10. The CD11a partner in Sus scrofa lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1: mRNA cloning, structure analysis and comparison with mammalian homologues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Anne VT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alphaLbeta2, the most abundant and widely expressed beta2-integrin, is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. Many studies have shown that LFA-1 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases caused by Repeats-in-toxin (RTX -producing bacteria. Results The porcine-LFA-1 CD11a (alpha subunit coding sequence was cloned, sequenced and compared with the available mammalian homologues in this study. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of these latter. Interestingly, as in sheep and humans, an allelic variant with a triplet insertion resulting in an additional Gln-744 was consistently identified, which suggests an allelic polymorphism that might be biologically relevant. Conclusion Together with the pig CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a long time, the sequence data provided here will allow the successful expression of porcine CD11a, thus giving the first opportunity to express the Sus scrofa beta2-integrin LFA-1 in vitro as a tool to examine the specificities of inflammation in the porcine species.

  11. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  12. CXCR1 and SLC11A1 polymorphisms affect susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: a case-control and family-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L. braziliensis causes cutaneous (CL and mucosal (ML leishmaniasis. Wound healing neutrophil (PMN and macrophage responses made following the bite of the vector sand fly contribute to disease progression in mice. To look at the interplay between PMN and macrophages in disease progression in humans we asked whether polymorphisms at genes that regulate their infiltration or function are associated with different clinical phenotypes. Specifically, CXCR1 (IL8RA and CXCR2 (IL8RB are receptors for chemokines that attract PMN to inflammatory sites. They lie 30-260 kb upstream of SLC11A1, a gene known primarily for its role in regulating macrophage activation, resistance to leishmaniasis, and wound healing responses in mice, but also known to be expressed in PMN, macrophages and dendritic cells. Methods Polymorphic variants at CXCR1, CXCR2 and SLC11A1 were analysed using Taqman or ABI fragment separation technologies in cases (60 CL; 60 ML, unrelated controls (n = 120, and multicase families (104 nuclear families; 88 ML, 250 CL cases from Brazil. Logistic regression analysis, family-based association testing (FBAT and haplotype analysis (TRANSMIT were performed. Results Case-control analysis showed association between the common C allele (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.23-4.57; P = 0.009 of CXCR1_rs2854386 and CL, supported by family-based (FBAT; Z score 2.002; P = 0.045 analysis (104 nuclear families; 88 ML, 250 CL cases. ML associated with the rarer G allele (Z score 1.999; P = 0.046. CL associated with a 3' insertion/deletion polymorphism at SLC11A1 (Z score 2.549; P = 0.011. Conclusions The study supports roles for CXCR1 and SLC11A1 in the outcome of L. braziliensis infection in humans. Slc11a1 does not influence cutaneous lesion development following needle injection of Leishmania in mice, suggesting that its role here might relate to the action of PMN, macrophage and/or dendritic cells in the wound healing response to the sand fly bite

  13. The role of CYP11A1 in the production of vitamin D metabolites and their role in the regulation of epidermal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Kim, Tae-Kang; Li, Wei; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Postlethwaite, Arnold; Tuckey, Robert C

    2014-10-01

    Research over the last decade has revealed that CYP11A1 can hydroxylate the side chain of vitamin D3 at carbons 17, 20, 22 and 23 to produce at least 10 metabolites, with 20(OH)D3, 20,23(OH)2D3, 20,22(OH)2D3, 17,20(OH)2D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3 being the main products. However, CYP11A1 does not act on 25(OH)D3. The placenta, adrenal glands and epidermal keratinocytes have been shown to metabolize vitamin D3 via this CYP11A1-mediated pathway that is modified by the activity of CYP27B1, with 20(OH)D3 (the major metabolite), 20,23(OH)2D3, 1,20(OH)2D3, 1,20,23(OH)3D3 and 17,20,23(OH)3D3 being detected, defining these secosteroids as endogenous regulators/natural products. This is supported by the detection of a mono-hydroxyvitamin D3 with the retention time of 20(OH)D3 in human serum. In new work presented here we demonstrate that the CYP11A1-initiated pathways also occurs in Caco-2 colon cells. Our previous studies show that 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 are non-calcemic at pharmacological doses, dependent in part on their lack of a C1α hydroxyl group. In epidermal keratinocytes, 20(OH)D3, 20(OH)D2 and 20,23(OH)2D3 inhibited cell proliferation, stimulated differentiation and inhibited NF-κB activity with potencies comparable to 1,25(OH)2D3, acting as partial agonists on the VDR. 22(OH)D3 and 20,22(OH)2D3, as well as secosteroids with a short or no side chain, showed antiproliferative and prodifferentiation effects, however, with lower potency than 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. The CYP11A1-derived secosteroids also inhibited melanocyte proliferation while having no effect on melanogenesis, and showed anti-melanoma activities in terms of inhibiting proliferation and the ability to grow in soft agar. Furthermore, 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 showed anti-fibrosing effects in vitro, and also in vivo for the former. New data presented here shows that 20(OH)D3 inhibits LPS-induced production of TNFα in the J774 line, TNFα and IL-6 in peritoneal macrophages and suppresses the

  14. Approximation of the IEEE 802.11p standard using commercial off-the-shelf IEEE 802.11a hardware

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    IEEE 802.11p hardware is hard to find. Previous research efforts often relied on project-specific prototype implementations which are characterized by a high cost and are not always available to the entire research community. Commercially available turnkey implementations are rare and quite expensive compared to commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) IEEE 802.11a/b/g hardware. However, the difference between the IEEE 802.11p amendment and the other IEEE 802.11 standards is quite small. It can be seen...

  15. VCO Design and Simulation Using TSMC 0.18 m Process to Meet IEEE802.11a Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliReza Neshat-Niko

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A complimentary topology is used incorporating TSMC 0.18 mm process to design a CMOS VCO with the center frequency of 5.4 GHz. Simulation results showed tuning range of 13%. The phase noise at 1 MHz offset was measured to be -118.7 dBc/Hz. The VCO core power consumption was 3.3 mW when the power supply voltage was set to 1.5 V. Simulation results verified that the designed structure meets the IEEE802.11a requirements.

  16. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J Grieco

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF expressing red blood cells (F-cells and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fetal hemoglobin production in F-cells negatively correlates with expression of BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1. We then examined the effects of hydroxyurea on these three transcription factors and conclude that a successful induction of γ-globin includes a reduction in BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1 expression. These data suggests that expression changes in this transcription factor network modulate γ-globin expression in F-cells during steady state erythropoiesis and after induction with hydroxyurea.

  17. Conservation of XYN11A and XYN11B xylanase genes in Bipolaris sorghicola, Cochliobolus sativus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, and Cochliobolus spicifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Kaveh; Hack, Ethan

    2002-10-01

    Two types of xylanase gene, XYN11A ( XYL1) and XYN11B ( XYL2), were amplified by PCR and partially sequenced in four phytopathogenic species of the ascomycete fungal genus Cochliobolus (anamorph genus Bipolaris). Three of the species, C. heterostrophus ( B. maydis), C. sativus ( B. sorokiniana), and Bipolaris sorghicola (no teleomorph known), are interrelated; the fourth, C. spicifer ( B. spicifera), was found, through analysis of the 5.8S RNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of its ribosomal DNA, to be more distantly related to the other three. Isolates from all four species contain orthologous XYN11A and XYN11B genes, but a set of laboratory strains of C. heterostrophus gave no product corresponding to the XYN11B gene. The patterns of evolution of the two xylanase genes and ribosomal DNA sequences are mutually consistent; the results indicate that the two genes were present in the common ancestor of all Cochliobolus species and are evolving independently of each other.

  18. Relationship between Crohn's disease, infection with Mycobacterium a vium subspecies paratuberculosis and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in Sardinian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonardo A Sechi; Maria Gazouli; Lee E Sieswerda; Paola Molicotti; Niyaz Ahmed; John Ikonomopoulos; Antonio M Scanu; Daniela Paccagnini; Stefania Zanetti

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between Crohn's disease (CD),Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), and genetic factors by examining the role of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1) gene polymorphisms (now SLC11A1) in Sardinian patients with CD and controls.METHODS: Thirty-seven CD patients and 34 controls with no inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were recruited at the University of Sassari after giving written consent. Six SCL11A1 polymorphisms previously reported to be the most significantly associated with IBD were searched.M. paratuberculosis was identified by IS900PCR and sequencing. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the associations among CD,presence of MAP, and 6 loci described above.RESULTS: For the first time, a strong association was observed between polymorphisms at NRAMP1 locus 823C/T and CD. While CD was strongly associated with both NRAMP1 and MAP, NRAMP1 polymorphisms and MAP themselves were not correlated.CONCLUSION: Combined with previous work on the NOD2/CARD15 gene, it is clear that the interplay of genetic, infectious, and immunologic factors in the etiologyof CD is complex.

  19. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can provide a substantial benefit in spacecraft systems, reducing launch weight and providing unprecedented flexibility by allowing instrumentation capabilities to grow and change over time. Achieving data transport reliability on par with that of wired systems, however, can prove extremely challenging in practice. Fortunately, much progress has been made in developing standard WSN radio protocols for applications from non-critical home automation to mission-critical industrial process control. The relative performances of candidate protocols must be compared in representative aerospace environments, however, to determine their suitability for spaceflight applications. In this paper, we will present the results of a rigorous laboratory analysis of the performance of two standards-based, low power, low data rate WSN protocols: ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a. Both are based on IEEE 802.15.4 and augment that standard's specifications to build complete, multi-hop networking stacks. ZigBee Pro targets primarily the home and office automation markets, providing an ad-hoc protocol that is computationally lightweight and easy to implement in inexpensive system-on-a-chip components. As a result of this simplicity, however, ZigBee Pro can be susceptible to radio frequency (RF) interference. ISA100.11a, on the other hand, targets the industrial process control market, providing a robust, centrally-managed protocol capable of tolerating a significant amount of RF interference. To achieve these gains, a coordinated channel hopping mechanism is employed, which entails a greater computational complexity than ZigBee and requires more sophisticated and costly hardware. To guide future aerospace deployments, we must understand how well these standards relatively perform in analog environments under expected operating conditions. Specifically, we are interested in evaluating goodput -- application level throughput -- in a representative crewed environment

  20. Association of variants at BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB with hemoglobin F and hospitalization rates among sickle cell patients in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambroise Wonkam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at loci influencing adult levels of HbF have been shown to modify the clinical course of sickle cell disease (SCD. Data on this important aspect of SCD have not yet been reported from West Africa. We investigated the relationship between HbF levels and the relevant genetic loci in 610 patients with SCD (98% HbSS homozygotes from Cameroon, and compared the results to a well-characterized African-American cohort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Socio-demographic and clinical features were collected and medical records reviewed. Only patients >5 years old, who had not received a blood transfusion or treatment with hydroxyurea were included. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and a full blood count were conducted upon arrival at the hospital. RFLP-PCR was used to describe the HBB gene haplotypes. SNaPshot PCR, Capillary electrophoresis and cycle sequencing were used for the genotyping of 10 selected SNPs. Genetic analysis was performed with PLINK software and statistical models in the statistical package R. Allele frequencies of relevant variants at BCL11A were similar to those detected in African Americans; although the relationships with Hb F were significant (p <.001, they explained substantially less of the variance in HbF than was observed among African Americans (∼ 2% vs 10%. SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP likewise had a significant impact on HbF, however, we did not find an association between HbF and the variations in HBB cluster and OR51B5/6 locus on chromosome 11p, due in part to the virtual absence of the Senegal and Indian Arab haplotypes. We also found evidence that selected SNPs in HBS1L-MYB region (HMIP and BCL11A affect both other hematological indices and rates of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: This study has confirmed the associations of SNPs in BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB and fetal haemoglobin in Cameroonian SCA patients; hematological indices and hospitalization rates were also associated with specific allelic variants.

  1. Adaptación y validación española de la Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt en adolescentes tempranos (BIS-11-A)

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Martínez-Loredo; José Ramón Fernández-Hermida; Sergio Fernández-Artamendi; José Luis Carballo; Olaya García-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    La impulsividad ha sido relacionada con multitud de trastornos psiquiátricos como el abuso de sustancias. La Escala de Impulsividad de Barratt (BIS-11) es uno de los autoinformes más comúnmente administrados para la evaluación de la impulsividad, tanto en el ámbito clínico como de investigación. Hay una versión para adolescentes llamada BIS- 11-A, que aún no ha sido convenientemente adaptada a población española. El objetivo de este estudio es ofrecer una versión española alternativa y más ad...

  2. A high-linearity InGaP/GaAs HBT power amplifier for IEEE 802.11a/n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Jie; Chen Lei; Kang Chunlei; Shi Jia; Zhang Xuguang; Ai Baoli; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A three-stage 4.8-6 GHz monolithic power amplifier (PA) compatible with IEEE 802.11 a/n designed based on an advanced 2 μm InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor (HBT) process is presented.The PA integrates input matching and closed-loop power control circuits on chip.Under 3.3 V DC bias,the amplifier achieves a ~31 dB small signal gain,excellent wide band input and output matching among overall 1.2 GHz bandwidth,and up to 24.5 dBm linear output power below EVM 3% with IEEE 802.1 la 64QAM OFDM input signal.

  3. (6aS,11aR,11cS-8-Sulfanylidene-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracen-3a-ium chloride hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H23N2S+·Cl−·0.5H2O, was prepared from (6aS,11aR,11cS-2,3,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b,11c-decahydro-3a,7a-diaza-1H,4H-benzo[de]anthracene-8-one (sophocarpine and Lawesson's reagent. The thione-substituted ring is in an envelope conformation and the three other six-membered rings are in chair conformations. In the crystal, anions and cations are linked by N—H...Cl and weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds. One 0.5-occupancy solvent water molecule lies on a twofold rotation axis and another 0.25-occupancy solvent water molecule is in a general position. The H atoms of these water molecules were not located or included in the refinement.

  4. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Palaeomagnetic results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahamsen, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The palaeomagnetic dating and evolution of the Faroe Islands are discussed in the context of new density and rock magnetic results from the deepened Lopra-1/1A well. The reversal chronology of thec. 6½ km thick basalt succession is also described. The polarity record of the Faroe Islands may now be correlated in detail with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale. The lowermost (hidden part of thelower basalt formation correlates with Chron C26r (Selandian age, the top (exposed part of the lower basalt formation correlates with Chrons C26n, C25r and C25n (Selandian and Thanetian ageand the middle and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian. Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from mostPalaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence of 20 specimens from one solid core (1½ m in length and 26 sidewall cores from the well between –2219 and –3531 m below sea level (b.s.l. suggest that the volcanic materials can be divided into two characteristic groups: solid unaltered basalts and altered basalts and tuffs. The magnetic properties are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at 2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented as all specimens appear to be from one flow. Magnetic logging (magnetic susceptibility and field intensity down to 3515 m b.s.l. was made in Lopra-1/1A together with other geophysical logs but did not yield conclusive inclination data.

  5. The Developmental Patterns and Correlation of Adiponectin Receptors,LHR,CYP11 A1 and StAR mRNA Expression in Testis of Wannan Hua Pigs%猪睾丸中脂联素受体与LHR、CYP11A1、StAR基因表达的发育变化及其相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵康; 周杰; 吴小雪; 舒宝屏; 罗联辉; 盛晟; 张佳; 李维新; 殷宗俊

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to observe the developmental patterns and the correlation of adiponectin receptors and testosterone synthesis-related factors Mrna expressions in testis of Wannan Hua pig. To investigate the relationship of adiponectin with the generation of testosterone. Five Wannan Hua boars were sampled at birth, 30, 45, 90, and 180 days of age, respectively. The expression of AdpRl, AdpR2, LHR, CYP11A1 and StAR Mrna in testis were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of AdpRl, CYPllAl and StAR Mrna were significantly changed with age increasing (P<0. 01). The expression of AdpRl Mrna increased at first and then decreased with age increasing, while CYPllAl and StAR Mrna showed an increasing at first, then decreasing, and increasing at last. All of their expression increased to the top at 45 days of age. LHR were also significantly changed with age increasing (P<0. 05), which increased at first then decreased. Significant positive correlation was found between Mrna expression of AdpRl and CYPllAl (r=0. 587, P<0. 05). The Mr-NA expression of LHR were significantly correlated with CYP11A1 (r = 0. 528, P<0. 05) and StAR(r=0. 552, P < 0. 05), respectively. And significant positive correlation was found between CYP11A1 and StAR Mrna expression (r=0. 709, P<0. 01). The high expression of AdpRl Mrna in testis suggested that the action of adiponectin on testis may mediated by AdpRl. The positive correlation between AdpRl and CYP11A1 Mrna expression indicated that adiponectin contribute the generation of testosterone.%旨在了解皖南花猪睾丸组织脂联素受体mRNA与睾酮合成相关因子mRNA表达的发育性变化及其相关性,探讨脂联素与睾酮生成的关系.本研究用荧光实时定量PCR法检测0、30、45、90和180 d等不同日龄(各日龄样本数5头)皖南花猪睾丸组织脂联素受体(AdpR1、AdpR2)和LHR、CYP11A1、StAR mRNA的表达水平.结果,AdpR1、CYP11 A1和StAR mRNA的表达有

  6. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Thermal structure of the deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiner, Niels

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available nformation on temperature, temperature gradients, thermal conductivity and heat flow from the c. 3.5 km deep Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands is presented and analysed. The upper 2450 m of the drilled sequence consists of thick tholeiitic basalt flows and the deeper parts of hyaloclastites and thin beds of basalt. Temperature data originate from high precision temperature logging a long time after drilling to a depth of 2175 m (the original Lopra-1 borehole and from commercial temperature logs measured a short time after drilling to a depth of 3430 m (Lopra-1/1A. The high-precision temperature log determines accurately levels of inflow of groundwater to the borehole and significantthermal disturbances to a depth of c. 1250 m. Below 1300 m, no significant disturbances are seen and interval temperature gradients for large depth intervals show only small variations between 28 and 33°C/km. The mean least-squares gradient for the depth interval of 1400–3430 m is 31.4°C/ km. In clear contrast to these overall very homogeneous, large-interval, mean temperature gradients, great local variability, between gradients of 20–25°C/km and 45°C/km, was observed between about 1300 and 2175 m (maximum depth of the high-resolution temperature log. These gradient variations are interpreted to be due to thermal conductivity variations and to reflect varying secondary mineralisation and mineral alterations.A preliminary analysis of the Lopra-1/1A temperature–depth function in terms of long-term palaeoclimatic signals indicates subsurface temperatures below about 1300 m to be in equilibrium with mean surface temperatures significantly below zero during the last glacial period. A subsequent temperature increase of 12–16°C occurred at around the termination of the last glaciation. The measured temperatures (some after correction and the thermal regime below 1300 m seem to represent conductive equilibrium conditions without significant disturbances from the effect of drilling, groundwater flow or long-term palaeoclimatic surface temperature variations.Thermal conductivity measured on samples of basalt taken from drill cores and surface outcrops in the area of the borehole shows values within a rather narrow range and a well-defined mean value forlow porosity basalts of about 1.8 W/m°C , while a few samples of lapilli-tuff/tuff from the borehole gave values around 1.9 W/m°C . Lapilli-tuff and tuff seem to have higher matrix (grain conductivitythan basalt. Heat flow is estimated at 60 ± 5 mW/m2. A heat flow of this magnitude is consistent with the Faroe Islands being underlain by continental crust.

  7. 中国荷斯坦牛SLC11A1基因多态性与乳腺炎的相关性研究%Polymorphisms of SLC11A1 Gene and Their Association with Mastitis in Chinese Holstein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭洋; 王洪梅; 侯明海; 王长法; 何洪彬; 吕文发; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [目的]通过研究中国荷斯坦牛SLC11A1基因多态性与乳腺炎性状间的相关性,为奶牛乳腺炎抗性选育提供参考.[方法]采用巢式PCR、降落PCR和DNA测序等技术,研究分析771头牛SLC11A1基因外显子10、内含子9和11的基因多态性,采用SHEsis和PHASE软件进行配对连锁不平衡和单倍型分析.[结果]发现4个不连锁的SNPs,分别为内含子9的6 067 (A/G)、6 358 (C/T),外显子10的7 155 (A/G)和内含子11的7 809(A/T);其中,6 067 (A/G)、6 358 (C/T)和7 809 (A/T)为新SNPs.不同基因型与乳腺炎相关性分析结果表明,SLC11A1基因的6 358 (C/T)和7 155 (A/G)对SCS和产奶量有显著影响(P<0.05),6 358 (C/T)的CC基因型和7 155( A/G)的从基因型是优良基因型;单倍型分析表明,群体中共发现16种单倍型组合,其中CAAA是优良的单倍型组合,其个体的SCS低、产奶量高.[结论]SLC11A1基因CAAA单倍型组合可能是奶牛SCS和产奶量的优良基因型和单倍型组合,可作为分子标记应用于奶牛乳腺炎抗性筛选.%[Objective] The polymorphisms of SLC11A1 gene and their correlation to mastitis in Chinese Holstein were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular maker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency of mastitis resistance. [ Method ] CRS-PCR, descend PCR and sequencing were applied to analyze the polymorphisms of four locus in SLCllA1 gene intron 9, exon10 and intron 11 in 771 Chinese Holstein Cattle. The PHASE and SHEsis softwares were used to analyze matching chain disequilibrium and haplotype analysis, respectively. [Result] Four SNPs not linking were found, in which 6 067(A/G), 6 358(C/T) and 7 809(A/T) were reported for the first time, and were in intron 9, exon 10 and intron 11, respectively. At locus 6 358 (C/T) and 7 155 (A/G), the cows with genotype CC and AA showed higher milk yield and lower SCS (P<0.05). Sixteen haplotype combinations were found in 771 Chinese Holstein Cattle, the cows with haplotype

  8. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene accumulation, metabolism and effect on steroid secretion and on CYP11A1 and CYP19 expression in cultured human placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoraszczuk, E L; Ptak, A; Karpeta, A; Fiedor, E; Wróbel, A; Milewicz, T; Falandysz, J

    2014-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene accumulation and the effect on CYP1A1, SULT1A, COMT and steroid secretion in term placental tissue were determined. Explants of placental tissue were exposed to between 0.02 and 2 ng/ml HCBz or PeCBz for 6-72 h. Accumulation was measured by capillary gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry. CYP1A1, SULT1A, COMT activity and progesterone secretion were analysed by EIA. Protein expression was quantified by Western blot; 6% HCBz and 7% PeCBz were detected in the tissue. Fast induction of CYP1A1 activity and protein expression in the presence of HCBz were observed. HCBz increased, while PeCBz decreased COMT protein expression. The stimulatory effect of HCBz, and the inhibitory of PeCBz on progesterone secretion and CYP11A1 protein expression were noted. Later activation of CYP1A1, inhibition of COMT protein expression and progesterone secretion by PeCBz suggest greater exposure to PeCBz and pointing at PeCBz as the main factor responsible for the disruption of placental function.

  9. Conservation characteristics of corn ears and stover ensiled with the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1, Lactobacillus plantarum 30114, or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J P; O'Kiely, P; Waters, S M; Doyle, E M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inoculating 3 contrasting lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation profile, estimated nutritive value, and aerobic stability of corn ears and stover produced under marginal growing conditions. Ears and stover were separated from whole-crop corn plants obtained from 3 replicate field blocks. Representative subsamples were precision chopped and allocated to 1 of the following treatments: an uninoculated control, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 (LP1), L. plantarum 30114 (LP2), or Lactobacillus buchneri 11A44 (LB). Each bacterial additive was applied at a rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh herbage. Triplicate samples of each treatment were ensiled in laboratory silos at 15°C for 3, 10, 35, or 130 d. No difference was observed between the dry matter recoveries of uninoculated ear or stover silages and silages made with LP1, and the aerobic stability of uninoculated ear and stover silages did not differ from silages made with LB. Stover silages made with LP2 and ensiled for 35 d had a lower proportion of lactic acid in total fermentation products compared with LP1. The aerobic stability and dry matter recovery of ear and stover silages in this study were not improved when made with LB, LP1, or LP2, due to the indigenous highly heterolactic fermentation that prevailed in the uninoculated ear and stover during 130-d ensilage. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Petroleum geochemistry of the deepened Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nytoft, H. Peter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well was drilled as a stratigraphic test with no immediate exploration objectives. Hence, petroleum geochemical studies were of limited extent, and restricted to non-destructive analyses. The presence of natural petroleum hydrocarbons could not be confirmed with certainty, but hydrocarbons extracted from the hydrochloric acid solute of a calcite vug present in RSWC #1 (3543 m, may represent indigenous petroleum since hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions have been reported from the same sample. These hydrocarbons show some similarities to petroleum generatedfrom the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous Kimmeridge Clay type source rocks present in surrounding areas. Except for this sample, the results generally show the presence of a variety of contaminantsof different origins such as ‘naturally greasy fingers’ (squalene and cholesterol, cosmetics such as chap stick or hand lotion (e.g. esters such as butyl-stearate, stearyl-palmitate, vitamin A, plasticisers (phthalates, diesel oil and ‘pipe dope’.

  11. 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier and power amplifier driver for WLAN IEEE 802.11a transmitter front-end

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xuelian; Yan Jun; Shi Yin; Dai Fa Foster

    2009-01-01

    A 5.2 GHz variable-gain amplifier (VGA) and a power amplifier (PA) driver are designed for WLAN IEEE 802.11a monolithic RFIC. The VGA and the PA driver are implemented in a 50 GHz 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology and occupy 1.12×1.25 mm2 die area. The VGA with effective temperature compensation is controlled by 5 bits and has a gain range of 34 dB. The PA driver with tuned loads utilizes a differential input, single-ended output topology, and the tuned loads resonate at 5.2 GHz. The maximum overall gain of the VGA and the PA driver is 29 dB with the output third-order intercept point (OIP3) of 11 dBm. The gain drift over the temperature varying from -30 to 85℃ converges within±3 dB. The total current consumption is 45 mA under a 2.85 V power supply.

  12. Analyses of the Temporal Development and Yield Losses due to Sheath Blight of Rice (Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sheath blight of rice, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG1.1a, has become the most important disease and caused serious yield losses in some major rice-growing regions in China in recent years. In the present study, field plot experiment was conducted to examine the relationships between disease intensity and inoculum density (ID), the seasonal disease epidemic dynamics, and yield reductions due to disease damages. Results from the experiment demonstrated that the areas under progress curves of disease severity and those of percent rice tillers diseased were positively and closely related to the relative initial ID of the pathogen. The inoculum density-disease (IDD) relationships were simulated and the impractical linear models were obtained. Both logistic and Gompertz functions could be used to simulate the disease progress dynamics in time, but the progress curves of the disease severity were modeled better by the Gompertz than by logistic function. However, the Richards function was found to be the best in simulating the disease progress curves when a most appropriate value was chosen for the shape parameter m by using the computer software Epitimulator(R).Sheath blight infection decreased rice yield very significantly and a yield reduction of 40% was recorded in rice crop with the highest inoculum density. Rice yield was linearly and negatively correlated with the disease severity and the percent tillers affected. The simulated models for all these relationships were computed through executing Epitimulator(R) software and were presented in this paper.

  13. Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en niños respiradores bucales de 11 años.: Segunda parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariel Carulla Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una correlación entre el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con el crecimiento del maxilar y de la mandíbula, los ángulos cérvico-basio-hioideo y el espacio aéreo póstero-inferior, desde el punto de vista cefalométrico, a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 60 pacientes, de 11 años de edad, que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología. Se utilizaron matrices de coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson, para evaluar la posición del hioides con respecto a dichas variables. Se encontró descenso del hueso, y relaciones significativas con las variables que reflejan el crecimiento maxilar y mandibular, así como la posición de la columna vertebral (segmento cervical y de la cabeza, además del espacio aéreo posterior de la faringe, con un nivel de significación del 5 %.

  14. Inhibitory effect of whole body irradiation and healing promotion effect of W11-a12 macrophage of wound in rats%5 Gy全身照射对大鼠伤口巨噬细胞的抑制效应及W11-a12的促愈作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒崇湘; 程天民; 李树楠

    2001-01-01

    目的 研究大鼠全身5Gy照射对伤口巨噬细胞(MΦ)功能的影响及W11-a12的促愈作用。方法 采用60Coγ射线全身照射复合皮肤创伤模型,观察了MΦ酵母-补体复合物玫瑰花环形成试验、吞噬功能和分泌纤维粘连蛋白(FN)、转化生长因子β1(TGFβ1)、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(bFGF)的功能。结果 大鼠5Gy全身照射复合皮肤创伤后第3、5天伤口内巨噬细胞C3b受体表达、吞噬功能,合成与分泌FN、TGFβ1、bFGF的功能均显著受到抑制,但抑制效应的程度不同,MΦ的吞噬功能的抑制重于其分泌功能,分泌TGFβ1功能的抑制重于分泌bFGF的功能。W11-a12能显著逆转辐射对MΦ功能的抑制效应。结论 伤口MΦ功能受抑是合并放射损伤后伤口难愈的主要原因,增强MΦ功能是W11-a12促愈作用的一个途径。

  15. Change of CD11a and myeloperoxidase content during rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury%肾缺血再灌注损伤中CD11a及髓过氧化酶的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪伟; 王禾; 石炳毅; 沈瑞雄; 柏宏伟; 李州利; 周文强

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the change of CD11a and myeloperoxidase(MPO) content during rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury(IRI),as well as the role of LFA-1 in renal IRI.METHODS:We utillzed the rat model of renal IRI to detect the renal tissue contents of CD11a and MPO.RESULT:Level of CD11a and MPO was very low in normal renal tissue,but was increased significantiy in those of ischemia reperfusion.And this level in the ischemia 60 min reperfusion group was higher than that in ischemia 30 min reperfusion group.CONCLUSION:Level of CD11a and MPO in rat renal tissue increased dignificantly during rat renal IRI.LFAK-1 mediated leukocyte adherence plays an important role in renal IRI.

  16. Bruxism and familiar functioning in school-age children between 5 and 11 years Bruxismo y funcionamiento familiar en escolares de 5 a 11 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeny Fernández Martínez

    2009-01-01

    >Fundamento: El bruxismo, hábito perjudicial muy frecuente en niños, se asocia a menudo con conflictos emocionales, ansiedad, estrés o frustración, que bien pueden darse en el entorno familiar Objetivo: Caracterizar el funcionamiento de familias con niños de 5 a 11 años que padecen de bruxismo. Métodos: Estudio con diseño analítico de caso y control, desarrollado de marzo a junio del 2007, que incluyó niños de 5 a 11 años de 3 escuelas primarias urbanas del Área II del municipio de Cienfuegos. Se seleccionó la totalidad de niños con bruxismo como casos y los controles por pareamiento de 2 a 1. Mediante la prueba FF–SIL se percibió el funcionamiento familiar. Resultados: El bruxismo en la muestra de estudio no dependió del sexo, se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos de caso y control respecto al comportamiento de los componentes del funcionamiento familiar, en los que resultaron la afectividad y la cohesión las de mayor resultado y en menor grado la armonía. En las familias estudiadas predominaron las funcionales y las moderadamente funcionales. La mayor cantidad de niños con bruxismo proceden de familias en las cuales no existe un funcionamiento familiar adecuado, además las familias disfuncionales y severamente disfuncionales son mayores en el grupo de niños con bruxismo. Conclusiones: En la muestra estudiada el bruxismo estuvo relacionado, en gran medida, con el funcionamiento familiar inadecuado.

  17. Anquiloglosia en niños de 5 a 11 años de edad: Diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norailys Pérez Navarro

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal y prospectivo sobre la anquiloglosia, que se define como un frenillo corto que restringe los movimientos de la lengua. El universo de nuestro estudio procedió de las escuelas primarias del municipio Melena del Sur, compuesto por niños con edades comprendidas entre 5 y 11 años. En coordinación con la logopeda y el estomatólogo general, se les trató quirúrgicamente en la Clínica Dental "Orlando Corvo" del municipio Melena del Sur, y posteriormente los pacientes fueron remitidos a la logopeda para corregir con ejercicios los problemas de habla. Se realizó una técnica quirúrgica diferente a la propuesta por la literatura, lo que permitió que los pacientes no necesitaran de sutura quirúrgica. De un universo de 829 niños revisados en las edades de 5 a 11 años, en las escuelas primarias del municipio Melena del Sur, 29 presentaron anquiloglosia, para el 3,49 % de incidencia del problema. En los niños que presentaron anquiloglosia, el fonema más afectado fue el /R/. La evolución en la dicción de los niños afectados por anquiloglosia antes y después del tratamiento estomatológico-logopeda, fue satisfactoria en el 99 % de los casos. Se modificó la técnica quirúrgica propuesta por los autores y se hizo más sencilla al realizar el corte más próximo a la cara ventral de la lengua. Se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios en cuanto al tiempo de curación de la herida.A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study on ankyloglossia is conducted. It is defined as a short frenum restricting the movements of the tongue. Children aged 5-11 from the primary schools of Melena del Sur entered this study. They were surgically treated in coordination with the speech specialist and the general stomatologist at "Orlando Corvo" dental clinic, in the municiaplity of Melena del Sur. These patiens were referred later to the speech specialist to correct the speech problems with exercises. As a

  18. Extracciones e indicaciones de extracciones dentales en población rural chilena de 11 a 30 años

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    S Olate

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la creciente tecnología odontológica y el progresivo aumento de la cantidad de odontólogos, el precario estándar de salud oral de la población rural se ha mantenido a lo largo del tiempo. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir y cuantificar las exodoncias de piezas dentarias permanentes en población rural. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo seleccionando el 100% de los sujetos atendidos en el Consultorio Chol-Chol, (IX Región de 11 a 30 años de edad que obtuvieron su alta integral durante los años 2001 y 2003. Los diagnósticos fueron realizados por dos odontólogos experimentados en ausencia de apoyo radiográfico (procedimiento realizado de acuerdo al instrumental y equipos disponibles. Se evaluó el estado de cada una de las piezas dentarias exceptuando los terceros molares. Resultados: Fueron analizadas 181 fichas clínicas de los cuales el 36,42% fueron del sexo masculino, siendo la edad media de la muestra 18,27 años. 143 sujetos presentaron piezas perdidas en el momento del examen, a 117 sujetos se les indico extracción de piezas dentales permanentes. Al finalizar el tratamiento 167 (92,2% sujetos presentaron ausencia de piezas dentarias permanentes, con un promedio de 5,6 piezas al finalizar el alta integral. Conclusión: Los pacientes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes en condiciones de ruralidad presentan alta frecuencia de patologías orales que determinan la exodoncia de las piezas dentales. Estos pacientes necesitaran a corto plazo extensas rehabilitaciones para recuperar su sistema estomatognático.

  19. Rpi-vnt1.1, a Tm-2(2) homolog from Solanum venturii, confers resistance to potato late blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Simon J; Park, Tae-Ho; Pel, Mathieu; Brigneti, Gianinna; Sliwka, Jadwiga; Jagger, Luke; van der Vossen, Edwin; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2009-05-01

    Despite the efforts of breeders and the extensive use of fungicide control measures, late blight still remains a major threat to potato cultivation worldwide. The introduction of genetic resistance into cultivated potato is considered a valuable method to achieve durable resistance to late blight. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Rpi-vnt1.1, a previously uncharacterized late-blight resistance gene from Solanum venturii. The gene was identified by a classical genetic and physical mapping approach and encodes a coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat protein with high similarity to Tm-2(2) from S. lycopersicum which confers resistance against Tomato mosaic virus. Transgenic potato and tomato plants carrying Rpi-vnt1.1 were shown to be resistant to Phytophthora infestans. Of 11 P. infestans isolates tested, only isolate EC1 from Ecuador was able to overcome Rpi-vnt1.1 and cause disease on the inoculated plants. Alleles of Rpi-vnt1.1 (Rpi-vnt1.2 and Rpi-vnt1.3) that differed by only a few nucleotides were found in other late-blight-resistant accessions of S. venturii. The late blight resistance gene Rpi-phu1 from S. phureja is shown here to be identical to Rpi-vnt1.1, suggesting either that this strong resistance gene has been maintained since a common ancestor, due to selection pressure for blight resistance, or that genetic exchange between S. venturii and S. phureja has occurred at some time.

  20. Transcriptome changes associated with delayed flower senescence on transgenic petunia by inducing expression of etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor.

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    Hong Wang

    Full Text Available Flowers of ethylene-sensitive ornamental plants transformed with ethylene-insensitive 1-1(etr1-1, a mutant ethylene receptor first isolated from Arabidopsis, are known to have longer shelf lives. We have generated petunia plants in which the etr1-1 gene was over-expressed under the control of a chemically-inducible promoter, which would allow expression of etr1-1 to be initiated at the desired time and stage of development. Here, we showed that transgenic plants grew and developed normally without a chemical inducer. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the abundance of transcripts of Arabidopsis etr1-1 gene was substantially induced in flowers with 30 μM dexamethasone (DEX. Consequently, t he life of the flowers was almost doubled and the peak of ethylene production was delayed. We compared gene expression changes of petals with DEX to those without DEX at 24 h and 48 h by microarray. Our results indicated that transcripts of many putative genes encoding transcription factors were down-regulated by etr1-1 induced expression at the early stage. In addition, putative genes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis, response to jasmonic acid/gibberellins stimulus, cell wall modification, ethylene biosynthesis, and cell death were down-regulated associating with etr1-1 induced expression. We investigated time-course gene expression profiles and found two profiles which displayed totally opposite expression patterns under these two treatments. In these profiles, 'the regulation of transcription' was predominant in GO categories. Taking all results together, we concluded those transcription factors down-regulated at early stage might exert a major role in regulating the senescence process which were consequently characterized by cell wall modification and cell death.

  1. GeneBase 1.1: a tool to summarize data from NCBI gene datasets and its application to an update of human gene statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Allison; Caracausi, Maria; Antonaros, Francesca; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Vitale, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    We release GeneBase 1.1, a local tool with a graphical interface useful for parsing, structuring and indexing data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene data bank. Compared to its predecessor GeneBase (1.0), GeneBase 1.1 now allows dynamic calculation and summarization in terms of median, mean, standard deviation and total for many quantitative parameters associated with genes, gene transcripts and gene features (exons, introns, coding sequences, untranslated regions). GeneBase 1.1 thus offers the opportunity to perform analyses of the main gene structure parameters also following the search for any set of genes with the desired characteristics, allowing unique functionalities not provided by the NCBI Gene itself. In order to show the potential of our tool for local parsing, structuring and dynamic summarizing of publicly available databases for data retrieval, analysis and testing of biological hypotheses, we provide as a sample application a revised set of statistics for human nuclear genes, gene transcripts and gene features. In contrast with previous estimations strongly underestimating the length of human genes, a ‘mean’ human protein-coding gene is 67 kbp long, has eleven 309 bp long exons and ten 6355 bp long introns. Median, mean and extreme values are provided for many other features offering an updated reference source for human genome studies, data useful to set parameters for bioinformatic tools and interesting clues to the biomedical meaning of the gene features themselves. Database URL: http://apollo11.isto.unibo.it/software/ PMID:28025344

  2. GeneBase 1.1: a tool to summarize data from NCBI gene datasets and its application to an update of human gene statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Allison; Caracausi, Maria; Antonaros, Francesca; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Vitale, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    We release GeneBase 1.1, a local tool with a graphical interface useful for parsing, structuring and indexing data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene data bank. Compared to its predecessor GeneBase (1.0), GeneBase 1.1 now allows dynamic calculation and summarization in terms of median, mean, standard deviation and total for many quantitative parameters associated with genes, gene transcripts and gene features (exons, introns, coding sequences, untranslated regions). GeneBase 1.1 thus offers the opportunity to perform analyses of the main gene structure parameters also following the search for any set of genes with the desired characteristics, allowing unique functionalities not provided by the NCBI Gene itself. In order to show the potential of our tool for local parsing, structuring and dynamic summarizing of publicly available databases for data retrieval, analysis and testing of biological hypotheses, we provide as a sample application a revised set of statistics for human nuclear genes, gene transcripts and gene features. In contrast with previous estimations strongly underestimating the length of human genes, a 'mean' human protein-coding gene is 67 kbp long, has eleven 309 bp long exons and ten 6355 bp long introns. Median, mean and extreme values are provided for many other features offering an updated reference source for human genome studies, data useful to set parameters for bioinformatic tools and interesting clues to the biomedical meaning of the gene features themselves.Database URL: http://apollo11.isto.unibo.it/software/.

  3. A functional interplay between the small GTPase Rab11a and mitochondria-shaping proteins regulates mitochondrial positioning and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton downstream of Src family kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie-Claude; Champagne, Claudia; Boulanger, Marie-Chloé; Jetté, Alexandra; Fuchs, Margit; Dziengelewski, Claire; Lavoie, Josée N

    2014-01-24

    It is believed that mitochondrial dynamics is coordinated with endosomal traffic rates during cytoskeletal remodeling, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. The adenovirus early region 4 ORF4 protein (E4orf4) subverts signaling by Src family kinases (SFK) to perturb cellular morphology, membrane traffic, and organellar dynamics and to trigger cell death. Using E4orf4 as a model, we uncovered a functional connection between mitochondria-shaping proteins and the small GTPase Rab11a, a key regulator of polarized transport via recycling endosomes. We found that E4orf4 induced dramatic changes in the morphology of mitochondria along with their mobilization at the vicinity of a polarized actin network typifying E4orf4 action, in a manner controlled by SFK and Rab11a. Mitochondrial remodeling was associated with increased proximity between Rab11a and mitochondrial membranes, changes in fusion-fission dynamics, and mitochondrial relocalization of the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which was regulated by the Rab11a effector protein FIP1/RCP. Knockdown of FIP1/RCP or inhibition of Drp1 markedly impaired mitochondrial remodeling and actin assembly, involving Rab11a-mediated mitochondrial dynamics in E4orf4-induced signaling. A similar mobilization of mitochondria near actin-rich structures was mediated by Rab11 and Drp1 in viral Src-transformed cells and contributed to the biogenesis of podosome rosettes. These findings suggest a role for Rab11a in the trafficking of Drp1 to mitochondria upon SFK activation and unravel a novel functional interplay between Rab11a and mitochondria during reshaping of the cell cytoskeleton, which would facilitate mitochondria redistribution near energy-requiring actin-rich structures.

  4. Differential gene expression between squamous cell carcinoma of esophageus and its normal epithelium;altered pattern of mal,akr1c2,and rab11a expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakineh Kazemi-Noureini; Sergio Colonna-Romano; Abed-Ali Ziaee; Mohammad-Ali Malboobi; Mansour Yazdanbod; Parviz Setayeshgar; Bruno Maresca

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the altered gene expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (ESCC) in relation to adjacent normal esophageal epithelium.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted using SV total RNA isolation kit from snap frozen tissues of ESCC samples and normal esophageal epithelium far from the tumor. Radiolabeled cDNA were synthesized from equal quantities of total RNAs of tumor and normal tissues using combinations of 24 arbitrary 13-mer primers and three different anchoring oligo-dT primers and separated on sequencing gels. cDNA with considerable different amounts of signals in tumor and normal tissue were reamplified and cloned.Using southern blot, the clones of each band were controlled for false positive results caused by probable heterogeneity of cDNA population with the same size. Clones that confirmed differential expression by slot blot selected for sequencing and northern analysis. Corresponding full-length gene sequences was predicted using human genome project data, related transcripts were translated and used for various protein/motif searches to speculate their probable functions.RESULTS: The 97 genes showed different levels of cDNA in tumor and normal tissues of esophagus. The expression of mai gene was remarkably down regulated in all 10surveyed tumor tissues. Akr1c2, a member of the aldoketo reductase 1C family, which is involved in metabolism of sex hormones and xenobiotics, was up-regulated in 8out of 10 inspected ESCC samples. Rab11a, RPL7, and RPL28 showed moderate levels of differential expression.Many other cDNAs remained to further studies.CONCLUSION: The mai gene which is switched-off in all ESCC samples can be considered as a tumor suppressor gene that more studies in its regulation may lead to valuable explanations in ESCC development. Akr1c2 which is upregulated in ESCC probably plays an important role in tumor development of esophagus and may be proposed as a potential molecular target in ESCC treatments. Differential

  5. ANÁLISIS DE MÁXIMO DESEMPEÑO PARA WLAN OPERANDO A TASAS FIJAS O ADAPTIVAS USANDO EL ESTÁNDAR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g FIXED OR ADAPTIVE RATE MAXIMUM THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS FOR IEEE 802.11 a/b/g WLAN'S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Grote H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un análisis simple, pero efectivo, de desempeño (throughput de redes de área local inalámbricas (WLAN: Wireless Local Area Networks operando bajo la familia de estándares IEEE 802.11 a/b/g. El análisis considera la influencia del tamaño de los paquetes, parámetros de configuración de los dispositivos (uso del protocolo RTS/CTS o acceso básico, tamaño de la ventana de contienda inicial, tasas de transmisión como el efecto del número de dispositivos que conforman la red. El objetivo de este estudio es que los administradores de este tipo de redes puedan estimar los efectos que tiene sobre el desempeño la configuración de los dispositivos de la red. Los resultados obtenidos mediante este análisis constituyen una cota máxima del desempeño de la red, ya que, con el objetivo de evitar un análisis estocástico, se asume ausencia de colisiones e interferencia electromagnética en el canalIn this publication a simple, but effective, throughput analysis for WLANs (Wireless Local Area Networks operating according to the IEEE 802.11 a/b/g family of standards is presented. The influence of data packet sizes, device configuration parameters (RTS/CTS or basic access protocol, initial contention window, transmission rate and the effect of the number of devices of the network are considered. The purpose of this study is to provide network administrators an insight of how network configuration parameters affect network performance. Results of this kind of analysis will provide an upper bound on network performance, since they do not consider the effect of collisions and electromagnetic interference

  6. Delayed diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in a patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias due to two novel P450 side-change cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mutations (p.R360W; p.R405X).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajes, Silvia; Chan, Angel O K; But, W M; Rose, Ian T; Taylor, Angela E; Dhir, Vivek; Arlt, Wiebke; Krone, Nils

    2012-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. CYP11A1 deficiency is commonly associated with adrenal insufficiency, and in 46,XY individuals, with variable degrees of disorder of sex development (DSD). The patient was born with hyperpigmentation, micropenis, penoscrotal hypospadias, and mild cryptorchidism. Biochemical and hormonal findings were normal except for low testosterone and low-borderline cortisol. However, no short synacthen test was undertaken. Development was unremarkable apart from an episode labeled as sepsis with documented hyperkalemia and elevated C-reactive protein at age 15 days. Diagnosis of 46,XY DSD was made at age 2.5 months. Progression of hyperpigmentation prompted further investigations and the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was established at 2 years with raised ACTH, normal renin activity, and failure of cortisol to respond to short synacthen test. Genetic analyses were performed. The novel CYP11A1 mutations were characterized in vitro and in silico. The patient was compound heterozygous for two novel CYP11A1 mutations, p.R360W and p.R405X. p.R360W retained 30-40% of wild-type activity. In silico analyses confirmed these findings and indicated that p.R405X is severe. This study demonstrates the pathogenicity of two novel CYP11A1 mutations found in a patient with delayed diagnosis of CYP11A1 deficiency. Patients with partial deficiencies of steroidogenic enzymes are at risk to be misdiagnosed if adrenal function is not assessed. The adrenocortical function should be routinely assessed in all patients with DSD including severe hypospadias of unknown origin to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises.

  7. 一种适用于802.11a/g无线局域网接收机的实时压扩开关电容模拟基带电路%An Instantaneously Companding SC Analog Baseband Circuit for 802.11 a/g WLAN Receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王申杰; Vaibhav Masheshwari; Wouter A.Serdijn; 洪志良

    2010-01-01

    由于采用正交频分复用(OFDM)技术,802.11 a/g无线局域网接收机的模拟基带电路需要克服12 dB 峰均功率比(PAPR).本文设计了一种基于实时压扩方式的模拟基带电路,主要包括5阶开关电容低通滤波器和10-bit流水线模数转换器.滤波器的截止和时钟频率分别为10 MHz和100 MHz,模数转换器的采样时钟为25 MS/s.经滤波器压缩的信号直接经过模数转换器,同时信号扩展在后端数字域完成,无需采用模拟放大器恢复信息.因为动态范围扩了2 bit,基于压扩方式的模拟基带功耗大约为传统基带的四分之一.本设计采用1.2 V IBM CMOS工艺实现,设计功耗为75mW.

  8. Characteristics of the distribution of SNPs of the CYP11A1 gene in the Hui and Han ethnic groups in Ningxia%CYP11A1基因单核苷酸多态性在宁夏回、汉族人群中的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿芝; 盛优静; 余冰; 于佳; 宋晓霞; 陆宏; 霍正浩

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解宁夏人群中CYP11A1基因rs16968477、rs1843090、rs4077582、rs9806234和rs12438594位点遗传多态的分布情况,并分析该位点在不同种族间的分布差异.方法 研究对象为宁夏医科大学体检健康学生559例,其中回族273例,汉族286例.单核苷酸多态性采用TaqMan Gene Typing技术检测.结果 宁夏回、汉族人群CYP11A1基因多态位点等位基因频率分别为rs16968477(C/T:64.47%/35.53%;68.53%/31.47%);rs1843090(A/G:46.15%/53.85%;43.53%/56.47%);rs4077582(C/T:56.78%/43.22%;55.24%/44.76%);rs9806234(A/G:32.78%/67.22%;38.99%/61.01%);rs12438594(A/G:47.44%/52.56%;42.48%/57.52%).宁夏人群各多态性基因型总体分布与HAPMAP结果比较,rs16968477、rs9806234位点与欧洲人群和非洲人群不同(P=0.017、0.001、0.000、0.000);rs1843090位点与欧洲人群、日本人群和非洲人群不同(P=0.000、0.011、0.000);rs4077582、rs12438594位点与欧洲人群不同(P=0.000、0.000).结论 CYP11A1基因5个单核苷酸多态性在宁夏回、汉族之间差异无统计学意义;5位点的基因型总体分布在种族和地区间差异具有统计学意义.%Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics of five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci (rs16968477,rs1843090,rs4077582,rs9806234 and rs12438594) in CYP11A1 gene in Ningxia population and to analyze the distribution of the SNPs among different ethnic groups.Methods All 559 subjects were students from Ningxia Medical University,including 273 cases of Hui and 286 cases of Han.The genotypes were examined by using Taqman Gene Typing method.Results The allele frequencies of the SNPs in Hui and Han ethnic groups were rs16968477 (C/T:64.47%/35.53%;68.53%/31.47%),rs1843090 (A/G:46.15%/53.85%;43.53%/ 56.47%),rs4077582 (C/T:56.78%/43.22%;55.24%/44.76%),rs9806234 (A/G:32.78%/67.22%;38.99%/61.01%) and rs12438594 (A/G:47.44%/52.56%;42.4%/57.52%).Compared with

  9. Trisomy 12 is seen within a specific subtype of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease affecting the peripheral blood/bone marrow and co-segregates with elevated expression of CD11a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su'ut, L; O'Connor, S J; Richards, S J; Jones, R A; Roberts, B E; Davies, F E; Fegan, C D; Jack, A S; Morgan, G J

    1998-04-01

    In order to delineate the specific morphological and immunophenotypic features of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with trisomy 12, 172 sequential unselected cases of CD19+CD5+ B-cell disorders, primarily affecting the peripheral blood and bone marrow, were studied. Trisomy 12 was found in 24 cases (13.9%), with all cases morphologically classified as either CLL-PL or CLL-mixed by FAB criteria. Trisomy 12 was not found in any cases of typical CLL. Trisomy 12 cases demonstrated a significant higher expression of CD11a (P<0.0001) and CD20 (P<0.0006) when compared to cases with the equivalent morphology and immunophenotype, but without the chromosomal abnormality. Trisomy 12 cases also demonstrated a higher frequency of FMC7, CD38 expression and moderate to strong surface immunoglobulin staining. However, no correlation was detected between the percentages of trisomy 12 cells and cells expressing CD11a, CD38, FMC7 or sIg mean fluorescent intensity. Cells from trisomy 12 positive cases were sorted according to their CD11a expression using fluorescent activated cell sorting. There was a significant increase in the percentage of trisomy 12 cells within the CD11a+ sorted fraction compared to the unsorted population (P < 0.05), implying that trisomy 12 is associated with increased expression of CD11a. With the highly specific morphological and immunophenotypic features demonstrated by trisomy 12 cases in this study, it is highly likely that these cases constitute a specific group of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

  10. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: A reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions in fracture-filling quartz and calcite from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Fracture-filling calcite and quartz from the Lopra-1/1A well (at 2380 m and 3543 m depth contains both aqueous low-salinity fluid inclusions and hydrocarbon-dominated fluid inclusions. Microthermometry indicates that the aqueous fluids contain 0.2 to 1.4 equivalent weight% NaCl and occasionally contain traces of hydrocarbons. Homogenisation to liquid occurred between 90°C and 150°C. Modelling based on these fluid inclusion observations indicates that during burial the basaltic section was subjected to temperatures of 160°C and 170°C, occasional pressures of 600–700 bars and the simultaneous percolation of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids. These fluid conditions may also be relevant to the formation of zeolite observed in the Lopra-1/1A well.

