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Sample records for 11-14 year olds

  1. STUDY ON DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF COMBATIVITY OF JUDOKA 11-14 YEARS OLD

    Sava Mihai Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the purpose of the research and the expectations, we formulated the following hypotheses: 1. Combativity is a component of the mental capacity that promotes / limits athletic performance in judo. 2. In the preparatory process the combativity is an independent variable of the mental capacity. To conduct this research we used the questionnaire method. Thus we developed a questionnaire entitled "Questionnaire for discovering the combative spirit level", which contains 25 questions. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of 12 judo athletes aged 11 to 14 years, which is the experimental group of the present research and who are legitimated at Royal Judo Club Bacău. The implementation of a strategy to optimize the combativity of judoka 11-14 years at the experimental level, ended with good results and was reflected in the evolution of the judoka, achieving good and very good results in the competitive period.

  2. Study of weight, height, body mass index, energy and nutrients intake of 11-14 years old girls, Tehran

    Sadeqipoor H

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive, analytical cross-sectional syudy was conducted in 1996 on 350 female students 11-14 years old in the center of Tehran, Iran. The general objective was determining energy and nutrient intakes and weight, height and BMI (Body Mass Index of the girls, using anthropometric measurements, interviews (24-hour dietary recall and food consumption frequency, and the NCHS standards. The results were as follows: 1 Based on weight for age and the Z-score, 20% of the girls suffered from mild past and present malnutrition. 2 Based on height for age and BMI, 16.6%, 12.5%, and 1.3% suffered from mild past malnutrition, severe present malnutrition and overweight, respectively. 3 The height curves were normal, as compared to the respective standards. 4 The BMI curves were quite different from the respective standards. 5 On the whole, 53.7%, 49.7%, 86.0%, 59.0%, 67.7%, 76.5% and 88.0% of the girls had low intakes of energy, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folic acid, calcium, and iron, respectively. 6 A positive linear correlation was observed between energy intake and height, vitamin A intake and weight, zinc intake and height, and carbohydrate intake and height.

  3. Adaptation and validation of Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance index in 11- 14-year-old Chilean school children.

    Constanza Vera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The health condition of a population is often rated through clinical indicators. However, the psychological and social impact of diseases on quality of life has been noticed of late. Objective: to adapt, in cultural terms, the Child- Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP questionnaire in its self- administered form and evaluate its psychometric properties among Chilean teenagers aged 11-14 from the city of Licantén, Chile, in 2013. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on scales validation. Face validity was determined by experts opinion, criterion validity by correlation with measures of self-rated health and dental treatment needs, internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha, and temporal stability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for test- retest within a 10-day window. The sample consisted of 203 students aged 11 to 14 years from the urban sector of Licantén city. Results: Five experts determined proper face validity of the C-OIDP scale. Regarding criterion validity, statistically significance association (p<0.05 were found, positive for treatment need and negative for oral health satisfaction. Internal consistency scale showed an alpha=0.719, all items showed correlations of 0.32 to 0.54 with the rest of the scale. The temporal stability gave an ICC=0.82. . Conclusion: the cultural adaptation of the self-administered C-OIDP questionnaire for Chilean students aged 11 to 14 years showed adequate psychometric properties, so it is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral health impact on quality of life in this population.

  4. 11~14岁超常儿童与普通儿童问题解决能力的发展比较%The Developmental Differences of Problem Solving Ability between Intellectually-gifted and Intellectually-average Children Aged from 11-14 Years Old

    张博; 黎坚; 徐楚; 李一茗

    2014-01-01

    以北京市某中学和某小学11~14岁之间294名学生为被试,其中超常儿童131人,普通儿童163人。采用推箱子任务,结合横断比较和纵向追踪数据,从认知能力、元认知能力和认知效率三个维度来考察超常儿童与普通儿童问题解决能力的发展差异。结果发现超常儿童在问题解决能力的三个维度上均优于普通儿童,两类儿童问题解决能力的发展模式不一致:超常儿童的问题解决能力发展先快后慢,快速发展期在11~12岁半之间;普通儿童的问题解决能力发展先慢后快,快速发展期在12岁半~14岁之间。超常儿童与普通儿童的问题解决能力差异随年龄增大逐渐减小。%Problems are everywhere in daily life. The ability to solve problems helps human being survive natural selection, characterizing us as an intellectual species. It is also closely related to various life outcomes. A number of cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that intellectually-gifted children performed better than their average cohorts in problem solving tasks. But most of these studies primarily focus on the cognitive dimension of problem solving. They did not suffice to draw a whole picture of human problem solving ability. Moreover, few studies have explored the group differences from a developmental perspective, such as their developmental patterns or developmental critical stage, which could contribute a lot to both theories and educational practices. The present study investigated the developmental differences of problem solving ability between intellectually-gifted and intellectually-average children from cognitive, metacognitive and efficiency dimensions. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected. The cross-sectional study included 131 intellectually-gifted and 163 intellectually-average children aged from 11 to14, and the longitudinal study included 32 intellectually-gifted and 38 intellectually-average children

  5. Development of Art Appreciation in 11-14 Year-Old Students

    Duh, Matjaž; Zupancic, Tomaž; Cagran, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Modern art curricula derive from the assumption that visual arts education can be of a high quality only if productive and receptive artistic activities are implemented. In art education practice, we are able to follow incentives for artistic expression but pay less attention to developing art appreciation that is based on developing as subtle…

  6. Exhibition for the 45 years of the Long-Term Collections | 11-14 October | Main building

    CERN Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Long-Term Collections (LTC) of the CERN staff celebrate 45 years at CERN by organising an exhibition in the Main Building from 11 to 14 October 2016.   Since 1971, under the auspices of the Staff Association, the LTC have supported 74 humanitarian projects to help the least fortunate people on the planet. For more information, please visit this website and see the article published in the Echo No. 254. In the framework of the exhibition, an information session and a call for new contributors will be organised in Restaurants 1, 2 (Meyrin) and 3 (Prévessin) on Tuesday 11 October from 11:30 to 14:30. You can also make donations to the LCT: PTT : 12-2831-1 UBS : 279/C7 7581230 automatic payment form    

  7. New year, old hat

    American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

    It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ‧97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

  8. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Your ... At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

  9. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  10. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  11. General relativity 50 years old

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  12. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol.

  13. Expectations of a Five-Year-Old

    2006-01-01

    When celebrating the birthday of a five-year-old child, there is never a shortage of good wishes and the hope that the child will have a bright future. However, in spite of these sentiments, one cannot help wondering what kind of person the child will finally grow into. The same concern applies when we observe the five-year-old Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).

  14. 1000 Year-old Trees Protected

    柏凤文

    2000-01-01

    Wuhan (Xinhua) : Ninety-seven ginkgo(银杏) trees in the city of Suizhou, each more than 1 000 years old, have been equipped with lightning rods(避雷针) and placed under special protection by local villagers in Central China's Hubei Province.

  15. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    ... Play, and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Childproofing and Preventing Household Accidents Movement, Coordination, and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months Your Child's Checkup: 1.5 ...

  16. The 91-Year-Old General Secretary

    1998-01-01

    IN the office of the Tianjin Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), general secretary Zheng Ruquan points at the glass frame on the wall and reads out: "Ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall set you free"—the directive of the association. Under the guidance of her Christian faith, this admirable lady—old and hale—has been serving the country and her religious belief for 62 years. Today, the

  17. Growth and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    ... Table: Avoiding Power Struggles Toddlers: Learning by Playing Sleep and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Movement, Coordination, and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Learning, Play, and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Growth Your Child's Checkup: 1.5 Years (18 Months) ...

  18. Communication and Your 13-to 18-Year-Old

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Communication and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old KidsHealth > ... games, and talking about current events. Vocabulary and Communication Teens essentially communicate as adults, with increasing maturity ...

  19. Medical Care and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care and Your 13- to 18-Year-Old ... school importance of regular physical activity continue Common Medical Problems Sports injuries and other problems, such as ...

  20. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  1. Changes in and the Relationship between Language Learning Motivation and Self-Concept in 11-14 Year-Old Students in Hungary: A Longitudinal Study

    Péter-Szarka, Szilvia

    2012-01-01

    Motivation to learn foreign languages is a significant determinant of successful language acquisition. The subject has been widely researched in the past, and since the early 1990s a great deal of empirical research related to the classroom environment has been proposed to expand theory into everyday classroom practice. I present an empirical,…

  2. Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A ... calories. Your toddler will continue to explore self-feeding, first with fingers and then with utensils at ...

  3. Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Care and Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... A The toddler months continue to bring the medical challenges of colds , scrapes and bruises, and other ...

  4. 19 years old and a neutrino expert

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Courtney Williams, a 19-year old British student, is passionate about physics. She has just spent a week at CERN, from 12 to 16 July, a prize she won for a project on neutrinos in the framework of the European Union Contest for Young Scientists (EUCYS) held in September 2009.   Courtney Williams pays a visit to the CERN Library. “I’m returning to London after a very busy week at CERN but I hope to be back again one day, this time to work here. CERN is an amazing place for any scientist and it’s definitely the place to be if you want to study particles”, said Courtney during our interview. Courtney has just completed the first year of her physics degree course at Imperial College in London, which means that, combined with her two years of A-level studies, she has now been studying physics - and neutrinos in particular - for a total of 3 years. Before starting her university course, Courtney spent the summer break working on ACoRNE, the Acoustic Co...

  5. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    McHugh, S

    2009-04-02

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  6. Stercoral perforation in a 17-year old.

    McHugh, S

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stercoral perforation is a rare cause of perforation. This is the first reported case where a partial eating disorder (ED) is the primary causative differential. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented to her local Emergency Department with a 24-h history of left-sided abdominal pain. She subsequently deteriorated and a computed tomography scan of her abdomen showed gross distension of the large bowel with a sigmoid perforation. She underwent total colectomy with end ileostomy. Histology reported stercoral perforation but normal bowel ganglia. While an inpatient she was reviewed by the Psychiatric team who were concerned she was suffering from a partial ED. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in optimally treating patients such as these. Aggressive medical management with involvement of a psychiatric team and dietetics addresses any underlying causative psychiatric issues and helps prevent recurrence.

  7. Relationship between general and specific coordination in 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players.

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.

  8. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Medical Care and Your ... of keeping kids healthy and up to date on immunizations against many serious childhood diseases. Checkups also are a chance for you ...

  9. Motor Proficiency Predicts Cognitive Ability in Four-Year-Olds

    Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…

  10. Five years old already: forward we go

    Jan Dewing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available I want to begin by wishing the International Practice Development Journal (IPDJ and everyone connected with it a happy fifth birthday: the IPDJ has completed its first five years, following our launch in June 2011. It’s fair to say that this partnership between the International Practice Development Collaborative and the Foundation of Nursing Studies (FoNS has been a great success, with approximately 160 articles and commentaries published in 10 issues and two special issues. That’s quite a ‘body’ of material. We have published, and will continue to publish, a wide range of articles on practice development and related fields. More remarkable, perhaps, is the collaborative way in which the journal operates; it is an independent journal (not part of a big publishing house, which is funded and governed by members of the collaborative, and managed and published by FoNS. This year the editorial team made the decision to adopt in full the principles of open access in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Further, users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full texts of the articles of this journal without seeking prior permission from the publisher or the author (fons.org/library/journal-about-ipdj. Being free of concerns regarding ‘impact factor’ rating will liberate us in a number of ways. Of course, I recognise the need to work within this rating and other metrics, such as citation measures, but these should not alone determine the merit of a researcher or a journal (Bornmann et al., 2011. We hope that authors and readers will recognise this and continue to support the journal’s growth. Our birthday issue brings something a bit different and, I feel, offers a special treat. Consider this to be like a slice of your favourite birthday cake. Usually the original research

  11. Medical Care and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old

    ... compared with other kids the same age and gender. The doctor will take a medical and family ... Talking to Your Child About Puberty Understanding Puberty Communication and Your 6- to 12-Year-Old Contact ...

  12. Fitness and Your 13- to 18-year-old

    ... various media, including watching TV, listening to music, surfing online, and playing video games. So it's no ... 12-Year-Old Steroids Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Nutrition & Fitness Center Feeding Your Child Athlete Fitness for ...

  13. UNCORRECTED TETRALOGY OF FALLOT IN A 30 - YEARS OLD

    Dihingia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Survival after the age of 12 years without corrective surgery is rare. We present the case of a 30 year - old man with uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot.

  14. A three-year-old girl with IQ of 140

    周鲁成

    2011-01-01

    As a three-year-old,Saffron Pledger should only just be learning to count,running for the first time or simply scribbling with crayons as her young mind develops.But she is no normal child,this prodigy already r____1 bedtime stories to her seven-month-old sister and is set to become one of the youngest m ____2 of Mensa.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Arabic short version of the child oral health-related quality of life questionnaire (CPQ 11-14) in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

    Bhayat, A; Ali, M A M

    2014-08-19

    The Arabic version of the Child Perception Questionnaire for assessing oral health-related quality of life in 11-14 year olds (CPQ 11-14) has been validated previously. This study tested the validity and reliability of a short version of the Arabic CPQ 11-14 in the general population of Medina, Saudi Arabia. A total of 268 schoolchildren completed the questionnaire and were examined to determine the prevalence of caries and malocclusion. The mean total score was 8.53 (SD 8.18), and 7% of children scored zero. There was a significant association between malocclusion and oral symptoms and between DMFT score and functional limitations. The test-retest reliability (0.78) and Cronbach alpha (0.82) were excellent. The construct validity was acceptable for oral health (ρ = 0.37) and overall well-being (ρ = 0.40). The Arabic version of the short form CPQ 11-14 was reliable and valid for this general population of children.

  16. Can bilingual two-year-olds code-switch?

    Lanza, E

    1992-10-01

    Sociolinguists have investigated language mixing as code-switching in the speech of bilingual children three years old and older. Language mixing by bilingual two-year-olds, however, has generally been interpreted in the child language literature as a sign of the child's lack of language differentiation. The present study applies perspectives from sociolinguistics to investigate the language mixing of a bilingual two-year-old acquiring Norwegian and English simultaneously in Norway. Monthly recordings of the child's spontaneous speech in interactions with her parents were made from the age of 2;0 to 2;7. An investigation into the formal aspects of the child's mixing and the context of the mixing reveals that she does differentiate her language use in contextually sensitive ways, hence that she can code-switch. This investigation stresses the need to examine more carefully the roles of dominance and context in the language mixing of young bilingual children.

  17. Gender, Popularity and Notions of In/Authenticity amongst 12-Year-Old to 13-Year-Old School Girls

    Read, Barbara; Francis, Becky; Skelton, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a research project investigating gendered identities and interactions of high-achieving students in Year Eight in England (12-13 years old), particularly in relation to students' "popularity" amongst their peers. As part of this study 71 students were interviewed from nine different schools in urban, rural and small…

  18. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  19. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy.

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  20. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy

    Zouari Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  1. Laterality and Motor Skills in Four-Year-Olds.

    Tan, Lesley E.

    1985-01-01

    Compared four-year-old left-handed children and children lacking definite hand preference with right-handers on motor skills. Found no differences between left-handers and right-handers of either sex, but the children lacking hand preference had lower scores. Possible sex differences and implications for the education of children lacking…

  2. Five-Year-Olds' Fascination for Television: A Comparative Study.

    Hake, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Compared 5-year-olds' understanding of and fascination with a public service and a commercial television program; also compared parents' and children's perspectives. Found that children were particularly fascinated by sequences containing conflicts and aggression. Sixteen of 20 children chose the commercial channel program. Parents showed insight…

  3. Intervention reducing particle exposure in Homes of 50+ year olds

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    An intervention reducing particle exposure was conducted in 27 apartments of 50+ year olds in Denmark. Two recirculating particle filtration units were installed in each apartment. They operated for two weeks in active filtration mode and for two weeks in sham mode in a randomized cross-over desi...

  4. Meaning from Syntax: Evidence from 2-Year-Olds

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2010-01-01

    When toddlers view an event while hearing a novel verb, the verb's syntactic context has been shown to help them identify its meaning. The current work takes this finding one step further to reveal that even in the absence of an accompanying event, syntactic information supports toddlers' identification of verb meaning. Two-year-olds were first…

  5. Ten-year-olds' reflections on their life in preschool

    Broström, Stig

    2016-01-01

    What do children think of their time in preschool? In the present study, twelve ten-year-old children collected data from their classmates. The children tend to remember their friends, and reflect on what games they played and with whom. Only about one in three respondents even mentioned the day...

  6. Hypersexuality in a 28-year-old woman with rabies.

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Balamurgan, Namasivayam; Sweni, Shah; Menezes, Ritesh G; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-12-01

    Unusual clinical presentations of rabies are well known. A case of rabies is reported in a 28-year-old female who presented with features of increased sexual desire and heightened sexual arousal without provocation. Health care providers should be aware that marked changes in sexual behavior may be related to infection due to rabies.

  7. One-Year-Olds Think Creatively, Just Like Their Parents

    Hoicka, Elena; Mowat, Rachael; Kirkwood, Joanne; Kerr, Tiffany; Carberry, Megan; Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is an essential human ability, allowing adaptation and survival. Twenty-nine 1-year-olds and their parents were tested on divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creative potential counting how many ideas one can generate. Toddlers' and parents' DT was moderately to highly correlated. Toddlers showed a wide range of DT scores, which were…

  8. [Giant intracranial aneurysm in three years old boy: case report].

    de Tella, Osvaldo Inácio; Crosera, João Francisco; Herculano, Marco Antonio; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are rare in the pediatric age group and differ from adults' aneurysms in size, localization and incidence. We report a 3-year-old boy with giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was submitted to surgical treatment and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  9. Attachment and Reciprocity in the Two-Year-Old Child.

    Marvin, Robert S., II

    This paper reported a pilot study on issues relevant to the social development of the 2-year-old child and discussed the results within the framework of the evolutionary-control-systems theory proposed by Bowlby (1958, 1969) and Ainsworth (1967, 1969). The issues examined were (1) attachment and (2) reciprocity, or the ability of the child-mother…

  10. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  11. Bilingualism in the Six-Year-Old Navajo Child.

    Spolsky, Bernard; Holm, Wayne

    The amount of English spoken by six-year-old Navaho children as they enter first grade is increasing and will probably continue to increase. Contacts outside the reservation contribute to this increase as do the almost completely monolingual (English) schools. Location of residence is also a factor. Linguistic borrowing of English words is another…

  12. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome in a 13-year old girl

    Borgwardt, L.; Pedersen, P.; Peitersen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is an entity, defined by autoimmunity towards two or more endocrine organs. APS is classified in 3 subgroups (type-1, type-2a, type-2b), according to the organs involved. A case is presented of a 13-year old girl referred to the Department of Paediatrics...

  13. A 55-Year-Old Man with Right Testicular Pain: Too Old for Torsion?

    Tang, Yu Ho; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Peggy Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wai

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion is predominantly a disease of adolescence, but age itself should not be an exclusion criterion for the diagnosis. A lack of suspicion for testicular torsion in older patients may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis which jeopardizes the chance of testicular salvage. In this article, we report a case of testicular torsion in a 55-year-old Chinese man.

  14. Fracture of the acetabulum in a 14-year-old patient: 20-year review

    Sprenger, T.R.; Howard, F M

    2001-01-01

    A case report of 14-year old female with an acetabular fracture involving the anterior column and posterior column-posterior wall is presented here and the findings on 20-year follow-up are described.

  15. Edwards syndrome in a 6-year old girl.

    Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.

  16. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  17. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  18. Primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a 16-year-old boy

    Måreng, Ane Stillits; Langer, Seppo W; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma in children or adolescents is a rare disease, and as such, there are no randomised studies on lung cancer for this age group. Treatment choice is extrapolated from studies in adults (mean age of participants: 60 years). We present the 5-year follow-up of a 16-year......-old boy who presented with metastatic primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma (T3N3M1a) and was treated aggressively, including radiation therapy for local and distant recurrence. He had complete remission, had completed his education, was employed full-time, and suffered only from mild side effects to treatment....

  19. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children.

    Abrams, Steven A; Chen, Zhensheng; Hawthorne, Keli M

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age. Mg absorption was determined using a dual-tracer stable isotope technique, with (25) Mg given intravenously and (26) Mg given orally. We found a small, but significantly greater Mg absorption efficiency (percentage absorption) in males than females (67% ± 12% versus 60% ± 8%, p = 0.02) but no difference in estimated net Mg retention (average of 37 mg/d in both males and females). Relating dietary Mg intake to estimated Mg retention showed that an intake of 133 mg/d, slightly above the current estimated average requirement (EAR) of 110 mg/d, led to a net average retention of 10 mg/d, the likely minimum growth-related need for this age group. Covariate analysis showed that Mg intake and total Mg absorption, but not calcium intake or total absorption were significantly associated with both total body BMC and BMD. These results suggest that usual Mg intakes in small children in the United States meet dietary requirements in most but not all children. Within the usual range of children's diets in the United States, dietary Mg intake and absorption may be important, relatively unrecognized factors in bone health.

  20. Determinants of loneliness in Jerusalem's 70-year-old population.

    Stessman, J; Ginsberg, G; Klein, M; Hammerman-Rozenberg, R; Friedman, R; Cohen, A

    1996-08-01

    This study aims to find the determinants of feelings of loneliness in 70 year olds living in Jerusalem. Results based on home interviews (n = 605) of a 40% systematic sample of 70 year olds in the electoral register showed that around 46.3% of females and 21.3% of males reported being lonely. Persons of European/North American origin felt less lonely than those of Asian or African origin, probably due to the former's wider social support network, perceiving friends, neighbors or other relatives as being available to back up children in an emergency. The major factors associated with loneliness were: being depressed, having a poor self-assessed health status, not attending synagogue, and being widowed but not remarried. Factors that did not reduce loneliness included having paid employment, watching TV or listening to the radio. No association was found between cognitive status and loneliness. Our systems model suggests a strong reciprocal relationship between loneliness and depression.

  1. Portion size variably affects food intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old children in Kunming, China.

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2013-10-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4-6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children.

  2. Pyomyositis in a 69-year-old tennis player.

    Burkhart, Bradd G; Hamson, Karl R

    2003-11-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute bacterial infection of skeletal muscle usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Outside of tropical areas, pyomyositis is rare, especially in an otherwise healthy individual. We present a case of a 69-year-old tennis professional who developed pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle following a tennis tournament. We discuss the literature on pyomyositis and the need for high clinical suspicion in the diagnosis of this disorder, as well as the need for early aggressive antibiotic treatment.

  3. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with PHACE syndrome.

    Burch, Ezra A; Garzon, Maria C; Parikh, Anuraag; Meyers, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is characterized by the association between infantile hemangioma and varied but characteristic systemic manifestations, including cerebrovascular and cardiac abnormalities. The disorder has primarily been diagnosed in children, with little information available regarding long-term outcomes in affected individuals. We report the oldest known individual with PHACE syndrome in the medical literature, a 65-year-old woman who was diagnosed after a transient ischemic attack.

  4. 47 Year Old Patient with Pseudo-Asthma

    Bulent Altinsoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 47- year- old female patient presented in out-patient department in Afyon Chest Disease Hospital with dyspnea, cough and purulent sputum. She has been receiving regular inhaler β-agonist and corticosteroids with the diagnosis of asthma bronchial since childhood. However, the patient had a history of very often upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The patient did not smoke, drink alcohol, or use illicit drugs intravenously. She was currently on asthma medications.

  5. An 80-Year-Old Woman with Left Shoulder Pain

    Khoo, SB

    2010-01-01

    This case history illustrates the real life experience and dilemma of an 80-year-old woman in pursuit of medical care for her left shoulder pain. Points for discussion range from clinical features of Pancoast tumor, importance of pain management, good principles of Family Medicine and Palliative care to ethical issues of conspiracy of silence, limited treatment plan and palliative versus curative radiotherapy treatment without a known biopsy report. This paper provides opportunity for analysi...

  6. IDIOPATHIC PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM: REPORT IN A THREE YEAR OLD CHILD

    Vidyadhar Kinhal; Sanjeev Joshi; Sambasiviah Chidambara Murthy; Syeda Siddiqua Banu

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, non - infectious and destructive skin disease. Its exact etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood and is believed to be due to immune dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated; however none are consistent in all patients. Pyoderma gangrenosum mostly affects adults and rarely in children. An underlying systemic diseas e is often seen in most of the cases. A three - year - old male child presented with a non - ...

  7. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  8. Transient Unexplained Shock in 30-year-old Trauma Patient.

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Mohammadi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Shock as an inadequate tissue perfusion is one of the frequent causes of death in trauma patients. In this context, there are various reasons for hemodynamic instability and shock including hypovolemic (hemorrhagic), obstructive (cardiac tamponade, tension pneumothorax), cardiogenic, neurogenic, and rarely septic. In the present report, a 30-year-old trauma patient with full clinical signs and symptoms of shock referred while had unknown origin; it was finally recognized as anaphylactic shock.

  9. A 44-year-old man with bilateral pneumothorax.

    Albores, Jeffrey; Abtin, Fereidoun; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of persistent upper-back pain, chest discomfort, and dyspnea. He denied any precipitating events such as trauma or vigorous activity before the presentation of symptoms. His exercise capacity had been excellent. He is a lifetime nonsmoker and never had significant lung problems apart from intermittent asthma for which he had several ED visits in the past. Chest CT scan performed during an asthma exacerbation 2 years earlier demonstrated two left-side lung blebs. He had no prior surgical procedures.

  10. Primary cardiac osteosarcoma in a 42-year-old woman

    Zou Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe here a 42-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital with a pedunculated mass in her left atrium. She was diagnosed with a primary cardiac osteosarcoma with special immunohistochemical characteristics. Echocardiography and computed tomography can be used to differentiate cardiac osteosarcomas from routine intracardiac tumors. The patient was treated by surgical removal of the mass. Two years later, she has shown no evidence of disease recurrence. We discuss primary osteosarcomas in the cardiac cavity and their management.

  11. Galactorrhea in a 14-year-old girl.

    Panamonta, Ouyporn; Pakawut, Nawarut

    2006-08-01

    The authors report a 14-year-old girl who had galactorrhea with regular menstruation. Furthermore, this galactorrhea case was associated with hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma. The patient tolerated and responded well to therapy with bromocriptine. The serum prolactin levels decreased from 103.27 ng/mL to 24.25 ng/mL after 8 weeks of treatment and 12.48 ng/mL after 6 months of treatment. No pituitary tumor was demonstrated after 12 months of therapy and the galactorrhea had not recurred 1 year after ending the bromocriptine treatment.

  12. Late Established Mutans Streptococci in Children over 3 Years Old

    Mitsugi Okada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of mutans streptococci has been reported to most commonly occur at approximately 26 months of age. In the present study, we detected Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays in children, then re-examined the subjects to determine the time of acquisition of these bacteria over a 1-year period. The subjects were 57 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years old, each with primary dentition. Plaque samples were collected from all erupted tooth sites using a sterile toothbrush. PCR assays were performed to detect the targeted mutans streptococci at the beginning of the study (baseline and after 1 year. At the baseline examination, the prevalence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 61.4% and 54.4%, respectively, in all subjects, of whom 14 (24.6% were positive for S. mutans alone, 10 (17.5% for S. sobrinus alone, and 21 (36.8% for both S. mutans and S. sobrinus, with 12 (21.1% negative for both. After 1 year, 4 of 22 (18.2% subjects newly had acquired S. mutans and 15 of 26 (57.7% had aquired S. sobrinus, while 5 (8.8% remained negative for both bacteria. The age of the first positive S. mutans finding ranged from 49 to 71 months, while that for S. sobrinus ranged from 49 to 81 months old. Our results suggest that S. sobrinus becomes established later than S. mutans in the oral cavities of children over the age of 3 years old.

  13. Oral cleanliness of 12-13-year-old and 15-year-old school children of Sunsari District, Nepal

    Yee R

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S. The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant ( P < 0.005. The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.

  14. Satisfaction in everyday life for frail 85-years old adults:

    Johannesen, A; Petersen, Janne; Avlund, K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether social relations, continuity, self-determination, and use of own resources are associated with everyday life satisfaction among 85-year-old adults with physical disabilities. The population includes 187 frail men and women from the longitudinal...... study of the 1914 population in Glostrup, Copenhagen. Participants were all interviewed in their homes by an occupational therapist. Findings provide evidence that frail older adults more frequently express satisfaction with their daily lives when they (1) are occupied as usual; (2) have friends; (3......) feel able to manage their own lives; (4) do not live alone; and (5) have not lately lost close friends. Lack of everyday life satisfaction is associated with (1) using home-care services and (2) living in an institution. The findings stress the importance of helping old persons stay active...

  15. Antiretroviral treatment induced catatonia in 16-year-old boy

    Anand Lingeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 16-year-old boy, who had presented to us with catatonic features of mutism, withdrawal, passive negativism, grimacing, gesturing, echopraxia, and excitement of 5 days duration while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART for a period of 2 years. He had history of birth asphyxia and acquired HIV infection from his father when the same syringe and needle was used on both of them in a medical setting where the father and son had consulted for treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin. He was the eldest of a three children family in which the biologic father had acquired HIV through extramarital sexual contact with HIV-infected sex workers but was unaware of his HIV positive status till our patient, the 16-year-old was admitted and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at 14 years of age. The boy′s mother had only acquired HIV after having three children with the HIV-positive husband, thus leaving the other two children HIV negative. The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. This case highlights the risks of ART and breach of universal precautions.

  16. [Desmoplastic ameloblastoma in a 7 year old child].

    Mikou, A; Al Bouzidi, A; Kabbaj, R; Chahdi, H; Kamous, W; Zoubeir, Y; Rharrassi, I; Rimani, M; Labraimi, A; El Khatib, M; Rzin, A; Nassih, M

    2008-01-01

    Desmoplastic ameloblastoma is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm of proliferating odontogenic epithelial origin. It is seen among old patients from 17 to 72 years with an average age 42 years and without predilection of sex. We report the case of a 7 year old child, having presented since the 5 years age, a gingival tumefaction on the left higher incisivo-canin group which increased volume gradually. The stomatologic examination showed a gingival tumefaction covered with a healthy mucous membrane, ovoid form and measuring 3 cm on its horizontal axis. The tomodensitometry of the jawbone showed in front of the 21st and the 22nd tooth, the presence of an osseous lesion associating of the hearths of osteolysis and osteocondensation with rupture of cortical and invasion of the soft tissue. A curetting of the lesion was carried out and the anatomopathologic examination retained the diagnosis of desmoplastic ameloblastoma. The characteristic of our observation is the youth of the patient. In addition, the desmoplastic ameloblastoma is relatively rare, is characterized by an anatomical distribution, a radiological appearance and a morphological aspect differents from the traditional ameloblastoma. A radical surgical treatment is suggested for this tumour to avoid recurrency.

  17. 11-14岁学生关于可能性比较的认知发展研究%Research on Cognitive Development of Possibility Comparison in Students Aged 11-14

    何声清; 巩子坤

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the 11 to 14 year-old students on possibility comparison from aspects as cognitive development trends, influencing factors and the individual differences of cognitive development. The study showed that 11 to 14-year-old students’ cognitions of possibility comparison experience three phases:slow development, retrogressive development and stagnant development;under duplicate samples conditions, the combinatorial computing significantly affects the comparison of possibility;students’ levels of possibility comparison differ in school types and parents’ educational backgrounds. The mistakes students are most likely to make when making comparison of possibility are:lack of understanding of the objective existence of possibility;under duplicate samples conditions, students tend to construct vague sample space.%考察11-14岁学生关于可能性比较的认知发展趋势、影响因素,以及认知发展的个体差异。研究表明,11-14岁的学生对可能性比较的认知经历了缓慢发展、倒退发展、停滞发展3个阶段;重复样本条件下,组合运算显著影响可能性的比较;学生的可能性比较水平存在学校类型、父母学历的差异。学生进行可能性大小比较时最容易出现的错误主要是:缺乏对可能性大小客观存在性的认识;重复样本条件下倾向于构造模糊的样本空间。

  18. Transplantation of a 2-year-old deceased-donor liver to a 61-year-old male recipient.

    Dai, Wing Chiu; Sharr, William W; Chok, Kenneth S H; Cheung, Tan To; Fung, James Y Y; Chan, Albert C Y; Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau

    2015-04-01

    The suitable size of a graft is a key element in the success of liver transplantation. A small-for-size liver graft is very likely to sustain a significant degree of injury as a result of ischemia, preservation, reperfusion, and rejection. Usually, small-for-size grafts are a concern in living-donor liver transplantation rather than in deceased-donor liver transplantation. Here, we describe the successful transplantation of a liver from a 2-year-old deceased donor to a 61-year-old male recipient who suffered from liver failure related to hepatitis B. No report of successful deceased-donor liver transplantation with discrepancies between donor and recipient age and size to such an extent has been found in the literature. Despite unusually large discrepancies, with effort in minimizing the ischemic time, revised surgical techniques, and strong regenerative power of the "young" graft, the old patient's liver function gradually returned to normal. This again proves that the definition of a "suitable graft" evolves with time and experience.

  19. Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma in a 25-year-old male

    David Dingli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH is a rare disease that is often misdiagnosed initially. Patients can present with a clinical picture concerning for other diseases, and pathologic review is not always revealing. Molecular diagnostics are increasingly being utilized to detect gene fusions characteristic for AFH. Surgery remains the mainstay of management, and can effectively control local recurrences and metastases. Herein we describe a case report of a 25-year-old gentleman whose presentation was concerning for lymphoma. Subsequently we review of the relevant literature.

  20. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a 90-year-old Chinese man

    XU Rong-he; HUANG Jian-qiang; YU Dan-qing; MA Gui-zhou; CAI Zhi-xiong; NI Chu-min; CHEN Ping; ZHU Zhi-dan; LUO Yan-hua; ZHU Guo-hong

    2012-01-01

    A 90-year-old Chinese man was transferred to the Emergency Department of the Affiliated Shantou Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University for treatment of an acute myocardial infarction.He suffered chest pain with three days of cough,dyspnea and fever.A diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy was made in normal coronary arteries from urgent coronary angiography and characteristic apical dyskinesis and basal hyper contractility in left ventriculography.The patient died from severe multi-organ failure on the second day of hospitalization.

