WorldWideScience

Sample records for 10g ethernet aiming

  1. Optical frame synchronizer for 10 G Ethernet packets aiming at 1 Tb/s OTDM Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist; Laguardia Areal, Janaina;

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved.......Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved....

  2. Analysis of a time-lens based optical frame synchronizer and retimer for 10G Ethernet aiming at a Tb/s optical router/switch design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe;

    2010-01-01

    traffic from several 10 Gbit/s Ethernet (10 GE) links. The scheme is based on time-lenses implemented through a combination of a sinusoidally driven optical phase modulation and linear dispersion. Our analysis extracts the operation range of the scheme used for synchronization and retiming in the context...

  3. Synchronization and NRZ-to-RZ format conversion of 10 G Ethernet packet based on a time lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time.......10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time....

  4. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  5. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaraj Nair; Suku Nair; Girish Chiruvolu

    2010-01-01

    Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overl...

  6. Traffic Engineering in Metro Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaraj Nair

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traffic engineering is one of the major issues that has to be addressed in Metro Ethernet networks for quality of service and efficient resource utilization. This paper aims at understanding the relevant issues and outlines novel algorithms for multipoint traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet. We present an algorithmic solution for traffic engineering in Metro Ethernet using optimal multiple spanning trees. This iterative approach distributes traffic across the network uniformly without overloading network resources. We also introduce a new traffic specification model for Metro Ethernet, which is a hybrid of two widely used traffic specification models, the pipe and hose models.

  7. Synchronization, retiming and OTDM of an asynchronous 10 Gigabit Ethernet NRZ packet using a time lens for Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2011-01-01

    An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal.......An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal....

  8. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  9. Division Multiplexing of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet Signals Synchronized by All-Optical Signal Processing Based on a Time-Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areal, Janaina Laguardia

    This Thesis presents 3 years work of an optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically trans-parent and does...... pulse compression, as well. The over-all design is: (1) Pulses are converted from NRZ to RZ; (2) pulses are synchronized, retimed and further compressed at the specially de-signed time-lens; and (3) with adequate optical delays, frames from different input interfaces are added, with a simple optical...

  10. Optical Time-Division Multiplexing of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet Signals Synchronized by All-Optical Signal Processing Based on a Time-Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areal, Janaina Laguardia

    This Thesis presents 3 years work of an optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically transparent and does...... pulse compression, as well. The overall design is: (1) Pulses are converted from NRZ to RZ; (2) pulses are synchronized, retimed and further compressed at the specially designed time-lens; and (3) with adequate optical delays, frames from different input interfaces are added, with a simple optical...

  11. Synchronization and NRZ-to-RZ conversion of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet-like data packets and subsequent optical TDM multiplexing to 330 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2011-01-01

    A time lens system synchronizes a 10G Ethernet asynchronous data frame to a local master clock and converts the NRZ-frame to an RZ-frame and multiplexes it into a 330 Gbit/s aggregated Optical TDM signal.......A time lens system synchronizes a 10G Ethernet asynchronous data frame to a local master clock and converts the NRZ-frame to an RZ-frame and multiplexes it into a 330 Gbit/s aggregated Optical TDM signal....

  12. Conversion of asynchronous 10 Gbit/s Ethernet NRZ frame into a synchronous RZ frame and multiplexing to 170 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream.......This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream....

  13. White Rabbit: Sub-nanosecond timing over Ethernet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M. Jansweijer; H.Z. Peek; E. de Wolf

    2013-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory, multi-company effort to bring the best of the data transfer and the timing world together in a completely open design. WR is a fully deterministic Ethernet-based network for general purpose data transfer and synchronization. The aim is to enable t

  14. Communication Performance Over A Gigabit Ethernet Network

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.Nitish Meena

    2014-01-01

    A present computing imposes heavy demands on the optical communication network. Gigabit Ethernet technology can provide the required bandwidth to meet these demands. However, it has also involve the communication Impediment to progress from network media to TCP(Transfer control protocol) processing. In this paper, present an overview of Gigabit per second Ethernet technology and study the end-to-end Gigabit Ethernet communication bandwidth and retrieval time. Performance graph...

  15. Carrier ethernet network control plane based on the Next Generation Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Yanmeng; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2008-01-01

    architecture of the next generation network (NGN). As an essential candidate among the NGN transport technologies, the definition of Carrier Ethernet (CE) is also introduced here. The second part of this paper depicts the contribution on the T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network with control plane based on NGN...... architecture. The approaches to QoS mapping, label distribution and connection and admission control (CAC) are specified here. At last, a simple T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network model with three kinds of users (VoIP, VoD and HTTP) and a RACE based control module is simulated in OPNET. The model is aiming...

  16. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  17. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...

  18. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  19. Encriptació Ethernet a Nivell 2

    OpenAIRE

    Santos López, David

    2013-01-01

    Desarrollo de un prototipo de encriptación de tramas Ethernet utilizando una FPGA. [ANGLÈS] The present technical report gathers the work development about basic experimental prototype data encryption layer 2 for Ethernet networks up to 1Gpbs (Gigabit Ethernet) done at W-onesys S.L company which is offered to submit as Master Thesis to obtain Official Masters on Electronic Engineering degree at UPC ETSETB University. This development is a R&D project and comes from a need of market in opti...

  20. Framework for Ethernet Network Functionality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Aamir Mehmood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer networks and telecommunication systems use a wide range of applications. Therefore, the power and complexity of computer networks are increasing every day which enhances the possibilities of the end user, but also makes harder the work of those who have to design, maintain and make a network efficient, optimized and secure. Ethernet functionality testing as a generic term used for checking connectivity, throughput and capability to transfer packets over the network. Especially in the packet-switch environment, Ethernet testing has become an essential part for deploying a reliable network. A platform and vendor independent framework is required to verify and test the functionality of the Ethernet network and to verify the functionality and performance of the TCP/IP stack. NetBurst is developed for Ethernet functionality testing

  1. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet resilie...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  2. Communication Performance Over A Gigabit Ethernet Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Nitish Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A present computing imposes heavy demands on the optical communication network. Gigabit Ethernet technology can provide the required bandwidth to meet these demands. However, it has also involve the communication Impediment to progress from network media to TCP(Transfer control protocol processing. In this paper, present an overview of Gigabit per second Ethernet technology and study the end-to-end Gigabit Ethernet communication bandwidth and retrieval time. Performance graphs are collected using NetPipe in this clearly show the performance characteristics of TCP/IP over Gigabit Ethernet. These indicate the impact of a number of factors such as processor speeds, network adaptors, versions of the Linux Kernel or opnet softwar and device drivers, and TCP/IP(Internet protocol tuning on the performance of Gigabit Ethernet between two Pentium II/350 PCs. Among the important conclusions are the marked superiority of the 2.1.121 and later development kernels and 2.2.x production kernels of Linux or opnet softwar used and that the ability to increase the MTU(maximum transmission unit Further than the Ethernet standard of 1500 could significantly enhance the throughput reachable.

  3. Virtual Ethernet ring architecture for reliable Ethernet service delivery over SDH/SONET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Anand

    2002-09-01

    With its low cost, ubiquity, and scale, Ethernet is the technology most widely envisioned to change the economics of packet service delivery for both carriers and their customers. This paper discusses a new architecture that simplifies and lowers the cost to deliver data services. By fully integrating Ethernet with existing SONET/SDH networks in a "Virtual Ethernet Ring," carriers can now provide a multipoint Ethernet service that can span long distances across multiple metro areas. This architecture leverages the plug-and-play advantages of Ethernet - auto-provisioning, broadcast and discovery, etc. - across a distributed wide area network. It provides the advantage of granular, software-provisioned bandwidth to the customer. It also provides SONET/SDH quality resilience with security and bandwidth guarantee. By incorporating protocol mediation technology, this architecture enables the migration from today's frame relay, ATM and IP services to a new generation of granular, readily scalable Ethernet services such as Ethernet Private Line, Ethernet Virtual Private Lines and Internet/Frame Relay/ATM/Access Services.

  4. Industrial Communication with Ethernet and Fieldbuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Müller

    2004-01-01

    @@ With its open protocol structures, its strengths in universal communication and its free choice of topology, Ethernet has long since established itself as the standard in office communication. In the field of industrial communications, on the other hand, various Fieldbuses have emerged to date as the defacto standard. This is largely due to geographical reasons or specific application requirements. In countless machines and systems worldwide, they serve to connect sensors and actuators with control technology. Ethernet is already used in the industry for communicating between various machines and subsystems. It is therefore natural and obvious that the industry should also be interested in using the global communication standard Ethernet for connecting sensors and actuators. However, this is not possible without modifying or adding to the standard Ethernet technology. The reasons for this include the complexity of the protocol, the processing power required in each simple device and the increased project efforts.As a result, various companies and organizations are working on Ethernet extensions, especially those that will enable real-time processing.

  5. Data acquisition and control using ETHERNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a distributed computer control system to monitor and control a linear accelerator. This system consists of two PDP-11s and eight LSI 11/23s linked together with ETHERNET. The higher level systems (control consoles, etc.) use the RSX11M operating system, whereas the data acquisition and control is performed using the RSX11S operating system downline loaded from a central host computer. Locally written ETHERNET drivers are used to reduce the CPU overhead and therefore improve system response. The ETHERNET system permits remote file access by means of operator or program interaction, as well as supporting downline system loading. Control-system functions supported are supervisory control, closed-loop control, data monitoring, and data recording. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Simple and stable dynamic traffic engineering for provider scale ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, António Edgar Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    The high speeds and decreasing costs of Ethernet solutions has motivated providers’ interest in using Ethernet as the link layer technology in their backbone and aggregation networks. Provider scale Ethernet offers further advantages, providing not only an easy to manage solution for multicast traffic, but also transparent interconnection between clients’ LANs. These Ethernet deployments face altogether different design issues, requiring support for a significantly higher number of host...

  7. Implementing Ethernet Services on the Payload Executive Processor (PEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, David; Guyette, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Ethernet interface is more common and easier interface to implement for payload developers already familiar with Ethernet protocol in their labs. The Ethernet interface allows for a more distributed payload architecture. Connections can be placed in locations not serviced by the PEP 1553 bus. The Ethernet interface provides a new access port into the PEP so as to use the already existing services. Initial capability will include a subset of services with a plan to expand services later.