  11. DNA polymorphisms at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels and pain crises in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettre, Guillaume; Sankaran, Vijay G; Bezerra, Marcos André C; Araújo, Aderson S; Uda, Manuela; Sanna, Serena; Cao, Antonio; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Fernando F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Orkin, Stuart H

    2008-08-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating monogenic blood disorder with a highly variable phenotype characterized by severe pain crises, acute clinical events, and early mortality. Interindividual variation in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression is a known and potentially heritable modifier of SCD severity. High HbF levels are correlated with reduced morbidity and mortality. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A and HBS1L-MYB loci have been implicated previously in HbF level variation in nonanemic European populations. We recently demonstrated an association between a BCL11A SNP and HbF levels in one SCD cohort [Uda M, et al. (2008) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:1620-1625]. Here, we genotyped additional BCL11A SNPs, HBS1L-MYB SNPs, and an SNP upstream of (G)gamma-globin (HBG2; the XmnI polymorphism), in two independent SCD cohorts: the African American Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) and an SCD cohort from Brazil. We studied the effect of these SNPs on HbF levels and on a measure of SCD-related morbidity (pain crisis rate). We strongly replicated the association between these SNPs and HbF level variation (in the CSSCD, P values range from 0.04 to 2 x 10(-42)). Together, common SNPs at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, and beta-globin (HBB) loci account for >20% of the variation in HbF levels in SCD patients. We also have shown that HbF-associated SNPs associate with pain crisis rate in SCD patients. These results provide a clear example of inherited common sequence variants modifying the severity of a monogenic disease.

  12. Construction of HEK293 cells stably expressing wild-type organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1*1a) and variant OATP1B1*1b and OATP1B1*15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Qu, B X; Chen, X L; Hu, H H; Jiang, H D; Yu, L S; Zhou, Q; Zeng, S

    2016-06-01

    A transgenic cell line stably expressing the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B1) was established. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cell line stably expressing OATP1B1*1a sequence was amplified through PCR with the extracted total RNA as templates from human liver, then subcloned into the plasmid pMD19-T and verified by sequencing. OATP1B1*1b/OATP1B1*15 mutant sequences were obtained by site-directed mutation PCR with pMD19-T/ OATP1B1*1a as templates. The plasmids pcDNA3.1(+)/OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 were constructed and transfected into HEK293 cell line using Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent. Several stable transfected clones were obtained after selection with G418. Using rosuvastatin as a probe substrate of OATP1B1, the intracellular rosuvastatin accumulation in HEK293 and HEK-OATP1B1*1a, *1b and *15 monoclone cells were validated by a ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. OATP1B1 mRNA and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The results from RT-PCR, rosuvastatin uptake and Western blot assay indicated that human OATP1B1 was highly expressed in transfected cells compared with controls. The HEK-293 cell lines stably expressing human OATP1B1-wild and variant (HEK-OATP1B1, *1b and *15) are potential models to study drug transport in vitro.

  13. Association study of genetic variants in PLA2G4A, PLCG1, LAT, SYK, and TNFRS11A genes in NSAIDs-induced urticaria and/or angioedema patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Pedro; Plaza-Serón, María del Carmen; Doña, Inmaculada; Blanca-López, Natalia; Campo, Paloma; Cornejo-García, José A; Perkins, James R; Torres, Maria J; Blanca, Miguel; Canto, Gabriela

    2015-12-01

    NSAIDs-induced urticaria and/or angioedema (NIUA) is the most frequent entity of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs. The underlying cause is considered to be because of a nonspecific immunological mechanism in which mast cells are key players. We studied the association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms in five genes involved in mast cell activation (SYK, LAT1, PLCG1, PLA2G4A, and TNFRSF11A) in 450 NIUA patients and 500 controls. We identified several statistically significant associations when stratifying patients by symptoms: PLA2G4A rs12746200 (urticaria vs. controls, Pc=0.005). PLCG1 rs2228246 (angioedema vs. controls; Pc=0.044), and TNFRS11A rs1805034 (urticaria+angioedema vs. controls; Pc=0.041). The frequency of haplotype PLCG1 rs753381-rs2228246 (C-G) in angioedema-NIUA patients was lower than that in controls (Pc=0.040). In addition, the haplotype frequency of TNFRS11A rs1805034-rs35211496 (C-T) was higher among urticaria-NIUA and urticaria+angioedema-NIUA patients than the controls (Pc=0.045 and 0.046). Our results shed light on the involvement of variants in genes related to non-immunological mast cell activation in NIUA.

  14. Dyspraxia 5-11: A Practical Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Christine

    This book attempts to explain dyspraxia, a coordination disorder, and how the condition affects children of primary school age. The first chapter defines dyspraxia and answers common questions concerning what the condition is, difficulties these children experience, reasons for these difficulties, the prevalence of dyspraxia, and ways to help.…

  15. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Mineralogical and thermodynamic constraints on Palaeogene palaeotemperature conditions during low-grade metamorphism of basaltic lavas recovered from the Lopra-1/1A deep hole, Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glassley, William E.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The sequene of secondary minerals that are reported for the Lopra-1/1A well records progressive zeolite facies to prehnite–pumpellyite-facies mineral progressions consistent with those of other wellstudied hydrothermally altered rock sequences. Detailed comparison of the calc–silicate (zeolites and prehnite mineral distributions of the Lopra-1/1A sequence with those from other regions indicates that this sequence exhibits consistently longer down-hole intervals for secondary mineral species than reported elsewhere. When compared to measured down-hole temperatures reported in other hydrothermally altered regions, the results suggest that the Lopra-1/1A mineral progression formed under conditions typical of low temperature hydrothermal systems that form shortly after eruption of thick basaltic piles. Maximum temperatures achieved at the 3500 m level of the well were at or below 200°C. The implied geothermal gradient was less than 50°C/km. An analysis of prehnite – fluid composition relationships was also conducted in order to determine if results compatible with the paragenetic sequence study could be obtained from thermodynamic constraints. In this case, thelimiting temperature for prehnite formation in equilibrium with albite–quartz–calcite–laumontite (the mineral assemblage at the bottom of the hole was determined for a range of fluid compositions.The resulting calculations suggest temperatures of formation of prehnite in the range of 140°C to 205°C, a conclusion which is broadly consistent with those reached from study of the parageneticrelationships. Comparison of these results with other studies of palaeogeothermal gradients of the North Atlantic margins suggests a consistent pattern in which relatively low geothermal gradientspersisted in the Palaeogene rift basin.

  16. Ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole increase DNA adduct formation of furfuryl alcohol in FVB/N wild-type mice and in mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2016-03-01

    Furfuryl alcohol (FFA) is a carcinogenic food contaminant, which is formed by acid- and heat-catalyzed degradation of fructose and glucose. The activation by sulfotransferases (SULTs) yields a DNA reactive and mutagenic sulfate ester. The most prominent DNA adduct, N(2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-MF-dG), was detected in FFA-treated mice and also in human tissue samples. The dominant pathway of FFA detoxification is the oxidation via alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs). The activity of these enzymes may be greatly altered in the presence of inhibitors or competitive substrates. Here, we investigated the impact of ethanol and the ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4MP) on the DNA adduct formation by FFA in wild-type and in humanized mice that were transgenic for human SULT1A1/1A2 and deficient in the mouse (m) Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 genes (h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-)). The administration of FFA alone led to hepatic adduct levels of 4.5 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 33.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female wild-type mice, respectively, and of 19.6 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides and 95.4 N(2)-MF-dG/10(8) nucleosides in male and female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 1.6g ethanol/kg body weight increased N(2)-MF-dG levels by 2.3-fold in male and by 1.7-fold in female wild-type mice and by 2.5-fold in male and by 1.5-fold in female h1A1/1A2/1a1(-)/1d1(-) mice. The coadministration of 100mg 4MP/kg body weight had a similar effect on the adduct levels. These findings indicate that modulators of the oxidative metabolism, e.g. the drug 4MP or consumption of alcoholic beverages, may increase the genotoxic effects of FFA also in humans.

  17. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    M. Castells Cuixart; C. Capdevila Prim; T. Girbau Solà; C. Rodríguez Caba

    2006-01-01

    Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como...

  18. Ensayos de trabajabilidad de Tectona grandis L.f. de 11 años de edad proveniente de dos sitios de crecimiento en plantaciones del Atlántico y el Pacífico de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados de ensayos comparativos de trabajabilidad de la madera de teca (Tectona grandis L.f.) procedente de plantaciones forestales de 11 años de edad de dos regiones geográficas de Costa Rica (Atlántica y Pacífica). Tanto en la región Atlántica (Pococí) como en la región Pacífica (Parrita), se seleccionaron dos sitios, uno de mayor crecimiento (Sitio 1) y otro de menor crecimiento (Sito 2). Los ensayos incluyeron cepillado, lijado, taladrado y torneado. S...

  19. Cyclosporin A inhibits CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecules due to inhibition of TNFα and IL-1β levels in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Medeiros, Yara Santos

    2008-01-01

    The mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan is characterized by a significant enhancement of cell migration due to neutrophils 4 h after pleurisy induction. Forty-eight hours after pleurisy induction, a significant increase in cell migration due to mononuclear cells occurs. Recently, studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that cyclosporine A (CsA) inhibits leukocyte migration in the pleural cavity and lungs in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. In the present work we evaluated whether CsA was able to downregulate CD11a/CD18 adhesion molecule in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity in this model. Our results showed that CsA significantly decreased CD11a/CD18 in the lungs, as well as TNFα and IL-1β levels in the fluid leakage of the pleural cavity 4 h and 48 h after pleurisy induction. It is our hypothesis that the inhibitory effect elicited by CsA upon these adhesion molecules may be also be attributed to the downregulation of TNFα and IL-1β cytokines. PMID:19262158

  20. Great potential of a panel of multiple hMTH1, SPD, ITGA11 and COL11A1 markers for diagnosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Inn-Wen; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chang, Huang-Chou; Yu, Ya-Ping; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Tsai, Jong-Rung; Hung, Jen-Yu; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Tsai, Mee-Sun; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Lin, Shiu-Ru

    2006-11-01

    Research on molecular mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide gene targets in critical pathways valuable for improving the efficacy of therapy and survival of patients with NSCLC. However, the molecular markers highly sensitive for the prognosis and treatment evaluation of NSCLC are not yet available. To explore candidates, we conducted an oligonucleotide microarray study with three pairs of NSCLC and normal lung tissue, and determined 8 differentially expressed genes including the Human MutT homologue (hMTH1), Surfactant protein D (SPD), Human hyaluronan binding protein 2 (HABP2), Crystalline-mu (CRYM), Ceruloplasmin (CP), Integrin alpha-11 subunit (ITGA11), Collagen type XI alpha I (COL11A1), and Lung-specific X protein (Lun X). Four lung cancer-related markers MUC-1, hTERT, hnRNP B1, and CK-19 were also incorporated for further analysis. The expression profiles of the twelve genes in seventy pairs of NSCLC tumor and normal lung tissue were then detected quantitatively by using membrane array and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The data of the membrane array and qRT-PCR were compared for consistency and the potential of these mRNA markers in clinical application. The results showed that membrane array and qRT-PCR obtained consistent data for the tested genes in both sensitivity and specificity (correlation coefficient 0.921, p<0.0001). For patients' clinicopathological characteristics, the overexpression of hMTH1, SPD, HABP 2, ITGA11, COL11A1, and CK-19 was significantly correlated with the pathological stage (p<0.05). In addition, the overexpression of hMTH1, SPD, ITGA11, and COL11A1 was correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. This is the first report relating SPD to a prognosis marker for NSCLC. Moreover, the combined detection of these four mRNA markers by membrane array had a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 84% for NSCLC, significantly higher than these markers had achieved

  1. Asociación entre alteraciones neuropsicológicas y estados emocionales en niños de 8 a 11 años de edad de colegios públicos de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Emilio Utria Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar las asociaciones entre las alteraciones neuropsicológicas y los estados emocionales en 157 niños de 8-11 años de edad de colegios distritales de la ciudad de Bogotá, Colombia. Es una investigación de tipo descriptivo, con método de asociación entre alteraciones neuropsicológicas y estados emocionales. Se utilizaron como instrumentos: la ENI para procesos cognoscitivos, el CMAS-R para ansiedad y el CDI para depresión. Los resultados indicaron que de los 10 procesos evaluados, 7 presentan clasificación por debajo del promedio; además no se encontró presencia de ansiedad y depresión e igualmente no se observó asociación entre las alteraciones neuropsicológicas y los estados emocionales.

  2. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Tascón

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. INTRODUCCIÓN: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Para este estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se seleccionaron 50 niños entre los 5 y 11 años y sus madres. El índice COP se usó para identificar la historia de caries del primer molar permanente. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semi-estructurado de 21 ítems. RESULTADOS: Del total de madres 34% respondió que los dientes definitivos erupcionan entre los seis y siete años; 54% refirieron que los dientes temporales son poco importantes porque se van a caer. El 100% de las madres respondió que es importante llevar a su hijo cada seis meses al odontólogo y 34% cambian el cepillo de dientes de su hijo, cuando las cerdas han perdido la forma. CONCLUSIONES: Casi todas las madres no saben la importancia del primer molar, y desconocen la edad en que éste erupciona Gran proporción de los niños presentan un alto porcentaje de primeros molares cariados, obturados, y perdidos. Pese a que las actitudes de las madres con respecto a la higiene oral son favorables, las prácticas no lo son.

  3. Primer molar permanente: historia de caries en un grupo de niños entre los 5 y 11 años frente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Tascón

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la historia de caries del primer molar permanente en niños entre 5 y 11 años y los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de sus madres. Introducción: La caries es una enfermedad de origen multifactorial, se inicia tras la erupción dental y determina un reblandecimiento de los tejidos duros del diente. El primer molar permanente erupciona entre los 5 y 7 años de edad, no tiene predecesor y es uno de los dientes más afectados por esta enfermedad. Materiales y métodos: Para este estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, se seleccionaron 50 niños entre los 5 y 11 años y sus madres. El índice COP se usó para identificar la historia de caries del primer molar permanente. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario semi-estructurado de 21 ítems. Resultados: Del total de madres 34% respondió que los dientes definitivos erupcionan entre los seis y siete años; 54% refirieron que los dientes temporales son poco importantes porque se van a caer. El 100% de las madres respondió que es importante llevar a su hijo cada seis meses al odontólogo y 34% cambian el cepillo de dientes de su hijo, cuando las cerdas han perdido la forma. Conclusiones: Casi todas las madres no saben la importancia del primer molar, y desconocen la edad en que éste erupciona Gran proporción de los niños presentan un alto porcentaje de primeros molares cariados, obturados, y perdidos. Pese a que las actitudes de las madres con respecto a la higiene oral son favorables, las prácticas no lo son.

  4. 低压低功率SiGe BiCMOS X波段低噪声放大器与IEEE 802.11a LNA的设计比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhen; Wang; Robert; Weber; 罗先志(译); 季节(校)

    2006-01-01

    介绍了一种采用0.25um SiGe BiCMOS工艺集成的低压低功率X波段低噪声放大器(LNA),比较了此种放大器与IEEE 802.11a LNA的设计。X波段LNA和IEEE 802.11a LNA的工作频率分别为10GHz和5.8GHz。所设计的LNA都采用了相同的结构和电压,并耗费同量的电流。两种LNA都只需要1.5V的电压,消耗1.5mW的直流功率。两种电路的差异是它们有不同的输入与输出匹配和负载。本文介绍的LNA在10GHz时的电压增益为11.49dB,噪声系数(NF)为3.84dB,输入反射损失为-15.37dB,输出反射损失为-17dB,P1dB为-3.75dBm。在5.8GHz时的电压增益为16.07dB,噪声系数为3.07dB,输入反射损失为-18.1dB,输出反射损失为-15.23dB,P1dB为-6.54dBm。两电路的关键特征是:低压、低功率和良好的噪声匹配。频率为IOGHz和5.8GHz时,噪声系数与最小噪声系数之差分别只有0.03dB和0.05dB。验证了一种高频(X波段)低成本设计,与其他技术(如GaAs、SiBJT、JFET、PHMET和MESFET等)相比,它是在SiGe BiCMOS中设计的。

  5. Prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad y factores asociados con valor predictivo-preventivo en escolares de 6 a 11 años de Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina la información de sobrepeso-obesidad en escolares es escasa. Los objetivos de este estudio son analizar la prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad y determinar los factores con valor preventivo en escolares de Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Se trata de un estudio de prevalencia. Se aplicó un muestreo probabilístico mixto. 1.645 escolares de 6 a 11 años fueron entrevistados con sus padres. El diagnóstico nutricional se hizo con el índice de masa corporal siguiendo los criterios del International Obesity Task Force. Las prevalencias de sobrepeso-obesidad encontradas fueron altas, 25,6% (IC95%, 23,5, 27,7 y 13,8% (IC95%, 12,1, 15,5 respectivamente, semejantes a resultados nacionales y superiores a otros estudios provinciales y latinoamericanos. Se construyó un modelo de predicción mediante análisis de regresión multivariado considerando como variable dependiente al exceso de peso. El modelo final incluye, tener un hermano o ninguno, alto consumo de comidas rápidas y alto consumo de gaseosas.

  6. A 3.2-GHz fully integrated low-phase noise CMOS VCO with self-biasing current source for the IEEE 802.11a/hiperLAN WLAN standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, C.; Adin, I.; Bistue, G.; Berenguer, R.; Mendizabal, J.

    2005-06-01

    A 3.3V, fully integrated 3.2-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is designed in a 0.18μm CMOS technology for the IEE 802.11a/HiperLAN WLAN standard for the UNII band from 5.15 to 5.35 GHz. The VCO is tunable between 2.85 GHz and 3.31 GHz. NMOS architecture with self-biasing current of the tank source is chosen. A startup circuit has been employed to avoid zero initial current. Current variation is lower than 1% for voltage supply variations of 10%. The use of a self-biasing current source in the tank provides a greater safety in the transconductance value and allows running along more extreme point operation The designed VCO displays a phase noise and output power of -98dBc/Hz (at 100 KHz offset frequency) and 0dBm respectively. This phase noise has been obtained with inductors of 2.2nH and quality factor of 12 at 3.2 GHz, and P-N junction varactors whose quality factor is estimated to exceed 40 at 3.2 GHz. These passive components have been fabricated, measured and modeled previously. The core of the VCO consumes 33mW DC power.

  7. Factores individuales, familiares y escolares asociados a la aceptación y el rechazo social en grupos de niños escolarizados entre los 9 y 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Jaramillo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es un avance del estudio que busca identificar variables individuales, familiares y escolares asociadas con la aceptación y el rechazo en grupos escolares de niños entre 9 y 11 años de edad. Se consideran dos tipos de variables individuales: los déficit y excesos conductuales y las estrategias de procesamiento de información social. Como variables familiares se tienen cinco estilos de crianza: autoritario, permisivo, descuidado, sobreprotector y democrático. En el contexto escolar se tienen en cuenta tres estilos pedagógicos: el autoritario, el permisivo y el democrático. También se quiere detectar las percepciones que comparten los niños sobre actitudes que hacen a un compañero merecedor de rechazo o aceptación en su grupo escolar. Para la recolección de los datos se diseñaron cuestionarios y entrevistas semiestructuradas que se aplicarán principalmente a los niños. Los datos obtenidos serán sometidos a análisis estadístico correlacional y en algunos casos, a análisis de contenido.

  8. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Withey Laura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively. Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 8.64-11.62 GHz CMOS VCO and divider in a zero-IF 802.11a/b/g WLAN and Bluetooth application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sun; Niansong, Mei; Bo, Lu; Yumei, Huang; Zhiliang, Hong

    2010-10-01

    A fully integrated VCO and divider implemented in SMIC 0.13-μm RFCMOS 1P8M technology with a 1.2 V supply voltage is presented. The frequency of the VCO is tuning from 8.64 to 11.62 GHz while the quadrature LO signals for 802.11a WLAN in 5.8 GHz band or for 802.11b/g WLAN and Bluetooth in 2.4 GHz band can be obtained by a frequency division by 2 or 4, respectively. A 6 bit switched capacitor array is applied for precise tuning of all necessary frequency bands. The testing results show that the VCO has a phase noise of—113 dBc @ 1 MHz offset from the carrier of 5.5 GHz by dividing VCO output by two and the VCO core consumes 3.72 mW. The figure-of-merit for the tuning-range (FOMT) of the VCO is -192.6 dBc/Hz.

  10. CTX-M Enzymes: Origin and Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Rafael; González-Alba, José María; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases are considered a paradigm in the evolution of a resistance mechanism. Incorporation of different chromosomal blaCTX-M related genes from different species of Kluyvera has derived in different CTX-M clusters. In silico analyses have shown that this event has occurred at least nine times; in CTX-M-1 cluster (3), CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-9 clusters (2 each), and CTX-M-8 and CTX-M-25 clusters (1 each). This has been mainly produced by the participation of genetic mobilization units such as insertion sequences (ISEcp1 or ISCR1) and the later incorporation in hierarchical structures associated with multifaceted genetic structures including complex class 1 integrons and transposons. The capture of these blaCTX-M genes from the environment by highly mobilizable structures could have been a random event. Moreover, after incorporation within these structures, β-lactam selective force such as that exerted by cefotaxime and ceftazidime has fueled mutational events underscoring diversification of different clusters. Nevertheless, more variants of CTX-M enzymes, including those not inhibited by β-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid (IR-CTX-M variants), only obtained under in in vitro experiments, are still waiting to emerge in the clinical setting. Penetration and the later global spread of CTX-M producing organisms have been produced with the participation of the so-called “epidemic resistance plasmids” often carried in multi-drug resistant and virulent high-risk clones. All these facts but also the incorporation and co-selection of emerging resistance determinants within CTX-M producing bacteria, such as those encoding carbapenemases, depict the currently complex pandemic scenario of multi-drug resistant isolates. PMID:22485109

  11. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Wire-line log-based stratigraphy of flood basalts from the Lopra-1/1A well, Faroe Islands

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    Boldreel, Lars O.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows that it is possible to use conventional borehole logs to perform a detailed lithological/stratigraphical division of a column of subaerially extruded basalt. A stratigraphical division of the subaerial flood basalts penetrated by the Lopra-1/1A well has been carried out using new wire-line logging data measured in 1996 in the interval 200–2489 m depth. Resistivity data acquired in the interval 200–2178 m depth during 1981 after the initial drilling of the Lopra-1 well have also been incorporated. Eighty-six individual flow units, 18 compound flows and two dolerite dykes have been identified by combining the NPHI porosity, RHOB density, P-, S- and Stonely-sonic transit time, calliper and resistivity logs. Fifty-two sedimentary/tuffaceous layers have also been identified using the CGR and SGR gamma ray and potassium logs in combination with the aforementioned logs. Within the flow units, sonic velocity, density and resistivity are highest in the core where porosity is lowest. This relation is reversed in the uppermost and basal zones of the flow units. The sonic velocity in the core seems to be independent of the thickness of the flow unit. Porous zones seem abundant in some cores and the total section of cores containing porous zones constitutes more than 70% of the thickness of its flow unit, but where porous zones are absent the core makes up only roughly 50% of the thickness of the flow. It is suggested that the flow units with porous cores represent aa flows (88% of the flow units and the others pahoehoe flows (12% of the flow units.The log pattern of the flow units (crust, core and basal zone is similar to log patterns reported from other basalt plateaux. However the patterns in Lopra-1/1A show a larger variation than elsewhere,suggesting that the flow units are more complex vertically than previously thought. Statistical analysis of P-, S- and Stonely-waves, RHOB, NPHI, resistivity, gamma and calliper logs has beencarried out. Cross-plots based on the lithological divisions have been produced that show a pronounced reduction in scattering versus P-sonic transit time and P- and S-sonic, RHOB and NPHI logs correlate with depth. The geochemical logs do not reflect the cyclic structure of the flow units and probably represent the primary composition of the basalt. The thorium log especially indicatesflow units with high and low radioactivity and it is suggested that a minimum of 36 flow fields form the logged part of the lower basalt series. Dolerite units described in previous works have been confirmed based on the combined interpretation of wire-line logs. The log data suggest that the subaerially extruded basalt has its base at a depth of approximately 2490 m and that a hyaloclastite succession is found below that depth. The transition from subaerially extruded basalt to hyaloclastite produces a negative acoustic impedance and it is found that the transition corresponds to a negative reflection interpreted on VSP surveys from 1988 and 1994.

  12. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

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    Maureen Janette Más García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 children from three clinics of the quarter “Junco Sur” in Cienfuegos developed from June 2005 to June 2006. The clinical examination was performed in children, and their parents or tutors were interviewed. The frequency of buccal deforming habits was determined, as well as the presence of dental maxillofacial defects. Results: Deforming habits were identified in 60, 2% of the children; the most frequent were baby bottle suction (48%, finger suction (24% at six years old and lingual protraction at eight years (36,1% in girls. The dental maxillary-facial defects occurred in the 42,6% and there was a prevalence of vestibule-version at eight years (44,4%, augmented ridge at 10 years (35,4% and bilabial incompetence at 11 years (13,3%, all of them in girls. There was prevalence in Angle´s Class I with 60, 1%. Conclusion: Buccal deforming habits are a health problem in the studied universe.Fundamento: Para tratar malos hábitos, el primer paso es la detección del agente causal. Muchos se derivan de situaciones comunes que al ser detectadas y adecuadamente tratadas pueden contribuir a la desaparición espontánea del mal hábito. Objetivo: Caracterizar un grupo de niños de 5 a 11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional que incluyó 176 niños de tres consultorios del Consejo Popular “Junco Sur” de Cienfuegos, desarrollado de junio de 2005 a

  13. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

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    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  14. The effect of knockout of sulfotransferases 1a1 and 1d1 and of transgenic human sulfotransferases 1A1/1A2 on the formation of DNA adducts from furfuryl alcohol in mouse models.

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    Sachse, Benjamin; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi; Monien, Bernhard H

    2014-10-01

    Furfuryl alcohol is a rodent carcinogen present in numerous foodstuffs. Sulfotransferases (SULTs) convert furfuryl alcohol into the DNA reactive and mutagenic 2-sulfoxymethylfuran. Sensitive techniques for the isotope-dilution ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of resulting DNA adducts, e.g. N (2)-((furan-2-yl)methyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N (2)-MF-dG), were developed. To better understand the contribution of specific SULT forms to the genotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol in vivo, we studied the tissue distribution of N (2)-MF-dG in different mouse models. Earlier mutagenicity studies with Salmonella typhimurium strains expressing different human and murine SULT forms indicated that human SULT1A1 and murine Sult1a1 and 1d1 catalyze furfuryl alcohol sulfo conjugation most effectively. Here, we used three mouse lines to study the bioactivation of furfuryl alcohol by murine SULTs, FVB/N wild-type (wt) mice and two genetically modified models lacking either murine Sult1a1 or Sult1d1. The animals received a single dose of furfuryl alcohol, and the levels of the DNA adducts were determined in liver, kidney, lung, colon and small intestine. The effect of Sult1d1 gene disruption on the genotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol was moderate and limited to kidney and small intestine. In contrast, the absence of functional Sult1a1 had a massive influence on the adduct levels, which were lowered by 33-73% in all tissues of the female Sult1a1 null mice compared with the wt animals. The detection of high N (2)-MF-dG levels in a humanized mouse line expressing hSULT1A1/1A2 instead of endogeneous Sult1a1 and Sult1d1 supports the hypothesis that furfuryl alcohol is converted to the mutagenic 2-sulfoxymethylfuran also in humans.

  15. The DNA-binding domain of BenM reveals the structural basis for the recognition of a T-N11-A sequence motif by LysR-type transcriptional regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Amer M; Neidle, Ellen L; Momany, Cory

    2013-10-01

    LysR-type transcriptional regulators (LTTRs) play critical roles in metabolism and constitute the largest family of bacterial regulators. To understand protein-DNA interactions, atomic structures of the DNA-binding domain and linker-helix regions of a prototypical LTTR, BenM, were determined by X-ray crystallography. BenM structures with and without bound DNA reveal a set of highly conserved amino acids that interact directly with DNA bases. At the N-terminal end of the recognition helix (α3) of a winged-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, several residues create hydrophobic pockets (Pro30, Pro31 and Ser33). These pockets interact with the methyl groups of two thymines in the DNA-recognition motif and its complementary strand, T-N11-A. This motif usually includes some dyad symmetry, as exemplified by a sequence that binds two subunits of a BenM tetramer (ATAC-N7-GTAT). Gln29 forms hydrogen bonds to adenine in the first position of the recognition half-site (ATAC). Another hydrophobic pocket defined by Ala28, Pro30 and Pro31 interacts with the methyl group of thymine, complementary to the base at the third position of the half-site. Arg34 interacts with the complementary base of the 3' position. Arg53, in the wing, provides AT-tract recognition in the minor groove. For DNA recognition, LTTRs use highly conserved interactions between amino acids and nucleotide bases as well as numerous less-conserved secondary interactions.

  16. Scientific results from the deepened Lopra-1 borehole, Faroe Islands: Borehole seismic studies of a volcanic succession from the Lopra-1/1A borehole in the Faroe Islands, northern North Atlantic

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    Cowper, David

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Extruded basalt flows overlying sedimentary sequences present a challenge to hydrocarbon exploration using reflection seismic techniques. The Lopra-1/1A re-entry well on the Faroese island of Suðuroy allowed us to study the seismic characteristics of a thick sequence of basalt flows from well logs and borehole seismic recordings. Data acquired during the deepening operation in 1996 are presented here.The re-entry well found that the seismic event at 2340 m, prognosed from the pre-drill Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP as a decrease in impedance, was not base basalt and the deepened well remainedwithin the lower series basalts. Nonetheless, compressional and shear sonic logs and a density log were recorded over the full open hole interval. These allowed a firm tie to be made with the reflectedwavefield from a new VSP. The sonic logs show a compressional to shear wavespeed ratio of 1.84 which is almost constant with depth. Sonic compressional wavespeeds are 3% higher than seismicvelocities, suggesting dispersion in the basalt flows. Azimuthal anisotropy was weakly indicated by the shear sonic log but its orientation is consistent with the directions of mapped master joints in the vicinity of the well.The VSP downgoing compressional wavelet shows good persistence, retaining a dominant period of 28 ms at 3510 m depth. Average vertical velocity is 5248 m/s, higher than previously reported.Attenuation can largely be modelled by geometrical spreading and scattering loss, consistent with other studies. Within the piled flows, the effective Q from scattering is about 35. Elastic layeredmedium modelling shows some hope that a mode-converted shear wave may be observed at moderate offsets. Like its predecessor, the 1996 VSP indicates a decrease in impedance below the final depth ofthe well. However, it is unlikely to be basement or sediment and is probably an event within the volcanic sequence.

  17. Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en niños respiradores bucales de 11 años.: Segunda parte Cephalometry study of hyoid bone in children aged 11 mouth-breathing (second part

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    Dariel Carulla Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una correlación entre el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con el crecimiento del maxilar y de la mandíbula, los ángulos cérvico-basio-hioideo y el espacio aéreo póstero-inferior, desde el punto de vista cefalométrico, a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 60 pacientes, de 11 años de edad, que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología. Se utilizaron matrices de coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson, para evaluar la posición del hioides con respecto a dichas variables. Se encontró descenso del hueso, y relaciones significativas con las variables que reflejan el crecimiento maxilar y mandibular, así como la posición de la columna vertebral (segmento cervical y de la cabeza, además del espacio aéreo posterior de la faringe, con un nivel de significación del 5 %.A correlation between the behavior of hyoid bone location and the maxilla and the mandible growth, the cérvico-basio-hyoid angles and the lower posterior aerial space from the cephalometry point of view in a group of patients mouth-breathing. The medical records from 60 patients aged 11 seen in the Orthodontics consultation from the health area of Stomatology Faculty were reviewed. We used matrix of Pearson's linear correlation to assess the hyoid bone location regarding such variables; noting a bone drop and significant relations with above variables reflecting the maxillary and mandibular growth, the spinal column position (cervical segment and the head; as well ass the posterior aerial space of the pharynx with a 5 % significance level.

  18. Forsmark site investigation. Microorganisms in groundwater from boreholes KFM10A, KFM11A and KFM08D - numbers, viability, and metabolic diversity. Results from five sections 298.0-305.1 m and 478.0-487.5 m in KFM10A, 447.5-454.6 m in KFM11A, and 669.7-676.8 m and 828.4-835.5 m in KFM08D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (SE))

    2007-09-15

    Microorganisms and their characteristic features were investigated while geochemically characterizing the groundwater, as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark. The investigation consists of determining the total numbers of microorganisms, the concentration of adenosine-tri-phosphate (ATP), and the number of culturable heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (CHAB); also included is a method for determining the numbers of organisms belonging to different physiological groups, the most probable number (MPN) method. This investigation covered eight different groups, namely, nitrate-, iron-, manganese-, and sulphate-reducing bacteria, auto- and heterotrophic acetogens, and auto- and heterotrophic methanogens. The reproducibility of the MPN method was tested using groundwater from a depth of 450 m at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and was found to be excellent. Samples were taken from boreholes KFM10A at 298.305 m and 478.487 m, KFM11A at 447.454 m, and KFM08D at 669.676 m and 828.835 m; the sampling dates were 2006-11-28, 2006-10-31, 2007-03-13, 2007-06-19, and 2007-05-02, respectively. The total number of cells (TNC) found in KFM10A groundwater was the highest so far found in a total of 19 analysed sections in the Forsmark area. In contrast, KFM08D-828 m and KFM11A-447 m had among the lowest numbers of cells found thus far. A large amount of ATP per cell indicates large, active cells. The average of all previous ATP/TNC ratios (n approx = 100) in deep groundwater was determined to be 0.43. The analysed groundwater samples from KFM10A-478 m and KFM08D-669 m had ATP/TNC ratios exceeding the overall average of 0.43 for deep groundwater. This suggests that the microorganisms in these groundwaters possessed viability and activity levels above the average for deep groundwater microorganisms. The ratios between the CHAB and NRB numbers found here suggest that there was no surface water contamination. The percentages of TNC culturable using the MPN method were in the 1

  19. Bilateral Comparison of 1 V and 10 V Standards between the SMD (Belgium) and the BIPM October to December 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Vlad, D.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Service Métrologie—Metrologische Dienst (SMD), Brussel, Belgium, was carried out from October to November 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM4 (Z4) and BIPM5 (Z5), were transported by freight to SMD and also back to BIPM. At SMD, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard (JVS). The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at SMD, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned toDC voltage standards by SMD, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at SMD, USMD, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 5 November 2014. USMD - UBIPM = 0.14 mV; uc = 0.07 mV, at 1 V USMD - UBIPM = 0.09 mV; uc = 0.49 mV , at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at SMD, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Bilateral Comparison of 1 V and 10 V Standards between the JV (Norway) and the BIPM, January to February 2015 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Sengebush, F.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Justervesenet (JV), Kjeller, Norway, was carried out from January to February 2015. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM4 (Z4) and BIPM5 (Z5), were transported by freight to JV and also back to BIPM. At JV, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at JV, withthe Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned toDC voltage standards by JV, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at JV, UJV, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 28 January 2015. UJV - UBIPM = 0.23 mV; uc = 0.03 mV , at 1 V UJV - UBIPM = 0.63 mV; uc = 0.28 mV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at JV, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the INM (Romania) and the BIPM, August to October 2013 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Simionescu, M.; Cîrneanu, L.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Institut National de Metrologie (INM), Bucharest, Romania, was carried out from August to October 2013. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM_7 (Z7) and BIPM_8 (Z8), were transported by freight to INM. At INM, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (electromotive force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at INM, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by INM, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at INM, UINM, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 6 September 2013. UINM - UBIPM = -0.014 µV uc = 0.051 µV, at 1 V UINM - UBIPM = -0.43 µV uc = 0.34 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at INM, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. These are satisfactory results. The comparison results show that the voltage standards maintained by INM and the BIPM were equivalent, within the comparison uncertainty, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual

  2. Bilateral Comparison of 1 V and 10 V Standards between the NIMT (Thailand) and the BIPM October to December 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Pimsut, S.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), NIMT, was carried out from October to December 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMA (ZA) and BIPM6 (Z6), were transported by freight to NIMT and back to BIPM. At NIMT, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NIMT, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned toDC voltage standards by NIMT, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NIMT, UNIMT, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of 23 November 2014. UNIMT - UBIPM = 0.16 mV; uc = 0.14 mV, at 1 V UNIMT - UBIPM = - 0.03 mV; uc = 0.11 mV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NIMT, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Bilateral Comparison of 1 V and 10 V Standards between the NIS (Egypt) and the BIPM, August to September 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Abdel Mageed, Hala M.; Aladdin, Omar M.; Raouf, M. Helmy A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Giza, Egypt, was carried out from August to September 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMB (ZB) and BIPMC (ZC), were transported as hand luggage on board an airplane to NIS and back to BIPM. At NIS, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NIS, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NIS, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NIS, UNIS, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 7 September 2014. UNIS - UBIPM = 0.09 µV uc = 0.08 µV, at 1 V UNIS - UBIPM = 0.22 µV uc = 0.14 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NIS, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. This is a satisfactory result. The comparison result shows that the voltage standards maintained by NIS and the BIPM were equivalent, within their stated standard uncertainties, on the mean date of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM

  4. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DMDM (Serbia) and the BIPM, January to March 2014 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Stock, M.; Pantelic-Babic, J.; Sofranac, Z.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Directorate of Measures and Precious Metals (DMDM), Beograd, Serbia, was carried out from January to March 2014. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPM6 (Z6) and BIPMA (ZA), were transported by freight to DMDM. At DMDM, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output electromotive force of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DMDM, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DMDM, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DMDM, UDMDM, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 13 February 2014. UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.094 µV uc = 0.072 µV, at 1 V UDMDM - UBIPM = 0.39 µV uc = 0.12 µV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at DMDM, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. The results at the 10 V level are not covered by the uncertainties with a coverage factor of 2. After the distribution of the Draft A, the DMDM discovered that the pressure gauge was defective. Some considerations on the correction to apply on the comparison result and the corresponding uncertainties are presented in the report. Nevertheless, the above results fully cover the CMCs of DMDM which are significantly larger. No corrections for temperature and pressure are applied in calibrations for

  5. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arillo-Santillán Edna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.

  6. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the DEFNAT (Tunisia) and the BIPM February to March 2016 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Ben Salah, B.; Mallat, A.; Abene, L.; Stock, M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the Laboratoire de Métrologie Electrique, DEFNAT (Tunisia), was carried out from February to March 2016. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMC (ZC) and BIPM6 (Z6), were transported by freight to DEFNAT and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a BIPM in-house voltage stabiliser was connected in parallel to the internal battery. The voltage stabiliser consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for 10 consecutive days. At DEFNAT, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at DEFNAT, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by DEFNAT, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at DEFNAT, UDEFNAT, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference date of the 26th of February 2016. UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.04 μV, at 1.018 V UDEFNAT - UBIPM = + 0.38 μV uc = 0.10 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NSAI-NML, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  7. Suicidal ideation in adolescents aged 11 to 15 years: prevalence and associated factors Ideação suicida em adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos: prevalência e fatores associados

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    Luciano Dias de Mattos Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal ideation among adolescents aged 11 to 15 years. METHOD: Cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents completed a self-report that contained the Children's Depression Inventory. Suicidal ideation was measured according to item 9 of the Children's Depression Inventory. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied using a hierarchical model. RESULTS: 1145 adolescents were invited to participate, and 1039 were interviewed (refusal rate: 9.26%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14.1%. Factors associated to suicidal ideation: female gender, current alcohol consumption, use of illicit drugs, symptoms indicating conduct disorders and high Children's Depression Inventory scores for depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies should focus on female adolescents, especially those sexually active with probable mental health problems and substance use.OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados à ideação suicida entre adolescentes de 11 a 15 anos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base-populacional. Os adolescentes responderam a um questionário auto-aplicável que continha o Children's Depression Inventory. A ideação suicida foi mensurada de acordo com o item 9 do Children's Depression Inventory. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada acompanhada de um modelo hierárquico. RESULTADOS: 1.145 adolescentes foram convidados a participar e 1.039 foram entrevistados (recusas: 9,26%. A prevalência de ideação suicida foi de 14,1%. Fatores associados à ideação suicida: sexo feminino, consumir álcool, uso de drogas ilícitas, apresentar sintomas indicativos de transtorno de conduta e elevada pontuação no Children's Depression Inventory para sintomas depressivos. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias de prevenção devem priorizar adolescentes do sexo feminino, principalmente aquelas sexualmente ativas, com prováveis problemas de sa

  8. Extracciones e indicaciones de extracciones dentales en población rural chilena de 11 a 30 años Extractions and indications of dental extractions in rural chilean population give 11 to 30 years

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    S Olate

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: A pesar de la creciente tecnología odontológica y el progresivo aumento de la cantidad de odontólogos, el precario estándar de salud oral de la población rural se ha mantenido a lo largo del tiempo. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir y cuantificar las exodoncias de piezas dentarias permanentes en población rural. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo seleccionando el 100% de los sujetos atendidos en el Consultorio Chol-Chol, (IX Región de 11 a 30 años de edad que obtuvieron su alta integral durante los años 2001 y 2003. Los diagnósticos fueron realizados por dos odontólogos experimentados en ausencia de apoyo radiográfico (procedimiento realizado de acuerdo al instrumental y equipos disponibles. Se evaluó el estado de cada una de las piezas dentarias exceptuando los terceros molares. Resultados: Fueron analizadas 181 fichas clínicas de los cuales el 36,42% fueron del sexo masculino, siendo la edad media de la muestra 18,27 años. 143 sujetos presentaron piezas perdidas en el momento del examen, a 117 sujetos se les indico extracción de piezas dentales permanentes. Al finalizar el tratamiento 167 (92,2% sujetos presentaron ausencia de piezas dentarias permanentes, con un promedio de 5,6 piezas al finalizar el alta integral. Conclusión: Los pacientes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes en condiciones de ruralidad presentan alta frecuencia de patologías orales que determinan la exodoncia de las piezas dentales. Estos pacientes necesitaran a corto plazo extensas rehabilitaciones para recuperar su sistema estomatognático.Introduction: In spite of high end dental technology and the progressive increase in the amount of Dentists in our Country, the precarious standard of oral health in the rural population have stayed throughout the time, specially in ethnic groups such as Mapuche population. The objective of the present study is to describe and to quantify dental extractions in permanent

  9. Effectiveness of an educational intervention in schoolchildren from 8 to 11 presenting deforming Efectividad de una intervención educativa en escolares de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes

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    Clara Rosa Rosell Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The practice of deforming oral habits may interfere with normal growth and development of the stomatognathic system and, consequently, cause dentomaxillofacial abnormalities. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children from 8 to 11 presenting deforming oral habits. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted before and after the intervention. The sample consisted of 67 children from the "Roberto Fleites" primary school in Cienfuegos, from January to September 2008. Different types of patterns and anomalies were identified for each child. The special program "Take Care of Your Smile" was applied weekly. A survey was applied to children, parents and educators before and after the application of educative and prevention actions and treatment. Results: deforming habits were eliminated in 66 % of cases (more frequent deforming habits were tongue protraction, bottle suction and nail biting and dentomaxillofacial abnormalities were reduced. The knowledge level of children, parents and educators was raised. Conclusions: deforming habits constitute a health problem that can be prevented in early stages in order to improve the harmony of the stomatognathic system components. An educational intervention can be effective for prevention in these cases.Fundamento: la práctica de hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático y como consecuencia anomalías dentomaxilofaciales. Objetivo: analizar la efectividad de una intervención educativa aplicada en niños de 8 a 11 años portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: estudio cuasiexperimental con intervención antes y después, realizado en una muestra de 67 niños de la escuela primaria “Roberto Fleites”, de Cienfuegos, desde

  10. Deforming buccal habits in children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos. 2005. Hábitos bucales deformantes en niños de 5 a 11 años. Cienfuegos, 2005.

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    Elsie María Padilla Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Habits are very complex neuromuscular patterns. Deforming buccal habits can obstruct the normal growth and development of stomatognathic system. Objective: To characterize subjects with deforming habits. Method: An observational, descriptive and correlacional study was developed in 341 children between 5 and 11 years old in Cienfuegos from December 2004 to September 2005. In addition to the clinical examination, an interview was performed to parents/tutors and teachers. Data was collected in a data formulary and variables as age, sex, deforming buccal habits and dentomaxillofacial anomalies were analyzed. Findings: Deforming buccal habits frequency was 79%. The most common habits were lingual protraction (47, 2%, baby bottle suction (32, 6% and onychophagia (23, 5%, all of them predominant in girls. 75% of the children with these habits developed anomalies; being vestibule-version (21, 1%, increased over bite (20,2% and bilabial incompetence (17,9% the most frequent. Conclusions: It was confirmed that deforming Buccal habits are a health problem that affects the stomatognathic system. This should be treated by the General Integral Dentist in a systematic and direct way.
    Fundamento: Los hábitos son patrones neuromusculares de naturaleza muy compleja. La práctica de los hábitos bucales deformantes puede producir interferencias en el crecimiento y desarrollo normal del aparato estomatognático. Objetivo: Caracterizar los portadores de hábitos bucales deformantes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional, en 341 niños de 5 a 11 años, del municipio Cienfuegos, en el período de diciembre 2004 a septiembre 2005. Además del examen clínico, se realizó entrevista a padres/tutores y maestros de cada niño. La información fue almacenada en un formulario de

  11. Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en niños respiradores bucales de 11años (I parte Cephalometric study of the hyoid bone in mouth-breathing children aged 11 (first part

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    Dariel Carulla Martínez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir el comportamiento de la posición del hueso hioides, en niños respiradores bucales y no respiradores bucales. Métodos: Se recogieron historias clínicas de 60 pacientes con edad de 11 años que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología y nos propusimos comparar desde el punto de vista cefalométrico a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales, con el objetivo de determinar si existían diferencias en el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con ciertas variables cefalométricas (lineales y angulares, con respecto a pacientes no respiradores bucales (controles. Para cada una de las mediciones se calculó la media y la desviación estándar. Para determinar la posible diferencia de las mediciones para muestras independientes se realizó Prueba de t de Student para muestras independientes o su equivalente no paramétrico (Mann- Whitney y Kolmogorov- Smirnov. En todas las pruebas de hipótesis se utilizó un nivel de significación del 5 %. Resultados: El mayor número de pacientes se encuentra entre los rangos de 30-35 mm. Los valores y la frecuencia de las variables H-C3 y H-PPF tienen una distribución similar tanto en el grupo de Control como en el Grupo Respirador Bucal. La variable Gn-H muestra su mayor frecuencia en el rango de 40-45 mm. Conclusiones: Se encontró una resistencia de los músculos constrictor medio de la faringe, estilohioideo y vientre posterior del digástrico y del ligamento estilohioideo al traslado del hioides en sentido anterior, resistencia que ejercen los músculos milohioideo, genihioideo y vientre anterior digástrico en los respiradores bucales (descenso del huesoOBJECTIVE: this paper is aimed at describing the behavior of the position of the hyoid bone in mouth- and non-mouth breathing children. METHODS: the medical histories of 60 patients aged 11 that were seen at the Orthodontics

  12. Occurrence of CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-14, and CTX-M-9 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmin; Lim, Yu-Mi; Jeong, Young-Sook; Seol, Sung-Yong

    2005-01-01

    Among 603 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae collected between June and November 2003 from three university hospitals within Korea, blaCTX-M-3, blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-14, and blaCTX-M-9 were detected in 41 isolates of species from five different genera of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., and Serratia marcescens. PMID:15793142

  13. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y bajo desempeño escolar, en estudiantes de 11 a 24 años de edad del estado de Morelos, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Arillo-Santillán

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estudiar la asociación entre desempeño escolar autorreportado, y la experimentación y consumo de tabaco actual en estudiantes adolescentes y adultos jóvenes del estado de Morelos, México. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio poblacional transversal en el ámbito escolar, de 72 zonas administrativas de los 33 municipios del estado de Morelos, en áreas urbana, semiurbana y rural. De un marco muestral de escuelas públicas se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 13 293 estudiantes, de entre 11 a 24 años, que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística multinomial, donde la variable dependiente fue el hábito tabáquico en tres categorías (no fumadores, fumadores experimentadores y fumadores actuales. Resultados. La prevalencia de experimentación de consumo de tabaco fue 14.9% (IC 95%: 14.1-15.7 en mujeres y 27.3% (IC 95%: 26.1-28.4 en hombres; la prevalencia de consumo actual fue 6.1% (IC 95%: 5.6-6.6 y 13.1% (IC 95%: 12.2-13.9, respectivamente. En ambos géneros, conforme se incrementa la prevalencia tanto en experimentación como en consumo de tabaco actual, decrece el desempeño escolar. La asociación entre consumo de tabaco actual fue 5.1 veces mayor en mujeres (IC 95%:2.5-10.4, con promedio anual de calificaciones de seis respecto de quienes reportaron un promedio con valores de 10 y de nueve; en hombres se observó el mismo fenómeno (RM=4.2;IC 95%:2.7-6.7, con una tendencia lineal positiva y significativa en mujeres y hombres. Conclusiones. Estos resultados brindan evidencia de la posible relación entre el incremento de consumo de tabaco y el bajo desempeño escolar. Dicha asociación está determinada por complejas prácticas cotidianas de estilos y condiciones de vida de los adolescentes.Objective. To assess the association between self-reported academic performance and tobacco experimentation and established tobacco use among adolescents and young adults in Morelos State

  14. Estudio del comportamiento alimentario en escolares de 11 a 13 años de Barcelona Study on feeding behavior in school children aged 11-13 years from Barcelona

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    M. Castells Cuixart

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer el entorno familiar, hábitos cotidianos y características sociales que pueden influir en la alimentación de los escolares de 11 a 13 años. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 65 escuelas de la provincia de Barcelona, durante el segundo trimestre del 2000, obteniendo una muestra de 2.354 escolares encuestados por 73 farmacéuticos. El cuestionario está compuesto por 39 preguntas referentes al entorno familiar, hábitos alimentarios y de estilo de vida como el visionado de la televisión y la actividad física. Resultados: El estudio muestra que la unidad familiar formada por dos hijos y los padres es la más habitual. Solo el 12% de los adolescentes encuestados viven con los abuelos. Se observa poca presencia de toda la familia durante las principales comidas en los días laborables mientras que se produce un incremento en los días festivos de un 26% en desayuno, un 44% en la comida y de un 11% en la cena. El 24% de los escolares desayunan sin compañía y el 46% comen lo que quieren. En cuanto a la merienda el 25% lo hacen solos y el 55% comen lo que quieren. Un 60% nunca o casi nunca participan en la decisión de compra de los alimentos. El 70% realizan alguna otra actividad mientras comen. Concretamente, el 40, 39 y 59% de los adolescentes manifiestan que ven la televisión durante el desayuno, la merienda y la cena, respectivamente. La frecuencia de consumo de horas de televisión, chucherías y refrescos es significativamente menor en los adolescentes de los centros privados que en los de los públicos. Conclusiones: El estudio revela que mayoritariamente los padres deciden los alimentos que compran, pero los adolescentes tienen un papel importante en la decisión de los alimentos que consumen principalmente en el desayuno y en la merienda así como en las actividades que realizan mientras comen. Por ello, el farmacéutico, como profesional de la salud, debe intervenir en la educaci

  15. β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血患者外周血单个核细胞B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病11A基因mRNA表达特点%Expression Characteristics of B-Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia 11A mRNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with β-Thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云燕; 罗建明; 郑敏; 蒋玉凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨β-珠蛋白生成障碍性贫血(β-地贫)患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs)中B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病11A (BCL11A)基因的表达特点.方法 入选35例β-地贫患者为病例组;40 例健康体检者为健康对照组,并进行红细胞计数.提取新鲜外周血PBMCs中总RNA,反转录为cDNA,采用荧光染料(SYBR Green Ⅰ)实时荧光定量PCR(RT-PCR)和相对定量分析方法,以GAPDH基因为内参,检测2组PBMCs中BCL11A基因的表达情况.采用相对定量2-△△Ct法进行mRNA相对表达量比较,不同样本之间的相对表达量(%)=2-△Ct×100%.BCL11A基因mRNA相对表达量和红细胞计数、年龄和性别的相关分析中双变量符合正态分布的计量资料采用Pearson相关分析,其他变量采用Spearman相关分析.结果 RT-PCR检测BCL11A基因mRNA在2组中的表达,健康对照组BCL11A基因表达水平是病例组的2.46倍,2组比较差异有统计学意义.病例组中BCL11A基因mRNA的相对表达量为0.31%~11.60%;健康对照组中BCL11A基因mRNA的相对表达量为1.40%~26.70%,存在明显的个体差异.BCL11A基因mRNA的相对表达量与RBC计数(r=-0.21,P=0.930)、性别(r=-0.20,P=0.842)、年龄(r=-1.15,P=0.256)均无相关性.结论 β-地贫患者BCL11A基因表达下降,BCL11A基因低表达可能在γ珠蛋白基因持续表达过程中发挥了一定作用.%Objective To explore the characteristics of B -cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A (BCL11A) expressions in peripheral blood mononuc-lear cells(PBMCs) in patients with β - thalassemia,to find out features of BCL11A expression. Methods Thirty - five patients with β - thalassemia were assigned into case group. Forty healthy individuals were assigned into healthy control group. Red blood cell (RBC)counts were also tested. Total RNA samples from fresh PBMCs in the peripheral blood were reverse transcribed into eDNA. Glyceraldehyde -3 -phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH) was used to internal reference gene. SYBR Green Ⅰ real -time

  16. Comparative Characterization of CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-14 Provides Insights into the Structure and Catalytic Activity of the CTX-M Class of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dandan; Chiou, Jiachi; Zeng, Zhenling; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Liu, Jian-Hua; Chen, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Clinical isolates producing hybrid CTX-M β-lactamases, presumably due to recombination between the blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 elements, have emerged in recent years. Among the hybrid enzymes, CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-14 display the most significant difference in catalytic activity. This study aims to investigate the mechanisms underlying such differential enzymatic activities in order to provide insight into the structure/function relationship of this class of enzymes. Sequence alignment analysis showed that the major differences between the amino acid composition of CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-14 lie at both the N and C termini of the enzymes. Single or multiple amino acid substitutions introduced into CTX-M-64 and CTX-M-14 were found to produce only minor effects on hydrolytic functions; such a finding is consistent with the notion that the discrepancy between the functional activities of the two enzymes is not the result of only a few amino acid changes but is attributable to interactions between a unique set of amino acid residues in each enzyme. This theory is supported by the results of the thermal stability assay, which confirmed that CTX-M-64 is significantly more stable than CTX-M-14. Our data confirmed that, in addition to the important residues located in the active site, residues distal to the active site also contribute to the catalytic activity of the enzyme through stabilizing its structural integrity.