  1. Bilateral Ota nevus in a 15 years old patient

    Savaş Öztürk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nevus of Ota is a dermal melanocytosis, clinically localizedon skin that is innervated by the first and secondbranches of the trigeminal nerve. It occurs almost entirelyin Asian people. The clinical manifestations are usuallyunilateral; only 5% of cases are bilateral. In this article,due to rarity of the case, a 15-year-old patient, who was diagnosedwith bilateral ota nevus, without having any dermatologicalcomplaints other than cosmetic appearenceand stains in her eyes and around was presented.Key words: Bilateral ota nevus, child, melanocytosis

  2. Spitzoid Melanoma: A Ten Year-Old Boy

    Işıl Kılınç Karaarslan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spitzoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma, in which the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses are difficult. Data on the features of Spitzoid melanoma in children is limited in the literature, since melanoma is rarely seen in childhood. Here, we report a 10 year-old child with a Spitzoid melanoma. By the means of this case, it has been emphasized that melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions even seen in childhood, unless the clinical and dermoscopic features are characteristic for an entity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 127-9

  3. [Snake bite in a 53-year-old female tourist].

    Bertheau, S; Aghdassi, A; Otto, M; Hegenscheid, K; Runge, S; Lerch, M M; Simon, P

    2015-02-01

    Snake bites are rare events in Germany and are not life-threatening with usually only mild clinical symptoms. The most widespread venomous snake is the common European adder (Vipera berus). Here we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who was bitten by a common adder. Although the patient was initially in stable condition she developed edematous swelling of the complete lower limb, subcutaneous bleeding, and rhabdomyolysis. The aim of this report is to raise awareness that even in a central European country like Germany snake bites with a life-threatening course can occur and need immediate attention and medical care.

  4. [Successful preclinical thoracotomy in a 17-year-old man].

    Puchwein, P; Prenner, G; Fell, B; Sereinigg, M; Gumpert, R

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old man who sustained multiple stab wounds after a knife attack. After arrival of the emergency medical team the patient suffered a cardiac arrest caused by cardiac tamponade. After emergency thoracotomy and open heart massage the patient developed ROSC and could be discharged 13 days later without neurological deficits. Prehospital thoracotomy is rarely performed in Austria but is the only realistic chance for survival in cases of hematopericardium and tamponade. Better training of emergency physicians in Austria concerning surgical resuscitation could increase survival rates especially after penetrating thoracic trauma.

  5. Giant coronary artery aneurysms in a 58-year-old

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All giant Kawasaki aneurysms may not regress fully; some may eventually calcify, undergo thrombosis, and get detected in asymptomatic adults at later age. Tomisaku Kawasaki initially described this illness as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome in childhood in 1967 and coronary arteritis was recognized later. We present a 58-year-old male, possibly one of the oldest surviving patients with giant coronary aneurysms who presented with large secundum atrial septal defect (ASD with heart failure. This indicates that the disease was perhaps prevalent outside Japan even before the first Kawasaki′s description.

  6. [Bromo-Dragonfly poisoning of 18-year-old male].

    Nielsen, Visti Torbjørn; Høgberg, Lotte C G; Behrens, Jens Kristian

    2010-05-10

    Bromo-Dragonfly (BDF) is a designer drug chemically related to LSD and amphetamine. The first registration in Denmark was in October 2007. In the present case an 18-year-old man ingested about 2 ml BDF and developed acute psychosis. At the hospital the patient displayed, hyperpyrexia, tachycardia, tachypnea and hypertension. Because of severe hallucinations and agitation the patient was detained at the hospital and received symptomatic treatment with large doses of benzodiazepines. Four days after hospitalization, the patient discharged himself without significant symptoms or paraclinical findings.

  7. Five year old preschoolers’ sharing is influenced by anticipated reciprocation

    Mingrui eXiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question. In this study, 5-year-old children and an adult partner played a sharing game, in which children donated first and the partner donated afterward. In Experiment 1, the partner’s resources were more attractive than the child’s. In the reciprocal condition, the child was told that s/he would be a recipient when the partner played as a donor. In the nonreciprocal condition, however, the child was told that an anonymous child would be the recipient when the partner donated. Results showed that children shared more with the partner when they knew that they would be a recipient later. In Experiment 2, the child was always the recipient when the partner donated, but the partner’s resources were more desirable than the child’s in the high-value condition, and less desirable in the low-value condition. We found that children were more generous when the partner’s resources were valued higher. These findings demonstrate that 5-year-old preschoolers’ sharing choices take into account the anticipated reciprocity of the recipient, suggesting either self-interested tactical sharing or direct reciprocity in advance of receiving. Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

  8. Intellectual functioning in a 70-year-old urban population.

    Andersson, E; Berg, S; Lawenius, M; Svanborg, A

    1978-01-01

    A subsample of 229 persons from the population study "70-year-olds in Gothenburg" was studied with different intelligence tests. The non-response was 15%, and another 4% refused to take part in the psychological examination or had handicaps which made the performance of all or some of the tests impossible. Measurements were made of verbal meaning (SRB1), reasoning (SRB2), spatial ability (SRB3), perceptual speed (Ps-if) and logical thinking and observation (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices). There were no differences in the tests between men and women except with Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, where the men had a better score. Amongst the women, those who had received a longer education had a better score compared with those who had had less education. Norm-tables for the different tests are presented. As far as could be judged from cross-sectional comparisons the average general cognitive capability was good, even though the 70-year-olds to a higher degree were suffering from mental disorders than younger individuals and more often were living in social situations that could have influenced basic physical and mental functions. The perceptual speed was the only ability that showed a marked change at the age of 70.

  9. Chemical properties of two-year-old deciduous species

    Chow, P.; Rolfe, G.L.; Lee, C.S.; White, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Contents of ash, hot-water extractives, 1% sodium hydroxide extractives, alcohol-benzene extractive, lignin, holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, and pentosan were determined on two-year-old, short-rotation trees of autumn olive, black alder, black locust, eastern cottonwood, royal paulownia, silver maple, and sycamore. These plantations were established in 1978 on marginal agricultural land that was not suitable for food production in Illinois. Six comparable species of commercial lumber were also analyzed. Test results indicated that all chemical properties did vary with species, above-ground tree portions, and ages of species. The two-year-old juvenile trees had higher average extractives, holocellulose, pentosan, and ash content than did the lumber of matured wood. Black locust possessed the highest values of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose, while the eastern cottonwood had the highest extractive contents. Silver maple had the highest lignin content. Both bark and branches which consisted of about 32% of the mass weight of young trees, had a higher average lignin, extractive and ash content than those of the stemwood. Based on chemical composition, these seven juvenile deciduous species could serve as a raw material for the paper and chemical industries, as well as for energy. 19 references, 8 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Pica in under- 6 year old kindergarten children in Bushehr

    fatemeh Khosravizadegan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pica is an eating disorder typically defined as the persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least 1 month, without an association with an aversion to food. This behavior should be developmentally inappropriate, and not a culturally sanctioned practice. Pica is more prevalent in underdeveloped and low socioeconomic areas. In this study under 6-year old kindergarten children of Bushehr were evaluated. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 256 under 6-year old kindergarten children were evaluated in Bushehr in 2001. The necessary information regarding pica characteristics was given to the parents and teachers. The questionnaires were completed by the parents and teachers, and the suspects were assessed a second time. A more complete history and psychiatric examination was done to confirm the diagnosis of pica according to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV in these children. Results: A total of 256 children including 123 girls (48% and 133 boys (52% were evaluated. Pica was diagnosed in 67 of these children (26.2%. The most prevalent age for pica was 12-18 months (27 persons, 40.2% and 18-24 months (20 persons, 29.8%. Pica was significantly associated with sex (being a girl and positive family history. Conclusion: Pica is prevalent in kindergarten children in Bushehr. Educating parents and teachers seems to be necessary.

  11. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S.; Lodish, Maya B.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Quezado, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI. PMID:24129100

  12. Pituitary stalk lesion in a 13-year-old female.

    Zilbermint, Mihail; Ramnitz, Mary S; Lodish, Maya B; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kattamis, Antonis; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Patronas, Nicholas J; Quezado, Martha M; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2014-03-01

    Germinomas presenting with a pituitary stalk lesion and panhypopituitarism are rare in children, and their definite diagnosis is challenging. An invasive diagnostic approach, such as a transsphenoidal biopsy, is often required prior to establishing a treatment regimen. A 13-year-old female presented with 1 year of secondary amenorrhea, fatigue, and progressive thirst with polyuria. Laboratory work-up revealed panhypopituitarism (central hypothyroidism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency and central diabetes insipidus). α-Fetoprotein and β-human chorionic gonadotropin were not elevated in serum nor in cerebrospinal fluid. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary region showed an enhancing infundibular lesion, extending into the hypothalamus, and infiltrating the pituitary gland. A transsphenoidal biopsy of the infundibular lesion confirmed the diagnosis of germinoma (germ-cell tumor). After appropriate hormone replacement therapy, chemotherapy and low-dose radiation therapy, the patient achieved complete resolution of the pituitary stalk lesion on the MRI.

  13. Prevalence of mutans streptococci in one-year-old children.

    Grindefjord, M; Dahllof, G; Wikner, S; Hojer, B; Modeer, T

    1991-10-01

    Colonization with mutans streptococci was studied in 1095 1-year-old children living in suburban Stockholm. During a scheduled vaccination appointment at a child health centre, a bacterial sample was obtained from the child's tongue and a structured questionnaire was completed by the accompanying parent. Six percent of the subjects were colonized with mutans streptococci. The variables most strongly correlated with presence of mutans streptococci were: non-Swedish background, consumption of sugar-containing beverages at night and total consumption of sugar-containing beverages. The results indicate that, by the age of 1 year, maternally influenced behaviour patterns such as dietary habits that may predispose to early colonization of mutans streptococci are already established. Such early colonization with mutans streptococci may predict high caries risk in the primary dentition.

  14. A 55 years old man with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    Rebeen R Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM is a very rare diffuse chronic lung disease characterized by deposition of small spherules of calcium phosphate within the alveolar cavity. The disease is usually seen from birth up to 40 years of age and is usually diagnosed incidentally during radiography of the chest for other reasons. Most of patients are asymptomatic or having very mild symptoms and the majority of patients either have normal or restrictive pulmonary function test. Clinically, the course of the disease is different; it remains static in few patients or it may progress to pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale in others. In this case report, we present a 55-year-old man who presented with moderate shortness of breath which has progressed from mild symptoms with in the previous years. His chest high-resolution CT scan showed diffusely scattered, ill-defined little shadowy micronodules which involve the left lung; lingula and left lower lobe in particular. A lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM. He was followed up for 1 year with treatment by steroid and alendronate, and no progression was noticed in fact improvement in pulmonary function test noticed. This is the first case report of PAM in Kurdistan.

  15. Physical activity levels and energy expenditure of 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children

    Anita E. Pienaar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The high occurrence of overweight and obesity amongst children is a disturbing health problem worldwide. Possible causes of increasing childhood obesity are inactivity and energy imbalances. The aim of this study was to analyse the total energy expenditure (TEEand physical activity levels in 9-year-old – 12-year-old overweight and obese children during a weekday and a weekend day, as well as during a weekday morning and afternoon. Twenty-four 9-year-old – 12-year-old children (seven boys and 17 girls, of whom nine were overweight and 15 were obese, were selected from seven public primary schools for this study. Body mass index (BMI cut-off points were used to distinguish between overweight and obese. Each participant wore an ACTICAL™ monitor to determine their physical activity levels and TEE. It was found that the TEE of the children did not differ between a week day and a weekend day, although the TEE of the week day afternoon differed significantly from that of the weekday morning. Unlike the overweight children, none of the obese children met the requirements of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day. Strategies should be found to increase the activity levels of overweight and, especially, obese children, specifically during the mornings and over weekends.

    Opsomming

    Die hoë voorkoms van oorgewig en obesiteit onder kinders is wêreldwyd ’n kommerwekkende gesondheidsprobleem. Fisieke onaktiwiteit en energiewanbalanse word as moontlike oorsake van die probleem beskou. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die totale energieverbruik (TEV en fisieke-aktiwiteitsvlakke van 9-jarige – 12-jarige oorgewig- en obese kinders tydens ‘n totale weeksdag en naweekdag te ontleed, asook tydens die oggend en middag van ‘n weeksdag. Vier-en-twintig 9-jarige – 12-jarige kinders (sewe seuns en 17 dogters, waarvan nege oorgewig en 15 obees was, is uit sewe publieke laerskole vir die studie gekies

  16. Perinatal characteristics among early (10–14 years old and late (15–19 years old pregnant adolescents

    Alves João

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy in adolescents is a worldwide health problem and has been mostly common in poor populations. It is not clear if socioeconomic or biological factors are the main determinants of perinatal adverse outcomes in pregnant adolescents. Adolescents under 15 years old may present a high growth rate which may contribute to impair fetal growth. Our aim is to compare perinatal characteristics among early (aged 10 to 14 years and late (aged 15 to 19 years pregnant adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using data from Pernambuco State 2009, obtained from DATASUS/SISNAC, a Brazilian Government, open-access public health database. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between early (aged 10–14 years and late (aged 15–19 years pregnant adolescents. Family income was compared between early and late pregnant adolescents using a sample of 412 subjects evaluated at Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP during 2011. Statistical comparisons were made using the chi-square test was used with a significant level of 0.05; bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed. This project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Review Board. Results Data from 31,209 pregnant adolescents were analyzed. 29,733 (95.2% were aged 15 to 19 years and 1,476 (4.7% were aged 10 to 14 years. There were significant differences with respect to marital status, education level and number of prenatal visits of mothers aged 10 to 14 years compared to 15 to 19 years. Of importance, early adolescents had a greater rate of neonates born premature and with low birth weight. Prematurity and low birth weight remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusions Early aged adolescents may have an increased risk of prematurity and low birth weight. These findings highlight the potential role of biological factors in newborn outcomes in pregnant adolescents.

  17. A 31-year-old pregnant woman with angioedema.

    Speck, Aimee L; Killen, Paul D; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Angioedema is swelling of the deep layers of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue due to an increase in vascular permeability. Angioedema sometimes occurs concomitantly with urticaria and represents an allergic disease. In other cases, angioedema is not associated with an allergic condition. We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with new-onset angioedema in the setting of her first pregnancy. After detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation, a cause for her angioedema was found that had not been considered previously and had significant implications for future management, particularly in light of her current pregnancy. Because allergists are commonly called on to evaluate and treat angioedema, we should be aware of the many disease processes that can present with this symptom and be well-versed in the workup of new-onset angioedema.

  18. Cystic fibrosis school for 10-year-olds

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2000-01-01

    on which they can make their own choices in order to improve their quality of life. In practical terms we make classes of 4-8 10-year-old children with CF. We give them 6 lessons of 3 hours. One lesson every second month. The lessons substitute a monthly visit. The psysiotherapist and the nurse teach...... give them a good basis on which they can make their own choices about how they want to live their lives with cystic fibrosis and with optimal quality of life.......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...

  19. Omental infarction in an obese 10-year-old boy

    Katerina Kambouri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary omental infarction (POI has a low incidence worldwide, with most cases occurring in adults. This condition is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in childhood. Herein, we present a case of omental infarction in an obese 10-year-old boy who presented with acute abdominal pain in the right lower abdomen. The ultrasound (US examination did not reveal the appendix but showed secondary signs suggesting acute appendicitis. The child was thus operated on under the preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis but the intraoperative finding was omental infarct. Since the omental infarct as etiology of acute abdominal pain is uncommon, we highlight some of the possible etiologies and emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of omental infarction.

  20. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  1. Choline associated hypersexuality in a 79-year-old man.

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Cordici, Francesco; Genovese, Carmelo; Bramanti, Placido

    2014-01-01

    Hypersexuality, also referred to as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others, sometimes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient, used as a dietary supplement in different diseases. This report was aimed at considering choline intake as a possible cause of iatrogenic hypersexuality. After an evaluation, a 79-year-old man affected by memory loss was diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and treated with oral choline. After 6 weeks of regular choline assumption, the patient showed a pathological increase in libido with sexual urges. As choline was withdrawn, the hypersexuality disappeared within 5 days. Since hypersexuality may be an underreported and overlooked adverse effect of drugs and dietary supplements acting on the cholinergic pathway, this should be considered when treating and counselling patients with inappropriate sexual behavior.

  2. Pyomyositis in a 5-year-old child.

    Romeo, S; Sunshine, S

    2000-07-01

    We present a case of pyomyositis in an otherwise healthy 5-year-old child that underscores the potential for serious, life-threatening complications. Pyomyositis of the gluteal, psoas, and iliacus muscles was associated with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a large inferior vena cava thrombus, septic pulmonary emboli, and eventual pneumonia. Primary pyomyositis is a purulent infection of striated muscle thought to be caused by seeding from a transient bacteremia. The focal infection typically forms an abscess that generally responds to intravenous antibiotics and occasionally requires adjunctive computed tomography-guided aspiration and drainage. This localized infectious process rarely produces further sequelae unless treatment is delayed. Pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires a high clinical suspicion in patients who present with fever, leukocytosis, and localized pain.

  3. A 59 year-old man with sellar lesion.

    Sargis, Robert M; Wollmann, Robert L; Pytel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A 59 year-old man presented with a large sellar mass. Pathologic examination revealed a tumor with two distinct cell populations. The majority of the tumor showed typical pituitary gonadotroph adenoma morphology and staining. Diffusely scattered throughout this tumor were nests of epithelial cells with an appearance typical of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and that were proliferating by Ki-67. Moreover, their diffuse distribution within the adenoma portion of the tumor suggests that these areas arose from within the adenoma where squamous rests are not observed. While pituitary adenomas juxtaposed to craniopharyngiomas have been reported, these cases have consisted of distinct masses unlike the intimately admixed tumor described in this case. Moreover, all previous reports of craniopharyngiomas with pituitary adenoma have consisted of prolactinomas. This is the first reported case of a craniopharyngioma with gonadotroph adenoma.

  4. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate......The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...

  5. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain.

  6. Thyrotoxic Dysphagia in an 82-Year-Old Male

    Konstantinos Parperis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a common problem in elderly patients and a rare manifestation of Graves' disease. We report a case of an 82-year-old male who presented with a 4-week history of dysphagia and weight loss. Workup for his dysphagia with upper endoscopy, MRI brain, electromyography, acetyl-cholinesterase receptor antibodies, and voltage-gated calcium channel antibodies were negative. Modified Barium swallow test showed oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thyroid function tests that revealed hyperthyroidism and antibodies to TSH-receptor were positive. Based on the above findings, we considered Graves' disease as the most likely diagnosis. Patient was treated with methimazole and beta-blockers and subsequently his dysphagia resolved. This paper highlights the importance to clinicians of considering thyrotoxicosis as possible diagnosis in an elderly patient presenting with unexplained dysphagia.

  7. IDIOPATHIC PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM: REPORT IN A THREE YEAR OLD CHILD

    Vidyadhar Kinhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, non - infectious and destructive skin disease. Its exact etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood and is believed to be due to immune dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated; however none are consistent in all patients. Pyoderma gangrenosum mostly affects adults and rarely in children. An underlying systemic diseas e is often seen in most of the cases. A three - year - old male child presented with a non - healing ulcer over left thigh. Clinical features, histopathology, other investigations and dramatic response to corticosteroids suggested a diagnosis of idiopathic pyo derma gangrenosum. Associated idiopathic thrombocytosis was also seen. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare in children. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum associated with idiopathic thrombocytosis and keloidal scarring has not been reported earlier

  8. Tetanus trismus in a 2 year old child: Case report

    Menon Narayanankutty Sunilkumar, Vadakut Krishnan Parvathy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. It occurs in children mainly in the unimmunized, due to parental ignorance and objection to vaccination. This potentially fatal disease caused by a neurotoxin, tetanospasmin released from wounds infected with Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic gram–positive bacillus. As tetanus becomes less common, cases are likely to be misdiagnosed or go unrecognized. In this case report, we present a case of tetanus in a partially immunized 2 year old girl who presented with trismus. She was treated with the recent recommendations and adequate supportive care. Detection of tetanus at a very early stage can favor lifesaving interventions. Trismus, infected wound and partially immunized/unimmunized status of a child were the key features leading to the prompt diagnosis and early treatment.

  9. Subcutaneous scrotal dirofilariasis in a 3- year- old boy

    Biserka Pigac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariasis is a zoonosis caused by parasites the genus Dirofilaria, most common species are D. repens and D. immitis. This parasitosis rarely affects humans and it is usually asymptomatic. Canines are considered to be the reservoir of the parasite, yet the parasite is transmitted via mosquito bite. We present a case of subcutaneous scrotal dirofilariasis in a 3-year-old boy from north- western part of Croatia, where this zoonosis's not endemic, which characterizes this entity as rarity in this part of the country. In this case, parasitic infestation was manifested as painless scrotal nodule up to 1 cm in its largest diameter. Surgical excision revealed a thread- like material exiting the incision site. According to well –preserved morphologic characteristics, the specimen was characterized as a helminth of the genus Dirofilaria. We emphasize the importance of dirofilariasis in patients with subcutaneous nodules. And increase the awareness level of these parasites among clinicians and pathologists.

  10. Paratesticular myxoid liposarcoma in a 23-year old Nigerian

    Okezie M. Mbadiwe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumors and are usually seen in patients in middle age or older. Optimal treatment is radical orchidectomy. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy is added for advanced disease or recurrences. These practice guidelines often vary from the experience in developing countries. We present a 23-year old man who presented with paratesticular myxoid liposarcoma, after transscrotal orchidectomy for ‘testicular tumor’ without histology. He was subsequently managed by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and complete tumor excision. A case of paratesticular myxoid liposarcoma in a young man is highlighted. Also noted is the fact that complete extirpation at primary surgery reduces the risk of local recurrence. The practice of transscrotal orchidectomy and non-submission of surgical specimens is highlighted and condemned.

  11. Metanephric adenoma: Management in a 7-year-old child

    Katharine Caldwell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 7-year-old girl in whom a left renal mass was incidentally discovered on computerized tomography (CT scan during evaluation for acute perforated appendicitis. The presence of polycythemia and the radiographic characteristics of the mass suggested a metanephric adenoma but a Wilm's tumor could not be excluded with preoperative studies. Gross inspection and intra-operative ultrasound of the tumor supported the suspicion of a metanephric adenoma and a partial nephrectomy was performed. Frozen section and permanent pathologic analysis confirmed a benign metanephric adenoma. At current date, patient is recovering well and polycythemia has resolved. A review of the management of metanephric adenoma in the child is presented.

  12. Septic Bursitis in an 8-Year-Old Boy

    Panagiotis Kratimenos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prepatellar bursa can become inflamed owing to repeated trauma. Prepatellar bursitis is extremely rare in children. Methods. We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was treated for an erythematous, swollen, and severely painful right knee, fever, inability to bear weight on the leg, and purulent material draining from a puncture wound. We describe the differential diagnosis for tender swollen knee, including infection, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. If untreated, prepatellar bursitis can progress to patellar osteomyelitis. Results. Wound cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes, with the infection resolving with amoxicillin. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary in children presenting with prepatellar bursitis to prevent potentially devastating sequelae of infection of the septic joint.

  13. A 6-Year-Old With Leg Cramps.

    Jenssen, Brian P; Lautz, Andrew J; Orthmann-Murphy, Jennifer L; Yum, Sabrina W; Waanders, Angela; Fox, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl presented with a history of leg pain and cramping that progressively worsened over a 2- to 3-week period of time. Her examination was notable for normal vital signs, limited range of motion of her left hip, and a limp. Inflammatory markers were slightly elevated, but the serum electrolytes, calcium, and magnesium, complete blood cell count and differential, and creatine kinase level were normal. She was hospitalized for further diagnostic evaluation and was noted to have abnormal muscle movements classified as myokymia (continuous involuntary quivering, rippling, or undulating movement of muscles). Electromyography confirmed the myokymia but did not reveal evidence of a myopathy or neuropathy, prompting additional evaluation for a systemic etiology.

  14. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  15. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good patient cooperation and simple laboratory preparations the appliance can be used as substitute for complex functional appliances to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion before the growth spurt.

  16. Achalasia in a sixty-four-year-old man.

    Komisaruk, E A; Seymour, N E

    1998-01-01

    Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder characterized by increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure and absence of peristalsis in the lower esophagus. Patients typically present with complaints of progressive difficulty swallowing over a period of several years. Diagnosis is confirmed by esophageal manometry. Complications of achalasia include esophagitis, aspiration and possibly an increased risk of esophageal carcinoma. Medical treatment options include pneumatic dilatation, esophageal bougienage, nitrates, calcium channel blockers and botulinum toxin injections. The primary method of surgical treatment is the Heller myotomy, in which longitudinal incisions are made in the muscle fibers of the lower esophageal sphincter to reduce sphincter pressure. Frequently, a fundoplication is performed in addition to the myotomy to decrease the likelihood of development of gastroesophageal reflux. In recent years, the Heller myotomy has been performed both thoracoscopically and laparoscopically. An additional development has been the placement of an endoscope in the esophagus to provide transillumination during surgery; intraoperative endoscopy allows improved assessment of the depth of myotomy incisions and reduces the risk of esophageal perforation. The case report below describes a 64-year-old-man with achalasia who presented with persistent dysphagia despite multiple attempts at medical treatment. A laparoscopic Heller myotomy with Toupet fundoplication was performed with subsequent eradication of symptoms. A discussion of the epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of achalasia follows the case report.

  17. Forty years old and still young at heart

    2005-01-01

    I am 40 years old but my average age is 4. Who am I? The answer is the CERN nursery school, located near Gate A on the Meyrin site. This year's traditional end-of-year party on 24 June was a lot more lively than usual. To mark the school's fortieth birthday in style, the teachers dressed up in pretty, floating costumes, a clown on stilts was in attendance, to the delight of a fascinated crowd of children, and balloons were released into the sky. Dozens of balloons were released into the sky to mark the CERN nursery school's 40th Anniversary.Standing on stilts and performing a juggling act, the clown was the highlight of the evening. In 1965, when it was created on the initiative of a group of parents, the nursery school consisted of a single class that was open in the mornings only and was held in a room located outside the CERN site. The Staff Association took up the reins right from the start and is still running the school today. The school went from strength to strength. "Even at the beginning, there was...

  18. A 55 year old man with progressive neurologic deficits

    Sendjaja Muljadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available At least 50 percent of the decline in functional abilities associated with the elderly is caused by neurological conditions, particularly vascular dementia, such as occurs in Binswanger disease. Binswanger disease is a rare condition, characterized by acute strokes with symptoms and signs compatible with lacunar infarction. The disease onset is commonly between 55 and 75 years. The majority of patients with Binswanger disease have chronic hypertension and other putative factors including diabetes mellitus, polycythemia, thrombocytosis, hyperlipidemia, hyperglobulinemia and pseudoxanthoma elasticum, increased fibrinogen levels and the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. We report the case of a 55 year-old man, who suffered from involuntary movements of his right arm, slight hemiparesis on the right side, and also had dementia. He had a history of high blood pressure and laboratory tests showed that he had diabetes mellitus. The brain magnetic resonance imaging showed irregular white matter abnormalities with multiple lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia and pons. The clinical picture is characterized by acute strokes, followed by involuntary movements and also dementia. Therefore we decided to diagnose it as Binswanger disease. After discharge from hospital, the patient has not returned for follow-up.

  19. [Bilateral axillary nodes. 30-year-old patient, housewife].

    Rodak, R; Ramseier, E

    2007-11-14

    A 20-year old patient who had been adequately treated for lymph node tuberculosis 14 years ago presented 1 week after giving birth to a healthy daughter. She complained about painful lumps in both axillae. During pregnancy the patient suffered from hyperemesis gravidarum, lost 6 kg of weight, and had night sweats. During the last three months of her pregnancy she had a deep vein thrombosis in her right lower leg. The clinical examination showed soft axillary lumps up to 3 cm. The lab showed the following pathological findings: blood sedimentation rate 51 mm/h, CRP 44.8 mg/l, LDH 221 U/l and INR 1.3 (indicating insufficient anticoagulation with phenprocoumon). The chest x-ray showed no infiltrate or indications of a past tuberculosis. A fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on an accessible node. Gram stain, Ziehl Neelsen stain, as well as the bacteriological cultures were all negative. An ultrasound examination of the axilla showed a thickened subcutis without a mass. Cytology showed lobular epithelium, consistent wih ductal mamma epithelium without atypical cells. The diagnosis of an accessory mamma tissue in both axillae was made. During the course of the following weeks the glands decreased in size and the patient was free of symptoms.

  20. Assessing Executive Function components in 9 years old children

    Sandra Reyes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive Function (EF is a multidimensional construct. It includes a set of abilities that allows to execute actions with a purpose, aimed to a goal, in an efficient way. The objective of this work is to explore some of the cognitive abilities that constitute a common factor for EF in 9 years-old children. The chosen instruments: Batería de Evaluación Neuropsicológica de la Función Ejecutiva en niños (ENFEN (Battery of Neuropsychological Assessment for Executive Function in Children, along with the Backward Digits Subtestfrom the WISC-III, were administered to 101 children from private schools of Buenos Aires State, Argentina. The ENFEN consists on EF tasks, including Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Trail Making Test versions for children (gray and colored sets, Interference Task, and Planning disc movements according to a model. An initial confirmatory factor analysis didn’t show significant fit indexes, being the Inhibitory control the variable with the lower and non significant factorial weight. A second model excluding the Inhibitory control measure was conducted, and it showed excellent fit indexes. Therefore, it can be concluded that at this age, some of the cognitive abilities included on the EF are: Phonological and Semantic Fluency, Sustained and Selective attention, Planning and Working memory; which is not the case for Inhibitory Control (measured by the Interference Task in the ENFEN.

  1. Primary Pleural Angiosarcoma in a 63-Year-Old Gentleman

    Ahmed Abu-Zaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary pleural angiosarcomas are extremely rare. As of 2010, only around 50 case reports have been documented in the literature. Herein, we report the case of a 63-year-old gentleman who presented with a 3-month history of right-sided chest pain, dyspnea, and hemoptysis. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion with partial bibasilar atelectasis. Ultrasound-guided thoracocentesis showed bloody and exudative pleural fluid. Cytologic examination was negative for malignant cells. An abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan showed two right diaphragmatic pleural masses. Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT scan showed two hypermetabolic fluorodeoxyglucose- (FDG- avid lesions involving the right diaphragmatic pleura. CT-guided needle-core biopsy was performed and histopathological examination showed neoplastic cells growing mainly in sheets with focal areas suggestive of vascular spaces lined by cytologically malignant epithelioid cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed strong positivity for vimentin, CD31, CD68, and Fli-1 markers. The overall pathological and immunohistochemical features supported the diagnosis of epithelioid angiosarcoma. The patient was scheduled for surgery in three weeks. Unfortunately, the patient died after one week after discharge secondary to pulseless ventricular tachycardia arrest followed by asystole. Moreover, we also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  2. Marine durability of 23-year old reinforced concrete beams

    Mohammed, T. U. [NEWJEC Inc., Technology Development Dept., Osaka (Japan); Otsuki, N. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan); Hisada, M. [Niigata Univ., (Japan); Hamada, H. [Ministry of Transport, Port and Harbor Research Inst., Yokosuka (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Results of a study concerning the durability of 23-year old reinforced concrete beams exposed to marine tidal and atmospheric environments are presented. The study focused on the corrosion of steel bars with respect to orientation in concrete, carbonation and chloride ion-induced corrosion, quantitative evaluation of electrochemical data and the influence of stirrups on macrocell formation. Experimental work included half cell potential, polarization resistance, solution resistance investigations, chloride ion profile and carbonation depth measurements, microscopic observations of steel-concrete interfaces, and visual inspection of steel bars corrosion. Results showed that chloride ion-induced corrosion was significantly influenced by the orientation of the steel bars in the concrete. Macrocell corrosion was found to be the governing process of corrosion in atmospheric environment, while stirrups played an important role in macrocell formation. Assuming the use of a suitable pit concentration, polarization data was considered to provide an acceptable, although inexact, estimate of the depth of corrosion. Peak chloride ion concentration was not observed at the concrete surface but at some distance below the surface, probably due to the effect of wetting and drying cycles. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 11 figs.

  3. Comprehensive Treatment of Hypodontia in 6 Years Old Patient

    Yuri Desi Pratamasari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Agenesis described as a certain developemntal disorder that is a lacking in the number of teeth present intraorally. Hypodontia is an agenesis with the absence of one or several teeth. In most of the population, the prevalence is 3,5 - 6,5% with 0,3-0,4% for a severe hypodontia (an absence of 6 teeth or more clinically. Agenesis affects permanent dentition more often than primary dentition, and the incidence of agenesis is greater in female than male patients. Agenesis might be a result of environmental and genetic factors. It is necessary to have a comprehensive treatment for a case of hypodontia, which involves restorative, orthodontic, a prosthetic treatment based on the children's growth and development. In the present case, a patient of 6 years and 5 months old girl was diagnosed with severe hypodontia. The treatment of choice included a removable orthodontic appliance for the upper jaw and a removable space maintainer for the lower jaw. The removable orthodontic appliance served as an interceptive orthodontic treatment to correct anterior crossbites, and the child will be referred to the orthodontist to treat a Class III skeletal malocclusion. The space maintainer was to be used until the patient's condition become favorable for a permanent fixed bridge or steel removable partial denture.