  8. IP, ethernet and MPLS networks resource and fault management

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management. Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

  9. Quality of service modeling and analysis for carrier ethernet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.

    2008-01-01

    Today, Ethernet is moving into the mainstream evolving into a carrier grade technology. Termed as Carrier Ethernet it is expected to overcome most of the shortcomings of native Ethernet. It is envisioned to carry services end-to-end serving corporate data networking and broadband access demands as w

  10. Analysis and solutions of QoS issue in Ethernet PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; He, Yan; Shi, Lei

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) aims at providing full services to end users over a single platform, which combines the low cost Ethernet equipment and economic fiber infrastructure, appears to be the best candidate for the future broad access network. Due to Ethernet has a seamless connection with modern IP network, EPON has shown excellent performance when transmitting data service. However, a key technical challenge for EPON vendors lies in enhancing Ethernet"s capabilities to support real-time services, such as VoIP, live video and other TDM services, e .g. POTS and T1/E1. In order to guarantee the required QoS, many new technologies are introduced, either common to all IP based network or dedicated to EPON network. Firstly, a short overview of EPON technology is given. Then, two prevailing QoS architectures, Intserv and Diffserv, are presented in detail. Both their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. Subsequently, the light is turned to a certain DBA algorithm, which is more efficient in EPON. Both the features of the algorithm and the main ideas are described in particular. At last, reserving bandwidth for TDM service, which is simple but not very efficient, is also proposed.

  11. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  12. Ethernet/IP工业以太网的研究及应用%Research and application of Ethernet/IP industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武杰; 郑晟; 陈文辉

    2011-01-01

    It describes the improvod development status of industrial Ethernet, then it not only makes the detailed analysis about the Ethernet/IP protocol model, its “producer/consumer” communication mode and the CIP message communication mechanism which is facing the “link”, but also points out the advantage of Ethernet/IP network application in industrial control. Simultaneously, it advances the method of Ethernet/lP network composition and communication settings of the Ethernet/IP network in the expressway tunnel. It successfully achieved a good monitoring in the expressway tunnel by using the Ethernet/IP network.%介绍了工业以太网的发展改进状况,对Ethernet/IP这种新型工业以太网的协议模型及其采用的"生产者/消费者"通讯模式和面向"连接"的,CIP(Common Industrial Protocol,CIP)报文通信机制做了详细分析,同时指出了Ether-net/IP网络应用在工业控制领域的优势.提出了Ethernet/IP工业以太网在高速公路隧道监控中具体的组网方案和通讯设置手段,利用Ethernet/IP网络成功地实现了时该高速公路隧道的良好监控.

  13. Ethernet Networks: Current Trends and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Abdulqader M

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet topology discovery has gained increasing interest in the recent years. This trend is motivated mostly by increasing number of carrier Ethernet networks as well as the size of these networks, and consequently the increasing sales of these networks. To manage these networks efficiently, detailed and accurate knowledge of their topology is needed. Knowledge of a network's entities and the physical connections between them can be useful in various prospective. Administrators can use topology information for network planning and fault detecting. Topology information can also be used during protocol and routing algorithm development, for performance prediction and as a basis for accurate network simulations. From a network security perspective, threat detection, network monitoring, network access control and forensic investigations can benefit from accurate network topology information. In this paper, we analyze market trends and investigate current tools available for both research and commercial purposes...

  14. Application Specific Optimization of Ethernet Cluster Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Treydte, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, the implementation of a networking protocol, which is adopted from a previous work, is refined to a state where it is ready for production use. The protocol is tailored for the specific needs in a cluster environment which uses standard ethernet as the interconnection hardware. Thereby focuses is on developing and implementing a flow control which is very lightweigt in terms of processing overhead and copes the challenges of such a tightly coupled networ...

  15. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carri...... recovery path length, recovery time, number of branch nodes and operational complexity. The integrated approach therefore shows significant potential to increase the QoE for IPTV users in case of network failures and recovery actions....

  16. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiping Lu; Ming Li; Wei Zhao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases,...

  17. 10G SDH中的TRANSPONDER设计方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓鸿

    2006-01-01

    文章主要描述了10G SDH中的光收发一体(即TRANSPONDER)的实现方案和电路原理及技术指标.10G TRANSPONDER主要包括了STM-64光电转换器件、STM-64电光转换器件、串并和并串转换芯片等部分,该设计在满足ITU-G.691标准的前提下,实现了光接收器与光发送器的统一,可以使模块结构高度集成化,并节省系统的尺寸和空间,具有很强的实现价值和可操作性.

  18. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  19. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  20. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  1. 10G SDH中的TRANSPONDER设计方案%Design Alternative of TRANSPONDER in 10G SDH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓鸿

    2006-01-01

    文章主要描述了10G SDH中的光收发一体(即TRANSPONDER)的实现方案和电路原理及技术指标.10G TRANSPONDER主要包括了STM-64光电转换器件、STM-64电光转换器件、串并和并串转换芯片等部分,该设计在满足ITU-G.691标准的前提下,实现了光接收器与光发送器的统一,可以使模块结构高度集成化,并节省系统的尺寸和空间,具有很强的实现价值和可操作性.

  2. Advanced Security Management in Metro Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Rayes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase in bandwidth and the introduction of advanced IP services including voice, high-speed internet access, and video/IPTV, consumers are more vulnerable to malicious users than ever. In recent years, providing safe and sound networks and services have been the zenith priority for service providers and network carriers alike. Users are hesitant to subscribe to new services unless service providers guarantee secure connections. More importantly, government agencies of many countries have introduced legislations requiring service providers to keep track andrecords of owners of IP and MAC addresses at all time.In this paper, we first present an overview of Metro Ethernet (or Ethernet-To-The-Home/Business (ETTx and compare with various IP broadband access technologies including DSL, wireless and cable. We then outline major security concerns for Metro Ethernet networks including network and subscriber/end user security.Next we introduce state-of-the-art algorithms to prevent attackers from stealing any IP or MAC addresses. Our proposal is to use network management in conjunction with hardware features for security management to provide a secure and spoofing-free ETTx network. The key idea behind our proposal is to utilize network management to enforce strict (port, MAC, IP binding in the access network to provide subscriber security.The paper then proposes an adaptive policy-based security controller to quickly identify suspected malicious users, temporarily isolate them without disconnecting them from the network or validating their contracts, and then carry the required analysis. The proposed controller identifies malicious users without compromising between accurate but lengthy traffic analysis and premature decision. It also provides the ability to make granular corrective actions that are adaptive to any defined network condition.

  3. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  4. Ethernet Operation Administration and Maintenance ; Opportunities for the NREN community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.J.; Malhotra, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ethernet started its life as a Local Area Network technology and initially did not have Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) features like IP Ping, IP Traceroute and SDH Loss of Frame. Monitoring and management was mainly done on the IP level. In the case of delivery of Ethernet connecti

  5. A gigabit ethernet link source card.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, R. E.; Dawson, J. W.; Drake, G.; Haberichter, W. N.; Schlereth, J. L.

    2002-09-18

    A Link Source Card (LSC) has been developed which employs Gigabit Ethernet as the physical medium. The LSC is implemented as a mezzanine card compliant with the S-Link specifications, and is intended for use in development of the Region of Interest Building (ROIB) in the Level 2 Trigger of ATLAS. The LSC will be used to bring Region of Internet Fragments from Level 1 Trigger elements to the ROIB, and to transfer compiled Region of Interest Records to Supervisor Processors. The card uses the LSI 8101/8104 Media Access Controller (MAC) [1] and the Agilent HDMP-1636 Transceiver. An Altera 10K50A FPGA [2] is configured to provide several state machines which perform all the tasks on the card, such as formulating the Ethernet header, read/write registers in the MAC, etc. An on-card static RAM provides storage for 512K S-Link words, and a FIFO provides 4K buffering of input S-Link words. The LSC has been tested in a setup where it transfers data to a NIC in the PCI bus of a PC.

  6. A gigabit ethernet link source card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Link Source Card (LSC) has been developed which employs Gigabit Ethernet as the physical medium. The LSC is implemented as a mezzanine card compliant with the S-Link specifications, and is intended for use in development of the Region of Interest Building (ROIB) in the Level 2 Trigger of ATLAS. The LSC will be used to bring Region of Internet Fragments from Level 1 Trigger elements to the ROIB, and to transfer compiled Region of Interest Records to Supervisor Processors. The card uses the LSI 8101/8104 Media Access Controller (MAC) [1] and the Agilent HDMP-1636 Transceiver. An Altera 10K50A FPGA [2] is configured to provide several state machines which perform all the tasks on the card, such as formulating the Ethernet header, read/write registers in the MAC, etc. An on-card static RAM provides storage for 512K S-Link words, and a FIFO provides 4K buffering of input S-Link words. The LSC has been tested in a setup where it transfers data to a NIC in the PCI bus of a PC

  7. Low level gigabit Ethernet analysis for the LHCb computing farm

    CERN Document Server

    Walravens, Cedric

    2006-01-01

    This note presents the concept of Receive Descriptor Recycling to significantly reduce the performance drop associated with small packet Gigabit Ethernet traffic. High reliability of small-sized transmissions is crucial for correct calibration runs of the LHCb experiment, at the CERN LHC accelerator. Previous work applied to full link load Ethernet traffic, using UDP processes. This work covers more low-level details of the performance problem for small-sized traffic, using more lower-level Ethernet frames, and, with a deeper analysis at the PCI/PCI-X level. Measurements were performed at the LHCb online system, which is to a large extend made up of commodity equipment. Limits and trade-offs are inherent when optimising for small packet traffic. All important aspects in this context are covered. Results gathered show the Ethernet Controller's driver currently is the major bottleneck, preventing the system from reaching maximal Gigabit Ethernet performance. Receive Descriptor Recycling is implemented in the dr...

  8. 安科特纳Acterna ANT-10G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    ANT-10G-SDH版是ANT-20SE家族的成员,它可以在实验室也可以在现场使用。由于其优异的测试灵活性,ANT-10G使测试者能够利用多种方法对所有主要质量参数进行测试,从简单的误码率测试(BERTs),性能和指针分析,到复杂的同步问题。ANT-10G也可按照用户需要定制。

  9. Increased strength characteristics of low carbon micro-alloyed steel grade 10g2fb

    OpenAIRE

    Nosenko, O. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of research is the search of new technological methods of increasing mechanical and performance properties of the steel grade 10G2FB for metal structures of responsible appointment. Methods. The structure of the steel samples wasstudied by qualitative and quantitative light microscopy at microscopes "Epikvant", "Neofot-2". Testing mechanical properties of tensile was carried out according to DSTU EN 10002 1:. 2006, toughness was determined on a U- and V-notch samples for Stat...