  17. MRO CTX-based Digital Terrain Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In planetary surface sciences, digital terrain models (DTM) are paramount when it comes to understanding and quantifying processes. In this contribution an approach for the derivation of digital terrain models from stereo images of the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) are described. CTX consists of a 350 mm focal length telescope and 5000 CCD sensor elements and is operated as pushbroom camera. It acquires images with ~6 m/px over a swath width of ~30 km of the Mars surface [1]. Today, several approaches for the derivation of CTX DTMs exist [e. g. 2, 3, 4]. The discussed approach here is based on established software and combines them with proprietary software as described below. The main processing task for the derivation of CTX stereo DTMs is based on six steps: (1) First, CTX images are radiometrically corrected using the ISIS software package [5]. (2) For selected CTX stereo images, exterior orientation data from reconstructed NAIF SPICE data are extracted [6]. (3) In the next step High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) DTMs [7, 8, 9] are used for the rectification of CTX stereo images to reduce the search area during the image matching. Here, HRSC DTMs are used due to their higher spatial resolution when compared to MOLA DTMs. (4) The determination of coordinates of homologous points between stereo images, i.e. the stereo image matching process, consists of two steps: first, a cross-correlation to obtain approximate values and secondly, their use in a least-square matching (LSM) process in order to obtain subpixel positions. (5) The stereo matching results are then used to generate object points from forward ray intersections. (6) As a last step, the DTM-raster generation is performed using software developed at the German Aerospace Center, Berlin. Whereby only object points are used that have a smaller error than a threshold value. References: [1] Malin, M. C. et al., 2007, JGR 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002808 [2] Broxton, M. J. et al

  18. Effect of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine on progesterone production, cAMP synthesis, and mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B genes in granulosa layer of chicken preovulatory follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Pawlowska, K; Hrabia, A

    2011-10-01

    In vitro studies were performed to assess whether stimulatory effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on progesterone (P4) production in a granulosa layer (GL) of chicken preovulatory follicles are associated with 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and mRNA expression of STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B. Effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) on steroidogenic function in these follicles were also investigated. The GL of F3 to F1 follicles was incubated in medium supplemented with T3 or 3,5-T2, LH, or forskolin (F), and a combination of each iodothyronine with LH or F. Levels of P4 and cAMP in culture media were determined by RIA. Expression of genes involved in P4 synthesis (ie, STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B) in the GL of F3 to F1 follicles incubated in medium with T3 or 3,5-T2 and their combination with LH was performed by real-time PCR. Triiodothyronine increased basal and LH- and F-stimulated P4 secretion by preovulatory follicles. The 3,5-T2 elevated P4 synthesis by F3, had no effect on F2 follicles, and diminished P4 production by the GL of F1 follicles. It had no effect on LH-stimulated P4 production; however, it augmented F-stimulated P4 production by F2 and F1 follicles. Although T3 did not affect basal and F-stimulated cAMP synthesis by the GL of preovulatory follicles, it increased LH-stimulated synthesis of this nucleotide. However, 3,5-T2 elevated F-stimulated cAMP synthesis in F3 and F2 follicles; it did not change basal and LH-stimulated cAMP production. Triiodothyronine decreased basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNAs in F3 follicles, increased them in F1 follicles, and elevated HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. Triiodothyronine augmented LH-stimulated STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B mRNA levels in F2 and CYP11A1 in F1 follicles. However, T3 decreased LH-stimulated STAR and HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. The 3,5-T2 did not affect basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNA expression in all investigated follicles; however, it decreased LH-stimulated STAR

  19. Practical route to the left wing of CTX1B and total syntheses of CTX1B and 54-deoxyCTX1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shuji; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Koyama, Takuya; Inoue, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-02-02

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative agents of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are extremely large polycyclic ethers. We report herein a reliable route for constructing the left wing of CTX1B, which possesses the acid/base/oxidant-sensitive bisallylic ether moiety, by a 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing metathesis strategy. This new route enabled us to achieve the second-generation total synthesis of CTX1B and the first synthesis of 54-deoxyCTX1B.

  20. The Economic Effects of 9/11: A Retrospective Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-27

    through open market operations . In addition, the backlog of uncleared checks caused “float” or Federal Reserve credit to the financial system to rise. On... market operations , and float, see Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, 2001 Annual Report, pp. 14-16. At first, analysts feared that the direct effect on...September 11. FRBSF Economic Letter. Number 2001-35. December 7, 2001. For a distribution of the sources of the credit across the discount window, open

  1. Partial Trisomy of Chromosome 11: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Rena E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A case of partial trisomy of the short arms of chromosome number 11 resulting in profound retardation and multiple physical defects was confirmed by means of fluorescent karyotyping of the chromosomally balanced carrier father. (Author)

  2. 11 A METHOD FOR WAVEFRONT CURVATURE RANGING OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    algorithm estimates the curvature of the incident wavefront of the source with ... A narrow-band (NB) filter is used to increase the SNR of the measured signal ..... oCher-scua:s cootn'bute to the varimce about this mean. This property forms the ...

  3. Valores de referencia de colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa en niños hispanos, de entre 6 a 11 años, en estados de la frontera norte de México y Estados Unidos de América

    OpenAIRE

    Ever Arenas Berumen; Luis Mario Gómez Miranda; Elías Torres Balcázar; Víctor Hugo Padilla Alvarado; Iván Rentería

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños de la frontera México-USA tienen una evolución distinta al resto de sus respectivos países, se requieren nuevos valores de referencia de colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa para tratarla. Objetivo: Determinar los valores de referencia de colesterol, triglicéridos y glucosa en niños hispanos, de entre 6 y 11 años, en la frontera México-USA. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, transversal, descriptivo y observacional. Se estudió una población de niños...

  4. Incidencia de diferentes metodolog??as de ense??anza de f??tbol en ni??os de 8 a 11 a??os, sobre aspectos t??cnicos y la diversi??n, en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, M??xico

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    289 p. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el efecto de la metodolog??a de ense??anza global y anal??tica sobre algunos fundamentos t??cnicos en ni??os de 8-9 y 10-11 a??os en etapa de iniciaci??n al f??tbol en la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, M??xico. Se evaluaron los fundamentos t??cnicos mediante la bater??a de test de ???The Soccer Star Challenge??? de Tim Holt (1988). Los fundamentos evaluados fueron el regate, conducci??n del bal??n y golpeo del bal??n con ambos pies y cabeza, a...

  5. 重型β地中海贫血患者BCL11A表达水平及其与临床表现的相关性分析%Expression of BCL11 A in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major and Its Correlation with Clinic Manifestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓林; 林万华; 方素萍; 陈希玲; 张天郎; 罗瑞贵; 李静; 吴志奎; 张新华

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型β地中海贫血患者( thalassemia major,TM)BCL11A表达特点及其与临床表现的关系.方法 正常人和TM患者各24例,分离外周血单个核细胞,实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction,qRT-PCR)法检测BCL11A、γ基因mRNA表达水平,同时检测血常规血红蛋白(hemoglobin,Hb)、血红蛋白分析仪检测胎儿血红蛋白(fetal hemoglobin,HbF),并行相关性检验.结果 TM患者的HbF、γmRNA水平显著高于正常人群(13.7%±13.6% vs 0.28%±0.15%,P<0.001;2479%±279% vs 10.61%±0.41%,P<0.001),2组BCL11A基因mRNA水平无统计学差异(0.73%±0.26% vs 0.77%±0.22%,P=0.590).TM患者中25%(6例)的患者HbF正常,与HbF升高者比较,其γmRNA水平要低(62.10%±16.49%vs 3285.2%±2792.2%,P<0.001),但BCL11A mRNA水平无统计学差异(0.78%±0.21% vs 0.72%±(0.28%,P=0.704).TM患者BCL11A mRNA水平与首次输血年龄无显著相关(r=0.201,P=0.345).结论 BCL11A不参与TM患者的γ基因的开放和HbF代偿性增加.%Objective To investigate the expression of BCL11A in patients with thalassemia major (TM) and its correlation with clinic manifestation. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated from 24 TM patients and 24 normal persons, BCL11A and γ mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Hemoglobin level and HbF percentage were detected by blood routine analysis and hemoglobin analysis. Results Compared with normal control, HbF level and y mRNA level in TM patients were increased significantly (HbF; 13. 7% ± 13.6% vs0.28%±0. 15%.P<0.001, y mRNA:2479% ± 279% vs 10.61% ± 0. 41 %, P<0.001). BCLllA mRNA level was not significantly different between two groups (0. 73% ± 0. 26% us (). 77% ± 0. 22%, P = 0. 590). Six TM patients (25%) had normal HbF levels. Compared with patients having increased HbF levels, patients with normal HbF levels had

  6. Desarrollo y validación preliminar de escalas para la evaluación de la competencia motriz acuática en escolares de 4 a 11 años. Development and preliminary validation of an aquatic competence scale for children 4 to 11 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objeto de este trabajo es la creación y validación de unas escalas para medir la competencia motriz acuática de los 4 a los 11 años. Para ello se utiliza una muestra de 645 niños con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y los 11 años. Se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio, quedando constituida por cuatro escalas, compuestas a su vez por dos factores cada una de ellas, una referida a la familiarización con el medio acuático, y otro factor referido a las acciones donde es necesario producir una inmersión. El número de ítems que componen las escalas son de 16 ítems para las edades de 4-5 y 6-7 años, 14 ítems para las edades de 8-9 años y 10 ítems para las edades de 10-11 años. Estos instrumentos mostraron poseer unas propiedades psicométricas adecuadas tanto para la escalas totales (coeficiente alpha = .92, .95, .95 y .87, respectivamente como para las dos subescalas: familiarización (coeficiente alpha=.96, .96, .96 y .88, respectivamente e inmersión (coeficiente alpha=.85, .88, .87 y .83, respectivamente. Las Escalas de Competencia Motriz Acuática (ECMA podrían ser consideradas como unos instrumentos de interés para la investigación y la aplicación práctica de los educadores acuáticos, al objeto de conocer la competencia motriz acuática de sus alumnos.AbstractThe main objective of this study has been the development and preliminary validation of several scales for the assessment of aquatic competence in children ages 4 to 11 years. Six hundred and forty-five children participated and were observed in different situations in the swimming pool. Analysis of this observation permitted to establish four scales composed by two main dimensions each one. One dimension about familiarity with the aquatics medium, and the other activities where the immersion is a key element. The number of items of each scale is of sixteen for the 4 to 5 yr. and 6 to 7 yr. scales; fourteen items in the 8-9 yr. scale and ten items for

  7. Promoter activities in Vibrio cholerae ctx phi prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fando, R; Pérez, J L; Rodriguez, B L; Campos, J; Robert, A; García, L; Silva, A; Benitez, J A

    1997-04-01

    Comparison of cholera toxin (CT) production directed by different gene constructs and S1 nuclease mapping revealed the presence of a ctxB-specific promoter within the ctxA coding sequence. Initiation of transcription in this region occurred in wild-type El Tor and classical biotype choleragenic vibrios. We propose that transcription from the ctxB-specific promoter and a stronger ribosomal binding site on the ctxB mRNA synergistically contribute to achieve the correct (5B:1A) subunit stoichiometry. Plasmid pB, a CT promoterless vector expressing only CTB, was used to detect promoter activity by restoration of A-subunit synthesis. Promoter activity expressed in vitro and in vivo was detected upstream of the zonula occludens toxin gene, suggesting that this factor could be produced in vivo to contribute to fluid accumulation. No promoter activity was detected in vitro and in vivo upstream from the accessory cholera enterotoxin gene.

  8. Epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M type extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlaoui, H; Ben Haj Khalifa, A; Ben Moussa, M

    2014-09-01

    Over the past 20 years, some Enterobacteriaceae mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis have demonstrated acquisition of plasmids secreting ESBL. CTX-M type ESBL have been isolated worldwide and their incidence has increased dramatically and is still increasing leading to a major therapeutic issue. Currently more than 150 allelic variants of CTX-M have been identified. These enzymes are classified in five major phylogenetic groups based on their gene sequences: CTX-M -1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-8, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-25; two additional groups have been reported recently: CTX-M-74 and CTX-M-75. The important dissemination of these enzymes has led to an increased use of carbapenems. Their global community and nosocomial dissemination is often associated with a virulent E. coli clone ST131 producing CTX-M-15.

  9. 氯喹衍生物CQ11逆转乳腺癌多药耐药细胞株MCF/DOX对多柔比星的耐药性%Reversal of CQ11, a chloroquine derivative,on multidrug resistance in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF/DOX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalong Wu; Shirong Ma; Fengying Sui; Chengwen Zhang; Lixin Yin; Huanzhang Lu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reversal effect of CQ11, a chloroquine derivative, on multidrug resistance (MDR) in doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant human breast carcinoma cell line MCF/DOX. Methods: Cells of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF, and its DOX-resistant variant, MCF/DOX, were cultivated with DOX and/or CQ11. The cytotoxicity of drugs in vitro was assayed by MTT method. The accumulation of DOX in these cells was detected by fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results: MCF/DOX cells were 119 times more resistant to DOX in comparison with MCF cells. After simultaneous treatment with CQ11 at the concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 μmol/L, the IC50 of DOX for MCF/DOX cells decreased from 3.1±0.47 μmol/L to 0.58 ±0.032, 0.19±0.012 and 0.081±0.015 μmol/L, respectively, thus, increasing the DOX sensitivity by 5.3-fold (P<0.01), 16- fold (P < 0.01) and 38-fold (P < 0.01), respectively. In the accumulation assay of DOX, simultaneous incubation of MCF/DOX cells with CQ11 significantly increased the DOX accumulation in MCF/DOX cells. No such results were found in parental MCF cells. Conclusion: CQ11 had strong MDR reversal effect by enhancing intracellular DOX accumulation in MCF/DOX cells, indicating that CQ11 may be a promising MDR chemosensitivity.

  10. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia García Salazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panorámica, por sus características topográficas y por permitir la observación de todo el complejo maxilofacial, es reconocida como la mejor imagen convencional para visualizar las anomalías dentomaxilo-mandibulares. Se observaron, las radiografías panorámicas seleccionadas y se registraron los hallazgos en un formato previa-mente validado, previa consulta bibliográfica y la construcción de un marco conceptual, se realizó la interpretación y análisis, iluminados por las categorías conceptuales y reales surgidas dentro de la observación e interpretación de la radiografía panorámica y se logró el propósito de establecer los índices de las anomalías más frecuentes de crecimiento y desarrollo dentario, observables en radiografía panorámica entre pacientes de ambos sexos de 4 a 11 años de edad, generando un impacto entre los profesionales y estudiantes de odontología sobre el uso de la radiografía panorámica en la población infantil como complemento necesario de la historia clínica, de otro tipo de radiografías (periapicales para un fomento de la práctica de una odontología basada en la evidencia. (Duazary 2006; 1: 45 - 54

  11. Prevalência, necessidade de tratamento e fatores predisponentes do traumatismo na dentição permanente de escolares de 11 a 13 anos de idade Prevalence, treatment needs, and predisposing factors for traumatic injuries to permanent dentition in 11-13-year-old schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Traebert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou determinar a prevalência do traumatismo dentário na dentição permanente e observar associações com fatores predisponentes. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com escolares de 11 a 13 anos de Biguaçu, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Os exames foram realizados por um cirurgião-dentista utilizando os mesmos critérios do Children's Dental Health Survey do Reino Unido. Foram observados tipo de dano, tratamento providenciado e necessidade, overjet incisal, adequabilidade da cobertura labial, idade, sexo e nível de educação dos pais. Foram examinadas 2.260 crianças e as prevalências encontradas foram: 10,4%, 10,6% e 11,2% aos 11, 12 e 13 anos, respectivamente. A necessidade de tratamento foi de 6,3 incisivos por mil examinados. Escolares do sexo masculino e com overjetmaior que 5mm tiveram mais traumatismo dentário do que escolares do sexo feminino e com overjetincisal até 5mm. Cobertura labial inadequada e nível de educação dos pais não estiveram estatisticamente associados com o traumatismo dentário. Concluiu-se que ser do sexo masculino ou ter um overjetincisal maior do que 5mm aumenta a chance de sofrer traumatismo dentário.The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors and the association with clinical predisposing factors and parents' schooling. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with schoolchildren aged 11 to 13 years in Biguaçu, Brazil. Dental examinations were conducted by a dentist, and the criteria for traumatic dental injuries used in the children's dental health survey in the United Kingdom were adopted. the study recorded the type of damage sustained, treatment performed or needed, the size of incisal overjet, and whether lip coverage was adequate. Socio-demographic data included sex, age, and parents' level of schooling. a total of 2,260 children were examined, and prevalence rates were 10.4%, 10.6%, and 11.2% in 11, 12, and 13-year

  12. Acesso anterior para pacientes com fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão do segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 da coluna vertebral Anterior approach in patients with traumatic compression fracture type of thoracolumbar spine (T11-L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asdrubal Falavigna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com o acesso anterior em fraturas traumáticas do tipo compressão no segmento toracolombar (T11 a L2 que foram submetidos à cirurgia pelo acesso anterior. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de janeiro de 1994 a janeiro de 2004 envolvendo 32 pacientes. A presença da fusão óssea e do alinhamento foram analisadas 6 e 12 meses após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi 36,53 anos, sendo 23 do sexo masculino. A vértebra mais atingida foi L1 (n=12. A maioria dos casos que internaram em ASIA/IMSOP C (n=10 e D (n=13 evoluiram para ASIA/IMSOP E. A média da deformidade angular pré-operatória foi 14,9°±7,5°, com diferença estatística (pOBJECTIVE: To describe experience with anterior access in compression fractures of thoracolumbar segment (T11 to L2 traumatic fractures that undergone anterior access surgery. METHOD: A prospective study was conducted between January 1994 and January 2004 with 32 patients. The bone fusion and thoracolumbar alignment were analyzed 6 months and 12 months after the surgery. RESULTS:The average age was 36.53 years old with 23 male patients. The most compromised vertebrae was L1 (n=12. The 23 patients that was ASIA/IMSOP C and ASIA/IMSOP D turned to ASIA/IMSOP E after 1 month (n=12 and 12 months (n=5 of surgery. The preoperative angular deformity average was 14.9°±7.5°. Statistical significance was found (p<0.0001 when compared to the 30 days postoperative value. CONCLUSION: The anterior access permits a better spinal canal decompression and angular deformity correction when compared with the posterior access alone.

  13. CTX-M-14, CTX-M-24 and resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are the main cause of resistance to the third and forth-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae, which are mediated by plasmids and can hydrolyze oxyiminoaminothiazolyl cephalosporins and mono- bactams.1 Most of ESBLs are mutants of the classical TEM and SHV types, with one or more amino-acid substitution(s) in the active site. β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, can inhibit their activities. Recently, The cefotaximases (CTX-M) group, a new family of plasmid-mediated ESBLs, reported from many countries increasingly, preferentially hydrolyzes cefotaxime.2 So far, CTX-M-3 has been the most prevalent type of ESBL in China and widespread in Enterobacteriaceae, while other CTX-M type ESBLs are few reported.3 In this study, we identified the CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-24 in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) clinical isolates from patients in Shanghai Huashan Hospital in 1999.

  14. Variaciones del clima terrestre y rayos cósmicos galácticos durante el ciclo solar de 11 años: Revisión teórica Earth climate and galactic cosmic rays variations during 11 year solar cicle: Theoretical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Andrés Agosta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, han sido numerosos los estudios en torno a la interacción entre los rayos cósmicos galácticos (RCGs y el clima de la Tierra con una gran variedad de resultados, algunos de ellos controversiales. Parece haberse dado un gran avance en el aspecto teórico de la posible interacción, siendo dos los principales mecanismos físicos candidatos: la nucleación mediada-por-el-ión (ion-mediated nucleation, IMN y la electrocolección. En una y otra teoría, el papel fundamental de los RCGs es la ionización en la atmósfera. La teoría del IMN prescribe cambios en las propiedades de la microfísica de la nube (vida de la nube, albedo, espesor óptico, concentración de núcleos de condensación, entre otros y consecuentes cambios en la cobertura nubosa baja global. La electrocolección añade a la anterior, modificaciones en la dinámica de la nube que, en mayor escala, produce modificaciones en la circulación atmosférica. Hay algunas evidencias observacionales de relación consistente con las teorías propuestas a lo largo del ciclo solar de 11 años entre RCGs y variables climáticas (cobertura nubosa global, circulación atmosférica, precipitación. No obstante, la complejidad del sistema deja entrever otros posibles mecanismos; por ejemplo, la interacción estratosfera-troposfera por la relación UV-ozono. A su vez, la existencia de tendencias seculares en el flujo de RCGs, que se asociarían al calentamiento global, sugiere incorporar otra variable a evaluar en la problemática del cambio global.In recent years, a number of studies are concerned on the relationship between the Earth climate and the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs. A variety of results are found and some are controversial. Theoretical advance seems to be reached through two main candidate theories: the ion-mediated nucleation (IMN and the electro-scavenging. In both theories, the main role of GCRs is ionization in the Atmosphere. The IMN theory prescribes

  15. C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1 in premenopausal Egyptian women with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M Olama

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion We found a significant increase in serum CTX-1 in FMS patients compared with controls, and this was correlated with the disease severity. Increased CTX-1 may lead to the early development of osteoporosis. More comprehensive and detailed studies are needed to determine the exact role of CTX-1 in FMS.

  16. CTX-M-12 β-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Maria Virginia; Correa, Adriana; Perez, Federico; Zuluaga, Tania; Radice, Marcela; Gutkind, Gabriel; Casellas, José María; Ayala, Juan; Lolans, Karen; Quinn, John P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the detection of the CTX-M-12 β-lactamase from a clinical isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Colombia. Screening of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from a network of teaching hospitals revealed the presence of CTX-M enzymes in multiple cities. This is the first description of CTX-M in Colombia. PMID:14742223

  17. Faktorová analýza antropometrických charakteristik u mladých plavců ve věku 11 a 12 let Factor analysis of anthropometric characteristics in young swimmers aged 11 and 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Ignasiak

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cílem této práce bylo popsat vybrané somatické charakteristiky typické pro mladé plavce. Faktorová analýza umožnila úměrné snížení somatických ukazatelů a umožnila vypočítat hlavní strukturální faktory typické pro mladé plavce. Do výzkumného souboru bylo zařazeno 80 žáků (11 a 12letých přijatých ke studiu na základní sportovní škole ve Wroclawi. Sledovaní probandi trénovali po dobu 2–3 let a jejich průměrný tréninkový čas byl 12 až 18 hodin týdně. Byly měřeny následující parametry: tělesná výška a hmotnost, délka horních a dolních končetin, obvod stehen, lýtka, paží, předloktí, hrudníku v klidu, hrudníku po nádechu a po výdechu, obvod pasu a boků, šířka ramen, šířka boků, šířka hrudníku, hloubka hrudníku a Rohrerův index. K dosažení cíle této studie byla použita metoda faktorové analýzy. Analýza výsledků ukázala, že pouze některé zvláštnosti mezi sledovanými parametry jsou pro mladé plavce charakteristické. Jsou spojeny do 2 trsů somatických charakteristik: kubický obsah (zahrnuje tělesnou hmotnost, svalstvo, trup a obvod horních a dolních končetin a vertikální rozměr (zahrnuje tělesnou výšku a délku horních a dolních končetin. Tyto parametry signalizují formování postavy typické pro plavce, charakteristické specifickými proporcemi tělesné hmotnosti a výšky, hrudníku a boků a obvykle delšími končetinami. Výsledky naznačují, že antropometrické charakteristiky lze použít pro optimalizaci tréninkového procesu mladých plavců. The aim of this study was to describe the set of somatic characteristics, which significantly discriminate young swimmers. The factor analysis let us reduce the number of somatic traits mostly correlated and to calculate the main structural factors typical for young swimmers. There were 80 pupils (11 and 12 years old from the primary sport school in Wroclaw recruited for the study

  18. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  19. Diversity of genotypes in CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in different hospitals in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pavoni Gomes Chagas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to characterize CTX-M ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae collected from hospitals in different cities of Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-five K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in six different hospitals of three cities of Brazil were analyzed. ESBL production was confirmed by the standard double-disk synergy test and the Etest®. The MIC50 and MIC90 for ESBL-producing isolates were determined by the Etest® method. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates were determined using the agar diffusion method according to the CLSI. Screening for blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M genes and class 1 integron was performed by PCR amplification. To determine the genomic diversity of CTX-M-producers, isolates were analyzed by macrorestriction profile analysis following PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventy-one K. pneumoniae isolates were ESBL-producing. PCR and sequencing experiments detected 38 CTX-M-producing K. pneumoniae belonged to groups CTX-M 1, CTX-M 2, CTX-M 8 and CTX-M 9. The association of different types ESBL (CTX-M, SHV and TEM was frequent. All K. pneumoniae isolates carried class 1 integron. PFGE analysis revealed thirty-one clonal types among CTX-M-producing isolates. The data presented herein illustrate the diversity of genotypes of CTX-M producing K. pneumoniae among Brazilians hospitals.

  20. Vliv motorických schopností a antropometrických měr na úspěšnost v závodech u 11 a 12letých hráček tenisu The influence of tennis motor abilities and anthropometric measures on the competition successfulness of 11 and 12 year-old female tennis players

    OpenAIRE

    Tjaša Filipčič; Aleš Filipčič

    2005-01-01

    Soubor 75 mladých hráček tenisu ve věku 11 a 12 let byl zahrnut do výzkumného projektu s cílem zjistit vliv vybraných antropometrických údajů a tenisových motorických dovedností na úspěšnost v soutěžích mladých tenisových hráčů. Vybrané tenisové motorické proměnné zahrnují: sílu svalů paží a ramen, sílu nohou, opakovanou...

  1. Molecular epidemiology of CTX-M producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from bloodstream infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: emergence of CTX-M-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Miyuki Seki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present studywas designed to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of CTX-M producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli isolated from bloodstream infections at tertiary care hospitals in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 231 nonduplicate Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from five Brazilian hospitals between September 2007 and September 2008. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. Isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporins were screened for ESBL activity by the double-disk synergy test. The presence of blaCTX-M , blaCTX-M-15 and blaKPC genes was determined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplification andDNA sequencing. The molecular typing of CTX-M producing isolateswas performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Ninety-three isolates were screened as ESBL positive and 85 (91% were found to carry CTX-M-type, as follows: K. pneumoniae 59 (49%, E. cloacae 15 (42%, and E. coli 11 (15%. Ten isolates resistant for carbapenems in K. pneumoniae were blaKPC-2 gene positive. Among CTX-M type isolates, CTX-M-15 was predominant in more than 50% of isolates for K. pneumoniae, E. coli, and E. cloacae. PFGE analysis of CTX-M producing isolates showed the predominance of CTX-M-15 in 10 of 24 pulsotypes in K. pneumoniae, 6 of 13 in E. cloacae and 3 of 6 in E. coli. CTX-M-15 was also predominant among KPC producing isolates. In conclusion, this study showed that CTX-M-15 was circulating in Rio de Janeiro state in 2007-2008. This data reinforce the need for continuing surveillance because this scenario may have changed over the years.

  2. Use of a Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of the ctxA,ctxB and zot genes of Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mirnejad

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: In case where specific primers were utilized (target genes of ctxA, ctxB and zot , Multiplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for the rapid and accurate detection of toxigenic V. cholerae strains in the clinical samples.

  3. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998-2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R Bradley; Colwell, Rita R; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2014-07-08

    The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ(-). Most CTXΦ(-) V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpA(ET) or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpA(CL). The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ(+) ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005-2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ(+) ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ(-) ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ(+) ET isolated during 2004-2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru.

  4. Occurrence in Mexico, 1998–2008, of Vibrio cholerae CTX+ El Tor carrying an additional truncated CTX prophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Munirul; Rashed, Shah Manzur; Mannan, Shahnewaj Bin; Islam, Tarequl; Lizarraga-Partida, Marcial Leonardo; Delgado, Gabriela; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Mendez, Jose Luis; Navarro, Armando; Watanabe, Haruo; Ohnishi, Makoto; Hasan, Nur A.; Huq, Anwar; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita R.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (ET) has been superseded in Asia and Africa by altered ET possessing the cholera toxin (CTX) gene of classical (CL) biotype. The CL biotype of V. cholerae was isolated, along with prototypic and altered ET, during the 1991 cholera epidemic in Mexico and subsequently remained endemic until 1997. Microbiological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses of clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 1998 and 2008 revealed important genetic events favoring predominance of ET over CL and altered ET. V. cholerae altered ET was predominant after 1991 but not after 2000. V. cholerae strains isolated between 2001 and 2003 and a majority isolated in 2004 lacked CTX prophage (Φ) genes encoding CTX subunits A and B and repeat sequence transcriptional regulators of ET and CL biotypes: i.e., CTXΦ−. Most CTXΦ− V. cholerae isolated in Mexico between 2001 and 2003 also lacked toxin coregulated pili tcpA whereas some carried either tcpAET or a variant tcpA with noticeable sequence dissimilarity from tcpACL. The tcpA variants were not detected in 2005 after CTXΦ+ ET became dominant. All clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 2005–2008 in Mexico were CTXΦ+ ET, carrying an additional truncated CTXΦ instead of RS1 satellite phage. Despite V. cholerae CTXΦ− ET exhibiting heterogeneity in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, CTXΦ+ ET isolated during 2004–2008 displayed homogeneity and clonal relationship with V. cholerae ET N16961 and V. cholerae ET isolated in Peru. PMID:24958870

  5. Prevalence of bla CTX M extended spectrum beta lactamase gene in enterobacteriaceae from critical care patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Indra Priyadharsini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: Early detection of CTX M producing Enterobacteriaceae by continuous surveillance and thereby reducing their spread and restricted use of third generation Cephalosporins (3GC antibiotics could be the possible routes to prevent the emergence and spread of CTX M ESBL producing organisms.

  6. Characterization of CTX-M-140, a Variant of CTX-M-14 Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase with Decreased Cephalosporin Hydrolytic Activity, from Cephalosporin-Resistant Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Bao; Jiang, Yi-Qi; Huang, Ying-Min; Qin, Yun; Feng, Lian-Qiang; Zhang, Xue-Fei; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhong, Lan-Lan; Zeng, Kun-Jiao; Patil, Sandip; Xing, Yong; Huang, Xi

    2016-10-01

    CTX-M-140, a novel CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), was identified in cephalosporin-resistant clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis CTX-M-140 contained an alanine-to-threonine substitution at position 109 compared to its putative progenitor, CTX-M-14. When it was expressed in an Escherichia coli isogenic background, CTX-M-140 conferred 4- to 32-fold lower MICs of cephalosporins than those with CTX-M-14, indicating that the phenotype was attributable to this single substitution. For four mutants of CTX-M-14 that were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (A109E, A109D, A109K, and A109R mutants), MICs of cephalosporins were similar to those for the E. coli host strain, which suggested that the alanine at position 109 was essential for cephalosporin hydrolysis. The kinetic properties of native CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-140 were consistent with the MICs for the E. coli clones. Compared with that of CTX-M-14, a lower hydrolytic activity against cephalosporins was observed for CTX-M-140. blaCTX-M-140 is located on the chromosome as determined by I-CeuI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (I-CeuI-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. The genetic environment surrounding blaCTX-M-140 is identical to the sequence found in different plasmids with blaCTX-M-9-group genes among the Enterobacteriaceae Genome sequencing and analysis showed that P. mirabilis strains with blaCTX-M-140 have a genome size of ∼4 Mbp, with a GC content of 38.7% and 23 putative antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicate that alanine at position 109 is critical for the hydrolytic activity of CTX-M-14 against oxyimino-cephalosporins.

  7. High prevalence of bla(CTX-M) extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in Escherichia coli isolates from pets and emergence of CTX-M-64 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Zeng, Z; Chen, S; Ma, J; He, L; Liu, Y; Deng, Y; Lei, T; Zhao, J; Liu, J-H

    2010-09-01

    As a cause of community-acquired infections, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli constitute an emerging public-health concern. Few data on the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates from pets are available in China. Detection and characterization of ESBL genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV) and bla(TEM)) was conducted among 240 E. coli isolates recovered from healthy and sick pets in South China from 2007 to 2008. The clonal relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. ESBL-encoding genes were identified in 97 (40.4%) of the 240 isolates and 96 (40.0%) of them harbored CTX-M. The most common CTX-M types were CTX-M-14 (n = 45) and CTX-M-55 (n = 24). The recently reported CTX-M-64 was identified in three isolates. Isolates producing CTX-M-27, -15, -65, -24, -3 and -9 were also identified. Ten isolates carried two or three CTX-M types, with the combination of CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-55 being the most frequent (n = 6). ISEcp1 was identified in the upstream region of 93 out of the 107 bla(CTX-M) genes (86.9%). The sequence of the spacer region (45 bp) between ISEcp1 and the start codon of all bla(CTX-M-55) genes (except four) was identical to that of bla(CTX-M-64). No major clonal relatedness was observed among these CTX-M producers. It is suggested that the horizontal transfer of bla(CTX-M) genes, mediated by mobile elements, contributes to their dissemination among E. coli isolates from pets. Our finding of high prevalence of ESBL in E. coli of companion animal origin illustrates the importance of molecular surveillance in tracking CTX-M-producing E. coli strains in pets.

  8. Diversity of genetic lineages among CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14 producing Escherichia coli strains in a Tunisian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Slama, Karim; Ben Sallem, Rym; Jouini, Ahlem; Rachid, Salwa; Moussa, Laurence; Sáenz, Yolanda; Estepa, Vanesa; Somalo, Sergio; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2011-06-01

    Fourteen broad-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates were recovered between June and December 2007 in a Tunisian hospital. Genes encoding extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases (ESBL) and other resistance genes were characterized by PCR and sequencing. The following ESBL genes were identified: bla (CTX-M-15) (12 isolates), bla (CTX-M-14a) (one isolate), and bla (CTX-M-14b) (one isolate). The bla (OXA-1) gene was detected in 13 bla (CTX-M)-producing strains and a bla (TEM-1) gene in 6 of them. The ISEcp1 sequence was found upstream of bla (CTX-M) genes in 8 of 14 strains, and orf477 or IS903 downstream of this gene in 13 strains. Nine of the strains carried class 1 integrons and five different gene cassette arrangements were detected, dfrA17-aadA5 being the most common. One of the strains (bla (CTX-M-14a)-positive) harbored three class 1 integrons, and one of them was non-previously described containing as gene cassettes new variants of aac(6')-Ib and cmlA1 genes and it was linked to the bla (CTX-M-14a) gene flanked by a truncated ISEcp1 sequence (included in GenBank with accession number JF701188). CTX-M-15-producing strains were ascribed to phylogroup B2 (six isolates) and D (six isolates). Multilocus-sequence-typing revealed ten different sequence-types (STs) among ESBL-positive E. coli strains with prevalence of ST405 (four strains of phylogroup D) and ST131 types (two strains of phylogroup B2 and serogroup O25b). A high clonal diversity was also observed among studied strains by pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis (11 unrelated profiles). CTX-M-15 is an emergent mechanism of resistance in the studied hospital and the world-disseminated 0:25b-ST131-B2 and ST405-D clones have been identified among CTX-M-15-producing isolates.

  9. Genotyping and characterization of CTX-M-15 -producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from an Iranian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, Safoura; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to describe the genetic characterization of blaCTX-M-1 group gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae and to investigate the relationship between isolates by MLVA and PFGE. We analyzed 36 CTX-M group 1-ESBL producing K. pneumoniae. rmpA and wcaG virulence genes were identified by PCR. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-1 was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid replicons were determined using PCR-based replicon typing. The isolates were typed by MLVA and PFGE. All blaCTX-M-1 were blaCTX-M-15. The wcaG and rmpA were detected in 1 and 2 isolates, respectively. IncF were the most frequently detected replicons (63.88%). In all isolates, ISEcp1 was found upstream and orf477 downstream of blaCTX-M-15, IS26 was found in two isolates. MLVA identified 20 MLVA types, whereas PFGE identified 25 different profiles. The dissemination of CTX-M-15 in our isolates was due to the clonal spread of isolates and to the genetic transfer of mobile elements among unrelated strains.

  10. COMPARISON AND CO-REGISTRATION OF DEMS GENERATED FROM HiRISE AND CTX IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Images from two sensors, the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE and the Context Camera (CTX, both on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO, were used to generate high-quality DEMs (Digital Elevation Models of the Martian surface. However, there were discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the images acquired by these two sensors due to various reasons, such as variations in boresight alignment between the two sensors during the flight in the complex environment. This paper presents a systematic investigation of the discrepancies between the DEMs generated from the HiRISE and CTX images. A combined adjustment algorithm is presented for the co-registration of HiRISE and CTX DEMs. Experimental analysis was carried out using the HiRISE and CTX images collected at the Mars Rover landing site and several other typical regions. The results indicated that there were systematic offsets between the HiRISE and CTX DEMs in the longitude and latitude directions. However, the offset in the altitude was less obvious. After combined adjustment, the offsets were eliminated and the HiRISE and CTX DEMs were co-registered to each other. The presented research is of significance for the synergistic use of HiRISE and CTX images for precision Mars topographic mapping.

  11. High prevalence ofblaCTX-M inEnterobacteriaceae isolates from the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid M Bindayna; Mariam Murtadha

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) by testing a cohort of clinicalESBL-producing bacterial isolates that were isolated in the Kingdom of Bahrain.Methods:ESBLproducingEnterobacteriaceae isolates (based on phenotypic tests) were collected from Microbiology Laboratory of the Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain between January-June2006. Antibiotic susceptibility to a panel of antibiotics was performed andblaCTX-M genes were detected by multiplexPCR.Results: A total of230 isolates (Escherichia coli,n=180;Klebsiella pneumoniae,n=50) were studied,98% were CTX-M type. ForEscherichia coli isolates,65 (36.1%)harboredCTXM+TEMcombination and68(37.8%) had CTX-M alone. In contrast, forKlebsiella pneumoniae isolates only 5 (10.0%) harbored the CTX-M combination, and none had CTX-M only. The blaCTX-Mgene was found predominantly in urine isolates (n=145/230; 63.0%). Sensitivity to imipenem and nitrofurantoin was100% and 60%, respectively.CTX-M carriage was associated with the resistance to fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides.Conclusions: Our study documentes high prevalence ofCTX-M ESBL type amongEscherichia coliandKlebsiella from the Kingdom of Bahrain. The apparent dissemination of CTX-Mproducers could represent a substantial barrier in the treatment of community-acquired infections. The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides is compromised, leaving carbapenems as the therapeutic option for severe infections caused byESBL producers.

  12. Palaeomagnetic Results from the Lopra-1/1A re-entry well, Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.

    2006-01-01

    and upper basalt formations correlate with Chron C24n.3r (Ypresian). Inclinations indicate a far-sided position of the palaeomagnetic poles, which is characteristic of results from most Palaeogene volcanics from the northern North Atlantic region. The density, magnetic susceptibility and magnetic remanence...... are typically log-normally distributed and the carriers of remanence are Ti-poor Ti-magnetites with Curie temperatures close to 580°C. The inclination of the 1½ m core at -2380 m b.s.l. is dominantly negative (two plugs at the very top of the core do show normal polarity, but they are likely to be misoriented...

  13. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... pig. The requirements for general safety for inactivated influenza vaccine shall not be considered...

  14. TOEFL11: A Corpus of Non-Native English. Research Report. ETS RR-13-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Daniel; Tetreault, Joel; Higgins, Derrick; Cahill, Aoife; Chodorow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This report presents work on the development of a new corpus of non-native English writing. It will be useful for the task of native language identification, as well as grammatical error detection and correction, and automatic essay scoring. In this report, the corpus is described in detail.

  15. SU-E-T-11: A Cloud Based CT and LINAC QA Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, R; Grelewicz, Z; Belcher, A; Liu, X [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current status quo of QA data management consists of a mixture of paper-based forms and spreadsheets for recording the results of daily, monthly, and yearly QA tests for both CT scanners and LINACs. Unfortunately, such systems suffer from a host of problems as, (1) records can be easily lost or destroyed, (2) data is difficult to access — one must physically hunt down records, (3) poor or no means of historical data analysis, and (4) no remote monitoring of machine performance off-site. To address these issues, a cloud based QA data management system was developed and implemented. Methods: A responsive tablet interface that optimizes clinic workflow with an easy-to-navigate interface accessible from any web browser was implemented in HTML/javascript/CSS to allow user mobility when entering QA data. Automated image QA was performed using a phantom QA kit developed in Python that is applicable to any phantom and is currently being used with the Gammex ACR, Las Vegas, Leeds, and Catphan phantoms for performing automated CT, MV, kV, and CBCT QAs, respectively. A Python based resource management system was used to distribute and manage intensive CPU tasks such as QA phantom image analysis or LaTeX-to-PDF QA report generation to independent process threads or different servers such that website performance is not affected. Results: To date the cloud QA system has performed approximately 185 QA procedures. Approximately 200 QA parameters are being actively tracked by the system on a monthly basis. Electronic access to historical QA parameter information was successful in proactively identifying a Linac CBCT scanner’s performance degradation. Conclusion: A fully comprehensive cloud based QA data management system was successfully implemented for the first time. Potential machine performance issues were proactively identified that would have been otherwise missed by a paper or spreadsheet based QA system.

  16. Isolation and characterization of DUSP11, a novel p53 target gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caprara, Greta; Zamponi, Raffaella; Melixetian, Marina;

    2009-01-01

    assays demonstrated that the ectopic expression of wild type, but not catalytical inactive, DUSP11 leads to growth arrest. Furthermore inhibition of DUSP11 expression by shRNA increases the proliferation of normal and DNA damaged cells in tissue culture. Finally we show that the splicing factor SAM68...

  17. Functional Characterization of the Osteoarthritis Susceptibility Mapping to CHST11-A Bioinformatics and Molecular Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise N Reynard

    Full Text Available The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs835487 is associated with hip osteoarthritis (OA at the genome-wide significance level and is located within CHST11, which codes for carbohydrate sulfotransferase 11. This enzyme post-translationally modifies proteoglycan prior to its deposition in the cartilage extracellular matrix. Using bioinformatics and experimental analyses, our aims were to characterise the rs835487 association signal and to identify the causal functional variant/s. Database searches revealed that rs835487 resides within a linkage disequilibrium (LD block of only 2.7 kb and is in LD (r2 ≥ 0.8 with six other SNPs. These are all located within intron 2 of CHST11, in a region that has predicted enhancer activity and which shows a high degree of conservation in primates. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that of the seven SNPs, rs835487 and rs835488, which have a pairwise r2 of 0.962, are the top functional candidates; the haplotype composed of the OA-risk conferring G allele of rs835487 and the corresponding T allele of rs835488 (the G-T haplotype demonstrated significantly different enhancer activity relative to the haplotype composed of the non-risk A allele of rs835487 and the corresponding C allele of rs835488 (the A-C haplotype (p < 0.001. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and supershifts identified several transcription factors that bind more strongly to the risk-conferring G and T alleles of the two SNPs, including SP1, SP3, YY1 and SUB1. CHST11 was found to be upregulated in OA versus non-OA cartilage (p < 0.001 and was expressed dynamically during chondrogenesis. Its expression in adult cartilage did not however correlate with rs835487 genotype. Our data demonstrate that the OA susceptibility is mediated by differential protein binding to the alleles of rs835487 and rs835488, which are located within an enhancer whose target may be CHST11 during chondrogenesis or an alternative gene.

  18. SU-E-I-11: A New Cone-Beam CT System for Bedside Head Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H; Zeng, W; Xu, P; Wang, Z; Xing, X; Sun, M [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To design and develop a new mobile cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for head imaging with good soft-tissue visibility, to be used bedside in ICU and neurosurgery department to monitor treatment and operation outcome in brain patients. Methods: The imaging chain consists of a 30cmx25cm amorphous silicon flat panel detector and a pulsed, stationary anode monoblock x-ray source of 100kVp at a maximal tube current of 10mA. The detector and source are supported on motorized mechanisms to provide detector lateral shift and source angular tilt, enabling a centered digital radiographic imaging mode and half-fan CBCT, while maximizing the use of the x-ray field and keep the source to detector distance short. A focused linear anti-scatter grid is mounted on the detector, and commercial software with scatter and other corrective algorithms is used for data processing and image reconstruction. The gantry rotates around a horizontal axis, and is able to adjust its height for different patient table positions. Cables are routed through a custom protective sleeve over a large bore with an in-plane twister band, facilitating single 360-degree rotation without a slip-ring at a speed up to 5 seconds per rotation. A UPS provides about 10 minutes of operation off the battery when unplugged. The gantry is on locked casters, whose brake is control by two push handles on both sides for easy reposition. The entire system is designed to have a light weight and a compact size for excellent maneuverability. Results: System design is complete and main imaging components are tested. Initial results will be presented and discussed later in the presentation. Conclusion: A new mobile CBCT system for head imaging is being developed. With its compact size, a large bore, and quality design, it is expected to be a useful imaging tool for bedside uses. The work is supported by a grant from Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Isolation and drought-tolerant function analysis of ZmPti1-1, a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... EST, expressed sequence tag; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; RT, reverse transcription; WT, wild type; FW, fresh weight; DW, dried .... 361 GS. Figure 2. ZmPti1-1 amino acid sequence deduced from cloned ZmPti1-1. ... To get basic ... of independent transgenic plant lines of Arabidopsis by RNA gel-blot ...

  20. BRCA1 Exon 11, a CERES (Composite Regulatory Element of Splicing Element Involved in Splice Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Tammaro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Unclassified variants (UV of BRCA1 can affect normal pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we investigate the UV c.693G>A, a “silent” change in BRCA1 exon 11, which we have found induces aberrant splicing in patient carriers and in vitro. Using a minigene assay, we show that the UV c.693G>A has a strong effect on the splicing isoform ratio of BRCA1. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the area surrounding the nucleotide position c.693G>A induced variable changes in the level of exon 11 inclusion/exclusion in the mRNA, pointing to the presence of a complex regulatory element with overlapping enhancer and silencer functions. Accordingly, protein binding analysis in the region detected several splicing regulatory factors involved, including SRSF1, SRSF6 and SRSF9, suggesting that this sequence represents a composite regulatory element of splicing (CERES.

  1. Exploratory Studies With BT-11: A Proposed Orally Active Therapeutic for Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissel, Philippe; Boes, Katie; Hinckley, Jonathan; Jortner, Bernard S; Magnin-Bissel, Geraldine; Werre, Stephen R; Ehrich, Marion; Carbo, Adria; Philipson, Casandra; Hontecillas, Raquel; Philipson, Noah; Gandour, Richard D; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2016-09-01

    Lanthionine synthetase cyclase-like receptor 2 (LANCL2) is a novel therapeutic target for Crohn's disease (CD). BT-11 is a small molecule that binds LANCL2, is orally active, and has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in 3 validated mouse models of colitis at doses as low as 8 mg/kg/d. Exploratory experiments evaluated BT-11 in male Harlan Sprague Dawley rats with a single oral dose of 500 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days (n = 10 rats dosed/group). Treated and control rats were observed for behavioral detriments, and blood and tissues were collected for clinical pathology and histopathological examination. A functional observational battery demonstrated no differences between treated and control groups over multiple times of observation for quantal, categorical, and continuous end points, including posture, in cage activity, approach, response to touch, weight, grip strength, body temperature, and time on a rotarod. Histopathological examination of the brain, kidney, liver, adrenal gland, testes, stomach, small and large intestines, duodenum, pancreas, heart, lungs, spleen, thymus, and rib found no significant differences between the groups. Plasma enzymes associated with liver function were transiently elevated 2 to 4 days after the 500 mg/kg single dose but returned to normal values by 8 days and were not observed at any time in rats given 80 mg/kg/d for 14 days. One hour after oral administration of a single dose of 80 mg/kg, BT-11 had a maximal concentration of 21 ng/mL; the half-life was 3 hours. These experimental results demonstrated that BT-11 is well tolerated in rats, and, with further testing, may hold promise as an orally active therapeutic for CD.

  2. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L; Rosenberg, Thomas

    2013-03-07

    Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans.

  3. P11, A Biomarker for Memory Retrieval: A Possible Role in Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    seems to be fixed on a traumatic event whereas the processing of non- trauma -related memories is often impaired. Therefore, these results led us to...medicines for PTSD treatment. From a scientific perspective, military personnel who are exposed to trauma at higher-than-average frequencies need to...concentration in the samples was determined by Bio- Rad Protein Concentration Reagent (Hercules, CA). Equal amounts of total protein (20 µg per lane) were

  4. SU-E-J-11: A New Optical Method to Register Patient External Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbes, B; Azcona, J; Moreno, M; Prieto, E [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain); Foronda, J [Tecnun Universidad de Navarra, San Sabastian (Spain); Burguete, J [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To devise and implement a new system to measure and register the patient motion during radiotherapy treatments. Methods: The system can obtain the position of several points in the 3D-space, through their projections in the 2D-images recorded by two cameras. The algorithm needs a series of constants, that are obtained using the images of a calibrated phantom.To test the system, some adhesive labels were placed on the surface of an object. Two cameras recorded the moving object over time. An in-house developed software localized the labels in each image. In the first pair of images, the program used a first approximation given by the user. In the subsequent images, it used the last position as an approximate location. The final exact coordinates of the point were obtained in a two-step process using the contrast of the images. From the 2D-positions of the point in each frame, the 3D-trajectories of each of these marks were obtained.The system was tested with linear displacements, oscillations of a mechanical oscillator, circular trajectories of a rotating disk, and with respiratory motion of a volunteer. Results: Trajectories of several points were reproduced with sub-millimeter accuracy in the three directions of the space. The system was able to follow periodic motion with amplitudes lower than 0.5mm; and trajectories of rotating points at speeds up to 200mm/s. The software could also track accurately the respiration motion of a person. Conclusion: A new, inexpensive optical tracking system for patient motion has been demonstrated. The system detects motion with high accuracy. Installation and calibration of the system is simple and quick. Data collection is not expected to involve any discomfort for the patient, nor any delay for the treatment. The system could be also used as a method of warning for patient movements, and for gating. We acknowledge financial support from Fundacion Mutua Madrilena, Madrid, Spain.