  4. Giant Cell Fibroma in a Two-Year-Old Child

    Anna Carolina Volpi Mello-Moura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant cell fibroma is a benign nonneoplastic fibrous tumor of the oral mucosa. It occurs in the first three decades of life in the mandibular gingiva, predominantly, showing predilection for females. This article reports a case of giant cell fibroma in a 2-year-old girl, which is an uncommon age for this lesion. The patient was brought for treatment at the Research and Clinical Center of Dental Trauma in Primary Teeth, where practice for the Discipline of Pediatric Dentistry (Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Brazil takes place. During clinical examination, a tissue growth was detected on the lingual gingival mucosa of the lower right primary incisors teeth. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia and submitted to histological examination at the Oral Pathology Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, which confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. There was no recurrence after 20 months of monitoring. This instance reinforces the importance of oral care from the very first months of life in order to enable doctors to make precocious diagnosis and offer more appropriate treatments for oral diseases, as well as to promote more efficient oral health in the community.

  5. 20 year old lady with a paraspinal mass.

    O'Toole, Orna

    2010-05-01

    A 20 year old female presented with a 4 month history of right upper limb pain and paraesthesias. She had no systemic symptoms and no prior medical or family history of note. MRI revealed a right-sided intradural extramedullary mass extending from C7-T1 and displacing the spinal cord. While awaiting surgery her symptoms progressed to involve the right lower limb. She was re-imaged and the lesion now extended from C5 to T3 with spinal cord compression at C7-T1. The radiological features and recent rapid growth were felt to be in keeping with a large plexiform neurofibroma. The patient underwent emergency resection of the lesion and pathology revealed Hodgkin\\'s Lymphoma (HL)-mixed cellularity type. A mediastinal mass was identified on further imaging and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of HL-stage IV. The patient is currently undergoing treatment with ABVD chemotherapy. CNS-HL is extremely rare and may occur de novo or in association with systemic disease. Lesions may be parenchymal or dural based and are usually intracranial with an increased risk of CNS involvement in HL-mixed-cellularity type as in our patient. This is the first report in the literature of CNS-HL radiologically mimicking a paraspinal plexiform neurofibroma.

  6. Primary Vesical Actinomycosis in a 23-Year-Old Man

    Tevfik Ziypak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Actinomycosis can affect any organ of the body, although cutaneous fistulas are common in actinomycotic infections, and other organs such as the bladder are only rarely involved. Case Presentation. Herein we report and discuss a young male patient with primary vesical actinomycosis. A 23-year-old man was hospitalized complaining of intermittent gross hematuria over a 6-month duration. The patient underwent a cystoscopic examination under general anesthesia; an edematous, hyperemic, wide-based mass, which protruded from the dome of the bladder, was seen and incompletely resected. The histopathological examination of the material showed Actinomyces organisms surrounded by inflammation and a photomicrograph showed the microorganism. After confirmation of bladder actinomycosis, the patient received penicillin. A CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed no evidence of the mass at the postoperative 6th month. Cystoscopic examination showed complete healing of the transurethral resection area at the dome of the bladder. Conclusion. In conclusion, we believe that the gold standard treatment for vesical actinomycosis should include the combination of a transurethral resection of the mass and long-term penicillin treatment.

  7. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  8. Results of a Multidisciplinary Treatment Program in 3-Year-Old to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese Children A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a multidisciplinary intervention program for 3-year-old to 5-year-old overweight and obese children compared with a usual-care program. Design: Randomized controlled clinical trial conducted from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting: Groningen Expert Center for Kid

  9. A 7 YEAR-7-MONTH OLD BOY WITH LEUKEMIC RETINOPATHY

    Ni Made Rini Suari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Ocular problems in patient with leukemia which are called leukemic retinopathy and subhyaloid hemorrhage is one of its feature. Subhyaloid hemorrhage in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is rarely happened. We reported a boy 7 year 7 month old, complained sudden blurred vision on his both eyes and diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. When patient had complained his vision, result of routine hematology showed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis. Treatment of leukemic retinopathy in this patient was supportive and causal therapy with transfusion of thrombocyte concentrate, hydration for leukocytosis, giving chemotherapy intrathecal methotrexate and systemic (vincristine, daunorubicin, L-asparginase. We found gradually undergone resolution of subhyaloid hemorrhages, visible flame shaped thin, and his vision recovered nearly completely to 6/6 OD and 6/20 OS /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. A 29-Year-Old Male with Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy

    Lubna Khondker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that primarily affects the peripheral nerves, skin, upper respiratory tract mucosa, eyes and certain other tissues. It is diagnosable and curable if recognized early and treated adequately. A twenty nine-year-old male from Jessore, Bangladesh reported in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh with the complaints of multiple erythematous, large, raised and circumscribed lesions with loss of sensations on different parts of the body, especially distal portions of all four limbs for last eight months. Subsequently he developed ulcers on the anesthetic fingers due to smoking and few ulcerative lesions on both feet. Skin examination revealed multiple erythematous, large nodular lesions on both sides of the cheek and forehead, multiple erythematous, indurated, large plaques with raised margin and central clearing on the trunk, waist and all four limbs, few satellite lesions around the large plaques on the trunk, few hypopigmented patches and plaques on buttock and lower limbs, multiple painless ulcers on dorsal surface of fingers of both hands, both lateral malleoluses and right sole. On examination of peripheral nerves, left great auricular nerve, both ulnar nerves and both common peroneal nerves were moderately enlarged and tender. Slit skin smear for AFB (modified Z-N stain was done and revealed that there were large number of acid and alcohol-fast bacilli arranged in straight and curved parallel bundles with globular masses (cigar-bundle appearance, morphologically resembling Mycobacterium leprae. Skin biopsy for histopathological examination revealed extensive infiltration of macrophages in the dermis, separated from epidermis by narrow grenz zone, with destruction of skin adnexa. Few foci of poorly defined granuloma in dermis were also noted. The patient was managed with rifampicin, clofazimine, dapsone, prednisolone and omeprazole.

  11. Obturator externus abscess in a 9-year-old child

    de Bodman, Charlotte; Ceroni, Dimitri; Dufour, Justine; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Bregou-Bourgeois, Aline; Zambelli, Pierre-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Obturator pyomyositis is a rare condition in children. Diagnosis is often delayed because of its rarity, and the vagaries of its presentation cause it to be easily be missed. Physicians should therefore familiarize themselves with this condition and consider it as a possible differential diagnosis in patients presenting with an acutely painful hip. Inflammatory syndrome is also frequent among sufferers and the MRI is a very sensitive diagnostic tool for obturator pyomyositis. Additionally, joint fluid aspirations and blood cultures are also useful in identifying the pathogen. The appropriate antibiotic therapy provides a rapid regression of symptoms during the early stage of pyomyositis. In cases of MRI-confirmed abscess, surgical treatment is indicated. Patient concerns: Our report focuses on a case of obturator pyomyositis in a 9-year-old boy. The child was febrile for 5 days and could only manage to walk a few steps. His hip range of motion was restricted in all directions. In addition, the patient had presented pain and swelling of his right elbow for a day, with a restriction of motion in the joint. There was a clear inflammatory syndrome. A diagnosis of hip and elbow septic arthritis was suspected, and the child underwent joint aspiration of the both cited joints. The aspiration of the elbow returned pus. Conversely, no effusion was found in the hip aspiration. The administration of empiric intravenous antibiotherapy was started. Diagnoses: An MRI revealed an osteomyelitis of the ischio-pubic area associated with a subperiosteal abscess. Interventions: Subsequently, 3 days after elbow arthrotomy, a surgical treatment was performed on the patient's right hip in order to evacuate the subperiosteal abscess and muscular collection because of the persistence of the patient's symptoms and inflammatory syndrome despite susceptible intravenous antibiotics. Postsurgery the patient showed steady improvement. Lessons: Such cases demonstrate how

  12. The Prevalence of Idiopathic Scoliosis in Eleven Year-Old Korean Adolescents: A 3 Year Epidemiological Study

    Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Han Jo; Park, Moon Soo; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Nam, Ji Hoon; Jung, Jae Kyun; Lee, Hwan-Mo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents. Materials and Methods A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for s...

  13. HIV and people over 50 years old in Europe

    Lazarus, Jeff; Nielsen, K K

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report on HIV and older people in the European Region, including new data stratified by subregion and year.......The aim of the study was to report on HIV and older people in the European Region, including new data stratified by subregion and year....

  14. Physical Activity during Winter in Old-Old Women Associated with Physical Performance after One Year: A Prospective Study

    Atsushi Mizumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the decline of physical activity during winter influences physical performances (after 1 year in old-old women. Methods. Fifty-three Japanese women (mean age: 78.4 ± 3.2 years participated in this study. Data of physical activity was collected by using an accelerometer at baseline and 3-month follow-up, and participants who decreased step counts in this period were defined as declining groups. We measured grip strength, knee extensor strength, total length of the center of gravity, hip walking distance, and maximum walking speed to evaluate physical performances at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance determined the difference in physical performance between declining groups and maintenance group with maintained or improved step counts. Results. Daily step counts for 22 older women (41.5% decreased during winter. A statistically significant interaction effect between group and time was found for maximum walking speed (F(1,50=5.23, p=0.03. Post hoc comparisons revealed that walking speed in the maintenance group significantly increased compared with baseline (p=0.01; the declining group showed no significant change (p=0.44. Conclusion. Change of physical activity during winter influences the physical performance level after 1 year in community-dwelling old-old women, particularly its effect on maximum walking speed.

  15. Eight-year change in functional ability among 70- to 95-year-olds

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille; Almind, Gert

    2007-01-01

    survivors). Functional ability was measured at all three surveys. There is a considerable health selection from survey 1 to 2 to 3 because of a high mortality among participants with poor health. RESULTS: The proportions with unchanged, improved, and deteriorated functional ability were 51%, 13%, and 37......AIM: To describe stability and change in functional ability among non-institutionalized old people in relation to sex, age, and household composition during two subsequent four-year observation periods. The study describes stability and change in total functional ability as well as in specific...... Activities of Daily Living). Relatively large proportions of elderly people demonstrated at the same time improvements in some functions and deterioration in others. CONCLUSIONS: A notable minority of the population improved in functional ability and a large proportion was stable over time...

  16. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    ... infection Common Medical Problems Young children have an average of 6 to 8 colds a year, and also may have several bouts of diarrhea and vomiting, as well as ear infections. Sleep problems and behavior or discipline concerns are very ...

  17. Four- and Six-Year-Olds Use Pragmatic Competence to Guide Word Learning

    Vazquez, Maria D.; Delisle, Sarah S.; Saylor, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates whether four- and six-year-old children use pragmatic competence as a criterion for learning from someone else. Specifically, we ask whether children use others' adherence to Gricean maxims to determine whether they will offer valid labels for novel objects. Six-year-olds recognized adherence to the maxims of…

  18. Social Context Effects in 2- and 4-Year-Olds' Selective versus Faithful Imitation

    Yu, Yue; Kushnir, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    This study asked whether children's tendency to imitate selectively (ignore causally unnecessary actions) versus faithfully ("overimitate" causally unnecessary actions) varies across ages and social contexts. In the first experiment, 2-year-olds and 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to play 1 of 3 prior games with a demonstrator: a…

  19. Early Number and Arithmetic Performance of Ecuadorian 4-5-Year-Olds

    Bojorque, Gina; Torbeyns, Joke; Moscoso, Jheni; Van Nijlen, Daniël; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at (a) constructing a reliable and valid test to assess Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; (b) providing empirical data on Ecuadorian 4-5-year olds' number and arithmetic skills; and (c) confronting these children's actual performances with the performances expected by national experts in this domain. We…

  20. Effect of Core Training on 16 Year-Old Soccer Players

    Afyon, Yakup Akif

    2014-01-01

    Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…

  1. Caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using the Cariogram

    Kavvadia, Katerina; Agouropoulos, Andreas; Gizani, Sotiria

    2012-01-01

    To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors.......To assess the caries risk profiles in 2- to 6-year-old Greek children using a computer-based program and to evaluate the contribution of various risk factors....

  2. Evidence of 600-million-year old fungi-algae symbiosis discovered in marine fossils

    Trulove, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from China and the United States have found evidence of lichen-like symbiosis in 600-million-year-old fossils from South China. The previous earliest evidence of lichen was 400-million-years-old, discovered in Scotland. The discovery also adds to the scarce fossil record of fungi and raises new questions about lichen evolution.

  3. Neurodevelopmental and cardiometabolic outcome in 4-year-old twins and singletons born after IVF

    Kuiper, Derk; Bennema, Anne; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Haadsma, Maaike; Hoek, Annemieke; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2017-01-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluated whether the cognitive development, neurological condition, anthropometrics and blood pressure of 4-year-old IVF twins differed from those of 4-year-old IVF singletons; 103 IVF singletons and 48 IVF twins born after conventional IVF treatment were included. Pri

  4. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  5. Determinants of developmental coordination disorder in 7-year-old children

    Faebo Larsen, Rikke; Hvas Mortensen, Laust; Martinussen, Torben;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children.......The aim of this study was to investigate early life determinants of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in 7-year-old children....

  6. Hypomineralized second primary molars: Prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  7. Hypomineralized second primary molars : prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M E C; Schuller, A A; Weerheijm, K L; Veerkamp, J S J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  8. Hypomineralized second primary molars: prevalence data in Dutch 5-year-olds

    Elfrink, M.E.C.; Schuller, A.A.; Weerheijm, K.L.; Veerkamp, J.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to report on the prevalence of hypomineralizations in second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children. In the study 386 (45% girls) 5-year-old Dutch children, all insured by a Health Insurance Fund, participated. Scoring criteria for molar i

  9. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  10. [Delirium in a 73-year-old man after many years of unwise use of betahistine].

    Hoenders, H J R; Wilterdink, J

    2004-11-20

    A 73-year-old man was admitted because of delirium that had already persisted for 5 days. The physical examination and extensive tests did not reveal any somatic pathology. The only drug he used was betahistine, taken for several years because of supposed Ménière's disease. After withdrawal of betahistine and treatment with haloperidol the patient recovered completely within a few days. A new delirium was induced when, after discharge from the hospital, betahistine was restarted because of dizziness. There was again a complete remission after betahistine was stopped and haloperidol was restarted. Betahistine is not known to induce delirium, but an investigation in side-effects databases did reveal several cases in which delirium might have been present, even though the term was not actually used. In this case, delirium was possibly caused by the combination of an elevated betahistine plasma level and a damaged blood-brain barrier due to cerebral infarctions, which were revealed by CT and MRI.

  11. A 10,000 YEAR OLD EXPLOSION IN DR21

    Zapata, Luis A.; Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2013-03-10

    Sensitive high angular resolution ({approx}2'') CO(2-1) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array of the flow emanating from the high-mass star-forming region DR21 located in the Cygnus X molecular cloud are presented. These new interferometric observations indicate that this well known enigmatic outflow appears to have been produced by an explosive event that took place about 10,000 years ago, and that might be related to the disintegration of a massive stellar system such as the one that occurred in Orion Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinman-Low 500 years ago, but about 20 times more energetic. This result therefore argues in favor of the idea that the disintegration of young stellar systems perhaps is a frequent phenomenon present during the formation of massive stars. However, many more theoretical and observational studies are still needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  12. A 10,000 Years Old Explosion in DR21

    Zapata, Luis A; Perez-Goytia, Nadia; Ho, Paul T P; Rodriguez, Luis F; Loinard, Laurent; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 2$"$) CO(2-1) line observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of the flow emanating from the high-mass star forming region DR21 located in the Cygnus X molecular cloud are presented. These new interferometric observations indicate that this well known enigmatic outflow appears to have been produced by an explosive event that took place about 10,000 years ago, and that might be related with the disintegration of a massive stellar system, as the one that occurred in Orion BN/KL 500 years ago, but about 20 times more energetic. This result therefore argues in favor of the idea that the disintegration of young stellar systems perhaps is a frequent phenomenon present during the formation of the massive stars. However, many more theoretical and observational studies are still needed to confirm our hypothesis.

  13. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  14. Predicting the Outcomes of Physical Events: Two-Year-Olds Fail To Reveal Knowledge of Solidity and Support.

    Hood, Bruce; Carey, Susan; Prasada, Sandeep

    2000-01-01

    Examined in 4 experiments 2-year-olds' knowledge of solidity in search tasks. Found no evidence that 2-year-olds represented solidity and support constraints on trajectories of falling objects; two experiments included 2.5-year-olds who succeeded on search tasks. Explored implications of 2-year-olds' poor performance in light of very young…

  15. Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class Ic amber.

    Bray, P Sargent; Anderson, Ken B

    2009-10-02

    The presence of amber, the fossil form of the resins produced by many types of higher plants, has been reported from many localities in Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. We have found Class I (polylabdanoid) amber in Carboniferous sediments dating to approximately 320 million years ago. This result demonstrates that preconifer gymnosperms evolved the biosynthetic mechanisms to produce complex polyterpenoid resins earlier than previously believed and that the biosynthetic pathways leading to the types of polylabdanoid resins that are now typically found in conifers and those now typically found in angiosperms had already diverged by the Carboniferous.

  16. Postural control in 13-year-old soccer players

    Bieć, Ewa; Kuczyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of early systematic soccer training on postural control we measured center-of-pressure (COP) variability, range, mean velocity and frequency in bipedal quiet stance with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) in 44 boys aged 13 (25 boys who practiced soccer for 5–6 years and 19 healthy boys who did not practice sports). The soccer players had better stability, particularly in the medial–lateral plane (M/L); their COP variability and range were lower than in controls in both EO ...

  17. Antoine Lavoisier and the study of respiration: 200 years old.

    Stokes, M A

    1991-03-01

    Antoine Lavoisier has been called the father of modern chemistry. From a medical point of view, he introduced the study of respiration and metabolism and so founded biochemistry. With his experiments, our knowledge of how the body works made immense strides forward. Two hundred years ago, he wrote his last authentic and untouched account of his views on respiration, in a letter to Joseph Black in Edinburgh. This opportunity has been taken to briefly review this work and the life of a man who did much to improve our understanding of ourselves.

  18. A thirty million year-old inherited heteroplasmy.

    Vincent Doublet

    Full Text Available Due to essentially maternal inheritance and a bottleneck effect during early oogenesis, newly arising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations segregate rapidly in metazoan female germlines. Consequently, heteroplasmy (i.e. the mixture of mtDNA genotypes within an organism is generally resolved to homoplasmy within a few generations. Here, we report an exceptional transpecific heteroplasmy (predicting an alanine/valine alloacceptor tRNA change that has been stably inherited in oniscid crustaceans for at least thirty million years. Our results suggest that this heteroplasmy is stably transmitted across generations because it occurs within mitochondria and therefore escapes the mtDNA bottleneck that usually erases heteroplasmy. Consistently, at least two oniscid species possess an atypical trimeric mitochondrial genome, which provides an adequate substrate for the emergence of a constitutive intra-mitochondrial heteroplasmy. Persistence of a mitochondrial polymorphism on such a deep evolutionary timescale suggests that balancing selection may be shaping mitochondrial sequence evolution in oniscid crustaceans.

  19. Possible shell disease in 100 million-year-old crabs.

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y; Felder, Darryl L

    2016-05-03

    Modern organisms exhibit evidence of many diseases, but recognizing such evidence in fossils remains difficult, thus hampering the study of the evolution of disease. We report on 2 molts of the goniodromitid crabs Distefania incerta and Goniodromites laevis from the mid-Cretaceous (late Albian) of Spain, with both species exhibiting damage to the dorsal carapace in otherwise well-preserved specimens. The subcircular to quadratical holes, found in <0.2% of the specimens, resemble damage caused by bacterial infections on the cuticle of modern decapods in terms of size and shape. Abiotic damage, predation, and encrustation followed by damage to the shell provide less satisfactory explanations, although these agents cannot be completely excluded from a role in shell disease etiology. We hypothesize that the observed fossil lesions are caused primarily by bacterial disease that started prior to molting, with or without other agents of initiation. If correct, this is the only known example of such bacterial infections in decapod crustaceans from the fossil record thus far, pushing back the evolutionary history of this type of shell disease by ~100 million years.

  20. Intraneural ganglion cyst: a 200-year-old mystery solved.

    Spinner, Robert J; Vincent, Jean-François; Wolanskyj, Alexandra P; Scheithauer, Bernd W

    2008-10-01

    We describe the first reported case of an intraneural ganglion cyst, an ulnar ("cubital") intraneural cyst, which, on literature review, dated to 1810. For over 80 years, its original brief description by Beauchêne was wrongly attributed to Duchenne, effectively making the reference and specimen inaccessible to scrutiny. Fortunately, the intact cyst had been safely housed in the Musée Dupuytren, Paris, France, thus permitting its examination. Although originally described as a "serous" cyst, our present understanding of the anatomy of the ulnar nerve and of peripheral nerve pathology allowed us to reinterpret it as a mucin-filled, elbow-level, ulnar intraneural ganglion cyst. In addition to its description as a fusiform cystic enlargement of the nerve, we documented similar enlargement of a lumen-bearing branch, the articular branch at the level of the elbow. Based on our assessment of the specimen and with a modern perspective, we concluded that the origin of the cyst was from the postero-medial aspect of the elbow joint and that its fluid content, having dissected through a capsular defect, followed the path of the articular branch into the parent ulnar nerve. The purpose of this report is to clarify historical misconceptions regarding the pathogenesis of this controversial entity.

  1. Blood lipid associations in 18 year-old men

    Leonor Poletto

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The association of cigarette smoking, physical activity at work, and social class with total cholesterol and with high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were examined in a random sample of 238 males, of 18 years of age, of Rosario, Argerntina. The mean (mg/dl total serum cholesterol of the whole sample was 174.7, the high density lipoprotein cholesterol 52.8, and the low density lipoprotein cholesterol 121.5. Black tobacco consumers, evenly distributed by social class, had higher levels of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Total cholesterol was higher in the high social class, differently from what smokers' distribution by social class, would lead one to expect. While a highly negative association was found between social class and physical activity at work, there were no significant diferences in lipoprotein levels between manual and non-manual workers. It is possible that the nutritional differences by social class still prevail over the smoking habit in their influence on the lipoprotein levels in these subjects.

  2. 470-Million-year-old black corals from China

    Baliński, Andrzej; Sun, Yuanlin; Dzik, Jerzy

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatic (possibly secondarily phosphatised) remains of antipatharian coralla, previously unknown in the fossil record, occur abundantly in the early Ordovician Fenxiang Formation in the Hubei Province, southern China. Probably two species (and genera) are represented, which differ in spinosity of branches. The more spinose one, Sinopathes reptans, has its lateral spines bearing regular, longitudinally arranged costellae. The early Floian geological age of this finding, about 470 Ma, supports predictions on the timing of anthozoan phylogeny derived from the molecular phylogenetic evidence. Black corals (Antipatharia) are basal to the scleractinians in the Hexacorallia clade, being more derived than sea anemones and the Zoantharia. Based on calibration of the molecular clock with Mesozoic data, the first split of lineages within the scleractinian hexacorals was proposed to take place approximately 425 million years ago. This implies that the origin of Antipatharia should precede this date. They have not been known in the fossil record because of unmineralised skeleton composed primarily of laminar chitin complexed with a protein. Unlike all recent species, the encrusting basal part of the colony dominated in the Ordovician ones and only occasionally erect branches developed, rather chaotically ramified. This presumably plesiomorphic trait seems consistent with ancient geological age and suggests that some problematic fossils from the Late Cambrian may be their, even less-derived, relatives.

  3. Acoustic Vocal Tract Model of One-year-old Children

    M. Vojnović

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The physical shape of vocal tract and its formant (resonant frequencies are directly related. The study of this functional connectivity is essential in speech therapy practice with children. Most of the perceived children’s speech anomalies can be explained on a physical level: malfunctioning movement of articulation organs. The current problem is that there is no enough data on the anatomical shape of children’s vocal tract to create its acoustic model. Classical techniques for vocal tract shape imaging (X-ray, magnetic resonance, etc. are not appropriate for children. One possibility is to start from the shape of the adult vocal tract and correct it based on anatomical, morphological and articulatory differences between children and adults. This paper presents a method for vocal tract shape estimation of the child aged one year. The initial shapes of the vocal tract refer to the Russian vowels spoken by an adult male. All the relevant anatomical and articulation parameters, that influence the formant frequencies, are analyzed. Finally, the hypothetical configurations of the children’s vocal tract, for the five vowels, are presented.

  4. Prescribing Analysis for 2–5 Years Old Children in Bandung During Year 2012

    Ami A. Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that irrational use of drugs will give medication errors effect or cause the unwanted side effects. The National Drug Policy (KONAS has developed drug policies that involve all stake-holders in Indonesia in order to minimize the irrational drug use. This study aims to analyze drug prescribing for 2–5 years old children in 14 pharmacies in Bandung during 2012. Approximately 2,195 prescription sheets from 14 pharmacies in Bandung were collected and analyzed by using prescribing indicators from the World Health Organization (WHO. We found an average number of 3.54 drugs in a prescription-sheet. We also found that 75% and 0% of all patients received antibiotics and injection, respectively. In particular, approximately 8% and 33% of all prescribed drugs were included in generic drug list and National List of Essential Medicines (DOEN, respectively. Based on data from the WHO and KONAS, it can be interpreted that the average number of drugs in a prescription-sheet is still high and the use of antibiotics is significantly higher compared to the use of antibiotics in other developing countries. Also, we summarized that the use of drugs according to generic drug list and DOEN are still low.

  5. Doctors and baldness: a five thousand year old challenge.

    Campo, Daniele; D'Acunzo, Valeria

    2016-02-01

    The history of trichology follows a thread that continually intersects with that of the history of medicine in general. Even Hippocrates believed that the approach to baldness should be of a medical nature. This confrontation between doctors and hair loss, which has lasted for five thousand years, begins with the invocations of the head physicians in the Egyptian era and ends with the recent institution of postgraduate Master's degrees at Faculties of Medicine and Surgery. The biggest names in medicine concerned themselves with trichology beginning with Hippocrates, who dealt with the topic in his most famous work: the Aphorisms. Even the most celebrated doctors of the Roman era, such as Galen and Pliny the Elder, did not disdain considering hair loss, leaving important scientific contributions before passing on the baton to their distinguished colleagues of the Byzantine Empire. The narrative then flows through the most prestigious institutions of the Middle Ages, such as the Salerno School of Medicine and the Siena Accademia del Fisiocritici where, at the end of the 1600s, the distinguished anatomical describer Marcello Malpighi also taught trichology, and left his contribution to "Hair Science" with a fine description of the hair follicle in the pages of his Opera Posthuma. At the turn of the late Middle Ages and the early modern era, barbers formed the primordial nucleus of surgery and at the same time became the ones to concern themselves with hair loss. In the 1800s, several doctors published the first texts dealing with the anatomy and physiology of the hair and taking into account the principal forms of alopecia, but at the therapeutic level did not yet propose anything scientifically valid. Until a few decades ago trichology still lent itself to various commercial speculations. It was not until the twentieth century that the pathogenetic mechanisms of baldness were clarified in a scientific manner. With this knowledge, the pharmaceutical industry has been

  6. Assessing Physicians' Intentions to Talk about Sex when They Vaccinate Nine-Year-Old to 15-Year-Old Girls against HPV

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…

  7. THE LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM IN 14-16-YEAR - OLD FEMALE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Jagiello Marina; Jagiello Wladyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The level of self esteem in 14-16-year-old female tennis players. Material: The main aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem among 14-16-year-old girls practising tennis in comparison to their peers not engaged in sport on a regular basis. The study involved two groups of girls: those practising tennis competitively (n=30) and those not training sports systematically (n=30). The subjects’ age was in the range of 14-16 years old and their training experience 3-6 yea...

  8. U-shaped development in math: 7-year-olds outperform 9-year-olds on equivalence problems.

    McNeil, Nicole M

    2007-05-01

    What is the nature of the association between age (7-11 years) and performance on mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 7+4+5+7+_)? Many prevailing theories suggest that there should be a positive association. However, change-resistance accounts (e.g., N. M. McNeil & M. W. Alibali, 2005b) predict a U-shaped association. The purpose of the present research was to test these differing predictions. Results from two studies supported a change-resistance account. In the first study (N=87), performance on equivalence problems declined between the ages of 7 and 9 and improved between the ages of 9 and 11. The decrements in performance between the ages of 7 and 9 were then replicated in a second study (N=35). Results suggest that the association between age and performance on equivalence problems is U-shaped.

  9. Persuasion from an Eighteen-Year-Old's Perspective: Perry and Piaget.

    Dinitz, Sue; Kiedaisch, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Looks at how the theories of William Perry and Jean Piaget explain choices students made in writing persuasive essays. Examines the implications of their theories for teaching persuasion to eighteen-year olds. (SR)

  10. Basilar impression and osteogenesis imperfecta in a three-year-old girl: CT and MRI

    Rush, P.J.; Berbrayer, D.; Reilly, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with osteogenesis imperfecta developed symptomatic basilar impression. Her neurological symptoms were treated by foramen magnum decompression and laminectomy. This is an unusually young patient to have this condition.

  11. A 75-year-old man with renal insufficiency and eosinophilia after coronary angiography

    Zhaoping LU; Geng SHAO; Yong HUO; Wenhui DING; Yang YANG; Chen CHEN

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case presentation A 75-year-old male patient received esophageal carcinoma surgery in Oct 2005. The next day of the operation, he had dyspnea, chest discomfort and sweating when he was on some activities.

  12. Percutaneous transsplenic embolization of esophageal varices in a 5-year-old child

    Rasinska, G.; Wermenski, K.; Rajszys, P.

    A five-year-old girl with portal vein thrombosis and severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage recurring after repeated endoscopic sclerotherapy was successfully embolized via an ultrasonically guided transsplenic catheterization of the splenic vein.

  13. Developmental changes and the effect of self-generated feedback in metacognitive controlled spacing strategies in 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults.

    Tsalas, Nike; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-04-01

    The current study investigated the development of metacognitive monitoring-based control of spacing choices in children and adults. Moreover, we assessed whether metacognitive learning decisions are influenced by the effects of previous metacognitive decisions. We tested groups of 7-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults in a task with two learning blocks in which they needed to monitor their learning through judgments of learning (JoL) and in which they then needed to decide whether to space their study, mass it, or terminate it. Extending previous findings, our study provides the first evidence that already by 7 years of age children can make metacognitive controlled scheduling decisions. The results also revealed that adults had more clearly differentiated strategies related to their JoL. Furthermore, our study provides evidence that participants of all age groups improved their relative monitoring accuracy in the second learning block and adjusted their JoL. However, only adults changed their strategy choices.

  14. Filariasis presenting as a scrotal nodule in a 2 year old child:A case report

    Kiran Yagain; Mary Mathew

    2011-01-01

    A two year old boy from southwestern village of India presented with a2 cm í1 cm size swelling in scrotum for8 months. It was excised surgically and the histopathological examination revealed a gravid filarial worm. The occurrence of adult filarial worm in2 year old boy signifies the endemicity and high larval load of insect vectors in western coast of south India.

  15. Severity of Diarrhea and Malnutrition among Under Five-Year-Old Children in Rural Bangladesh

    Ferdous, Farzana; Sumon K. Das; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D.; Latham, Jonathan R.; Chisti, Mohammod J.; Ud-Din, Abu I. M. S.; Ishrat J Azmi; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Faruque, Abu S.G.

    2013-01-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%,...

  16. [Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma in 36-year-old women: 3-years follow-up after partial resection and radiotherapy].

    Drożdż, Jarosław; Warchoł, Ewa; Fijuth, Jacek; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Spych, Michał; Maciejewski, Marek; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Ludomir, Stafańczyk; Janaszek-Sitkowska, Hanna; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the heart and pulmonary artery is a very rare, malignant, primary tumour. The prognosis in patients with primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, including intimal sarcoma, is poor. We present the case and 3-years follow-up of 36-year-old woman who was successfully treated with surgical, partial resection of the tumour followed by radiotherapy.

  17. Speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players.

    Jakovljevic, Sasa T; Karalejic, Milivoje S; Pajic, Zoran B; Macura, Marija M; Erculj, Frane F

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to identify and compare the speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players and (b) to investigate relations between speed and agility for both age groups of basketball players, to help coaches to improve their work. Sixty-four players aged 12 (M = 11.98 years, SD = 0.311) and 54 players aged 14 (M = 14.092 years, SD = 0.275) were tested. Three agility tests: agility t-test, zigzag agility drill, and agility run 4 × 15 m and 3 speed tests: 20-m run, 30-m run, and 50-m run were applied. Fourteen-year-old players achieved significantly better results in all speed and agility tests compared with 12-year-old players. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, p = 0.001) showed that 12-year-old players have the same ability in the 30- and 50-m runs. The other correlation coefficient (r = 0.59, p = 0.001) indicated that 20- and 30-m runs had inherently different qualities. The correlation coefficients between agility tests were year-old players, the correlation coefficients between the speed test results were 0.71, which means that all the 3 tests represent the same quality. During the speed training of 12-year-old players, it is advisable to focus on shorter running distances, up to 30 m. During the agility training of the same players, it is useful to apply exercises with various complexities. In speed training of the 14-year-old players, the 30- and 50-m runs should be applied, and agility training should include more specific basketball movements and activities.

  18. An 87-year-old patient with repeated oligorecurrences over six years whose disease were treated with radiotherapy alone

    Yun, Hyong Geun [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In the clinical state of oligometastases or oligorecurrence, a transitional state between localized and widespread systemic disease, local control of the disease may yield improved systemic control. Radiotherapy may be a good means for controlling oligometastatic tumors, particularly in very old patients for whom surgery may be infeasible. A combination of systemic therapy and local therapy is necessary to prevent systemic progression. Some kinds of cancers found in the elderly are known to be somewhat indolent for systemic progression. So, for very old patients who refuse or cannot tolerate chemotherapy, the use of radical radiotherapy alone to treat oligorecurrences may be very helpful. We successfully treated an 87-year-old patient who had been diagnosed with oligorecurrences three times over six years with radiotherapy alone. The patient is now, about four years after his first radiotherapy for liver metastasis, alive without any evidence of cancer and with fully active performance status.