  10. Formal analysis based evaluation of software defined networking for time-sensitive Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Daniel; Ernst, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Software defined networking (SDN) aims to standardize the control and configuration of network infrastructure. It consolidates network control by moving the network's control plane to a (logically) centralized controller and downgrading switches to simple forwarding devices. This offers huge advantages for future automotive Ethernet networks, including admission control (e.g. to prevent/limit congestion) or network reconfiguration (e.g. in case of faults), both based on a centralized view...

  11. Novel access technology based on hybrid Ethernet passive optical network and Ethernet passive electronic network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsheng WU; Deming LIU; Shu ZHANG; Chuanhao ZHANG; Yuguang CHANG

    2009-01-01

    To improve the limitations of Ethemet over Coax (EoC) technology in the bidirectional reformation of the hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network, this paper proposes the concept of Ethernet passive electronic network (EPEN) based on multi-point control protocol (MPCP) and the hybrid access scheme of Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and EPEN.This paper describes the network architecture of EPEN, and introduces the implementation scheme and design of the EPEN system.At present, the project group has been working on the core technology research and key software and hardware design of the EPEN system, on which we have accomplished the hardware design and debugging, the embedded software coding and debugging, the EPEN network management protocol design and software coding.However, there is still a lot to do to achieve networking capability, management, security, quality of service (QoS) and some other functions.

  12. Efficient power supply using Power over Ethernet; Effiziente Stromversorgung mittels Power over Ethernet (PoE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, A.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at methods of supplying small equipment such as Internet telephones, web cams, hubs, hard discs, audio equipment, point-of-sale terminals, game consoles etc. with power via their Ethernet connections. A short comparison is presented between Power over Ethernet (PoE) and other methods of supplying power along with data, including Universal Serial Bus (USB), FireWire and Powerline systems. The advantages of PoE over the use of separate power supply units are discussed and recommendations are made to the manufacturers and users of small peripheral equipment regarding the dimensioning and loading of such power supply systems.

  13. Possibilities of implementation of synchronous Ethernet in popular Ethernet version using timing and interference constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetaiah KILARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular network architectures are following packet based architectures instead of conventional Time division multiplexing. The existed Ethernet is basically asynchronous in nature and was not designed based on timing transfer constraints. To achieve the challenge of next generation network with respect to efficient bandwidth and faster data rates, we have to deploy the network which has less latency. This can be achieved by Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE. In Sync-E, Phase Locked Loop (PLL was used to recover the incoming jitter from clock recovery circuit. Then feed the PLL block to transmission device. We have to design the network in an unaffected way that the functions of Ethernet should run in normal way even we introduced timing path at physical layer. This paper will give detailed outlook on how Sync-E is achieved from Asynchronous format. Reference model of 100 Base-TX/FX was analyzed with respect to timing and interference constraints. Finally, it was analyzed with the data rate improvement with the proposed method.

  14. Performance Analysis of an Optical Gigabit Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah J. Alabady

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available     The optical fiber is a very attractive communication medium since it offers a large bandwidth and low attenuation, and can therefore facilitate demanding services such as high-quality video transmission and others in computer networks. In this paper, a performance analysis of an optical gigabit ethernet performance using longer wavelength (C-Band instead of O and E bands, and high Extinction Ratio (Er value is presented. This performance analysis is represented by decrease the bit-error rate (BER, increase the number of nodes in the network, and increase the backbone cable length. Simulation results show improvement in the performance of the network when using 1550nm wavelength over the 1330nm wavelength for 1Gbps and 10Gbps. In addition, the results are compared for different values of Er where, higher values of Er give better performance. The work is software implemented using optical system simulator packet (OPTSIM 3.6 .

  15. Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nathan J.; Chanclou, Philippe; Turnbull, Peter; Magee, Anthony; Jungnickel, Volker

    2015-12-01

    It is proposed that using Ethernet in the fronthaul, between base station baseband unit (BBU) pools and remote radio heads (RRHs), can bring a number of advantages, from use of lower-cost equipment, shared use of infrastructure with fixed access networks, to obtaining statistical multiplexing and optimised performance through probe-based monitoring and software-defined networking. However, a number of challenges exist: ultra-high-bit-rate requirements from the transport of increased bandwidth radio streams for multiple antennas in future mobile networks, and low latency and jitter to meet delay requirements and the demands of joint processing. A new fronthaul functional division is proposed which can alleviate the most demanding bit-rate requirements by transport of baseband signals instead of sampled radio waveforms, and enable statistical multiplexing gains. Delay and synchronisation issues remain to be solved.

  16. ETHERNET PACKET PROCESSOR FOR SOC APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jitendra Nayaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for Internet expands significantly in numbers of users, servers, IP addresses, switches and routers, the IP based network architecture must evolve and change. The design of domain specific processors that require high performance, low power and high degree of programmability is the bottleneck in many processor based applications. This paper describes the design of ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoC which performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetization classification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance. Our design has been configured for use with multiple projects ttargeted to a commercial configurable logic device the system is designed to support 10/100/1000 links with a speed advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulated the required functions in FPGA.

  17. Simulation and Evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network

    OpenAIRE

    Salah A. Jaro Alabady

    2013-01-01

         This paper studies simulation and evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) system, IEEE802.3ah based OPTISM 3.6 simulation program. The simulation program is used in this paper to build a typical ethernet passive optical network, and to evaluate the network performance when using the (1580, 1625) nm wavelength instead of (1310, 1490) nm that used in Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Units (ONU's) in system architecture of Ethernet passive optical network at dif...

  18. Interfacing the Controllogics PLC over Ethernet/IP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, K. U. (Kay-Uwe); Dalesio, L. R. (Leo R.)

    2001-01-01

    The Allen-Bradley ControlLogix [1] line of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) offers several interfaces: Ethernet, ControlNet, DeviceNet, RS-232 and others. The ControlLogix Ethernet interface module 1756-ENET uses EtherNet/IP, the ControlNet protocol [2], encapsulated in Ethernet packages, with specific service codes [3]. A driver for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been developed that utilizes this EtherNet/IP protocol for controllers running the vxWorks RTOS as well as a Win32 and Unix/Linux test program. Features, performance and limitations of this interface are presented.

  19. A Trust Evaluation Model for Industrial Control Ethernet Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Sen-xin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial control ethernet networks are more impotant in connecting with equipments each other of enterprise comprehensive automation and integrating information. With the explosive growth of network techniques, the traditional control networks can no longer satisfy the security demands on network connectivity, data storage and information exchanges.New types of networks emerged in recent years in order to provide solutions for the increasing requirements on networked services. We propose a trust evaluation model for industrial control ethernet network . Our study shows the importance and necessity of applying theoretical analyses to understand the complex characteristics of trusted industrial control ethernet networks.

  20. Radiation Hardened Ethernet PHY and Switch Fabric Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innoflight will develop a new family of radiation hardened (up to 3 Mrad(Si)), fault-tolerant, high data-rate (up to 8 Gbps), low power Gigabit Ethernet PHY and...

  1. Normality of Ethernet Traffic at Large Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We contribute the quantitative descriptions of the large time scales for the Ethernet traffic to be Gaussian. We focus on the normality property of the accumulated traffic data under different time scales. The investigation is carried out graphically by the quantile-quantile (QQ plots and numerically by statistical tests. The present results indicate that the larger the time scale, the more normal the Ethernet traffic.

  2. Oracle 10g/11g data and database management utilities LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Hector R

    2011-01-01

    This practical, hands-on book is specifically designed to improve the way you use and work with Oracle database utilities. The material has been carefully selected from Packt's fuller Oracle 10g/11g Data and Database Management Utilities title. The full edition of the book covers a number of additional utilities including Data Pump, SQL*Loader, Recover Manager, and more! This book is aimed at all Oracle professionals who interact with the database through the data and database utilities and are willing to optimize their interaction with it.

  3. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  4. Research on performance of ethernet interface in network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 张乃通

    2004-01-01

    The concept of network centric warfare (NCW) and its character, high requirement of real-time synchronization are introduced. The distributed equal-node network architecture in NCW is presented. Based on theoretical analysis on ethernet interface performance, this paper presents that forwarding latency between ethernet interface devices is a key influence factor of real-time synchronization in NCW. Ethernet fundamental is briefly introduced. The model between a switch under test (SUT) and a smartbits card is presented and used for two interconnecting switches in NCW. On condition that ignoring the latency of connecting fiber or twisted pairs and processing latency of the smartbits test system, this paper presents that clock frequency tolerance (CFT) between a SUT and a smartbits card is a leading influence factor of forwarding latency of an ethernet switch. The formulae to calculate internal forwarding latency and forwarding latency caused by its CFT are deduced. Theoretical calculation on forwarding latency of an ethernet switch based on the given CFT and test time is implemented. Experimental study on primary forwarding latency and secondary forwarding latency is implemented and forwarding latency between the SUT and the smartbits card is measured, thus testifying the accuracy of the above theoretical analysis that the CFT is a key influence factor of forwarding latency. The measures to satisfy the needs of forwarding latency in NCW are presented.

  5. Ethernet-Based Services for Next Generation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Valencia, Enrique

    Over the last few years, Ethernet technology and services have emerged as an indispensable component of the broadband networking and telecommunications infrastructure, both for network operators and service providers. As an example, Worldwide Enterprise customer demand for Ethernet services by itself is expected to hit the 30B US mark by year 2012. Use of Ethernet technology in the feeder networks that support residential applications, such as "triple play" voice, data, and video services, is equally on the rise. As the synergies between packet-aware transport and service oriented equipment continue to be exploited in the path toward transport convergence. Ethernet technology is expected to play a critical part in the evolution toward converged Optical/Packet Transport networks. Here we discuss the main business motivations, services, and technologies driving the specifications of so-called carrier Ethernet and highlight challenges associated with delivering the expectations for low implementation complexity, easy of use, provisioning and management of networks and network elements embracing this technology.