  5. Myosin Vb and Rab11a regulate phosphorylation of ezrin in enterocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhekne, Herschel S.; Hsiao, Nai-Hua; Roelofs, Pieter; Kumari, Meena; Slim, Christiaan L.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2014-01-01

    Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how such ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset

  6. Bruxismo e qualidade de vida em escolares de 11 a 14 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arethuza de Melo Brito Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em escolares com bruxismo do sono. Estudo observacional transversal desenvolvido com 594 escolares (11-14 anos do município de Teresina-Piauí. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada através da versão brasileira do questionário CPQ11-14, na forma curta (ISF:16. A presença do bruxismo do sono foi considerada através de relatos dos responsáveis legais. Para análise dos resultados foi utilizado o cálculo de estimativa de chances (Odds Ratio-OR, análise descritiva, teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson, teste de Razão de Verossimilhança e regressão logística múltipla. Foi encontrada associação estatisticamente significativa entre escolares com bruxismo do sono e o escore total do CPQ11-14 (p < 0,001, e com os escores dos domínios limitação funcional (p = 0,033 e bem-estar social (p = 0,020. As variáveis gênero e idade não apresentaram associação com a qualidade de vida. O modelo final de regressão revelou que a presença de bruxismo do sono aumenta a chance de ter maior impacto na qualidade de vida (ORaj = 1,82 (1,54 - 2,10 , IC = 95%. Conclui-se que o bruxismo do sono apresentou impacto negativo na qualidade de vida dos escolares, principalmente nos domínios, limitações funcionais e alterações no bem-estar social.

  7. Audiometric characteristics of two Dutch families with non-ocular Stickler syndrome (COL11A2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelen, E. van; Leijendeckers, J.M.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Lichtenbelt, K.D.; Stobe, L.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Leuwer, R.; Snik, A.F.M.; Kunst, H.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hearing impairment and cochlear function in non-ocular Stickler syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Multifamily study. PATIENTS & METHODS: Ten patients from two different families with non-ocular Stickler syndrome (Stickler syndrome type 3) were included. Six members of the first family a

  8. SU-F-BRD-11: A Virtual Simulator Designed for Collision Prevention in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H [Sungkyunkwan University, SAIHST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kum, O [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, H; Choi, D; Han, Y [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In proton therapy, collisions between patient and nozzle potentially occur in attaining minimal air gap due to the large nozzle structure. Thus, we developed software predicting the collisions of the nozzle and patient by simulating treatments. Methods: 3D modeling of a gantry inner-floor, nozzle and robotic-couch was done by using the SolidWorks based on the manufacturer’s machine data. To obtain patient body information, a 3D-scanner was utilized to scan a patient right before CT scanning. From the acquired images, a 3D-image of the patient’s body contour was reconstructed. The accuracy of the image was confirmed against the CT image for a humanoid phantom. The machine components and the virtual patient were combined on the treatment-room coordinate system, resulting in a virtual simulator. The simulator simulated the motion of its components such as rotation and translation of gantry, nozzle and couch, in real scale. Collision, if any, was examined both in static mode and dynamic mode. The static mode checks only at fixed positions of the machine’s components while dynamic mode examines while one component is in motion. Collision was notified if any voxel of two components, for example a nozzle and a patient or couch, overlapped when calculating volume locations. The event and collision point are visualized and colliding volumes are reported. Results: All components were successfully assembled and the motions could be accurately controlled. The 3D-shape of a phantom agreed with CT images within a deviation of 2 mm. Collision situations can be simulated within minutes and the results are displayed and reported. Conclusion: The developed software will be useful in improving patient safety and clinical efficiency for proton therapy. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2012M3A9B6055201, 2013M2A2A7043507), and Samsung Medical Center grant (GFO1130081)

  9. Teaching English as an Additional Language 5-11: A Whole School Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of children with little or no English entering English speaking mainstream lessons. This often leaves them with unique frustrations due to limited English language proficiency and disorientation. Teachers often feel unable to cater sufficiently for these new arrivals. "Teaching English as an Additional Language Ages…

  10. Mutations in c10orf11, a melanocyte-differentiation gene, cause autosomal-recessive albinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet

    2013-01-01

    in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted...... in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal...

  11. The Design and Construction of K11: A Novel α-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jin-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptides comprise a class of broad-spectrum agents that are used against pathogens. We designed a series of antimicrobial peptides, CP-P (KWKSFIKKLTSKFLHLAKKF and its derivatives, and determined their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, their minimum hemolytic concentrations (MHCs for human erythrocytes, and the Therapeutic Index (MHC/MIC ratio. We selected the derivative peptide K11, which had the highest therapeutic index (320 among the tested peptides, to determine the MICs against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and 22 clinical isolates including Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Klebsiella pneumonia. K11 exhibited low MICs (less than 10 μg/mL and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, especially against clinically isolated drug-resistant pathogens. Therefore, these results indicate that K11 is a promising candidate antimicrobial peptide for further studies.

  12. McStas 1.1: A tool for building neutron Monte Carlo simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.; Tennant, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    McStas is a project to develop general tools for the creation of simulations of neutron scattering experiments. In this paper, we briefly introduce McStas and describe a particular application of the program: the Monte Carlo calculation of the resolution function of a standard triple-axis neutron...

  13. Mortalidad por hemorragia subaracnoidea: Estudio anatomopatológico de 11 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel J Lacerda Gallardo

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio observacional-descriptivo de 53 pacientes fallecidos por hemorragia subaracnoidea, atendidos en el Hospital General de Morón, en el período comprendido entre el 1ro. de enero de 1986 y el 31 de diciembre de 1996. El sexo más afectado fue el masculino (54,72 % y los pacientes mayores de 54 años de edad fueron los más afectados (62,26%. La hemorragia subaracnoidea de causa no precisada, fue la más frecuente (60,38 %, mientras que la de origen aneurismático, la más encontrada (35,85 %. El 86,80 % de los pacientes falleció mientras recibía atención especializada y sólo 7 (13,20 %, presentaron un cuadro de muerte precoz en la comunidad. La circulación anterior fue la localización más frecuente de los aneurismas (95 %, dentro de éstos las arterias cerebral media (35 % y la comunicante posterior (25 %, fueron las más afectadas. La hipertensión arterial fue la enfermedad más asociada a la hemorragia subaracnoidea (49,22 % y la inundación ventricular, la causa más frecuente de muerte (27,27 %An observational and descriptive study of 53 patients who died due to subarachnoid hemorrhage and were attended at the General Hospital of Morón from January 1st, 1986, to December 31st, 1996, was conducted. Males were the most affected (54.72 % as well as patients over 54 (62.26 %. The subarachnoid hemorrhage of undetermined cause was the most frequent (60.38 %, whereas that of aneurysmatic origin was the most found (35.85 %. 86.80 % of the patients died while receiving specialized attention, and only 7 (13.20 % presented a picture of early death in the community. Anterior circulation was the most frequent localization of the aneurysms (95 % and within them the middle cerebral artery (35 % and the posterior communicating artery (25 % were the most affected. Arterial hypertension was the most associated disease with subarachnoid hemorrhage (49.22 %, and the ventricular flooding the most frequent cause of death (2.27 %

  14. Sexual disorders in DSM-5 and ICD-11: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan M; Artz, Lillian; Stein, Dan J

    2015-11-01

    The nature and classification of sexual disorders has been a focus during work on the development of DSM-5 and ICD-11. This article proposes different conceptual approaches to the sexual disorders, including classical, critical and integrative positions. Disorders associated with sexual orientation, gender dysphoria/incongruence and paraphilias/paraphilic disorders are discussed from each of these positions. A range of conventional and nonconventional consensual sexual behaviours are prevalent but not necessarily indicative of a mental disorder; there is little diagnostic validity or clinical utility for including these in the nosology. When such behaviours are clinically excessive and associated with distress or impairment, however, a disorder may be present. Debate surrounds the medicalization of some sexual behaviours that are criminal in nature. The classification of sexual behaviour as disordered is necessarily theory-dependent and value-laden. Nevertheless, reasoned debate about the relevant data and values is possible, and will hopefully further improve the diagnostic validity and clinical utility of psychiatric nosology.

  15. Aquaporin-11: A channel protein lacking apparent transport function expressed in brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsunenari Takashi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins composed of two subfamilies: the orthodox aquaporins, which transport only water, and the aquaglyceroporins, which transport glycerol, urea, or other small solutes. Two recently described aquaporins, numbers 11 and 12, appear to be more distantly related to the other mammalian aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins. Results We report on the characterization of Aquaporin-11 (AQP11. AQP11 RNA and protein is found in multiple rat tissues, including kidney, liver, testes and brain. AQP11 has a unique distribution in brain, appearing in Purkinje cell dendrites, hippocampal neurons of CA1 and CA2, and cerebral cortical neurons. Immunofluorescent staining of Purkinje cells indicates that AQP11 is intracellular. Unlike other aquaporins, Xenopus oocytes expressing AQP11 in the plasma membrane failed to transport water, glycerol, urea, or ions. Conclusion AQP11 is functionally distinct from other proteins of the aquaporin superfamily and could represent a new aquaporin subfamily. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the role of AQP11 in the brain.

  16. McStas 1.1: a tool for building neutron Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.; Tennant, A.; Lake, B.

    2000-03-01

    McStas is a project to develop general tools for the creation of simulations of neutron scattering experiments. In this paper, we briefly introduce McStas and describe a particular application of the program: the Monte Carlo calculation of the resolution function of a standard triple-axis neutron scattering instrument. The method compares well with the analytical calculations of Popovici.

  17. Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell technology program, phase 1/1A. [design and fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell was studied for the purpose of improving the characteristics of the technology. Several facets were evaluated, namely: (1) reduced fuel cell costs; (2) reduced fuel cell weight; (3) improved fuel cell efficiency; and (4) increased systems compatibility. Demonstrated advances were incorporated into a full scale hardware design. A single cell unit was fabricated. A substantial degree of success was demonstrated.

  18. A Carrier Synchronization Algorithm for IEEE 802.11a System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chun-guang; ZHOU Zheng

    2004-01-01

    A new Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) estimation algorithm for IEEE 80211a system is proposed. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the frequency offset in the acquisition stage and the cyclic prefix (CP) is used to correct the residual CFO in the tracking stage. Simulation results demonstrate the super performance of the proposed algorithm compared to Maximum-Likelihood (ML) approach.

  19. Characterization of LORF11, a unique gene common to the three Marek's disease virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lucy F; Silva, Robert F; Cui, Xiaoping; Zhang, Huanmin; Heidari, Mohammad; Reddy, Sanjay M

    2007-12-01

    The unique open reading frame 11 (LORF11) of Marek's disease virus (MDV) is present in all three serotypes of MDV and is located in the unique long region of the MDV genome. In the serotype 1 Md5 genome, LORF11 comprises 2711 nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 903 amino acids. In order to study the biological function of LORF11 we deleted it from the MDV cosmid A6 by using the RecA-assisted restriction endonuclease cleavage method. The recombinant cosmid, A6DeltaLORF11, was transfected into duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) in conjunction with parental SN5, P89, SN16, and B40 cosmid clones. Recombinant rMd5DeltaLORF11 plaques were evident at 12-13 days after transfection. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of DEF cells infected with rMd5DeltaLORF11 viruses confirmed the deletion of a 2.57-kb fragment resulting in a 296-bp fragment. Three rMd5DeltaLORF11 mutants were generated and their biological functions were studied in vitro and in vivo. In vitro growth characteristics of rMd5DeltaLORF11 viruses were similar to those of parental rMd5, indicating that LORF11 is not essential for replication in vitro. In vivo studies of rMd5DeltaLORF11 mutants showed that they were impaired in viral replication in the lymphoid organs and had 100x lower viremia than chickens infected with the parental rMd5 virus. Furthermore, rMd5-infected chickens horizontally transmitted the virus to contact controls whereas no horizontal transmission occurred in rMd5DeltaLORF11-infected chickens. Three independent deletion mutants were tested and showed the same phenotypes, so it is unlikely that the observed phenotype is because of any random mutation in the genome. Therefore the LORF11 gene of MDV is essential for normal virus replication in chickens and deletion of LORF11 renders an attenuated virus.

  20. MOS11: a new component in the mRNA export pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Germain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is emerging as an important aspect of plant immunity. The three related pathways affecting plant immunity include Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS-mediated nuclear protein import, Nuclear Export Signal (NES-dependent nuclear protein export, and mRNA export relying on MOS3, a nucleoporin belonging to the Nup107-160 complex. Here we report the characterization, identification, and detailed analysis of Arabidopsis modifier of snc1, 11 (mos11. Mutations in MOS11 can partially suppress the dwarfism and enhanced disease resistance phenotypes of snc1, which carries a gain-of-function mutation in a TIR-NB-LRR type Resistance gene. MOS11 encodes a conserved eukaryotic protein with homology to the human RNA binding protein CIP29. Further functional analysis shows that MOS11 localizes to the nucleus and that the mos11 mutants accumulate more poly(A mRNAs in the nucleus, likely resulting from reduced mRNA export activity. Epistasis analysis between mos3-1 and mos11-1 revealed that MOS11 probably functions in the same mRNA export pathway as MOS3, in a partially overlapping fashion, before the mRNA molecules pass through the nuclear pores. Taken together, MOS11 is identified as a new protein contributing to the transfer of mature mRNA from the nucleus to the cytosol.

  1. Bis(Monoacylglycero)Phosphate, oxysterols and ORP11 : a threesome regulating intracellular cholesterol traffic in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Arnal, Maud

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major cardiovascular complication in increased oxidative stress-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In these situations, the low density lipoproteins (LDL) undergo oxidation and their high uptake induces cholesterol accumulation in subendothelial macrophages. On the other hand, oxidized LDL are enriched in cholesterol oxidation products called oxysterols, some of them are involved in the ability of oxidized LDL to induce cellular oxidative str...

  2. Functional disorders in the Neurology section of ICD-11: A landmark opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jon; Hallett, Mark; Carson, Alan; Bergen, Donna; Shakir, Raad

    2014-12-09

    Functional disorders are one of the most common diagnoses in neurologic practice, but this is not reflected in current classification systems. The 11th revision of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2017 offers an opportunity for these disorders to appear within both neurologic and psychiatric categories for the first time. We discuss the rationale for this proposal and highlight the potential benefits for health professionals and patients.

  3. Sonido musical, formación de conceptos y desarrollo : Etapa: 11 años

    OpenAIRE

    Furnó, Silvia Cristina; Valles, Mónica Leonor; Natali, María Emilia

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo forma parte de un proyecto mayor destinado al estudio del desarrollo y formación de conceptos en el campo del sonido musical. Constituyen el marco de referencia, los trabajos de L. S. Vigotsky (1934), en particular su concepción del desarrollo y formación de conceptos cotidianos y científicos. Según Vigotsky (1934-1995) el pensamiento del niño se va estructurando de forma gradual en un proceso en que tanto la maduración como el aprendizaje se retroalimentan. Si bien requisitos de...

  4. Histone deacetylase 11: A novel epigenetic regulator of myeloid derived suppressor cell expansion and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakian, Eva; Powers, John J; Chen, Jie; Deng, Susan L; Cheng, Fengdong; Distler, Allison; Woods, David M; Rock-Klotz, Jennifer; Sodre, Andressa L; Youn, Je-In; Woan, Karrune V; Villagra, Alejandro; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a heterogeneous population of cells capable of suppressing anti-tumor T cell function in the tumor microenvironment, represent an imposing obstacle in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics. Thus, identifying elements essential to the development and perpetuation of these cells will undoubtedly improve our ability to circumvent their suppressive impact. HDAC11 has emerged as a key regulator of IL-10 gene expression in myeloid cells, suggesting that this may represent an important targetable axis through which to dampen MDSC formation. Using a murine transgenic reporter model system where eGFP expression is controlled by the HDAC11 promoter (Tg-HDAC11-eGFP), we provide evidence that HDAC11 appears to function as a negative regulator of MDSC expansion/function in vivo. MDSCs isolated from EL4 tumor-bearing Tg-HDAC11-eGFP display high expression of eGFP, indicative of HDAC11 transcriptional activation at steady state. In striking contrast, immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing mice display a diminished eGFP expression, implying that the transition of IMC to MDSC's require a decrease in the expression of HDAC11, where we postulate that it acts as a gate-keeper of myeloid differentiation. Indeed, tumor-bearing HDAC11-knockout mice (HDAC11-KO) demonstrate a more suppressive MDSC population as compared to wild-type (WT) tumor-bearing control. Notably, the HDAC11-KO tumor-bearing mice exhibit enhanced tumor growth kinetics when compare to the WT control mice. Thus, through a better understanding of this previously unknown role of HDAC11 in MDSC expansion and function, rational development of targeted epigenetic modifiers may allow us to thwart a powerful barrier to efficacious immunotherapies.

  5. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  6. Characterization and cloning of p11, a transrepressor of Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon 1731.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, J; Codani-Simonart, S; Best-Belpomme, M; Peronnet, F

    1995-01-01

    The NssBF element has been characterized as a 26 nt sequence in the long terminal repeat of Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon 1731. This sequence has been shown to be implicated in transcriptional repression of the 1731 promoter. We here report the cloning of a cDNA encoding a nuclear DNA binding protein named p11 that binds specifically to the NssBF element. P11 is a 98 amino acid polypeptide. It exhibits similarities with the mouse p9 single-stranded DNA binding protein, raising the possibility of a very general family of protein factors. Co-transfection experiments in human U937 cells showed repression of the 1731 promoter by overexpression of p11. Images PMID:8559667

  7. First Description of Shigella sonnei Harboring blaCTX-M-55 Outside Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Jeannete; Ortega-Paredes, David; Barba, Pedro

    2016-12-28

    Shigella sonnei harboring blaCTX-M-55 was isolated outside of Asia for the first time. The blaCTX-M-55 gene was found to be downstream of ISEcp-1 and located in a ~130 kb conjugative plasmid belonging to the I1 incompatibility group. The strain was recovered from a 7-year-old Ecuadorian girl with watery diarrhea who had not travelled abroad. Recent local data describe the emergence of blaCTX-M-55 and other variants typically found in Asia in the Andean Region, suggesting that increased travel of humans and trade relationships with Asian countries are influencing the current Ecuadorian bacterial resistance situation.

  8. Characteristic of virulence genes among CTX-M clusters Escherichia coli isolates from chicken%不同CTX-M亚群鸡大肠杆菌毒力基因的流行特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟杏好; 李进福; 段沙沙; 胡功政; 苑丽

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解CTX-M-1亚群、CTX-M-9亚群与不产CTX-M3类鸡源大肠杆菌毒力基因的流行特征.方法 从河南省不同地区分离获得CTX-M-1亚群鸡大肠杆菌33株,CTX-M-9亚群鸡大肠杆菌31株和不产CTX-M的鸡大肠杆菌23株,以多重PCR技术检测受试菌携带33种毒力基因的情况.结果 3类受试菌毒力基因的携带种类趋于一致,其中feoB、fimH、traT和sitA在3类菌中检出率均较高.CTX-M-1亚群鸡大肠杆菌中traT和irp-2基因和CTX-M-9亚群鸡大肠杆菌中iroN、iss和irp-2基因的携带著高于不产CTX M菌株.CTX-M-1亚群鸡大肠杆菌中cvaC和sfaS的携带率高于CTX-M-9亚群,而iroN和iss的携带率低于CTX-M-9亚群.结论 结果表明CTX-M-1与CTX-M-9亚群大肠杆菌部分毒力基因的携带率明显高于不产CTX-M的菌株,CTX-M-9和CTX-M-1亚群鸡大肠杆菌携带的部分毒力基因差异明显,推测产CTX-M鸡大肠杆菌的致病力可能较强,且菌株的致病力可能还与其携带的CTX-M基因亚型有关.

  9. Diversity of CTX-M beta-lactamases and their promoter regions from Enterobacteriaceae isolated in three Parisian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michèle; Cao, Van Thi Bao; Lambert, Thierry; Donay, Jean-Luc; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Ould-Hocine, Zahia; Verdet, Charlotte; Delisle, Françoise; Philippon, Alain; Arlet, Guillaume

    2002-04-01

    Nine clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (six Escherichia coli and three Proteus mirabilis) isolated in three Parisian hospitals between 1989 and 2000 showed a particular extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance profile characterized by resistance to cefotaxime and aztreonam but not to ceftazidime. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-2, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-14 and two novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M beta-lactamases (CTX-M-20, and CTX-M-21) were identified by polymerase chain reaction and isoelectric focusing (pI>8) and were associated in eight cases with TEM-1 (pI=5.4) or TEM-2 (pI=5.6) beta-lactamases. We used internal ISEcp1 and IS26 forward primers and the CTX-M consensus reverse primer to characterize the CTX-M beta-lactamase promoter regions and showed their high degree of structure diversity. We found upstream of some bla(CTX-M) genes, a 266-bp sequence 100% identical to the sequence upstream of the Kluyvera ascorbata beta-lactamase gene, suggesting that this chromosomal enzyme is the progenitor of the CTX-M-2/5 cluster.

  10. Structural insight into mode of binding of Meropenem to CTX-M-15 type β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Lubna; Khan, Asad U

    2017-03-01

    Among Enterobacteriaceae, CTX-M type extended spectrum beta lactamase confers potent hydrolytic activity against cephalosporin group of antibiotics. Strains producing CTX-M type beta lactamase enzymes, show high level of resistance against cefotaxime. Therefore carbapenem antibiotics are used against beta lactamase producing strains. Hence, this study was designed to understand an insight of molecular basis of CTX-M-15 interaction with meropenem, and its effect on CTX-M-15 efficiency. Clinical strain of Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15) was used to clone blaCTX-M-15 gene in E.coli BL21cells. The protein was then expressed and purified. Results showed that CTX-M-15 producing strains are susceptible to meropenem. It quenches the fluorescence of CTX-M-15 spontaneously with binding constant of the order of 10(3)M(-1). Meropenem binds on the active site of CTX-M-15, hydrogen bonded with four common amino acid residues of cefotaxime binding site, as revealed by molecular docking studies. Conformational change in the structure of CTX-M-15 was observed upon meropenem binding by CD spectroscopy. The catalytic efficiency of CTX-M-15 was decreased up to 4 times upon meropenem binding. Docking study shows that few amino acids of active site of enzyme are also involved in meropenem binding, hence substrate is difficult to bind on active site properly and does not get hydrolysed. Moreover, meropenem binding induces structural changes in CTX-M-15, making the enzyme less efficient.

  11. Global epidemiology of CTX-M β-lactamases: temporal and geographical shifts in genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Edward R; Jones, Annie M; Hawkey, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    Globally, rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are rising. We undertook a literature review, and present the temporal trends in blaCTX-M epidemiology, showing that blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-14 have displaced other genotypes in many parts of the world. Explanations for these changes can be attributed to: (i) horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of plasmids; (ii) successful Escherichia coli clones; (iii) ESBLs in food animals; (iv) the natural environment; and (v) human migration and access to basic sanitation. We also provide explanations for the changing epidemiology of blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-27. Modifiable anthropogenic factors, such as poor access to basic sanitary facilities, encourage the spread of blaCTX-M and other antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, such as blaNDM, blaKPC and mcr-1. We provide further justification for novel preventative and interventional strategies to reduce transmission of these AMR genes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lithium-ion capacitors with 2D Nb2CTx (MXene) - carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Ayeong; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Anasori, Babak; Urbankowski, Patrick; Li, Jingwen; Byles, Bryan W.; Blake, Brian; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Kota, Sankalp; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Lee, Jae W.; Chen, Ying; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest to hybrid energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion capacitors, in which battery-type electrodes are combined with capacitor-type ones. It is anticipated that the energy density (either gravimetric or volumetric) of lithium-ion capacitors is improved if pseudocapacitive or fast insertion materials are used instead of conventional activated carbon (AC) in the capacitor-type electrode. MXenes, a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, demonstrate metallic conductivity and fast charge-discharge behavior that make them suitable for this application. In this study, we move beyond single electrodes, half-cell studies and demonstrate three types of hybrid cells using Nb2CTx-carbon nanotube (CNT) films. It is shown that lithiated graphite/Nb2CTx-CNT, Nb2CTx-CNT/LiFePO4 and lithiated Nb2CTx-CNT/Nb2CTx-CNT cells are all able to operate within 3 V voltage windows and deliver capacities of 43, 24 and 36 mAh/g (per total weight of two electrodes), respectively. Moreover, the polarity of the electrodes can be reversed in the symmetric Nb2CTx-CNT cells from providing a positive potential between 0 and 3 V to a negative one from -3 to 0 V. It is shown that the volumetric energy density (50-70 Wh/L) of our first-generation devices with MXene electrodes exceeds that of a lithium titanate/AC capacitor.

  13. Global Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Clade with blaCTX-M-27 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yasufumi; Pitout, Johann D D; Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Peirano, Gisele; DeVinney, Rebekah; Bradford, Patricia A; Motyl, Mary R; Tanaka, Michio; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 C2/H30Rx clade with the blaCTX-M-15 gene had been most responsible for the global dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli. ST131 C1/H30R with blaCTX-M-27 emerged among ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan during the late 2000s. To investigate the possible expansion of a single clade, we performed whole-genome sequencing for 43 Japan and 10 global ST131 isolates with blaCTX-M-27 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-14 (n = 16), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 13), and others (n = 8). We also included 8 ST131 genomes available in public databases. Core genome-based analysis of 61 isolates showed that ST131 with blaCTX-M-27 from 5 countries formed a distinct cluster within the C1/H30R clade, named C1-M27 clade. Accessory genome analysis identified a unique prophage-like region, supporting C1-M27 as a distinct clade. Our findings indicate that the increase of ESBL-producing E. coli in Japan is due mainly to emergence of the C1-M27 clade.

  14. CTX-M producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse,Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto; Denny Widaya Lukman; Hadri Latif; Herwin Pisestyani; Eddy Sukmawinata; mer Akineden; Ewald Usleber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli(E. coli)from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia.Methods: A total of 220 cattle feces samples were collected from Bogor slaughterhouse from March to April 2015. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase(ESBL) producing E. coli was detected by disc diffusion test based on the recommendation from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(2014). Bacterial strains which were confirmed as producing ESBLs were further analyzed for the presence of bla genes of the ESBL by PCR.Results: The results showed that CTX-M producing E. coli isolates were detected in 19 samples from 220 samples(8.6%). The b-lactamase genes detected were CTX-M-1(n = 10) and CTX-M-9(n = 9). All of the CTX-M producing E. coli isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least four antibiotics. The highest incidence of antibiotics resistance was showed to ampicillin(100.0%), cefotaxime(100.0%), and cefpodoxime(100.0%), followed by streptomycin(84.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(73.7%), erythromycin(52.6%), kanamycin(26.3%), doxycycline(10.5%), and ceftazidime(0.0%).Conclusions: Detection of CTX-M-producing E. coli in cattle feces raises important questions as they can represent a potential risk factor to public health.

  15. CTX-M producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto; Denny Widaya Lukman; Hadri Latif; Herwin Pisestyani; Eddy Sukmawinata; Omer Akineden; Ewald Usleber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from cattle feces in Bogor slaughterhouse, Indonesia. Methods: A total of 220 cattle feces samples were collected from Bogor slaughterhouse from March to April 2015. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli was detected by disc diffusion test based on the recommendation from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2014). Bacterial strains which were confirmed as producing ESBLs were further analyzed for the presence of bla genes of the ESBL by PCR. Results: The results showed that CTX-M producing E. coli isolates were detected in 19 samples from 220 samples (8.6%). The b-lactamase genes detected were CTX-M-1 (n = 10) and CTX-M-9 (n = 9). All of the CTX-M producing E. coli isolates showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least four antibiotics. The highest incidence of an-tibiotics resistance was showed to ampicillin (100.0%), cefotaxime (100.0%), and cef-podoxime (100.0%), followed by streptomycin (84.3%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.7%), erythromycin (52.6%), kanamycin (26.3%), doxycycline (10.5%), and ceftazi-dime (0.0%). Conclusions: Detection of CTX-M-producing E. coli in cattle feces raises important questions as they can represent a potential risk factor to public health.

  16. Co-expression and Immunity of Legionella pneumophila mip Gene and Immunoadjuvant ctxB Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao WANG; Jian-Ping CHEN; Hong LI; Ke-Qian ZHI; Lei ZHANG; Chun-Lei YANG; Da-Chang TAO

    2005-01-01

    The nip gene of Legionella pneumophila and the ctxB gene of Vibrio cholerae were amplified by PCR respectively. The amplified cDNA was ligated to the pcDNA3.1 (+) vector. The recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB were identified by restriction analysis and PCR, and further confirmed by sequencing analysis. NIH3T3 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB according to the Lipofection method. Transient and stable products of the co-expression of the nip gene and ctxB gene were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The results showed that NIH3T3 cells were successfully transfected, and that the transiently and stably co-expressed products can be detected in the transfected cells. To detect the humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice induced by the coimmunization of the mip and ctxB genes, female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with pcDNA3.1-mip and pcDNA3.1-ctxB. The results showed that the specific antibody titer and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for pcDNA3.1-mip immunization and co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1 (+) immunization. Furthermore, the specific antibody titer and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response for co-immunization were increased compared with that of pcDNA3.1-mip immunization. Statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant difference between the groups (P<0.01). The results indicated that the ctxB gene enhanced the humoral and cellular immune response to the mip gene immunization. These findings provide experimental evidence to support the development of the L. pneumophila DNA vaccine.

  17. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvsansharav, Ulzii-Orshikh; Hirai, Itaru; Niki, Marie; Nakata, Arisa; Yoshinaga, Aya; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Toyoshima, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Fusao; Matsuura, Nariaki; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2013-01-01

    The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples). Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates). Genotyping of bla CTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%), 13 (29.5%), and 1 (2.3%) of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates) were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, inability to turn over in bed, diabetes, and invasive procedures within the last 2 years were the only variables independently associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M-type ESBL producers. Nursing home residents in Japan exhibit a high prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae carriage, with a high level of co-resistance to quinolones.

  18. Evolution of CTX-M-type beta-lactamases in isolates of Escherichia coli infecting hospital and community patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigante, Gioconda; Luzzaro, Francesco; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Colì, Alessandra; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Toniolo, Antonio

    2005-02-01

    Escherichia coli isolates collected at our Institution from 1999 to 2003 (n=20,258) were studied to evaluate the production of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Isolates suspected of producing CTX-M enzymes were analyzed by the double-disk synergy test, hybridization with specific probes, PCR and direct DNA sequencing. Overall, 53 ESBL-positive isolates were found to carry CTX-M-type genes (blaCTX-M-1, n=51; blaCTX-M-15, n=2). The isolation of CTX-M-positive strains increased from 1 per year (1999) to 26 per year (2003). The first isolate carrying the blaCTX-M-15 gene appeared in 2003 and was obtained from a patient previously treated with ceftazidime. CTX-M-positive isolates were characterized by multi-drug resistance and were obtained both from inpatients (n=29) and outpatients (n=24). Most patients were over 60-year-old (n=45), had underlying chronic diseases (n=32), and had been hospitalized more than once (n=33). Strains were frequently isolated from the urinary tract, often after recurrent infections. Our study demonstrates that CTX-M-producing isolates are increasing among E. coli strains. Adequate laboratory detection may help in choosing appropriate treatment and in limiting the spread of this resistance trait.

  19. Vliv motorických schopností a antropometrických měr na úspěšnost v závodech u 11 a 12letých hráček tenisu The influence of tennis motor abilities and anthropometric measures on the competition successfulness of 11 and 12 year-old female tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Filipčič

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Soubor 75 mladých hráček tenisu ve věku 11 a 12 let byl zahrnut do výzkumného projektu s cílem zjistit vliv vybraných antropometrických údajů a tenisových motorických dovedností na úspěšnost v soutěžích mladých tenisových hráčů. Vybrané tenisové motorické proměnné zahrnují: sílu svalů paží a ramen, sílu nohou, opakovanou sílu trupu, rychlost pohybu, rychlost střídavého pohybu rukou, ohebnost zad, hbitost a koordinaci ruka – oko. Výsledky regresní analýzy antropometrických měr odhalují statisticky významné spojení s kritérii proměnných (0,36. Skupina predikčních proměnných může vysvětlit 13% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. To stejné se aplikuje na tenisové motorické proměnné, u kterých je důležitá hodnota poněkud bližší, dosahuje 0,64, zatímco systém prediktorů vysvětluje 41% rozdílnost kritérií proměnných. Tři proměnné z antropometrických měr (obvod lýtka, tělesná váha, břišní kožní řasa vysvětlují kritérium proměnné se statistickou významností. Mezi již výše zmíněné tenisové motorické proměnné patří běh na 2 400 metrů, který se používá pro měření vytrvalosti v běhu, a běh na 5 metrů, který se používá pro meření rychlosti pohybu. A sample of 75 young female tennis players, aged 11 and 12, was included in a research project aimed at establishing the influence of selected anthropometric measures and tennis motor abilities on the competition successfulness of young tennis players. The selected tennis motor variables include: the muscular power of arms and shoulders, elastic power of the legs, repetitive strength of the trunk, speed of movement, speed of alternative movements with the arm, flexibility of the back, agility, and hand-eye coordination. The results of regression analysis of anthropometric measures reveal a statistically significant connection with the criterion variable (0.36. The system of

  20. Characterization of CTX-M-14-producing Escherichia coli from food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ping eLiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to the third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics has become a major concern for public health. This study was aimed to determine the characteristics and distribution of blaCTX-M-14, which encodes an extended-spectrum β-lactamase, in E. coli isolated from Guangdong Province, China. A total of 979 E. coli isolates isolated from healthy or diseased food-producing animals including swine and avian were examined for blaCTX-M-14 and then the blaCTX-M-14 –positive isolates were detected by other resistance determinants (ESBLs, PMQR, rmtB and floR and analyzed by phylogenetic grouping analysis, PCR-based plasmid replicon typing, multilocus sequence typing and plasmid analysis. The genetic environments of blaCTX-M-14 were also determined by PCR. The results showed that fourteen CTX-M-14-producing E. coli were identified, belonging to groups A (7/14, B1 (4/14 and D (3/14. The most predominant resistance gene was blaTEM (n= 8, followed by floR (n=7, oqxA (n=3, aac(6’-1b-cr (n=2 and rmtB (n=1. Plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-14 were classified to IncK, IncHI2, IncHI1, IncN, IncFIB, IncF or IncI1, ranged from about 30kb to 200kb, and with insertion sequence of ISEcp1, IS26 or ORF513 located upstream and IS903 downstream of blaCTX-M-14. The result of MLST showed that 14 isolates had 11 STs, and the 11 STs belonged to 5 groups. Many of the identified STs are reported to be common in E. coli isolates associated with extraintestinal infections in humans, suggesting possible transmission of blaCTX-M-14 between animals and humans. The difference in the flanking sequences of blaCTX-M-14 between the 2009 isolates and the early ones suggests that the resistance gene context continues to evolve in E. coli of food producing animals.

  1. A Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 vaccine candidate against CTX ET Phi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiying; Liu, Guangwen; Diao, Baowei; Qiu, Haiyan; Zhang, Lijuan; Liang, Weili; Gao, Shouyi; Kan, Biao

    2007-05-16

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease that may spread rapidly. Vaccination is considered a valid measure against it. We developed a new vaccine candidate, IEM109, against Vibrio cholerae. To generate this candidate, a chromosomal fragment containing the TLC element, attB of the CTX Phi integration site, and RTX cluster responsible for the cytotoxic activity for mammalian cells was deleted through homologous recombination from the previously described El Tor biotype, IEM101. The protective genes ctxB and rstR, which establish resistance to CTX Phi infections, were inserted into that same location on the chromosome of IEM109 to enhance the safety and genetic stability of the vaccine candidate and to prevent horizontal gene transfer. In in vivo tests, cell cultures showed that the cytotoxic effect of IEM109 on Hep-2 was negative. Furthermore, the infection rate of El Tor biotype CTX Phi to that of IEM109 in the rabbit intestine is 3000-fold lower than that of IEM101. Intraintestinal vaccination of rabbits with a single dose of IEM109 elicits high titers of anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies. When challenged with 0.5-2 microg CT and 10(5) to 10(8)CFU of four wild toxigenic strains of different biotypes and serogroups, IEM109 conferred full protection. Thus, IEM109 is a stable vaccine candidate that evokes not only antitoxic and vibriocidal immunities, but also resistance to the El Tor biotype CTX Phi infection.

  2. XML Determination of Phylogenetic Group and Prevalence of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 Genes in Escherichia Coli Isolates from Intestinal and Urinary Tract Infections in under Five- Year- Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momeni, F. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases is a rapidly expanding group of enzymes encountered with increasing fre‌quency, especially, in Escherichia coli (E. coli. There are a few reports on phylogenetic background of E. coli isolates from clinical sources of under five-year- old children in Iran. The purpose of this study was phylotyping of E. coli isolates having blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes from under five-year- old children with diarrhea and urinary tract infection (UTI. Material and Methods: A total of 121 E. coli isolates (75 diarrheas and 46 UTI were obtained and identified as E. coli based on standard bacteriological tests. DNA was extracted from E. coli isolates by alkaline lysis method. PCR assay was used because of high frequency of blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes in the isolates and also determination of phylogenetic group/subgroups by detection of yjaA and chuA genes and fragment TspE4.C2. Results: The isolates belonged to four phylogenetic groups A (48.77%, B1 (14.04%, B2 (11.57%, and D (25.62%. In the diarrheic isolates,17.37% were positive for blaCTX-M and 14.04% of isolates possessed both blaCTX-M and blaCTX-15genes.Out of 46 UTI isolates, 21.73% were positive for blaCTX-M and 15.21% for blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes. Conclusion: A rather high prevalence of E. coli isolates with blaCTX-M and blaCTX-M-15 genes was observed in fewer than five-year- old children in Khoramabad city. Phylotyping of isolates possessing blaCTX-M and blaCTX-15genes showed that most of them belonge to A and D phylo-groups

  3. Characterization of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli by repetitive sequence-based PCR and real-time PCR-based replicon typing of CTX-M-15 plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnberg, Anna; Söderquist, Bo; Persson, Katarina; Mölling, Paula

    2014-11-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is a major global concern. CTX-M is the dominating ESBL type worldwide, and CTX-M-15 is the most widespread CTX-M type. The dissemination of CTX-M appears to be in part due to global spread of the Escherichia coli clone O25b-ST131. However, the gene-encoding CTX-M is mainly located on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, that also promote the horizontal dissemination of the CTX-M genes. In this study, 152 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolated in 1999-2008 in Örebro County, Sweden, were typed using a commercial repetitive sequence-based PCR (the DiversiLab system), and the prevalence of ST131 was investigated by pabB PCR. Real-time PCR-based plasmid replicon typing was performed on 82 CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates. In general, the CTX-M-producing E. coli population was genetically diverse; however, ST131 was highly prevalent (27%), and the dominating clone in our area. The blaCTX -M-15 gene was mainly located on IncF plasmids (69%), but a relatively high proportion of IncI1 plasmids (29%) were also detected among E. coli with diverse rep-PCR patterns, indicating that horizontal transmission of IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX -M-15 may have occurred between different E. coli strains.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M enzymes carried by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHENG; Ying YE; Ying-ying WANG; Hui LI; Xu LI; Jia-bin LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to study the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 5 novel CTX-M-β-lactamases carried by 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates and 3 Escherichia coli isolates collected from 4 hospitals in Hefei, China. Methods: The purified PCR products were ligated with pGEM-Teasy vectors, expressed, and sequenced. The complete genes of the CTX-M-β-lactamases were ligated with the pHSG398 vector to express prokaryotic recombi-nant proteins. Plasmids were extracted by rapid alkaline lysis protocol, and the PCR method was performed to determine whether the prokaryotic expression was successful or not. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested and the phenotypes of transformants were determined according to criteria recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The kinetic parameters of enzymes were confirmed. The isoelectric points (pI) were determined by isoelectric focusing assay. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and plasmid profiling were performed. Results: The PCR products had 1101 nucleotides and were determined as CTX-M-46, CTX-M-47, CTX-M-48, CTX-M-49, and CTX-M-50. All strains were resistant to cefotaxime, but most of them were susceptible or intermediate to ceftazidime. The phenotypes of novel enzymes were determined as extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Penicillin G, cephalothin, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime were determined to good substrates, whereas ceftazidime hydrolysis was not detected. The pI of the 5 novel CTX-M-βlactamases were 8.0. CTX-M-derivatives could be the multiplex genesis in our area. Conclusion: This is the first report of these 5 novel plasmid-mediated CTX-M ESBL produced from China in the world. Mo-lecular typing reveals notably different origin in genes encoding different CTX-M variants of 8 strains.

  5. Distant and new mutations in CTX-M-1 beta-lactamase affect cefotaxime hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Llarena, Francisco José; Kerff, Frédéric; Abián, Olga; Mallo, Susana; Fernández, María Carmen; Galleni, Moreno; Sancho, Javier; Bou, Germán

    2011-09-01

    The CTX-M β-lactamases are an increasingly prevalent group of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Point mutations in CTX-M β-lactamases are considered critical for enhanced hydrolysis of cefotaxime. In order to clarify the structural determinants of the activity against cefotaxime in CTX-M β-lactamases, screening for random mutations was carried out to search for decreased activity against cefotaxime, with the CTX-M-1 gene as a model. Thirteen single mutants with a considerable reduction in cefotaxime MICs were selected for biochemical and stability studies. The 13 mutated genes of the CTX-M-1 β-lactamase were expressed, and the proteins were purified for kinetic studies against cephalothin and cefotaxime (as the main antibiotics). Some of the positions, such as Val103Asp, Asn104Asp, Asn106Lys, and Pro107Ser, are located in the (103)VNYN(106) loop, which had been described as important in cefotaxime hydrolysis, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. There are four mutations located close to catalytic residues-Thr71Ile, Met135Ile, Arg164His, and Asn244Asp-that may affect the positioning of these residues. We show here that some distant mutations, such as Ala219Val, are critical for cefotaxime hydrolysis and highlight the role of this loop at the top of the active site. Other distant substitutions, such as Val80Ala, Arg191, Ala247Ser, and Val260Leu, are in hydrophobic cores and may affect the dynamics and flexibility of the enzyme. We describe here, in conclusion, new residues involved in cefotaxime hydrolysis in CTX-M β-lactamases, five of which are in positions distant from the catalytic center.

  6. Characterization of two new CTX-M-25-group extended-spectrum β-lactamase variants identified in Escherichia coli isolates from Israel.

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    Jascha Vervoort

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We characterized two new CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL variants in Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of two elderly patients admitted at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel. Both patients underwent treatment with cephalosporins prior to isolation of the E. coli strains. METHODS: ESBLs were detected by the double-disk synergy test and PCR-sequencing of β-lactamase genes. The bla(CTX-M genes were cloned into the pCR-BluntII-TOPO vector in E. coli TOP10. The role of amino-acid substitutions V77A and D240G was analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis of the bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 genes and comparative characterization of the resulting E. coli recombinants. MICs of β-lactams were determined by Etest. Plasmid profiling, mating experiments, replicon typing and sequencing of bla(CTX-M flanking regions were performed to identify the genetic background of the new CTX-M variants. RESULTS: The novel CTX-M β-lactamases, CTX-M-94 and -100, belonged to the CTX-M-25-group. Both variants differed from CTX-M-25 by the substitution V77A, and from CTX-M-39 by D240G. CTX-M-94 differed from all CTX-M-25-group enzymes by the substitution F119L. Glycine-240 was associated with reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime and leucine-119 with increased resistance to ceftriaxone. bla(CTX-M-94 and bla(CTX-M-100 were located within ISEcp1 transposition units inserted into ∼93 kb non-conjugative IncFI and ∼130 kb conjugative IncA/C plasmids, respectively. The plasmids carried also different class 1 integrons. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on CTX-M-94 and -100 ESBLs, novel members of the CTX-M-25-group.

  7. Evolutionary Trajectories of Beta-Lactamase CTX-M-1 Cluster Enzymes: Predicting Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ângela; Comas, Iñaki; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M.; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) constitute a key antibiotic-resistance mechanism affecting Gram-negative bacteria, and also an excellent model for studying evolution in real time. A shift in the epidemiology of ESBLs is being observed, which is characterized by the explosive diversification and increase in frequency of the CTX-M-type β-lactamases in different settings. This provides a unique opportunity for studying a protein evolutionary radiation by the sequential acquisition of specific mutations enhancing protein efficiency and fitness concomitantly. The existence of driver antibiotic molecules favoring protein divergence has been investigated by combining evolutionary analyses and experimental site-specific mutagenesis. Phylogenetic reconstruction with all the CTX-M variants described so far provided a hypothetical evolutionary scenario showing at least three diversification events. CTX-M-3 was likely the enzyme at the origin of the diversification in the CTX-M-1 cluster, which was coincident with positive selection acting on several amino acid positions. Sixty-three CTX-M-3 derivatives containing all combinations of mutations under positively selected positions were constructed, and their phenotypic efficiency was evaluated. The CTX-M-3 diversification process can only be explained in a complex selective landscape with at least two antibiotics (cefotaxime and ceftazidime), indicating the need to invoke mixtures of selective drivers in order to understand the final evolutionary outcome. Under this hypothesis, we found congruent results between the in silico and in vitro analyses of evolutionary trajectories. Three pathways driving the diversification of CTX-M-3 towards the most complex and efficient variants were identified. Whereas the P167S pathway has limited possibilities of further diversification, the D240G route shows a robust diversification network. In the third route, drift may have played a role in the early stages of CTX-M-3 evolution

  8. Prevalence of CTX-M-Producing Klebsiella spp. in Broiler, Kuroiler, and Indigenous Poultry in West Bengal State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, Achintya; Ghosh, Pratik; Samanta, Indranil; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Bandyopadhyay, Samiran; Bhattacharyya, Debaraj; Banerjee, Jaydeep; Batabyal, Subhasis; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Dutta, Tapan Kumar

    2017-08-22

    This study was undertaken to detect the prevalence of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. in healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds reared in West Bengal (India) during November 2014-February 2015. In addition to CTX-M gene, the study was also conducted to reveal the occurrence of other β-lactamase and class I integron genes in Klebsiella spp. isolates along with their clonal relationship. A total of 321 cloacal swabs from healthy broiler, indigenous, and kuroiler birds were collected from different places of West Bengal, India. Klebsiella spp. isolation rate varies among different types of poultry birds (43.8-72.3%). In total, 33 (10.7%) Klebsiella spp. isolates were detected phenotypically as CTX-M producers and all the isolates possessed blaCTX-M in polymerase chain reaction. Whereas 17 (51.5%) and 16 (48.5%) Klebsiella spp. isolates possessed blaSHV, and blaTEM with blaCTX-M, respectively. None of the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates in this study possessed class I integron gene. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-based phylogenetic tree revealed the presence of clonal relationship among the CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp. isolates, recovered from broilers and indigenous birds. This study identified broilers and indigenous game birds as a potential reservoir of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella spp., which could be transmitted to the human food chain directly or indirectly.

  9. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S;

    2006-01-01

    To examine the prognostic value of markers of bone metabolism (serum PINP, BAP, and CTX-I) and serum YKL-40 in metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC).......To examine the prognostic value of markers of bone metabolism (serum PINP, BAP, and CTX-I) and serum YKL-40 in metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC)....

  10. CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii from Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Diene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the detection and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamases in a series of 112 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal, including five CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii isolates, which are reported for the first time in this country.

  11. Bioavailability and intravenous toxicokinetic parameters for Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledreux, Aurélie; Ramsdell, John S

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channel activator toxins responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning. In this study, we determined the toxicokinetic parameters of the Pacific ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 in rats after an intravenous (iv) dose of 0.13 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. The ciguatoxin activity was assessed over time in blood using the sensitive functional Neuro2a assay. The data were analyzed with a two-compartmental model. After exposure, the ciguatoxin activity exhibited a rapid (alpha half-life of 6 min) and extensive distribution into tissues (apparent steady state volume of distribution of 7.8 L). Ciguatoxin elimination from blood was slower with a beta half-life estimated at 35.5 h. The toxicokinetic parameters determined from this study were compared to data previously obtained after oral and intraperitoneal exposure of rats to 0.26 ng P-CTX-1 per g of body weight. Maximal bioavailability was determined by the area under the concentration curve, and was used to calculate the absolute P-CTX-1 bioavailabilities for oral and intraperitoneal routes of exposures of 39% and 75%, respectively.

  12. Strain diversity of CTX-M-producing Enterobacteriaceae in individual pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine Hartung; Bortolaia, Valeria; Damborg, Peter Panduro

    2014-01-01

    and direct plating. A clear decrease in strain diversity was observed after weaning. Dissemination of blaCTX-M-14 within the farm was attributed to horizontal transfer of an IncK plasmid that did not carry additional resistance genes and persisted in the absence of antimicrobial selective pressure...

  13. CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii from Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diene, S M; Fenollar, F; Fall, B; Sow, K; Niang, B; Samba Ba, P; Wade, B; Raoult, D; Rolain, J-M

    2014-03-01

    We report the detection and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamases in a series of 112 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal, including five CTX-M-15-producing Morganella morganii isolates, which are reported for the first time in this country.

  14. Analysis of the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the respiratory tract and CTX-M ESBL genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S Y; Pan, K Y; Liu, X Q; Xie, X Y; Dai, X L; Chen, B J; Wu, X Q; Li, H Y

    2015-10-05

    The main aim of this study was to understand the relationship between the drug-resistant characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae and CTX-M-type extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), and to detect the distributions of CTX-M-type ESBLs in clinically isolated strains. CTX-M ESBL genes isolated from the clinical samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequence analysis; the antibiotic susceptibility of the samples was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. One hundred and five strains among the 246 isolated strains of K. pneumoniae tested positive for ESBL production (42.68%); 92 of these produced CTX-M ESBLs. Of the 92 CTX-M ESBL strains, 81 produced CTX-M-1 ESBLs and 11 produced CTX-M-25 ESBLs. Fifty-seven of the CTX-M-1 ESBL- and six of the CTX-M-25 ESBL-producing bacteria had CTX-M ESBL genes that coexisted in the plasmid and chromosome. The Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility method revealed that CTX-M ESBL-positive strains showed a higher rate of resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole, compared to the CTX-M ESBL-negative strains (P ESBL genes were commonly observed in the K. pneumoniae isolated from respiratory tract samples; these were significantly associated with the drug-resistant characteristics of K. pneumoniae to β-lactam antibiotics.

  15. CTX-M-1 β-lactamase expression in Escherichia coli is dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thea S. B.; Overgaard, Martin; Nielsen, Søren S.

    2015-01-01

    blaCTX-M-1 mRNA expression and CTX-M-1 protein levels were dependent on cefotaxime concentration, growth phase and gene location. These results provide insight into the expression of cephalosporin resistance in CTX-M-1-producing E. coli, improving our understanding of the relationship between...

  16. Calibration and Performance of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Malin, M. C.; Caplinger, M. A.; Fahle, J.; Wolff, M. J.; Cantor, B. A.; James, P. B.; Ghaemi, T.; Posiolova, L. V.; Ravine, M. A.; Supulver, K. D.; Calvin, W. M.; Clancy, R. T.; Edgett, K. S.; Edwards, L. J.; Haberle, R. M.; Hale, A.; Lee, S. W.; Rice, M. S.; Thomas, P. C.; Williams, R. M. E.

    Background: The Context Camera (CTX) instrument aboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft is a 5056-pixel CCD line-scan imager that uses pushbroom scanning along the direction of spacecraft motion to acquire ~30 km wide image strips at a spatial resolution of ~6 m/pixel from MRO's nominal circular polar orbit. We describe here the pre-flight and in-flight measurement, test, and validation activities and calibration pipeline algorithms that enable raw CTX data to be converted to absolute radiance on sensor, radiance factor, or estimated Lambert albedo. Results: The CTX CCD has a gain of 72.6±3.1 e-/DN, a read noise of 66.0±2.5 e-, a full well of 267,000±10,000 e-, and a highly linear response. CCD bias levels are typically current is negligible at typical operating temperatures at Mars. Raw images exhibit flatfield variations of approximately ±20%, varying by less than ±1% during operations at Mars. The CTX spectral response profile has an effective band center of 611±189 nm. A correction for small geometric distortion has been derived. The CTX radiometric response coefficient is ~ 13.1 (DN/msec)/(W/m2/micron/sr), with an estimated qualitative uncertainty of 10-20% based on comparisons of derived albedos of the same regions from different missions. In-flight tests reveal scattered light levels to be mapped ~80% of Mars at a scale of ~6 m/pixel.

  17. Occurrence of CTX-M producing Escherichia coli in soils, cattle and farm environment in France (Burgundy region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain eHartmann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CTX-M (extended spectrum beta-lactamase- ESBL producing Escherichia coli are increasingly involved in human infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate potential reservoirs for such strains: soils, cattle and farm environment. The prevalence of blaCTX-M genes was determined directly from soil DNA extracts obtained from 120 sites in Burgundy (France using real time PCR. blaCTX-M targets were found in 20% of the DNA extracts tested. Samples of cattle feces (n=271 were collected from 182 farms in Burgundy. Thirteen ESBL-producing isolates were obtained from 12 farms and further characterized for the presence of bla genes. Of the 13 strains, five and eight strains carried blaTEM-71 genes and blaCTX-M-1 genes respectively. Ten strains of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli were isolated from cultivated and pasture soils as well as from composted manure within 2 of these farms. The genotypic analysis revealed that environmental and animal strains were clonally related. Our study confirms the occurrence of CTX-M producing E. coli in cattle and reports for the first time the occurrence of such strains in cultivated soils. The environmental competence of such strains has to be determined and might explain their long term survival since CTX-M isolates were recovered from a soil that was last amended with manure one year before sampling.