  19. Oral Health Status Among 6- and 12-year-old Jordanian Schoolchildren

    Rajab, Lamis Darwish; Petersen, Poul Erik; Baqain, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: No nationwide oral health survey has previously been carried out in Jordan. The aims of the study were to assess the burden of dental caries and gingival health among children aged 6 and 12 years in relation to sociodemographic factors and to ascertain the trend over time in the occurrence...... caries and gingival health status. WHO methodology and criteria were applied. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information about oral hygiene, dental visits, consumption of sugars and parents' level of education. Results: The caries prevalence rates were 76.4% in 6-year-olds and 45.5% in 12......, the mean caries experience and the amount of untreated dental caries increased over time. Moreover, 17.7% of 6-year-old children and 49.1% of the 12-year-olds had gingival bleeding. Significant differences in gingival health were found by sex, location, geographical areas and socioeconomic group...

  20. Road safety effect of obligatory eye test for 45 year olds and older.

    2006-01-01

    Some years ago, the introduction of an obligatory eye test for drivers 45 years old and older was (once more) brought to discussion. We expect that the introduction of such a measure will only have a very slight positive effect on road safety. This measure, in which only visual acuity is tested, wil

  1. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  2. A 52-Year-Old Woman with a Palpable Abdominal Mass

    Yuh-Jeng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman presented with a history of diabetes mellitus under medical treatment and a surgical history of a cesarean section 20 years ago. The patient was referred to our emergency department because of a 2-week hypermenorrhea and unspecific abdominal pain without nausea and vomiting, fever, or other symptoms. She did not complain of weight loss.

  3. Functional somatic symptoms and consultation patterns in 5- to 7-year-olds

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Ørnbøl, Eva; Fink, Per Klausen;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of and factors linked to medical consultation for functional somatic symptoms (FSS) among 5- to 7-year-old children. METHODS: We assessed 1327 children from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 for FSS at ages 5 to 7 years. Register data on past health care use...

  4. Development and impact analysis of 3-year-old child FE human model

    Koizumi, T.; Tsujiuchi, N.; Taki, N.; Forbes, P.A.; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, a 3-year old child FE human model was developed by scaling down an adult male FE human model. Scaling down was performed for body dimensions, joint characteristics, and material properties. The focus of this current study is biofidelity validation and enhancement of the 3-year-o

  5. Does Chess Training Affect Conceptual Development of Six-Year-Old Children in Turkey?

    Sigirtmac, Ayperi Dikici

    2012-01-01

    Many studies propose that chess is a game requiring cognitive skills and has positive effects on mental development. In recent years, chess training has also been emphasised as important during the early childhood period. However, no studies have been done with six-year-old children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not…

  6. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  7. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  8. Effect of inflammation in the periodontium in early old age on mortality at 21-year follow-up

    Avlund, Kirsten; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Krustrup, Ulla;

    2009-01-01

    To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population.......To analyze whether inflammatory processes in the periodontium in early old age are related to subsequent mortality during 21 years of follow-up in a nondisabled 70-year-old population....

  9. Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an 85-Year-Old Diabetic Man

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Gopika Chandra; Prakruthi Voore; Maliha Khan; Oleksandr Halytskyy; Ahmed Elhassan; Ali, Alaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon and dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. Common risk factors for this disease include male gender, old age, presence of diabetes mellitus and cholelithiasis. The disease is best treated with emergent surgery and parenteral antibiotics. We present the case of an 85-year-old nursing home resident who presented to our institution with a 3-day history of gradually worsening abdominal discomfort.

  10. Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an 85-Year-Old Diabetic Man.

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Chandra, Gopika; Voore, Prakruthi; Khan, Maliha; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Elhassan, Ahmed; Ali, Alaa M

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon and dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. Common risk factors for this disease include male gender, old age, presence of diabetes mellitus and cholelithiasis. The disease is best treated with emergent surgery and parenteral antibiotics. We present the case of an 85-year-old nursing home resident who presented to our institution with a 3-day history of gradually worsening abdominal discomfort.

  11. Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an 85-Year-Old Diabetic Man

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Emphysematous cholecystitis is an uncommon and dangerous complication of acute cholecystitis. Common risk factors for this disease include male gender, old age, presence of diabetes mellitus and cholelithiasis. The disease is best treated with emergent surgery and parenteral antibiotics. We present the case of an 85-year-old nursing home resident who presented to our institution with a 3-day history of gradually worsening abdominal discomfort.

  12. Visual spatial cue use for guiding orientation in two-to-three-year-old children

    Danielle evan den Brink; Gabriele eJanzen

    2013-01-01

    In spatial development representations of the environment and the use of spatial cues change over time. To date, the influence of individual differences in skills relevant for orientation and navigation has not received much attention. The current study investigated orientation abilities on the basis of visual spatial cues in two-to-three-year-old children, and assessed factors that possibly influence spatial task performance. Thirty-month and 35-month-olds performed an on-screen Virtual Real...

  13. Visual access trumps gender in 3- and 4-year-old children's endorsement of testimony.

    Terrier, Nathalie; Bernard, Stéphane; Mercier, Hugo; Clément, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have investigated how preschoolers weigh social cues against epistemic cues when taking testimony into account. For instance, one study showed that 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of an informant who had the same gender as the children; by contrast, when the gender cue conflicted with an epistemic cue--past reliability--the latter trumped the former. None of the previous studies, however, has shown that 3-year-olds can prioritize an epistemic cue over a social cue. In Experiment 1, we offer the first demonstration that 3-year-olds favor testimony from a same-gender informant in the absence of other cues. In Experiments 2 and 3, an epistemic cue-visual access--was introduced. In those experiments, 3- and 4-year-olds endorsed the testimony of the informant with visual access regardless of whether it was a same-gender informant (Experiment 3) or a different-gender informant (Experiment 2). These results demonstrate that 3-year-olds are able to give more weight to an epistemic cue than to a social cue when evaluating testimony.

  14. Effects of perceptual variables on numerosity comparisonin 5-6-year-olds and adults

    Midori eTokita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although a critical issue in the debate over the existence of abstract numerical representation, it remains unclear whether and how perceptual variables affect numerosity judgment and how they change across development stages. In this research, we examine the effects of perceptual variables on approximate numerosity comparison in 5-6-year-olds and adults using the identical experimental procedure. In the assessment of the effect of the perceptual variables, we measured precision (i.e., Weber fraction and accuracy (i.e., point of subjective equality; PSE of the numerosity comparison. In Study 1, we tested how the manipulation of the cumulative element area would affect approximate numerosity comparison. The results showed that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large element condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. In study 2, we tested how the manipulation of the array area would affect the precision and accuracy of approximate numerosity comparison. The results demonstrated that Weber fractions increased and the size of bias enlarged in the large array condition in both adults and 5-6-year-olds. Overall, our results suggest that the effect of perceptual variables on 5-6-year-olds is qualitatively similar to that on adults. In addition, we also tested whether the performance of approximate comparison correlated with the initial numerical skill in 5-6-year-olds to reveal least relationship between them.

  15. DEVELOPMENT VARIABILITY OF LONGITUDINAL SPINE FEATURES IN CHILDREN AGING 7-15 YEARS OLD

    Katarzyna Kochan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased body growth is connected with higher sensitivity to environmental influence and may be a cause of instability of body posture. This happens when trunk and lower limbs growth is more intense. Because body posture disorders are most often diagnosed in children and school adolescents, the sample chosen were subjects between 7 and 15 years old. Material and methods. The data was gathered in 2002 in the town of Polkowice. Examination concerned 2706 boys and girls aged 7 to 15 years old. The measurement included basic somatic features and for the body posture photogrammetric method was used. Results. It was indicated that the relative trunk length in both sexes was decreasing in early school period but in the three oldest groups of age there was a significant increase. The height of kyphosis was increasing significantly in both sexes with age. Most intensive growth of this parameter was observed between 12 and 13 years old subjects. In both sexes there could be seen significant increase of kyphosis depth between 12 and 14 years old and also the decrease of lumbar lordosis between 12 and 13 years old subjects. Conclusion. Significant increase of thoracical spine relative height and lumbar lordosis depth in adolescents in both sexes can be one of the causes of weakening spine stability and affect correct body posture development.

  16. Children's Judgments of Emotion from Conflicting Cues in Speech: Why 6-Year-Olds Are So Inflexible

    Waxer, Matthew; Morton, J. Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Six-year-old children can judge a speaker's feelings either from content or paralanguage but have difficulty switching the basis of their judgments when these cues conflict. This inflexibility may relate to a lexical bias in 6-year-olds' judgments. Two experiments tested this claim. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds (n = 40) were as inflexible when…

  17. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  18. Dental status and dental caries in 85-year-old Danes

    Vilstrup, Lene; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study reports findings on the dental status and the prevalence of dental caries among a group of 85-year-old Danes from the Glostrup 1914 Cohort, Denmark. The purpose of the study was to analyse whether caries experience was related to number of teeth and to indicators...... and cognitive impairment tended to have more active caries than 85-year-olds with no impairment. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of 85-year-old individuals had retained a natural dentition; however, active dental caries is a problem of concern among the most elderly....... of functional ability and cognitive function. METHODS: A total of 191 individuals (78 men and 113 women) participated in a cross-sectional population study conducted in 2000. Using mobile dental equipment, a clinical oral examination and an interview were administered to all participants in their homes...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Auditory Attention in 7 to 9 Year Old Learning Disabled Students

    Fereshteh Amiriani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning disability is a term referes to a group of disorders manifesting listening, reading, writing, or mathematical problems. These children mostly have attention difficulties in classroom that leads to many learning problems. In this study we aimed to compare the auditory attention of 7 to 9 year old children with learning disability to non- learning disability age matched normal group.Methods: Twenty seven male 7 to 9 year old students with learning disability and 27 age and sex matched normal conrols were selected with unprobable simple sampling. 27 In order to evaluate auditory selective and divided attention, Farsi versions of speech in noise and dichotic digit test were used respectively.Results: Comparison of mean scores of Farsi versions of speech in noise in both ears of 7 and 8 year-old students in two groups indicated no significant difference (p>0.05 Mean scores of 9 year old controls was significant more than those of the cases only in the right ear (p=0.033. However, no significant difference was observed between mean scores of dichotic digit test assessing the right ear of 9 year-old learning disability and non learning disability students (p>0.05. Moreover, mean scores of 7 and 8 year- old students with learning disability was less than those of their normal peers in the left ear (p>0.05.Conclusion: Selective auditory attention is not affected in the optimal signal to noise ratio, while divided attention seems to be affected by maturity delay of auditory system or central auditory system disorders.

  20. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  1. Spirometry in an unselected group of 6-year-old children

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    This study presents reference equations for spirometric parameters in 6-year-old children and evaluates the ability of spirometry to discriminate healthy children from children with asthma. Baseline spirometry and respiratory symptoms were assessed in 404 children participating in a longitudinal...... in Delta FEV1(mean) between healthy children and children with asthma (3.1% vs. 6.1%, P Spirometry including bronchodilator measurements was demonstrated...... to be feasible in 6-year-old children and reference values were determined. Spirometry aids the diagnosis of asthma in young children, but knowledge on sensitivity and specificity of these measurements is a prerequisite....

  2. A Case of Premature Ovarian Failure in a 33-Year-Old Woman

    Emma Colao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess aetiology of a POF in a 33-year-old woman and, if possible, plan a cure. Design. Case report. Setting. medical genetics diagnostic unit in a university hospital. Patient. A 33-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure (POF. Intervention(s. Genetic counseling, karyotyping, FISH study. Result(s. Turner-like diagnosis. Conclusion(s. Most cases of POF remain idiopathic. Turner syndrome can occur in very different phenotypes; cytogenetic and molecular profiling can provide a definitive diagnosis in cases with nonclassical phenotype.

  3. A case of premature ovarian failure in a 33-year-old woman.

    Colao, Emma; Granata, Teresa; Vismara, Marco F M; Bombardiere, Francesco; Nocera, Donatella; Luciano, Elisa; Perrotti, Nicola; Malatesta, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess aetiology of a POF in a 33-year-old woman and, if possible, plan a cure. Design. Case report. Setting. medical genetics diagnostic unit in a university hospital. Patient. A 33-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure (POF). Intervention(s). Genetic counseling, karyotyping, FISH study. Result(s). Turner-like diagnosis. Conclusion(s). Most cases of POF remain idiopathic. Turner syndrome can occur in very different phenotypes; cytogenetic and molecular profiling can provide a definitive diagnosis in cases with nonclassical phenotype.

  4. Imitation of suprasegmental patterns by five-year-old children with adequate and inadequate articulation.

    Shadden, B B; Asp, C W; Tonkovich, J D; Mason, D

    1980-08-01

    Ten five-year-old children with adequate articulation skills and 10 five-year-old children with inadequate articulation skills were administered the Templin-Darley Test of Articulation and the Test of Rhythm and Intonation Patterns (TRIP). Differences between the adequate and inadequate groups in terms of the mean percentage correct and the correlations between TRIP and Templin-Darley Test scores within groups were statistically nonsignificant. Item analysis revealed no differences between groups in the pattern of performance on the three subtests of the TRIP or on specific test items. The possible effects of therapy enrollment on suprasegmental test performance are discussed, and future research needs are suggested.

  5. Severity of diarrhea and malnutrition among under five-year-old children in rural Bangladesh.

    Ferdous, Farzana; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Farzana, Fahmida D; Latham, Jonathan R; Chisti, Mohammod J; Ud-Din, Abu I M S; Azmi, Ishrat J; Talukder, Kaisar A; Faruque, Abu S G

    2013-08-01

    Enteric pathogens are commonly associated with diarrhea among malnourished children. This study aimed to determine the association between the severity of diarrheal illnesses and malnutrition among under 5-year-old children. During 2010 and 2011, we studied 2,324 under 5-year-old diarrheal children with mild disease (MD) and moderate-to-severe disease (MSD) attending a hospital in Bangladesh. Children with MSD were more likely to be malnourished compared with children with MD (35% versus 24%, P household income (1.71 [1.42, 2.07]). Childhood malnutrition was associated with dysentery and dehydrating diarrhea.

  6. Cross-national differences in grip strength among 50+ year old Europeans

    Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Petersen, Inge; Frederiksen, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    , education, health and socioeconomic status. The relative excess was found to be 11% and the absolute difference 5.0 kg for 50- to 54-year-old men, increasing to 28% and 6.9 kg among 80+ year-old men. The corresponding figures for women were 16% and 4.3 kg, and 21% and 3.5 kg, respectively. Southern European...... with higher rates of functional decline and mortality, and thus may be used as a health indicator, it is of interest to examine whether the results on extremely old can be reproduced in a large-scale European survey. GS was measured in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 27,456 individuals aged 50...

  7. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  8. A 60-year-old obese woman with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Christensen, Pia; Riecke, B F; Christensen, R

    2011-01-01

    A case is presented of a 60-year-old woman with concomitant obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The bad knees prevented the patient from exercising; however, with a focused dietary intervention employing food supplements for the first period of 8 weeks, an ordinary low-energy diet for another 8 weeks...... is the treatment of choice in patients with this combination of diseases....

  9. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus, with…

  10. Biofidelity Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid III 6 Year-Old ATD Lower Extremity.

    Boucher, Laura C; Bing, Julie; Bolte, John H

    2016-09-01

    Incomplete instrumentation and a lack of biofidelity in the extremities of the 6 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) pose challenges when studying regions of the body known to interact with the vehicle interior. This study sought to compare a prototype Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD leg (ATD-LE), with a more biofidelic ankle and tibia load cell, to previously collected child volunteer data and to the current Hybrid III 6 year-old ATD (HIII). Anthropometry, range of motion (ROM), and stiffness measurements were taken, along with a dynamic evaluation of the ATD-LE using knee-bolster airbag (KBA) test scenarios. Anthropometry values were similar in eight of twelve measurements. Total ankle ROM was improved in the ATD-LE with no bumper compared to the HIII. The highest tibia moments and tibia index values were recorded in KBA scenarios when the toes were positioned in contact with the dashboard prior to airbag deployment, forcing the ankle into axial loading and dorsiflexion. While improvements in the biofidelity of the ATD-LE are still necessary, the results of this study are encouraging. Continued advancement of the 6 year-old ATD ankle is necessary to provide a tool to directly study the behavior of the leg during a motor vehicle crash.

  11. HRCT features in a 5-year-old child with follicular bronchiolitis

    Reittner, P.; Fotter, R.; Lindbichler, F.; Tillich, M. [Department of Radiology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, A-8036 Graz (Austria); Varga, E.M.; Zach, M. [Department of Pediatrics, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria); Popper, H. [Department of Pathology, Karl-Franzens University and University Hospital Graz, Graz (Austria)

    1997-11-01

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) is the most sensitive radiographic method to image small airways disease. We discuss the HRCT features of follicular bronchiolitis in a 5-year-old boy and correlate them with the histopathological findings. The changes described include centrilobular nodules, bronchiectasis and bronchiolectasis, branching opacities and areas of reduced lung attenuation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 5 refs.

  12. Oral ulcer as primary manifestation of HIV infection in an 80-year-old man

    Ludvigsen, Lene Ugilt Pagter; Søgaard, Ole Schmeltz

    2014-01-01

    Oral lesions such as candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex infection, and ulcerative periodontitis are associated with HIV infection and may be the primary presentation in persons with undiagnosed HIV. We report a clinical case in which an 80-year-old man presented...

  13. Internet Gambling and Problem Gambling among 13 to 18 Year Old Adolescents in Iceland

    Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…

  14. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a 4-year-old girl associated with alimemazine

    van Maldegem, Bianca T; Smit, Leo M E; Touw, Daan J; Gemke, Reinoud J B J

    2002-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a rare but serious disorder caused by antipsychotic medication including phenothiazines. For sedative purposes, increasing doses of alimemazine were administered to a 4-year-old multiple handicapped girl, with cerebral damage of the basal ganglia.

  15. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term health impact…

  16. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  17. Perceived Motor Competence Differs From Actual Performance in 8-Year-Old Neonatal ECMO Survivors

    Toussaint, L.C.; Cammen-van Zijp, M.H. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Heijst, A.F. van; Ijsselstijn, H.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess perceived motor competence, social competence, self-worth, health-related quality of life, and actual motor performancein 8-year-old survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: In a prospective nationwide study, 135 children completed the extended

  18. Cortisol reactions to a social evaluative paradigm in 5- and 6-year-olds

    Weerth, C. de; Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Mack, S.; Beijers, R.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop a stress paradigm to elicit cortisol secretory responses in a group of 5- and 6-year-old children as a whole. To this end, we tested a paradigm containing elements of social evaluative threat, unpredictability and uncontrollability, and with a duration of

  19. One- to Three-Year-Old Children's Experience of Subjective Wellbeing in Day Care

    Seland, Monica; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bratterud, Åse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study on which this paper is based was to explore in which situations and contexts Norwegian 1-3-year-olds experience subjective wellbeing in day care. The data in this study was collected through qualitative phenomenological observations of 18 children, and an inductive process of analysis was conducted. The results show that…

  20. Investigating Gender Differences in the Science Performance of 16-Year-Old Pupils in the UK.

    Bell, John F.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether gender stereotypes of boys outperforming girls in physics and girls outperforming boys in biology are still present. Considers the performance on individual question parts of an examination for 16-years-olds in the United Kingdom. Also considers the memory processes involved and related to gender differences in science…

  1. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  2. Functional analysis of insistence on sameness in an 11-year old boy with Asperger syndrome

    Ollington, N.; Green, V.A.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the functional properties of insistence on sameness associated with autism spectrum disorders. Method: An 11-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome was observed during play where scenarios (mistakes, misplaced items, interrupted activity) were created to correspond with parent-re

  3. Management of tongue and lip laceration due to dystonia in a 1-year-old infant

    J P Beena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the management of tongue and lip lacerations due to dystonia in a 1-year-old infant. A splint was given to raise the bite and prevent repeated trauma and aid in healing of the oral tissue. This paper highlights the importance of pediatric dentist's role in improving quality of patient care in an intensive care unit.

  4. Episodic Memory and Episodic Foresight in 3- and 5-Year-Old Children

    Hayne, Harlene; Gross, Julien; McNamee, Stephanie; Fitzgibbon, Olivia; Tustin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the development of episodic memory and episodic foresight. Three- and 5-year-olds were interviewed individually using a personalised timeline that included photographs of them at different points in their life. After constructing the timeline with the experimenter, each child was asked to discuss a number of…

  5. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  6. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  7. Analyzing the Responses of 7-8 Year Olds When Solving Partitioning Problems

    Badillo, Edelmira; Font, Vicenç; Edo, Mequè

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the mathematical solutions of 7- to 8-year-old pupils while individually solving an arithmetic problem. The analysis was based on the "configuration of objects," an instrument derived from the onto-semiotic approach to mathematical knowledge. Results are illustrated through a number of cases. From the analysis of mathematical…

  8. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  9. Slowly but Surely: Adverbs Support Verb Learning in 2-Year-Olds

    Syrett, Kristen; Arunachalam, Sudha; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the meanings of verbs, toddlers make use of the surrounding linguistic information. For example, 2-year-olds successfully acquire novel transitive verbs that appear in semantically rich frames containing content nouns ("The boy is gonna pilk a balloon"), but they have difficulty with pronominal frames ("He is gonna pilk…

  10. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  11. Acute lower abdominal pain caused by adnexal torsion in a ten-year-old girl

    Steinthorsdottir, Kristin Julia; Hansen, Lars Folmer; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    A ten-year-old girl presented with four days of lower abdominal pain. A diagnostic laparoscopy on the suspicion of acute appendicitis revealed left-sided adnexal torsion. The cyanotic ovary was detorsed and recovered. At three-month follow-up there were no clinical or ultrasonic signs of patholog...

  12. A 22-Year-Old Nonsmoker With Diffuse Cystic Lung Disease.

    Foust, Kimber; Albores, Jeffrey; Fishbein, Gregory A; Genshaft, Scott; Wang, Tisha

    2015-07-01

    A 22-year-old previously healthy woman was evaluated in pulmonary clinic for shortness of breath and cough that had been slowly progressive over 3 months. She otherwise reported being fully functional and attended her college graduation a week prior to evaluation. She had no history of smoking, illicit drug use, connective tissue disease, or noxious exposures.

  13. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  14. A 25-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and liver disease

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Pedersen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old female nurse was referred to our diabetes outpatient clinic with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, obesity and elevated liver function tests (LFTs). Following a liver biopsy she was diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis. Treatment with subcutaneous ...

  15. Four-Year-Olds' Beliefs about How Others Regard Males and Females

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Children's awareness of how others evaluate their gender could influence their behaviours and well-being, yet little is known about when this awareness develops and what influences its emergence. The current study investigated culturally diverse 4-year-olds' ("N" = 240) public regard for gender groups and whether exposure to factors that…

  16. Narrative Comprehension Skills in 5-Year-Old Children: Correlational Analysis and Comprehender Profiles

    Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether a variety of cognitive and linguistic factors theoretically considered to be predictive of reading comprehension skills in elementary school children were also predictive of listening comprehension skills in 131 five-year-old children. The results showed that the predictors of young children's listening…

  17. Motor and Cognitive Control in a Normative Sample of 7-Year-Olds

    Roebers, Claudia M.; Kauer, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between cognitive and motor control by correlating individual performance on a variety of complex tasks in a normative sample of over 100 7-year-olds. While there are a few studies including children with specific developmental disorders (i.e. ADHD and DCD) showing that they share…

  18. Hyperventilation with cold versus dry air in 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma

    Nielsen, Kim G; Bisgaard, Hans

    2005-01-01

    -subject SDs (SDw). The challenge sequence was randomly assigned. A comparator challenge was performed 1 hour later if the first challenge gave a change of 3 SDw or more. Forty 2- to 5-year-old children with asthma were included. Responsiveness to cold versus dry air showed significant, but weak, correlation...... (r(2) = 0.34, p

  19. Home Computer Use and Academic Performance of Nine-Year-Olds

    Casey, Alice; Layte, Richard; Lyons, Sean; Silles, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A recent rise in home computer ownership has seen a growing number of children using computers and accessing the internet from a younger age. This paper examines the link between children's home computing and their academic performance in the areas of reading and mathematics. Data from the nine-year-old cohort of the Growing Up in Ireland survey…

  20. Chest Pain and ST-Segment Elevation in an 18-Year-Old Man.

    Kawji, Mazen M; Glancy, David Luke

    2017-02-28

    An 18-year-old man came to the hospital because of 1 day of chest pain typical of pericarditis. He had had an upper respiratory infection 10 days earlier. His electrocardiograms indicated evolving pericarditis. His echocardiogram showed mild, diffuse left ventricular hypokinesia, and his troponin I level peaked at 47.5 ng/ml. Thus, he had myopericarditis.

  1. Cat-scratch disease with severe pleuritis in a 6-year-old girl.

    Kimura, Sasagu; Hasegawa, Shunji; Yanagihara, Masashi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD), who developed severe pleuritis without lymphadenitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood. This is the first report of CSD diagnosed on real-time PCR using whole blood.

  2. An 8-year-old boy with a Pott's puffy tumor

    Huijssoon, E; Woerdeman, PA; van Diemen-Steenvoorde, RAAM; Hanlo, PW; Plotz, FB

    2003-01-01

    An 8-year old boy with a history of trauma, sinusitis and a swelling of the frontal. bone with somnolence was diagnosed with a Pott's puffy tumor (PPT). Minimal invasive surgical intervention was performed together with a strict regimen of antibiotic therapy. In this case debridement of the frontal

  3. Two-Year-Olds Interpret Novel Phonological Neighbors as Familiar Words

    Swingley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    When children hear a novel word in a context presenting a novel object and a familiar one, they usually assume that the novel word refers to the novel object. In a series of experiments, we tested whether this behavior would be found when 2-year-olds interpreted novel words that differed phonologically from familiar words in only 1 sound, either a…

  4. Two-Year-Olds Exclude Novel Objects as Potential Referents of Novel Words Based on Pragmatics

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Maren; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel…

  5. Dyslexia: Group Screening among 15-16-Year-Olds in Oslo, Norway

    Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported dyslexics…

  6. Examining Communicative Behaviors in a 3-Year-Old Boy Who Is Blind.

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The communication patterns of a 3-year-old boy who is blind were observed during 35 videotaped classroom sessions to determine if his echolalic responses varied according to school activity and message category. Analysis revealed that, although the child was expressive with adults, he had difficulty communicating with his peers and in producing…

  7. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  8. Features of 30–40 years old tourists-skiers’ technical training in spring and autumn.

    Оlexander Toporkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare the test results of the level of tourists’ technical readiness of 30–40 years old skiers at various stages of preparation. Determine the effectiveness of developed programs to improve the technical readiness of 30–40 years old tourists-skiers. Material and Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received at different stages of preparation and preparatory period and the results after passing ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity are processed. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: It was found that the developed training program can effectively influence the increase of the level of tourists’ and skiers’ technical skills and preparedness

  9. Features of 30–40 years old tourists-skiers’ technical training during before hiking preparation

    Alexander Toporkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare the test results of the level of tourists’ technical readiness of 30–40 years old skiers in winter period of preparation. Determine the effectiveness of developed programs to improve the technical readiness of 30–40 years old tourists-skiers. Material & Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received in winter period of preparation and preparatory period and the results after passing ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity are processed. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: it was found that the developed training program can effectively influence the increase of the level of tourists’ and skiers’ technical skills and preparedness, which contributes to the successful passage of ski sports categorized hiking.

  10. Childhood Trauma and Multiple Personality Disorder: The Case of a 9-Year-Old Girl.

    LaPorta, Lauren D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old female victim of sexual abuse, evaluated and diagnosed with multiple personality disorder over a six-month period. Included is a description of the child's presentation with historical and developmental data. A discussion of the dynamic and predisposing features of the case follows, along with…

  11. [A 35-year-old woman with fever, dyspnea, and pain in the left thigh].

    Picardi, A; Navajas, F; De Iorio, F; Amicarelli, M; Spoto, S; De Galasso, L; Vespaciani Gentilucci, U; Scarlata, S; Zardi, E; Di Cuonzo, G

    2001-01-01

    A thirty-five years old woman during her twelfth pregnancy presented fever and pain at the left thigh. After cesarean delivery dyspnea added to the first two symptoms and pulmonary embolism was suspected. A clinical history revaluation suggested a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis and femoural osteomielitis due to a septic embolus.

  12. Seasonal variations in growth and body composition of 8-11-year-old Danish children

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies on seasonality in growth reported the largest height gains during spring and largest body weight gains during autumn. We examined seasonality in height, body weight, BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) among contemporary Danish 8-11-year-olds. METH...

  13. Knowledge of Love: Narratives of Romance Told by 12-Year-Old Children

    Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    This article reports research on young people's conceptualisations of love and romance through a gender perspective. The data are stories written by 12-year-old girls and boys in Norway who were asked to fantasise about their future love life. Their narratives are explored through discourse analysis and semiotics and analysed within a…

  14. Duodenal intussusception secondary to web presenting as recurrent pancreatitis in a 7-year-old girl

    Tu, Long H. [University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT (United States); Kaweah Delta Healthcare District, Graduate Medical Education, Visalia, CA (United States); Villalona, Gustavo A. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); SSM Health Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States); Cowles, Robert A. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, New Haven, CT (United States); Silva, Cicero T. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Pediatric Radiology, 333 Cedar St., P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Duodenal intussusception is a rare entity in children, with 32 cases reported in the English literature to our knowledge. Most reported cases are associated with endoluminal tubes or polyps, and the presenting symptoms are chronic and nonspecific. We report a case of duodenal intussusception in a 7-year-old girl secondary to a duodenal web and review the imaging findings. (orig.)

  15. Categorization of Regional and Foreign Accent in 5- to 7-Year-Old British Children

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Girard, Frederique; Goslin, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines children's ability to detect accent-related information in connected speech. British English children aged 5 and 7 years old were asked to discriminate between their home accent from an Irish accent or a French accent in a sentence categorization task. Using a preliminary accent rating task with adult listeners, it was first…

  16. A Learning Trajectory in 6-Year-Olds' Thinking about Generalizing Functional Relationships

    Blanton, Maria; Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Gardiner, Angela Murphy; Sawrey, Katie; Newman-Owens, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The study of functions is a critical route into teaching and learning algebra in the elementary grades, yet important questions remain regarding the nature of young children's understanding of functions. This article reports an empirically developed learning trajectory in first-grade children's (6-year-olds') thinking about generalizing functional…

  17. Hands as Companions of the Mind: Essential Practical Life for the 5-Year-Old

    Gilder, Sharon Allen

    2012-01-01

    Numerous observations in Montessori classrooms led veteran Montessorians Pamela W. Trumble and Eleni Bokas to the conclusion that a universal need exists to bring integrity back to Practical Life, especially for 5-year-olds. Maria Montessori's observations over a century ago revealed the importance of Practical Life and its relationship to the…

  18. A novel case of chronic conjunctivitis in a 58-year-old woman caused by Raoultella.

    Zuberbuhler, B; Abedin, A; Roudsari, A

    2014-10-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented to eye emergency with a chronic conjunctivitis which was diagnosed by laboratory microbiological testing to be due to the environmental pathogen Raoultella planticola. The organism was sensitive to Chloramphenicol and the patient made a rapid recovery on these drops. This is the first report of this organism infecting the eye.

  19. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  20. Factors increasing the caries risk of second primary molars in 5-year-old Dutch children

    Elfrink, Marlies E C; Schuller, Annemarie A; Veerkamp, Jaap S J; Poorterman, Jan H G; Moll, Henriette A; ten Cate, Bob J M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caries is still a prevalent condition in 5-year-old children. At present, knowledge regarding some aetiological factors, like deciduous molar hypomineralization (DMH), is limited. AIM: To investigate aetiological factors both directly and indirectly associated with caries in second prima

  1. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  2. Self-Repair of Speech by Four-Year-Old Finnish Children

    Salonen, Tuuli; Laakso, Minna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine what four-year-old children repair in their speech. For this purpose, conversational self-repairs (N = 316) made by two typically developing Finnish-speaking children (aged 4 ; 8 and 4 ; 11) were examined. The data comprised eight hours of natural interactions videotaped at the children's homes. The tapes were…

  3. Correlates of Physical Activity in 2-Year-Old Toddlers : The Generation R Study

    Wijtzes, Anne I.; Kooijman, Marjolein N.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; de Vries, Sanne I.; Henrichs, Jens; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriette A.; Raat, Hein

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and identify correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in 2-year-old toddlers. Study design A total of 347 children participating in a birth cohort study wore a unaxial ActiGraph accelerometer during 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. Information on

  4. Cytological diagnosis of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old man

    Mimi Gangopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinicohistopathological study of a rare case of adamantinoma of long bone in a 78-year-old patient is presented. The cytological features when evaluated in conjunction with clinical and radiologic features are sufficiently diagnostic. The primary knowledge of its existence and knowledge of its cytological features are important for a correct preoperative cytological diagnosis.

  5. Porcine surfactant (Curosurf) for acute respiratory failure after near-drowning in 12 year old.

    Onarheim, H; Vik, V

    2004-07-01

    This case report describes rapid and persistent improvement after one single dose of porcine surfactant (Curosurf) 0.5 ml/kg(-1) (40 mg/kg) intratracheally for adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with severe oxygenation failure 8 h after freshwater near-drowning in a 12-year-old girl.

  6. Health in a population of eighteen-year-old males in Italy.

    Emanuele, A M; Falivene, C; Previtera, B

    1994-01-01

    A population of 18-year-old males were studied in order to investigate which biohumoral parameters were modified with respect to the so-called "reference values." To achieve our end, we analyzed the distribution curves of some biohumoral parameters, so selected to test various organs and apparatuses. Our results showed a clear incidence of hepatic affections and dislipidemias.