  6. Simulation and Evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Jaro Alabady

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available      This paper studies simulation and evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON system, IEEE802.3ah based OPTISM 3.6 simulation program. The simulation program is used in this paper to build a typical ethernet passive optical network, and to evaluate the network performance when using the (1580, 1625 nm wavelength instead of (1310, 1490 nm that used in Optical Line Terminal (OLT and Optical Network Units (ONU's in system architecture of Ethernet passive optical network at different bit rate and different fiber optic length. The results showed enhancement in network performance by increase the number of nodes (subscribers connected to the network, increase the transmission distance, reduces the received power and reduces the Bit Error Rate (BER.   

  7. Low Cost Network Emulator with Ethernet and E1 Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Next Generation Networks (NGN are mainly built on the Internet Protocol (IP and Ethernet. Major challenge for emerging types of wired and wireless IP-based networks is to provide an adequate Quality of Service (QoS for different services. The quality of evaluation requires a detailed knowledge of the performance requirements for particular services and applications. The paper is primarily oriented to the end-to-end testing for the Ethernet-based terminal equipment. The low cost Ethernet network emulator was developed on the Department of Telecommunication Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The extension for emulation network with the E1 interfaces and TDM over IP transmission can be used with external converters.

  8. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    Operation, Administration and Management (OAM) functionalities and support for Quality of Service (QoS), required to obtain carrier grade quality. This tutorial provides an overview of the current level of standardization followed by an exhaustive survey of Carrier Ethernet reliability. A number...... of enhancements are still required to make Carrier Ethernet ready for large scale deployments of reliable point-to-multipoint services. The tutorial highlights the necessary enhancements and shows possible solutions and directions towards reliable multicast. Explicit focus is on OAM for multicast, where...

  9. An interface of ethernet and radiation monitoring network based on CAN bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces an interface between radiation monitoring network based on CAN bus and Ethernet. The system used GM pipe to detect γ ray, employed LPC2294 as the core processor. As the main control chip, Ethernet controller DM9000 constructs hardware circuit between Ethernet and multi-CAN gateway. It transmitted the data detected by CAN but to the main control center through Ethernet for the total display of data and diagrams. (authors)

  10. Reliability of datagram transmission on Gigabit Ethernet at full link load

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A; Dufey, J P; Galli, D; Jost, B; Marconi, U; Neufeld, N; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V M

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of datagram transmission over Copper Gigabit Ethernet using commodity hardware at sustained Gb/s rate is crucial for the functioning of the software trigger layers of the LHCb experiment. We aim to demonstrate that a nowadays available high-end commodity PC can be employed to achieve the required network performance, in particular to implement a sub-farm controller node. To evaluate all components ranging from the physical medium up to the operating system running on the sub-farm controllers, several issues are addressed, such as transmission error rate, packet drop in switching hardware, protocol handling on reception.

  11. Flow Monitoring Experiences at the Ethernet-Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Flow monitoring is a scalable technology for providing summaries of network activity. Being deployed at the IP-layer, it uses fixed flow definitions, based on fields of the IP-layer and higher layers. Since several backbone network operators are considering the deployment of (Carrier) Ethernet in th

  12. Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert;

    2010-01-01

    The Internet users behavioural patterns are migrating towards bandwidth-intensive applications, which require a corresponding capacity extension. The emerging 100 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) technology is a promising candidate for providing a ten-fold increase of todays available Internet transmission...

  13. Using a Commercial Ethernet PHY Device in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Jeremy; Arani, Michael; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This work involved placing a commercial Ethernet PHY on its own power boundary, with limited current supply, and providing detection methods to determine when the device is not operating and when it needs either a reset or power-cycle. The device must be radiation-tested and free of destructive latchup errors. The commercial Ethernet PHY's own power boundary must be supplied by a current-limited power regulator that must have an enable (for power cycling), and its maximum power output must not exceed the PHY's input requirements, thus preventing damage to the device. A regulator with configurable output limits and short-circuit protection (such as the RHFL4913, rad hard positive voltage regulator family) is ideal. This will prevent a catastrophic failure due to radiation (such as a short between the commercial device's power and ground) from taking down the board's main power. Logic provided on the board will detect errors in the PHY. An FPGA (field-programmable gate array) with embedded Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) will work well. The error detection includes monitoring the PHY's interrupt line, and the status of the Ethernet's switched power. When the PHY is determined to be non-functional, the logic device resets the PHY, which will often clear radiation induced errors. If this doesn't work, the logic device power-cycles the FPGA by toggling the regulator's enable input. This should clear almost all radiation induced errors provided the device is not latched up.

  14. 10Gig Ethernet goes halfway round the world

    CERN Multimedia

    Betts, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    In a project that could enable bigger SANs and computing grids, nuclear physicists have built a native 10 Gigabit Ethernet network linking Switzerland and Japan. The 18,500 kilometer LAN crosses 17 ime zones, as it follows fibers through Amsterdam, Chicago and Seattle

  15. Performance Analysis of Two Ethernet over E1 Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wentao; JIN Depeng; ZENG Lieguang

    2007-01-01

    The Ethernet over E1 approach,which takes advantage of widely deployed telecom networks,is an efficient and economical way to interconnect two Ethernets in different regions.Two Ethernet over E1 schemes, namely a byte granularity scheme and a frame granularity scheme are discussed. The byte granularity scheme partitions Ethernet frames into several pieces for transmission and has a strict requirement on the maximum delay difference of multiple E1 links. To solve this problem, the newly proposed frame granularity scheme transmits separately each frame through E1 links without any partitioning. The architecture designs of both schemes are presented. This paper evaluates the throughput and delay performances of both schemes, both analytically from results calculated from delay models and using test results from field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation. Although the frame granularity scheme has a slightly worse delay performance, it has a higher throughput, and is the only choice able to overcome large delay differences of the E1 links.

  16. Simulation for a New Real-time Ethernet MAC Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Gang(沈钢); Cai Yunze; Xu Xiaoming; He Xing; Zhang Weidong

    2004-01-01

    A method for modeling broadcast protocols in OPNET is introduced by illustrating a simulation of a new real-time Ethernet MAC protocol. The details of network models in OPNET are given and the procedure in modeling is introduced. Simulation results verify that the protocol is correct and efficient.

  17. Interleukin 10.G microsatellite in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 gene in severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background The highly polymorphic interleukin 10.G (IL10.G) microsatellite located in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene exerts a positive transcriptional regulatory effect on IL-10 gene expression and correlates with the in vitro IL-10 secretion. This study was conducted to investigate whether IL10.G microsatellite is associated with the incidence and /or the outcome of severe sepsis.Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with severe sepsis who had been treated at the intensive care unit of the university hospital were studied. One hundred and forty-one healthy individuals served as controls. IL10.G microsatellite genotyping was performed with the following two methods: fluorescent based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and silver staining of the amplified DNA fragment in polyacrylamide gel. Alleles were defined according to the size of the amplified DNA product.Results Ten alleles and 36 genotypes were detected both in the patients with severe sepsis and in the healthy controls. Allele IL10.G9 and allele IL10.G13 were the commonest alleles with the frequencies of 32.6% and 21.3% respectively in the patients with severe sepsis, and 34% and 27% respectively in the healthy controls. The allele frequencies of IL10.G microsatellite were neither different between the patients with severe sepsis and the healthy controls (P > 0.05), nor between survivors and non-survivors (P > 0.05). However, the frequency of one common allele IL10.G13 was slightly lower in the patients with severe sepsis than in the healthy controls (21.3% vs 27%, P > 0.05), and the frequency of allele IL10.G9 was slightly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (37.1% vs 28.1%, P > 0.05).Conclusion IL10.G microsatellite may neither contribute to the susceptibility to severe sepsis nor to the fatal outcome of severe sepsis.

  18. High Performance Ethernet Packet Processor Core for Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jitendra Nayaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for high speed Internet significantly increasing to meet the requirement of large datatransfers, real-time communication and High Definition ( HD multimedia transfer over IP, the IP basednetwork products architecture must evolve and change. Application specific processors require highperformance, low power and high degree of programmability is the limitation in many general processorbased applications. This paper describes the design of Ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoCwhich performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetizationclassification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance making itmore suitable for Next Generation Networks (NGN. Ethernet packet processor design can be configuredfor use with multiple projects targeted to a FPGA device the system is designed to support 1/10/20/40/100Gigabit links with a speed and performance advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulatedthe required functions in FPGA.

  19. Using CSMA/CD for Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓飞; 范戈

    2004-01-01

    Using CSMA/CD for EPON can eliminate the augmentations, such as multi-point control protocol and point-to-point emulation, added to the existing 802.3 architecture due to the incompatibility of PON to Ethernet.Both full-duplex EPON system and half-duplex EPON system using CSMA/CD were proposed. In the full-duplex EPON, CSMA/CD is used as the upstream MAC protocol. In the half-duplex EPON system, both upstream and downstream traffic contend for the optical channel through CSMA/CD protocol. The upstream lightwave redirection and collision detection techniques were given. By the analysis and simulation, the throughput performance of the half-duplex EPON system is proven to be as well as that of the existing high speed half-duplex Ethernet LAN.

  20. Indoor infrared wireless communication system based on Ethernet network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Gong, Mali; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Ping; Jin, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Meng, Yu; Zou, Shanshan

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we present an infrared wireless indoor communication system that bases on Ethernet network. The bit rate of Ethernet is 10Mbps, but after Manchester coding, in the physical layer the actual bit rate is 20Mbps. In our designs, the transmitter uses laser diodes (LDs). The transmitter consists of differential input circuit, LD driver circuit. The receiver consists of a coated truncated spherical concentrator whose field of view (FOV) is 40 degree, a large area Si PIN photo-detector followed by transimpedance amplifier, second-stage amplifier, low-pass filter (LPF), high-pass filter (HPF), limiting amplifier and differential output circuit. The network is constructed as a base-terminals configuration and two transit wavelengths are used for base and terminals respectively to avoid collision. Experimental testing was conducted in a room with size 5m × 5m × 3m and the network could work well.

  1. Design and Development of Ethernet Interface for Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. SakthiAbirami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of microcontrollers in use today are embedded in machineries, such as automobiles, appliances, and peripherals for computer systems. The devices used in industries are not equipped with any network interface. In this design, ARM with Ethernet is used for controlling the speed of the motor with the help of defined IP address, which is present in the embedded web server.