  18. Characteristics of the Molecular Epidemiology of CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from a Tertiary Hospital in Daejeon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semi; Sung, Ji Youn; Cho, Hye Hyun; Kwon, Kye Chul; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2016-09-28

    The aims of this study were to characterize the molecular epidemiological profiles of CTX-M-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary hospital in Daejeon, Korea, and to investigate the genetic diversity and compare the prevalence of sequence types (STs) in different areas. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli strains isolated from urine were analyzed for CTX-M, integrons, and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) by PCR and sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), phylogenetic analysis, and rep-PCR were also used for molecular typing of the isolates. Of 80 CTX-M producers, 31 and 46 expressed CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-14, respectively. MLST analysis indicated that the most prevalent ST was ST131 (n = 34, 42.5%), followed by ST38 (n = 22, 27.5%), ST405 (n = 8, 10.0%), and ST69 (n = 6, 7.5%). Most CTX-M producers harbored class 1 integrons. ST131 strains belonged to phylogenetic group B2 and showed identical rep-PCR patterns, whereas ST69, ST38, and ST405 strains belonged to phylogenetic group D; the ST38 and ST405 strains displayed the same rep-PCR pattern, respectively. ST131 and ST38 isolates showed 21 and 19 distinct types, respectively, by PFGE. In Daejeon, D-ST38 CTX-M-14 producers were relatively more prevalent than in other countries and Korean cities. Our results indicate that CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates belonged mostly to ST131 or ST38 and were more related to hospital-onset than to community-onset infections and that the blaCTX-M gene may vary according to the ST.

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors for isolation of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase in a large U.S. Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Gattu, Sureka; Marchaim, Dror; Bhargava, Ashish; Palla, Mohan; Alshabani, Khaled; Gudur, Uma Mahesh; Pulluru, Harish; Bathina, Pradeep; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Sarkar, Moumita; Kakarlapudi, Hari; Ramasamy, Balaji; Nanjireddy, Priyanka; Mohin, Shah; Dasagi, Meenakshi; Datla, Satya; Kuchipudi, Vamsi; Reddy, Swetha; Shahani, Shobha; Upputuri, Vijaya; Marrey, Satya; Gannamani, Vedavyas; Madhanagopal, Nandhini; Annangi, Srinadh; Sudha, Busani; Muppavarapu, Kalyan Srinivas; Moshos, Judy A; Lephart, Paul R; Pogue, Jason M; Bush, Karen; Kaye, Keith S

    2013-08-01

    A case-case-control study was conducted to identify independent risk factors for recovery of Escherichia coli strains producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (CTX-M E. coli) within a large Southeastern Michigan medical center. Unique cases with isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli from February 2010 through July 2011 were analyzed by PCR for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Patients with CTX-M E. coli were compared to patients with E. coli strains not producing CTX-M-type ESBLs (non-CTX-M E. coli) and uninfected controls. Of 575 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli, 491 (85.4%) isolates contained a CTX-M ESBL gene. A total of 319 (84.6%) patients with CTX-M E. coli (282 [74.8%] CTX-M-15 type) were compared to 58 (15.4%) non-CTX-M E. coli patients and to uninfected controls. Independent risk factors for CTX-M E. coli isolation compared to non-CTX-M E. coli included male gender, impaired consciousness, H2 blocker use, immunosuppression, and exposure to penicillins and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Compared to uninfected controls, independent risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli included presence of a urinary catheter, previous urinary tract infection, exposure to oxyimino-cephalosporins, dependent functional status, non-home residence, and multiple comorbid conditions. Within 48 h of admission, community-acquired CTX-M E. coli (n = 51 [16%]) and non-CTX-M E coli (n = 11 [19%]) strains were isolated from patients with no recent health care contacts. CTX-M E. coli strains were more resistant to multiple antibiotics than non-CTX-M E. coli strains. CTX-M-encoding genes, especially bla(CTX-M-15) type, represented the most common ESBL determinants from ESBL-producing E. coli, the majority of which were present upon admission. Septic patients with risk factors for isolation of CTX-M E. coli should be empirically treated with appropriate agents. Regional infection control efforts and judicious antibiotic use are needed to control the spread of these

  20. Fecal carriage of CTX-M β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in nursing homes in the Kinki region of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvsansharav UO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulzii-Orshikh Luvsansharav,1 Itaru Hirai,1 Marie Niki,1 Arisa Nakata,1 Aya Yoshinaga,1 Akira Yamamoto,2 Mayumi Yamamoto,3 Hiroyuki Toyoshima,4,† Fusao Kawakami,5 Nariaki Matsuura,6 Yoshimasa Yamamoto1,7,8 1Department of Bioinformatics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 2Blueberry, Amagasaki Health Care Facilities for the Elderly, Hyogo, 3Health Administration Center, Gifu University, Gifu, 4Nursing home Minoh, Osaka, 5Nursing home Itami, Hyogo, 6Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, 7Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Osaka, 8Osaka University Global Collaboration Center, Osaka, Japan†Hiroyuki Toyoshima passed away on February 21, 2013Abstract: The detection rate of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan has significantly increased. Nursing homes may be a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of, and risk factors associated with, fecal carriage of CTX-M-type β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae among nursing home residents. A total of 225 stool samples were collected for phenotypic and genotypic identification of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors associated with fecal carriage of CTX-M producers. The prevalence of CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, as confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods, was 19.6% (44 of 225 samples. Escherichia coli was the predominant CTX-M-type ESBL-producing bacterium among these isolates (41 of 44 isolates. Genotyping of blaCTX-M gene-positive isolates showed that 30 (68.2%, 13 (29.5%, and 1 (2.3% of 44 samples belonged to groups CTX-M-9, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-2, respectively. Among the CTX-M-type ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae found in nursing homes, 95.5% (42 of 44 isolates were co-resistant to quinolone antibiotics. In multivariate logistic regression

  1. CTX-M-190, a Novel β-Lactamase Resistant to Tazobactam and Sulbactam, Identified in an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen; Ding, Baixing; Bi, Yingmin; Wu, Shi; Xu, Su; Xu, Xiaogang; Guo, Qinglan; Wang, Minggui

    2017-01-01

    A novel β-lactamase, CTX-M-190, derived from CTX-M-55 by a single substitution of Ser for Thr at position 133 (Ser133Thr), was identified in a natural Escherichia coli clinical isolate. CTX-M-190 exhibited potent hydrolytic activity against cefotaxime, with a kcat/Km ratio of 14.5 μM(-1) s(-1), and was highly resistant to inhibition by the β-lactamase inhibitors tazobactam and sulbactam, whose 50% inhibitory concentrations were 77- and 55-fold higher, respectively, for CTX-M-190 than for CTX-M-55. blaCTX-M-190 was located within the genetic platform ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-orf477, which was harbored by a 70-kb IncI1 plasmid.

  2. β-Lactam Resistance Genes: Characterization, Epidemiology, and First Detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella spp. Isolated from Poultry in Brazil-Brazil Ministry of Agriculture's Pathogen Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Fernanda Marques; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Oliveira, Vinicius Gomes Sales; Gaspari, Marcus Vinicius; Dos Santos, Amaury; de Freitas, Josinete Barros; Pignatari, Antonio C C

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread in nature; however, human infections occur mainly through ingestion of contaminated food, specially poultry and eggs. In Brazil, the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) oversees food production in general, with the goal of preventing transmission of pathogens through the food chain. In 2004, MAPA initiated a program to monitor and control levels of Salmonella in poultry during slaughter. This study analyzes isolates from MAPA's program for β-lactam resistance and the resistance genes involved, as well as the geographic distributions of potentially clonal populations of resistant isolates within Brazil. Initially, 1,939 Salmonella spp. isolated between 2004 and 2011 were examined. These isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and 100 isolates resistant or intermediate to ampicillin and ceftriaxone were screened initially for the presence of blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaPSA, blaCMY-1, and blaCMY-2 genes. There were 55 isolates whose resistance genes were not identified by this panel and these isolates are the subject of this report. These 55 isolates were differentiated into 31 distinct ribogroups, with multiple β-lactam resistance genes, including AmpC blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-8, and blaCTX-M-14. Isolates carrying variants of blaCTX-M were identified in three geographic regions. Salmonella carrying particular genetic variants of blaCTX-M and belonging to the same ribogroup were identified from multiple poultry slaughtering facilities. In some instances, these presumptive clonal-related isolates were from facilities over 300 miles apart, indicating potential clonal spread between two geographic regions. This is the first report of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella in Brazil.

  3. CTX-M-14 β-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkind Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A clinical isolate of C. freundii with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum β-lactams from a woman with cystocele associated with recurrent urinary tract infection was analyzed. Susceptibility tests, double disk synergy tests (DDST and enzymatic activity by the agar iodometric method suggested the presence of ESBLs. Conjugation experiments revealed the presence of a large conjugative plasmid (pLM07/20 with an exclusive FrepB replicon type (IncF/FIB. PCR analysis and sequencing confirmed the presence of the blaCTX-M-14 gene in the pLM07/20 from C. freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these β-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations.

  4. Evolutionally Dissemination of CTX-M-14 Producing Escherichia coli among Food-producing Animals%食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌传播分子机制的演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄盼盼; 汤电; 任艳娜; 郭玉芳; 王丽华; 裘宗平; 蒋红霞

    2012-01-01

    从保存的2002-2009年分离的食品动物源大肠杆菌中,挑选16株blacTx-M14阳性菌,用PCR方法检测超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)编码基因、PMQR耐药基因及其他重要抗生素耐药基因(rmtB和floR);通过脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)及种族进化关系分析16株细菌的亲缘关系;通过接合转移试验、复制子分型和blaCTX-M-14上下游插入元件的检测,分析产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌的传播分子机制.PCR检测结果表明,16株食品动物源产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌大多属于系统发育组A组,其次为B1和D组,没有B2组;PFGE分型结果表明,同一时间内不同动物间存在产CTX-M-14共生型大肠杆菌克隆的扩散传播,但养殖场内CTX-M-14主要是随质粒或其他元件进行水平传播;质粒复制子分型结果表明,携带blaCTX-M-14的质粒属于IncK(3/14)、IncF(5/14)、IncHI2(1/14)、IncFIB和IncF(1/14)、IncHI1和IncN(2/14)、IncIl(2/14)等,且随着时间推移,复制子的种类呈增多趋势.2002-2007年的菌株blaCTx-M基因的上下游均检测到ISEcpl和IS903;但2009年菌株除了部分在上下游都可以检测到ISEcpl和IS903外,还有的只检测到上游的ISEcpl或下游的IS903;2002-2009年的菌均未检测到ISCR1.16株产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌除了携带其他ESBLs编码基因,如blaCTx-M79和blaTEM-135外,还携带其他重要抗生素耐药基因,如oqxA、floR、aac(6') - lb-cr及rmtB,而且2002-2009年大肠杆菌携带耐药基因的种类和数量逐年增多;接合转移试验发现,2002-2005年的菌株,blaCTx-M-14往往发生单独转移,而2009年分离菌blaCTx-M-14往往和floR或rmtB位于同一质粒上发生共同转移.这说明养殖场使用氨基糖苷类或氟苯尼考等任何一种抗生素,都可以筛选出产CTX-M-14大肠杆菌并促进其扩散,所以动物养殖过程中要慎用这些抗生素.%Sixteen CTX-M-14 producing Escherichia coli isolates from food animal recovered from 2002 to 2009 were subjected to detection of

  5. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-03-12

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ``A`` and ``B`` portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information.

  6. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (Pbrucellosis.

  7. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  8. Limited transmission of bla(CTX-M-9)-type-positive Escherichia coli between humans and poultry in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shuhei; Ngan, Bui Thi Kim; Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Hirai, Itaru; Tuyen, Le Danh; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether Escherichia coli isolates that produce CTX-M-9-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are transferred between humans and chickens in a Vietnamese community. The phylogenetic group compositions, sequence types, antimicrobial resistance profiles, the prevalence of plasmid antibiotic resistance genes, and the plasmid replicon types generally differed between the human and chicken E. coli isolates. Our results suggest that transmission of the bla(CTX-M-9)-positive E. coli between humans and poultry was limited.

  9. Rapidly spreading CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Akiko; Iyoda, Takako; Matsuzaki, Kaoru; Saika, Takeshi; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, increased isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis has been reported in Japan. We undertook an investigation to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolated in Japan and to characterise the genotype. Seventy-four P. mirabilis isolates recovered from specimens at 54 hospitals in Japan between March and October 2006 were included in the study. Of the 74 P. mirabilis isolates examined, 28 (37.8%) were ESBL-producers. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene was found in 27 isolates, whilst 1 isolate possessed bla(CTX-M-3). Amongst the 28 ESBL-producers, 25 (89.3%) were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whilst 11 (23.9%) of 46 ESBL-non-producing isolates were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the 28 ESBL-producing isolates from 19 hospitals revealed 17 clusters. The same PFGE type was observed in two or more hospitals especially in the greater Tokyo area, suggesting possible clonal spread and the need for monitoring to determine whether emergence of a dominant clone occurs. Our results show that in Japan there is a high prevalence of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis. Moreover, these isolates are characterised by reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.

  10. 住院患者产CTX-M型ESBLs和KPC的大肠埃希菌感染分布与耐药基因分析%Distribution and antimicrobial resistance genes of CTX-M extended-spec-trum β-lactamase-and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伟; 王思淼; 金鑫; 李佳佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical distribution and antimicrobial resistance genes of CTX-M extended-spectrumβ-lactamases (ESBLs)- and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs)-producing Escherichia coli (E.coli)isolated from patients with infection.Methods Multidrug-resistant E.coli (MDR-E.coli)isolated from clinical specimens in a hospital in 2011 -2012 were collected,minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs)were detec-ted by micro-broth dilution method;ESBLs and KPC genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), CTX-M and KPC genotypes,as well as multilocus sequence types (MLST)were identified.Results Of 48 MDR-E. coli,45(93.75%)only produced ESBLs,44(91 .67%)carried bla CTX-M gene,20(41 .67%)of which were bla CTX-M-1 gene and 32(66.67%)were bla CTX-M-9 gene,8 (16.67%)carried both genes.The following subtypes were identified through gene sequencing:CTX-M-14(65.91 %,29/44),CTX-M-55(31 .82%,14/44),CTX-M-15(11 .36%,5/44), CTX-M-3(2.27%,1/44),CTX-M-24(2.27%,1/44),and CTX-M-65(2.27%,1/44).The detection rates of CTX-M-14+CTX-M-55,CTX-M-14+CTX-M-15,and CTX-M-55+CTX-M-65 were 11 .36% (5/44),4.55%(2/44), and 2.27%(1/44)respectively.PCR showed that 2 (4.17%)ESBLs +KPC-producing strains carried bla KPC and bla CTX-M genes,sequencing analysis showed that 1 was CTX-M-14 +KPC-2,and the other was CTX-M-3 +KPC-2.ST 131 (53.66%)was the main type of MLST,ST648,ST405,ST167,and ST1193 were also detected. Conclusion CTX-M-14,CTX-M-55 and CTX-M-15 are the most common genotypes of ESBLs-producing E.coli isolates,different subtypes exists,ST131 is the predominant MLST,KPC-2-producing isolate of E.coli has been detected.%目的:了解住院患者产 CTX-M 型超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)和碳青霉烯酶(KPC)大肠埃希菌感染的临床分布与耐药情况。方法收集某院2011—2012年临床送检标本分离的多重耐药大肠埃希菌,采用微量肉汤稀释法检测抗菌药物最低抑菌浓度(MIC);聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增 ESBLs

  11. Genetic background of novel sequence types of CTX-M-8- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from public wastewater treatment plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropa, Milena; Lincopan, Nilton; Balsalobre, Livia C; Oliveira, Danielle E; Moura, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Miriam Rodriguez; da Silva, Quézia Moura; Matté, Glavur R; Sato, Maria I Z; Matté, Maria H

    2016-03-01

    The release of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae to the environment is a public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of genes encoding ESBLs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 2009, during a local surveillance study, seven ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were recovered from five WWTPs and screened for ESBL genes and mobile genetic elements. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out, and wild plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent Escherichia coli. S1-PFGE technique was used to verify the presence of high molecular weight plasmids in wild-type strains and in bla ESBL-containing E. coli transformants. Strains harbored bla CTX-M-8, bla CTX-M-15, and/or bla SHV-28. Sequencing results showed that bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with IS26. MLST revealed new sequence types for E. coli (ST4401, ST4402, ST4403, and ST4445) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST1574), except for one K. pneumoniae from ST307 and Enterobacter cloacae from ST131. PCR and S1-PFGE results showed CTX-M-producing E. coli transformants carried heavy plasmids sizing 48.5-209 kb, which belonged to IncI1, IncF, and IncM1 incompatibility groups. This is the first report of CTX-M-8 and SHV-28 enzymes in environmental samples, and the present results demonstrate the plasmid-mediated spread of CTX-M-encoding genes through five WWTPs in São Paulo, Brazil, suggesting WWTPs are hotspots for the transfer of ESBL genes and confirming the urgent need to improve the management of sewage in order to minimize the dissemination of resistance genes to the environment.

  12. (11aS-7-Bromo-2,3,5,10,11,11a-hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-3,11-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H11BrN2O2, was prepared by an intra-cyclization reaction of (S-1-(5-bromo-2-nitrobenzyl-5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester in the presence of EtOH/Fe. The five-membered pyrrolidinone ring adopts an approximate envelope conformation, while the seven-membered diazepanone ring displays a twisted boat conformation. Intermolecular classical N—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions help to stabilize the crystal structure.

  13. Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Japan: emergence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hitoshi; Yano, Hisakazu; Hirakata, Yoichi; Arai, Kazuaki; Endo, Shiro; Kanamori, Hajime; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Ichimura, Sadahiro; Ogawa, Miho; Shimojima, Masahiro; Komatsu, Mayumi; Jonai, Teruko; Itagaki, Sachiko; Nonomiya, Yuriko; Suwabe, Akira; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Japan. A total of 101 clinical isolates of ESBL-positive E. coli collected in Japan between June 2008 and November 2009 were studied. Among the 101 strains, 97 were positive for CTX-M, while 47 and two were positive for TEM and SHV, respectively. Sequencing revealed that CTX-M-14 was most common (49/101), followed by CTX-M-27 (22/101) and CTX-M-15 (8/101). Based on MLST data, seven of eight CTX-M-15 producers belonged to ST131. This is the first report about clinical isolates of E. coli ST131 possessing CTX-M-15 in Japan.

  14. High prevalence of blaCTX-M group genes in Aeromonas dhakensis isolated from aquaculture fish species in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Seung-Won; Chung, Tae-Ho; Joh, Seong-Joon; Park, Chul; Park, Byoung-Yong; Shin, Gee-Wook

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of resistant genes against β-lactams in 119 Aeromonas strains was determined. A large number (99.2%) of the present fish strains were resistant to one or more β- lactams including ceftiofur, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, piperacillin and cefpodoxime. Among antibiotic resistance phenotypes, the simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams occurred in 25.2% (n=30) of all strains, which consisted of 18 strains of A. dhakensis, 8 strains of A. caviae, 2 strains of A. hydrophila and only one strain of A. veronii. For exploring genetic background of the antibiotic resistances, multiple PCR assays were subjected to detect β-lactamase-encoding genes, bla(TEM), bla(OXA-B) and bla(CTX-M). In the results, the bla(TEM-1) gene was harbored in all strains, whereas only 3 strains harbored bla(OXA) gene. In the case of bla(CTX-M) gene, the gene was detected in 21.0% (25 out of 119) of all strains, which countered with 80% (20 out of 25) of A. dhakensis, 8% (2 out of 25) of A. caviae and 12% (3 out of 25) of A. hydrophila. In addition, most of the bla(CTX-M) positive strains showed simultaneous resistance to all β-lactams (18 out of 30 strains). In sequence analysis for bla(CTX-M) genes detected, they were CTX-M group 1-encoding genes including bla(CTX-M-33) from 3 eel strains of A. dhakensis. Therefore, A. dhakensis obtained from cultured fish could represent a reservoir for spreading genes encoding CTX-M group 1 enzymes and hence should be carefully monitored, especially for its potential risk to public health.

  15. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  16. 40 CFR 60.482-11a - Standards: Connectors in gas/vapor service and in light liquid service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazards such as electrical lines, or would risk damage to equipment. (2) If any inaccessible, ceramic, or... as practical. (g) Except for instrumentation systems and inaccessible, ceramic, or ceramic-lined... area or length of pipe subject to the provisions of this subpart are identified as a group, and...

  17. BnSIP1-1, a Trihelix Family Gene, Mediates Abiotic Stress Tolerance and ABA Signaling in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junling; Tang, Shaohua; Mei, Fengling; Peng, Xiaojue; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The trihelix family genes have important functions in light-relevant and other developmental processes, but their roles in response to adverse environment are largely unclear. In this study, we identified a new gene, BnSIP1-1, which fell in the SIP1 (6b INTERACTING PROTEIN1) clade of the trihelix family with two trihelix DNA binding domains and a fourth amphipathic α-helix. BnSIP1-1 protein specifically targeted to the nucleus, and its expression can be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and different stresses. Overexpression of BnSIP1-1 improved seed germination under osmotic pressure, salt, and ABA treatments. Moreover, BnSIP1-1 decreased the susceptibility of transgenic seedlings to osmotic pressure and ABA treatments, whereas there was no difference under salt stress between the transgenic and wild-type seedlings. ABA level in the transgenic seedlings leaves was higher than those in the control plants under normal condition. Under exogenous ABA treatment and mannitol stress, the accumulation of ABA in the transgenic plants was higher than that in the control plants; while under salt stress, the difference of ABA content before treatment was gradually smaller with the prolongation of salt treatment time, then after 24 h of treatment the ABA level was similar in transgenic and wild-type plants. The transcription levels of several general stress marker genes (BnRD29A, BnERD15, and BnLEA1) were higher in the transgenic plants than the wild-type plants, whereas salt-responsive genes (BnSOS1, BnNHX1, and BnHKT) were not significantly different or even reduced compared with the wild-type plants, which indicated that BnSIP1-1 specifically exerted different regulatory mechanisms on the osmotic- and salt-response pathways in seedling period. Overall, these findings suggested that BnSIP1-1 played roles in ABA synthesis and signaling, salt and osmotic stress response. To date, information about the involvement of the Brassica napus trihelix gene in abiotic response is scarce. Here, we firstly reported abiotic stress response and possible function mechanisms of a new trihelix gene in B. napus. PMID:28184229

  18. MODIS/TERRA MOD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  19. Chronic Social Stress and Ethanol Increase Expression of KLF11, a Cell Death Mediator, in Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jeremy; Wang, Niping; Zhang, Xiao; Johnson, Shakevia; Harris, Sharonda; Zheng, Baoying; Zhang, Qinli; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Sittman, Donald; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Stockmeier, Craig A; Wang, Jun Ming

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder and alcoholism are significant health burdens that can affect executive functioning, cognitive ability, job responsibilities, and personal relationships. Studies in animal models related to depression or alcoholism reveal that the expression of Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2) is elevated in frontal cortex, which suggests that KLF11 may play a role in stress- or ethanol-induced psychiatric conditions. KLF11 is a transcriptional activator of monoamine oxidase A and B, but also serves other functions in cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to quantify intensity of nuclear KLF11, combined with an unbiased stereological approach to assess nuclei in fronto-limbic, limbic, and other brain regions of rats exposed chronically to social defeat or ethanol. KLF11 immunoreactivity was increased significantly in the medial prefrontal cortex, frontal cortex, and hippocampus of both stressed rats and rats fed ethanol. However, expression of KLF11 protein was not significantly affected in the thalamus, hypothalamus, or amygdala in either treatment group compared to respective control rats. Triple-label immunofluorescence revealed that KLF11 protein was localized in nuclei of neurons and astrocytes. KLF11 was also co-localized with the immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase-3. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed a significant reduction in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, but an increase of caspase-3 expression in the frontal cortex of ethanol-treated rats compared to ethanol-preferring controls. Thus, KLF11 protein is up-regulated following chronic exposure to stress or ethanol in a region-specific manner and may contribute to pro-apoptotic signaling in ethanol-treated rats. Further investigation into the KLF11 signaling cascade as a mechanism for neurotoxicity and cell death in depression and alcoholism may provide novel pharmacological targets to lessen brain damage and maximize neuroprotection in these disorders.

  20. McStas 1.1: A freeware package for neutron Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, K.; Nielsen, K.

    1999-01-01

    The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes...

  1. grc4f v1.1 a four-fermion event generator for e+e- collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, J; Kaneko, T; Kato, K; Kawabata, S; Kurihara, Y; Munehisa, T; Perret-Gallix, D; Shimizu, Y; Tanaka, H

    1996-01-01

    grc4f is a Monte-Carlo package for generating e+e- to 4-fermion processes in the standard model. All of the 76 LEP-2 allowed fermionic final state processes evaluated at tree level are included in version 1.1. grc4f addresses event simulation requirements at e+e- colliders such as LEP and up-coming linear colliders. Most of the attractive aspects of grc4f come from its link to the GRACE system: a Feynman diagram automatic computation system. The GRACE system has been used to produce the computational code for all final states, giving a higher level of confidence in the calculation correctness. Based on the helicity amplitude calculation technique, all fermion masses can be kept finite and helicity information can be propagated down to the final state particles. The phase space integration of the matrix element gives the total and differential cross sections, then unweighted events are Generated. Initial state radiation (ISR) corrections are implemented in two ways, one is based on the electron structure funct...

  2. A model of Salmonella colitis with features of diarrhea in SLC11A1 wild-type mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungjeong Woo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mice do not get diarrhea when orally infected with S. enterica, but pre-treatment with oral aminoglycosides makes them susceptible to Salmonella colitis. However, genetically susceptible ItyS mice (Nramp1(G169D allele die from systemic infection before they develop diarrhea, so a new model is needed to study the pathogenesis of diarrhea. We pretreated ItyR mice (Nramp1(G169 with oral kanamycin prior to infecting them with virulent S. Typhimurium strain 14028s in order to study Salmonella-induced diarrhea. We used both a visual scoring system and the measurement of fecal water content to measure diarrhea. BALB/c.D2(Nramp1 congenic started losing weight 5 days post-infection and they began to die from colitis 10-14 days after infection. A SPI-1 (invA mutant caused cecal, but not colonic inflammation and did not cause diarrhea. A phoP- mutant did not cause manifestations of diarrhea in either normal or NADPH-deficient (gp91(phox mice. However, strain 14028s caused severe colitis and diarrhea in gp91(phox-deficient mice on an ItyR background. pmr A and F mutants, which are less virulent in orally infected BALB/c mice, were fully virulent in this model of colitis. CONCLUSIONS: S. enterica must be able to invade the colonic epithelium and to persist in the colon in order to cause colitis with manifestations of diarrhea. The NADPH oxidase is not required for diarrhea in Salmonella colitis. Furthermore, a Salmonella phoP mutant can be cleared from the colon by non-oxidative host defenses.

  3. OsPEX11, a peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11, contributes to salt stress tolerance in Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000, was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with wild type and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1 involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than wild type and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop.

  4. Tripal v1.1: a standards-based toolkit for construction of online genetic and genomic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Ficklin, Stephen P; Cheng, Chun-Huai; Jung, Sook; Feltus, Frank A; Bett, Kirstin E; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Tripal is an open-source freely available toolkit for construction of online genomic and genetic databases. It aims to facilitate development of community-driven biological websites by integrating the GMOD Chado database schema with Drupal, a popular website creation and content management software. Tripal provides a suite of tools for interaction with a Chado database and display of content therein. The tools are designed to be generic to support the various ways in which data may be stored in Chado. Previous releases of Tripal have supported organisms, genomic libraries, biological stocks, stock collections and genomic features, their alignments and annotations. Also, Tripal and its extension modules provided loaders for commonly used file formats such as FASTA, GFF, OBO, GAF, BLAST XML, KEGG heir files and InterProScan XML. Default generic templates were provided for common views of biological data, which could be customized using an open Application Programming Interface to change the way data are displayed. Here, we report additional tools and functionality that are part of release v1.1 of Tripal. These include (i) a new bulk loader that allows a site curator to import data stored in a custom tab delimited format; (ii) full support of every Chado table for Drupal Views (a powerful tool allowing site developers to construct novel displays and search pages); (iii) new modules including 'Feature Map', 'Genetic', 'Publication', 'Project', 'Contact' and the 'Natural Diversity' modules. Tutorials, mailing lists, download and set-up instructions, extension modules and other documentation can be found at the Tripal website located at http://tripal.info. DATABASE URL: http://tripal.info/.

  5. Design of Low Phase Noise SIPC based Complementary LC-QVCO for IEEE 802.11a Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnan Ramiah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a source injection parallel coupled (SIPC quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO, realized in a complementary architecture, which is usually preferred in low-power applications as it exploits 50% bias current reduction with double efficiency compared to the structure with single coupled, when operating in the current-limited regime. A stacked spiral inductor exhibiting a Q factor of 5.8, with pMOS based depletion mode varactor of 32% in tuning range, corresponding to 3.2-3.6GHz of tuning frequency, is implemented in 0.18m CMOS technology. The phase noise of the SIPC QVCO architecture simulated at 1MHz of offset frequency is indicated to be -114.3dBc/Hz, while dissipating 11.0mW of core circuit power.

  6. CsUV{sub 3}O{sub 11}, a new uranyl vanadate with a layered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duribreux, I.; Dion, C.; Abraham, F. [Univ. des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d`Ascq (France). Lab. de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide; Saadi, M. [Univ. Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida (Morocco). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination et Analytique

    1999-08-01

    A new cesium uranyl vanadate CsUV{sub 3}O{sub 11} has been synthesized by solid state reaction. Its crystal structure has been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2{sub 1}/a and unit cell parameters a = 11.904(2) {angstrom}, b = 6.8321(6) {angstrom}, c = 12.095(2) {angstrom}, {beta} = 106.989(5){degree}, Z = 4, and D{sub exp} = 4.89(2) g/cm{sup 3}. A full-matrix least squares refinement yielded R = 0.046 and R{sub w} = 0.045 for 1831 independent reflections with I > 3{sigma}(I) collected on a Nonius CAD4 diffractometer (MoK{alpha} radiation). The structure of CsUV{sub 3}O{sub 11} is characterized by [UV{sub 3}O{sub 11}]{sub {infinity}} layers parallel to the (001) plane. The layers, very similar to those found in UV{sub 3}O{sub 10}, are built up from VO{sub 5} square pyramids sharing corners of their equatorial bases and UO{sub 8} hexagonal bipyramids, the U atoms occupying the hexagonal holes created by the VO{sub 5} array. The Cs{sup +} ions are located between two successive layers and hold them together; the Cs{sup +} ions and two layers constitute a neutral sandwich {l_brace}(UV{sub 3}O{sub 11}{sup {minus}})-(Cs){sub 2}{sup 2+}-(UV{sub 3}O{sub 11}{sup {minus}}){r_brace}. In this unusual structure, the neutral sandwiches are stacked one above another along the [104] direction with no formal chemical bonds between the neutral sandwiches. The Cs mobilities in CsUV{sub 3}O{sub 11} and Cs carnotite are compared.

  7. Design and Noise Optimization of RF Low Noise Amplifier for IEEE Standard 802.11A WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Low noise amplifier is the front end block of radio-frequency receiver system. Its design required various characteristics such as power gain, noise figure, insertion losses and power consumption. In this paper we have proposed a single stage low noise amplifier design with high gain and low noise using inductive source degeneration topology for frequency range of 3 GHz to 7 GHz and also use the active biasing devices. A range of devices like inductors and capacitors are used to achieve 50 Ω input impedance with a low noise factor. The design process is simulated process is using Advance Design System (ADS and implemented in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology. A single stage low noise amplifier has a measured forward gain 25.4 dB and noise figure 2.2 dB at frequency 5.0 GHz.

  8. Risk factors associated with deforming oral habits in children aged 5 to 11: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Reyes Romagosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental and maxillofacial anomalies have multiple and complex causes. Most frequent among these are poor oral habits. A large number of children present with oral malocclusions, most of which are caused by deforming oral habits. It is important to learn about risk factors for this condition in order to institute preventive measures, early detection and treatment, and identification of low- and high-risk groups. Objectives To identify risk factors associated with deforming oral habits, which, if maintained over time, are responsible for occlusion defects, speech disorders, and can affect physical and emotional child development. Methods A case-control study of children presenting with deforming oral habits in the municipality of Manzanillo in Granma province was conducted between January and August 2013. 540 children aged 5 to 11 were included of which 180 had deforming oral habits and were asked to fill out a survey to identify specific type of habits leading to malocclusion. The case group was composed of children with deforming habits, and the remaining 360 children without poor oral habits were the control group. Each case was randomly matched to two control cases. The children’s mothers were also surveyed to gather supplemental information. Results Children with deforming oral habits were mostly female. At age 10, onychophagia was the predominant oral deforming habit. Risk factors detected for these habits were sociobiological maternal and child variables such as low and high birth weight, maternal breastfeeding inexperience, and discord in the family. Conclusions The study identified likely risk factors associated with deforming oral habits. These are discord in the family, birth weight, and lack of breastfeeding experience.

  9. Human rab11a: transcription, chromosome mapping and effect on the expression levels of host GTP-binding proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, P S; Celis, J E; Hansen, Claus;

    1998-01-01

    ) that are believed to control gene expression by regulating the rate of mRNA degradation. Southern blots of human DNA digested with several rare restriction enzymes, and separated by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, yielded the same macro-restriction fragment pattern when hybridised with probes that discriminate...

  10. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based to...

  11. Solution structure of BmKalphaTx11, a toxin from the venom of the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Tong, Xiaotian; Cao, Chunyang; Wu, Gong; Zhang, Naixia; Wu, Houming

    2010-01-01

    The solution structure of BmKalphaTx11 presented by this paper is distinctive from any other structures of wide-type scorpion alpha-toxins reported so far, for its trans-9,10 peptide bond conformation is accompanied by 'protruding' topology of the 'NC-domain'. The orientation of the C-tail of BmKalphaTx11 is obviously different from that of classical alpha-toxins (e.g., AaH2, BmK-M8), despite the fact that they share common trans conformation of peptide bond between residues 9 and 10. Accordingly, there must be other structural factors dominating the orientation of the C-tail except the conformation of peptide bond 9-10. Our study reveals that residues at position 58 play an important role in it, and different type of residues at this position (e.g., Lys, Arg, Met, Ile) result in different spatial relationship between the C-terminus and the 'five-residue-turn' and then different topology of the 'NC-domain', therefore residues at position 58 are believed to function as structure and bioactivity switch for specificity of scorpion alpha-toxins. The mechanism for stabilizing the geometry of the 'NC-domain' in wide-type scorpion alpha-toxins is also discussed.

  12. What Young Children Need To Succeed: Working Together To Build Assets from Birth to Age 11. A Leader's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehlkepartain, Jolene L.; Leffert, Nancy

    Providing children developmental assets such as family support, a caring neighborhood, positive values, and social skills will help them grow up healthy, well-adjusted, and strong. This leader's guide provides instructions for five workshops that introduce the concept of children's assets and address how to build assets in infants, toddlers,…

  13. Multi-Fragment Production in the 32S+58,64Ni Reactions at 11 A MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramegna, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Bonasera, A.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chiari, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Lanchais, A.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moroni, A.; Nannini, A.; Ordine, A.; Ricci, R. A.; Tonetto, F.; Travaglini, L.; Vannini, G.; Vannucci, L.

    The characteristic features of the 32S+58,64Ni reaction at 11AMeV have been investigated to evidence the possible rise of multi-fragmentation processes at low excitation energies. The importance of such phenomena consists in the fact that they could represent the signature of a nuclear phase transition from a liquid to a gas region. Evidence of multi-fragment production is displayed by the present data; even if the yield of such events is compatible with the predictions of statistical models, the partition of the mass of the decaying system cannot be easily reproduced. Some preliminary indications of isospin effects are suggested by looking at the differences between the two reacting systems.

  14. SU-E-T-11: A Dosimetric Comparison of Robotic Prostatic Radiosugery Using Multi- Leaf Collimation Vs Circular Collimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, J; Yang, J; Lamond, J; Lavere, N; Laciano, R; Ding, W; Arrigo, S; Brady, L [Philadelphia Cyberknife, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The study compared the dosimetry plans of Stereotatic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) prostate cancer patients using the M6 Cyberknife with Multi-leaf Collimation (MLC) compared with the plans using G4 Cyberknife with circular collimators. Methods: Eight previously treated prostate cancer patients' SBRT plans using circular collimators, designed with Multiplan v3.5.3, were used as a benchmark. The CT, contours and the optimization scripts were imported into Multiplan v5.0 system and replanned with MLC. The same planning objectives were used: more than 95% of PTV received 36.25Gy, 90% of prostate received 40Gy and maximum dose <45Gy, in five fractions. For organs at risk, less than 1cc of rectum received 36Gy and less than 10cc of bladder received 37Gy. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume. The beam number, MU and delivery time were recorded to compare the treatment efficiency. Results: The mean CTV volume was 41.3cc (27.5∼57.6cc) and mean PTV volume was 76.77cc (59.1∼99.7cc). The mean PTV coverage was comparable between MLC (98.87%) and cone (98.74%). MLC plans had a slightly more favorable homogeneity index (1.22) and conformity index (1.17), than the cone (1.24 and 1.15). The mean rectum volume of 36 Gy (0.52cc) of MLC plans was slightly larger than cone (0.38cc) and the mean bladder volume of 37 Gy was smaller in MLC (1.82cc) than in cone plans (3.09cc). The mean number of nodes and beams were 65.9 and 80.5 in MLC vs 65.9 and 203.6 in cone. The mean MUs were significantly less for MLC plans (24,228MUs) than cone (32,347MUs). The total delivery time (which included 5 minutes for setup) was less, 29.6min (26∼32min) for MLC vs 45min (35∼55min) for cone. Conclusion: While the differences in the dosimetry between the MLC and circular collimator plans were rather minor, the MLC plans were much more efficient and required significantly less treatment time.

  15. 17 CFR 270.11a-1 - Definition of “exchange” for purposes of section 11 of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... issued, and notice of intention to close the account was mailed to the security holder, and he had a... group eligible to purchase the security, the issuer required the surrender of the security and paid...

  16. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson’s review because it is still relatively current for addressing some of the

  17. Theory manual for FAROW version 1.1: A numerical analysis of the Fatigue And Reliability Of Wind turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WUBTERSTEUBMSTEVEB R.; VEERS,PAUL S.

    2000-01-01

    Because the fatigue lifetime of wind turbine components depends on several factors that are highly variable, a numerical analysis tool called FAROW has been created to cast the problem of component fatigue life in a probabilistic framework. The probabilistic analysis is accomplished using methods of structural reliability (FORM/SORM). While the workings of the FAROW software package are defined in the user's manual, this theory manual outlines the mathematical basis. A deterministic solution for the time to failure is made possible by assuming analytical forms for the basic inputs of wind speed, stress response, and material resistance. Each parameter of the assumed forms for the inputs can be defined to be a random variable. The analytical framework is described and the solution for time to failure is derived.

  18. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-02-23

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence.

  19. Immunomodulatory effects of selected Malaysian plants on the CD18/11a expression and phagocytosis activities of leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hikmah Harun

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that methanolic extracts of Citrus aurantifolia, Alpinia galangal, O. aristatus and Annona muricata are able to modulate innate immune system and can potentially be recognized as therapeutic agents for modulating immune system.

  20. Acid phosphatase-1.1, a molecular marker tightly linked to root-knot nematode resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.

    1993-01-01

    Root knot nematode resistance in tomato is a genetic trait which is determined by a single dominant gene ( Mi ) on chromosome 6 of tomato. Information about the mRNA or protein product is completely lacking, which precludes the cloning of Mi by

  1. Positive selection in the SLC11A1 gene in the family Equidae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayerova, Zuzana; Janova, Eva; Matiasovic, Jan

    2016-01-01

    diversifying selection. A 3-bp indel resulting in a deletion of the amino acid 321 in the predicted protein was observed in all horses, while it has been maintained in all other equid species. This codon comprised in an N-glycosylation site was found to be under positive selection. Interspecific variation...

  2. Microcytic anemia and hepatic iron overload in a child with compound heterozygous mutations in DMT1 (SCL11A2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iolascon, Achille; d'Apolito, Maria; Servedio, Veronica; Cimmino, Flora; Piga, Antonio; Camaschella, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) mediates apical iron uptake in duodenal enterocytes and iron transfer from the transferrin receptor endosomal cycle into the cytosol in erythroid cells. Both mk mice and Belgrade rats, which carry an identical DMT1 mutation, exhibit severe microcytic anemia at birth and defective intestinal iron use and erythroid iron use. We report the hematologic phenotype of a child, compound heterozygote for 2 DMT1 mutations, who was affected by severe anemia since birth and showed hepatic iron overload. The novel mutations were a 3-bp deletion in intron 4 (c.310-3_5del CTT) resulting in a splicing abnormality and a C>T transition at nucleotide 1246(p. R416C). A striking reduction of DMT1 protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was demonstrated by Western blot analysis. The proband required blood transfusions until erythropoietin treatment allowed transfusion independence when hemoglobin levels between 75 and 95 g/L (7.5 and 9.5 g/dL) were achieved. Hematologic data of this patient at birth and in the first years of life strengthen the essential role of DMT1 in erythropoiesis. The early onset of iron overload indicates that, as in animal models, DMT1 is dispensable for liver iron uptake, whereas its deficiency in the gut is likely bypassed by the up-regulation of other pathways of iron use.

  3. OsPEX11, a Peroxisomal Biogenesis Factor 11, Contributes to Salt Stress Tolerance in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Islam, Faisal; Li, Lan; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Ruan, Songlin; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisomes are single membrane-bound organelles, whose basic enzymatic constituents are catalase and H2O2-producing flavin oxidases. Previous reports showed that peroxisome is involved in numerous processes including primary and secondary metabolism, plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, knowledge on the function of different peroxisome genes from rice and its regulatory roles in salt and other abiotic stresses is limited. Here, a novel prey protein, OsPEX11 (Os03g0302000), was screened and identified by yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Phenotypic analysis of OsPEX11 overexpression seedlings demonstrated that they had better tolerance to salt stress than wild type (WT) and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings. Compared with WT and OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings, overexpression of OsPEX11 had lower level of lipid peroxidation, Na+/K+ ratio, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) and proline accumulation. Furthermore, qPCR data suggested that OsPEX11 acted as a positive regulator of salt tolerance by reinforcing the expression of several well-known rice transporters (OsHKT2;1, OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a, OsLti6b, OsSOS1, OsNHX1, and OsAKT1) involved in Na+/K+ homeostasis in transgenic plants under salinity. Ultrastructural observations of OsPEX11-RNAi seedlings showed that they were less sensitive to salt stress than WT and overexpression lines. These results provide experimental evidence that OsPEX11 is an important gene implicated in Na+ and K+ regulation, and plays a critical role in salt stress tolerance by modulating the expression of cation transporters and antioxidant defense. Thus, OsPEX11 could be considered in transgenic breeding for improvement of salt stress tolerance in rice crop. PMID:27695459

  4. AWESOME 1.1: A code for the calculation of phase and group velocities of acoustic waves in homogeneous solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santiburcio, Daniel; Hernández-Laguna, Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    We present an improved version of the code AWESOME, capable of computing phase and group velocities, power flow angles and enhancement factors of acoustic waves in homogeneous solids. In this version, some algorithms are improved and the code provides a better estimation of the enhancement factor compared to the previous version. In addition, we include a quadruple-precision version of the code, which even though using the same numerical approach as the double-precision version, is able to calculate the exact values of the enhancement factor. The standard, double-precision version of the code has been interfaced and merged with the development version of CRYSTAL and will be available as part of its next stable release. Finally, we have improved the scripts for visualizing the results, which now are compatible with GNUPLOT 5.X.X, including new scripts for the visualization of the normal and ray surfaces.

  5. CONC/11: A computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The CONC/11 computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems is discussed. This program is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. The CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended FORTRAN (similar to FORTRAN 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers. A user's manual is also provided for this program.

  6. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  7. Humanization of JAA-F11, a Highly Specific Anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich Pancarcinoma Antibody and In Vitro Efficacy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Tati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available JAA-F11 is a highly specific mouse monoclonal to the Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen (TF-Ag which is an alpha-O-linked disaccharide antigen on the surface of ~80% of human carcinomas, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, ovarian, and prostate cancers, and is cryptic on normal cells. JAA-F11 has potential, when humanized, for cancer immunotherapy for multiple cancer types. Humanization of JAA-F11, was performed utilizing complementarity determining regions grafting on a homology framework. The objective herein is to test the specificity, affinity and biology efficacy of the humanized JAA-F11 (hJAA-F11. Using a 609 target glycan array, 2 hJAA-F11 constructs were shown to have excellent chemical specificity, binding only to TF-Ag alpha-linked structures and not to TF-Ag beta-linked structures. The relative affinity of these hJAA-F11 constructs for TF-Ag was improved over the mouse antibody, while T20 scoring predicted low clinical immunogenicity. The hJAA-F11 constructs produced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in breast and lung tumor lines shown to express TF-Ag by flow cytometry. Internalization of hJAA-F11 into cancer cells was also shown using a surface binding ELISA and confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Both the naked hJAA-F11 and a maytansine-conjugated antibody (hJAA-F11-DM1 suppressed in vivo tumor progression in a human breast cancer xenograft model in SCID mice. Together, our results support the conclusion that the humanized antibody to the TF-Ag has potential as an adjunct therapy, either directly or as part of an antibody drug conjugate, to treat breast cancer, including triple negative breast cancer which currently has no targeted therapy, as well as lung cancer.

  8. An updated ciguatoxin extraction method and silica cleanup for use with HPLC-MS/MS for the analysis of P-CTX-1, PCTX-2 and P-CTX-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lauren; Carter, Steve; Capper, Angela

    2015-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a debilitating human neuro-intoxication caused by consumption of tropical marine organisms, contaminated with bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs). The growing number of cases coupled with the high toxicity of CTXs makes their reliable detection and quantification of paramount importance. Three commonly occurring ciguatoxins, P-CTX-1, 2 and 3 from five different ciguatoxic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), were used to assess the effectiveness of different extraction techniques: homogenization (high powered blending vs. ultrasonication); C-18 column sizes (500 mg vs. 900 mg); and a novel HILIC SPE cleanup. Despite minor differences, blending and sonication proved equally effective. Larger 900 mg columns offered a greater extraction efficiency, increasing detected P-CTX-1 by 37% (P Silica cleanup extraction efficiencies were also compared between the highly effective and validated ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM) and current best practice extraction method employed by Queensland Health (QH). Overall, the QH protocol proved more effective, especially when paired with the newly adapted cleanup, as this increased the amount of extracted P-CTX-1 by 46% (P extracting P-CTX-1, -2, -3. Specifically P-CTX-1, the primary ciguatoxin congener of concern due to its extremely high potency and an ability to cause CFP at 0.1 μg/kg following consumption of carnivorous fish flesh. Despite being more time intensive (an additional 85 min per batch of 12 samples), this will be especially effective for assessing lower toxin burdens, which may be near the limit of detection.

  9. High rates of susceptibility to ceftazidime among globally prevalent CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli: potential clinical implications of the revised CLSI interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D A; Roberts, S A; Smith, M; Heffernan, H; Tiong, A; Pope, C; Freeman, J T

    2012-05-01

    The CTX-M family of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a significant global public health threat. The prevalence of specific bla (CTX-M) genes varies geographically, but bla (CTX-M-15) and bla (CTX-M-14) dominate in most countries. We applied the latest Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive criteria (M100-S20) to a diverse collection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains obtained from clinical specimens in our laboratory. Whereas under previous CLSI recommendations all isolates in this strain collection would have been reported as ceftazidime-resistant, under the new recommendations, approximately 11% of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli and 93% of CTX-M-14-producing E. coli respectively tested as ceftazidime-susceptible. We also found that, whilst many CTX-M-14-producers had minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) less than the breakpoint of 4 mg/L, the MIC distribution for these strains was higher than that of wild-type E. coli, with one CTX-M-14-producing isolate having an MIC of >64 mg/L. Although the new CLSI recommendations imply that ceftazidime can be safely used to treat serious infections due to CTX-M-producing E. coli, clinical outcome data are lacking. Consequently, the widespread use of ceftazidime in this setting could have profound clinical implications.

  10. Direct RNA-based detection and differentiation of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    Full Text Available The current global spread of multi-resistant Gram-negatives, particularly extended spectrum β-lactamases expressing bacteria, increases the likelihood of inappropriate empiric treatment of critically ill patients with subsequently increased mortality. From a clinical perspective, fast detection of resistant pathogens would allow a pre-emptive correction of an initially inappropriate treatment. Here we present diagnostic amplification-sequencing approach as proof of principal based on the fast molecular detection and correct discrimination of CTX-M-β-lactamases, the most frequent ESBL family. The workflow consists of the isolation of total mRNA and CTX-M-specific reverse transcription (RT, amplification and pyrosequencing. Due to the high variability of the CTX-M-β-lactamase-genes, degenerated primers for RT, qRT as well as for pyrosequencing, were used and the suitability and discriminatory performance of two conserved positions within the CTX-M genes were analyzed, using one protocol for all isolates and positions, respectively. Using this approach, no information regarding the expected CTX-M variant is needed since all sequences are covered by these degenerated primers. The presented workflow can be conducted within eight hours and has the potential to be expanded to other β-lactamase families.

  11. Developmental toxicity and molecular responses of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) embryos to ciguatoxin P-CTX-1 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meng; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Ip, Jack C H; Cheng, Jin-Ping; Wu, Jia-Jun; Gu, Jia-Rui; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-02-10

    Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1.32ngg(-1)) than that for embryos (1.71ngg(-1)), indicating that P-CTX-1 is more lethal to newly hatched medaka larvae. P-CTX-1 induced detrimental effects during embryonic development, including hatching failure, abnormalities in physical development (caudal fin malformation and spinal deformities), internal damage (green coloration of the gall bladder and hemorrhaging), immune dysfunction, and altered muscle physiology (bradycardia and hyperkinetic twitching). The results of a transcriptional expression analysis of genes related to the stress/immune responses, cardiac and bone development, and apoptosis supported the observed developmental abnormalities. This study advanced the understanding of P-CTX-1 mediated toxic mechanisms in the development of early life stages of a fish, and thus contributed to the toxicity assessment of CTXs in marine ecosystems.

  12. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  13. High Prevalence of Non-ST131 CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli in Healthy Cattle in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Mohamad; Hamze, Monzer; Madec, Jean-Yves; Haenni, Marisa

    2017-03-01

    Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli have disseminated in both humans and animals worldwide. However, the ESBL epidemiology in these two reservoirs differs markedly, with CTX-M-15 frequently found in humans and CTX-M-1 preferentially found in animals. Our goal was to estimate the prevalence of fecal carriage of ESBL producers in cattle from 31 farms in Lebanon and to characterize the responsible enzymes. This prevalence was high (26/31, 84% of ESBL-positive farms), with a majority of isolates producing CTX-M-15 (27/40, 67.5%). Strikingly, this distribution is reminiscent of the human ESBL epidemiology, even though none of the bovine isolates belonged to the ST131 human clone. This is the first report of ESBL-producing E. coli in animals in Lebanon. Our data rather suggest the spread of CTX-M-15 plasmids in different E. coli backgrounds. Nonetheless, some CTX-M-15-producing E. coli clones found here have already been reported from animal, human, or environmental sources.