  7. Episodes of confusion and slurred speech in a 34-year-old woman from India

    Chandril eChugh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old woman from India, presented with episodes of confusion and progressive speech deterioration. She also had a painless neck lump, which persisted despite antibiotics. She was diagnosed to have a space occupying lesion in the left parietal lobe, which was subsequently biopsied.

  8. Phonetic Disintegration in a Five-Year-Old following Sudden Hearing Loss.

    Binnie, Carl A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The speech of a five year old boy who suffered a profound hearing loss following meningitis was sampled at two week intervals for nine months. It was speculated that phonetic processes such as diphthongization, syllabification, and prolonged duration may be strategies for enhancing feedback during speech. (Author)

  9. Dental health state in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province.

    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The absence of consice data of some indicators in the stomatological subsystem of our province difficults the knowledge of the real situation of the dental health in our province population. Objetive: to determine some epidemiological indicators related to dental health in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Method: a descriptive epidemiologcal study. Methods: 253 621 patients in a range of 20 years old and more. All health areas including municipalities were taken into consideration from May to June 2004. Results: The kind of denture more demanded for its rehabilitation by the population was the upper and the lower one. The highest indicators of cavities and exodonties were found in the 35 to 59 year-old group of patient as well as in the rural areas. The anatomic localization of cavity lesions were predominant in the posterior dental sector with a relation between sectors of 1:1,7. The lowest percetange in the covering range of stomatological attention was found in the 35 to 59 year-old group with 5 and 18 % in the majority of the municipalities. Conclusions: Through this investigation the behaviour of proposed indicators were evaluated as well as the necesities of treatment to establish future strategies of work in order to improve the dental health in the population.

  10. School functioning in 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization

    Wagenaar, Karin; Ceelen, Manon; Weissenbruch, van Mirjam; Knol, Dirk; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Huisman, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the school functioning of 8- to 18-year-old children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF). We compared 233 children born after IVF to 233 matched control children born spontaneously from parents with fertility problems on measures of education level, general c

  11. Secondary mania due to AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis in a 78-year-old patient.

    Chou, Po-Han; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chan, Chin-Hong

    2016-03-01

    We report a 78-year-old man without past psychiatric history who experienced his first manic episode successfully treated with quetiapine and lorazepam, but was ultimately found to have AIDS and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Our presented case highlights the importance of comprehensive differential diagnoses to rule out secondary causes of psychiatric symptoms presenting for the first time in elderly patients.

  12. Refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a 16-year-old girl: successful treatment with bortezomib

    Balen, T. van; Schreuder, M.F.; Jong, H. de; Kar, N.C.A.J. van de

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autoimmune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), refractory to plasma exchange and high-dose prednisone. Despite the additional treatment with rituximab, she developed renal and neurological complications with ongoing hemolysis and thrombocytopenia.

  13. Local intra-arterial thrombolysis in a 4-year-old male with vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis

    Janmaat, Mirjam; Gravendeel, Joost P; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Vroomen, Patrick C; Brouwer, Oebele F; Luijckx, Gert-Jan

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old male with vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis for which he was treated with local intra-arterial urokinase 60 hours after onset of symptoms. Initially the patient had dysarthria and dysphagia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a community hospital showed abno

  14. Severe hypercholesterolemia associated with primary biliary cirrhosis in a 44-year-old Japanese woman

    Tatsuo Kanda; Osamu Yokosuka; Hiroshige Kojima; Fumio Imazeki; Keiich Nagao; Ichiro Tatsuno; Yasushi Saito; Hiromitsu Saisho

    2004-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman developed jaundice and was diagnosed as stage Ⅱ of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). She showed a severely high total cholesterol level. This article focuses on atypical presentations of PBC and the need to test the total cholesterol level of PBC patients.

  15. [Secular trends of caries prevalence among 6 and 12 year-old youths in the Netherlands].

    Truin, G.J.; Schuller, A.A.; Poorterman, J.H.G.; Mulder, J.

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the development of caries prevalence and caries experience among Dutch youth, a meta-analysis was carried out on epidemiological caries data collected in 5 and 6 and 11 and 12 year-olds between 1980 and 2009. From the present analysis it appears that after the mid-1980'

  16. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  17. Repair in the Peer Talk of 6-Year-Old Boys

    Newbold, Elisabeth J.; Howard, Sara; Wells, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative analysis of linguistic and interactional aspects of repair in naturalistic play, interaction between three 6-year-olds (C, D and F), one of whom (child D) displays some speech and language difficulties. The methodology draws on conversation analysis together with perceptual phonetic observation. The analysis…

  18. Thermal detection thresholds in 5-year-old preterm born children; IQ does matter.

    Graaf, J. de; Valkenburg, A.J.; Tibboel, D.; Dijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing pain at newborn age may have consequences on one's somatosensory perception later in life. Children's perception for cold and warm stimuli may be determined with the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA) device by two different methods. AIM: This pilot study in 5-year-old children

  19. Limitations in 4-Year-Old Children's Sensitivity to the Spacing among Facial Features

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Thomson, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds' sensitivity to differences among faces in the spacing of features was tested under 4 task conditions: judging distinctiveness when the external contour was visible and when it was occluded, simultaneous match-to-sample, and recognizing the face of a friend. In each task, the foil differed only in the spacing of features, and…

  20. Writing and Reading Skills as Assessed by Teachers in 7-Year Olds: A Behavioral Genetic Approach

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A behavioral genetic analysis of general writing ability was conducted using teacher assessments based on UK National Curriculum criteria for a sample of 3296 same-sex pairs of 7-year-old twins. Writing was highly heritable within the normal range (0.66) and at the low extreme (0.70). Environmental influences were almost all non-shared, with…

  1. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  2. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  3. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  4. Facial Mimicry in 6-7 Year Old Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder and ADHD

    Deschamps, Peter; Munsters, Nicolette; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Impairments in facial mimicry are considered a proxy for deficits in affective empathy and have been demonstrated in 10 year old children and in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). However, it is not known whether these impairments are already present at an earlier age.

  5. Three-year old boys treasure pirate memories : Gender and episodic memory in preschoolers

    Wessel, Ineke; Rutten, Vera; Ruiter, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Scarf and colleagues (2013) proposed that 3-year olds fail to retain episodic memories for longer than 15 minutes. In their study, children found a locked pirate’s treasure chest in a sandbox. After a delay in which the child was elsewhere, the experimenter announced that they would return

  6. Tetralogy of fallot with dextrocardia and situs inversus in a 7-year-old boy.

    Dilorenzo, Michael; Weinstein, Samuel; Shenoy, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot is one of the most frequently diagnosed congenital cardiac abnormalities; however, its association with dextrocardia and situs inversus is reported only rarely. We report a case of these findings in a 7-year-old boy, describe the patient's postoperative course, and review the medical literature relevant to these combined conditions.

  7. Exploring Expressive Vocabulary Variability in Two-Year-Olds: The Role of Working Memory

    Newbury, Jayne; Klee, Thomas; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Moran, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether measures of working memory ability contribute to the wide variation in 2-year-olds' expressive vocabulary skills. Method: Seventy-nine children (aged 24-30 months) were assessed by using standardized tests of vocabulary and visual cognition, a processing speed measure, and behavioral measures of verbal working…

  8. Developmental Dyscalculia and Basic Numerical Capacities: A Study of 8--9-Year-Old Students

    Landerl, Karin; Bevan, Anna; Butterworth, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one 8- and 9-year-old children selected for dyscalculia, reading difficulties or both, were compared to controls on a range of basic number processing tasks. Children with dyscalculia only had impaired performance on the tasks despite high-average performance on tests of IQ, vocabulary and working memory tasks. Children with reading…

  9. Increased time to pregnancy is associated with suboptimal neurological condition of 2-year-olds

    Seggers, Jorien; Schendelaar, Pamela; Bos, Arend F.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Haadsma, Maaike L.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with neurological condition of 2-year-old children born to subfertile parents. Design Data collected in a prospective, assessor-blinded follow-up study were used for cross-sectional analyses. Patients Participants were the singleton

  10. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching and Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Math Recovery

    Wright, Robert J.; Ellemor-Collins, David; Tabor, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    This fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasizing computational fluency and the…

  11. Influence of Emotional Facial Expressions on 3-5-Year-Olds' Face Recognition

    Freitag, Claudia; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined 3- and 5-year-olds' recognition of faces in constant and varied emotional expressions. Children were asked to identify repeatedly presented target faces, distinguishing them from distractor faces, during an immediate recognition test and during delayed assessments after 10 min and one week. Emotional facial expression…

  12. Snoring and atherosclerotic manifestations in a 70-year-old population

    Jennum, P; Schultz-Larsen, K; Christensen, N J

    1996-01-01

    the issue we examined the association between self-assessed snoring and the relation to atherosclerotic manifestations. 804 70-year-old males and females were classified according to snoring habits. Alcohol and tobacco consumption, blood pressure, body mass index, social group, plasma lipids (triglycerides...

  13. A Rare Cause of Macroscopic Hematuria on Eleven-Year-Old Girl: Bladder Hemangioma

    Sezgin Guvel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiomas of the urinary tract can arise anywhere along the system. These rare benign lesions can cause life-threatening severe hematuria. We  present an 11-year-old girl with recurrent multiple bladder hemangioma treated with fulguration and review of the literature.  

  14. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  15. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  16. Correlates of physical activity in 2-year-old toddlers: The generation R study

    Wijtzes, A.I.; Kooijman, M.N.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Henrichs, J.; Jansen, W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Moll, H.A.; Raat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe and identify correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in 2-year-old toddlers. Study design: A total of 347 children participating in a birth cohort study wore a unaxial ActiGraph accelerometer during 1 weekday and 1 weekend day. Information o

  17. 77 FR 11651 - Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child Test Dummy

    2012-02-27

    ... results, the agency is pursuing the development of an HIII-10C modification consisting of an abdominal.... Executive Summary II. Background a. 2005 NPRM b. Developments Since 2005 c. Summary of Decision III. Summary... 1. Labeling the Dummy as a ``Ten Year Old'' 2. Best Practices for Belt Routing 3. Abdominal...

  18. Major stroke in a 19-year-old patient with a univentricular heart

    Riemann, Mads; Idorn, Lars; Wagner, Aase

    2013-01-01

    Patients with univentricular heart malformations are at increased risk of suffering from thromboembolic events. We present a case of a 19-year-old woman born with a univentricular heart who suffered a major stroke while being treated with only salicylic acid. At least 20% of patients...

  19. Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome in a 17-year-old female with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

    Conforti, Renata; Capasso, Raffaella; Capaldo, Guglielmo; Dato, Clemente; Saracino, Dario; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Melone, Mariarosa A

    2014-01-01

    Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome is characterized by bilateral facio-glosso-pharyngo-masticatory paralysis of voluntary movement due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. We describe the case of a 17-year-old female affected by Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome and congenital cytomegalovirus infection, evaluating the possible etiopathogenetic correlation between cerebral cortical dysplasia and intrauterine infections.

  20. Intermittent pancreatitis in a 2-year-old chihuahua mixed breed dog.

    Chan, Alice K Y

    2006-05-01

    A 2-year-old, female, Chihuahua mixed breed was presented on multiple occasions with vomiting and diarrhea. Diagnostic tests, including blood analyses and ultrasonography, established pancreatitis as the cause of gastrointestinal irritation. Hospitalization and supportive care, followed by maintenance of a prescription gastrointestinal diet, allowed management of the disease.

  1. Icteric flare of chronic hepatitis B in a 95-year old patient

    WS Wong; Wai Keung Leung; Henry L Y Chan

    2003-01-01

    A 95-year old gentleman developed fatal icteric flare of chronic hepatitis B despite lamivudine treatment. This article highlights the atypical presentations of chronic hepatitis B in elderly patient and the need to consider this possibility for acute fulminant hepatitis in endemic areas.

  2. Teaching 3.5-Year-Olds to Revise Their Beliefs Given Ambiguous Evidence

    Bonawitz, Elizabeth; Fischer, Adina; Schulz, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that 3-year-olds fail to learn from statistical data when their prior beliefs conflict with evidence. Are children's beliefs entrenched in their folk theories, or can preschoolers rationally update their beliefs? Motivated by a Bayesian account, we conducted a training study to investigate this question. Children (45…

  3. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  4. Childhood obesity: the extent of the problem among 6-year-old Irish national school children.

    Evans, D S

    2011-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. In Ireland, the number of overweight children has trebled over the last decade. The study aimed to provide an assessment of the prevalence of obesity of 6-year-old children in one region of Ireland.

  5. PAVEd for Success: An Evaluation of a Comprehensive Preliteracy Program for Four-Year-Old Children

    Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Hamilton, Claire E.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Bradley, Barbara A.; Webb, Mi-Young

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of "PAVEd for Success," comprehensive preliteracy program guidelines to support the development of foundational preliteracy skills in 4 year olds. Prekindergarten teachers received professional development on variables of the program that included a summer institute, after-school…

  6. Obstructive urolithiasis, unilateral hydronephrosis, and probable nephrolithiasis in a 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding.

    Macbeth, Bryan J

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding was presented for colic and dysuria. Obstructive urolithiasis and chronic renal disease were diagnosed via transurethral endoscopy and percutaneous ultrasonography. Nephroliths, hydronephrosis, and peri-ureteral fibrosis were present. Surgical intervention was declined and the gelding was managed medically with antibiotics and dietary modification.

  7. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  8. Intonation Facilitates Contrast Resolution: Evidence from Japanese Adults and 6-Year Olds

    Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…

  9. Toxic epidermal necrolysis triggered by clobazam: a case report in a 13-year-old girl.

    Dang, Chuong D; Beets-Shay, Linda; Kahn, Estelle C

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) triggered by clobazam in a 13-year-old girl who was subsequently treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. In December 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning that clobazam might cause "serious skin reactions" such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome or TEN and approved label changes.

  10. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  11. A 400,000-year-old mitochondrial genome questions phylogenetic relationships amongst archaic hominins

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    of the fossil record, this study confirms that genomic information can be recovered from extremely damaged DNA molecules, even in the presence of significant levels of human contamination. Together with the recent characterization of a 700,000-year-old horse genome, this study opens the Middle Pleistocene...

  12. Action-Based Digital Tools: Mathematics Learning in 6-Year-Old Children

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Desoete, Annemie; Fonck, Nathalie; Roderiguez, Dave; Six, Leen; Vermeersch, Tine; Vermeulen, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we used a metaphorical representation in order to stimulate the numerical competences of six-year-olds. It was expected that when properties of physical action are used for mathematical thinking or when abstract mathematical thinking is grounded in sensorimotor processes, learning gains should be more pronounced…

  13. Sex Survey about university students of UPF (from 20 to 27 years old

    Carmen Maté

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present survey was to assess the level of sexual knowledge, attitudes and practice of university students, adult young people from 20 to 27 years old and to identify if there was any significant difference in terms of age and sexual activity with other surveys. The survey was undertaken in which data were collected from 838 students who attended the third and four course of their graduate in Humanities. Differences between answers by sex were tested using Pearson’s χ2 test. The study established that behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and practice of the universitary students vary by sex in some regards. The fi rst sexual relationships is around they have 15,4 years old and no statistically significant difference was found between sex. The average of the starter interesting about sex is around 13,5 years old and a statistically signifi cant difference was found between sex, the average of boys is 12,7 years old and girls 13,7. People who were sexually active are satisfi ed and show is so important to their wellbeing. Majority use contraceptive methods in the last relationship and the same percentage use the condom in order to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. The study confirmed that there are 21% the students don’t use any method to avoid sexually transmitted diseases. Our conclusion is both, the knowledge and attitudes of students necessarily required appropriate sex education in the secondary school.

  14. Secretory Carcinoma in a 79- Year-Old Woman: An Exceptionally Rare Type of Breast Carcinoma

    Posso, Veronica; Redrobán, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma is an exceptionally rare mammary gland neoplasia described mainly in adult females and children of both sexes, and very rarely in the elderly. It has particular histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a favorable prognosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old Hispanic woman with a palpable breast mass. Currently, the patient is disease free after a followup period of 6 years without local recurrence or axillary lymph-nodes nor distant metastases. PMID:28058101

  15. 0 to 5 year-old children hearing appraisal by encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials

    Bustamante Mejía, César; Unidad de Otoneurología, Sección Otorrinolaringología, Hospital Central de la Fuerza Aérea del Perú, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze hearing development and maturation from 0 to 5 years of age by evaluating latency times with encephalic trunk audition evoked potentials (AEP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-four 0 to 5 year-old patients were grouped by age and AEP performed with identical parameters; all patients were sedated to avoid interference. RESULTS: Latency times decreased as age increased, denoting age/latency time (V wave) relation as indicator of hearing development and maturation. CONclusiOn: ...

  16. A 26-Year-Old Retained Demised Abdominal Pregnancy Presenting with Umbilical Fistula

    Nnadi Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on a 72-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with passage of fetal bones through an umbilical fistula. She was diagnosed as a case of demised abdominal pregnancy, which had been retained for 26 years. She subsequently had exploratory laparotomy, evacuation of the abdominal pregnancy, hysterectomy, and bowel resection. The patient’s condition remained unstable throughout the postoperative period and she died from septicemia on the eleventh day.

  17. Coronary Bypass Surgery in a 105-Year-Old Patient with Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    Temucin Noyan Ogus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass grafting is one of the routine daily surgical procedures in the current era. Parallel to the increasing life expectancy, cardiac surgery is commonly performed in octogenarians. However, literature consists of only seldom reports of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients above 90 years of age. In this report, we present our management strategy in a 105-year-old patient who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting at our institution.

  18. Total Body Fat Content versus BMI in 4-Year-Old Healthy Swedish Children

    Elisabet Forsum; Eva Flinke Carlsson; Hanna Henriksson; Pontus Henriksson; Marie Löf

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the rel...

  19. Clinical Reasoning: A 39-year-old man with abdominal cramps

    Jaiser, Stephan R.; Baker, Mark R; Whittaker, Roger G.; Birchall, Daniel; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old lawyer presented with intermittent spasms and pain in his abdominal muscles, particularly the right upper quadrant. These had occurred since his mid-20s and there had been long asymptomatic periods, including 8 years prior to the most recent 4-month exacerbation. Trivial movement triggered a spasm of the abdominal muscles, leading to severe pain, which made breathing uncomfortable and interfered with sleep. The symptoms subsided spontaneously after 4 to 5 days, leaving him with ...

  20. Facial reconstruction of a 3500-year-old Egyptian mummy using axial computed tomography.

    Hill, B; Macleod, I; Watson, L

    1993-01-01

    Rebuilding faces from skulls presented for forensic identification or of historical importance has been carried out for many years using standardized methods. However, the reproduction of the face of a 3500-year-old mummy still enclosed in its cartonnage proved to be an unusual challenge. The face had to be rebuilt without opening the cartonnage to ensure preservation of the remains. Consequently, the method devised involved using the latest medical imaging technology to determine the shape of the skull.

  1. Newly Emerging Feeding Difficulties in a 33-Year-Old Adult With CHARGE Syndrome

    Hudson, Alexandra; Blake, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Feeding and swallowing difficulties are common among individuals with CHARGE syndrome. Many children require gastrostomy tube feeding in their early years and often undergo a delay in feeding and oral-motor skill development. There is little information available on adults with CHARGE syndrome, and the feeding difficulties they face. The present case describes newly emerging mouth over-stuffing feeding behaviors and feeding difficulties in a 33-year-old adult with CHARGE syndrome who had not ...

  2. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed.

  3. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  4. Four-Year-Olds Use a Mixture of Spatial Reference Frames.

    James Negen

    Full Text Available Keeping track of unseen objects is an important spatial skill. In order to do this, people must situate the object in terms of different frames of reference, including body position (egocentric frame of reference, landmarks in the surrounding environment (extrinsic frame reference, or other attached features (intrinsic frame of reference. Nardini et al. hid a toy in one of 12 cups in front of children, turned the array when they were not looking, and then asked them to point to the cup with the toy. This forced children to use the intrinsic frame (information about the array of cups to locate the hidden toy. Three-year-olds made systematic errors by using the wrong frame of reference, 4-year-olds were at chance, and only 5- and 6-year-olds were successful. Can we better understand the developmental change that takes place at four years? This paper uses a modelling approach to re-examine the data and distinguish three possible strategies that could lead to the previous results at four years: (1 Children were choosing cups randomly, (2 Children were pointing between the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location and the correct target, and (3 Children were pointing near the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location on some trials and near the target on the rest. Results heavily favor the last possibility: 4-year-olds were not just guessing or trying to combine the available frames of reference. They were using the intrinsic frame on some trials, but not doing so consistently. These insights suggest that accounts of improving spatial performance at 4 years need to explain why there is a mixture of responses. Further application of the selected model also suggests that children become both more reliant on the correct frame and more accurate with any chosen frame as they mature.

  5. Four-Year-Olds Use a Mixture of Spatial Reference Frames.

    Negen, James; Nardini, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Keeping track of unseen objects is an important spatial skill. In order to do this, people must situate the object in terms of different frames of reference, including body position (egocentric frame of reference), landmarks in the surrounding environment (extrinsic frame reference), or other attached features (intrinsic frame of reference). Nardini et al. hid a toy in one of 12 cups in front of children, turned the array when they were not looking, and then asked them to point to the cup with the toy. This forced children to use the intrinsic frame (information about the array of cups) to locate the hidden toy. Three-year-olds made systematic errors by using the wrong frame of reference, 4-year-olds were at chance, and only 5- and 6-year-olds were successful. Can we better understand the developmental change that takes place at four years? This paper uses a modelling approach to re-examine the data and distinguish three possible strategies that could lead to the previous results at four years: (1) Children were choosing cups randomly, (2) Children were pointing between the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location and the correct target, and (3) Children were pointing near the egocentric/extrinsic-cued location on some trials and near the target on the rest. Results heavily favor the last possibility: 4-year-olds were not just guessing or trying to combine the available frames of reference. They were using the intrinsic frame on some trials, but not doing so consistently. These insights suggest that accounts of improving spatial performance at 4 years need to explain why there is a mixture of responses. Further application of the selected model also suggests that children become both more reliant on the correct frame and more accurate with any chosen frame as they mature.

  6. Respiratory changes, hand fingers edema and yellow nails in a 94-year-old woman

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 94-year-old woman, with antecedent of chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, recurrent pneumonitis, arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure was admitted to control an episode of cardiac and respiratory insufficiency. Yellow nail changes and a tendency to pincer nails developed in her hand and toe fingers, preceded by longstanding course of respiratory diseases with pleural involvement. Laboratory tests detected moderate anemia and mildly elevated levels of urea and creatinine, thyroid function was normal. This case study is about yellow nail syndrome in the absence of ankle lymphedema, and affecting a woman of the oldest-old age group with renal failure.

  7. Live birth afterin vitro fertilization (ivf) in a 53 year old woman:A case report

    Orazulike NC; Oriji VK; Fiebai PO

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of live birth in a53 year old woman following assisted reproductive techniques (ART).A53-year-old civil servant who registered for antenatal care at theUniversity ofPort HarcourtTeachingHospital(UPTH) in2008 at17 weeks gestation is presented.She had conceived after4 years of infertility follow treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI-ET) using her husband’s sperm and donor eggs.The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term.She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at38 weeks of gestation.The puerperium was complicated by hypertension, which was managed appropriately.Infertility in women of advanced reproductive age can be successfully treated with donor oocytes inNigeria.Antenatal supervision and delivery by skilled attendants is the key to achieve favourable outcome.

  8. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  9. Live birth after in vitro fertilization (ivf in a 53 year old woman: A case report

    NC Orazulike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of live birth in a 53 year old woman following assisted reproductive techniques (ART. A 53-year-old civil servant who registered for antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH in 2008 at 17 weeks gestation is presented. She had conceived after 4 years of infertility follow treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI-ET using her husband's sperm and donor eggs. The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term. She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. The puerperium was complicated by hypertension, which was managed appropriately. Infertility in women of advanced reproductive age can be successfully treated with donor oocytes in Nigeria. Antenatal supervision and delivery by skilled attendants is the key to achieve favourable outcome.

  10. Castleman’s Disease Associated with Mitral Valve Prolapse in a 22 Years Old Patient

    M. Vaziri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is an inherited disorder of phagocyte function. The defect of intracellular killing in phagocytes is the cause of recurrent pyogenic infection of patients. Clinical presentations and infections mostly occur during the first 2 years of life and early diagnosis of disease can prevent or decrease the rates of recurrence of infections and mortality.Case Report: This case report represents a 21 years old man who was admitted and underwent repeated surgery due to pyogenic infections for CGD. The second case was his 20 years old sister who was underwent surgery due to cervical abscess.Conclusion: This case-report implies that CGD may rarely go undiagnosed until adulthood, so in adults who develop recurrent pyogenic infection, we should be suspicious to CGD, and Nitroblue tetrazolium test is the convenient method for its diagnosis.

  11. Nitrogen forms in 1- to 7-year-old opencast lignite mine soils

    Gil-Sotres, F.; Leiros, M.C.; Trasar-Cepeda, M.C.; Saa, A.; Gonzalez-Sangregorio, M.V. (Facultad de Farmacia, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola)

    1993-08-01

    The distribution of different forms of N was studied in very young (0- to 7-year-old) soils from the Meirama lignite mine in northwest Spain. Total N increased rapidly with soil age, largely in the humic acid-associated fraction. Acid hydrolysis indicated that amino acid N and a hydrolysable unknown form of N increased with soil age. The fractionation reported by Bettany et al. (1980) indicated that alkali/pyrophosphate-extractable humus increased with soil age. All these data suggest that there is rapid stabilization of organic N during the first few years of evolution of these mine soils, to the extent that distribution of N forms in the 7-year old soil is very similar to that in native soils. 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of hay fever in 7-year-old children

    Christensen, Berit Hvass; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of allergic diseases including hay fever has increased in the last decades, especially in Westernised countries. The aim of this study was to analyse whether occupational exposure during pregnancy is associated with development of hay fever in 7-year-old Danish children....... METHODS: A total of 42 696 women and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort were categorised according to maternal occupational exposure. Exposure information was obtained by combining job title in pregnancy with a commonly used asthma Job Exposure Matrix. Information on hay fever...... in the child was obtained by an internet questionnaire at follow-up at 7 years of age. RESULTS: Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed no significant association between maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and hay fever among the 7-year-old children. Stratifying for atopic status...

  13. L'Aquila: the old and the new a year after the earthquake

    Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It's a year after the earthquake and the reconstruction of the old city has not yet begun. There isn't at the moment a plan of intervention, while a preliminary discussion of the plan has been approved. If for the city itself there has to be an urban re-structuring for the old city within the walls, on the other hand there should be established a plan of urban restoration, keeping above all the road grid, and those buildings which have been selected to be saved and restored should be reconstructed even with modern forms and technology. A serious effort should be made in the search for a correct meeing of the old and the new avoiding the exhibitionism of star architects and the unlikely reconstructions “as it was where it was.”

  14. Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden

    Kelfve Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Increased alcohol consumption among old people, reported in many countries, will likely present a major challenge to public health and policy in the future. In Sweden, current knowledge about old people’s alcohol consumption is incomplete because of limited historical data and a dearth of nationally representative studies. We describe the frequency of alcohol consumption among the oldest old in Sweden over a 20-year period by sex, age, education, living situation, mobility and Activities of Daily Living. METHODS - We used repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, conducted in 1992, 2002 and 2011. The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+, with response rates of 95.4%, 84.4% and 86.2% (total n=2007. Self-reported consumption frequency was measured with the question “How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits?” RESULTS - Frequency of alcohol consumption increased among the oldest old from 1992 to 2011. The proportion reporting no or less-than-monthly alcohol consumption decreased, whereas the proportion reporting weekly consumption increased. This was true for men, women and most age and educational groups. The period change in consumption frequency was not explained by changes in demographic factors, living situation or functional capacity during the study period. CONCLUSIONS - Alcohol use increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 20-year study period. More liberal attitudes toward alcohol could contribute to the increased use. The increase in weekly alcohol consumers suggests an increase in the number of older risk consumers.

  15. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter′s syndrome

    Derakhshan Nima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter′s syndrome (BS for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  16. Massive fibrous epulis-a case report of a 10-year-old lesion

    Gabriel MFonseca; Ricardo MFonseca; Mario Cantn

    2014-01-01

    The fibrous epulis, a common tumor-like lesion of the gingiva, appears in the interdental papilla as a result of local irritation. Lesions are asymptomatic and have a variable growth rate. A 75-year-old woman was referred for the evaluation of a large painless gingival mass. It had started 10 years back and has been increasing in size the last year. No bone involvement was noted. The tumor was totally removed by excision with surgical scalpel under local anesthesia without teeth extraction. The microscopic findings were suggestive of a fibrous epulis. Differential diagnosis, clinical considerations and factors to prevent recurrence are discussed.

  17. [Variations in tooth decay rates among children 5 and 12 years old in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Lucas, Simone Dutra; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Mendonça, Lisette Lobato

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to analyze to what extent World Health Organization goals were met in relation to dental caries in 2000 in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, identifying factors associated with variation in DMFT and the occurrence of DMFT < or = 3 among 12-year-old children and in the percentage of caries-free 5-year-olds. Secondary data from different sources were used. Linear regression and multiple logistic regression techniques were applied to the analysis of the numerical and dichotomous dependent variables. Socioeconomic and dental services supply/utilization indicators were used as potential explanatory variables. The goals expressed by DMFT < or = 3 at 12 years and a minimum of 50% caries-free 5-year-olds were met by 37% and 9% of the State's municipalities, respectively. In general the dependent variables were associated with socioeconomic level, and no associations were identified with dental care. The results should not be generalized, but they do suggest inequities in oral health and the role played by socioeconomic factors and water fluoridation.

  18. Contrastive voicing acquisition in 2-year-old children: Preliminary data

    Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Koenig, Laura L.

    2004-05-01

    Earlier studies using voice-onset time (VOT) as the acoustic marker of contrastive voicing acquisition in English have differed widely in method and statistical procedures. Research in this area has shown three primary patterns of voicing acquisition for English stop consonants. One report indicates children demonstrate discrete voicing categories with adult-like VOT values as early as 2 years old. Other reports suggest a subperceptual distinction of the voicing contrast, followed by an exaggerated voicing contrast with evidence of more adult-like discrete categories by 3 years old. Still other reports suggest no distinction between the voicing categories until approximately 3 years. This work investigates voicing acquisition in three typically developing, English-speaking 2-year-old children. The subjects were recorded every 2 weeks for 4-6 months. Approximately 15-20 tokens were elicited for four target utterances containing initial /b p t d/. Frequency distribution, measures of central tendency, and skewness will be calculated for every recording session of each child. Discussion will focus on the development of contrastive VOT categories and their stability over time. These data will contribute to our understanding of laryngeal timing for English stop consonants in young children.

  19. Emotion word comprehension from 4 – 16 years old: A developmental survey

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whilst previous studies have examined comprehension of the emotional lexicon at different ages in typically developing children, no survey has been conducted looking at this across different ages from childhood to adolescence. Purpose: To report how the emotion lexicon grows with age. Method: Comprehension of 336 emotion words was tested in n = 377 children and adolescents, aged 4 to16 years old, divided into 6 age-bands. Parents or teachers of children under 12, or adolescents themselves, were asked to indicate which words they knew the meaning of. Results: Between 4 and 11 years old, the size of the emotional lexicon doubled every 2 years, but between 12 and 16 years old, developmental rate of growth of the emotional lexicon levelled off. This survey also allows emotion words to be ordered in terms of difficulty. Conclusions: Studies using emotion terms in English need to be developmentally sensitive, since during childhood there is considerable change. The absence of change after adolescence may be an artefact of the words included in this study. This normative developmental data-set for emotion vocabulary comprehension may be useful when testing for delays in this ability, as might arise for environmental or neurodevelopmental reasons.

  20. 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about third-party communicative actions.

    Thorgrimsson, Gudmundur B; Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Infants expect people to direct actions toward objects, and they respond to actions directed to themselves, but do they have expectations about actions directed to third parties? In two experiments, we used eye tracking to investigate 1- and 2-year-olds' expectations about communicative actions addressed to a third party. Experiment 1 presented infants with videos where an adult (the Emitter) either uttered a sentence or produced non-speech sounds. The Emitter was either face-to-face with another adult (the Recipient) or the two were back-to-back. The Recipient did not respond to any of the sounds. We found that 2-, but not 1-year-olds looked quicker and longer at the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected her to respond to speech. These effects were specific to the face-to-face context. Experiment 2 presented 1-year-olds with similar face-to-face exchanges but modified to engage infants and minimize task demands. The infants looked quicker to the Recipient following speech than non-speech, suggesting that they expected a response to speech. The study suggests that by 1 year of age infants expect communicative actions to be directed at a third-party listener.