  2. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  3. Formal Worst-Case Timing Analysis of Ethernet TSN’s Burst-Limiting Shaper

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Daniel; Ernst, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Future in-vehicle networks will use Ethernet as their communication backbone. As many automotive applications are latency-sensitive and have strict real-time requirements, a key challenge in automotive network design is the deterministic low-latency transport of latency-critical Ethernet frames. Time-sensitive networking (TSN) is an upcoming set of Ethernet standards, which address these requirements by specifying new quality of service mechanisms in the form of different traffic shapers. One...

  4. Flexible scheduling ensuring inter-ONU-group fairness in 1G/10G EPON coexistence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; LI Hui; JI Yue-feng

    2009-01-01

    er-ONU and intra-ONU fairness. Most importantly, it can flexibly adapt to the system composition variations and save efforts needed to modify the bandwidth scheduling mechanism during the migration process from GEPON to 10G EPON.

  5. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  6. Implementation of Embedded Ethernet Based on Hardware Protocol Stack in Substation Automation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; ZHAO Jianguo; LIU Bingxu

    2008-01-01

    Embedded Ethernet technology has been utilized increasingly widely as the communication mode in the substation automation system (SAS). This paper introduces the current applying situation about embedded Ethernet in SAS First. After analyzing the protocol levels used in SAS based on embedded Ethernet and the differences between the TCP and UDP, UDP/IP is selected as the communication protocol between the station-level and bay-level devices for its real-time characteristic. Then a new kind of implementation of the embedded Ethernet is presented based on hardware protocol stack. The designed scheme can be implemented easily, reduce cost significantly and shorten developing cycle.

  7. Synchronous ethernet and IEEE 1588 in telecoms next generation synchronization networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the multiple technical aspects of the distribution of synchronization in new generation telecommunication networks, focusing in particular on synchronous Ethernet and IEEE1588 technologies. Many packet network engineers struggle with understanding the challenges that precise synchronization distribution can impose on networks. The usual “why”, “when” and particularly “how” can cause problems for many engineers. In parallel to this, some other markets have identical synchronization requirements, but with their own design requirements, generating further questions. This book attempts to respond to the different questions by providing background technical information. Invaluable information on state of-the-art packet network synchronization and timing architectures is provided, as well as an unbiased view on the synchronization technologies that have been internationally standardized over recent years, with the aim of providing the average reader (who is not skilled in the art) wi...

  8. Research on Encryption Mechanism of Ethernet Passive Optical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-liang; FAN hong

    2006-01-01

    An ethernet-passive-optical-network consists of one optical-line-terminator and multiple optical-network-units oith passive optical components. The network is susceptible to variable security threats. In this paper we propose a security model and an encryption layer placed at reconciliation sublayer. We also propose advanced encryption standard as an ideal cipher algorithm to encrypt downstream data . We then discuss three different methods to solve the problem of the last plaintext group, and the methods are realized on digital signal processing. Finally, we study efficiency and delay issues of the three methods.

  9. Upstream Channel Utilization of CSMA/CD-Based Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine; Wong; Chang-Joon; Chae

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that an asynchronous CSMA/CD protocol with an optical loop-back star coupler can achieve high upstream channel utilizatbn in an Ethernet PON, readily supporting a large installed base of Ethernet 10BaseT and 100BaseT interfaces.

  10. Upstream Channel Utilization of CSMA/CD-Based Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Wong; Chang-Joon Chae

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that an asynchronous CSMA/CD protocol with an optical loop-back star coupler can achieve high upstream channel utilization in an Ethernet PON, readily supporting a large installed base of Ethernet 10BaseT and 100BaseT interfaces.

  11. Synchronization, retiming and time-division multiplexing of an asynchronous 10 gigabit NRZ Ethernet packet to Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2011-01-01

    An asynchronous 10 Gb/s Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized and retimed to a master clock with 200 kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The NRZ packet is simultaneously converted into an RZ packet, then further pulse compressed to a FWHM of 400 fs and finally...... time-division multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal including a vacant time slot, thus forming a 1.29 Tb/s time-division multiplexed serial signal. Error-free performance of synchronizing, retiming, time-division multiplexing to a Terabit data stream and finally demultiplexing back to 10 Gb...

  12. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  13. Power optimization and performance improvement for embedded Ethernet SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhao-xia; ZOU Lian-ying; GAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Information appliance is the combination of traditional home appliances and the internet technology. In this article, an Ethernet controller system-on-chip (SOC) solution for information appliances is presented. To achieve high performance, the embedded 8 bits 8051 micro control unit (MCU) is optimized by an independent instruction bus and a data bus. Besides, a two-stage pipeline feature is added. Compared with the existing 8051 core, the enhanced one-cycle MCU offers ten times improvement in instruction execution efficiency. Mean- while, the performance of media access control (MAC) circuit is greatly improved by adopting various techniques such as direct memory access (DMA) control, paging strategy, etc. To reduce the power consumption, clock gating, low power supply, and multi-working-clock are adopted. Moreover, to achieve rapid data communication in different clock frequency circuits, a simple ping-pong first in first out (FIFO) circuit is realized. The chip is implemented using TSMC 0.25 μm two-poly four-metal mixed signal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Its die area is mm. The test results show that the maximum throughput of Ethernet packets can reach 7 Mb/s while the power consumption is rather low-the working current is just about 200 mA.

  14. Power-over-ethernet for remote measurement and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power-Over-Ethernet (PoE) technology (IEEE standard 802.3af) allows Remote Measurement and Control in harsh environment where human access is difficult in various nuclear research fields. The terminal measurement and control unit receives power for its operation and communicates data over the same LAN cable, without needing to provide power supplies from different source. Almost all data acquisition systems require both data connectivity and a power supply. In a familiar example, telephones are powered from the telephone exchange through the same twisted pair that carries the voice. Now we can do the same thing with Ethernet devices by combining power and data. Only one set of wires is required to bring to the end measurement and control unit which will simplify installation and save space. Remote unit can be easily moved, to wherever a LAN cable can be laid with minimal disruption to the workplace. It is safer as no mains supply is required. Uninterrupted power supply can be guaranteed to the terminal unit during mains power failure. The terminal unit can be shut down and reset remotely without needing for a reset button and power switch. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) can be used to monitor and control the remote unit. PoE will enable to deploy many more embedded systems in nuclear and other industry like Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Security Camera, Tele-information System, Remote Access Control System, Intruder Detection System, and Tele-Medicine System, etc. (author)

  15. Prototipo de interfaz de enlace de datos Ethernet/WIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Merlano Duncan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de Investigación en Telecomunicaciones y Señales de la Facultad de Ingeniería Electrónica de la Universidad del Norte comenzó la elaboración de un proyecto, conocido como Wireless IP, por medio del cual un computador portátil pudiera tener acceso a la red cableada de la Universidad utilizando una comunicación inalámbrica, teniendo como base el estándar IEEE 802.11b. La parte de hardware del proyecto Wireless IP se dividió en tres módulos, desarrollados por tres grupos de manera independiente: Interfaz de Enlace de Datos Ethernet / WIP, Modem Banda Base y RF y Potencia. En este artículo se describe el diseño, construcción y funcionamiento de la Interfaz de Enlace de Datos Ethernet / WIP y su interconexión con los demás módulos, así como los resultados obtenidos al conectar un computador a una red cableada usando la Interfaz. Todas las pruebas se realizaron utilizando cables, emulando las funciones de los demás grupos

  16. Energy efficiency evaluation of tree-topology 10 gigabit ethernet passive optical network and ring-topology time- and wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Yang, Chuanchuan; Zhang, Qingxiang; Ma, Zhuang; Huang, Xingang; Geng, Dan; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-09-01

    Higher capacity and larger scales have always been the top targets for the evolution of optical access networks, driven by the ever-increasing demand from the end users. One thing that started to attract wide attention not long ago, but with at least equal importance as capacity and scale, is energy efficiency, a metric essential nowadays as human beings are confronted with severe environmental issues like global warming, air pollution, and so on. Here, different from the conventional energy consumption analysis of tree-topology networks, we propose an effective energy consumption calculation method to compare the energy efficiency of the tree-topology 10 gigabit ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON) and ring-topology time- and wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON), two experimental networks deployed in China. Numerical results show that the ring-topology TWDM-PON networks with 2, 4, 8, and 16 wavelengths are more energy efficient than the tree-topology 10G-EPON, although 10G-EPON consumes less energy. Also, TWDM-PON with four wavelengths is the most energy-efficient network candidate and saves 58.7% more energy than 10G-EPON when fully loaded.

  17. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  18. 10G EPON国内应用规模已超40万线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青江

    2012-01-01

    伴随着云计算、物联网、高清视频业务的风起云涌,人们已经不再满足于几兆、十几兆的带宽,而是期待可以自由驰骋的更宽广的信息高速公路.欧美和亚太很多国家已经将中期为用户提供100Mbit/s宽带能力、远期为用户提供1G接入能力列入宽带战略目标.统计数据表明,用户带宽以每5年一个数量级递增,并呈现加速趋势,提供1~2G共享总带宽的EPON和GPON技术很快将出现带宽瓶颈,市场已不再纠结于EPON/GPON技术之争,而是在思考下一代FTT×技术何去何从,10G ×PON技术的开发研究早在三年前就成为业界关注的焦点. 10G EPON产业链已经成熟 10G EPON MAC芯片 10G EPON项级芯片厂商众多,呈现快速发展与高集成、高性能、高技术起点特征.Qualcomm(高通)、Broadcom、PMC-Sierra、Cortina、Marvell等全球主流器件商全力投入10G EPON芯片产业.2010年OLT与ONU都分别有2个厂商可提供ASIC芯片,这是10G EPON满足规模商用条件的重要标志.2011年底分别有4个厂商可提供OLT与ONU芯片,10G EPON第二代芯片已有优于E/GPON第三、四代的水平,显著降低了成本与功耗.