  14. 防龋用转基因番茄生态安全性的评价研究%Evaluation of the ecological safety of pacA-ctxB and pacP-ctxB gene transgenic tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白国辉; 刘建国; 田源; 陈筑; 白朋元; 韩琦; 管晓燕; 张剑

    2011-01-01

    AIM : To observe whether the exogenoua gene pacA-ctxB or pacP-ctxβ of the transgenic tomato can cause gene flow by pollen and root exudates and to explore the ecological safety of the transgenic tomato.METHODS: The tranagenic tomato plants were planted in the field.Non-transgenic tomalo plants were grown at 0.5m, 1m,3m and lOm away from the transgenic tomato as drift acceptor.All tomatoes were pollinaied randomly in the efflorescence.Tomato fruits were collected from lO plants stochastically and cultivated in the lab.Finally the blades of seeding stage were detected by PCR.Soil samples from four directions ( eaat, south, west and north) of tmnsgenic tomato roots were collected and edaphic DNA was detected by PCR.RESULTS: Exogenous genes were found by PCR in the second generation of 2 non-transgenic tomatoes which was 0.5m away from the transgenic plants.pacA-ctsβ and pacPctxβ genes were not detected in all the soil samples.CONCLUSION: Exogenous genes pacA-ctxβ and pacP-ctxβ in the field can drift by gene flow through pollen, but the exogenous gene does not drift through the root exudates of the transgenic plants to the thizosphere soil.%目的:观察本课题组培育的防龋用转基因番茄中外源目的基因parA-ctxB、pacP-ctxB是否通过花粉和根系分泌物造成基因漂移,初步探讨该转基因番茄防龋疫苗的生态安全性.方法:田间种植转基因番茄,距转基因植株的边缘0.5、1、3、10m处种植非转基因对照番茄作为基因漂移的受体,开花期自由授粉,结果期在距离转基因番茄植株边缘0.5、1、3、10m处,各随机收取10株基因漂移受体株番茄果实,采集种子实验室培养,幼苗期采集叶片提取总DNA,用PCR法进行花粉漂移的检测.在转基因番茄植株根部的东、南、西、北方向各取一份土壤样本,提取土壤总DNA,用PCR法进行外源基因根系漂移的检测.结果:距离转基因番茄0.5 m处的2株非转基因番茄第二代植株经PCR检测

  15. Distribution of CTX-M group I and group III β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Samyyia; Vajeeha, Ayesha; Ul-Ain, Noor; Riaz, Saba

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015. ESBL production was screened by double disc synergism, combination disc (cefotaxime and ceftazidime with clavulanic acid) and E-test. These strains were further characterized by PCR (CTX-M I, CTX-M III) and sequencing. After ribotyping of strains accession numbers were obtained. These isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, and cefuroxime but susceptible to carbapenems, sulfzone, amikacin and tazocin. Multiple antibiotic resistances index (MAR) revealed that 51% of E. coli strains fell in the range of 0.61-0.7 and 39% of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains fell in the range of 0.71-0.8. 64% Double disc synergism (DDS), 76.4% combination disc (CD), 74% E-test showed ESBL positivity in strains. In E. coli ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 212 (72.1%) and 25 (8.5%) respectively. In Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were detected in 89 (82.4%) and 10 (9.2%). Combination of both genes blaCTX-M-I and blaCTX-M-III were found in 16 (5.4%) of E. coli strains and 5 (4.6%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Sequencing revealed that CTXM-15 was predominately present in the CTX-M-I group. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was high and the majority of them positive for blaCTX-M-I as compared to blaCTX-M-III. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the epidemiology of other CTX-M beta

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX patient's fibroblasts carrying a R395S mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Höflinger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs were generated from dermal fibroblasts from a 60-year-old cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX patient, carrying a homozygous mutation c. [1183C>A]; p. R395S in CYP27A1. Episomal plasmids encoding the pluripotency genes OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC and LIN28 were introduced via electroporation. The generated line iPS-CTX-R395S has no sign of plasmid integration or chromosomal aberration and retained the mutation site in CYP27A1. Furthermore, iPSCs express pluripotency markers and are able to differentiate in all germ layers in vitro. The generated line may be a useful tool for disease modelling of CTX.

  17. Evaluation of Bone Metabolism in Critically Ill Patients Using CTx and PINP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Alexandra; Makris, Konstantinos; Korompeli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Prolonged immobilization, nutritional and vitamin D deficiency, and specific drug administration may lead to significant bone resorption. Methods and Patients. We prospectively evaluated critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for at least 10 days. Demographics, APACHE II, SOFA scores, length of stay (LOS), and drug administration were recorded. Blood collections were performed at baseline and on a weekly basis for five consecutive weeks. Serum levels of PINP, β-CTx, iPTH, and 25(OH)vitamin D were measured at each time-point. Results. We enrolled 28 patients of mean age 67.4 ± 2.3 years, mean APACHE II 22.2 ± 0.9, SOFA 10.1 ± 0.6, and LOS 31.6 ± 5.7 days. Nineteen patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin, 17 nor-epinephrine and low dose hydrocortisone, 18 transfusions, and 3 phenytoin. 25(OH)vitamin D serum levels were very low in all patients at all time-points; iPTH serum levels were increased at baseline tending to normalize on 5th week; β-CTx serum levels were significantly increased compared to baseline on 2nd week (peak values), whereas PINP levels were increased significantly after the 4th week. Conclusions. Our data show that critically ill patients had a pattern of hypovitaminosis D, increased iPTH, hypocalcaemia, and BTMs compatible with altered bone metabolism. PMID:28025639

  18. Evaluation of Bone Metabolism in Critically Ill Patients Using CTx and PINP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gavala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prolonged immobilization, nutritional and vitamin D deficiency, and specific drug administration may lead to significant bone resorption. Methods and Patients. We prospectively evaluated critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for at least 10 days. Demographics, APACHE II, SOFA scores, length of stay (LOS, and drug administration were recorded. Blood collections were performed at baseline and on a weekly basis for five consecutive weeks. Serum levels of PINP, β-CTx, iPTH, and 25(OHvitamin D were measured at each time-point. Results. We enrolled 28 patients of mean age 67.4 ± 2.3 years, mean APACHE II 22.2 ± 0.9, SOFA 10.1 ± 0.6, and LOS 31.6 ± 5.7 days. Nineteen patients were receiving low molecular weight heparin, 17 nor-epinephrine and low dose hydrocortisone, 18 transfusions, and 3 phenytoin. 25(OHvitamin D serum levels were very low in all patients at all time-points; iPTH serum levels were increased at baseline tending to normalize on 5th week; β-CTx serum levels were significantly increased compared to baseline on 2nd week (peak values, whereas PINP levels were increased significantly after the 4th week. Conclusions. Our data show that critically ill patients had a pattern of hypovitaminosis D, increased iPTH, hypocalcaemia, and BTMs compatible with altered bone metabolism.

  19. Replicating function of the RS1 element associated with Vibrio cholerae CTX phi prophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J; Fando, R; Silva, A; Rodriguez, B L; Benitez, J A

    1998-07-01

    The RS1 element associated with Vibrio cholerae CTX phi prophage was cloned from an E1 Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae strain. We used the recA- vaccine strain Peru-15, that lacks the target for RS-mediated site-specific integration, to show that RS1 promotes autonomous replication of a suicide vector. A linker insertion in the rstR open reading frame abolished autonomous replication in Peru-15 but not in a strain containing an RS1 in the chromosome. An AT-rich region containing cis-acting elements involved in autonomous replication was identified by deletion. This region was sufficient to support autonomous replication in a strain containing an RS1 in the chromosome. DNA sequence analysis of a region present in RS1 and not RS2 revealed the presence of putative binding sites for host proteins involved in plasmid replication. These results indicate that RS1 contains a replicon distinct from RS2 which could be involved in replicative recombination events associated with tandem amplification of the CTX element.

  20. Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-15 among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Glier, Melinda; Hächler, Herbert; Stephan, Roger

    2015-07-15

    One of the currently most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae is based on the production of ESBL enzymes that inactivate β-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and monobactams by hydrolyzing their β-lactam ring. In humans, the most prevalent ESBL enzyme type is encoded by blaCTX-M-15. CTX-M-15 producing enterobacterial strains were also frequently isolated from environmental samples including surface water and freshwater fish. Plasmids, which can be grouped in different plasmid incompatibility types, play a key role in the horizontal spread of these multidrug resistance genes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity of plasmids that carry blaCTX-M-15 genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the environment, livestock and human interface. In total, 81 blaCTX-M-15-harboring isolates collected between 2009 and 2014 were tested for its ability to transfer blaCTX-M-15 by conjugation. These plasmids were further typed. Transfer of a single blaCTX-M-15-harboring plasmid was observed in 32 (39.5%) of the isolates. The most frequent replicon types detected among these plasmids are IncF-type plasmids (n=12) (mostly multi replicon plasmids with a combination of following replicons: IncFII, IncFIA and IncFIB), followed by IncI1 (n=8), IncK (n=3) and IncR (n=1). A noticeable number of plasmids (n=8) could not be assigned to any of the tested replicon types. Knowledge about the plasmid types circulating in bacterial populations is indispensable for understanding epidemiological dynamics and for establishing intervention strategies to stop further dissemination of particular plasmids.

  1. Detection of CTX-M-15 Among Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Five Major Hospitals in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Almagatef, Asma; Sufya, Najib; Bashein, Abdulla; Tubbal, Abdullatif

    2017-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) and emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been reported worldwide, but there was no information on the detection of blaCTX-M-15 in major teaching hospitals in Libya. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamases producers isolated from five teaching hospitals in Tripoli, Libya. A total of 346 urine samples were collected from hospitalized patients in five teaching hospitals with a diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phenotypic confirmation of ESBLs was confirmed by E-test strip; all ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were screened for the blaCTX-M-15 gene. The distribution of ESBL-producing E. coli varied among the five hospitals. The highest proportion was identified in Tripoli Medical Centre (67.6%). There were extremely high proportions of isolates resistant to ceftriaxone, cefepime, and ceftazidime (93.0-100.0%) among ESBL producers compared to non-ESBL producers (2.2-4.7%). MDR was detected in 22.2% of isolates. The majority of isolates (85.9%) in which blaCTX-M-15 was identified were ESBL producers. There was a correlation (p < 0.001) between expression of CTX-M-15 and resistance to ceftazidime. The isolation of MDR ESBL-producing uropathogens expressing the CTX-M-15 gene will limit the choices clinicians have to treat their patients with UTIs. Continued surveillance and implementation of efficient infection control measures are required.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Plasmids Encoding CTX-M β-Lactamases and their Associated Addiction Systems Circulating Among Escherichia coli from Retail Chickens, Chicken Farms, and Slaughterhouses in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su-Jin; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), particularly those of the CTX-M types, are the predominant resistance determinants of Escherichia coli that are rapidly spreading worldwide. To determine CTX-M types, E. coli isolates were collected from retail chickens (n = 390) and environmental samples from chicken farms (n = 32) and slaughterhouses (n = 67) in Korea. Fifteen strains harboring blaCTX-M genes were isolated from 358 E. coli isolates. The most common CTX-M type was eight of CTX-M-15, followed by six of CTX-M-1 and one of CTX-M- 14. The blaCTX-M genes were identified in the isolates from retail chickens (n = 9), followed by feces, water pipes, floors, and walls. Conjugations confirmed the transferability of the plasmids carrying blaCTX-M genes to the recipient E. coli J53 strain. Furthermore, eight addiction systems carried by the replicons in CTX-M types were confirmed. The dominant system was identified as ccdAB, vagCD, and pndAC in donor strains and transconjugants. The clonal relationship between the two strains carrying blaCTX-M genes indicates that E. coli may transmit from the farm to retail chickens, suggesting a possible public health risk. Our findings demonstrate that the detection of CTX-M types in E. coli isolates is important for tracking ESBL production in animals, and suggest linkage of multiple addiction systems in plasmids bearing blaCTX-M genes.

  3. The type II collagen fragments Helix-II and CTX-II reveal different enzymatic pathways of human cartilage collagen degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charni-Ben Tabassi, N; Desmarais, S; Jensen, Anne-Christine Bay

    2008-01-01

    sections were then incubated for up to 84h in the presence or absence of E-64 and GM6001, inhibitors of cysteine proteases and MMPs, respectively. RESULTS: In vitro, Cats K, L and S generated large amount of Helix-II, but not CTX-II. Cat B generated CTX-II fragment, but destroyed Helix-II immunoreactivity...

  4. Limited similarity between plasmids encoding CTX-M-1 β-lactamase in Escherichia coli from humans, pigs, cattle, organic poultry layers and horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Bortolaia, Valeria; Bielak, Eliza Maria;

    2015-01-01

    in Denmark between 2006 and 2010. In total, 65 CTX-M-1-producing isolates from patients (n=22), pigs (n=21), cattle (n=4), organic poultry layers (n=3) and horses (n=15) were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Plasmids harbouring blaCTX-M-1 were characterised by S1 PFGE, PCR-based replicon...

  5. CTX-M-55-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Shigella sonnei isolated from a Korean patient who had travelled to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Chung, Hae-Sun; Lee, Hyukmin; Yum, Jong Hwa; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of CTX-M-55-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Shigella sonnei infection in a 27-year-old Korean woman who had traveled to China. The patient was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and fever (39.3℃). S. sonnei was isolated from her stool specimens, and the pathogen was found to be resistant to cefotaxime due to CTX-M-55-type ESBL. Insertion sequence (IS)Ecp1 was found upstream of the blaCTX-M-55 gene. The blaCTX-M-55 gene was transferred from the S. sonnei isolate to an Escherichia coli J53 recipient by conjugation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting revealed that the blaCTX-M-55 gene was located on a plasmid of approximately 130 kb.

  6. blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV inEnterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital:high occurrence of combination genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Anuradha Singh; Farrukh Sobia; Mohammad Rashid; Abida Malik; Indu Shukla; Haris Manzoor Khan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To delineate the frequency of occurrence ofblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV in Enterobacteriaceae from North-Indian tertiary hospital.Methods: A random collection of a subset of45Escherichia coli (E. coli) and28Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) that was resistant to a third generation cephalosporin and obtained during2007-2008 was selected for detailed screening forblaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV by monoplexPCRs. The isolates demonstrating the presence of blaCTX-M alleles were characterized for the specificCTX-M-genogroup by using a multiplexPCR.Results:Resistance to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin and piperacillin was 100% each inK. pneumoniae isolates, whereas these resistance-rates forE. coli isolates were93.1%, 83.8%, 91.9%, 93.6%, 97.3% and97.1%, respectively. Concomitant resistance to aminoglycosides, quinolones and aztreonam was also noticed. Presence of any of the bla genes (blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV) was noticed in a total of28 (38.4%) isolates of the73isolates studied. Many isolates demonstrated occurrence of these genes in various combinations.blaCTX-M,blaTEM, andblaSHV were noticed in 28.8%,10.9% and13.7% isolates, respectively. MultiplexPCR inblaCTX-Mharboring isolates demonstrated the presence ofCTX-M-Genogroup-1 and sequencing for the specificCTX-M-type revealed presence ofCTX-M-15 type. RAPD typing showed wide diversity in isolates.Conclusions:This is amongst the premier report describing the simultaneous occurrence ofblaTEM,blaSHV, andblaampC in IndianEnterobacteriaceae and that wider dissemination of these genes, as demonstrated by diversity of isolates, raises concern and emphasizes a need for extensive search for the presence of these gene pools in Indian subcontinent.

  7. Prevalence and molecular characterization of CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from 2000 to 2010 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Takafumi; Sato, Takafumi; Horiyama, Tsukasa; Kanazawa, Sachi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Maki, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae has been increasing worldwide. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ESBLs among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli obtained from 2000 to 2010 in Japan, and to characterize the sequence type (ST) and antimicrobial susceptibility of the bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains. The genes for β-lactamases were determined by conventional PCR and sequencing, and the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by the broth microdilution method. Among the 948 strains, 35 were judged as ESBL-positive strains. The positive rates ranged from 0.6% to 3.9% until 2008, but surged to 10.3% in 2010. Thirty-three of them carried bla(CTX-M), but all were negative for ESBL-type bla(TEM) and bla(SHV). bla(CTX-M-14) was the most prevalent (18/33) among bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains, followed by bla(CTX-M-15) (7/33) of which five were isolated in 2008 and 2010. Additionally, bla(CTX-M-27) appeared in 2010 for the first time in this study and accounted for more than a third of the bla(CTX-M)-carrying strains. From the MLST analysis, ST131 known as a world pandemic clone, has been predominantly isolated since 2006. The major types of ESBLs carried by ST131 strains clearly shifted from bla(CTX-M-14) to bla(CTX-M-15) and/or bla(CTX-M-27) between 2006 and 2010. Most of these isolates were still susceptible to doripenem, latamoxef (moxalactam), flomoxef and cefmetazole. Our results suggest that a change of the dominant type of ESBL among Enterobacteriaceae is currently in progress in Japan, and therefore further periodic surveillance is needed.

  8. Prevalence of CTX-M-Type β-Lactamases in Multi–Drug Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from North of Iran, Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolou Babaei Hematti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : One of the most important resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae are extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs. During the last decade, CTX-M types ESBLs have increased considerably and become the most common ESBLs worldwide which are the major causes of the urinary tract infections (UTIs. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns and the frequency of the CTX-M β-lactamases among multi-drug resistant (MDR Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates from northern Iranian patients with UTI.   Materials and method s: Thirty three E. coli isolates from urine samples were applied in this study. Double disk synergy test (DDST was applied for identification of ESBL phenotypes in E. coli isolates. The ESBL related genes, CTX-M group (1, 2, 8 and 9, were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR.   Results : All E. coli isolates showed sensitivity to piperacillin and 55% of the isolates were resistant to 3rd and 4th cephalosporins. The presence of the blaCTX-M gene in 88% of the ESBL producing isolates was approved based on molecular method. CTX-M (1, 2, 8 and 9 containing E. coli isolates showed resistance to more antibiotics than non-CTX-M isolates. CTX-M-1 was the most prevalent CTX-M determinant in ESBL producing E. coli isolates. Discussion and conclusion : Based on the results of the present study, the preferred antibiotic against CTX-M type ESBL-producing E. coli strains in north of Iran, Rasht, should be piperacillin. Although, CTX-M type ESBLs prevalence was nearly low in the studied MDR E. coli isolates, but controlling these low prevalence isolates is important .

  9. Use of the plasma CTX for assessing the bone activity of the mandible among osteopenic and osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glacio Avolio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the plasma CTX bone remodeling marker is useful for indicating the bone metabolic activity level of the mandible. Thirty-six patients were selected; all were postmenopausal and aged 50 years or over. In accordance with the WHO criteria for osteoporosis, a control group was set up (n = 10 in which the T-score was greater than -1 and a diseased group with T-score less than -1. Using MDP-99mTc samples, the radioisotope uptake in the femoral neck (R2 and mandibular body (R1 was analyzed. A third examination was performed using the plasma CTX biochemical bone-modeling marker. The inferential results for the diseased group showed that Ln(R1 presented a statistically significant linear relationship with Ln(CTx (p = 0.067 and with the T-score (p = 0.018. The plasma CTX bone remodeling marker is useful for monitoring the bone metabolic activity of the mandible.

  10. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudana, Rao B; Surendran, P K

    2013-06-01

    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) than in pond sediment (5.2%). Shrimp head (3.6%) portion had relatively higher incidence than shrimp muscle (1.6%). All the V. cholerae isolates (n = 42) belonged to non-O1/non-O139 serogroup, of which 7% of the V. cholerae isolates were potentially cholera-toxigenic (ctx positive). All the ctx positive V. cholerae (n = 3) were isolated from the pond water. Since, cholera toxin (CT) is the major contributing factor for cholera gravis, it is proposed that the mere presence of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae need not be the biohazard criterion in cultured black tiger shrimp but only the presence of ctx carrying non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae may be considered as potential public health risk.

  11. Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S.;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the prognostic value of markers of bone metabolism (serum PINP, BAP, and CTX-I) and serum YKL-40 in metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC). METHODS: The biomarkers were determined by ELISAs in 153 metastatic PC patients before treatment with parenteral estrogen or total androgen...

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of KPC-3- and CTX-M-15-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Laura; Feudi, Claudia; Fortini, Daniela; Iacono, Michele; Bonura, Celestino; Endimiani, Andrea; Mammina, Caterina; Carattoli, Alessandra

    2016-04-07

    Klebsiella pneumoniaesequence type (ST) 307, carryingblaKPC-3,blaCTX-M-15,blaOXA-1,aac(6')-Ib-cr, andqnrB1 genes, is replacing the predominant hyperepidemic ST258 clone in Italy. Whole-genome and complete plasmid sequencing of one ST307 strain was performed and new features were identified.

  13. Fecal Carriage of ESbL types TEM, SHV, CTX Producing Genera Proteus, Morganella, Providencia in Patients of Iran

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    Mohammad Taghi Akhi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Diseases like urinary tract infection, wound infections, bacteremia and other infections are mainly caused by the members of the genus Proteus, Morganella and Providencia which are mainly either found freely in the environment or in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. We studied Fecal carriage of ESbL producing species in carrier patients.Stool samples obtained from outpatients and inpatients not suffering from diarrhea and were cultured in CTX-MC-Conkey agar. Lactose negative and cefotaxime resistant bacteria were identified by biochemical tests and ESbL-producing isolates were detected using Combined Test. TEM, SHV and CTX genes were investigated by PCR.Total 15 (7.35% isolates of 204 stool samples were identified as ESBL producing Proteus spp. (n=4, 1.96%, Morganella spp. (n=5, 2.45% and Providencia spp. (n=6, 2.94%. Further, amongst or of the 15 ESbL producing strains, blaTEM was the commonest genotype (86.66%, followed by blaSHV (26.66% and blaCTX-M (20%. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, and cefotaxime whereas all Providencia and Morganella spp. were found to resist ceftazidime. Although the number of ESbL-producing Proteus, Morganella and Providencia isolates from fecal carriers were low, but still, they can be considered as a reservoir of TEM, SHV and CTX genes and capable to transfer these resistant bacteria to hospitals.

  14. Relation between blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes and acute urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi; Mehdi Goudarzi; Fattaneh Sabzehali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To survey the frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genotypes in extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from hospitalized patients with urinary tract infection and the determination of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Methods: During 11-month study, 100 ESBL-producing E. coli were collected from 330 patients who met the definition of urinary tract infection. The phenotypic identification of ESBL was confirmed by double disk synergy test and combined disk diffusion test. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL isolates than 14 antimicrobial agents was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The frequency of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli was assessed by PCR method. Results: The frequency of ESBL-producing E. coli was 40.8%. In vitro, susceptibility to ESBL-producing E. coli showed that the majority of isolates were highly susceptible to amikacin (74%) and imipenem (91%). The rates of resistance to other antibiotics varied from 33% to 96%. Through 100 tested isolates, the prevalence of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M genes was determined to be 67%, 45% and 74% respectively. In comparison with other bla genes, the frequency of blaCTX-M was strikingly high. Conclusions: Due to the increase of E. coli with multiple ESBL genes, continuous sur-veillance in order to use appropriate antibiotics and the control of infections is necessary.

  15. On the formation of 7-ketocholesterol from 7-dehydrocholesterol in patients with CTX and SLO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkhem, Ingemar; Diczfalusy, Ulf; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita

    2014-01-01

    A new mechanism for formation of 7-ketocholesterol was recently described involving cytochrome P-450 (CYP)7A1-catalyzed conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol into 7-ketocholesterol with cholesterol-7,8-epoxide as a side product. Some patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and all patients...... with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLO) have markedly increased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol in plasma and tissues. In addition, the former patients have markedly upregulated CYP7A1. We hypothesized that these patients may produce 7-ketocholesterol from 7-dehydrocholesterol with formation of cholesterol-7....... Downregulation of CYP7A1 activity by treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid reduced the levels of 7-ketocholesterol in parallel with decreased levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol and cholesterol-7,8-epoxide. Three patients with SLO were found to have markedly elevated levels of 7-ketocholesterol as well as high levels...

  16. blaCTX-M-I group extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Salmonella typhi from hospitalized patients in Lagos, Nigeria

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    Akinyemi KO

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kabiru O Akinyemi,1 Bamidele A Iwalokun,2 Olajide O Alafe,1 Sulaiman A Mudashiru,1 Christopher Fakorede,11Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Biochemistry and Nutrition Division, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, NigeriaPurpose: The global spread of blaCTX-M-I extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Salmonella spp. remains a major threat to treatment and control. Evidence of emergence and spread of this marker are lacking in Nigeria. This study investigated blaCTX-M-I ESBL production among Salmonella isolates from hospitalized patients.Methods: Patients (158 total made up of two groups were evaluated. Group A was composed of 135 patients with persistent pyrexia and group B was composed of 23 gastroenteritis patients and their stool samples. Samples were cultured, and isolates were identified and were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by standard methods. Isolates were further screened for ESBL production, blaCTX-M-I genes and transferability by double disk synergy test, plasmid extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and conjugation experiment.Results: Thirty-five (25.9% Salmonella isolates were identified from group A, of which 74.3% were S. typhi, 22.9% were S. paratyphi and two (5.7% were invasive non-typhoidal S. enteritidis. Nine Plasmodium falciparum infections were recorded, four of which were identified as co-infections with typhoidal Salmonella. Only two (8.7% S. enteritidis samples were obtained from group B (P>0.05. A total of 24 isolates were ESBL-positive, eliciting resistance to five to seven antibiotics, and were multiple-drug resistant. ESBL production due to the blaCTX-M-I gene cluster was detected in eleven (45.8% Salmonella isolates. Nine (81.8% of the eleven blaCTX-M-I ESBL producers were S. typhi and two (18.2% isolates were S. enteritidis. Four of nine S. typhi blaCTX-M-I ESBL-producing strains harbored 23 kb self-transmissible plasmid that was co

  17. Long-Term Colonization by bla(CTX-M)-Harboring Escherichia coli in Healthy Japanese People Engaged in Food Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Kumiko; Goto, Kensuke; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2016-01-08

    The actual state of intestinal long-term colonization by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in healthy Japanese people remains unclear. Therefore, a total of 4,314 fecal samples were collected from 2,563 food handlers from January 2010 to December 2011. Approximately 0.1 g of each fecal sample was inoculated onto a MacConkey agar plate containing cefotaxime (1 μg/ml). The bacterial colonies that grew on each plate were checked for ESBL production by the double-disk synergy test, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The bacterial serotype, antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsotype, sequence type (ST), and ESBL genotype were checked, and the replicon types of plasmids harboring the ESBL gene were also determined after conjugation experiments. ESBL producers were recovered from 70 (3.1%) of 2,230 participants who were checked only once. On the other hand, ESBL producers were isolated at least once from 52 (15.6%) of 333 participants who were checked more than twice, and 13 of the 52 participants carried ESBL producers for from more than 3 months to up to 2 years. Fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant E. coli strains harboring bla(CTX-M) were repeatedly recovered from 11 of the 13 carriers of bla(CTX-M)-harboring E. coli. A genetically related FQ-resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 isolate harboring bla(CTX-M)-27 was recovered from 4 of the 13 carriers for more than 6 months. Three FQ-resistant E. coli O1:H6-ST648 isolates that harbored bla(CTX-M-15) or bla(CTX-M)-14 were recovered from 3 carriers. Moreover, multiple CTX-M-14- or CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates with different serotypes were recovered from 2 respective carriers. These findings predict a provable further spread of ESBL producers in both community and clinical settings. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. An insight into the biophysical characterization of different states of cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase 15 (CTX-M-15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Md Tabish; Faheem, Mohd; Khan, Asad U

    2015-01-01

    Cefotaxime hydrolyzing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) is encoded by blaCTX-M-15 gene present on plasmid of various Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, etc. The widespread dissemination of CTX-M-15 harboring bacteria in hospital as well as community settings is a universal threat as they are resistant to various clinically significant antibiotics. In order to gain an insight into the folding mechanism of CTX-M-15, we carried out pH-induced denaturation study by monitoring Trp fluorescence, far-UV circular dichroism (CD), and ANS fluorescence. We found that the pH-induced denaturation of CTX-M-15 was a three-step process with the accumulation of two stable folding intermediates (XI at pH 2.5 and XII at pH 1.5) in the folding pathway. The intermediates were further characterized by far-UV and near-UV CD analysis, Trp fluorescence, ANS fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, acrylamide quenching, dynamic light scattering, and thermal denaturation studies. We found that XI state lacked tertiary structure but retained most of the secondary structure, its Trp residues were partially exposed to the solvent and its hydrophobic patches were highly accessible to ANS. On the other hand, a complete disruption of tertiary structure along with more than 50% loss in secondary structure was observed in XII state. We conclude that the XI state of CTX-M-15 at pH 2.5 had all the characteristics of a molten globule (MG) state, while its XII state at pH 1.5 was more similar to pre-molten globule (PMG) state. ANS fluorescence also showed that the binding of ANS in XII state was lower than that in the XI state. We propose that the accumulation of MG- and PMG-states was due to separation (at pH 2.5) and then unfolding (at pH 1.5) of the αβα-fold of CTX-M-15, respectively.

  19. [Genetic Investigation of bla(CTX-M)-typing in Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Clinical Specimens and Commercially Available Chicken Liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Miki; Shinomiya, Hiroto; Kitao, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A genetic investigation consisting of the bla(CTX-M) typing was performed using 40 extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from chicken liver and 43 ESBL-producing E. coli and 42 ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients. The types were determined using a sequence analysis. In 31 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-1) group, there were 13 with the bla(CTX-M-1) and all were from chicken liver. Nine E. coli isolates from chicken liver and one E. coli isolate from patients were found to be bla(CTX-M-55). In the bla(CTX-M-15), there were 6 E. coli isolates and one K. pneumoniae isolate from patients. All 39 isolates in the bla(CTX-M-2) group had the blac(CTX-M-2). Fifty-five isolates were found in the bla(CTX-M-9) group, the highest detection frequency, with 36 possessing bla(CTX-M-14) : 20 E. coli and 13 K. pneumoniae from patients and 3 E. coli from chicken liver. There were 17 bla(CTX-M-27) isolates, including 10 E. coli and 7 K. pneumoniae from patients. One bla(CTX-M-90) K. pneumoniae isolate and one bla(CTX-M-9) E. coli isolate were also obtained from patients. These results indicate that the E. coli isolates from chicken liver consist of bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-2) and bla(CTX-M-55) ; the E. coli isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27) ; and the K. pneumoniae isolates from patients consist of bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-27). Therefore, the bla(CTX-M) type differs in isolates from chicken liver and those from humans. These results suggest that it is unlikely that ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken liver are firmly established in the human intestinal tract.

  20. Identification and characterization of CTX-M-15 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone ST101 in a Hungarian university teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegh, Szilvia; Schneider, György; Horváth, Marianna; Jakab, Ferenc; Emődy, Levente; Tigyi, Zoltán

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the molecular epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates derived from the teaching hospitals of University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary in the time period 2004-2008. Molecular typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of common β-lactamase genes (bla(CTX-M), bla(TEM) and bla(SHV)) and virulence associated traits (hypermucoviscosity, magA, k2a, rmpA, siderophores, type 1 and 3 fimbria, biofilm formation, serum resistance) were performed for 102 isolates. The results showed the presence of three major ciprofloxacin resistant CTX-M-15 producing clones (ST15 n = 69, ST101 n = 10, and ST147 n = 9), of which ST15 was predominant and universally widespread. Considering distribution in time and place, ST101 and ST147 were detected at fewer inpatient units and within a narrower time frame, as compared to ST15. Beside major clones, eleven minor clones were identified, and were shown to harbour the following β-lactamase genes: six clones carried bla(CTX-M), four clones harboured bla(SHV-5) and one clone possessed both bla(CTX-M) and ESBL type bla(SHV). Among the SHV-5 producing K. pneumoniae clones a novel sequence type was found, namely ST1193, which harboured a unique infB allele. Different virulence factor content and peculiar antimicrobial susceptibility profile were characteristic for each clone. In contrast to major clone isolates, which showed high level resistance to ciprofloxacin, minor clone isolates displayed significantly lower MIC values for ciprofloxacin suggesting a role for fluoroquinolones in the dissemination of the major K. pneumoniae clones. This is the first description of the CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae clone ST101 in Hungary.

  1. Emergence of CTX-M group 1 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in the community

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    Nataša Beader,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim Molecular characterization of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniaestrains isolated from urine of outpatients in Zagreb regionduring the last five years. Methods During the five-year study period a total of 2, 651 K.pneumoniae strains were isolated from urine of nonhospitalized patients with significant bacteriuria. ESBL production was detected by double-disk diffusion technique and by ≥3-dilution reduction in the minimal inhibitory concentration of ceftazidime in the presence of clavulanate. A total of 441 ESBL producing K. pneumoniae strains (15.5% were collected and 17 strains were further characterised. Double-disk synergy test was used to detect ESBLs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. The transferability of cefotaxime resistance was tested by conjugation (broth mating method.PCR was used to detect alleles encoding ESBL enzymes.The genotypes of the strains were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE of Xba I-digested genomic DNA. Results A significant difference in frequencies of ESBL isolates was observed. In the first year of study only 4.9% of isolated strains were ESBL producers, while in the second year 17.3% ESBL-positive strains were detected (p<0.01, and the frequency remained stabile within following years. All strains yielded an amplicon with primers specific for SHV β-lactamases and CTX-M β-lactamases. Based on sequencing of blaCTX-M genes enzymes of nine strains were identified as CTX-M 15 β –lactamase and three as CTX-M-14. Isolates were not clonally related. Conclusion The study demonstrated community associated emergence of CTX-M 1 β-lactamase–producing K. pneumoniae strains.

  2. High prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing O25b-ST131 Escherichia coli clone in Bulgarian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovska, Rumyana; Schneider, Ines; Ivanova, Dobrinka; Keuleyan, Emma; Stoeva, Temenuga; Sredkova, Mariya; Markova, Boyka; Bojkova, Kalina; Gergova, Raina; Bauernfeind, Adolf; Mitov, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    According to the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System project results, Bulgaria has become one of the European countries with dramatically increasing rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers. The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates in Bulgaria, collected from seven clinical centers in three towns, during two study periods: 2002-2003 and 2006-2009. For 193 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses, phylogenetic typing, and screening for O25b-ST131 isolates were carried out. Antimicrobial susceptibility, ESBL-type and transferability of resistance determinants were analyzed. Four different ESBL-types, namely TEM-139, SHV-12, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-15 were found. CTX-M-15 dominated, being found in 88% of the isolates. RAPD-typing revealed 35 types, among which type A dominated, comprising 65% of the isolates. Sixty-eight percent of the 193 isolates belonged to the O25b-ST131 clone, to the phylogenetic group B2, mostly showed RAPD-type A (92%) and were found in all participating hospitals. O25b-ST131 isolates predominantly produced CTX-M-15 (96%), and less SHV-12 (n=3) or TEM-139 (n=2). In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time the country-wide dissemination of a highly resistant B2 O25b-ST131 CTX-M-15 producing E. coli clone in Bulgaria.

  3. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.

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    Nhu Thi Khanh Nguyen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.We collected hospital admission data from the pediatric population attending the hospital for tropical diseases in Ho Chi Minh City with Shigella infections. Organisms were cultured from all enrolled patients and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Those that were ESBL positive were subjected to further investigation. These investigations included PCR amplification for common ESBL genes, plasmid investigation, conjugation, microarray hybridization and DNA sequencing of a bla(CTX-M encoding plasmid.We show that two different bla(CTX-M genes are circulating in this bacterial population in this location. Sequence of one of the ESBL plasmids shows that rather than the gene being integrated into a preexisting MDR plasmid, the bla(CTX-M gene is located on relatively simple conjugative plasmid. The sequenced plasmid (pEG356 carried the bla(CTX-M-24 gene on an ISEcp1 element and demonstrated considerable sequence homology with other IncFI plasmids.The rapid dissemination, spread of antimicrobial resistance and changing population of Shigella spp. concurrent with economic growth are pertinent to many other countries undergoing similar development. Third generation cephalosporins are commonly used empiric antibiotics in Ho Chi Minh City. We recommend that these agents should not be considered for therapy of dysentery in this setting.

  4. A Mechanism of Synergistic Effect of Streptomycin and Cefotaxime on CTX-M-15 Type β-lactamase Producing Strain of E. cloacae: A First Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam, Lubna; Khan, Asad U.

    2016-01-01

    A blaCTX-M-15 gene is one of the most prevalent resistant marker found in member of enterobacteriaceae. It encodes cefotaxime hydrolysing β-lactamase-15 (CTX-M-15) causing resistance against beta lactam antibiotics. Since single antibiotic therapy fails to control infection caused by multidrug resistance strain, therefore combination therapy was came into practice as an effective treatment. We have first time explained the mechanism where two antibiotics of different classes work against resistant strains. Binding parameters obtained by spectroscopic approach showed significant interaction and complex formation between drugs and CTX-M-15 enzyme with decreased ksv and kq values. CD analysis showed altered conformation and significant changes in alpha helical content of CTX-M-15 enzyme on interaction with streptomycin in combination with cephalosporin. Steady state kinetics revealed decrease in hydrolytic efficiency of enzyme to about 27% by cooperative binding behavior upon sequential treatment of enzyme with streptomycin and cefotaxime. Therefore, the study concludes that combination therapy against CTX-M-15 producing strain with Cefotaxime/Streptomycin in 1:10 molar ratio, decreases CTX-M-15 efficiency significantly because of the fact that streptomycin induced structural changes in CTX-M-15 hence cefotaxime was not properly bound on its active site for hydrolysis rather available for the target to inhibit bacterial cells. PMID:28018328

  5. Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat

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    Larissa Alvarenga Batista Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences of blaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnr genes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three were exporters, including one of organic chicken. Our study assessed 136 E. coli isolates that were grouped into 77 distinct biotypes defined by their origin, resistance profiling, the presence of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polimerase chain reaction typing. The blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2 and blaCTX-M-8 genes were detected in one, 17 and eight different biotypes, respectively (45 isolates. Twenty-one biotypes (46 isolates harboured blaCMY-2. Additionally, blaCMY-2 was identified in isolates that also carried either blaCTX-M-2 or blaCTX-M-8. The qnrB and/or qnrS genes occurred in isolates carrying each of the four types of β-lactamase determinants detected and also in oxyimino-cephalosporin-susceptible strains. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL and AmpC determinants were identified in carcasses from the four brands tested. Notably, this is the first description of blaCTX-M-15 genes in meat or food-producing animals from South America. The blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-2 genes were transferable in conjugation experiments. The findings of the present study indicate that plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC-encoding genes are widely distributed in Brazilian chicken meat.

  6. Plasmid-mediated transfer of CTX-M-55 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among different strains of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Soojin; Park, Jungsun; Shin, Eunkyung; Yun, Young-Sun; Lee, Deog-Yong; Kwak, Hyo-Sun; Seong, Won Keun; Chung, Gyung Tae; Kim, Junyoung

    2017-09-01

    We screened 10 CTX-M-55-producing Shigella and Salmonella isolates from a national surveillance in Korea. The blaCTX-M-55 was located on the IncI1 (n=5), IncA/C (n=4) and IncZ (n=1) plasmids, downstream of ISEcp1, IS26-ISEcp1 and ISEcp1-IS5 sequences, respectively. These results indicate that CTX-M-55 has disseminated to other bacteria by lateral plasmid transfer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Valles Marineris Dune Fields as Seen From the HiRISE, CTX and THEMIS Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, M.; Moersch, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Dune fields on Mars offer an opportunity to investigate the nature of eroded sediments and their interactions with the atmosphere. We examined 20 dune fields in Valles Marineris (VM) from the Mars Global Digital Dune Database [Hayward et al., 2007] to identify significant trends in composition, thermophysical properties, morphology and origin. Dune fields were examined in terms of: slopes, albedo, dust index, thermal inertia and the corresponding derived particle size. We have used image data from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) instruments CTX [McEwen et al., 2006] and HiRISE [Malin et al., 2007] to establish geologic context for the dune fields, and in particular, to examine their relationships to neighboring geologic units. In general, VM dune fields display greater topographic relief and closer proximity to their inferred source regions than is typical for dune fields elsewhere on Mars. These dunes have a relatively high TES-derived thermal inertia mean value (394 Jm-2K-1 s-1/2, units hereafter assumed), which corresponds to ~1000 μm grains [Pelkey et al., 2001] or very coarse sand sizes. In contrast, typical non-VM dunes have a lower thermal inertia value of ~250, corresponding to ~350 μm grains. To investigate this more closely, high-resolution THEMIS-derived thermal inertia maps were created [Putzig et al., 2004]. CTX and HiRISE visible images revealed that bedrock outcrops are commonly found within dune fields, erroneously elevating the TES thermal inertia values over the ~3x5-km TES footprint. However, even after excluding intra-dune outcrop areas using higher-resolution THEMIS data, several VM dune fields have anomalously high thermal inertia values (>500) compared with non-VM dune fields. It is possible that the high thermal inertia values are indicative of indurated (fossilized) dune surfaces, rather than large individual grain sizes. Coprates Chasma contains a concentration of 6 dune fields both within the main chasm and in depressions to the

  8. 不同方法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎对尿CTX-II、COMP、PYD的影响%Effect of different treatment methods on urinary CTX-Ⅱ, COMP, PYD of osteoarthritis of knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟业; 吴东兰; 杨家斌; 聂彦萍; 徐秋风; 陆天伟; 刘永华

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析不同方法治疗膝关节骨性关节炎对患者尿CTX-Ⅱ、COMP、PYD的影响,以提高治疗膝关节骨性关节炎的安全性。方法选取2011年3月~2013年2月我院膝关节骨性关节炎患者84例作为实验对象,使用计算机随机的方法分为三组。第一组患者使用曲安奈德膝关节注射,第二组患者使用玻璃酸钠膝关节注射治疗,第三组患者使用曲安奈德联合玻璃酸钠膝关节内注射治疗,比较三组患者治疗效果和治疗前后尿CTX-Ⅱ、COMP、PYD水平。结果混合组患者治疗3个月后,其WOMAC评分明显低于曲安奈德组、玻璃酸钠组,两组比较,差异有统计意义(P<0.05)。混合组患者治疗后,其尿CTX-Ⅱ、COMP、PYD改善效果更明显,与其他两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用曲安奈德联合玻璃酸钠联合膝关节注射可以更好地治疗膝关节骨性关节炎患者的治疗效果,通过尿CTX-Ⅱ、COMP、PYD可以判断患者的预后。%Objective To analyze and study the effect of different treatment methods on urinary CTX-Ⅱ, COMP, PYD in patients with osteoarthritis of knee, in order to improve the treatment security of osteoarthritis of knee. Methods 84 patients with osteoarthritis of knee from March 2011 to February 2013 in our hospital were as the experimental subjects, who were divided into the three groups by using the computer random method. The patients in the first group were treated with the knee injection of triamcinolone acetonide, the patients in the second group were treated with the knee injection of sodium hyaluronate, and the patients in the third group were treated with the knee injection of sodium hyaluronate combined with triamcinolone acetonide, and the treatment effect and urinary CTX-Ⅱ, COMP, PYD levels of patients in the three groups before and after treatment were observed and compared. Results The WOMAC score of patients in the mixed group

  9. Typing of Vibrio Cholerae with 16SrRNA Gene Probe and ctx A Gene Probe%16SrRNA基因探针与ctx A基因探针用于霍乱弧菌分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮勇宇; 蔡初的; 萧斌权; 俞守义; 李建基; 廖育煌; 王红; 钟豪杰; 罗不凡

    2000-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae strains were differnetiated by using 16SrRNAgene probe and ctx A gene probe. Two probes were developed byPCR method with DIG molecular. 60 E1Tor(EVC) and 10 O139strains isolated form patients in Guangdong province and 2 re-frence strains were analysed. By using 16SrRNA gene probe,strains were divided into 4 types(A、B、C and D), and most strainswere type B. By using ctx A gene probe, strains were divided into2 types, and type B was predominant type. Predominant types ofstrains isolated from Guangdong province cooperated with those ofstrains from other districts of China and South east of Asia.%以地高辛为标记物,利用PCR方法制备16SrRNA基因探针与ctx A基因探针,经Southern杂交,对霍乱弧菌进行分型。对广东地区分离自病人的60株埃尔托型(EVC)、10株O139群和2株标准株进行研究。经16SrRNA基因在探针共分为4个类型(A、B、C和D),EVC和O139群均以D型为优势克隆。经ctxA基因探针Southern杂交,共分为A和B型,2株分离自1998年的EVC为A型,其余EVC和O139群均为B型。与国内外资料比较,广东地区霍乱弧菌的优势克隆与国内其它地区及东南亚地区的基本一致。

  10. Liver abscess caused by CTX-M-55-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Akira; Ooi, Yukimasa; Edogawa, Shoko; Ogura, Takeshi; Masuda, Daisuke; Mohamed, Malak; Takii, Michiaki; Umegaki, Eiji; Kawahara, Ryuji; Ukimura, Akira; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Liver abscesses secondary to Salmonella species are rarely described in the general population. We herein describe a case of a liver abscess caused by CTX-M-55-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enteritidis, which has not been reported in the literature. A 54-year-old male was admitted due to a high fever and was clinically diagnosed with a liver abscess. Culture of the fluid from the liver abscess revealed CTX-M-55-type ESBL-producing S. enteritidis. Although the patient underwent percutaneous transhepatic abscess drainage and antibiotic therapy, he died one month later. It should be noted that liver abscesses are potentially fatal depending on the causative pathogen.

  11. The response to estrogen deprivation on cartilage collagen degradation markers; CTX-II is unique compared to other markers of collagen turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tabassi, Nadine; Sondergaard, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    rats receiving estrogen or not. Levels of PIIANP, a marker of type II collagen synthesis, were also measured in rats. Rat knee cartilage was analyzed for immunoreactivity of CTX-II and PIIANP and for type II collagen expression. RESULTS: As expected, urinary levels of CTX-II are significantly increased......ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The urinary level of type II collagen degradation marker CTX-II is increased in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that estrogen deprivation induces cartilage breakdown. Here we investigate whether this response to estrogen holds true for other type...... II collagen turnover markers known to be affected in osteoarthritis, and whether it relates to its presence in specific areas of cartilage tissue. METHODS: The type II collagen degradation markers CTX-II and Helix-II were measured in body fluids of pre- and postmenopausal women and of ovariectomized...

  12. PER, CTX-M, TEM and SHV Beta-lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nasehi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sDifferent types of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs are encountered in the clinical settings worldwide. There are a few studies regarding the prevalence of ESBL genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates at Tehran especially those of blaPER and blaCTX. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of blaSHV, blaTEM ,blaPER and blaCTX genes among clinical K. pneumoniae of different hospitals in Tehran.Materials and MethodsTwo hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were received from different clinical specimens. The susceptibility of the isolates to 10 different antibiotics was examined by disk diffusion test. The MICs for ceftazidime were also determined using micro-broth dilution assay. Isolates showing MIC 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime were screened for ESBL production by phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT and subjected to PCR for studied genes. Variation among four amplified genes was evaluated using PCR-RFLP.ResultsBy disk diffusion test, resistance to ceftazidime and cefotaxime were 34.7% and 33.5% respectively. However, all strains were susceptible to imipenem. Eighty isolates showed MICs≥ 4 μg/ml for ceftazidime of which 77 (96% were positive for ESBL in PCT. The prevalence of blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaPER among these isolates were 26%, 24.5%, 18% and 7.5%, respectively. No variation was detected in the genes by PCR-RFLP.ConclusionAs far as we know this is the first report of the blaPER-1 in K. pneumoniae in Iran. The blaCTX-M was the second most common gene detected among the ESBL positive isolates of K. pneumoniae. For rapid identification of ESBL producing isolates it was recommended that clinical laboratories adopt simple test based on CLSI recommendation for confirming ESBL production in enterobacterial species.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in the community and hospital in Korea: emergence of ST131 producing CTX-M-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli has been increased not only in the hospital but also in the community worldwide. This study was aimed to characterize ESBL- producing E. coli isolates and to investigate the molecular epidemiology of community isolates in comparison with hospital isolates at a single center in Korea. Methods A total of 142 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were collected at Daejeon St Mary’s Hospital in Korea from January 2008 to September 2009. The ESBLs were characterized by PCR sequencing using specific primers. The genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Results Of 142 isolates, 139 were positive for CTX-M type ESBLs; CTX-M-14 (n = 69, 49.6 %, CTX-M-15 (n = 53, 38.1 % and both CTX-M-14 and -15 (n = 17, 12.2 %. CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 were detected in both community and hospital isolates whereas isolates producing both CTX-M14 and-15 were mainly identified in the hospital. CTX-M producing E. coli isolates were genetically heterogeneous, revealing 75 distinct PFGE types. By MLST, 21 distinctive STs including 5 major STs (ST131, ST405, ST38, ST10, and ST648 were identified. Major STs were distributed in both community and hospital isolates, and ST131 was the predominant clone regardless of the locations of acquisition. No specific major STs were confined to a single type of ESBLs. However, ST131 clones were significantly associated with CTX-M-15 and the majority of them were multidrug-resistant. Distinctively, we identified a hospital epidemic caused by the dissemination of an epidemic strain, ST131-PFGE type 10, characterized by multidrug resistance and co-producing both CTX-Ms with OXA-1 or TEM-1b. Conclusions The epidemiology of ESBL-producing E. coli is a complex and evolving phenomenon attributed to the horizontal transfer of genetic elements and clonal spread of

  14. First detection of CTX-M-1, CMY-2, and QnrB19 resistance mechanisms in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pets in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallem, Rym Ben; Gharsa, Haythem; Slama, Karim Ben; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Estepa, Vanesa; Porres-Osante, Nerea; Jouini, Ahlem; Klibi, Naouel; Sáenz, Yolanda; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2013-02-01

    Our objective was to analyze the carriage rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and plasmidic AmpC β-lactamase (pAmpC)-producing Escherichia coli isolates in fecal samples of healthy pets (dogs and cats) and to characterize the recovered isolates for the presence of other resistance genes and integrons. Eighty fecal samples of healthy pets were inoculated in MacConkey agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 μg/mL) for cefotaxime-resistant (CTX(R)) E. coli recovery. CTX(R) E. coli isolates were detected in 14 of the 80 fecal samples (17.5%) and the following β-lactamase genes (number of isolates) were detected: bla(CTX-M-1) (8), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1b) (3)(,) bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-1c) (1), bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM-135) (1), and bla(CMY-2)+bla(TEM-1b) (1). The 14 E. coli were distributed into the phylogroups B1 (6 isolates), A (5), and D (3). The qnrB19 gene was detected in one CTX-M-1-producing strain of phylogroup D. Five isolates contained class 1 integrons with the following arrangements: dfrA17-aadA5 (2 isolates), dfrA1-aadA1 (1), and dfrA17-aadA5/ dfrA1-aadA1 (2 isolates). The virulence genes fimA and/or aer were detected in all CTX(R) strains. In this study, the pet population harbored β-lactamase and quinolone resistance genes of special interest in human health that potentially could be transmitted to humans in close contact with them.

  15. Role of the CTX Test for evaluation of the risk in diagnostic and treatment of the osteonecrosis of the jaws induced by the use of bisphosphonates

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz DDS, Patricia; Varela DDS, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTX) serologic test, which has been suggested to predict the risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients taking oral bisphosphonates. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a condition that causes avascular necrosis of the alveolar bone, which occurs in patients treated with bisphosphonates. It has been suggested that a CTX value below 100 pg/ml represents a high risk for ONJ , ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes.

  17. PrognosticValue of PINP,BoneAlkaline Phosphatase, CTX-I, andYKL-40 in Patients With Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Julia S

    2006-01-01

    Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]......Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006 Apr 1;66(5):503-13. PMID: 16372331 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of an Escherichia coli Strain Isolated from a Gallus gallus Broiler Producing the Novel CTX-M-166 Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manageiro, Vera; Clemente, Lurdes; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-10-06

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the CTX-M-166-harboring O6:H16 sequence type 48 (ST48)-fimH34 Escherichia coli strain recovered from a Gallus gallus broiler. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an IncI1/ST103-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-166-orf477 plasmid region and of diverse antibiotic resistance and virulence-acquired genes. Copyright © 2016 Manageiro et al.

  19. Spread of CTX-M-type ESßLs in isolates of E. coli from long-term care and rehabilitation facilities in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period March 2003 – May 2004 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology “Redaelli” LTCRF in Milan, Italy, a total of 529 E. coli, obtained from inpatients of 3 different Long Term Care Rehabilitation Facilities (LTCRFs in Northern Italy, were processed and 77 ESßLs producers (14.5% were identified by Vitek System. The results were confirmed by double-disk synergy test with tazobactam (TZP. 61/77 isolates were characterized by higher levels of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX than to ceftazidime (CAZ. (ß-lactamase production was investigated by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF coupled with a bioassay and showed multiple (ß-lactamase bands including one enzyme with pI 8.4 that, in a bioassay, was more active on CTX,ATM than on CAZ. The presence of (ß-lactamase genes was investigated by colony blot hybridization and by PCR amplification of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M alleles. 43/61 isolates produced both TEM-1 and CTX-M-type enzymes, 14/61 expressed only CTX-M-type while in 4 cases were found blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes.The remainders (16/77, characterized by high levels of resistance to both CTX and CAZ, produced TEM-1 and SHV-5 enzymes (1/16 and TEM type ESßLs (15/16. Conjugation experiments, performed in liquid medium, confermed that the ESßLs determinants were transferable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of genomic DNA, digested with NotI, were analysed and revealed clonal heterogeneity. Our work confirms the emergence of CTX-M-type enzymes and their spread in Northern Italy also in longterm care and rehabilitation facilities that may be an important reservoir of ES?L producing E. coli.