  1. Nutritional Situation Assessment of 65 Years Old Patient Who Applicate to Emergency Department

    Ižsmail Nalbur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study.we want to purpose that nutritinos and socio-demographic situations who over 65 years old patients come in one of the most important 3rd degree hospital emergeny department. Material and Method: We practice Mini Nutritional Assessment test descriptive and forward-looking on 93 women and 111 men totally 204 patients between 15.03.2014-30.03.2014 who applicate emergency department. Results: In these group % 68.61 0f patient was between 65-79 years old; % 31.39 of was patient over 80 years old. After Mini Nutritional Assessment test results patient of % 60.8 in Group 1; % 18.6 in Group 2; % 20.6 in Group 3. However in Goup1 and 2 there was no important difference between gender (p=0.196, p=0.216; in Group 3 male gender was meaningful more than female (p=0.024. In Group 1 and Group 2 65-79 years old patient group was meaningful more than 80 years ol patient group (p=0.02, p=0.017. In Group 3 there was no difference beween in these groups (p=0.109. In this study groups there was meaningful difference between age and weight (p<0.001, there was no diffeence for height (p=0.722. In Group 2 avarege of arm circumference and calf circumference higher than Group 3 (p=0.010, p=0.016. In this study patients who hospitalized in intensive care unit after this treatmet in emergengy department meaningful more than Group 1 and 2 (p=0.038. Discussion: Early diagnosis of malnutrition in elderly patient who applicate emergengy department is important for treatment.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index values in 9-year-old rural Norwegian children

    Resaland, G K; Mamen, A; Anderssen, S A

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) values in a representative population of 9-year-old Norwegian children in two rural communities and compare present values with previous findings. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-nine 9-year-old children were invited, and 256...... and 16.8% of the girls were classified as overweight, and 1.6% of the boys and 6.9% of the girls as obese. Mean age, body mass, height and Ponderal index were not significantly different between sexes. Girls had a higher BMI than boys (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared to earlier Norwegian studies......, children's BMI values seem to have increased substantially. This increase is most pronounced in girls. When assessing these differences using the PI, this increase is less marked. Comparing maximal oxygen uptake data with that in earlier Nordic studies, there is no evidence that fitness has declined among...

  3. The development of categorical perception of Mandarin tones in four- to seven-year-old children.

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan

    2016-12-05

    To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.

  4. RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS EFFICIENCY IN SPORTS RESULTS AMONG 14-YEAR OLD MALE AND FEMALE SWIMMERS

    Dybinska Ewa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to test fitness levels of chosen parameters in the respiratory system in comparison to sports results in a group of 100m medley 14-year old male and female swimmers. The main measurement method was based on immediate observation of the following variables: a The fitness level of particular parameters in the respiratory system, b The level of swimming fitness. Based on the detailed analysis of the chosen respiratory parameter levels among 14-year old male and female swimmers in relation to their sports result in 100m medley distance, the following general statements have been formulated: the average levels of the chosen respiratory parameters estimated, in most of the cases, above average, especially among female swimmers.

  5. Arthroscopic excision of acetabular osteoid osteoma in a 7-year-old patient.

    Aşık, Mehmet; Erşen, Ali; Polat, Gökhan; Bilgili, Fuat; Tunalı, Onur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the case report of a 7-year-old patient who was treated with hip arthroscopy for an acetabular osteoid osteoma. A 7-year-old patient was referred to our clinic with hip pain. In the assessment of the patient, an acetabular osteoid osteoma was detected in his right hip; it was adjacent to his triradiate cartilage. An arthroscopic surgery was planned as an alternative to open safe hip dislocation. The osteoid osteoma was completely removed with hip arthroscopy. Postoperative CT scanning and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Exposure of the acetabulum can be problematic in paediatric patients due to the potential risks of open safe dislocation. Hip arthroscopy can safely be used for benign hip lesions in paediatric patients. Level of evidence Case report, Level V.

  6. [Assessment of fruit and vegetable intake among the 50-year-old population of Wroclaw].

    Ilow, Rafał; Regulska-Ilow, Bozena; Misiewicz, Dominika; Rózańska, Dorota; Kowalisko, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2011-01-01

    Intake of fruit and vegetable among 50-year-old population of Wroclaw and the impact of education level on the consumption of fruits and vegetables was assessed. The study group was 50-year-old, 1520 inhabitants of Wroclaw (879 women and 641 men), who participated in 2008 in the Cardiovascular Diseases Prevention Program organized by the Health Division of the Municipal Office in Wroclaw. To assess fruit and vegetable intake Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used. The mean daily intake of vegetables and fruit was 289,4 g for women and 209,1 g for men. Women consumed significantly more vegetables, fruits, and the amounts of fruits and vegetables compared with men. The impact of educational level on fruit and vegetable consumption in the study group was found.

  7. BASIC TECHNICAL SKILLS (THROWS IN 17-19-YEAR-OLD JUDOKAS

    Jagiello Wladyslaw

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine basic technical skills (throws in 17-19-year-old judokas and the level of their performance. Material: The study involved 30 judo athletes (aged 17-19. Results: To determine the athletes’ basic technical skills (throws, an analysis of source materials and a diagnostic survey were used. To determine the level of technical skills, the method of expert assessment was applied. Statistical software package Statistica 8 was used in the statistical analysis. In the coaches’ opinion, 17-19-year-old judokas have a specific, characteristic of this age group, set of basic technical skills (throws aptly defining their technical preparation. Conclusions: The tested group of judokas exhibited the highest level of demonstrating throws of the koshi-waza (hip group, and the lowest one of the ashi-waza (foot group.

  8. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

    M Pajouhi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  9. Bone Mineral Density in 10 to75 Year-Old Iranian Healthy Women: Population Base Study

    M Pajouhi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Iran. Bone densitometry is used to diagnose osteopenia and osteoporosis and if necessary, prevent bone fractures, especially that of femoral neck. Bone density is related to several factors including race, age, sex, environmental factors and nutrition. No comprehensive study has been performed in Iran, yet. Among the 10 to 75 year-old population living in Tehran, after excluding those who suffered from conditions affecting bone metabolism, 600 people were randomly selected from 50 clusters. All participants underwent a clinical examination and lumbar and spinal densitometry using DXA method. Prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia in women older than 50, was 28.1% and 53.3%, respectively. Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was higher in our study population. Peak bone density in the 25-35 -year-old population could be useful in policy-making for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Do Parents’ Exercise Habits Predict 13–18-Year-Old Adolescents’ Involvement in Sport?

    Saulius Sukys, Daiva Majauskienė, Vida J. Cesnaitiene, Diana Karanauskiene

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined links between parents’ exercise habits and adolescents’ participation in sports activities, considering the aspects of gender and age. It was hypothesized that regular exercise by both parents would be related to children’s involvement in sport regardless of their gender and age. Moreover, it was hypothesized that children’s sports activities would be more strongly related to their father’s exercise activities. The study also examined the links between parents’ exercise habits and children’s motivation for sports. It was hypothesized that competition motives would be more important for children whose parents exercised regularly. The research sample included 2335 students from the seventh (n = 857, ninth (n = 960 and eleventh (n = 518 grades of various Lithuanian schools. The study used a questionnaire survey method, which revealed the links between parents’ exercise habits and their children’s participation in sport. Assessment of data for girls and boys showed that daughters’ participation in sport could be predicted by both their fathers’ and mothers’ exercise habits, but sons’ sports activities could be predicted only by the regular physical activities of their fathers. The assessment of children’s sporting activities according to age revealed links between parental exercising and the engagement of older (15–16 years old, but not younger adolescents (13–14 years old. Analysis of sports motivation showed that competition motives were more important for boys than for girls. Fitness, well-being and appearance motives were more important for older adolescents (15–18 years old, while competition motives were more important for younger adolescents (13–14 years old. Research revealed the relationship between children’s sport motives and fathers’ exercise habits, while examination of mothers’ exercise revealed no difference.

  11. Patterns of language and auditory dysfunction in 6-year-old children with epilepsy

    Selassie, Gunilla Rejnö-Habte; Olsson, Ingrid; Jennische, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study we reported difficulty with expressive language and visuoperceptual ability in preschool children with epilepsy and otherwise normal development. The present study analysed speech and language dysfunction for each individual in relation to epilepsy variables, ear preference, and intelligence in these children and described their auditory function. Twenty 6-year-old children with epilepsy (14 females, 6 males; mean age 6:5 y, range 6 y–6 y 11 mo) and 30 reference children w...

  12. Development of a Deflection Measurement System for the Hybrid III Six-Year Old Biofidelic Abdomen

    2012-01-01

    Despite advancements in automotive safety, motor vehicle collisions remain the leading cause of unintentional death for children ages 5 to 14. Enhancement of child occupant protection depends on the ability to accurately assess the effectiveness of restraint systems. Booster seat design and proper belt fit require evaluation using child anthropomorphic test devices, yet biofidelity of the abdomen and pelvis of the current anthropomorphic test device, the Hybrid III 6-year-old, needs improveme...

  13. Risperidone-induced enuresis in a 12-year-old child

    Reetika Dikshit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Risperidone has been documented to be effective in the management of behavior problems, aggression, and conduct disorder in children. While metabolic side effects like weight gain and obesity have been attributed to Risperidone use in children, side effects of the drug related to the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of Risperidone-induced enuresis in a 12-year-old boy with conduct disorder that resolved completely after stopping the medication.

  14. Risperidone-induced Enuresis in a 12-year-old Child

    Dikshit, Reetika; Karia, Sagar; De Sousa, Avinash

    2017-01-01

    Risperidone has been documented to be effective in the management of behavior problems, aggression, and conduct disorder in children. While metabolic side effects like weight gain and obesity have been attributed to Risperidone use in children, side effects of the drug related to the urinary bladder are rare. We present a case of Risperidone-induced enuresis in a 12-year-old boy with conduct disorder that resolved completely after stopping the medication. PMID:28149096

  15. Ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 17-year-old girl : a case report

    Lee, Jong Koo; Ko, Jae Kook; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Mi Young; Yu, Hyun; Shin, Hyun Ja; Seo, Kung Yong; Kim, Jeong Rye [Korea Veterans' Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    Malignant epithelial neoplasm usually occurs in postmenopausal women, with less than 10% of cases occurring in women under the age of 20. In patients below this age, the majority of ovarian tumors are of germ cell origin and malignant ovarian epithelial tumors are uncommon. We report US and CT imaging in a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a 17-year-old nullipara who complained of amenorrhea for 45 days and a palpable mass.

  16. Solitary Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    Jin, Moran; Lee, Yang-Haeng; Kim, Bomi; Yoon, Young Chul; Wi, Jin Hong

    2016-04-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia is a premalignant lesion reflecting a focal proliferation of atypical cells. These lesions are usually observed as incidental findings in lungs that have been resected due to other conditions, such as lung cancer. We report the youngest case of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia on record in a 12-year-old girl. In this patient, the lesion was found in association with pneumothorax.

  17. Supraorbital blowin fracture presenting as an ocular dystopia in a nine-year-old girl.

    Nallamothu, Ranganadh; Kallam, Shanmukha Reddy; Gunturu, Srikanth; Singh, Sukumar; Rachalapally, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl was referred to a trauma centre with severe head injury. 3D CT scan revealed depressed fracture involving the frontal bone on the right side, right parietal bone, and right superior orbital margin, right lamina papyracea. The frontal table was managed conservatively and open reduction and internal fixation was done for the supraorbital blow in to correct the ocular dystopia. The clinical course, possible mechanism, and management of the patient are discussed.

  18. Case report 536: Chronic tophaceous gout in a 17-year-old male

    Garagiola, D.M.; Braunstein, E.M. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis (USA). Dept. of Radiology); Clark, S.A. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Colyer, R.A. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (USA). Dept. of Orthopaedics)

    1989-08-01

    We have presented a case of gout with destructive arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint in a seventeen year old boy. The diagnosis was not suspected due to the patient's age and the presentation as an expanding lesion of the base of the phalanx. Renal insufficiency may have contributed to the early onset of the disease, but even in chronic renal failure secondary gout is rare. (orig./GDG).

  19. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  20. Occlusal characteristics in 3-year-old children – results of a birth cohort study

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence of malocclusion and associated risk factors in 3-year-old Thuringian children. Methods Subjects (n = 377) were participants in a regional oral health programme, a birth cohort study with the aim to prevent caries (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438). Children received continuous dental care since birth. Occlusal characteristics (overjet, overbite, anterior open bite, canine relationship and posterior crossbite) wer...

  1. Prevalence of Malocclusion in 13-15 Year-old Adolescents in Tabriz

    Ahangar Atashi, Mohammad Hossein

    2007-01-01

    Background and aims Malocclusion with its great hazardous effects seems to have become more prevalent in recent decades; therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence of different malocclusions among 13-15 year-old adolescents in Tabriz. Materials and methods The subjects in the present study consisted of 398 adolescents aged 13-15, who were randomly selected from 5 different districts of the city. Students who had previous orthodontic treatment or extraction of any pe...

  2. Metaphoric Car Drawings By a 12-Year-Old Congenitally Blind Girl.

    Chao, Hsin-Yi; Kennedy, John M

    2015-12-01

    A 12-year-old congenitally-blind girl drew a car moving, stationary, and braking. For stationary, she put the wheels inside the car and, for braking, drew the wheels as rough rectangles. At the age verbal metaphor is understood (Winner, 1988), the girl invented metaphoric drawings. In these, what is shown is not what is meant. In late childhood, metaphor may be understood similarly in pictures and words and by the sighted and blind.

  3. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus associated with eventration of diaphragm in a twenty-six-year-old man.

    Prabhu, Shailesh Mukund; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Shetty, Gurucharan; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Chauhan, Udit; Udiya, Alok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent sigmoid volvulus is a clinical entity characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete sigmoid volvulus. Although it is commonly seen in the elderly, it can be occasionally seen in younger patients. Patients with recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus are relatively asymptomatic or present with mild abdominal pain. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent conversion to acute gangrenous volvulus. We present a case of recurrent partial sigmoid volvulus in association with eventration of diaphragm in a 26-year-old man.

  4. Concurrent Testicular and Bladder Cancer in a 57-year-old Man

    Esther Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare finding of concurrent right testis non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumor and muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in a 57-year-old homeless man. The socioeconomic factors and the disease presentation caused a treatment dilemma in terms of the appropriate type of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient ultimately underwent upfront surgery with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radical cystoprostatectomy followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  5. Concurrent Testicular and Bladder Cancer in a 57-year-old Man

    Esther Han; Stein, Daniel M.; Dongping Shi; Ranko Miocinovic

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare finding of concurrent right testis non-seminomatous mixed germ cell tumor and muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in a 57-year-old homeless man. The socioeconomic factors and the disease presentation caused a treatment dilemma in terms of the appropriate type of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The patient ultimately underwent upfront surgery with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radical cystoprostatectomy followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

  6. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    So Hyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  7. [19-year-old kick-boxer with hematemesis and splenomegaly].

    Wobser, H; Schölmerich, J; Büttner, R

    2010-02-01

    Traumatic portal vein thrombosis is a rare cause of nonmalignant, noncirrhotic portal hypertension. We report a case of a 19-year old patient, who presented with variceal bleeding and splenomegaly. Diagnosis was based on the history of kickboxing and an otherwise negative etiological investigation. The patient underwent endoscopic therapy and portosystemic shunt operation (Warren-shunt) due to cavernous transformation and severe hypersplenism. Thereafter the patient remained asymptomatic.

  8. Acquired capillary hemangioma of the eyelid in a 49-year-old woman from Turkey

    Sertac Argun Kivanc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 49-year-old woman developed a dark brown nodular mass in the lower eyelid. The lesion had grown fast for 2 months and then had remained stable in size. Excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination of an excisional biopsy specimen pointed to proliferative vessels lined by increased endothelial cells without nuclear atypism. The nodular mass evaluated as a capillary hemangioma.

  9. MY OLD-STYLE MARRIAGE Newsman Recounts Years of Unexpected Contentment

    1994-01-01

    IT is 45 years since Chen Xiuhe and I married on January 31, 1948, when my hometown was liberated. However, at that time there existed no law about marriage, so mine was an old-style union. My mother was ill and our domestic affairs needed managing. My parents and hers decided for us that we should be married—I was 15 and she was 18. I didn’t know much about worldly affairs except I knew I should study very

  10. A bilobed testicle diagnosed with ultrasound in an 18-year-old boy

    Farzaneh Hekmatnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilobed testicle is a very rare congenital malformation with an unknown etiology. Herein, we report an 18-year-old boy presented with a right-bilobed testicle mimicking a testicular tumor. The present case highlights the importance of considering bilobed testicle as a valuable differential diagnosis of testicular mass to prevent unnecessary surgery. Furthermore, the case could provide more information about presentation and management of bilobed testicle.

  11. Complete paroxysmal atrioventricular block in a 2-year-old girl

    Holst, Line M; Dixen, Ulrik; Jeppesen, Dorthe L

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of atypical syncope in a 2-year-old, otherwise healthy girl. The patient presented with three episodes of syncope without any precipitating factors and no family history of sudden unexpected death. Holter monitoring revealed 24 events of complete atrioventricular block lasting u...... to 6 seconds. A normal 12-lead electrocardiogram does not necessarily exclude cardiac disease, and Holter monitoring is warranted in children with atypical syncope....

  12. Multimodal Imaging after Sudden Cardiac Arrest in an 18-Year-Old Athlete

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur; Atalay, Michael K.; Broderick, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a previously healthy 18-year-old male athlete who twice presented with sudden cardiac arrest. Our use of electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, coronary angiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and nuclear stress testing enabled the diagnoses of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. We discuss the patient's treatment and note the useful role of multiple cardiovascular imaging methods in cases of sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:26664308

  13. Intrathyroidal thymic tissue mimicking a malignant thyroid nodule in a 4-year-old child

    Park, So Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chang Woo; Kim, Gou Young; Shim, Kye Shik [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Intrathyroidal thymic tissue is rare and may be confused with a malignant thyroid nodule because of hyperechoic dots mimicking calcifications. We report the case of a thyroid nodule with malignant ultrasonographic findings in a 4-year-old child, which was confirmed cytologically as ectopic thymic tissue. The sonographic findings of ectopic thymus were similar to those of the thymus; therefore, clinicians should be familiar with ultrasonography findings of normal thymic tissue.

  14. Giant epicardial cyst presenting as acute cardiac tamponade in a 2-year-old boy.

    Masuoka, Ayumu; Sakurai, Hayato; Shiraishi, Masahisa; Yoshiba, Shigeki; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2015-09-01

    Cystic structures within the pericardial cavity are rare. They are divided into epicardial and pericardial variants. Pericardial and epicardial cysts rarely cause symptoms. This report describes a case of epicardial cyst with acute cardiac tamponade in a 2-year-old boy with no previous cardiac history who was transferred to our hospital because of hemodynamic instability. Emergency drainage of the pericardial effusion and complete excision of the cyst were performed through a median full sternotomy.

  15. Susac′s syndrome in a 27-Year-Old female

    Mohsen Adelpoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old woman was referred by the neurologist for ophthalmic examination. She had a history of headache, visual loss in her right eye, four-limb paresthesia, and behavioral changes over the previous 10 months. The patient complained of tinnitus and hearing loss for two weeks. The patient was initially diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, but auditory and retinal involvement (small branch retinal artery occlusion in fluorescein angiography raised the possibility of Susac′s syndrome.

  16. Superior cerebellar aneurysm causing subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old with alagille syndrome.

    O'Connell, David

    2012-04-01

    Alagille syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant condition characterised by mutation in Jagged1 gene. Intracranial aneurysms may be seen in this condition and may present as subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe the first case of superior cerebellar aneurysm rupture causing WFNS grade 1 subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 17-year-old girl. The clinical condition and management of this rare occurrence is discussed with a review of literature.

  17. Supraorbital Blowin Fracture Presenting as an Ocular Dystopia in a Nine-Year-Old Girl

    Ranganadh Nallamothu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old girl was referred to a trauma centre with severe head injury. 3D CT scan revealed depressed fracture involving the frontal bone on the right side, right parietal bone, and right superior orbital margin, right lamina papyracea. The frontal table was managed conservatively and open reduction and internal fixation was done for the supraorbital blow in to correct the ocular dystopia. The clinical course, possible mechanism, and management of the patient are discussed.

  18. Clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection in a 6-year-old girl.

    Rusconi, R; Bergamaschi, S; Cazzavillan, A; Carnelli, V

    2005-09-01

    A 6-year-old girl was diagnosed to suffer from clivus osteomyelitis secondary to Enterococcus faecium infection. On the basis of the magnetic resonance image, the abscess was drained via the posterior wall of the pharyngeal tract immediately. Subsequent antibiotic therapy allowed rapid improvement and long-term healing of the osteomyelitic process without any side effect. Osteomyelitis or abscess of the clivus is very rare in adult patients and extremely rare in children. Some etiopathogenetic hypotheses are discussed in this case.

  19. A 25-year-old man with 50 teeth: Astonishing but true!!

    Bhatia, Vishwas; Jain, Nitul; Bhatia, Garima; Garg, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Retained primary teeth is a well-known process but multiple retained primary, permanent, and supernumerary teeth that too in an asymptomatic, non-syndromic patient is a rare possibility that has rarely been reported in literature. This case report discusses the clinical and radiographic details along with treatment options in a 21-year-old patient having a total number of 50 teeth, i.e., 16 retained primary teeth, 32 permanent teeth, and 2 supernumerary teeth without being associated with any...

  20. Mixed Squamous Cell and Glandular Papilloma of the Lung in a 64-Year-Old Woman

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-01-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopat...

  1. Awake Tracheal Intubation in an 8-Year-Old Girl with McCune-Albright Syndrome.

    Bohman, J Kyle; Segura, Leal

    2013-10-01

    An 8-year-old girl with McCune-Albright syndrome presented for resection of a very large fibrous dysplasia mass of the face with significant distortion of the airway anatomy. She had significant obstructive sleep apnea with daytime somnolence and hemoglobin oxygen desaturations while breathing room air preoperatively. We were able to successfully manage her airway by providing IV sedation, topical anesthesia of the airway, and oral fiberoptic intubation in close collaboration with our otorhinolaryngology colleagues.

  2. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children

    Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Lyons, Ronan A.; Murphy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with health outcomes and cognitive functioning in schoolchildren. Evidence of direct links with educational outcomes remains equivocal. We aimed to examine the link between breakfast consumption in 9–11-year-old children and educational outcomes obtained 6–18 months later.\\ud Design Data on individual-level free school meal entitlement and educational outcomes (Statutory Assessment Tests (SATs) at Key Stage 2) were obtained via ...

  3. Liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a healthy 12-year-old boy

    Da Hye Yoon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA is rare in healthy children. We report a case of PLA in an immunocompetent 12-year-old boy. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed for the abscess. In addition, parenteral antibiotics were administered for 3 weeks. Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected in the culture of blood and drained fluid. Here, we present this case and a brief review of the literature on this subject.

  4. Liver abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae in a healthy 12-year-old boy

    Da Hye Yoon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA is rare in healthy children. We report a case of PLA in an immunocom­ petent 12­year­old boy. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed for the abscess. In addition, parenteral antibiotics were administered for 3 weeks. Klebsiella pneumoniae was detected in the culture of blood and drained fluid. Here, we present this case and a brief review of the literature on this subject.

  5. Fatal pulmonary thromboembolism associated with hemoglobin SC disease in a 15 year-old boy

    Thiago Trolez Amancio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemoglobin SC disease complicated by fatal pulmonarythromboembolism in a 15 year-old Brazilian boy, submitted to autopsy. Thiscase shows the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of sickle celldisease, which generates systemic involvement in youth and the importanceof considering the hypercoagulability in these patients. The autopsy was veryinstructive, revealing the florid morphologic aspect of sickle cell disease andits complications.

  6. A 36-year-old female with Krukenberg tumor from a colonic carcinoma

    Srikanth Umakanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Krukenberg tumor is bilateral ovarian carcinoma′s metastasizing most commonly from a gastric primary followed by a colon. We report a case of 36-year-old female with bilateral ovarian mass diagnosed as Krukenberg with a work up for locating the primary site. In this case, we discuss widely the clinical aspects with histopathological features and literature review of Krukenberg tumor.

  7. A 75-Year Old Man Complaining of Flank Pain and Obstructive Urinary Symptoms: A Case Report

    Farid Kowsari

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBenign renal cystic adenoma with out malignant features is a very rare entity. A 75 year old male with obstructive Lower tract symptoms and vague flank pain was admitted and planned for nephrectomy of non functional kidney -due to long term nephrolithiasis- intra operative finding was a cystic hydronephrotic kidney filled by thick mucous secretions which turned out to be a cyst adenoma of kidney with no malignant features.

  8. Nephrolithiasis with Bardet-Biedl syndrome in a three-year-old girl: A case report

    Meral Torun Bayram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bardet-Biedl syndrome is a multisystemic developmental disorder diagnosed on the basis of the presence of obesity, retinal defects, polydactyly, hypogonadism, renal dysfunction, and learning disabilities. Renal disease is clinically heterogeneous, but is recognized as a cardinal feature and is a major cause of mortality in BBS. We here presented a three-year-old girl with renal stone and Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

  9. An 11-Year-Old Child with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Who Presented with Nephrolithiasis

    Fatih Firinci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease become symptomatic and are diagnosed usually at adulthood. The rate of nephrolithiasis in these patients is 5–10 times the rate in the general population, and both anatomic and metabolic abnormalities play role in the formation of renal stones. However, nephrolithiasis is rare in childhood age group. In this paper, an 11-year-old child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with nephrolithiasis is discussed.

  10. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds.

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9-11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9-7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47-3.64) in 8.0-9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13-5.36) in 10.0-11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68-6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27-0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime.

  11. Paraurethral Leiomyoma in a 20 Year-old Woman: A Case Report

    Emily Adams-Piper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 20 year-old woman with a vulvar mass, found to be a paraurethral leiomyoma. She subsequently underwent supermedial-approach paraurethral mass excision, distal urethral reconstruction and cystourethroscopy. Paraurethral leiomyoma make up approximately five percent of urethral tumors. This case depicts the presentation and treatment of a paraurethral leiomyoma in one of the youngest women reported in the literature.

  12. Primary omental malignant mixed Müllerian tumor in a 67-year-old woman

    魏丽惠; 王建六; 张岫屏; 崔恒; 沈丹华; 钱和年

    2002-01-01

    @@Malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (MMMTs) are highly aggressive neoplasms composed of sarcomatous and carcinomatous elements commonly encountered in the female genital tract and rarely occur in extragenital sites. Most of extragenital MMMTs develop from the peritoneum. To our knowledge, only 25 cases have been described in the literature. Among them, only 2 cases have arised in the major omentum.1 Here we report a case of a 67-year-old female with primary MMMT of the major omentum.

  13. Gonococcal peritonitis diagnosed post laparotomy in a 38-year-old woman: a case report

    Wilmore, Stephanie MS; Reynolds, Carl J

    2009-01-01

    A 38-year-old South African lady with a background history of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and recent colposcopy presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Initial investigations were non-diagnostic and despite empirical antibiotic therapy the patient developed peritonism. Post-laprotomy the diagnosis of severe pelvic inflammatory disease and peritonitis secondary to infection with Neisseria Gonorrhoea was made.

  14. Gonococcal peritonitis diagnosed post laparotomy in a 38-year-old woman: a case report.

    Wilmore, Stephanie Ms; Reynolds, Carl J

    2009-09-01

    A 38-year-old South African lady with a background history of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and recent colposcopy presented to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Initial investigations were non-diagnostic and despite empirical antibiotic therapy the patient developed peritonism. Post-laprotomy the diagnosis of severe pelvic inflammatory disease and peritonitis secondary to infection with Neisseria Gonorrhoea was made.

  15. Bifocal Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities in a 5-Year Old Boy: A Case Report

    K. G. Snoek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the extremely unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a bifocal (cervical as well as lumbar spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities (SCIWORAs. The MRI showed cord oedema at the level of C2 and T10. We propose that during the motor vehicle crash severe propulsion of the head with a flexed lumbar region resulted in a traction injury to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine and maximum flexion caused SCIWORA in C2.

  16. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    NONE

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  17. Heart and Lung Metastases From Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma in a Forty-Two-Year-Old Woman

    Shakerian, Behnam; Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Bahieh; Roshanali, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) is a malignant intrauterine tumor that rarely presents with distant metastasis. Simultaneous lung and cardiac metastases from LG-ESS is also an extremely rare event. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and exercise intolerance. She had a history of hysterectomy and left salpingoophorectomy. She underwent second laparotomy as well as right oophorectomy after new finding of vaginal mass with histopathologic d...

  18. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses. PMID:27708445

  19. Motor performance in five-year-old extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survivors: A population-based study

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a cardio-pulmonary bypass technique to provide life support in acute reversible cardio-respiratory failure when conventional management is not successful. Most neonates receiving ECMO suffer from meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), sepsis or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH). In five-year-old children who underwent VA-ECMO therapy as neonates, we assessed motor...

  20. Balance and motor coordination are not fully developed in 7 years old blind children

    Navarro,Andréa Sanchez; Fukujima, Marcia Maiumi [UNIFESP; Fontes,Sissy Veloso; Matas, Sandro Luiz de Andrade [UNIFESP; Prado,Gilmar Fernandes do

    2004-01-01

    Visually impaired children show difficulties in recognizing their own bodies, objects around then and the spatial parameters that are essential for independent movement. This study analyzes the neuro-psychomotor development of a group of congenitally visually impaired children as compared to children with normal sight. We have evaluated two groups of seven-year-olds by means of neurological evolution examination (NEE). The group studied comprised 20 blind children and the control group compri...

  1. An 81-year-old male with iliopsoas abscess by Streptococcus sanguis.

    dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; Fachinelli, Leticia Rita; Farage, Luciano; de Souza Lima, Gylseanne; Machado de Carvalho, Maira Rocha; Nogueira de Andrade, Igor Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    Iliopsoas muscle abscess is an uncommon condition, which has been growing in incidence. We describe a primary iliopsoas abscess by Streptococcus sanguis affecting an 81-year-old man cured by antibiotic therapy and aspiration procedure. The objective is to enhance the suspicion index about the iliopsoas abscess that may be mistaken for other causes of acute abdomen. The important diagnostic role of abdominal imaging studies is also emphasised.

  2. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy.

  3. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  4. [Interrupted aortic arch in a 68-year-old female with hypertension].

    Benincasa, Susanna; Fineschi, Massimo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Pierli, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital malformation of the aorta and aortic arch. We report the case of a 68-year-old female with hypertension and poor control of blood pressure levels. She was diagnosed with aortic coarctation by aortography during young age. A double access angiography was performed that showed a type A IAA, a rare condition in adults that may cause hypertension.

  5. Congenital Orbital Lymphangioma in a 20-Years Old Girl – Case Report and Review of Literature

    Mishra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 20-year-old girl who presented to the out-patients’ department with congenital, progressive unilateral proptosis and reduced vision. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed. Diagnosis of orbital lymphangioma was made on imaging. Authors highlight the crucial role of imaging in diagnosis and to plan therapeutic approach. This case is reported because of its extreme rarity and unusual presentation.

  6. Traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old child.

    Forde, James C

    2012-02-01

    We report the case of a traumatic posterior dislocation of the hip in a 3-year-old boy. After a fall in the garden, the boy was brought to our emergency department where an x-ray confirmed a posterior dislocation of his right hip. A successful prompt reduction was performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. This uncommon injury represents an orthopedic emergency and requires prompt reduction to lessen the risk of complications including avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  7. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for a two-and half year old morbidly obese child ☆

    Mohaidly, Mohammed Al; Suliman, Ahmed; Malawi, Horia

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an accepted technique in bariatric surgery for reducing obesity. Recent reports indicate it to be effective even in children but it has not been tried in very young children. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report here a case of a 2 and half years old child subjected to LSG for his morbid obesity and associated obstructive sleep apnea and bowing of legs. LSG was performed after investigations ruled out hereditary or genetic causes of obesity. The ...

  8. The Relationship between Clinical and Chemical Hyperandrogenism in 14-18-Years- Old Girls

    Tahereh Naderi; Marzieh Akbarzadeh; Mohammad Hossain Dabbaghmanesh; Hamidreza Tabatabaee; Zahra Zareh

    2012-01-01

    Background: One of the most common endocrine disorders in women's medicine is the increased androgen and the symptoms of increased androgens in women such as polycystic ovary syndrome. The two main components to diagnose this syndrome are menstrual disorder and clinical or laboratory hyperandrogenism, but other causes should be ruled out in order to confirm the diagnosis. This study aims to examine clinical Hyperandrogenism in female students of 14 to 18 years old in Shiraz in 2010.Materials ...

  9. Prevalence of aggressive periodontitis in 15-18 years old schoolgirls in Tehran, Iran

    Sadeghi R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Aggressive periodontitis is one of the periodontal diseases, which affects systemically healthy individuals usually under the age of 30 years old. The disease is characterized by rapid bone destruction which is not in accordance with the quantity of bacterial plaque. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis among 15-18 years old female students in Tehran high schools. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, , 2870 students were selected from all educational areas of Tehran during 1382-83 based on systematic clustered random sampling .Probing pocket depth on 6 areas of incisors and first molars were examined in each subject. Students with pocket depth equal to or more than 4 mm on more than one tooth were referred to Shahed Dental School for radiographic examination. For cases in which the distance between the crest of interdental septa and CEJs were equal to or more than 2 mm, full clinical and radiographic examination was performed. Results: Among the subjects of study, only 4 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of localized aggressive periodontitis. Nobody was diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis among 15-18 years old schoolgirls was 0.14%. Conclusion: The results of the present study were similar to previous studies with the same age groups and diagnostic criteria in other countries. For determination of total prevalence in Tehran, similar studies in schoolboys are recommended.

  10. Three- and 4-year-old children's response tendencies to various interviewers.

    Okanda, Mako; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Unlike young preschoolers, older preschoolers may exhibit a response bias under social pressure from authoritative interviewers. To examine this, 3- and 4-year-old preschoolers were asked yes-no questions about familiar and unfamiliar objects in three conditions. In one condition an adult asked them questions in a live interaction, in a second condition an adult asked questions via video, and in a third condition a robot asked questions via video. The 3-year-olds exhibited a yes bias-a tendency to say "yes"-in nearly all conditions. The only exception was when they were asked questions about unfamiliar objects by the human interviewer via video, where they did not respond in a biased manner. The 4-year-olds exhibited a yes bias in only one condition-when they were questioned by a live human interviewer about both objects. They also exhibited a nay-saying bias when asked questions about unfamiliar objects in both video conditions, and they did not show any response bias in other conditions. The results suggest that the social pressure from an authoritative adult in a live interaction is problematic.