  19. Precision laser aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Brandon R. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  20. 一种基于以太网帧的声纳模拟器数据传输方案及实现%A Scheme and Implement of Sonar Simulator Data Transmission System Based on Ethernet Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长清; 蒋景红

    2011-01-01

    在声纳模拟器数据传输实现传统方案中,存在以太网数据传输效率低、扩展性差问题,提出一种基于以太网帧的嵌入式数据传输方案,详细说明了以太网数据传输板的实现,介绍基于LibPCAP库的网络数据采集,并讨论了方案的性能优化.%Aiming at the problem of low Ethernet data transmission rate and poor expansibility of the data dispensation on conventional sonar simulator, a data transmission system based on Ethernet frame was proposed. The implementation of Ethernet data transmission adapter was described in detail. The technology of data capture based on LibPCAP was introduced, and the optimization of system was analyzed.

  1. Performance Evaluation of 100 Gigabit Ethernet Switches under Bursty Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, A.; Manolova, Anna Vasileva;

    2011-01-01

    Switch fabrics for 100 Gigabit Ethernet systems pose high demands in terms of delay and scalability. In this paper we analyze the performance of a Clos-based switch fabric under uniform and bursty traffic, and compare its performance to a crossbar-based switch design for benchmarking. In particular......) fashion. Simulation results show that for uniform Bernoulli traffic, the DSRR scheme outperforms the others. Under bursty traffic, the DSRR scheme and the random scheme achieve similar performance. The static scheme performs the worst for both cases. Comparing the SMM design to an Output Queued crossbar...... switch only reveals a minor performance penalty, which can be compensated by the high scalability, robustness and low complexity of the Clos-based design for high speed switching systems....

  2. Towards Terabit Carrier Ethernet and Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders

    This thesis focuses on the challenges of scaling current network node technology to support connection speeds of 100Gbps and beyond. Out of the many exiting aspects of reaching this goal, the main scope of this thesis is to investigate packet processing (address lookup and scheduling), forward...... error correction and energy efficiency. Scheduling and address lookup are key functions and potential bottle necks in high speed network nodes, as the minimum packet/frame sizes in both the popular Ethernet protocol, as well as the Internet Protocol (IP) still remains constant (84B and 40B, respectively......) and discussions on how best to exceed the 1Tbps boundary, the packet processing rate requirements for future network nodes are likely to increase even further in the coming years. Hence, there lies a tremendous task in expanding and optimizing current technology and methodology to support these increasing...

  3. Low-Power Design of Ethernet Data Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Pan; Qin Zhang; Jia-Feng Chen; Hao-Yuan Wang; Jia-Chong Kan

    2014-01-01

    For the reliability and power consumption issues of Ethernet data transmission based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA), a low-power consumption design method is proposed, which is suitable for FPGA implementation. To reduce the dynamic power consumption of integrated circuit (IC) design, the proposed method adopts the dynamic control of the clock frequency. For most of the time, when the port is in the idle state or lower-rate state, users can reduce or even turn off the reading clock frequency and reduce the clock flip frequency in order to reduce the dynamic power consumption. When the receiving rate is high, the reading clock frequency will be improved timely to ensure that no data will lost. Simulated and verified by Modelsim, the proposed method can dynamically control the clock frequency, including the dynamic switching of high-speed and low-speed clock flip rates, or stop of the clock flip.

  4. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  5. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  6. Design of a data transmission system based on gigabit ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongxin; Zhang, Lijun; Xu, Bin; Wang, Jiqiang; Yuan, Yonggang

    2013-09-01

    FPGA(Field-programmable gate array) is programmable device, characterized by high speed and reconfiguration. We could test the circuit programmed by HDL (Hardware Description Language). By observing results of simulations through ModelSim, developers could fix logic errors. Also, they could analyze performance of circuits by the results. In the system, we build the Gigabit Ethernet development platform based on a FPGA. This paper presents the technique of FPGA and Gigabit Ethernet, as well as relevant techniques. On the basis of merits and drawbacks of different design proposals and real demands, we take the EP3C10E144C8N chip belonging to the series of Cyclone III produced by Altera corp. as main controller chip. By the use of an AX88180 MAC chip produced by ASIX Electronics Corporation and a RTL8211E physical chip by Realtek Semiconductor Corporation, we build the development platform. At the receiving end, we capture data frames from the network adapter by winpcap programming and throw video data in the buffer. Considering large amounts of data in the real-time transportation, we design fixed-length queue as the primary structures for buffer. Size of a buffer unit is 32KB, which means that 32 packets can fill the buffer. When the buffer is full, we put the buffer unit to the end of the queue. We get data from buffer and hand it over to application process to display and store video data. When packet loss is detected by the system, log file will record it and thus we can check how many packets lose. The simulations by Quartus II and practical application proves that the system is stable, featuring high speed and low cost. It can be used in various high speed real-time transmission with little modification.

  7. Low-Cost High-Performance 10 G Transmitter and Receiver Optical Subassembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.S.; Cheng; E.; Cheung; R.; Cheung; S.; Cheung; A.; Chow; C.W.; Fan; H.W.; Ho; A.; Hui; M.W.K.; Mak; S.K.; Lam; S.L.; Lau; K.S.; Lee; A.; Siu; S.K.; Yau; F.; Tong

    2003-01-01

    We describe briefly here the recent R&D activities in the optical subassembly packaging technologies at the Hong Kong Applied Science and Technology Research Institute (ASTRI). We have designed, developed and prototyped multiple of low-cost high performance packages for serial and parallel transmitters and receivers, in particular, the novel chip-in-plastic (CiP) package designed for 10G serial transmission for data communications.

  8. A new real-time ethernet MAC protocol for time-critical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈钢; 许晓鸣; 蔡云泽; 何星; 张卫东

    2002-01-01

    The authors propose a new persistent transmission-based real-time Ethernet MAC protocol that provides a predictable upper bound for the delivery delay of real-time frames. Moreover, it is compatible with the protocol used by the existing Ethernet controllers for conventional datagram traffic and thus standard Ethernet stations can be used in the system without any modification. The paper describes the protocol in detail and analyses the maximum delivery delay for real-time traffic and the efficiency of the channel.

  9. Real-time Ethernet State Analysis and Its Optimization Policy%实时以太网状态分析及其优化策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海波; 仲崇权

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of real-time Ethernet and the transmission efficiency of data frames, an optimal policy for real-time Ethernet transmission is proposed based on stochastic optimization theory. The transmission states of real-time Ethernet are analyzed and transition probability matrix is derived by calculating the transition probabilities among any two different Ethernet states. Subsequently the probability of each Ethernet state is ascertained by solving steady-state equations and then the probabilities that frames retransmit successfully after collision occurred in each time are calculated. The aim of this paper is focused on optimizing the sending rate of nodes by maximizing the objective function of the successful transmission probability. Experimental results show that in the presented policy the maximum amount of improvement in terms of transmission successful rate and throughput of Ethernet is as high as 50.4%and 23.4%respectively in comparison with the existing method, and there is also certain improvement on average time-delay of point-to-point.%为提高实时以太网通信性能和数据帧发送成功率,提出一种基于随机优化理论的实时以太网数据传输优化策略。对实时以太网传输状态进行分析,计算每种状态之间的转移概率,得到状态转移概率矩阵,通过求解平稳状态方程确定以太网处于每种状态的概率,并计算数据帧发生碰撞后每次重传成功概率,以数据帧发送成功率最大为目标函数,对节点发送速率进行优化。实验结果表明,与现有方法相比,该策略在网络传输成功率和吞吐量方面最多提高50.4%和23.4%,在端到端平均延时上也有所改善。

  10. Gigabit Laser Ethernet Transceiver for Free-Space Optical Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Julio; Shrestha, Amita; Parthasarathy, Swaminathan; Giggenbach, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel FPGA-based Gigabit Laser Ethernet Transceiver featuring a custom designed transmission protocol capable of overcoming the inherent impairments of FSO communications. The prototype is characterized and validated with a ground to ground test.

  11. Why Ethernet instruments%LXI联合体常问的几个问题(续4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    4. Why Ethernet instruments? The short answer is no. To ensure interoperability among suppliers, standards must define what LXI is and is not. Failure to adhere to the specifications will result in poor interoperability and user frustration.

  12. Middleware Management with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 10g R5 LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Maheshwari, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Written by senior members of the Oracle team, this book is a hands-on tutorial detailing Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control's management of Middleware. The material has been carefully selected from Packt's fuller 350 page "Middleware Management with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 10g R5". If you are a Middleware or System Administrator or an IT Architect who wants to maximize the system performance of Oracle Fusion Middleware solutions, then this book is for you. You'll also find it helpful if you are a DBA who wants to become a Middleware Administrator. You should have basic knowl

  13. Ethernet goes real-time: a survey on research and technological developments

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Mário; Tovar, Eduardo; Vasques, Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Ethernet is the most popular LAN technology. Its low price and robustness, resulting from its wide acceptance and deployment, has created an eagerness to expand its responsibilities to the factory-floor, where real-time requirements are to be fulfilled. However, it is difficult to build a real-time control network using Ethernet, because its MAC protocol, the 1-persistent CSMA/CD protocol with the BEB collision resolution algorithm, has unpredictable delay characteristics. Many...

  14. Application of Ethernet Powerlink for communication in a Linux RTAI open CNC control system

    OpenAIRE

    Erwiński, Krystian Adam; Paprocki, Marcin Piotr; Grzesiak, Lech; Karwowski, Kazimierz; Wawrzak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    In computerized numerical control (CNC) systems, the communication bus between the controller and axis servo drives must offer high bandwidth, noise immunity, and time determinism. More and more CNC systems use real-time Ethernet protocols such as Ethernet Powerlink (EPL). Many modern controllers are closed costly hardware-based solutions. In this paper, the implementation of EPL communication bus in a PC-based CNC system is presented. The CNC system includes a PC, a s...

  15. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J

    2010-01-01

    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  16. An Innovative Algorithm to Implement Flow Control in Full Duplex Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTao; GENing; FENGChongxi

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays Ethernet is a widely used LAN technology.It is based on a Media access control (MAC) method called Carrier sense multiple access with Collision detection(CAMS/CD).With CSMA/CD,hosts on Ethernet must operate in half duplex mode;with collision detection and random backoff,Ethernet is a self-contained LAN in the aspect of flow control.After the appearance of switching Ethernet,applications of full duplex Ethernet are booming,and how to manage network bandwidth and switch ports without CSMA/CD is a major issue.In this way,IEEE specifled and explicit flow control scheme,called "PAUSE operation" in Standard 802.3.In order to implement IEEE PAUSE operation and flow control effectively,we propose an innovative algorithm called Queue Length based PAUSE operation-QLPAUSE.It will set the pause time parameter according to the instant input port queue length and local condition checking.With it the hosts can make better use of the full duplex link.With the simulation results,it is proved that QLPAUSE is an active flow control,and it is an easy-to-implement and high efflciency scheme.Finally,the application of this algorithm is provided,with more and more Switching Ethernet,and PAUSE operation is accepted and supported by more and more manufacturers.Within many implementation methods,QLPAUSE is a best candidate.