  20. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of CTX-M Class A [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Derek A.; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Larson, Wayne; Smith, Emmanuel; Liu, Guoqing; Beyrouthy, Racha; Bonnet, Richard; Renslo, Adam R.; Chen, Yu (USF); (UCSF); (Clermont)

    2012-07-11

    The emergence of CTX-M class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases poses a serious health threat to the public. We have applied structure-based design to improve the potency of a novel noncovalent tetrazole-containing CTX-M inhibitor (K{sub i} = 21 {mu}M) more than 200-fold via structural modifications targeting two binding hot spots, a hydrophobic shelf formed by Pro167 and a polar site anchored by Asp240. Functional groups contacting each binding hot spot independently in initial designs were later combined to produce analogues with submicromolar potencies, including 6-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid [3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-amide, which had a K{sub i} value of 89 nM and reduced the MIC of cefotaxime by 64-fold in CTX-M-9 expressing Escherichia coli. The in vitro potency gains were accompanied by improvements in ligand efficiency (from 0.30 to 0.39) and LipE (from 1.37 to 3.86). These new analogues represent the first nM-affinity noncovalent inhibitors of a class A {beta}-lactamase. Their complex crystal structures provide valuable information about ligand binding for future inhibitor design.

  1. First Report of Group CTX-M-9 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Isolates from Pediatric Patients in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merida-Vieyra, Jocelin; De Colsa, Agustin; Calderon Castañeda, Yair; Arzate Barbosa, Patricia; Aquino Andrade, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the presence of group CTX-M-9 extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in clinical Escherichia coli isolates from pediatric patients. A total of 404 non-repeated positive ESBL E. coli isolates were collected from documented clinical infections in pediatric patients over a 2-year period. The identification and susceptibility profiles were determined using an automated system. Isolates that suggested ESBL production based on their resistance profiles to third and fourth generation cephalosporin and monobactam were selected. ESBL production was phenotypically confirmed using a diffusion method with cefotaxime and ceftazidime discs alone and in combination with clavulanic acid. blaESBL gene identification was performed through PCR amplification and sequencing. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed to establish the clonal relationships of the E. coli isolates. CTX-M-9-type ESBLs were detected in 2.5% of the isolates. The subtypes corresponded to blaCTX-M-14 (n = 4) and blaCTX-M-27 (n = 6). Additionally, coexistence with other beta-lactamases was observed. A clonal relationship was established in three isolates; the rest were classified as non-related. We found seven different sequence type (ST) in CTX-M-9- producing E. coli isolates. ST38 was the most frequent. This study is the first report in Mexico to document the presence of group CTX-M-9 ESBLs in E. coli isolates from pediatric patients. PMID:27992527

  2. Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstein, H-J; Ostholm-Balkhed, A; Nilsson, M V; Nilsson, M; Dornbusch, K; Nilsson, L E

    2007-12-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are often mediated by (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Numerous molecular typing methods, including PCR-based assays, have been developed for their identification. To reduce the number of PCR amplifications needed we have developed a multiplex PCR assay which detects and discriminates between (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M PCR amplicons of 747, 445 and 593 bp, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay allowed the identification of (bla-)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes in a series of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with previously characterised ESBL phenotype. The presence of (bla)SHV, (bla)TEM and (bla)CTX-M genes was confirmed by partial DNA sequence analysis. Apparently, the universal well-established CTX-M primer pair used here to reveal plasmid-encoded (bla)CTX-M genes would also amplify the chromosomally located K-1 enzyme gene in all Klebsiella oxytoca strains included in the study.

  3. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination.

  4. Chromosomal blaCTX-M-₁₅ associated with ISEcp1 in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolated at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrouki, Sihem; Belhadj, Omrane; Chihi, Hela; Mohamed, Ben Moussa; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Perilli, Mariagrazia

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M) genes and associated resistance genes in seven Proteus mirabilis and six Morganella morganii extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive isolates. The isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients with respiratory or urinary tract infections at the Military Hospital of Tunis, Tunisia. Twenty-one of the 200 strains exhibited non-susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and, among these strains, the double-disk synergy test confirmed the ESBL phenotype in 13 isolates. These ESBL producers were co-resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline and oflaxacin but remained susceptible to ertapenem (MIC<0.25 mg l(-1)). The presence and nature of bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-8), bla(TEM-24), bla(TEM-1) and bla(TEM-2) genes was determined by PCR and sequencing. Chromosomal localization of the bla(CTX-M-15) gene was confirmed in all strains, with the exception of M. morganii isolate M-17991, by Southern-blot analysis performed either on chromosomal or plasmid DNA. M. morganii M-12012 and M. morganii M-6019 showed the same PFGE pattern, whereas the remaining CTX-M-15-producing isolates were unrelated. The presence of ISEcp1 was ascertained in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. A class 1 integron with different gene cassettes (dfrA1, orfC and aadB) was found in five P. mirabilis and six M. morganii isolates.

  5. Mass balance of Mars' residual south polar cap from CTX images and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. C.; Calvin, W.; Cantor, B.; Haberle, R.; James, P. B.; Lee, S. W.

    2016-04-01

    Erosion of pits in the residual south polar cap (RSPC) of Mars concurrent with deposition and fluctuating cap boundaries raises questions about the mass balance and long term stability of the cap. Determining a mass balance by measurement of a net gain or loss of atmospheric CO2 by direct pressure measurements (Haberle, R.M. et al. [2014]. Secular climate change on Mars: An update using one Mars year of MSL pressure data. American Geophysical Union (Fall). Abstract 3947), although perhaps the most direct method, has so far given ambiguous results. Estimating volume changes from imaging data faces challenges, and has previously been attempted only in isolated areas of the cap. In this study we use 6 m/pixel Context Imager (CTX) data from Mars year 31 to map all the morphologic units of the RSPC, expand the measurement record of pit erosion rates, and use high resolution images to place limits on vertical changes in the surface of the residual cap. We find the mass balance in Mars years 9-31 to be -6 to +4 km3/♂y, or roughly -0.039% to +0.026% of the mean atmospheric CO2 mass/♂y. The indeterminate sign results chiefly from uncertainty in the amounts of deposition or erosion on the upper surfaces of deposits (as opposed to scarp retreat). Erosion and net deposition in this period appear to be controlled by summertime planetary scale dust events, the largest occurring in MY 9, another, smaller one in MY 28. The rates of erosion and the deposition observed since MY 9 appear to be consistent with the types of deposits and erosional behavior found in most of the residual cap. However, small areas (deposits may require extended periods (>100 ♂y) of depositional and/or erosional conditions different from those occurring in the period since MY 9, although these environmental differences could be subtle.

  6. Atypical pit craters on Mars: new insights from THEMIS, CTX and HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.

    2015-01-01

    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper-range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters), and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey THermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night, and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially-drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower-resolution THEMIS visible-wavelength (VIS) observations. Here, we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  7. Nursing Care and Observation of Two Treatment Programs of CTX in Refractory Nephritic Syndrome%环磷酰胺二种方案治疗难治性肾病综合征的观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝林; 陈学兰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effects of the two treament programs of Cyclophos-phamide (CTX) in refractory nephrotic syndrome. Methods Refractory nephritic syndrome patients weredivided into two groups in random. Group 1 were treated with oral CTX while group 2 were treated with inintravenous infusion CTX.Results Group 2 showed the better therapeutic effects. The time before it 1,the dose of CTX to show effects and the effective time are both shorter than group lower than group 1, sodid the side effect of CTX. Conclusion Intravenous infusion of CTX on addition to hydration therapy im-prove refractory nephotic syndrome significantly. The obseration and nursing care before and after treat-ment are very important to decrease and alleviate the complication.

  8. Genomic profile of antibiotic resistant, classical ctxB positive Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor isolated in 2003 and 2005 from Puri, India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bhotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine eight strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in 2003 and 2005 from Puri, India, for antibiotic susceptibility, presence of virulence and regulatory genes, cholera toxin (CT production, CTX arrangement and genomic profiles. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains were tested for antibiotic susceptibility using disc diffusion assay. Polymerase chain reaction determined the presence of antibiotic resistance, virulence and regulatory genes. To determine the type of cholera toxin subunit B (ctxB, nucleotide sequencing was performed. Southern hybridisation determined the number and arrangement of CTXΦ. Ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were used to determine the genomic profile of isolates. Results: All the eight strains, except one strain, showed resistant to nalidixic acid, sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin and trimethoprim and possessed the sullI, strB, dfrA1 and int SXT genes. All the strains carried the toxin-co-regulated pilus pathogenicity island, the CTX genetic element, the repeat in toxin and produced CT. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis showed that V. cholerae O1 possess a single copy of the CTX element flanked by tandemly arranged RS element. Nucleotide sequencing of the ctxB gene showed the presence of classical ctxB. RFLP analysis of conserved rRNA gene showed two ribotype patterns. PFGE analysis also showed at least three PFGE patterns, irrespective of year of isolations, indicating the genomic relatedness among them. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that classical ctxB-positive V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains that appeared in 2003 continue to cause infection in 2005 in Puri, India, and belong to identical ribotype(s and/or pulsotype(s. There is need to continuous monitor the emergence of variant of El Tor because it will improve our understanding of the evolution of new clones of variant of V. cholerae.

  9. Emergence of blaCTX-M-15 Gene and Its Transferability in Enterobacter spp. Isolated From the Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

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    Salimian Rizi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Enterobacter spp. is increasingly recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen and implicated in many episodes of hospital acquired infections. Objectives The current study aimed to describe distribution and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 gene, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. Materials and Methods A total of 110 Enterobacter isolates were collected from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran from May 2012 to April 2013. Enterobacter species were identified by API 20E system. Antibacterial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method, and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL production was confirmed by combined disk method. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was identified by PCR with specific primers. The transferability of the blaCTX-M-15was tested by conjugation with broth matting method. Results The prevalence of Enterobacter species was E. cloacae (78.2 %, E. aerogenes (6.13 % and E. sakazakii (8.2%. They were from different clinical sources. Maximal resistance in Enterobacter isolates was noticed against Augmentin®, trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole and cefoxitin 75.5%, 64.5%, and 59.1%, respectively. Fourteen isolates, showed ESBL phenotype. The blaCTX-M-15 gene frequency in Enterobacter isolates was 11.8%. Three conjugative plasmids containing blaCTX-M-15 were found in one Enterobacter isolate. Conclusions It was the first report on the blaCTX-M-15 gene emergence in clinical Enterobacter spp. in Iran. The current study demonstrated the predominant presence of the gene encoding CTX-M-15 among ESBL producing Enterobacter spp. commonly with a large plasmid, in the setting.

  10. Mutational Events in Cefotaximase Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases of the CTX-M-1 Cluster Involved in Ceftazidime Resistance ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Ângela; Cantón, Rafael; Coque, Teresa M.; Moya, Andrés; Baquero, Fernando; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    CTX-M β-lactamases, which show a high cefotaxime hydrolytic activity, constitute the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) type found among clinical isolates. The recent explosive diversification of CTX-M enzymes seems to have taken place due to the appearance of more efficient enzymes which are capable of hydrolyzing both cefotaxime and ceftazidime, especially among the CTX-M-1 cluster. A combined strategy of in vitro stepwise evolution experiments using blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-3, and blaCTX-M-10 genes and site-directed mutagenesis has been used to evaluate the role of ceftazidime and other β-lactam antibiotics in triggering the diversity found among enzymes belonging to this cluster. Two types of mutants, P167S and D240G, displaying high ceftazidime MICs but reduced resistance to cefotaxime and/or cefepime, respectively, were identified. Such an antagonistic pleiotropic effect was particularly evident with P167S/T mutations. The incompatibility between P167S and D240G changes was demonstrated, since double mutants reduced susceptibility to both ceftazidime and cefotaxime-cefepime; this may explain the absence of strains containing both mutations in the clinical environment. The role of A77V and N106S mutations, which are frequently associated with P167S/T and/or D240G, respectively, in natural strains, was investigated. The presence of A77V and N106S contributes to restore a high-level cefotaxime resistance phenotype, but only when associated with mutations P167S and D240G, respectively. However, A77V mutation increases resistance to both cefotaxime and ceftazidime when associated with CTX-M-10. This suggests that in this context this mutation might be considered a primary site involved in resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. PMID:18443114

  11. Dominance of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients with community-onset and hospital-onset infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shu; Fan, Xin; Huang, Zengguang; Xia, Liang; Xiao, Meng; Chen, Rongchang; Xu, Yingchun; Zhuo, Chao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate CTX-M genotypes among extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) isolated from patients with community-onset and hospital-onset infections in China, their clonality and the distribution of CTX-M variants in different specimens of community-onset and hospital-onset infections. ESBL-EC isolates were collected from general hospitals from 2011 to 2012 in China. Broth microdilution method antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 16 antibiotics was performed. Clinical data from community-onset and hospital-onset infections due to ESBL-EC were analyzed. ESBL-encoding genes were amplified by PCR and sequenced, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for a random selection of predominant CTX-M type strains identified. A total of 1,168 ESBL-EC isolates were obtained from various clinical specimens, 41.7% of which were responsible for causing community-onset infections. The presence of urinary calculi was higher in community-onset infections, whereas malignancy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus and surgical treatment were found to have higher proportions in hospital-onset infections. There was no significant difference in trauma between community-onset and hospital-onset infections. 96.2% of the isolates were detected to harbor blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M-1 group and blaCTX-M-9 group were detected at 40.7% and 48.7% respectively, and both positive group accounted for 10.6%. blaCTX-M-55 (24.8%) and blaCTX-M-15 (18.2%) were the major genotypes in blaCTX-M-1 group while blaCTX-M-14 (46.8%) was predominant in blaCTX-M-9 group. A comparison of blaCTX-M distribution in different specimens between ESBL-EC causing community-onset and hospital-onset infection showed no significant difference. A total of 229 isolates were tested for MLST. ST131 (14%) was the predominant type. ST648, ST405 and ST1193 were also detected. Community-onset ESBL-EC has emerged as a common pathogen

  12. Detection of ctx gene positive non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in shrimp aquaculture environments

    OpenAIRE

    Madhusudana, Rao B.; Surendran, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Water and post-larvae samples from black tiger (Penaeus monodon) shrimp hatcheries; pond water, pond sediment and shrimp from aquaculture farms were screened for the presence of V. cholerae. A V. cholerae-duplex PCR method was developed by utilizing V. cholerae species specific sodB primers and ctxAB genes specific primers. Incidence of V. cholerae was not observed in shrimp hatchery samples but was noticed in aquaculture samples. The incidence of V. cholerae was higher in pond water (7.6%) t...

  13. Distribution of virulence genes and genotyping of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Reza; Memariani, Hamed; Sorouri, Rahim; Memariani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). In addition to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), a number of virulence factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae, including capsule, siderophores, and adhesins. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from CA-UTI in Iran. A total of 152 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from CA-UTI patients in Tehran from September 2015 through April 2016. Out of 152 isolates, 40 (26.3%) carried blaCTX-M-15. PCR was performed for detection of virulence genes in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. Furthermore, all of these isolates were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Using MLVA method, 36 types were identified. CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were grouped into 5 clonal complexes (CCs). Of these isolates, mrkD was the most prevalent virulence gene (95%), followed by kpn (60%), rmpA (37.5%), irp (35%), and magA (2.5%). No correlation between MLVA types or CCs and virulence genes or antibiotic resistance patterns was observed. Overall, it is thought that CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from CA-UTI have arisen from different clones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  15. Gene analysis for the CTX-M-9 group extended spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Shigella%临床分离志贺菌中CTX-M-9型超广谱β-内酰胺酶基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗元; 刘静; 王利萍; 崔京辉; 王永全; 吴本和; 靳博; 苗智慧

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解本地区临床分离志贺菌中CTX-M-9型超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)分布,分析CTX-M-9型基因的种类、数量以及多态性.方法:收集2008年-2011年本地区临床分离非重复的志贺菌94株,聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测CTX-M-9型ESBLs基因,对PCR阳性产物进行测序,测序结果在GenBank上比对确定基因亚型,并通过DNAman软件对核酸序列进行分析,确定SNPs位点.结果:94株志贺菌中,17株携带CTX-M-9型ESBLs基因,阳性率18.09%,并在福氏志贺菌、宋内志贺菌和鲍氏志贺菌中均有检出.对DNA序列进行比对、分析,均为CTX-M-14亚型,未发现SNPs位点.结论:本地区志贺菌中CTX-M-9型ESBLs以CTX-M-14亚型为主,基因结构稳定,未发生变异,并可广泛在志贺菌各血清型中存在.%Objective:To understand the genotype distribution of CTX - M -9 group extended spectrum beta -lactamases (ESBLs) in clinical isolates of Shigella in Xicheng District of Beijing,and to analyze the species, quantity and polymorphism of CTX - M - 9 group gene. Methods: Ninety - four strains of non - reduplicative clinical isolates of Shigella were colleted from 2008 to 2011 in Xicheng District of Beijing,the CTX - M -9 group ESBLs gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ,then sequencing for PCR positive productions were performed, the sequencing results were compared in GenBank to determine gene subtypes, meanwhile the nucleotide sequence was analyzed by means of DNAman software to determine SNPs site. Results: Among 94 strains of Shigella, Seventeen strains( 18.09% ) carried CTX - M - 9 group ESBLs gene, furthermore, which was detected in Shigella flexneri,Shigella sonnei and Shigella boydii. The results of DNA sequence analysis showed that CTX - M - 9 group ESBLs were all CTX - M - 14 subtype,and no SNPs site was found. Conclusion: The CTX - M -9 type ESBLs in Xicheng District of Beijing are mainly CTX - M - 14 subtype,and the gene structure is stable,without gene

  16. Development of a Multiplex PCR for Discrimination of the TLC:RS1:CTX array of Vibrio cholerae Wave 3 El Tor Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Nair, G Balakrish; Kim, Dong Wook

    2016-12-28

    Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup Wave 3 El Tor strains are presently prevalent worldwide. The Wave 3 El Tor strains contain a TLC:RS1:CTX array on chromosome 1, and no element is integrated on chromosome 2. A multiplex PCR optimized to identify the TLC:RS1:CTX array of Wave 3 strains has been developed in this study. By using eight primers, the multiplex PCR can identify the characteristic CTX and RS1 array of Wave 3 strains from various arrays of strains belonging to other Waves. The four amplified DNA fragments of Wave 3 strains have been cloned in a vector, which could be used as a positive control for the multiplex PCR. This multiplex PCR and the positive control set could be useful tools for rapid recognition of Wave 3 El Tor strains.

  17. Co-prevalance of PMQR and 16S rRNA methylase genes in clinical Escherichia coli isolates with high diversity of CTX-M from diseased farmed pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Yang, Lei; Lü, Dian-Hong; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ren, Si-Qi; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we determined the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farmed pigeons in China. A total of 71 E. coli isolates were collected from three pigeon farms from 2011 to 2012 and screened for the presence of the ESBL genes. The ESBLs producers were further tested for the presence of PMQR-encoding genes as well as the 16S rRNA methylase gene using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Co-transfer of plasmids encoding for ESBLs, PMQR determinants and/or 16S rRNA methylase gene was performed by conjugation into E. coli. The genetic relatedness and plasmid replicon type were determined. A total of 41 ESBLs producers were identified. Only CTX-M type ESBLs were detected, with the most common CTX-M types being CTX-M-65 (n=17), CTX-M-27 (n=11), CTX-M-55 (n=10). Thirty-eight CTX-M-positive isolates were found to harbor at least one PMQR gene, with aac(6')-Ib-cr (n=32) and oqxAB (n=21) being the most prevalent. The rmtB was the only prevalent 16S rRNA methylase gene detected in 24 (58.1%) CTX-M-positive isolates. Although most of the CTX-M producers had distinct pulsotypes, clonal transmission in the same farm was observed. blaCTX-M genes were carried by IncF alone or in combination with IncK plasmids with three different sizes, including 76.8Kb (n=20), 194Kb (n=5), 104.5Kb (n=2). PFGE profiles of CTX-M-positive E. coli isolates indicated potential horizontal spread of these multidrug resistant strains along with those CTX-M encoding genes. Our findings highlight the importance of pigeons as a reservoir of multiple antimicrobial resistance genes.

  18. High-virulence CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from commercial turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ketrin Cristina; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Cerdeira, Louise; de Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Xavier; de Oliveira, Mirela Caroline Vilela; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Lincopan, Nilton; Knöbl, Terezinha; Moreno, Andrea Micke

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the high-virulence phylogenetic backgrounds of CMY-2- and CTX-M-2-producing avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from turkeys sent to slaughter and condemned by airsacculitis in Brazil. Among 300 air sac samples, seven E. coli strains produced plasmid-mediated CMY-2-type AmpC, of which three carried also the blaCTX-M-2 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase encoding gene. Interestingly, the transfer of the blaCMY-2 gene was positive for three E. coli strains, being associated with the presence of IncI1 plasmids. The complete sequence of the representative pJB10 plasmid revealed that the blaCMY-2 gene was within a transposon-like element in the classical genetic environment consisting of tnpA-blaCMY-2-blc-sugE structure. This plasmid with 94-kb belonged to the sequence type (ST) 12 among IncI1 plasmids, which has been associated with the worldwide spread of blaCMY-2 among Salmonella enterica and E. coli. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequence of a CMY-2-encoding plasmid derived from an Escherichia coli isolated from food-producing animals in Latin America.

  19. Characterization of a CTX-M-15 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae outbreak strain assigned to a novel sequence type (1427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZhou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Between July and September 2012, a CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae caused an outbreak in a university hospital in the Netherlands. The outbreak isolates were characterized and assigned to a novel sequence type (ST1427. An epidemiological link between affected patients was supported by patient contact tracing and whole-genome phylogenetic analysis. Genetic diversity was detected among multiple isolates obtained from different body sites of the index patient, which may relate to antibiotic treatment and/or host adaptation. Environmental contamination caused by the outbreak clone was found in the patient rooms even on medical equipment. The novel clone was not closely related to any known endemic/epidemic clone, but carried a set of a plasmid-borne resistance genes (blaCTX-M-15, blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1, aac(6'-Ib-cr, qnrB1, tetA(A, aac(3-II. Analysis of its virulence factors revealed a previously uncharacterized capsular biosynthesis region and two uncharacterized fimbriae gene clusters, and suggested that the new clone was not hypervirulent. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak report of K. pneumoniae ST1427, and our study could be of help to understand the features of this newly emerging clone.

  20. Dissemination of multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 and CTX-M-15 in a Spanish hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Montero, Ignacio; Martínez, Óscar; Fleites, Ana; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice; Rodicio, M Rosario

    2015-10-01

    Twenty-one multiresistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates producing OXA-48 (n=10), CTX-M-15 (n=7) or both (n=4) β-lactamases were detected in a Spanish hospital during a 1-year period (June 2013 to June 2014). The isolates were also resistant to non-β-lactam antimicrobials, further complicating the therapeutic options. Genotyping of the isolates identified two major clones (ST74 and ST66) that caused prolonged outbreaks in different buildings of the hospital as well as some sporadic isolates (ST78, ST45 and ST295). Isolates belonging to clone 1 (n=7) were carbapenem-resistant and carried the bla(OXA-48) gene on a conjugative IncL/M plasmid of ca. 65 kb. Clone 2 isolates (n=11) were resistant to cefepime and harboured the bla(CTX-M-15) gene on an ca. 150-kb, non-conjugative plasmid of the IncF group, co-harbouring the qnrB and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes encoding quinolone resistance. Four clone 2 isolates were also resistant to carbapenems owing to the co-production of OXA-48. Most of the isolates were recovered from critically ill patients and were admitted to intensive care units; a single patient was transferred from another Spanish hospital. Intrahospital and interhospital dissemination of multiresistant E. cloacae isolates is of major clinical concern as it could lead to endemic nosocomial situations.

  1. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy Mohammed, El Sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El Sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said Abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, bla CTX-M-1, and bla CTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of bla VIM, bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried bla VIM, 24(72.7%) had bla TEM, and 5(15%) showed bla SHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored bla CTX-M-1, bla CTX-M-9, and bla CTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences.

  2. [Genetic diversity of extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains producers of beta-lactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Yasmin; Millán, Beatriz; Araque, María

    2017-06-01

    There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E. coli with diminished sensitivity to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration. We determined the phylogenetic groups, virulence factors and genes encoding antimicrobial resistance using PCR, and clonal characterization by repetitive element palindromic-PCR rep-PCR. All strains showed resistance to cephalosporins and joint resistance to quinolones and aminoglycosides. The phylogenetic distribution showed that the A and B1 groups were the most frequent, followed by D and B2. We found all the virulence factors analyzed in the B2 group, and fimH gene was the most frequent among them. We found blaCTX-M in all strains,with a higher prevalence of blaCTX-M-8; two of these strains showed coproduction of blaCTX-M-9 and were genetically identified as blaCTXM-65 and blaCTX-M-147 by sequencing. The strains under study showed genetic diversity, hosting a variety of virulence genes, as well as antimicrobial resistance with no particular phylogroup prevalence. This is the first report of blaCTX-M alleles in Venezuela and in the world associated to non-genetically related strains isolated in health care units, a situation that deserves attention, as well as the rationalization of antimicrobials use.

  3. Emergence of CTX-M-15 producing E. coli O25b-ST131 clone in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, N; Shamsuzzaman, S M

    2016-12-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing uropathogens has become prevalent worldwide. E. coli O25b-ST131 clone, associated with blaCTX-M-15, has been reported from many parts of the world and is frequently associated with multidrug resistance. Thus far, there are no reports about this clone in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to investigate ESBL producing uropathogens and to survey the prevalence of E. coli O25b-ST131 clone among ESBL positive E. coli isolates. From symptomatic urinary tract infection cases, a total of 800 urine samples were collected. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using established methods. Screening of ESBL producers was done using the disk diffusion method. Screening positive isolates were phenotypically confirmed by double disk synergy (DDS) test. Genes encoding ESBLs (blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1) were identified both by PCR and DNA sequencing. Phenotypic positive ESBL producers were also studied by PCR for existence of class 1 integron. Subsequently, O25b-ST131 clone was identified by allele specific PCR. Of 138 gram-negative uropathogens, 45 (32.6%) were positive for ESBLs. ESBL producers showed high frequency of antimicrobial resistance except imipenem. Among 45 ESBL producers, 36 (80%) produced blaCTX-M-15, 18 (40%) produced blaOXA-1. Fifteen (33.3%) strains simultaneously produced both blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Class 1 integron was present in 30 (66.7%) isolates. Of the 31 blaCTX-M-15 positive E. coli, 22 (71%) were positive for E. coli O25b-ST131 clone and all (100%) belonged to B2 phylogenetic group. Rising antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens, and especially the emergence of blaCTX-M-15 positive E. coli O25b-ST131 clone in Bangladesh has provided urgency to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli CTX-M-15 and Klebsiella pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases from bovine mastitis isolates in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Dorina; Maciuca, Iuliana E; Evans, Nicholas J; Williams, Helen; Wattret, Andrew; Fick, Jenny C; Williams, Nicola J

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports raised concerns about the role that farm stock may play in the dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. This study characterized the ESBLs in two Escherichia coli and three Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates from cases of clinical bovine mastitis in the United Kingdom. Bacterial culture and sensitivity testing of bovine mastitic milk samples identified Gram-negative cefpodoxime-resistant isolates, which were assessed for their ESBL phenotypes. Conjugation experiments and PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT) were used for characterization of transferable plasmids. E. coli isolates belonged to sequence type 88 (ST88; determined by multilocus sequence typing) and carried blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1, while K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates carried blaSHV-12 and blaTEM-1. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that blaCTX-M-15 and blaTEM-1 were carried on a conjugative plasmid in E. coli, and PBRT identified this to be an IncI1 plasmid. The resistance genes were nontransferable in K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae isolates. Moreover, in the E. coli isolates, an association of ISEcp1 and IS26 with blaCTX-M-15 was found where the IS26 element was inserted upstream of both ISEcp1 and the blaCTX-M promoter, a genetic arrangement highly similar to that described in some United Kingdom human isolates. We report the first cases in Europe of bovine mastitis due to E. coli CTX-M-15 and also of bovine mastitis due to K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae SHV-12 β-lactamases in the United Kingdom. We also describe the genetic environment of blaCTX-M-15 and highlight the role that IncI1 plasmids may play in the spread and dissemination of ESBL genes, which have been described in both human and cattle isolates.

  5. The study of ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from 1961 to 2010 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁未丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae(V.cholerae)O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China from1961 to 2010.Methods All 385 toxigenic V.cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains were selected,which were isolated in China between year 1961 and 2010.ctx B gene was amplified by PCR method and sequenced for further analysis.rstR was detected with PCR by using the genotype

  6. Spread of blaCTX-M-14 Is Driven Mainly by IncK Plasmids Disseminated among Escherichia coli Phylogroups A, B1, and D in Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Aránzazu; Cantón, Rafael; Garcillán-Barcia, M. Pilar; Novais, Ângela; Galán, Juan Carlos; Alvarado, Andrés; de la Cruz, Fernando; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M.

    2009-01-01

    Since its first description in 2000, CTX-M-14 has become one of the most widespread extended-spectrum β-lactamases in Spain. In the present Escherichia coli multilevel population genetic study involving the characterization of phylogroups, clones, plasmids, and genetic platforms, 61 isolates from 16 hospitalized patients and 40 outpatients and healthy volunteers recovered from 2000 to 2005 were analyzed. Clonal relatedness (XbaI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] type, phylogenetic group, multilocus sequence type [MLST]) was established by standard methods. Analysis of transferred plasmids (I-CeuI; S1 nuclease; restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis; and analysis of RNA interference, replicase, and relaxase) was performed by PCR, sequencing, and hybridization. The genetic environment of blaCTX-M-14 was characterized by PCR on the basis of known associated structures (ISEcp1, IS903, ISCR1). The isolates were mainly recovered from patients in the community (73.8%; 45/61) with urinary tract infections (62.2%; 28/45). They were clonally unrelated by PFGE and corresponded to phylogenetic groups A (36.1%), D (34.4%), and B1 (29.5%). MLST revealed a high degree of sequence type (ST) diversity among phylogroup D isolates and the overrepresentation of the ST10 complex among phylogroup A isolates and ST359/ST155 among phylogroup B1 isolates. Two variants of blaCTX-M-14 previously designated blaCTX-M-14a (n = 59/61) and blaCTX-M-14b (n = 2/61) were detected. blaCTX-M-14a was associated with either ISEcp1 within IncK plasmids (n = 27), ISCR1 linked to an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1), or ISCR1 linked to IncI-like plasmids (n = 3). The blaCTX-M-14b identified was associated with an ISCR1 element located in an IncHI2 plasmid (n = 1) or with ISEcp1 located in IncK (n = 1). The CTX-M-14-producing E. coli isolates in our geographic area are frequent causes of community-acquired urinary tract infections. The increase in the incidence of such isolates is mostly due to the

  7. CTX/淀粉接枝PLA共聚物微球的制备及药物释放行为%Preparation and release of CTX microspheres encapsulated in starch graft PLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小玲

    2011-01-01

    Microspheres containing drug were prepared by oil-in-water emulsification-solvent evaporation technique,with the self-made amphiphilic and biodegradable polymer, starch graft poly(lactic acid) ( ST-gPLA) as the carrier,and cefotaxime as the model drug. The effect of PVA,oil/water vacuum ratio( Vo/Vw) ,polymer concentration in organic solvent, and stirring speed on diameter of microsphere, drug loading and ecapsulation efficiency were discussed. The microspheres were characterized by IR , DSC and SEM. The degradation ability of the microspheres in four surroundings was examined,and the drug release in vitro was evaluated. The results showed that when concentration of PVA and ST-g-PLA were 2% and 30% ,respectively , Vv/Vw, was 1 ∶ 6,the prepared microspheres had spherical shape with uniformity size and good dispersion. The drug loading rate and encapsulation efficiency were 8. 2% and 49. 2% ,respectively. The degradation rate of microspheres were : artificial intestinal liquid > alkali liquid > PBS > acid liquid, and the sustained release was remarkable.%采用乳化-溶剂挥发法,以头孢噻肟钠(CTX)为模型药物,以自制两亲性聚合物淀粉聚乳酸接枝共聚物(ST-g-PLA)为药物载体,制备了CTX/ST-g-PLA载药微球.考察了乳化剂PVA浓度、油水体积比、ST-g-PLA浓度及搅拌速度对微球粒径、载药量及包裹率的影响,采用IR,DSC和SEM等技术对微球结构进行了表征,研究了微球在4种不同介质中的降解性及体外释药性能.结果表明,当PVA浓度为2%,Vo/Vw=1:6,共聚物浓度为30%时,制备的微球外型规则,分散性好,载药率为8.2%,包载率为49.2%;微球在不同环境中降解速率不同:肠液>碱液>PBS>酸液;较PLA微球,CTX/ST-g-PLA微球有良好的缓释性.

  8. Cloning, Expression of Cytotoxin(CTX) from Chinase Cobra(Naja Naja Atra)%舟山眼镜蛇毒细胞毒素的克隆及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 王玥; 黄燕愉; 许云禄

    2010-01-01

    目的 构建舟山眼镜蛇毒细胞毒素(Cytotoxin,CTX)原核表达载体(pET42α(+)-CTX),并在大肠杆菌中表达CTX重组蛋白.方法 从舟山眼镜蛇毒中分离纯化细胞毒素(CTX),测定N-末端氨基酸序列并据此设计引物,以提取的舟山眼镜蛇毒腺总RNA为模板,通过RT-PCR方法扩增细胞毒素基因序列(CTX cDNA).将CTX cDNA定向克隆到原核表达载体pET42α(+)中,双酶切图谱、PCR和DNA测序鉴定,转化宿主菌E.coli BL21(DE3),异丙基硫代-β-D半乳糖苷(IPTG)诱导,SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳分析表达产物,GSTrap FF亲和层析纯化融合蛋白CTX;Western-blotting鉴定.结果 成功合成CTX cDNA,并构建原核表达质粒pET42α(+)/GST-CTX,在大肠杆菌E.coli BL21(DE3)中表达融合蛋白CTX,SDS-PAGE凝胶浓度扫描显示表达量占菌体总蛋白的28.9%,western-blotting证实纯化蛋白为重组CTX融合蛋白(rCTX).结论 成功构建CTX基因的原核表达载体,并在大肠杆菌中表达,获得rCTX具有眼镜蛇毒CTX的抗原性.

  9. Trends in human fecal carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in the community: toward the globalization of CTX-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerther, Paul-Louis; Burdet, Charles; Chachaty, Elisabeth; Andremont, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    In the last 10 years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) have become one of the main challenges for antibiotic treatment of enterobacterial infections, largely because of the current CTX-M enzyme pandemic. However, most studies have focused on hospitalized patients, though today it appears that the community is strongly affected as well. We therefore decided to devote our investigation to trends in ESBL-E fecal carriage rates and comprehensively reviewed data from studies conducted on healthy populations in various parts of the world. We show that (i) community ESBL-E fecal carriage, which was unknown before the turn of the millennium, has since increased significantly everywhere, with developing countries being the most affected; (ii) intercontinental travel may have emphasized and globalized the issue; and (iii) CTX-M enzymes, especially CTX-M-15, are the dominant type of ESBL. Altogether, these results suggest that CTX-M carriage is evolving toward a global pandemic but is still insufficiently described. Only a better knowledge of its dynamics and biology will lead to further development of appropriate control measures.

  10. Occurrence of the Plasmid-Mediated Fluoroquinolone Resistance qepA1 Gene in Two Clonal Clinical Isolates of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanat, Betitera; Dali Yahia, Radia; Yazi, Leila; Machuca, Jesús; Díaz-De-Alba, Paula; Touati, Abdelaziz; Pascual, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Martínez, José-Manuel

    2016-10-13

    QepA is a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant of low prevalence described worldwide, mainly in Enterobacteriaceae. This study describes, for the first time in Algeria, two clonally related, QepA-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates positive for CTX-M-15. The clonal spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates is a major public health concern.

  11. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  12. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-Lactamases in Escherichia coli Fecal-Sample Isolates from Healthy Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 β-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A −42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates. PMID:12760899

  13. Detection of CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases in Escherichia coli fecal-sample isolates from healthy chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñas, Laura; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Zarazaga, Myriam; Porrero, Concepción; Sáenz, Yolanda; García, María; Dominguez, Lucas; Torres, Carmen

    2003-06-01

    Genes encoding the CMY-2, CTX-M-14, and SHV-12 beta-lactamases were detected in three of five Escherichia coli isolates from fecal samples from healthy chickens which showed resistance or diminished susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. A -42 mutation at the promoter region of the ampC gene was detected in the other two isolates.

  14. Selection and persistence of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in the intestinal flora of pigs treated with amoxicillin, ceftiofur, or cefquinome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Abatih, E.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), mainly of the CTX-M family, have been associated with Escherichia coli strains of animal origin in Europe. An in vivo experiment was performed to study the effects of veterinary beta-lactam drugs on the selection and persistence of ESBL-producing E. coli...

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Distribution of TEM and CTX-M Genes among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Causing Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs have been observed in nearly all the species of family Enterobacteriaceae. The enzymes are plasmid mediated and are derived from broad-spectrum beta lactamase TEM and CTX- M by a limited number of mutations. This study was undertaken to characterize ESBL producers among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by PCR, which were initially screened by phenotypic method. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate 180 strains (30 K. pneumoniae and 150 P. aeruginosa isolated from urine culture of hospitalized patients (Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, south-eastern Iran suffered from urinary tract infections during a period of six months. The prevalence of ESBL producing K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa was evaluated by disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR by detecting TEM and CTX-M gene. Results: The results of the study revealed that the prevalence of ESBL producing P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae by disk diffusion test was 13.3% for P. aeruginosa and 66.6% for K. pneumoniae. Seventy five percent and 65% of K. pneumoniae harboured the gene TEM and CTX-M, respectively. Forty five percent of P. aeruginosa isolates harboured the gene TEM but none of them demonstrated the gene CTX-M using PCR method. Conclusion: ESBL producing P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae isolates showed a high prevalence in this study. Therefore it seems that continuous surveillance is essential to monitor the ESBLs producing microorganisms in hospitals and community

  16. Emergence of Tetracycline Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Serotype Ogawa with Classical ctxB Gene from a Cholera Outbreak in Odisha, Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 2010, a cholera outbreak was reported from Odisha, Eastern India. V. cholerae isolated from the clinical samples were biochemically and serologically confirmed as serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, and serotype Ogawa. Multiplex PCR screening revealed the presence of various genes, namely, ompW, ctxB, zot, rfbO1, tcp, ace, hlyA, ompU, rtx, and toxR, in all of the isolates. The isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and vibriostatic agent 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (O/129. Minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline decreased in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP, suggesting the involvement of efflux pumps. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of class I integrons as well as SXT elements harbouring antibiotic resistance genes in all isolates. Sequencing revealed the presence of ctxB gene of classical biotype in all the isolates. The isolates harboured an RS1-CTX prophage array with El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome. The study indicated that the V. cholerae El Tor variants are evolving in the area with better antibiotic resistance and virulence potential.

  17. The IncI1 plasmid carrying the bla CTX-M-1 gene persists in in vitro culture of a Escherichia coli strain from broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, E.A.J.; Dierikx, C.M.; Essen-Zandbergen, van A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Mevius, D.J.; Stegeman, A.; Klinkenberg, D.

    2014-01-01

    Commensal bacteria are a reservoir for antimicrobial-resistance genes. In the Netherlands, bacteria producing Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) are found on chicken-meat and in the gut of broilers at a high prevalence and the predominant ESBL-gene is the blaCTX-M-1 located on IncI1 plasmids.

  18. Emergence of Tetracycline Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Serotype Ogawa with Classical ctxB Gene from a Cholera Outbreak in Odisha, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Kumar, P; Goel, A K

    2016-01-01

    In September 2010, a cholera outbreak was reported from Odisha, Eastern India. V. cholerae isolated from the clinical samples were biochemically and serologically confirmed as serogroup O1, biotype El Tor, and serotype Ogawa. Multiplex PCR screening revealed the presence of various genes, namely, ompW, ctxB, zot, rfbO1, tcp, ace, hlyA, ompU, rtx, and toxR, in all of the isolates. The isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B, spectinomycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and vibriostatic agent 2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylpteridine (O/129). Minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline decreased in the presence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), suggesting the involvement of efflux pumps. PCR analysis confirmed the presence of class I integrons as well as SXT elements harbouring antibiotic resistance genes in all isolates. Sequencing revealed the presence of ctxB gene of classical biotype in all the isolates. The isolates harboured an RS1-CTX prophage array with El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome. The study indicated that the V. cholerae El Tor variants are evolving in the area with better antibiotic resistance and virulence potential.

  19. Circulation of clonal populations of fluoroquinolone-resistant CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli ST410 in humans and animals in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falgenhauer, Linda; Imirzalioglu, Can; Ghosh, Hiren; Gwozdzinski, Konrad; Schmiedel, Judith; Gentil, Katrin; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Kämpfer, Peter; Seifert, Harald; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Werner, Guido; Pietsch, Michael; Roesler, Uwe; Guerra, Beatriz; Fischer, Jennie; Sharp, Hannah; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Goesmann, Alexander; Hille, Katja; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2016-06-01

    Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli encoding CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are isolated in increasing numbers from humans, companion animals and livestock, raising concern regarding the exchange and spread of isolates in these populations. In this study, whole-genome sequencing of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli isolates recently sampled from humans, companion animals, livestock and farm environments was performed. In total, 26 different sequence types (STs) were detected, of which ST410 was the most frequent and was the only ST present in all populations studied. Five clades (designated A-E) were detected within the ST410 isolates. In particular, isolates of clade B were present in all four populations and had core genomes that differed by less than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Isolates of clades B and C were also clonally marked, exhibiting identical chromosomal insertions of blaCTX-M-15 at distinct loci. These data provide strong evidence for the clonal dissemination of specific clades of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST410 in human and animal populations.

  20. Epidemiology of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing nosocomial -Escherichia coli infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huiqing; Sun, Fengjun; Chen, Jianhong; Ou, Qianyi; Feng, Wei; Yong, Xiaolan; Xia, Peiyuan

    2015-01-16

    Escherichia coli is one of the most common clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. The widespread cefotaxime-beta lactamases (CTX) has increased the multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli and has brought great trouble to the doctor treating the infection. ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were collected from different hospitals in different areas and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was analyzed by the agar dilution method. The resistance gene types were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the sequence types were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found that the blaCTX-M-1 group and the blaCTX-M-9 group were the main CTX-M gene types, with many kinds of MLST gene types. Except for TEM with high isolate, SHV, OXA and VEB were relatively rare, while no PER and GES was detected. Most strains may have other resistance mechanisms, and the ESBL positive strains have high resistance not only to cephalosporins but also to other kinds of antibiotics. The study provides wide epidemiological data and enables more effective infection control and treatment plans.

  1. Emergence of blaCTX-M-15 Gene and Its Transferability in Enterobacter spp. Isolated From the Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Salimian Rizi; Najar Peerayeh; Bakhshi; Rahbar

    2015-01-01

    Background Enterobacter spp. is increasingly recognized as an important nosocomial pathogen and implicated in many episodes of hospital acquired infections. Objectives The current study aimed to describe distribution and transferability of blaCTX-M-15 gene, and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern in the clinical isolates of Enterobacter spp. Materials and Methods A total of 110 E...

  2. First Description of the Extended Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase Gene blaCTX-M-109 in Salmonella Grumpensis Strains Isolated from Neonatal Nosocomial Infections in Dakar, Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou Diop

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants' stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL. blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella.

  3. Facile synthesis of uniform MoO2/Mo2CTx heteromicrospheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jie; Wang, Kangyan; Liu, Jun; Yao, Yang; Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Linyu; Zhang, Ruizhi; Lei, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Uniform nano/micro-spherical MoO2/Mo2CTx (T = O) heterostructures have been synthesized through a heterocatalytic reaction with subsequent facile calcinations. Given the high activity of HxMoO3/C precursors, this strategy opens a low-temperature route to realize the fabrication of nanocrystalline MoO2/Mo2CTx heterostructures, leading to achieve rapidly activated conversion reaction and extrinsic pseudocapacitive behaviour. Rather than carbon, highly conductive Mo2CTx decreases the charge transfer resistance in MoO2 and maintains its structural stability upon lithiation/delithiation, ensuring the heterostructures with excellent cyclability (e.g., up to 833 mA h g‑1 at 100 mA g‑1 for 160 cycles with 95% capacity retention) and high rate capability (e.g., 665 mA h g‑1 at 1 A g‑1). Additionally, owing to the carbon-free characteristic, the secondary nano/microstructure feature and the suppressed surface oxidation trait, MoO2/Mo2CTx heterostructures, therefore, can deliver an improved initial Coulombic efficiency (e.g., up to 78% at 100 mA g‑1). The present oxycarbide transformation and hybridization strategies are facile but effective, and they are very promising to be applied to converting other oxides-carbon composites into oxides/carbides heterostructures towards achieving higher electrochemical performance.

  4. blaCTX-M-15 carried by IncF-type plasmids is the dominant ESBL gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae at a hospital in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyekum, Alex; Fajardo-Lubián, Alicia; Ansong, Daniel; Partridge, Sally R; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2016-04-01

    Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are among the most multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitals and are spreading worldwide. Horizontal gene transfer and spread of high-risk clones are involved in ESBL dissemination. Investigation of the resistance phenotypes of 101 consecutive clinical E. coli (n=58) and K. pneumoniae (n=43) isolated at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Ghana over 3 months revealed 63 (62%) with an ESBL phenotype. All 63 had a blaCTX-M gene, and sequence analysis showed that 62 of these were blaCTX-M-15. blaCTX-M-15 was linked to ISEcp1 and orf477Δ in all isolates, and most isolates also carried blaTEM, aac(3)-II, aacA4cr, and/or blaOXA-30 genes on IncF plasmids. XbaI/pulsed-field electrophoresis showed heterogeneity among isolates of both species, suggesting that blaCTX-M-15 dissemination is caused by horizontal gene transfer rather than clonal spread of these species in Ghana.

  5. Clonal spread of highly successful ST15-CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in companion animals and horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewers, Christa; Stamm, Ivonne; Pfeifer, Yvonne;

    2014-01-01

    senders from Germany and other European countries) mainly from companion animals and horses from October 2008 to March 2010. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PFGE were performed including human isolates for comparative purposes. RESULTS: The overall ESBL rate was 8% for Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical relevance and molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella species in animals. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of ESBLs were examined among Klebsiella spp. (n = 1519) from clinical samples (>1200....... pneumoniae. Most K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae ESBL producers were isolated from soft tissue infections (29.3%) and urinary tract infections (14.9%). The major ESBL type was CTX-M-15 (85.4%), located on different plasmid scaffolds (HI2, I1, FIA, FIB, FII, A/C, R and N). Other ESBL genes, such as bla...

  6. High Prevalence of Escherichia coli-Producing CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Poultry and Human Clinical Isolates in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciuca, Iuliana E; Williams, Nicola J; Tuchilus, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Guguianu, Eleonora; Carp-Carare, Catalin; Rimbu, Cristina; Timofte, Dorina

    2015-12-01

    Use of antibiotics in food animals may contribute to development and spread of resistant organisms, particularly so in some countries. The aim of this study was two-fold; first, to establish the prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in chicken production in a region within Romania. Second, to study the relatedness of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from broilers, abattoir workers where the chickens were slaughtered and from the human clinical specimens from two regional hospitals. The results indicated a very high (69%) rate of carriage of ESBL and AmpC-producing E. coli in chickens with 36% CTX-M producers. Sequencing showed that chickens in Romania have the highest worldwide prevalence (53%) of blaCTX-M-15 reported in poultry E. coli isolates. The majority (53%) of the extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli carried plasmid-mediated blaampC genes, mostly blaCMY-2 type, one of the highest prevalences reported in Europe. The predominant CTX-M type found in the human clinical E. coli isolates was blaCTX-M-15 and most isolates coharbored blaOXA-1, blaTEM, and aac(6')-ib-cr. The majority (60%) of the human clinical isolates belonged to the pandemic virulent clone B2-ST131. The clonal relationship between broiler and the human CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates was assessed by macrorestriction pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), which indicated strain diversity with no common STs found between human and poultry isolates. Moreover, IncI1 was the most prevalent replicon found in broiler ESBL-producing E. coli isolates and also in transconjugants, indicating that plasmids and not clonal spread may play a role in the transfer of blaCTX-M genes. This study identifies a high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli from broiler chickens in Romania with a high occurrence incidence of blaCTX-M-15, which reflects the main ESBL type found in human E. coli infections in this

  7. Biochemical characterization of CTX-M-15 from Enterobacter cloacae and designing a novel non-β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faheem

    Full Text Available The worldwide dissemination of CTX-M type β-lactamases is a threat to human health. Previously, we have reported the spread of bla(CTX-M-15 gene in different clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae from the hospital settings of Aligarh in north India. In view of the varying resistance pattern against cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics, we intended to understand the correlation between MICs and catalytic activity of CTX-M-15. In this study, steady-state kinetic parameters and MICs were determined on E. coli DH5α transformed with bla(CTX-M-15 gene that was cloned from Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15 strain of clinical background. The effect of conventional β-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam on CTX-M-15 was also studied. We have found that tazobactam is the best among these inhibitors against CTX-M-15. The inhibition characteristic of tazobactam is defined by its very low IC(50 value (6 nM, high affinity (K(i = 0.017 µM and better acylation efficiency (k(+2/K' = 0.44 µM(-1s(-1. It forms an acyl-enzyme covalent complex, which is quite stable (k(+3 = 0.0057 s(-1. Since increasing resistance has been reported against conventional β-lactam antibiotic-inhibitor combinations, we aspire to design a non-β-lactam core containing β-lactamase inhibitor. For this, we screened ZINC database and performed molecular docking to identify a potential non-β-lactam based inhibitor (ZINC03787097. The MICs of cephalosporin antibiotics in combination with this inhibitor gave promising results. Steady-state kinetics and molecular docking studies showed that ZINC03787097 is a reversible inhibitor which binds non-covalently to the active site of the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Though, it's IC(50 (180 nM is much higher than tazobactam, it has good affinity for CTX-M-15 (K(i = 0.388 µM. This study concludes that ZINC03787097 compound can be used as seed molecule to design more

  8. PINP,beta CTX levels in serum of colorectal cancer with helicobacter pylori infection and clinical significance%结直肠癌合并幽门螺杆菌感染患者血清中 PINP 和β- CTX 的水平及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨结直肠癌合并幽门螺旋杆菌(Hp)感染患者血中 I 型胶原氨基端前肽(PINP)、I 型胶原羧基端肽β特殊序列(β- CTX)的水平及临床意义。方法选择2010年2月至2014年12月期间70例结直肠癌患者为研究对象,70例结直肠癌中,临床分期 I ~ II 期48例,III ~ IV 期22例;低分化20例,中高分化50例;Hp 感染阳性者24例;Hp 感染阴性者46例。选择70例健康者为对照组。比较结直肠癌患者与对照组的 PINP、β- CTX 水平;不同分期、不同分化程度、Hp 感染与否以及促进骨形成药物治疗前后结直肠癌患者的 PINP、β- CTX 水平。结果结直肠癌组血清PINP、β- CTX 含量明显低于对照组( P ﹤0.01);III - IV 期结直肠癌患者血清 PINP、β- CTX 含量明显低于 I - II 期结直肠癌患者( P ﹤0.01);结直肠癌低分化组血清 PINP、β- CTX 含量明显低于结直肠癌中高分化组( P ﹤0.01);结直肠癌 Hp 阳性组血清 PINP、β- CTX 水平低于结直肠癌 Hp 阴性组( P ﹤0.01);结直肠癌患者经治疗后血清 PINP、β- CTX水平明显较治疗前提高( P ﹤0.01)。结论结直肠癌患者血中 PINP、β- CTX 低表达;PINP、β- CTX 的表达与结直肠癌的临床分期及分化程度有关,同时亦与结直肠癌患者 Hp 感染状况有关;给予结直肠癌患者促进骨形成药物治疗,可以提高患者的 PINP、β- CTX 水平,降低患者骨质疏松症发病风险。%Objective To study PINP,beta CTX levels in serum of colorectal cancer with helicobacter pylori infection and clinical signifi-cance. Methods Between January 2012 and December 2014,70 cases of colorectal cancer patients were selected as the research object. Of 70 cases of colorectal cancer,the clinical stage I - II 48 cases,III - IV 22 cases;50 cases of 20 patients with poorly differentiated the high differ-entiation. Hp infection were found in 24 cases. Hp

  9. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitors Synergize with TCDD to Induce CYP1A1/1A2 in Human Breast Epithelial MCF10A Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiakim, Aby; Mathieu, Patricia A; Shelp, Catherine; Boerner, Julie; Reiners, John J

    2016-05-01

    CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are transcriptionally activated in the human normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Shifting MCF10A cultures to medium deficient in serum and epidermal growth factor (EGF) caused rapid reductions in the activated (i.e., phosphorylated) forms of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Shifting to serum/EGF-deficient medium also enhanced TCDD-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 Treatment of cells cultured in complete medium with the EGFR inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa), AG1478, and CI-1033 resulted in concentration-dependent reductions of active EGFR and ERKs, and increased CYP1A1 mRNA content ∼3- to 18-fold above basal level. EGFR inhibitors synergized with TCDD and resulted in transient CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNA accumulations ∼8-fold greater (maximum at 5 hours) than that achieved with only TCDD. AG1478, gefitinib, and TCDD individually induced small increases (∼1.2- to 2.5-fold) in CYP1A1 protein content but did not cause additive or synergistic accumulations of CYP1A1 protein when used in combination. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD184352 inhibited ERK and EGFR activation in a concentration-dependent fashion without causing CYP1A1 mRNA accumulation. However, cotreatment with PD184352 potentiated TCDD-mediated CYP1A1 induction. TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 in MCF7-TET on-EGFR cells, a MCF7 variant in which EGFR expression can be controlled, was not affected by the activity status of EGFR or ERKs. Hence, EGFR signaling mutes both basal and ligand-induced expression of two aryl hydrocarbon receptor-responsive P450s in MCF10A cultures. However, these effects are cell context-dependent. Furthermore, CYP1A1 mRNA and protein abundance are not closely coupled in MCF10A cultures.