  11. POLYGON - A NEW FUNDAMENTAL MOVEMENT SKILLS TEST FOR 8 YEAR OLD CHILDREN: CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION

    Frane Zuvela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Inadequately adopted fundamental movement skills (FMS in early childhood may have a negative impact on the motor performance in later life (Gallahue and Ozmun, 2005. The need for an efficient FMS testing in Physical Education was recognized. The aim of this paper was to construct and validate a new FMS test for 8 year old children. Ninety-five 8 year old children were used for the testing. A total of 24 new FMS tasks were constructed and only the best representatives of movement areas entered into the final test product - FMS-POLYGON. The ICC showed high values for all 24 tasks (0.83-0.97 and the factorial analysis revealed the best representatives of each movement area that entered the FMS-POLYGON: tossing and catching the volleyball against a wall, running across obstacles, carrying the medicine balls, and straight running. The ICC for the FMS-POLYGON showed a very high result (0.98 and, therefore, confirmed the test's intra-rater reliability. Concurrent validity was tested with the use of the "Test of Gross Motor Development" (TGMD-2. Correlation analysis between the newly constructed FMS-POLYGON and the TGMD-2 revealed the coefficient of -0.82 which indicates a high correlation. In conclusion, the new test for FMS assessment proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for 8 year old children. Application of this test in schools is justified and could play an important factor in physical education and sport practice.

  12. Validity of an Athletic Skills Track among 6- to 12-year-old children.

    Hoeboer, Joris; De Vries, Sanne; Krijger-Hombergen, Michiel; Wormhoudt, René; Drent, Annelies; Krabben, Kay; Savelsbergh, Geert

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and validity of an Athletic Skills Track (AST) to assess fundamental movement skills among 6- to 12-year-old children in a physical education setting. Four hundred sixty-three Dutch children (211 girls, 252 boys) completed three tests: the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and two Athletic Skills Tracks (AST-1, AST-2). The validity of AST-1 and AST-2 was examined by correlating the time (s) needed to complete the tracks and the KTK Motor Quotient (MQ). Overall, there was a low correlation between AST-1 and the KTK MQ (r = -0.474 (P year-olds. The results indicate that fundamental movement skills of 6- to 12-year-old children can be assessed with a quick, convenient and low-cost motor competence test in a physical education setting, i.e., an Athletic Skills Track. Future studies should further assess the reliability, discriminative ability and validity of age-specific versions of the AST.

  13. Evaluation of 6 and 10 Year-Old Child Human Body Models in Emergency Events

    2017-01-01

    Emergency events can influence a child’s kinematics prior to a car-crash, and thus its interaction with the restraint system. Numerical Human Body Models (HBMs) can help understand the behaviour of children in emergency events. The kinematic responses of two child HBMs–MADYMO 6 and 10 year-old models–were evaluated and compared with child volunteers’ data during emergency events–braking and steering–with a focus on the forehead and sternum displacements. The response of the 6 year-old HBM was similar to the response of the 10 year-old HBM, however both models had a different response compared with the volunteers. The forward and lateral displacements were within the range of volunteer data up to approximately 0.3 s; but then, the HBMs head and sternum moved significantly downwards, while the volunteers experienced smaller displacement and tended to come back to their initial posture. Therefore, these HBMs, originally intended for crash simulations, are not too stiff and could be able to reproduce properly emergency events thanks, for instance, to postural control. PMID:28099505

  14. Physical training of 30–40 years old tourists skiers to ski sports hiking

    Alexander Toporkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: compare the test results obtained at different stages of physical training of tourists skiers, immediately after passing of the ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity and 14 days after hiking. Determine the effectiveness of the designed program to improve the physical readiness of 30–40 years old tourists skiers. Material and Methods: 14 people aged 30 to 40 years old who have a different experience in water, hiking and mountain as well as ski-sport hiking took part in research. Analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical observations, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics is used. Results: the test results of 30–40 years old tourists skiers which are the participants in the experimental group received at different stages of preparation and preparatory period and the results after passing ski sports hiking of the third category of complexity are processed. Their comparative analysis is held. Conclusions: it was found that the developed training program can effectively influence the physical readiness of tourists skiers, as well as all functions and systems that contribute to the successful passage of ski sports categorized hike.

  15. [Life style of children and obesity in a population of 5-year-old children].

    Locard, E; Mamelle, N; Munoz, F; Miginiac, M; Billette, A; Rey, S

    1992-01-01

    The increasing level of childhood obesity has prompted some research into the early risk factors likely to lead to preventive measures. A case-control study was conducted of a five year-old population in the Rhône and Isère administrative "départements" of France during the children's first visit to primary school, with the participation of 327 obese children and 704 controls. Anthropometric data on the children since birth, together with data on their lifestyles, were collected in interviews with parents. "Family obesity" and "obesity at birth" were found to be closely related to the child's obesity at five years old (adjusted OR = 2.7 and 2.1 respectively). Of the environmental factors, the hypothesis tested paid specific attention to television viewing, snacks between meals and lack of sleep. These three variables were all found to be risk factors of obesity at five years old. However after allowing for parental obesity, the only remaining significant risk factor for obesity at five was lack of sleep (adjusted OR = 1.4). The pathogenic assumptions raised by these results are discussed.

  16. Oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs among 12-year-old students, Castro, Chile, 2014.

    Mariana Wauters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the level of oral hygiene, periodontal status and treatment needs, indicating if there are differences between men and women, in 12-year-old students from Castro, Los Lagos region, during March and April of 2014. A cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 242 12-year-old students from municipal and subsidized private schools in Castro were selected through a stratified random sample representative of each school. Students were evaluated by a calibrated examiner to determine the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN. Data were transferred to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and statistically analyzed to calculate the amount and percentage of the variables. Mann-Whitney U-test was used for comparison between genders. From the total, 59.5% of the students have regular hygiene. Also, 86.4% of the assessed adolescents have gingivitis and 13.6% of them have periodontitis. The periodontal treatment need indicates that 58% of the students require oral hygiene instructions and scaling. No statistically significant differences were found for gender. There is a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases associated with regular oral hygiene than the regional and national reference in 12-year-old adolescents in Castro. Then, it is necessary to teach and promote specific public health strategies based on epidemiological data

  17. Sensory assessment of normal adolescents between 11 and 18 years old

    Nara Suemi Shishido

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensibility allows for adequate neuropsychomotor development. In addition, it enables the understanding of the subject’s own body, actions and explorations of objects, people and the environment. Previous studies have evaluated 3 to 10 year-old children. Herein, we evaluate the tactile sensibility in adolescents. The aim of this study was to verify whether the rapid growth of the body changes the normal pattern of tactile sensibility in adolescents. Furthermore, we provide evaluation material that is easy to use, simple, and secure to handle, designed to attend the specific age range studied. Thirty-two young participants between 11 and 18 years old, sixteen males and sixteen females, were evaluated. The adolescents go to public school and present normal development patterns. Graphesthesia, stereognosia, and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests were performed to evaluate the sensibility on the ventral and dorsal sides of the right and left hands. A questionnaire was used to identify the relevant activities performed with the hands during the studied period. The adolescents tested were collaborative during the research and presented curiosity regarding the boxes used in the experiment. Results indicated alterations in the tactile sensibility on the dorsal side of the hands from 13-year- old males. The major activities indicated by the adolescents were writing and sports for males and writing and cleaning for females. First evidences of possible changes in the normal tactile sensibility during adolescence were observed in this study.

  18. External Ear Resonant Amplitude and Frequency of 3-7 Year Old Children

    Amir Hossein Zare

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure external ear resonant amplitude and frequency in children (3-7 years old and to compare with adult measures. Method and materials: The external ear resonance peak amplitude and frequency of 63 children 3-7 years old were recorded. All of the children had normal tympanogram and there was no cerumen in external auditory canal. 20 adult of 21-24 years old (10 male , 10 female were selected in order to compare with children that had normal tympanogram. The tests included : 1-otoscopy 2- tympanometry 3-microphone probe tube test. Results: The average of resonance peak frequency for children and adult is 4200 Hz and 3200 Hz , respectively. The resonance frequency of children had significantly diffrence with average of resonance frequency in adults. The average of resonance peak amplitude for children and adult is 17.70 dB and 17.17 dB , respectively. Conclusion: Resonant frequency and amplitude affect the hearing aid prescription and fitting process and calculating insertion gain; so, this measures seem should be considered in children hearing aid fitting.

  19. Epistemology for Beginners: Two- to Five-Year-Old Children's Representation of Falsity.

    Mascaro, Olivier; Morin, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the ontogeny of human's naive concept of truth. Surprisingly, children find it hard to treat assertions as false before their fifth birthday. Yet, we show in six studies (N = 140) that human's concept of falsity develops early. Two-year-olds use truth-functional negation to exclude one term in an alternative (Study 1). Three-year-olds can evaluate discrepancies between the content of a representation and what it aims at representing (Study 2). They use this knowledge to treat beliefs and assertions as false (Study 3). Four-year-olds recognise the involutive nature of falsity ascriptions: they properly infer 'p' from 'It is not true that "It is not true that "p"' (Study 4), an inference that rests on second-order representations of representations. Controls confirm that children do not merely equate being mistaken with failing to achieve one's goal (Studies 5 and 6). These results demonstrate remarkable capacities to evaluate representations, and indicate that in the absence of formal training, young children develop the building blocks of a theory of truth and falsity-a naive epistemology. We suggest that children's difficulties in discarding false assertions need not reflect any conceptual lacuna, and may originate from their being trustful.

  20. Visual spatial cue use for guiding orientation in two-to-three-year-old children.

    van den Brink, Danielle; Janzen, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In spatial development representations of the environment and the use of spatial cues change over time. To date, the influence of individual differences in skills relevant for orientation and navigation has not received much attention. The current study investigated orientation abilities on the basis of visual spatial cues in 2-3-year-old children, and assessed factors that possibly influence spatial task performance. Thirty-month and 35-month-olds performed an on-screen Virtual Reality (VR) orientation task searching for an animated target in the presence of visual self-movement cues and landmark information. Results show that, in contrast to 30-month-old children, 35-month-olds were successful in using visual spatial cues for maintaining orientation. Neither age group benefited from landmarks present in the environment, suggesting that successful task performance relied on the use of optic flow cues, rather than object-to-object relations. Analysis of individual differences revealed that 2-year-olds who were relatively more independent in comparison to their peers, as measured by the daily living skills scale of the parental questionnaire Vineland-Screener were most successful at the orientation task. These results support previous findings indicating that the use of various spatial cues gradually improves during early childhood. Our data show that a developmental transition in spatial cue use can be witnessed within a relatively short period of 5 months only. Furthermore, this study indicates that rather than chronological age, individual differences may play a role in successful use of visual cues for spatial updating in an orientation task. Future studies are necessary to assess the exact nature of these individual differences.

  1. Visual spatial cue use for guiding orientation in two-to-three-year-old children

    Danielle evan den Brink

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In spatial development representations of the environment and the use of spatial cues change over time. To date, the influence of individual differences in skills relevant for orientation and navigation has not received much attention. The current study investigated orientation abilities on the basis of visual spatial cues in two-to-three-year-old children, and assessed factors that possibly influence spatial task performance. Thirty-month and 35-month-olds performed an on-screen Virtual Reality orientation task searching for an animated target in the presence of visual self-movement cues and landmark information. Results show that, in contrast to 30-month-old children, 35-month-olds were successful in using visual spatial cues for maintaining orientation. Neither age group benefited from landmarks present in the environment, suggesting that successful task performance relied on the use of optic flow cues, rather than object-to-object relations. Analysis of individual differences revealed that two-year-olds who were relatively more independent in comparison to their peers, as measured by the daily living skills scale of the parental questionnaire Vineland-Screener were most successful at the orientation task. These results support previous findings indicating that the use of various spatial cues gradually improves during early childhood. Our data show that a developmental transition in spatial cue use can be witnessed within a relatively short period of 5 months only. Furthermore, this study indicates that rather than chronological age, individual differences may play a role in successful use of visual cues for spatial updating in an orientation task. Future studies are necessary to assess the exact nature of these individual differences.

  2. Comparison of reasons of admission of young, age 18-30 years old in Intensive Care Unit to young adult, age 31-40 years old due to road accident

    Vaios Douloudis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, it has been noticed a remarkable increase in frequency of admission of young individuals in Intensive Care Units (ICU due to road accidents. The aim of the present study was to compare the reasons of admission of young individuals 18-30 years old to young adults 31-40 years old in ICU due to road accident. Method and material: The sample studied consisted of individuals 18-40 years old that were hospitalized in ICU due to road accident. Data were collected by the completion of a specially designed clinical protocol for the needs of the research. For the analysis of data the statistical package SPSS 13 was used and the x2 method. Results: 81,2% of the sample-studied were men and 18,8% women. Regarding nationality, 80,1 % were Greek and 19,9% foreigner. 34,6% of the participants were unemployed, 21,2% were working in private sector, 20,1% were free-lancers and 16,2% students. 46,3% of individuals were admitted in ICU after transfer of another hospital. In 69,7% of the participants age 18-30 years old and 74,5% of 31-40 years old road took place accident at night and 77,3% 18-30 years old and 77,0% of 31-40 years old road accident took place on the way to entertainment. The statistical analysis of data showed that : road accidents were the main reason for admission in ICU of young individuals of age 18-30 years old with statistically significant difference compared to those 31-40 years old, p<0,001. Brain injuries as well as admission of motorcycle drivers were more frequent in individuals of age 18-30 years old with statistically significant difference compared to those 31-40 years old, p=0,018 and p=0,041, respectively. On the contrary, admission of car-drivers and those who had consumed alcohol were more frequent in individuals of age 31-40 years old with statistically significant difference compared to group 18-30 years old, p=0,041 and , p<0,001, respectively. Conclusions: More often admitted in ICU motorcycle drivers of

  3. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  4. Complete clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in a 54-year-old male with Askin tumor.

    Mulsow, J

    2012-02-01

    Askin tumor is a tumor of the thoracopulmonary region that most commonly affects children and adolescents. These rare tumors are a form of primitive neuroectodermal tumor and typically carry a poor prognosis. Treatment is multimodal and consists of a combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radical resection, and adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy or all of the above. Surgery is advocated in most cases. We report a case of Askin tumor in a 54-year-old male who showed rapid and complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This allowed potentially radical surgery to be avoided. At one-year follow-up he remains disease-free.

  5. An unusual cause of central cyanosis in a nine-year-old boy

    A Shobi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are rare vascular anomalies which rarely present in childhood. We discuss a nine-year-old male child who presented with the classical triad of exertional dyspnea, cyanosis and clubbing since six years of age. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation was suspected on chest radiography and was later confirmed on computed tomography scan. A bubble contrast echocardiography showed the presence of an extracardiac shunt. Pulmonary angiography was done to delineate the anatomy of the pulmonary vasculature and to plan embolization. The child has undergone two sittings of transcatheter coil embolization with improvement in oxygenation.

  6. [Elbow dislocation and lateral epicondyle fracture in a five year-old girl. Case report].

    Rincón, D; Guzmén, R; Camacho, J; Abril, C

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic elbow dislocation in the pediatric population is a particularly unusual injury. It was first described by Stimson in 1900 and almost 100 years later revisited by Tachdjian in 1990. Three percent of cases are associated with lateral epicondyle fracture, so this is an infrequent injury that has been described in only a few papers as case reports. The mechanism of injury is not clearly known, nor is the best type of treatment or its complications. We report herein the case of a five year-old girl with fracture dislocation of the lateral epicondyle who was managed with closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner nails, with good functional results.

  7. Traumatic anterior hip dislocation in a 12-year-old child

    Vinay Gupta; Maneet Kaur; Zile Singh Kundu; Aseem Kaplia; Deepinderjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    Hip dislocation in children can occur congenitally in isolation or in conjunction with other congenital abnormalities.Traumatic hip dislocations in children are relatively uncommon and anterior dislocation of hip joint is even rarer.We report such a case following unusual mode of injury in a 12-year-old child.The patient underwent successful emergent closed reduction of left hip.The clinical course and follow-up assessment of the patient was otherwise uneventful.At 2 years' follow-up there was no evidence of osteoarthritis,coxa magna,heterotrophic calcification,in congruency of the joints or avascular necrosis of the head of femur.

  8. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism.

    Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Forouzan, Arash; Masoumi, Kambiz; Mazdaee, Behnaz; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Ravari, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT) scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  9. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  10. Elderly victim: an unusual autoerotic fatality involving an 87-year-old male.

    Sauvageau, Anny; Geberth, Vernon J

    2009-01-01

    The average age of autoerotic victims is in the early thirties. Elderly victims of more than 65 years of age are uncommon, consisting of less than 1% of cases. The following case represents the oldest victim ever reported: a 87-year-old man found hanging by a belt in his living room. The body of the deceased was completely naked, with a complex bondage system of ropes. In the victim's bedroom closet, a suitcase contained similar ropes and belts suggesting prior autoerotic activity. Semen was also found at the scene.

  11. Dysplasia Epiphysealis Hemimelica (Trevor Syndrome of Talus in a 21-Year Old Woman; Case Report

    Amir R Sdeghifar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica is a rare nonhereditary epiphyseal disease that mimics synovial chondromatosis and osteochondroma of the joints. The disease mainly involves long bones of the lower extremities and tarsal bones. Herein we report 21-year old woman who presented with pain and limited range of ankle motion, who underwent surgical excision of talus exostosis after preoperative imaging and careful planning. after that she was discharged and her problem improved and she have no problem in three year follow up .pathologic examination of specimen confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Isolated Splenic Vein Thrombosis: 8-Year-Old Boy with Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Hypersplenism

    Mohammad Ali Kiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our center with the complaint of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and was diagnosed with hypersplenism and progressive esophageal varices. Performing a computerized tomography (CT scan, we discovered a suspicious finding in the venography phase in favor of thrombosis in the splenic vein. Once complementary examinations were done and due to recurrent bleeding and band ligation failure, the patient underwent splenectomy. And during the one-year follow-up obvious improvement of the esophageal varices was observed in endoscopy.

  13. Schwannoma of the tongue in a ten-year old child.

    Husain, Salina; Husain, Salima; Yunus, Mohammad Razif Muhammad; Yunus, Mohammad Razif Mohammad; Ramli, Roszalina; Ramli, Rozalina; Athar, Primuharsa Putra Sabir Husin

    2011-05-01

    The case of a 10-year-old girl is presented who had a slow-growing, painless swelling on the left side of the tongue since six months. This was associated with disturbances in mastication and phonation. Examination revealed a 5 cm x 4 cm. globular smooth, mobile mass on left side of the tongue. There was no neurological deficit and no neck nodes palpable. She underwent excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Complete enucleation with primary closure was carried out. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and histological evaluation was consistent with schwannoma. The patient was recurrence free after one year.

  14. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  15. [Prevalence and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the elderly over 75 years old in China].

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Chunxiao

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal malignant tumors are the most common malignant neoplasms among the elderly people over 75 years old in China. There are 122.1 thousand new gastric cases and 78.2 thousand new colorectal cancer cases diagnosed each year in China, which accounts for 42.73% and 18.08% respectively of the cases with same age in the world. The gastric cancer accounts for 25.13% and colorectal cancer accounts for 28.86%of all the malignancies in the elderly. The gastric cancer death accounts for 36.38% and colorectal cancer death accounts for 44.68% in those people over 75 years old in China. It was estimated that the risk of developing gastrointestinal malignant tumors of these elderly people was about 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal malignant tumors was about 7-8 times of the general population. Compared with the general population and the people of 55-74 years old, the incidence of gastric cancer in the elderly decreased more slowly and the incidence of colorectal cancer increased more quickly over the past 40 years, which brought significant double burden. The survival rate of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in these elderly was lower than that of the general population. We summarized the incidence, mortality, survival and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the Chinese elderly, in order to provide data for predicting the age distribution and disease burden in the future, to improve the awareness for cancer prevention and control among these elderly, and to call attention to epidemiology, preclinical and clinical medicine for the elderly, especially in the field of study on the influence between comorbidity and cancer treatment, with the aim of improving survival and quality of life among the elderly.

  16. Increased Food Insecurity Among Mothers of 2 Year Olds with Special Health Care Needs.

    Adams, Elizabeth J; Hoffmann, Laurel M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Peters, Dawn; Pennise, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN) and food insecurity when the child is 2 years old. We studied women who had a live birth in 2004-2005 and responded to Oregon's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey 3 months postpartum (Time 1) and the follow-up survey (PRAMS-2), when the child was 2 years old (Time 2). Women answering affirmatively to the PRAMS-2 question, "In the last 12 months, did you ever eat less than you felt you should because there was not enough money for food?" were considered food insecure. CSHCN status was identified by affirmative responses to questions about needs for ongoing services (Time 2). PRAMS and PRAMS-2 responses were weighted for study design and non-response. Results report weighted analyses, unless noted. Among 1812 mothers completing PRAMS-2, 13.6 % (unweighted) had a 2-year-old CSHCN and 11.9 % (unweighted) were food insecure at Time 2. The estimated prevalence of food insecurity at 2-year follow-up was 20.7 % among families of CSHCN and 9.7 % for others. After adjustment for Time 2 marital status, education, lifetime U.S. residence, income and health conditions, multivariable logistic regression revealed that odds of food insecurity were more than two times as great for CSHCN mothers 2 years post-partum compared to non-CSHCN mothers (adjusted odds ratio 2.6, 95 % confidence interval 1.3, 4.6). Families of CSHCN face increased risk for food insecurity. Improved understanding of causal determinants of food insecurity among households of CSHCN is needed.

  17. Live birth after IVF in a 46-year-old woman.

    Dal Prato, Luca; Borini, Andrea; Cattoli, Monica; Preti, Maria Serena; Serrao, Lucia; Flamigni, Carlo

    2005-10-01

    Pregnancies after IVF have been reported in women aged > or =44 years, but nobody older than 45 years at oocyte retrieval delivered. We report a case of birth of a healthy child after IVF in a 46-year-old infertile woman. Ovarian stimulation was performed with clomiphene citrate, 150 mg daily for 5 days. Three oocytes were retrieved and one embryo was replaced. The patient delivered a healthy male infant after Caesarean section at 39 weeks. A successful pregnancy after IVF with homologous oocytes can be achieved in women older than 45 years. At this age IVF is not a cost-effective treatment compared with oocyte donation, but it may be offered in countries in which gamete donation is forbidden.

  18. Three-year follow-up of 3-year-old to 5-year-old children after participation in a multidisciplinary or a usual-care obesity treatment program

    Bocca, Gianni; Corpeleijn, Eva; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Little is known on the long-term effects of obesity intervention programs in preschool-aged children. We compared the long-term effects of a multidisciplinary treatment program with a usual-care program in seventy-five 3- to 5-year-old overweight or obese children who had particip

  19. Behaviour of some biopsychosocial factors in the elderly of 90 years old and more.

    Damaris Rubido Gómez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a universal process that seems to affect all human beings, which is understood as a succession of morphological, physiological and phychological modifications with an irreversible character. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of identifying the behaviour of some biopsychosocial factors in elder people of 90 years old and more in the dispensaries 44,45,and 49 of the policlinic 2 “Arcelio Suérez Bernal from Jatibonico municipality from January 1st ,2007 to december 31 st ,2008.The sample was conformed by 23 long lived that fulfilled with the inclusion criteria. Different variables were used like:sex, age, autovalidism, food, toxic habits, assossiated deseases and principal plans and projects. Female sex prevailed (69,6%, the 90-94years old group, coffe as risk factor (56,5 %, hip break (39,1% and the autovalidism in the way (86,9%.It was found these elderly get old in a best way because they were physical and social active.

  20. A Five-Year Followup of Human Seminal Plasma Allergy in an 18-Year-Old Woman

    Ole D. Wolthers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case reports of women with the rare condition of human seminal plasma allergy have indicated that the condition may be associated with life-threatening anaphylactic reactions in relation to coitus. Few observations, if any, of long-term outcome of the condition are available. The aim of this paper was to present a case diagnosed in an 18-year-old girl who presented with generalized urticaria, nasal congestion and secretion, conjunctivitis, and periorbital and labial oedema 6–8 hours after coitus. During five years of followup the condition improved clinically significantly. Due to intimacy concerns and the low prevalence of the condition robust long term data on the natural course of the condition are difficult to obtain. The present case suggests that in some patients the condition may improve over time.

  1. Recurrent unicystic mural type ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old boy, 8 years follow-up

    Burcu Sengüven

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unicystic ameloblastoma is not a rare odontogenic tumor in the pediatric population. A significant care should be given to unicystic ameloblastoma if it has mural invasions due to its local aggressiveness, high recurrence rates and radical management options as in conventional ameloblastoma. Fine needle aspiration (FNA cytology is a rapid, non-traumatic diagnostic method that provides a required attention prior to surgery. We present an excisionsl biopsy proved FNA diagnosed mural type unicystic ameloblastoma in a 9-year-old child recurred as a solid ameloblastoma after 8 years. When distinctive features of ameloblastoma are known, an accurate diagnosis can be made by FNA cytology, in combination with clinicoradiological findings. This method gives benefit to the patients especially the younger ones both for the pre-operative surgical planning and the post-operative follow-up.

  2. Staghorn cystine stone in a 72-year-old recurrent calcium stone former.

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Farnesi, Ilaria; Armillotta, Nicola; Francesca, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    This case deals with the first diagnosis of Type B cystinuria with cystine nephrolithiasis in a 72-year-old male. Cystinuria is an inherited disease that consists of congenital abnormalities of renal and intestinal transport of dibasic amino acids. It often leads to frequent recurrent stone formation. Cystine stones most frequently occur in the 1st through 3rd decades of life with a decreased incidence in old age. This case shows that the first diagnosis of cystinuria may be made even in the 8th decade, without any family history, and in a patient with a history of recurrent calcium stone disease. Therefore, the chance of cystinuria must be always considered, even in older calcium stone formers.

  3. [Food avoidance emotional disorder in 3 to 10-year-old children: a clinical reality].

    Goëb, J-L; Azcona, B; Troussier, F; Malka, J; Giniès, J-L; Duverger, P

    2005-09-01

    We underline the clinical importance of a specific eating disorder in 3 to 10 years old children, when the majority of the works about the prepubertal eating disorders focus either on the period just preceding adolescence (often between 10 and 13 years), or on the second half of the first year of the baby. Within the eating disorders described in the literature, we compare the clinical presentation of most of these 3 to 10 years old children with the food avoidance emotional disorder described during adolescence. These problems of eating behaviour (various selective eating with or without provoked vomiting) are ignored for a long time in these young children because of quite a satisfactory growth, but these children are often seen in emergency rooms because of a brutally complete eating refusal. Therapeutic consultations allow these children to express their fears about diseases, poisoning and death, for themselves or for their close relations, in particular the mother, without endangering their body. The early recognition and care of these difficulties of conciliation between the body and the thoughts impose a narrow collaboration between paediatric and psychiatric staffs.

  4. Social conformity persists at least one day in 6-year-old children.

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-12-21

    Humans have a tendency to forgo their own attitudes or beliefs in order to better align with the interests of a majority, a behavioral process known as conformity. Social conformity has been widely studied among adults and adolescents, whereas experimental studies on the impact of peer influence among young children have been relatively limited. The current study aims to investigate both short-term and sustained conforming behaviors among children in situations of relatively low social pressure. Forty-one children aged 5 to 6 years rated the attractiveness of 90 faces presented serially followed by witnessing a group rating in the absence of peers. Subsequently, second judgement was made after 30 minutes (Experiment 1). Results show that 6-year-old children tended to conform to their peers when group ratings differed from their own ratings, while younger children did not. In Experiment 2, children were required to make the second judgment one day after exposure to group ratings. Similarly, children aged 6 years exhibited a sustained conformity effect even after one day. Our findings suggest that 6-year-old children spontaneously change their private opinions under implicit social influence from peers.

  5. THE LEVEL OF SELF-ESTEEM IN 14-16-YEAR - OLD FEMALE TENNIS PLAYERS

    Jagiello Marina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The level of self esteem in 14-16-year-old female tennis players. Material: The main aim of the study was to determine the level of self-esteem among 14-16-year-old girls practising tennis in comparison to their peers not engaged in sport on a regular basis. The study involved two groups of girls: those practising tennis competitively (n=30 and those not training sports systematically (n=30. The subjects’ age was in the range of 14-16 years old and their training experience 3-6 years. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of Morris Rosenberg’s questionnaire in the Polish modification. Results: As a result of the conducted study significant differences in the level of self-esteem between the tested groups and a correlation with their training experience were found. As a result of the conducted study, it was found that both groups of girls represented the level of self-esteem defined as average (tennis players - 29.9 points; non-training girls - 26.4 points. However, these differences were statistically significant (p≤0.05 to the advantage of tennis players. Conclusions: Statistically significant differences were found between the level of self-esteem among girls training tennis and their peers not practising sports regularly (to the advantage of the former ones. Far more (almost twice as many tennis players achieved a high level of self-esteem in comparison to girls who do not systematically practise sports. None of the examined tennis players represented a low level of self-esteem. The length of training experience has a statistically significant, positive correlation with the level of tennis players’ self-esteem.

  6. Phonological Patterns in Normally Developing Spanish-Speaking 3-and 4-Year Olds of Puerto Rican Descent.

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study used quantitative and qualitative methodology to examine the phonological patterns of 24 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old Spanish-speaking preschoolers of Puerto Rican descent. The children acquired the sounds of their language at an early age and did not exhibit high percentages of occurrence on targeted phonological processes. (DB)

  7. Cognitive and Linguistic Sources of Variance in 2-Year-Olds' Speech-Sound Discrimination: A Preliminary Investigation

    Lalonde, Kaylah; Holt, Rachael Frush

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation explored potential cognitive and linguistic sources of variance in 2- year-olds' speech-sound discrimination by using the toddler change/no-change procedure and examined whether modifications would result in a procedure that can be used consistently with younger 2-year-olds. Method: Twenty typically…

  8. Father-Child Interaction: Associations with Self-Control and Aggression among 4.5-Year-Olds

    Meece, Darrell; Robinson, Cheryl Malone

    2014-01-01

    Examined correlates of positive father caregiving and harsh control among 721 (350 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of NICHD Study of Early Child Care data and 7050 (3450 girls) four-year-old children through analysis of Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data. Findings from both samples suggest that, for both boys and…

  9. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among 11-year-old Belgian-Flemish and Dutch schoolchildren

    Wind, Marianne; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; te Velde, Saskia J;

    2006-01-01

    To determine factors associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium-Flanders and the Netherlands.......To determine factors associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium-Flanders and the Netherlands....

  10. Gait pattern in 9-11-year-old children with generalized joint hypermobility compared with controls

    Nikolajsen, Helene; Larsen, Peter Kastmand; Simonsen, Erik Bruun;

    2013-01-01

    To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH).......To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH)....

  11. Is ovarian hyperstimulation associated with higher blood pressure in 4-year-old IVF offspring? Part I : multivariable regression analysis

    Seggers, Jorien; Haadsma, Maaike L.; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Heineman, Maas Jan; Middelburg, Karin J.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Schendelaar, Pamela; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian hyperstimulation, the in vitro procedure, or a combination of these two negatively influence blood pressure (BP) and anthropometrics of 4-year-old children born following IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) percentiles were found in 4-year-old child

  12. Imitation of Hierarchical Structure versus Component Details of Complex Actions by 3- and 5-Year-Olds

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We investigated developmental changes in the level of information children incorporate into their imitation when a model executes complex, hierarchically organized actions. A total of 57 3-year-olds and 60 5-year-olds participated, watching video demonstrations of an "artificial fruit" box being opened through a complex series of nine different…

  13. Analysis of the growth characteristics of a 450-year-old silver fir tree

    Pantić Damjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth characteristics of silver fir are of high importance for selection forest management, and for the current aims laid out in Serbia’s forest management focused on increasing the share of silver firs in Serbia’s growing stock. With the objective of increasing the understanding of the growth characteristics of silver fir, the growth of two silver fir trees felled during forest site production research on Mt. Goč, located in Central Serbia, have been analyzed. Both trees showed significant differences in their growth dynamics over long periods as results of micro-site and micro-stand effects (primarily ambient light regime. The common growth characteristic of the two trees, a 450-year-old tree as the main study object (labeled Tree A and a 270-year-old Tree B is a long stagnation stage. For Tree A the latent phase, with small interruptions, lasted 410 years; one phase lasted 330 years in continuity, which is the longest period of silver fir stagnation recorded in Europe. Tree B showed a long-lasting stagnation stage that lasted 170 years. The long stagnation stage of Tree A, characterized by an average diameter increment of 1.4 mm/year (average growth ring width of 0.7 mm and an average height increment of 0.08 m/year, shows the extraordinary silver fir capacity for physiological survival in complete shade. This study adds to the existing knowledge of the shade tolerance of the silver fir. Therefore, the silver fir belongs to the group of extremely shade-tolerant tree species. This characteristic makes silver fir an irreplaceable tree species in the selection forest structure. It offers a wide range of silvicultural flexibility in the management of these forests, and is applicable to silver fir selection Serbia’s forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. EVBR 37008: Sustainable management of total forest potentials in the Republic of Serbia

  14. Montelukast reduces asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old children with intermittent asthma

    Bisgaard, Hans; Zielen, Stefen; Garcia-Garcia, María Luz

    2005-01-01

    The PREVIA study was designed to investigate the role of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, in the prevention of viral-induced asthma exacerbations in children aged 2 to 5 years with a history of intermittent asthma symptoms. The study was a 12-month multicenter, double-blind, parallel......, beta-agonist use, and health care resource use in a diary card. Over 12 months of therapy, montelukast significantly reduced the rate of asthma exacerbations by 31.9% compared with placebo. The average rate of exacerbation episodes per patient was 1.60 episodes per year on montelukast compared with 2.......34 episodes on placebo. Montelukast also delayed the median time to first exacerbation by approximately 2 months (p = 0.024), and the rate of inhaled corticosteroid courses (p = 0.027) compared with placebo. Montelukast effectively reduced asthma exacerbations in 2- to 5-year-old patients with intermittent...