  17. BACnet Ethernet与BACnet IP网关的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of a BACnet Ethernet and BACnet IP Gateway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春旺; 田沛哲; 吴义民; 王浩宇

    2012-01-01

    针对BACnet Ethernet驱动技术的应用局限性,设计了一种BACnet IP和BACnet Ethernet网关.通过基于微处理电路LM3S6911+的核心控制单元完成BACnet IP报文和BACnet Ethernet报文的双向解析与重新封装运算,实现了BACnet和IP通信协议之间的互通信和互操作,为楼宇自动化系统的高效便捷管理和先进优化算法嵌入楼宇自动化系统提供了新的途径.%Aimed at application limitations of BACnet ( building automation and control networks) Ethernet driving technology, a gateway is designed for BACnel Ethernet and BACnet IP. The bi-directional parsing and re-encapsulation operations between BACnet IP message and BACnet Ethernet message have been realized through a central control unit of the micro-processing circuit LM3S6911 +, fulfilling interoperability of BACnet and IP communication protocols. Thus, the study provides a new way for building automation system with efficient management and advanced optimization algorithm embedded in building automation system.

  18. Characterization of Gigabit Ethernet Over Highly Turbulent Optical Wireless Links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G W; Cornish, J P; Wilburn, J W; Young, R A; Ruggiero, A J

    2002-07-01

    We report on the performance characterization and issues associated with using Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) over a highly turbulent (C{sub n}{sup 2} > 10{sup -12}) 1.3 km air-optic lasercom links. Commercial GigE hardware is a cost-effective and scalable physical layer standard that can be applied to air-optic communications. We demonstrate a simple GigE hardware interface to a singlemode fiber-coupled, 1550 nm, WDM air-optic transceiver. TCPAP serves as a robust and universal foundation protocol that has some tolerance of data loss due to atmospheric fading. Challenges include establishing and maintaining a connection with acceptable throughput under poor propagation conditions. The most useful link performance diagnostic is shown to be scintillation index, where a value of 0.2 is the maximum permissible for adequate GigE throughput. Maximum GigE throughput observed was 49.7% of that obtained with a fiber jumper when scintillation index is 0.1. Shortcomings in conventional measurements such as bit error rate are apparent. Prospects for forward mor correction and other link enhancements will be discussed.

  19. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR FEL DIAGNOSTICS AND CONTROLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Ethernet based embedded system has been developed to upgrade the Beam Viewer and Beam Position Monitor (BPM) systems within the free-electron laser (FEL) project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded microcontroller was mounted on the front-end I/O cards with software packages such as Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS) running as an Input/Output Controller (IOC). By cross compiling with the EPICS, the RTEMS kernel, IOC device supports, and databases all of these can be downloaded into the microcontroller. The first version of the BPM electronics based on the embedded controller was built and is currently running in our FEL system. The new version of BPM that will use a Single Board IOC (SBIOC), which integrates with an Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA) and a ColdFire embedded microcontroller, is presently under development. The new system has the features of a low cost IOC, an open source real-time operating system, plug and play-like ease of installation and flexibility, and provides a much more localized solution

  20. High Performance Gigabit Ethernet Switches for DAQ Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available high performance Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switches are optimized mostly for Internet and standard LAN application traffic. DAQ systems on the other hand usually make use of very specific traffic patterns, with e.g. deterministic arrival times. Industry's accepted loss-less limit of 99.999% may be still unacceptably high for DAQ purposes, as e.g. in the case of the LHCb readout system. In addition, even switches passing this criteria under random traffic can show significantly higher loss rates if subject to our traffic pattern, mainly due to buffer memory limitations. We have evaluated the performance of several switches, ranging from "pizza-box" devices with 24 or 48 ports up to chassis based core switches in a test-bed capable to emulate realistic traffic patterns as expected in the readout system of our experiment. The results obtained in our tests have been used to refine and parametrize our packet level simulation of the complete LHCb readout network. In this paper we report on the...

  1. The New Frontier of the DATA Acquisition Using 1 and 10 Gb/s Ethernet links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Filippo; Chapeland, S.; Denes, E.; Soós, C.; Carena, F.; W. Carena; Barroso, V. Chibante; Diviá, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Rabacal, B.; Simonetti, G.; Telesca, A.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Haller, B. Von; (For Alice Collaboration)

    ALICE [1] (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the detector system at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. Its main aim is to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma. Currently all the information sent by the 18 sub-detectors composing ALICE are read out by DATE [2] (Data Acquisition and Test Environment), the ALICE data acquisition software, using several optical links called DDL[3] (Detector Data Link), each one with a maximum throughput of 200 MB/s. In the last year a commercial transmission link with a throughput of 10 Gb/s has become a reality, with a low price affordable for everyone. The DATE system has been upgraded to also support this technology in addition to the DDL. This contribution will describe the VHDL firmware of a detector readout board, sending data using the UDP protocol and the changes made to the readout [4] part of DATE software to receive information coming from the 1 or 10 Gb/s Ethernet link. It will also describe the relevant details of the test firmware and software and will conclude with the results of the performance tests done at CERN using the new setup.

  2. Fast BPM data distribution for global orbit feedback using commercial gigabit ethernet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulsart, R.; Cerniglia, P.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2011-03-28

    In order to correct beam perturbations in RHIC around 10Hz, a new fast data distribution network was required to deliver BPM position data at rates several orders of magnitude above the capability of the existing system. The urgency of the project limited the amount of custom hardware that could be developed, which dictated the use of as much commercially available equipment as possible. The selected architecture uses a custom hardware interface to the existing RHIC BPM electronics together with commercially available Gigabit Ethernet switches to distribute position data to devices located around the collider ring. Using the minimum Ethernet packet size and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based state machine logic instead of a software based driver, real-time and deterministic data delivery is possible using Ethernet. The method of adapting this protocol for low latency data delivery, bench testing of Ethernet hardware, and the logic to construct Ethernet packets using FPGA hardware will be discussed. A robust communications system using almost all commercial off-the-shelf equipment was developed in under a year which enabled retrofitting of the existing RHIC BPM system to provide 10 KHz data delivery for a global orbit feedback scheme using 72 BPMs. Total latencies from data acquisition at the BPMs to delivery at the controller modules, including very long transmission distances, were kept under 100 {micro}s, which provide very little phase error in correcting the 10 Hz oscillations. Leveraging off of the speed of Gigabit Ethernet and wide availability of Ethernet products enabled this solution to be fully implemented in a much shorter time and at lower cost than if a similar network was developed using a proprietary method.

  3. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  4. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  5. Development of a Deterministic Ethernet Building blocks for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidi, C.; Jakovljevic, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The deterministic Ethernet technology TTEthernet [1] diploid on the NASA Orion spacecraft has demonstrated the use of the TTEthernet technology for a safety critical human space flight application during the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). The TTEthernet technology used within the NASA Orion program has been matured for the use within this mission but did not lead to a broader use in space applications or an international space standard. Therefore TTTech has developed a new version which allows to scale the technology for different applications not only the high end missions allowing to decrease the size of the building blocks leading to a reduction of size weight and power enabling the use in smaller applications. TTTech is currently developing a full space products offering for its TTEthernet technology to allow the use in different space applications not restricted to launchers and human spaceflight. A broad space market assessment and the current ESA TRP7594 lead to the development of a space grade TTEthernet controller ASIC based on the ESA qualified Atmel AT1C8RHA95 process [2]. In this paper we will describe our current TTEthernet controller development towards a space qualified network component allowing future spacecrafts to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer.

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. Ethernet Networks for Real-Time Use in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Meirosu, C; Martin, B

    2005-01-01

    Ethernet became today's de-facto standard technology for local area networks. Defined by the IEEE 802.3 and 802.1 working groups, the Ethernet standards cover technologies deployed at the first two layers of the OSI protocol stack. The architecture of modern Ethernet networks is based on switches. The switches are devices usually built using a store-and-forward concept. At the highest level, they can be seen as a collection of queues and mathematically modelled by means of queuing theory. However, the traffic profiles on modern Ethernet networks are rather different from those assumed in classical queuing theory. The standard recommendations for evaluating the performance of network devices define the values that should be measured but do not specify a way of reconciling these values with the internal architecture of the switches. The introduction of the 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard provided a direct gateway from the LAN to the WAN by the means of the WAN PHY. Certain aspects related to the actual use of WAN ...

  8. Overview on Development of Ethernet Technology%以太网技术发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍均玺

    2015-01-01

    At present, the Ethernet has already been used in the whole Internet and Intranet. From the PON, WLAN, PPPOE to data center and cloud computing, nearly all widely-used network technology is related to Ethernet. This paper introduces the development history and trend of Ethernet. The key and new technologies are described in detail. Ethernet and IP technology supplement, depend and promote each other to lead the development trend of IP-based and Ethernet-based network.%当前,网络的"以太化"已经覆盖到整个互联网和企业网,从PON、WLAN和PPPOE到数据中心和云计算,几乎所有得到广泛应用的网络技术都与以太网有关.文章对以太网的发展历史和趋势进行了综述,对重点技术和新技术进行了详述,以太网与IP技术的相辅相成、相互依存和相互促进,引领了网络"IP化"和"以太化"发展大趋势[1].

  9. Implementation of an Ethernet-Based Communication Channel for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Kenn Toft, Jakob; Lønbæk, Jesper;

    The Patmos processor, which is used as the intellectual property of the T-CREST platform, is only equipped with a RS-232 serial port for communication with the outside world. The serial port is a minimal input/output device with a limited speed and without native networking features. An Ethernet 10....../100BASE-T IEEE 802.3 based communication channel is a reliable and high speed communication interface (10/100 Mbits/s) that also supports networking. This technical report presents an implementation of an Ethernet-based communication channel for the Patmos processor, targeting the Terasic DE2......-115 development board. We have designed the hardware to interface the EthMac Ethernet controller from OpenCores to Patmos and to the physical chip of the development board, and we have implemented a software library to drive the controller and to support some essential protocols. The design was implemented...