  10. Design of a Dual-Band Bidirectional Antenna Using Superellipse-Monopole-Fed Rectangular Ring for IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekajit Khoomwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a dual-band bidirectional ring antenna fed by a superellipse surface probe for 2.4/5 GHz WLAN applications. The Method of Moments (MoM with RWG basis function was utilized in the study and design processes. A prototype antenna was fabricated successfully with the advantages of simple and low-cost structure. The measured impedance bandwidth of 810 MHz (2.10–2.91 GHz and 2.39 GHz (3.57–5.96 GHz is achieved for the first and second band, respectively. The peak gains are also feasible, 4.67 dBi at 2.45 GHz and 7.83 dBi at 5.5 GHz, with bidirectional radiation patterns for both bands. From the experimental field tests, the proposed antenna was suitable for most applications in long and narrow communication sites in 2.4/5 GHz bands as desired. Also, the measured and calculated results were in good agreement.

  11. Expression Patterns of OsPIL11, a Phytochrome-Interacting Factor in Rice, and Preliminary Analysis of Its Roles in Light Signal Transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; PENG Wei-feng; LIU Qian-qian; ZHOU Jin-jun; LIANG Wei-hong; XIE Xian-zhi

    2012-01-01

    The expression patterns of OsPlL11,one of six putative phytochrome-interacting factors,were analyzed in different organs of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).The expression of OsPIL 11 was organ-specific and was regulated by leaf development,abscisic acid (ABA),jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA).To further explore the role of OsPlL 11 in plant light signal transduction,a plant expression vector of OsPIL11 was constructed and introduced into tobacco.When grown under continuous red light,OsPIL11-overexpressed transgenic tobacco exhibited shorter hypocotyls and larger cotyledons and leaves compared to wild-type seedlings.When grown under continuous far-red light,however,transgenic and wild-type seedlings showed similar phenotypes.These results indicate that OsPIL11 is involved in red light induced de-etiolation,but not in far-red light induced de-etiolation in transgenic tobacco,which lays the foundation for dissecting the function of OsPIL 11 in phytochrome-mediated light signal transduction in rice.

  12. Fever and infections during pregnancy and psychosis-like experiences in the offspring at age 11. A prospective study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, J W; Berg-Beckhoff, G; Andersen, A M N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposures to fever and infections in pregnancy have been linked to subsequent psychiatric morbidity in the child. This study examined whether fever and common infections in pregnancy were associated with psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) in the child. METHODS: A longitudinal...... models with probability weights to adjust for potential selection bias due to attrition suggested that maternal fever, genitourinary infections and influenza-like illness were associated with a weak to moderate increased risk of subclinical psychosis-like symptoms in the offspring, whereas respiratory...... tract infections were not. No clear pattern was observed between the strengths of the associations and the timing of exposure, or the type of psychosis-like symptom. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, maternal exposures to fevers and common infections in pregnancy were generally associated with a subtle excess...

  13. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A2 Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km Gird SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  14. The nature of the interstellar medium of the starburst low-metallicity galaxy Haro11: a multi-phase model of the infrared emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, D; Madden, S C; Abel, N; Hony, S; Galliano, F; Baes, M; Barlow, M J; Cooray, A; De Looze, I; Galametz, M; Karczewski, O L; Parkin, T J; Remy, A; Sauvage, M; Spinoglio, L; Wilson, C D; Wu, R

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) Our goal is to describe the multi-phase ISM of the IR bright low-metallicity galaxy Haro 11, dissecting the photoionised and photodissociated gas components. We present observations of the mid- and far-IR fine-structure cooling lines obtained with the Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/PACS spectrometers. We use the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to methodically model the ionised and neutral gas from which these lines originate. We find that the mid- and far-IR lines account for ~1% of the total IR luminosity L_TIR. Haro 11 is undergoing a phase of intense star formation, as traced by the brightest line [OIII] 88um, with L_[OIII]/L_TIR ~0.3%, and high ratios of [NeIII]/[NeII] and [SIV]/[SIII]. Due to their different origins, the observed lines require a multi-phase modeling comprising: a compact HII region, dense fragmented photodissociation regions (PDRs), a diffuse extended low-ionisation/neutral gas which has a volume filling factor of at least 90%, and porous warm dust in proximity to the stellar source....

  15. Gene Cloning and Characterization of the Geobacillus thermoleovorans CCR11 Carboxylesterase CaesCCR11, a New Member of Family XV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Luna, Graciela; Sánchez-Otero, María Guadalupe; Quintana-Castro, Rodolfo; Matus-Toledo, Rodrigo Eloir; Oliart-Ros, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    A gene encoding a carboxylesterase produced by Geobacillus thermoleovoras CCR11 was cloned in the pET-3b cloning vector, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Gene sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 750 bp that encodes a polypeptide of 250 amino acid residues (27.3 kDa) named CaesCCR11. The enzyme showed its maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 5-8, with preference for C4 substrates, confirming its esterase nature. It displayed good resistance to temperature, pH, and the presence of organic solvents and detergents, that makes this enzyme biotechnologically applicable in the industries such as fine and oleo-chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, organic synthesis, biodiesel production, detergents, and food industries. A 3D model of CaesCCR11 was predicted using the Bacillus sp. monoacyl glycerol lipase bMGL H-257 structure as template (PBD code 3RM3, 99 % residue identity with CaesCCR11). Based on its canonical α/β hydrolase fold composed of 7 β-strands and 6 α-helices, the α/β architecture of the cap domain, the GLSTG pentapeptide, and the formation of distinctive salt bridges, we are proposing CaesCCR11 as a new member of family XV of lipolytic enzymes.

  16. The Global War on Terrorism Post 9/11: A Comparison in Ends, Ways and Means between a Superpower and a Small Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    available from: <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/print> Internet; Accessed 21 January 2004. 18 Espen Barth Eide, “Internasjonal terrorisme ...October 2003. 59 Pernille Rieker, Bjoern Olav Knutsen, “EU’s kamp mot terrorisme ”, International Politikk (NUPI Juni 2003) 60 Kjell Magne Bondevik...Folk og Forsvar, “Boer Norge stoette USA i kampen mot terrorisme ?” (AC Nielsen, Rapport 1/11/01). 74 Kjell Magne Bondevik, “Statement to the Storting

  17. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated (r = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Isolation, modulatory functions on murine B cell development and antigen-specific immune responses of BP11, a novel peptide from the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Feng, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Bin; Cao, Rui-Bing; Li, Xin-Feng; Ma, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2012-05-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is the central humoral immune organ unique to birds which plays important roles in B lymphocyte differentiation. Here, a new bursal peptide (BP11) with the amino acid sequence DVAGKLPDNRT was identified and characterized from BF. It was proved that BP11 promoted CFU pre-B formation, and regulated B cell differentiation, including increase the percentage of immature and mature B cells in BM cells co-cultured with IL-7. BP11 also exerted immunomodulatory function on antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice immunized with inactivated influence virus (AIV, H9N2 subtype) vaccine, including enhancing AIV-specific antibody and cytokine production. Furthermore, it was noteworthy that BP11 stimulated antibody productions and potentiates the Th1 and Th2-type immune responses in dose-dependent manner in chicken. These results suggested that BP11 might be highly relevant for the development of avian immune system.

  19. WE-E-213CD-11: A New Automatically Generated Metric for Evaluating the Spatial Precision of Deformable Image Registrations: The Distance Discordance Metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Z; Apte, A; Sharp, G; Deasy, J

    2012-06-01

    We propose a new metric called Distance Discordance (DD), which is defined as the distance between two anatomic points from two moving images, which are co-located on some reference image, when deformed onto another reference image. To demonstrate the concept of DD, we created a reference software phantom which contains two objects. The first object (1) consists of a hollow box with a fixed size core and variable wall thickness. The second object (2) consists of a solid box of fixed size and arbitrary location. 7 different variations of the fixed phantom were created. Each phantom was deformed onto every other phantom using two B-Spline DIR algorithms available in Elastix and Plastimatch. Voxels were sampled from the reference phantom [1], which were also deformed from moving phantoms [2…6], and we find the differences in their corresponding location on phantom [7]. Each voxel results in a distribution of DD values, which we call distance discordance histogram (DDH). We also demonstrate this concept in 8 Head & Neck patients. The two image registration algorithms produced two different DD results for the same phantom image set. The mean values of the DDH were slightly lower for Elastix (0-1.28 cm) as compared to the values produced by Plastimatch (0-1.43 cm). The combined DDH for the H&N patients followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 0.45 cm and std. deviation of 0.42 cm. The proposed distance discordance (DD) metric is an easily interpretable, quantitative tool that can be used to evaluate the effect of inter-patient variability on the goodness of the registration in different parts of the patient anatomy. Therefore, it can be utilized to exclude certain images based on their DDH characteristics. In addition, this metric does not rely on 'ground truth' or the presence of contoured structures. Partially supported by NIH grant R01 CA85181. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Airborne Communications Systems and Airborne Command and Control Communications Equipment, AFSCs 1A3X1/1A5X2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    exercises 52 H4-11 Operate airborne communications transmitters 52 E176 Maintain mission narrative logs 52 E165 Maintain aircrew currency...Practice alert force exercises 52 0790 Load codes in KY-75 cryptographic systems 52 F221 Inventory communications kits 50 E176 Maintain mission...ST0474 MAINTAINING SUPPORT MATERIALS E169 Maintain COMSEC materials E176 Maintain mission narrative logs E 164 Log incoming or outgoing messages F235

  1. Bottom RedOx Model (BROM v.1.1): a coupled benthic-pelagic model for simulation of water and sediment biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushev, Evgeniy V.; Protsenko, Elizaveta A.; Bruggeman, Jorn; Wallhead, Philip; Pakhomova, Svetlana V.; Yakubov, Shamil Kh.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Couture, Raoul-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between seawater and benthic systems play an important role in global biogeochemical cycling. Benthic fluxes of some chemical elements (e.g., C, N, P, O, Si, Fe, Mn, S) alter the redox state and marine carbonate system (i.e., pH and carbonate saturation state), which in turn modulate the functioning of benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The redox state of the near-bottom layer in many regions can change with time, responding to the supply of organic matter, physical regime, and coastal discharge. We developed a model (BROM) to represent key biogeochemical processes in the water and sediments and to simulate changes occurring in the bottom boundary layer. BROM consists of a transport module (BROM-transport) and several biogeochemical modules that are fully compatible with the Framework for the Aquatic Biogeochemical Models, allowing independent coupling to hydrophysical models in 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D. We demonstrate that BROM is capable of simulating the seasonality in production and mineralization of organic matter as well as the mixing that leads to variations in redox conditions. BROM can be used for analyzing and interpreting data on sediment-water exchange, and for simulating the consequences of forcings such as climate change, external nutrient loading, ocean acidification, carbon storage leakage, and point-source metal pollution.

  2. 11 th fuel reload of the Unit 1, leadership with results; 11a recarga de combustible de la Unidad 1, liderazgo con resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: hsr98581@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    At the moment the companies with world class, the formation of intellectual capital is a strategy to reach the excellence; the Management of Nucleo electric Centrals (GCN), aware of this strategy to achieve the mission commended, it establishes that it is decisive the leadership among their collaborators for the achievement of the goals. The obtained results in the 11 th reload of the Unit 1 are a sample of as how the leaders and collaborators when making work in team they have achieved the best results (collective dose and reload duration), until today in what is the history of the commercial operation of the Unit 1. (Author)

  3. Educación emocional en Educación Primaria para niños de 9 a 11 años

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos-Carrera, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Las emociones forman parte de nuestra vida desde el momento en que nacemos. Es por ello que juegan un papel fundamental en nuestra existencia y experiencia vital, al regular nuestras relaciones con nosotros mismos y con los demás. La afectividad, los sentimientos forman parte de ese gran cúmulo emocional que sentimos a lo largo de nuestra vida. Durante la infancia, el desarrollo emocional es especialmente significativo, porque ocurre de forma pura y transparente, en la medida que el niño esté...

  4. Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal and speckle-targeting sequence of tuftelin-interacting protein 11, a splicing factor involved in spliceosome disassembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tannukit, Sissada [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Crabb, Tara L.; Hertel, Klemens J. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025 (United States); Wen, Xin [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Jans, David A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Paine, Michael L., E-mail: paine@usc.edu [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    Tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11) is a protein component of the spliceosome complex that promotes the release of the lariat-intron during late-stage splicing through a direct recruitment and interaction with DHX15/PRP43. Expression of TFIP11 is essential for cell and organismal survival. TFIP11 contains a G-patch domain, a signature motif of RNA-processing proteins that is responsible for TFIP11-DHX15 interactions. No other functional domains within TFIP11 have been described. TFIP11 is localized to distinct speckled regions within the cell nucleus, although excluded from the nucleolus. In this study sequential C-terminal deletions and mutational analyses have identified two novel protein elements in mouse TFIP11. The first domain covers amino acids 701-706 (VKDKFN) and is an atypical nuclear localization signal (NLS). The second domain is contained within amino acids 711-735 and defines TFIP11's distinct speckled nuclear localization. The identification of a novel TFIP11 nuclear speckle-targeting sequence (TFIP11-STS) suggests that this domain directly interacts with additional spliceosomal components. These data help define the mechanism of nuclear/nuclear speckle localization of the splicing factor TFIP11, with implications for it's function.

  5. 1-(5a,5b,8,8,11a,13b-Hexamethyleicosahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]chrysen-3-yl-1-ethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Parvez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C29H48O, is a triterpenoid isolated from Adiantum incisum forssk. In the crystal structure, the asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules which are not significantly different. Each molecule contains four six-membered rings, all adopting chair conformations, and a five-membered ring in an envelope conformation. In the molecular structure, non-classical intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed.

  6. Effects of BmKNJX11, a bioactive polypeptide purified from Buthus martensi Karsch, on sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Jie; An, Shan-Shan; Cheng, Hong; Xu, San-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xiao, Hang

    2009-01-01

    A long-chain polypeptide BmKNJX11 was purified from the venom of Asian scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch (BmK) by a combination of gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass was found to be 7036.85 Da by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The first 15 N-terminal amino acid sequence of BmKNJX11 was determined to be GRDAY IADSE NCTYT by Edman degradation. With whole cell recording, BmKNJX11 inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels (TTX-S VGSC) in freshly isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. At a concentration of 40 mug/ml BmKNJX11 lowered the activation threshold and produced negative shifting of TTX-S sodium current (I(Na)) activation curve. In addition, BmKNJX11 induced shifting of the steady-state inactivation curve to the left, delayed the recovery of TTX-S I(Na) from inactivation, and also reduced the fraction of available sodium channels. These results suggested that BmKNJX11 might exert effects on VGSC by binding to a specific site. Considering that TTX-S VGSC expressed in DRG neurons play a critical role in nociceptive transmission, the interaction of BmKNJX11 with TTX-S VGSC might lead to a change in excitability of nociceptive afferent fibers, which may be involved in the observed peripheral pain expression.

  7. The dehydrated copper silicate Na2[Cu2Si4O11]: a three-dimensional microporous framework with a linear Si—O—Si linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe A. Almeida Paz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title dehydrated copper silicate, disodium dicopper undecaoxide tetrasilicate, Na2(Cu2O11Si4, was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction from a non-merohedral twin. It exhibits an effective three-dimensional microporous framework with the major channels, in which the Na+ cations are placed, running along the a-axis direction and smaller channels observed along the b-axis direction. The structure is unusual in that it contains a symmetry-constrained Si—O—Si angle of 180°. The Cu centre is coordinated to five O atoms, exhibiting a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The Na cation is interacting with five neighbouring O atoms, exhibiting an uncharacteristic coordination environment.

  8. The dehydrated copper silicate Na(2)[Cu(2)Si(4)O(11)]: a three-dimensional microporous framework with a linear Si-O-Si linkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Silva, Luís; Brandão, Paula; Rocha, João; Almeida Paz, Filipe A

    2008-01-23

    The structure of the title dehydrated copper silicate, disodium dicopper undeca-oxide tetra-silicate, Na(2)(Cu(2)O(11)Si(4)), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction from a non-merohedral twin. It exhibits an effective three-dimensional microporous framework with the major channels, in which the Na(+) cations are placed, running along the a-axis direction and smaller channels observed along the b-axis direction. The structure is unusual in that it contains a symmetry-constrained Si-O-Si angle of 180°. The Cu centre is coordinated to five O atoms, exhibiting a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The Na cation is interacting with five neighbouring O atoms, exhibiting an uncharacteristic coordination environment.

  9. The dehydrated copper silicate Na2[Cu2Si4O11]: a three-dimensional microporous framework with a linear Si—O—Si linkage

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the title dehydrated copper silicate, disodium dicopper undecaoxide tetrasilicate, Na2(Cu2O11Si4), was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction from a non-merohedral twin. It exhibits an effective three-dimensional microporous framework with the major channels, in which the Na+ cations are placed, running along the a-axis direction and smaller channels observed along the b-axis direction. The structure is unusual in that it contains a symmetry-constrained Si—OR...

  10. MODIS/Aqua MYD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  11. Road safety performance indicators : updated country comparisons. SafetyNet, Building the European Road Safety Observatory, Workpackage 3, Deliverable 3.11a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riguelle, F. Eksler, V. Holló, P. Vis, M. Gitelman, V. Assum, T. & Rackliff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent figures of chosen safety performance indicators of 29 European countries – the 27 EU member states, complemented with Norway and Switzerland. The comparison is done for five road safety performance indicators in the following areas: alcohol and drugs,

  12. A user`s guide to LUGSAN 1.1: A computer program to calculate and archive lug and sway brace loads for aircraft-carried stores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, W.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1994-07-01

    LUGSAN (LUG and Sway brace ANalysis) is a analysis and database computer program designed to calculate store lug and sway brace loads from aircraft captive carriage. LUGSAN combines the rigid body dynamics code, SWAY85 and the maneuver calculation code, MILGEN, with an INGRES database to function both as an analysis and archival system. This report describes the operation of the LUGSAN application program, including function description, layout examples, and sample sessions. This report is intended to be a user`s manual for version 1.1 of LUGSAN operating on the VAX/VMS system. The report is not intended to be a programmer or developer`s manual.

  13. 6-Nitro-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine-5,11(10H,11aH-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdessamad Jebani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the two molecules of the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C12H11N3O4, the seven-membered diazepine ring adopts a boat conformation (with the two phenylene C atoms representing the stern and the methine C atom the prow. The five-membered pyrrole ring, which has an envelope conformation, makes dihedral angles of 60.47 (10 and 54.69 (9° with the benzene ring of the benzodiazepine unit in the two molecules. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8023 (7–3.8946 (7 Å] lead to the formation of a three-dimensional framework.

  14. Structural and functional characterization of CalS11, a TDP-rhamnose 3′-O-methyltransferase involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Helmich, Kate E.; Bingman, Craig A.; Wrobel, Russel L.; Beebe, Emily T.; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Aceti, David J.; Dyer, Kevin; Hura, Greg L.; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J.; Phillips, George N.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar methyltransferases (MTs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes which catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to sugar-based N-, C- and O- nucleophiles. While sugar N- and C-MTs involved in natural product biosynthesis have been found to act on sugar nucleotide substrates prior to a subsequent glycosyltransferase reaction, corresponding sugar O-methylation reactions studied thus far occur after the glycosyltransfer reaction. Herein we report the first in vitro characterization using 1H-13C-gHSQC with isotopically-labeled substrates and the X-ray structure determination at 1.55 Å resolution of the TDP-3′-O-rhamnose-methyltransferase CalS11 from Micromonospora echinospora. This study highlights a unique NMR-based methyltransferase assay, implicates CalS11 to be a metal and general acid/base-dependent O-methyltransferase and, as a first crystal structure for a TDP-hexose-O-methyltransferase, presents a new template for mechanistic studies and/or engineering. PMID:23662776

  15. Structural and functional characterization of CalS11, a TDP-rhamnose 3'-O-methyltransferase involved in calicheamicin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Helmich, Kate E; Bingman, Craig A; Wrobel, Russell L; Beebe, Emily T; Makino, Shin-Ichi; Aceti, David J; Dyer, Kevin; Hura, Greg L; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2013-07-19

    Sugar methyltransferases (MTs) are an important class of tailoring enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to sugar-based N-, C- and O-nucleophiles. While sugar N- and C-MTs involved in natural product biosynthesis have been found to act on sugar nucleotide substrates prior to a subsequent glycosyltransferase reaction, corresponding sugar O-methylation reactions studied thus far occur after the glycosyltransfer reaction. Herein we report the first in vitro characterization using (1)H-(13)C-gHSQC with isotopically labeled substrates and the X-ray structure determination at 1.55 Å resolution of the TDP-3'-O-rhamnose-methyltransferase CalS11 from Micromonospora echinospora. This study highlights a unique NMR-based methyltransferase assay, implicates CalS11 to be a metal- and general acid/base-dependent O-methyltransferase, and as a first crystal structure for a TDP-hexose-O-methyltransferase, presents a new template for mechanistic studies and/or engineering.

  16. Resecciones hepáticas regladas por la técnica de la digitoclasia: Experiencia en 11 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Dopico Reyes

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una serie de 134 pacientes, a los cuales se les realizaron resecciones hepáticas regladas por la técnica de la digitoclasia, entre mayo de 1984 y septiembre de 1995 en los hospitales: "Provincial Clinicoquirúrgico" (1984-1987 y "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" (1988-1995, ambos de la ciudad de Pinar del Río. La edad varió entre los 18 y 91 años. Los tumores fueron la principal causa de resección en 81 pacientes (60,4 %, para ocupar el primer lugar el metastásico en 47 (35,0 %. La lobectomía izquierda fue la operación más efectuada (23,8 % y las de mayor morbilidad la lobectomía derecha y la hemihepatectomía derecha. Las complicaciones posoperatorias más frecuentes en los tumores fueron, el derrame pleural derecho y la ascitis transitoria y en los traumas el distress respiratorio. Fallecieron 6 pacientes (4,4 % 0, 3 de éstos por dehiscencia de derivaciones biliodigestivas de etiología neoplásicaA series of 134 patients is presented; these were submitted to hepatic resections ruled by the digitoclassis technique, between May 1984 and September 1995 in both hospitals at Pinar del Río province: "Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico" (1984-1987 and "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" (1988-1995. Ages ranged from 18 to 91 years old. Tumors were the main cause of resection in 81 patients (60.4 %, having the first place the metastatic tumors in 47 (35.0 %. Left lobectomy was the most performed operation (23.8 %: right lobectomy and right hemihepatectomy had the highest morbidity. The most frequent postoperative complications in tumors were right pleural effusion and transitory ascites, and in traumas, respiratory distress. Six patients deceased (4.4 %, three of them due to dehiscence of bilious-digestive derivations of neoplastic etiology

  17. Impacto de la salud bucal en la calidad de vida de escolares de 11 a 14 años, Licantén, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ruiz,Ximena; Vera Abara,Constanza; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción La salud bucal forma parte de la salud general, siendo reconocida como un componente esencial para la calidad de vida. Se ha desarrollado hace algunos años el concepto de «calidad de vida relacionada con la salud bucal», para esto se han creado diferentes índices enfocados en adultos y niños. Para estos últimos se desarrolló el Child- Oral index in Daily Performances (Child-OIDP), el cual consta de 8 dimensiones que evalúan el impacto de la salud bucal en la realización de sus ac...

  18. Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation. Vol. 11A; Proceedings of the 18th Annual Review, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME, July 28-Aug. 2, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Donald O.; Chimenti, Dale E.

    The present volume discusses such topics in quantitative NDE as elastic wave scattering and propagation, eddy currents, X-ray and computed radiography, thermal NDE techniques, optical NDE, developing electromagnetic NDE methods, laser ultrasonics, magnetic resonance imaging, neural networks, imaging and inversion techniques, signal processing, acoustic and ultrasonic sensors, fiber-optic sensors, eddy-current arrays and sensors, corrosion-sensing instruments, and NDE standards. Attention is given to ultrasonic scattering from anisotropic shells, surface-wave propagation in composite laminates, eddy-current testing of carbon-carbon composites, monochromatic X-ray beams for NDT, flying laser spot thermal-wave IR imaging, pulsed lasers for ultrasonic NDE, NMR of advanced composites, and ultrasonic synthetic-aperture holographic imaging. (For individual items see A93-18577 to A93-18705)

  19. The little-studied cluster Berkeley 90. I. LS III +46 11: a very massive O3.5 If* + O3.5 If* binary

    CERN Document Server

    Apellániz, J Maíz; Barbá, R H; Walborn, N R; Pellerin, A; Simón-Díaz, S; Sota, A; Marco, A; Alonso-Santiago, J; Bermudez, J Sanchez; Gamen, R C; Lorenzo, J

    2015-01-01

    Context: It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find due to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. AIMS: We want to study: [a] LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; [b] another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and [c] the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra though we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with devoted pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very-early-O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 12 and derive minimum masses of 38.80$\\pm$0.83 M_Sol and 35.60$\\pm$0.77 M_Sol for it...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Wb2n-11, a Desert Isolate with Broad-Spectrum Antagonism against Soilborne Phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  1. MODIS/COMBINED MOD11A1 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1 km Grid SIN Version 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) products provide per-pixel temperature and emissivity values in a sequence of swath-based global...

  2. Primary erythermalgia as a sodium channelopathy: screening for SCN9A mutations: exclusion of a causal role of SCN10A and SCN11A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, J.P.H.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Mansour, S.; Mortimer, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the rate of missense mutations in the SCN9A gene (which encodes sodium channel Na(v)1.7) (OMIM 603415) among patients with primary erythermalgia and to examine the possibility that other sodium channels can cause the disease. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Department of Medic

  3. First Metabolic Profile of XLR-11, a Novel Synthetic Cannabinoid, Obtained by Using Human Hepatocytes and High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Pang, Shaokun; Zhu, Mingshe; Gandhi, Adarsh S.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Liu, Hua-fen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Since the mid-2000s synthetic cannabinoids have been abused as recreational drugs, prompting scheduling of these substances in many countries. To circumvent legislation, manufacturers constantly market new compounds; [1-(5-fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl]-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (XLR-11), the fluorinated UR-144 analog, is one of the most recent and widely abused drugs, and its use is now linked with acute kidney injury. Our goal was to investigate XLR-11 metabolism for identification of major urinary targets in analytical methods and to clarify the origin of metabolites when one or more parent synthetic cannabinoids can be the source. METHODS We incubated 10 μmol/L XLR-11 with pooled human hepatocytes and sampled after 1 and 3 h. Samples were analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry with a TOF scan followed by information-dependent acquisition triggered product ion scans with dynamic background subtraction and mass defect filters. Scans were thoroughly data mined with different data processing algorithms (Metabolite Pilot 1.5). RESULTS XLR-11 underwent phase I and II metabolism, producing more than 25 metabolites resulting from hydroxylation, carboxylation, hemiketal and hemiacetal formation, internal dehydration, and further glucuronidation of some oxidative metabolites. No sulfate or glutathione conjugation was observed. XLR-11 also was defluorinated, forming UR-144 metabolites. On the basis of mass spectrometry peak areas, we determined that the major metabolites were 2′-carboxy-XLR-11, UR-144 pentanoic acid, 5-hydroxy-UR-144, hydroxy-XLR-11 glucuronides, and 2′-carboxy-UR-144 pentanoic acid. Minor metabolites were combinations of the biotransformations mentioned above, often glucuronidated. CONCLUSIONS These are the first data defining major urinary targets of XLR-11 metabolism that could document XLR-11 intake in forensic and clinical investigations. PMID:24014837

  4. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra...

  5. OA03.11. A comparative study of guggulu chitrak kshar – sutra and snuhi apamarg kshar – sutra in the management of fistula in ano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gond, Pushpa; Kumar, Ashok; Rajeshwari, PN; Choudhary, PC; Kumar, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fistula in ano is a condition which has been recognized as difficult surgical diseases in all the ancient and modern medical sciences of the world. In Ayurvedic texts fistulainano is described as Bhagandar. This disease is recurrent in nature which makes it more difficult for treatment. So it produces inconvenience in routine life. KsharSutra has been proved as a big revolution in the treatment of fistulainano. It is the need to do further researches to get more efficient Kshar Sutra. Method: The present study was clinical, randomised, single blind trial. In the present research work Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra has been taken for comparative study wth snuhi apamarga ksharsutra. Thirty patients cases of fistulainano were selected from OPD/IPD of Shalya Tantra department of National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur. Total patients were divided into two equal groups. The patients of group A were treated with Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra and the patients of group B were treated with Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra. Result: In the study the effect of Guggulu Chitraka KsharSutra was found better in pain, itching, pus discharge, tenderness and burning sensation and the rate of Unit Cutting Time was slightly higher as Snuhi Apamarga KsharSutra. Conclusion: Though U.C.T of Guggulu Chitrak Kshara Sutra is slightly higher than Snuhi Apamarga Kshar Sutra, but in assessment parameter Guggulu Chitrak Kshar Sutra has been shown significant result. With guggulu chitrak ksharsutra post ligation complications like hypertrophied scar etc are not seen and this is easily available and cost effective.

  6. NEU-P11, a novel melatonin agonist, inhibits weight gain and improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Meihua; Deng, Xiaojian; Guo, Zhenyu; Laudon, Moshe; Hu, Zhuowei; Liao, Duanfang; Hu, Xiaobo; Luo, Yi; Shen, Qingyun; Su, Zehong; Yin, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    Evidences indicate that a complex relationship exists among sleep disorders, obesity and insulin resistance. NEU-P11 is a novel melatonin agonist used in treatment of psychophysiological insomnia, and in animal studies NEU-P11 showed sleep-promoting effect. In this study, we applied NEU-P11 on obese rats to assess its potential melatoninergic effects in vivo. Obese models were established using high-fat/high-sucrose-fed for 5 months. NEU-P11 (10mg/kg)/melatonin (4mg/kg)/vehicle were administered by a daily intraperitoneal injection respectively for 8 weeks. Our results showed that NEU-P11 or melatonin inhibited both body weight gain and deposit of abdominal fat with no influence on food intake. The impaired insulin sensitivity and antioxidative potency were improved and the levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) decreased with an increased in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) after NEU-P11 or melatonin administration. These data suggest that NEU-P11, like melatonin, decreased body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in obese rats. We conclude that NEU-P11 has a melatoninergic effect on regulating body weight in obese rats and also improving metabolic profiles and efficiently enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  7. TU-AB-201-11: A Novel Theoretical Framework for MRI-Only Image Guided LDR Prostate and Breast Brachytherapy Implant Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, A; Elzibak, A; Fatemi, A; Safigholi, H; Ravi, A; Morton, G; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To propose a novel framework for accurate model-based dose calculations using only MR images for LDR prostate and breast seed implant brachytherapy. Methods: Model-based dose calculation methodologies recommended by TG-186 require further knowledge about specific tissue composition, which is challenging with MRI. However, relying on MRI-only for implant dosimetry would reduce the soft tissue delineation uncertainty, costs, and uncertainties associated with multi-modality registration and fusion processes. We propose a novel framework to address this problem using quantitative MRI acquisitions and reconstruction techniques. The framework includes three steps: (1) Identify the locations of seeds(2) Identify the presence (or absence) of calcification(s)(3) Quantify the water and fat content in the underlying tissueSteps (1) and (2) consider the sources that limit patient dosimetry, particularly the inter-seed attenuation and the calcified regions; while step (3) targets the quantification of the tissue composition to consider the heterogeneities in the medium. Our preliminary work has shown that the seeds and the calcifications can be identified with MRI using both the magnitude and the phase images. By employing susceptibility-weighted imaging with specific post-processing techniques, the phase images can be further explored to distinguish the seeds from the calcifications. Absolute quantification of tissue, water, and fat content is feasible and was previously demonstrated in phantoms and in-vivo applications, particularly for brain diseases. The approach relies on the proportionality of the MR signal to the number of protons in an image volume. By employing appropriate correction algorithms for T1 - and T2*-related biases, B1 transmit and receive field inhomogeneities, absolute water/fat content can be determined. Results: By considering calcification and interseed attenuation, and through the knowledge of water and fat mass density, accurate patient-specific implant dosimetry can be achieved with MRI-only. Conclusion: The proposed framework showed that model-based dose calculation is feasible using MRI-only state-of-the-art techniques.

  8. Red de Turismo Sostenible de Colombia: 11 años promoviendo espacios de reflexión y motivando la sostenibilidad turística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Guiselle Pinzón Angulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, como en el mundo entero, crece la necesidad de cuidar y aprovechar adecuadamente los recursos naturales, por lo cual se toman iniciativas como el turismo sostenible, en el que se permita el intercambio de información y experiencias, haciendo que diversos actores se vinculen en pro del desarrollo de la industria turística. En este artículo se quiere resaltar el trabajo que en estos once años ha llevado a cabo la Red de turismo sostenible de Colombia, pues así se puede apreciar los recursos que poseemos, el entorno en el que vivimos y la importancia del trabajo de líderes que dedican sus esfuerzos al mejoramiento del país y la industria turística.

  9. Primary erythermalgia as a sodium channelopathy: screening for SCN9A mutations: exclusion of a causal role of SCN10A and SCN11A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, J.P.H.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Mansour, S.; Mortimer, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the rate of missense mutations in the SCN9A gene (which encodes sodium channel Na(v)1.7) (OMIM 603415) among patients with primary erythermalgia and to examine the possibility that other sodium channels can cause the disease. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Department of Medic

  10. WE-G-217BCD-11: A New Phantom to Study Combined Effects of In-Plane (x,y) and Z Axis Resolution for 3-D Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, D; Levy, J; Kristinsson, S; Fredriksson, J; Olafsdottir, H; Healy, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop phantoms that can be used to sample the radial and 3D properties of a CT image, including in-plane (x,y) and z-axis information. The Phantom is amenable to mathematical analysis of the x, y, and z axis resolution properties separately and combined. A periodic pattern of a pair of opposed (30°) angled ramps is configured to produce a waveform profile across the CT image. A perfect CT image (with no loss of resolution) of the test object would produce a consistent geometric pattern of the intersection of a line with the pair of angled ramps. However, due to the finite resolution (x, y and z), the CT waveform profile will not yield the perfect profile; rather it will be influenced by slice thickness, and in-plane resolution (PSF, MTF), as well as noise limitations, and other sources of non-uniformity such as beam hardening etc. Various characteristics of the waveform profile including, amplitude, frequency, and slope (rate of climb) of the peaks, can be studied using mathematical analysis such as the Fourier transform. It will be shown how these performance characteristics are encoded in the wave pattern. The waveform profiles are visually examined and mathematically analyzed, to demonstrate the effect of Slice Thickness (z axis) and changes of In-Plane (x,y) Resolution and non-uniformity across the image field; moreover, the harmonic analysis of the waveform is used to predict, either the in-plane resolution (MTF), or the z-axis MTF when one of the two is already known. The Wave pattern phantom offers a way to consider 3-D imaging characteristics of a CT scanner by scanning a single repetitive test object that encodes both in-plane resolution and z-axis resolution and also offers a way to study non-uniformity effects throughout the CT plane (volume). DJG is a consultant to The Phantom Laboratory and Image OWL, Salem, NY. Funding of other authors is supplied by Image OWL Salem, NY. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines against influenza-associated illnesses among US military personnel in 2010-11: a case-control approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelia A Eick-Cost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1 pandemic, both seasonal and pH1N1 viruses circulated in the US during the 2010-2011 influenza season; influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE may vary between live attenuated (LAIV and trivalent inactivated (TIV vaccines as well as by virus subtype. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vaccine type and virus subtype-specific VE were determined for US military active component personnel for the period of September 1, 2010 through April 30, 2011. Laboratory-confirmed influenza-related medical encounters were compared to matched individuals with a non-respiratory illness (healthy controls, and unmatched individuals who experienced a non-influenza respiratory illness (test-negative controls. Odds ratios (OR and VE estimates were calculated overall, by vaccine type and influenza subtype. RESULTS: A total of 603 influenza cases were identified. Overall VE was relatively low and similar regardless of whether healthy controls (VE = 26%, 95% CI: -1 to 45 or test-negative controls (VE = 29%, 95% CI: -6 to 53 were used as comparison groups. Using test-negative controls, vaccine type-specific VE was found to be higher for TIV (53%, 95% CI: 25 to 71 than for LAIV (VE = -13%, 95% CI: -77 to 27. Influenza subtype-specific analyses revealed moderate protection against A/H3 (VE = 58%, 95% CI: 21 to 78, but not against A/H1 (VE = -38%, 95% CI: -211 to 39 or B (VE = 34%, 95% CI: -122 to 80. CONCLUSION: Overall, a low level of protection against clinically-apparent, laboratory-confirmed, influenza was found for the 2010-11 seasonal influenza vaccines. TIV immunization was associated with higher protection than LAIV, however, no protection against A/H1 was noted, despite inclusion of a pandemic influenza strain as a vaccine component for two consecutive years. Vaccine virus mismatch or lower immunogenicity may have contributed to these findings and deserve further examination in controlled studies. Continued assessment of VE in military personnel is essential in order to better inform vaccination policy decisions.

  12. VMA11, a novel gene that encodes a putative proteolipid, is indispensable for expression of yeast vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, N; Ohya, Y; Anraku, Y

    1991-12-25

    A gene, VMA11, is indispensable for expression of the vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ohya, Y., Umemoto, N., Tanida, I., Ohta, A., Iida, H., and Anraku, Y. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13971-13977). The VMA11 gene was isolated from a yeast genomic DNA library by complementation of the vma11 mutation. The nucleotide sequence of the gene predicts a hydrophobic proteolipid of 164 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,037 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 56.7% identity, and significant coincidence in amino acid composition with the 16-kDa subunit c (a VMA3 gene product) of the yeast vacuolar membrane H(+)-ATPase. VMA11 and VMA3 on a multicopy plasmid did not suppress the vma3 and vma11 mutation, respectively, suggesting functional independence of the two gene products. Biochemical detection of the VMA11 gene product was unsuccessful, but vacuoles in the VMA11-disrupted cells were not assembled with either subunit c or subunits a and b of the H(+)-ATPase, resulting in defects of the activity and in vivo vacuolar acidification.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens EBL11, a New Strain of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Isolated from Rice Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghuan; Greenfield, Paul; Jin, Decai

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain EBL11 is a bacterium that can promote plant growth by inhibiting the growth of fungi on plant surfaces and providing nutrients as a nonchemical biofertilizer. The estimated genome of this strain is 4.05 Mb in size and harbors 3,683 coding genes (CDSs). PMID:25059875

  14. Preamble Design Problematic with 802.11a IEEE Standard (Minn’s Training Sequence Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. A. Oni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally OFDM systems use a predefined signal pattern, called preamble [2] [3], which helps the receiver to achieve a better signal detection (coarse, fine time synchronization with the frequency offset and channel estimation. In most of the time having all these conditions fulfilled the receiver achieves relatively a good performance while keeping as low as possible the total consuming power and the BER (Bite Error Rate. This paper presents the results obtained while combining a part of the preamble [2] [3] and the Minn's training sequence. We have got interesting performance results comparable to those results obtained for the relatively new standard 802.16a.

  15. Complete sequences of KPC-2-encoding plasmid p628-KPC and CTX-M-55-encoding p628-CTXM coexisted in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Fang, Haihong; Feng, Jiao; Yin, Zhe; Xie, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Yang, Ruisheng; Du, Hong; Zhou, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain 628 was isolated from a human case of intracranial infection in a Chinese teaching hospital. Strain 628 produces KPC-2 and CTX-M-55 encoded by two different conjugative plasmids, i.e., the IncFIIK plasmid p628-KPC and the IncI1 plasmid p628-CTXM respectively. bla KPC-2 is captured by a Tn1722-based unit transposon with a linear structure. ΔTn3-ISKpn27-bla KPC-2-ΔISKpn6-ΔTn1722 and this transposon together with a mercury resistance (mer) gene locus constitutes a 34 kb acquired drug-resistance region. bla KPC-2 has two transcription starts (nucleotides G and C located at 39 and 250 bp upstream of its coding region respectively) which correspond to two promoters, i.e., the intrinsic P1 and the upstream ISKpn27/Tn3-provided P2 with the core -35/-10 elements TAATCC/TTACAT and TTGACA/AATAAT respectively. bla CTX-M-55 is mobilized in an ISEcp1-bla CTX-M-55-Δorf477 transposition unit and appears to be the sole drug-resistant determinant in p628-CTXM. bla CTX-M-55 possesses a single transcription start (nucleotides G located at 116 bp upstream of its coding region) corresponding to the ISEcp1-provided P1 promoter with the core -35/-10 element TTGAAA/TACAAT. All the above detected promoters display a characteristic of constitutive expression. Coexistence of bla KPC and bla CTX-M in K. pneumoniae has been reported many times but this is the first report to gain deep insights into genetic platforms, promoters, and expression of the two coexisting bla genes with determination of entire nucleotide sequences of the two corresponding plasmids.

  16. Translational inhibition of CTX M extended spectrum β-lactamase in clinical strains of Escherichia coli by synthetic antisense oligonucleotides partially restores sensitivity to cefotaxime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benedict Readman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antisense oligomers are DNA mimics that can specifically inhibit gene expression at the translational level by ribosomal steric hindrance. They bind to their mRNA targets by Watson Crick base pairing and are resistant to degradation by both nucleases and proteases. A 25 mer phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO and a 13 mer polyamide (peptide nucleic acid (PNA were designed to target mRNA (positions -4 to +21, and –17 to –5 respectively close to the translational initiation site of the extended spectrum β lactamase resistance genes of CTX M group 1. These antisense oligonucleotides were found to inhibit β lactamase activity by up to 96% in a cell free translation transcription coupled system using an expression vector carrying a blaCTX-M-15 gene cloned from a clinical isolate. Despite evidence for up regulation of CTX-M gene expression, they were both found to significantly restore sensitivity to cefotaxime in E. coli AS19, an atypical cell wall permeable mutant, in a dose dependant manner (0 - 40 nM. The PMO and PNA were covalently bound to the cell penetrating peptide (KFF3K and both significantly (P<0.05 increased sensitivity to cefotaxime in a dose dependent manner (0 - 40 nM in field isolates harbouring CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. Antisense oligonucleotides targeted to the translational initiation site and Shine Dalgarno region of blaCTX-M-15 inhibited gene expression, and when conjugated to a cell penetrating delivery vehicle, partially restored antibiotic sensitivity to both field and clinical isolates.

  17. Prevalence of SHV/CTX-M/TEM (ESBL Beta-lactamase Resistance Genes in Escherichia Coli Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Beta-lactamase enzymes are the most causes ofresistance to antibiotics among gram-negative bacteria. Nowadays, Infectionsdue to ESBLs are being increased throughout the world and is considered as anew burden to the health systems. This study aimed at determining thesensitivity pattern of E.coli isolates to beta-lactam antibiotics, andinvestigating the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes in the urinesamples..Material and Methods: In this study, 244 E.coli isolates were screened in2009-2010. The antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolates were determined bydisc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial agents tested were cefoxatime,ceftazidime, imipenem, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The combined disctest was used to confirm the results. The results were compared to the Clinicaland Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and ESBL positive isolates werefurther investigated for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes byPCR.Results: Of 244 E. coli isolates, 116 (47.1% are resistant to Ceftazidime, and96 (39.2% to cefoxatime. Also, 109 (44.3% isolates are ESBL positive.blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes are found among 95 (87.1%, 75 (68.8%,and 77 (70.6% ESBL positive isolates, respectively. Forty (36.6% isolateshave all three genes, while 68 (62.3% include blaTEM and blaSHV genes.Moreover, 61 (55.9% isolates carry blaCTX-M and blaTEM genes, and 54(49.5%have blactx-M and blashv.Conclusion: Regarding the high frequency of resistance to the thirdgeneration cephalosporin antibiotics, precise antibiogram testing is highlyrecommended before any antibiotic prescription in cases of infections withESBL producing microorganisms.Key words: ESBL; Escherichia coli; blaCTX-M; blaTEM; blaSHV

  18. First description of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-15- extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL in out-patients from south eastern Nigeria

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    Iroha Ifeanyichukwu R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied the presence of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs in 44 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli collected from out-patients in two university teaching hospitals in South-Eastern Nigeria. Species identification was performed by standard microbiology methods and re-confirmed by MALDI-TOF technology. Phenotypic characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and presence of ESBL genes was determined by specific PCR followed by sequencing. Transfer of plasmid DNA was carried out by transformation using E. coli DH5 as recipient strain. Phenotypic characterization identified all isolates to be ESBL positive. 77% of strains were from urine, 13.6% from vaginal swabs and 9.0% from wound swabs. 63.6% were from female patients, 68% were from outpatients and 95.5% from patients younger than 30 years. All ESBL producers were positive in a PCR for blaCTX-M-1 cluster, in exemplary strains blaCTX-M-15 was found by sequencing. In all strains ISEcp1 was found upstream and ORF477 downstream of blaCTX-M. PCR for blaTEM and blaOXA-1 was positive in 93.1% of strains, whereas blaSHV was not detected, aac(6′-Ib-cr was found in 97.7% of strains. RAPD analysis revealed seven different clonal groups named A through G with the majority of the strains (65.9% belonging to clone A. Transfer of an ESBL plasmid with co-resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, tobramycin, doxycycline and trimethropim-sulfamethoxazole was successful in 19 (43.2% strains. This study showed a high rate of CTX-M-1 cluster - ESBLs in South-Eastern Nigeria and further confirms the worldwide spread of CTX-M ESBL in clinical isolates.

  19. Detection of ctx-M gene in ESBL-producing E. coli strains isolated from urinary tract infection in Semnan, Iran.

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    Tabar, Mahbobeh Mohammad; Mirkalantari, Shiva; Amoli, Rabeeh Izadi

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of urinary tract infections caused by Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains due to long term and overuse of broad-spectrum cephalosporine is on the rise. CTX beta-lactamase type, a broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, has been expanding in many countries. The ctx gene is harbored on a plasmid that is spread between Enterobacteriaceae family, especially in E. coli. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of antimicrobial resistance and investigate the prevalent ESBL phenotype and the ctx-M gene in E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) in Semnan. A cross sectional study was performed on 109 strains of E. coli isolated from the urine culture of patient suffering from a UTI referred to Shafa hospital (Semnan, Iran) during March-July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was applied and the prevalence of the ESBL phenotype was confirmed using combination disk. PCR methods were completed for amplification of the bla ctx gene. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 software. One hundred ninety samples (4.16%) were identified as E. coli. Twenty one (26.6%) of E. coli were ESBL positive and 73.4% were ESBL negative. There was 100% susceptibility to imipeneme. Twenty (68.97%) out of 29 isolates were positive for the ctx-M gene, as detected by PCR. In urinary tract infections, antibiotic treatment was experimental and detailed information regarding the sensitivity of bacteria in the area can be useful to achieve the best treatment.

  20. Characterization of a P1-like bacteriophage carrying CTX-M-27 in Salmonella spp. resistant to third generation cephalosporins isolated from pork in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Li, Wan; Jiang, Gui-Ze; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Ding, Huan-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Hong; Zeng, Zhen-Ling; Jiang, Hong-Xia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of third generation cephalosporin resistant Samonella isolates from pork of a slaughterhouse in China and the features of transferable elements carrying blaCTX-M genes. One hundred and twenty-six (7.3%) Salmonella isolates were identified; S. Derby and S. Rissen were the most two prevalent serotypes. Among these isolates 20 (15.8%) were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and nine of them carried blaCTX-M-27. S1-PFGE and replicon typing of blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids showed that seven were untypeable plasmids of about 104 Kb and two were IncP plasmids of about 300 Kb. Complete sequence analysis of one PBRT-untypeable plasmid showed it was a P1-like bateriophage, named SJ46, which contained a non-phage-associated region with several mobile elements, including Tn1721, ISEcp1B and IS903D. The other six 104 Kb PBRT-untypeable blaCTX-M-27-carrying plasmids also harboured the same phage-insertion region of SJ46 suggesting that they were the same P1-like bacteriophage. PFGE profiles of the parental strains revealed both potential vertical and horizontal spread of this P1-like blaCTX-M-27-containing element. Additionally, the representative gene of the P1 family bacteriophage, repL, was detected in 19.0% (24/126) of the isolates. This study indicated a potential role of P1-family bacteriophage in capture and spread of antimicrobial resistance in pathogens. PMID:28098241

  1. Cholera toxin-B (ctxB) antigen expressing Salmonella Typhimurium polyvalent vaccine exerts protective immune response against Vibrio cholerae infection.

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    Vishwakarma, Vikalp; Sahoo, Sushree Sangita; Das, Susmita; Ray, Shilpa; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2015-04-08

    Live attenuated vaccines are cost effective approach for preventing a broad range of infectious diseases, and thus are of great interest. However, immune-defects can predispose the patient to infections by the vaccine candidate itself. So far, few live vaccine candidates have been designed specifically for immune compromised individuals. Recently, we reported a new Salmonella Typhimurium Z234-vaccine strain (Periaswamy et al., PLoS ONE 2012;7:e45433), which was specifically attenuated in the NADPH-oxidase deficient host. In the present study, the Z234-vaccine strain was further engineered to express heterologous antigen (Vibrio cholerae toxin antigen subunit-B, i.e. CtxB) with the intention of creating a vector for simultaneous protection against Cholera and Salmonellosis. The primary aim of this study was to ensure the expression of CtxB antigen by the recombinant vaccine strain Z234-pMS101. The antigen CtxB was expressed through Z234 as a fusion protein with N-terminal signal sequence of Salmonella outer protein (SopE), an effector protein from Salmonella under the control of SopE promoter. The CtxB-expressing plasmid construct pMS101 (pM968-pSopE-ctxB) was found to be stable both in vitro and in vivo. In an oral mouse infection model, the vaccine strain Z234-pMS101 efficiently colonized the host gut. The extent of protection was confirmed after challenging the immunized hosts with live V. cholerae. Vaccinated mice showed reduced gut colonization by V. cholerae. Further assessment of immunological parameters supported the possibility of conferring effective immune response by Z234-pMS101 vaccine strain. Overall, the Z234-pMS101 vaccine strain showed potential as a promising polyvalent vaccine candidate to protect against S. Typhimurium and V. cholerae infection simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing secondary bacterial infections with Enterobacteriaceae harboring blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6 in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma:an emerging point of concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Shahid; Abida Malik; Rakesh Bhargava

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To look for secondary bacterial infections in bronchogenic carcinoma (BCA) with resistant organisms harboring bla genes considering the paucity of relevant studies. Methods:A total of 137 confirmed cases of BCA and 34 healthy volunteers were studied for the occurrence and prevalence of blaCTX-M and and blaAmpC harboring-enterobacteriaceae. A subset of these patients (n=69) was previously reported for the secondary infection with the Aspergillus species. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were subjected for bacterial and fungal cultures and the bacterial isolates were screened by multiplex PCRs for the presence of blaCTX-M and blaAmpC. The isolates were also screened for the association of insertion sequence (IS26) by PCR and characterized by RAPD for any clonal relatedness. Results: A total of 143 bacterial isolates were obtained from 137 BAL specimens of BCA patients. The Enterobacteriaceae-isolates were multidrug-resistant showing concomitant resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. Both blaCTX-M and blaAmpC of CIT family were detected in 77.4% and 27.4% isolates, respectively. Sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-15 and blaCMY-6. Twenty one percent of the isolates were simultaneously harboring blaampC and blaCTX-M-15. IS26 PCR and RAPD typing revealed the presence of diverse bacterial popu