  15. Developing formal mathematical assessment for 4- to 8-year-olds

    Doig, Brian

    2005-10-01

    The assessment of children in their years before school and their first years of school has been, traditionally, informal. Further, assessment of children's mathematical skills at this level has been infrequent compared to social, emotional and physical assessments. However, there are contexts where reliable, valid, standardised data from assessment in mathematics are required. This paper outlines the development of two assessment tools for mathematics that were originally developed for such contexts. Item Response Theory (IRT) analyses enabled the construction of assessment forms that address the range of abilities of 4- to 8-year-old children, and provided the scales used for constructing formative and summative reports of achievement. A description of the development of the assessment tools and the IRT analysis that provides the reporting formats are presented together with some research uses of the tools.

  16. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually.

  17. The Development of Arabic Digit Knowledge in 4- to 7-Year-Old Children

    Birgit Knudsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that Arabic digit knowledge rather than non-symbolic number knowledge is a key foundation for arithmetic proficiency at the start of a child’s mathematical career. We document the developmental trajectory of 4- to 7-year-olds’ proficiency in accessing magnitude information from Arabic digits in five tasks differing in magnitude manipulation requirements. Results showed that children from 5 years onwards accessed magnitude information implicitly and explicitly, but that 5-year-olds failed to access magnitude information explicitly when numerical magnitude was contrasted with physical magnitude. Performance across tasks revealed a clear developmental trajectory: children traverse from first knowing the cardinal values of number words to recognizing Arabic digits to knowing their cardinal values and, concurrently, their ordinal position. Correlational analyses showed a strong within-child consistency, demonstrating that this pattern is not only reflected in group differences but also in individual performance.

  18. A progressive multifocal neurological syndrome in a 42-year-old woman.

    Cryan, Jane

    2012-02-01

    This is the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with transient dizziness. Her symptoms and signs progressed to include dysarthria, ataxia and cognitive decline over 2 years, such that she was unable to care for herself. She died 4 years after first presentation without a diagnosis. Investigations revealed a normochromic normocytic anaemia. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Serial computed tomography brain showed a wedge-shaped frontal infarct but no progressive changes. Examination at autopsy showed discoloration of the gray and white matter of the brain and spinal cord.Microscopy of leptomeningeal and parenchymal vessels showed they were filled with atypical B lymphocytes confined to the intravascular space with multiple infarcts in the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord. A diagnosis of intravascular B cell lymphoma was made and is discussed.

  19. Relationship between tooth loss and mortality in 80-year-old Japanese community-dwelling subjects

    Torisu Takehiro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from several studies suggest associations between tooth loss and health outcomes, including malnutrition, poor quality of life, and mortality, in older individuals. However, limited information is available regarding whether those associations remain true in very elderly subjects after adequately considering confounding factors such as sex and smoking status. Herein, we determined whether the number of teeth in 80-year-old subjects is an independent predictor of mortality. Methods We initially contacted 1282 80-year-old community-dwelling individuals born in 1917, of whom 697 responded and participated in a baseline study, with follow-up examinations conducted 4 and 5.5 years later. Data from interviews and medical and oral examinations were obtained, and oral health was determined according to the number of teeth remaining in the oral cavity. Results A total of 108 and 157 subjects died in 4 years and 5.5 years, respectively, after the baseline study. Tooth loss was significantly associated with mortality at age 85.5, but not at age 84, after adjusting for potential confounders. When the analysis was stratified by sex, we found a stronger association in females in follow-up examinations conducted at both 4- and 5.5 years. On the other hand, the effect of tooth loss on mortality was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers. Conclusion Tooth loss is a significant predictor of mortality independent of health factors, socio-economic status, and lifestyle in octogenarians, with a stronger association in females.

  20. Development of 5- and 10-year-old pediatric phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces

    Melo Lima, V. J. de; Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Oliveira Lira, C. A. B. de; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W. [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Moraes Rego 1235, CEP 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil); Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire 500, CEP 50740-540, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil and Polytechnic School of Pernambuco, University of Pernambuco, Rua Benfica 455, CEP 50751-460, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is the development of reference pediatric phantoms for 5- and 10-year-old children to be used for the calculation of organ and tissue equivalent doses in radiation protection. Methods: The study proposes a method for developing anatomically highly sophisticated pediatric phantoms without using medical images. The 5- and 10-year-old male and female phantoms presented here were developed using 3D modeling software applied to anatomical information taken from atlases and textbooks. The method uses polygon mesh surfaces to model body contours, the shape of organs as well as their positions, and orientations in the human body. Organ and tissue masses comply with the corresponding data given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the 5- and 10-year-old reference children. Bones were segmented into cortical bone, spongiosa, medullary marrow, and cartilage to allow for the use of micro computer tomographic ({mu}CT) images of trabecular bone for skeletal dosimetry. Results: The four phantoms, a male and a female for each age, and their organs are presented in 3D images and their organ and tissue masses in tables which show the compliance of the ICRP reference values. Dosimetric data, calculated for the reference pediatric phantoms by Monte Carlo methods were compared with corresponding data from adult mesh phantoms and pediatric stylized phantoms. The comparisons show reasonable agreement if the anatomical differences between the phantoms are properly taken into account. Conclusions: Pediatric phantoms were developed without using medical images of patients or volunteers for the first time. The models are reference phantoms, suitable for regulatory dosimetry, however, the 3D modeling method can also be applied to medical images to develop patient-specific phantoms.

  1. Prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port

    Seyed Sajad Eghbali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone, leading to enhanced bone fragility. Prevalence of osteoporosis increases with age. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port, irrespective of osteoporosis risk factors. Methods: A total of 406 women over 50 years old were selected from 13 cluster areas of Bushehr port using random sampling method. We used dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA for measuring bone mineral density of femoral neck and lumbar areas. Demographic data, smoking, physical activity, daily intake of vitamin D and calcium, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were recorded for each women. Results: Mean BMDs of lumbar spine and femoral area were 0.944 (±0.844 g/cm2 and 0.842 (± 0.181 g/cm2, respectively. BMDs had a trend to decrease with increasing age (P<0.0001. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in lumbar spine were 32.0% and 7.4%, respectively and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in femur were 29.6% and 3.9%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between normal women and osteoporotic women in secondary osteoporosis risk factors. But osteoporotic women had more history of present or past smoking in comparison to normal women (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port is less than USA, Europe and Tehran populations.

  2. Evaluation of First Permanent Molars DMFT in 12 Years Old Children in Hamadan City ( 2005

    T. Massom

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: DMFT Index is the best epidemiologic caries index in dentistry and can show the state of oral and dental hygiene in one society. By considering this index we can design suitable preventive and treatment program for total population of a society. The aim of this descriptive analytical study was evaluation of DMF6 index in 12 years old children in Hamadan city.Materials & Methods: Using explorer and mirror under natural light, 4 permanent first molars of 480 twelve years old students were examined from the aspect of decay, missing and filling; then DMF6 was accounted for each subject. The statistical analysis was done by SPSS 12 and Pearson, Chi- square test. Results: The mean of DMF6 was 2.17±1.39. DMF6 in girls (2.22 was more than boys (2.12 but this difference was not statistically significant. 72.9% of girls and 72.5% of boys had carries in their first permanent molars. 1.3% of girls and 2.5% of boys had one missing first molar. The difference between girls and boys in missing and decayed teeth was not statistically significant. 22.5% of girls and 11.7% of boys had filling teeth and only this difference was statistically significant. 26% of population had no sound teeth and only 18.8% of them had 4 sound first permanent molors. 72.7% of population had caries and 1.9% had missing and 17.1% had filled teeth. Conclusion: Analysis of DMF6 showed that untreated caries is the most important problem in 12 years old children in Hamadan.

  3. Effects of Values Education Program on Social Emotional Development of Six Year Old Children

    Ayşe ÖZTÜRK SAMUR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Values Education Program on social and emotional development of six-year-old children attending preschool are examined. Study group of the research is composed of 44 six-year-old students attending preschool classes. As data collection device, Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (PreBERS developed by Epstein & Synhorst (2009. PreBERS’ adaptation into Turkish and validity and reliability study for six year old children is done by Öztürk Samur, Deniz, Durmuşoğlu Saltalı & Arı (2009 is used. At the end of analysis of the data gathered in the study, it is seen that there is a significant difference between experiential and control groups’ post-test scores from emotional regulation, school readiness, social confidence and total social emotional development in favor of experiential group. However, a difference in family involvement scores is not remarkable. There is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores of experiential group from school readiness, social confidence, family involvement and total social emotional development; it is seen that post-test scores are considerably higher than pre-test scores. There is a significant difference in family involvement sub-dimension for control group; their post-test scores are remarkably higher than pre-test scores. It was seen that, there was only a significant difference in family involvement sub-dimension for pre-test post test scores of control group children, in other sub-dimensions there was no significant difference. Results of the retention test which was applied to the experimental group proved that the effects of the program are permanent.

  4. Formality in Chat Reference: Perceptions of 17- to 25-Year-Old University Students

    Jennifer Waugh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the ways in which the formality of language used by librarians affects 17- to 25-year-old university students’ perceptions of synchronous virtual reference interactions(chat reference, in particular, perceptions of answer accuracy, interpersonal connection, competency, professionalism, and overall satisfaction.Methods – This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to examine the perceptions of participants. Participants reviewed and responded to two virtual reference transcripts, portraying a librarian and student asking a simple question. One transcript portrayed a librarian using traditional, formal language while the other portrayed a librarian using informal language. Five17- to 25-year-old university students were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological, qualitative approach to discover common themes.Results – Analysis suggests that participants perceived the formal librarian as being “robotic” and impersonal while the informal librarian was thought to be more invested in the referenceinteraction. Several participants viewed the formal librarian as more competent and trustworthy and questioned the effort put forth by the informal librarian, who was perceived as young and inexperienced. Participants’ perceptions of professionalism were based on expectations of social distance and formality. Satisfaction was based on content and relational factors. Several participants preferred the formal interaction based on perceptions of competency, while others preferred the informal librarian due to perceived interpersonal connection. Conclusion – Formality plays a key role in altering the perceptions of 17- to 25-year-olds when viewing virtual reference interaction transcripts. Both language styles had advantages and disadvantages, suggesting that librarians should become cognizant of manipulating their language to encourage user satisfaction.

  5. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  6. Prevalence of epileptiform discharges in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children.

    Grant, Arthur C; Chau, Larissa; Arya, Kapil; Schneider, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in healthy 11- and 12-year-old children. Sixth grade students with no history of seizure, or neurologic or psychiatric disease, were enrolled in a longitudinal physical activity intervention study. Per study protocol, each student had two EEG recordings approximately 6months apart. Epileptiform discharges were present in 4 (2.9%) of 140 students: centrotemporal in three and generalized in one. In three children, the discharges were still present six months later. None of the children had developed seizures a minimum of one year after the second EEG. These results are consistent with those of two landmark European studies performed nearly a half century ago, before the modern era of digital EEG. Healthy 11- and 12-year-old children with no history of seizure may have centrotemporal or generalized epileptiform discharges on EEG, which can persist for at least 6months. Based on both our results and those of the two prior European studies, such discharges, if found incidentally in otherwise healthy children in this age group, should not prompt further evaluation or treatment.

  7. Total body fat content versus BMI in 4-year-old healthy Swedish children.

    Forsum, Elisabet; Flinke Carlsson, Eva; Henriksson, Hanna; Henriksson, Pontus; Löf, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity, a worldwide problem, is generally identified using BMI (body mass index). However, this application of BMI has been little investigated in children below 5 years of age due to a lack of appropriate methods to assess body composition. Therefore, we used air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to study 4.4-year old boys and girls since this method is accurate in young children if they accept the requirements of the measurement. The purpose was to analyze the relationship between BMI and body fat in these children. Body composition was assessed in 76 (43 boys, 33 girls) of the 84 children brought to the measurement session. Boys and girls contained 25.2 ± 4.7 and 26.8 ± 4.0% body fat, respectively. BMI-based cut-offs for overweight could not effectively identify children with a high body fat content. There was a significant (P BMI and body fat (%). In conclusion, requirements associated with a successful assessment of body composition by means of ADP were accepted by most 4-year-olds. Furthermore, BMI-based cut-offs for overweight did not effectively identify children with a high body fatness and BMI explained only a small proportion of the variation in body fat (%) in this age group.

  8. Ten-year-old children strategies in mental addition: A counting model account.

    Thevenot, Catherine; Barrouillet, Pierre; Castel, Caroline; Uittenhove, Kim

    2016-01-01

    For more than 30 years, it has been admitted that individuals from the age of 10 mainly retrieve the answer of simple additions from long-term memory, at least when the sum does not exceed 10. Nevertheless, recent studies challenge this assumption and suggest that expert adults use fast, compacted and unconscious procedures in order to solve very simple problems such as 3+2. If this is true, automated procedures should be rooted in earlier strategies and therefore observable in their non-compacted form in children. Thus, contrary to the dominant theoretical position, children's behaviors should not reflect retrieval. This is precisely what we observed in analyzing the responses times of a sample of 42 10-year-old children who solved additions with operands from 1 to 9. Our results converge towards the conclusion that 10-year-old children still use counting procedures in order to solve non-tie problems involving operands from 2 to 4. Moreover, these counting procedures are revealed whatever the expertise of children, who differ only in their speed of execution. Therefore and contrary to the dominant position in the literature according to which children's strategies evolve from counting to retrieval, the key change in development of mental addition solving appears to be a shift from slow to quick counting procedures.

  9. The Incorporation of the School Age Group of 16-18 Years Old in Gambling

    MSc. Alfred Nela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research of this paper focuses on the involvement of the school age group 16-18 years old in sports betting games impacted by beliefs on luck and social groups. For the collection of data literature is utilized, questionnaires are distributed and also focus groups were conducted. The assumptions of the assignment are: a The involvement of school age group 16-18 years in sports betting games are manners learned from their comrades, b The school age group 16-18 years old attribute to fate the participation in sports betting games. Over 64% of responses manifest that they have learned the rules from their companions. The revelations and questionnaire responses argue that over 45% of students in their classes play sports bets, and 34% think that the phenomena of sports betting depends on luck. The major part of this age group do not practice and believe in fortunate rituals or activities. The acquired data reflect that the extent of involvement of this age group is in substantial dimensions. We suggest that the decision-making bodies and service providers should develop strategies in order to reduce the phenomenon.

  10. Neural correlates of music-syntactic processing in two-year old children

    Sebastian Jentschke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Music is a basic and ubiquitous socio-cognitive domain. However, our understanding of the time course of the development of music perception, particularly regarding implicit knowledge of music-syntactic regularities, remains contradictory and incomplete. Some authors assume that the acquisition of knowledge about these regularities lasts until late childhood, but there is also evidence for the presence of such knowledge in four- and five-year-olds. To explore whether such knowledge is already present in younger children, we tested whether 30-month-olds (N = 62 show neurophysiological responses to music-syntactically irregular harmonies. We observed an early right anterior negativity in response to both irregular in-key and out-of-key chords. The N5, a brain response usually present in older children and adults, was not observed, indicating that processes of harmonic integration (as reflected in the N5 are still in development in this age group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 30-month-olds already have acquired implicit knowledge of complex harmonic music-syntactic regularities and process musical information according to this knowledge.

  11. Neural correlates of music-syntactic processing in two-year old children.

    Jentschke, Sebastian; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    Music is a basic and ubiquitous socio-cognitive domain. However, our understanding of the time course of the development of music perception, particularly regarding implicit knowledge of music-syntactic regularities, remains contradictory and incomplete. Some authors assume that the acquisition of knowledge about these regularities lasts until late childhood, but there is also evidence for the presence of such knowledge in four- and five-year-olds. To explore whether such knowledge is already present in younger children, we tested whether 30-month-olds (N=62) show neurophysiological responses to music-syntactically irregular harmonies. We observed an early right anterior negativity in response to both irregular in-key and out-of-key chords. The N5, a brain response usually present in older children and adults, was not observed, indicating that processes of harmonic integration (as reflected in the N5) are still in development in this age group. In conclusion, our results indicate that 30-month-olds already have acquired implicit knowledge of complex harmonic music-syntactic regularities and process musical information according to this knowledge.

  12. Conjunctival Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon in a 3-year-old child.

    Orhan, Diclehan; Kiratli, Hayyam; Kocabeyoğlu, Sibel

    2006-01-01

    A case of benign granulomas of the conjunctiva in a 3-year-old girl is reported. Histologic features of the excised conjunctival lesions were consistent with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. This phenomenon is thought to be a granulomatous reaction to an antigen-antibody precipitate related to parasites or fungi. No causative agent is identified in our patient. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no immunoreactivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, or the C3 component of the complement. We propose that the presence of small amelanotic nodular conjunctival tumors should arouse suspicion related to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon even in early childhood.

  13. A 16-Year-Old Female with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

    Mufti Munsurar Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of hamartomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract, with pigmentation around lips and macules on the buccal mucosa that typically manifests itself as recurrent colicky abdominal pain and intestinal obstruction due to intussusception. Here we report a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and previous history of laparotomy for intussusception. Multiple well demarcated black pigmented macules on lips, perioral region, buccal mucosa, digits, palms and soles were noted. She was diagnosed as a case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and managed conservatively.

  14. Gender identity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in a 23-year-old female.

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Thomazeau, Barbara; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2014-02-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman with Gender Identity Disorder (GID) asking for a cross-sex hormonal treatment with sex reassignment surgery and who was recently diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Gender identity clinics are now reporting an overrepresentation of individuals with ASD among GID patients. The prevalence of ASD is 10-fold higher among GID patients than in general population. However, few case reports or studies have explored the co-occurrence of ASD and GID. This co-occurrence is relevant for diagnostic and clinical management and also raises important theoretical issues.

  15. [Awake Nasotracheal Intubation for a 4-Year-old Boy with an Oral Penetrating Toothbrush Injury].

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Ando, Kokichi; Saito, Kazutomo; Toyama, Hiroaki; Fudeta, Hiroto; Yamauchi, Masanori

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of an oral penetrating injury caused by a toothbrush in a 4-year-old 17-kg boy. The toothbrush was lodged in the right cervical region through the oral cavity, and emergency surgery for removal was planned under general anesthesia. Although mask ventilation was not possible because of the protruding toothbrush handle, awake nasotracheal intubation was successfully performed with a fiber-scope and intravenous fentanyl 25 μg. We conclude that appropriate analgesics could facilitate awake intubation in pediatric patients.

  16. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child

    Ahmed Marwan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  17. Malignant Nonfunctioning Neuroendocrine Neoplasm of the Pancreas in a 10-Year-Old Child.

    Marwan, Ahmed; Christein, John D

    2009-04-17

    Malignant neoplasms of the pancreas are extremely rare in children and only represent a small percentage of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The paucity of cases reported in the literature, in addition to the lack of understanding of biologic behavior, has led to a lack of consensus concerning optimal management strategy. Presentation differs compared to adult counterparts and generally prognosis is improved even when lymph node metastases occur. Here we review the literature and report the case of a 10-year-old autistic female with a malignant nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine neoplasm of the head of the pancreas successfully extirpated via pancreaticoduodenectomy.

  18. Osteochondroma arising from a lumbar facet joint in a 16-year-old.

    Hancock, Graeme E; Mariathas, Chrishan; Fernandes, James A; Breakwell, Lee M; Cole, Ashley A; Michael, Antony L R

    2015-05-01

    Osteochondromas are benign tumours of bony or cartilaginous origin, which may be solitary or multiple. They are rare in the axial skeleton and have previously been reported to arise from facet joints only in four cases in the English literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old girl who presented with a palpable bony lump and a short history of back pain. Imaging showed a bony lesion arising from a left-sided facet joint in the lumbar spine. Following excision biopsy, there was complete resolution of symptoms. The literature on the origin and management of spinal osteochondromas is discussed.

  19. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in a 5-year-old child with dystonic storm: case report.

    Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar; Uysal, Serap; Unver, Olcay; Uzan, Mustafa; Mengi, Murat; Kizilkilic, Osman; Hanci, Murat

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old child had a medical history of epilepsy and a newly presented mental retardation with a life-threatening dystonic storm. Neuroimagings showed bilateral calcification of the pallidum. Several treatment modalities were performed, but the symptoms showed no significant improvement. The patient was operated on in order to place a deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting bilateral globus pallidum internus (GPi). The dystonia showed a remarkable improvement after surgery, with 81% reduction of dystonia severity after 15 months. To our best knowledge, this is the youngest patient mentioned in the literature to be treated with DBS, which was also life-saving in this case.

  20. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  1. Bifid cardiac apex in a 25-year-old male with sudden cardiac death.

    Wu, Annie; Kay, Deborah; Fishbein, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although a bifid cardiac apex is common in certain marine animals, it is an uncommon finding in humans. When present, bifid cardiac apex is usually associated with other congenital heart anomalies. We present a case of bifid cardiac apex that was an incidental finding in a 25-year-old male with sudden cardiac death from combined drug toxicity. On gross examination, there was a bifid cardiac apex with a 2-cm long cleft. There were no other significant gross or microscopic abnormalities. This case represents the very rare occurrence of a bifid cardiac apex as an isolated cardiac anomaly.

  2. Renal angiomyolipoma with inferior vena caval thrombus in a 32-year-old male

    Matthew W Christian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal angiomyolipoma (AML rarely presents with evidence of extension into the renal vein, inferior vena cava (IVC or atrium. We report a case of a renal AML with a tumor thrombus to the IVC in a 32-year-old male. The patient subsequently underwent a right radical nephrectomy with IVC tumor thrombectomy. To our knowledge, there are four published cases of renal AML presenting with tumor thrombus in males. This case report describes the management of the youngest male ever to develop a renal AML with IVC tumor thrombus.

  3. Body mass index of 16-year olds in urban Maseru, Lesotho

    Violet L. van den Berg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overweight and/or obesity amongst children and adolescents is a global epidemic with health consequences that track into adulthood. No data are currently available regarding overweight/obesity amongst adolescents in Lesotho.Aim and setting: To assess the prevalence of overweight and/or obesity and the associated risk factors amongst 16-year olds in urban Maseru, Lesotho.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a systematic sample of 16-year olds ingrade four (N = 221; 56.6% girls from randomly-selected schools in urban Maseru. Diet histories and data on lifestyle, physical activity and knowledge, attitudes and/or perceptions and practices regarding nutrition were obtained during structured interviews and body mass index (BMI was determined.Results: Amongst these 16-year olds, 27.2% girls and 8.3% boys were overweight and/or obese based on World Health Organization cut-offs for BMI; 39.8% were insufficiently active or inactive;6.4% used alcohol regularly; and 11.7% used tobacco. Whilst 28.1% reported no television watching/electronic gaming/computer usage (combined screen time outside school, 23.6% reported ≥ 4 hours of combined screen time outside school. Most (91.4% consumed < 3 servings of vegetables/day; 86.4% consumed < 2 servings of fruits/day; and 95.5% consumed < 2 servings of dairy/day. The majority consumed maize porridge (56.1%, bread (63.8% and margarine/oil/fat (82.3% daily and added sugar to their food (74.2%. Fruits, vegetables, dairy, meat, pulses and traditional foods were only consumed weekly or less often. Most bought from tuck shops (18.6% daily; 54.3% weekly. Various gaps in knowledge, perceptions and practices were identified that may benefit from educational intervention.Conclusions: The current study identifies westernised dietary and lifestyle changes, along with overweight and/or obesity, amongst 16-year old adolescents in Lesotho.

  4. Overweight, body image and bullying--an epidemiological study of 11- to 15-years olds

    Brixval, Carina S; Rayce, Signe L B; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    contribution to the international cross-sectional research project Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2002 was used. Data were assessed from questionnaires and 4781 students aged 11-, 13- and 15-years old were included in the analyses. Logistic regression was used for the analyses. RESULTS......: The regression analyses showed that overweight and obese students were more exposed to bullying than their normal weight peers. Among boys, odds ratios (ORs) for exposure to bullying were 1.75 (1.18-2.61) in overweight and 1.98 (0.79-4.95) in obese boys compared with normal weight. Among girls, the corresponding...

  5. Groin Swelling in a Four-Year-Old Boy: Primary Great Saphenous Vein Aneurysm.

    Çiçek, Mustafa Cüneyt; Çiçek, Ömer Faruk; Yalçınkaya, Adnan; Taşoğlu, İrfan

    2015-11-01

    Primary venous aneurysm, especially in pediatric population, is a very rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary great saphenous vein aneurysm in a 4-year-old boy. He was initially suspected of suffering from inguinal hernia because the soft mass was detected at the inguinal region when the patient was in the standing position, but color Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated the swelling to be a great saphenous vein aneurysm. We decided that surgery was the best option because of potential risk for thromboembolism.

  6. A 22-year-old man with severe osteoporosis due to prolactinoma.

    Dandinoğlu, Taner; Akarsu, Selim; Tekin, Levent; Arbal, Serkan; Dinçer, Umit

    2013-09-01

    Prolactin-secreting adenomas represent nearly 40% to 60% of all pituitary adenomas. Prolactin inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone that is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins. Sex steroids have an important effect on the regulation of bone metabolism in men. Decreased libido and impotence are the most common presenting symptoms of hyperprolactinemia in males. These symptoms are easily neglected by both patients and some physicians. We present a 22-year-old man with multiple osteoporotic fractures associated with prolactinoma despite the use of teriparatide for 18 months. We emphasize and highlight the importance of hyperprolactinemia and fractures caused by high prolactin levels.

  7. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and pulmonary embolism in a 3-year-old child

    Olivier, Carine; Blondiaux, Eleonore; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Blanc, Thierry [University Hospital of Rouen, Department of Neonatal Medicine, Rouen (France); Borg, Jeanne-Yvonne [University Hospital of Rouen, Haematology Laboratory, Rouen (France)

    2006-08-15

    We report a rare example of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) in a young child. A 3-year-old girl with no previous medical history presented with extensive and recurrent thromboses. The diagnosis of CAPS was based on the occurrence of cardiopulmonary embolism in the child with a high titre of autoantibodies directed against phospholipids and beta-2-glycoprotein 1. In spite of a relatively rapid diagnosis and multiple treatments, the outcome was unfavourable. Multimodality imaging, including both ultrasonography and spiral CT, allowed close follow-up of the thromboses. (orig.)

  8. A 55-Year Old Man with Acute Painful Flank Mass, a Case Report

    Aida Alavi-Moghaddam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar hernias (LH accounts for less than 1.5% of total hernia incidence. It can occur in two separate triangular areas of the flank. About 300 cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a 55-year old man with acute painful left side flank mass and final diagnosis of LH. The mass was appeared about three hours before admission and his pain was slight at first but became more severe gradually. He had stable vital sign and the only positive finding on his physical examination was the sphere shape, firm, mobile, and mild tender mass at his left flank.

  9. Purulent Meningoencephalitis Mixed Etiology in a Child Two Years Old: Problems of Diagnosis and Treatment

    E. N. Simovanyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern features of purulent meningoencephalitis is the frequent development of the disease at adverse premorbid background, the formation of a mixed infection, which leads to severe prolonged duration, the occurrence of complications. For example the medical history of two years old child with acute purulent meningoencephalitis mixed etiology (Str. Pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, developed on the background of chronic herpes virus infection, rezudual-organic CNS pathology, submitted the algorithm of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in these cohort of patients.

  10. Emphysematous pyelonephritis treated with elective nephrectomy in a 75-year-old diabetic patient

    Yayi He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of 75-year-old man with type 2 diabetes and emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN. The patient presented with abdominal pain, fever of undetermined origin and progressive decrease in urine output. Computerized tomography scan revealed gas formation in the left renal parenchyma and capsule. A left nephrectomy was performed. He made a quick recovery. EPN should be taken into consideration in diabetic patients with symptoms of pyelonephritis who show a poor response to conventional treatment. Elective nephrectomy may be life saving in some patients.

  11. A 19 year old with heavy vaginal bleeding; unlikely diagnosis of uterine carcinsarcoma

    Andrew L. Atkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that has a high recurrence rate after treatment with very poor long term prognosis. Women are diagnosed usually over the age of 50, with most cases occurring between the sixth and seventh decade of life. We present a rare case of uterine carcinosarcoma diagnosed a nineteen year old after having a dilation and curettage for heavy vaginal bleeding. The patient went on to have a total abdominal hysterectomy with transposition of the ovaries as well as adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 221-223

  12. Sarcoma botryoides in a 14 year old girl: a rare case

    Salil Bindu Chakrabarty

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (Sarcoma botryoides of the uterine cervix is an uncommon entity. Because of extreme rarity its discussion has mainly been in the light of individual case reports. We report a case of a 14-year old female who presented with irregular vaginal bleeding and cervical polyp. Her biopsy specimen confirmed sarcoma botryoides and she underwent abdominal hysterectomy with wide excision of vaginal cuff after a multidisciplinary consultation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 927-929

  13. Ingestion of tea tree oil (Melaleuca oil) by a 4-year-old boy.

    Morris, Marilyn C; Donoghue, Aaron; Markowitz, Jennifer A; Osterhoudt, Kevin C

    2003-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy ingested a small quantity of tea tree oil. Within 30 minutes, he became ataxic and shortly thereafter progressed to unresponsiveness; he was endotracheally intubated by paramedics. His neurologic status improved gradually over 10 hours, and he remains well on follow-up. Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular topical antiseptic that is available in a wide variety of products, often without warning labels. Healthcare providers should be aware of the common uses of tea tree oil, as well as its potential toxicity.

  14. Reconstruction of bilateral axillary post burn contracture in a 3 year old: A case report

    Krishna kumar. A; SUN Bing-wei

    2010-01-01

    A 2 year old male child was admitted with history of accidental pouring by boiling water all over the body resulting in 51% surface area burns involving the posterior and lateral thoracic region, both the upper limbs in the proximal regions near the shoulder, anterior and posterior abdomen and pubic region with second and third degree severe burns. After correcting the dehydration a series of procedures were performed including anti-shock, wound debridement under GA, etc. At 20 days post-burn, after making sure the wound was healthy a partial thickness skin grafting was done. During rehabilitation, bilateral axillary suffered contracture with hypertrophic scar(Fig 1).

  15. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    Vimal Master Sankar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided.

  16. "A 40-year-old female with painless, slow growing prepatellar mass".

    Arora, Sumit; Batra, Sahil; Rao, Seema; Maini, Lalit; Gautam, V K

    2014-12-01

    A 40-year-old woman from India presented with a mass in the front of her left knee which had been present for 8 months. Local examination revealed a globular mass of approximate size 5 cm × 4 cm × 4 cm in front of the lower pole of left patella. The patient was investigated with imaging studies and laboratory tests. Plain radiograph of the chest was normal. In addition, contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the left knee was performed. Based on the history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging studies, what is the differential diagnosis?

  17. Jejunal intussusception in a 10-year-old boy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi, 2, 27100, Pavia PV (Italy); Romano, Piero; Matteotti, Chiara; Minniti, Silvio; Ceffa, Franco [Division of Paediatric Surgery, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Morbini, Patrizia [Department of Pathology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Jejunal intussusception in a Chinese 10-year-old boy affected by the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is presented and discussed. The syndrome is rare, sporadically found with possible dominant inheritance, and due to a gene mutation mapped on the short arm of chromosome 9. It presents with distinctive cutaneous and gastrointestinal malformations together with possible other organ involvement. Gastrointestinal malformations tend to bleed and lead to anaemia. Infrequent complications of the gastrointestinal malformations are volvulus, intestinal infarction and intussusception. The age of the patient and the jejunal intussusception precipitated by a vascular malformation containing calcifications (which were also found in different gut segments) make this case remarkable. (orig.)

  18. Malignant thyroid teratoma: report of an aggressive tumor in a 64-year-old man.

    Vilallonga, R; Zafon, C; Ruiz-Marcellan, C; Obiols, G; Fort, J M; Baena, J A; Villanueva, B; Garcia, A; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2013-09-01

    Malignant teratoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor, frequent in children than in adults. Histologically, thyroid teratomas usually show a predominance of a neuroectodermal component. Mature cartilage and bone may be present. We present the case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 64-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor displayed a predominant neuroectodermal component. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent a radical thyroidectomy with central neck dissection as primary treatment and radioiodine treatment afterwards. The patient had local and distant recurrence. A second surgery was performed with poor results and the patient died 3 months afterwards.

  19. Orbital Extension of a Giant Ethmoidal Sinus Osteoma in a 30-Year-old Female

    Esmat Karbassi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoma is a benign tumor rarely found in the paranasal sinuses.   Case Report: A 30-year-old female presented with an 8-month history of proptosis of the right eye that was progressing slowly. She was diagnosed with ethmoid osteoma and managed with collaborative surgery at the ophthalmology and otolaryngology departments. After surgery, the patient suffered visual loss that was managed medically. The surgical steps and protocol used for safe removal are discussed in the report.    Conclusion: Management of a giaint osteoma extending to orbital tissue needs meticulous dissection through open approach and collaborative surgery by otolaryngologist and ophtalmologist

  20. A 65-year-old man with persistent cough and large nodular opacity.

    Grimes, Brandon S; Albores, Jeffrey; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old Asian man with a history of chronic hepatitis B infection presented to our pulmonary clinic for second opinion of his chronic, persistent, nonproductive cough. He was evaluated 10 months earlier with chest CT scan, which revealed a large lingular nodular opacity that was diagnosed as nodular cryptogenic organizing pneumonia by CT scan-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. Systemic corticosteroids were initiated and continued over the next 10 months. The dry cough persisted, and he developed intermittent left-sided pleuritic chest pain. He denied fevers, night sweats, hemoptysis, weight loss, or dyspnea. He was a lifelong nonsmoker and moved to the United States from China during childhood.