  10. A Gigabit Ethernet link for an FPGA based Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2013-01-01

    A new Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) within the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The multi-channel system will have the ability to measure beam losses from various types of detectors with high precision and wide dynamic range. Several modes of data acquisition are supported. The data rate in the singlechannel mode is 16 Mbps and in the multi-channel mode 128 Mbps. The Gigabit Ethernet link is implemented in an FPGA, which allows both a high throughput and a quick validation of the digital data processing algorithms using standard PCs in the initial stages of the development. Both TCP and UDP protocols were explored. The implementation of the Ethernet link is flexible and proved to be highly reliable, leading to its planned use in other measurement systems developed at CERN. The implementation details of the Ethernet link and the results achieved will be described in this paper.

  11. A New Verification Method to Prevent Security Threads of Unsolicited Message in IP Over Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Kh. Alzubaidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet is widely depends on the IP over Ethernet networks architecture. IP and Ethernet protocols uses in each Local Area Network LAN, wire and wireless. Due to the rapid expansion of the technology field this architecture reveals many shortcomings. TCP/IP suite protocols are consists from layers, each layer accomplish its jobs separately. However, these layers susceptible to different attacks. Data link layer one of the most layers targeted by the attackers. Attack at lower layer may lead to more sophisticated attacks to upper layers, like Man-in-The-Middle (MiTM, DNS spoofing and Denial of Service (DoS. These attacks applicable even with encrypted protocols such as HTTPS and SSL. In this paper we discuss the security in the Data Link Layer in IP over Ethernet networks and the attacks depend on the Address resolution protocol (ARP. Moreover, explain our proposed method to prevent address resolution protocol attacks.

  12. FPGA Implementation of Low Power Multi Serials to Ethernet Gateway for Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sridivya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. The communication between them is standard asynchronous serial form by typical serial control card, which have complicated cable wiring, frequently interruption of CPU, which greatly reduces the CPU’s efficiency and impacts the system’s real-time processing. To resolve these problems, a method of multi-serials to Ethernet Gateway based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA with network interface chip is implemented in this project. The Gateway will send data as Ethernet frame format after receiving serial data, indirectly achieves multi-serials communication, simplifies cabinet wiring and improves CPU’s efficiency. In this project we use WIZ net W5100 Hardwired TCP/IP Embedded Ethernet Controller chip will be interfaced to FPGA to provide Ethernet interface. Various digital signals will be captured by FPGA and will be sent on a serial line. The FPGA implements all the necessary logic to read the data from these sensors and store the data in it. On FPGA logic also will be implemented to read data from multiple numbers of serial ports. The WIZ Net module takes data from serial port and sends to PC in Ethernet form. In PC application will be developed to read data from Ethernet and store it on PC hard disk. The code will be developed in VHDL. Modelsim Xilinx Edition (MXE will be used for simulation and functional verification. Xilinx tools will be used for synthesizing the core to Spartan-3 FPGA. Chip scope will be used for on chip verification of the results

  13. Bidirectional and simultaneous FTTX/Ethernet services using RSOA based remodulation and polarization multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-08-01

    A bidirectional and simultaneous transmission of Ethernet, FTTX services through single optical carrier wavelength employing polarization multiplexing technique in the transmitter end and the user end. 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps datarates are transmitted over 50 km single mode fiber employing POLMUX technique at OLT and ONU to provide Ethernet and FTTX services concurrently to the user. Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier is used to reuse and remodulate the downlink signal to uplink transmission. The upstream and the downstream transmission performances are observed by the bit error rate values and the eye diagrams obtained by the BER analyzer.

  14. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter;

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...

  15. Enterasys Networks delivers 10-Gigabit ethernet for the enterprise with new matrix E1 switching family

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Enterasys Networks Inc., today announced its new Matrix E1 family of 10-Gigabit and Gigabit Ethernet switches. The Matrix E1 Optical Access Switch (OAS) enables organizations to deliver applications at 10-Gb speeds across a single fibre optic pair. Jacques Altaber, deputy leader of IT at CERN said "High-bandwith solutions are essential to leveraging more computing power, so 10-Gb Ethernet is the next logical step for us...The Matrix E1 allows us to provide the networking support that our scientists need and gives us a certain future for bandwidth and computing expansion".

  16. Supervising M.Sc. Students working in the 100 Gigabit Ethernet field using OPNET Modeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with supervision methods for M.Sc. students who are using OPNET Modeler for their thesis work within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet. We detail how we use OPNET Modeler in our M.Sc. projects at the Technical University of Denmark. In particular, we discuss on how we teach...... students to learn OPNET independently and in a short timeframe, and we outline what students find challenging and rewarding by using OPNET Modeler. Furthermore, we show some cases on how OPNET was applied in specific projects within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet....

  17. A Realization of Theoretical Maximum Performance in IPSec on Gigabit Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Inada, Toru; Tokiniwa, Yasuhisa; Ushirozawa, Shinobu

    This paper describes “IPSec(IP Security) VPN system" and how it attains a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. The Conventional System is implemented by software. However, the system has several bottlenecks which must be overcome to realize a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. Thus, we newly propose IPSec VPN System with the FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) based hardware architecture, which transmits a packet by the pipe-lined flow processing and has 6 parallel structure of encryption and authentication engines. We show that our system attains the theoretical maximum performance in the short packet which is difficult to realize until now.

  18. Hybrid scheduling model and analysis of performance for switched industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-hua; WU Min; LIU Guo-ping; WANG Si-chun

    2007-01-01

    The fact that outburst traffic in industrial Ethernet was focused on that would bring self-similar phenomenon leading to the delay increase of the cyclical data, and a hybrid priority queue schedule model was proposed in which the outburst data was given the highest priority. Some properties of the self-similar outburst data were proved by network calculus, and its service curve scheduled by the switch was gained. And then the performance of the scheduling algorithm was obtained. The simulation results are close to those calculated by using network calculus model. Some results are of actual significance to the construction of switched industrial Ethernet.

  19. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2016-05-15

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved

  20. Fault Tolerant Ethernet Based Network for Time Sensitive Applications in Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leos Bohac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses and experimentally verifies deployment of Ethernet based network technology to enable fault tolerant and timely exchange of data among a number of high voltage protective relays that use proprietary serial communication line to exchange data in real time on a state of its high voltage circuitry facilitating a fast protection switching in case of critical failures. The digital serial signal is first fetched into PCM multiplexer where it is mapped to the corresponding E1 (2 Mbit/s time division multiplexed signal. Subsequently, the resulting E1 frames are then packetized and sent through Ethernet control LAN to the opposite PCM demultiplexer where the same but reverse processing is done finally sending a signal into the opposite protective relay. The challenge of this setup is to assure very timely delivery of the control information between protective relays even in the cases of potential failures of Ethernet network itself. The tolerance of Ethernet network to faults is assured using widespread per VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol potentially extended by 1+1 PCM protection as a valuable option.

  1. A Small One-Fiber WDM Optical Ethernet PC Card for FTTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoto Sugimoto; Seiji Fukushima; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Yoshihisa Sakai; Hiromasa Tanobe; Takeshi Kurosaki; Kazuto Noguchi; Kimio Oguchi; Hiromu Toba

    2003-01-01

    A new generation of network interface card for fiber-to-the-desktop has been fabricated. The fabricated card is PC-card size and suitable for notebook PCs. It could become the key element in the coming optical Ethernet age.

  2. Ethernet-Based Passive Optical Local-Area Networks for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim; Freriks, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Furt

  3. New Ethernet Based Optically Transparent Network for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim

    2003-01-01

    We present a new optical local area network architecture based on multimode optical fibers and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. The presented optically transparent network represent a novel approach in fiber-to-the-desk applications. It is

  4. Additional Sensitivity Penalty of Burst Mode Receivers in Ethernet PON due to Extinction Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sub Han; Ja-Won Seo; Tae-Whan Yoo; Man-Seop Lee

    2003-01-01

    An additional sensitivity penalty of burst mode receivers due to the extinction ratio is analyzed considering the specific transmitter control in Ethernet PON. For an extinction ratio of 6dB, a penalty of 8dB occurs additionally.

  5. Network design of data monitoring subsystem based on ethernet of technical diagnostic system for EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article introduces a network design of the data monitoring subsystem based on Ethernet of the technical diagnostic system for EAST Tokamak. How to realize network safety is mostly described. It has been proved a reliable network with good real-time and safe performance by experiments last year. (authors)

  6. 78 FR 75360 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Certain Ethernet Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... of the central processing unit on the board because, whereas in Data General use was being assigned... Series Ethernet switches from Singapore.\\1\\ The switches are designed to interconnect servers and storage... software. Arista's EOS software is designed to provide switching functionality, secure...

  7. Industrial Ethernet in the Production of Tomorrow -Requirements- Challenges-Hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Klüger

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Foreword Do we really need Ethernet in the production of tomorrow?I think, the answer is YES. The production technology of today has to meet the challenge to develop new strategies for a highly flexible, highly available and cost-effective automation technology.

  8. 基于PAS9401的10G-EPON网络终端设备的研究%Research of 10G-EPON Network Terminal Device Based on PAS9401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 戴璐平; 刘海英; 戴丽萍

    2015-01-01

    论述了10G-EPON系统的基本特征,具有高带宽、高效率和支持全业务的特点。针对10G-EPON的日渐普及推广,对于ONU的需求也随之增加,设计了一种基于PAS9401的ONU解决方案。该方案采用SoC技术,需要较少的外围器件,便能快速推出ONU产品,硬件设计和软件开发比较简单。对ONU的吞吐量、过载丢包率进行严格的测试,各模式下的丢包率测试结果为0,另外测试基于ONU的IP电话、IPTV能正常使用,满足10G-EPON系统对ONU得需求。%10G-EPON system has the characteristics of high bandwidth,high efficiency and supports the whole ser⁃vice. The system is designed based on PAS9401 to meet with the increasing demand of ONU. It can be launched rapidly for the ONU which is designed with less auxiliary device based on SOC. The Throughput and Frame loss in 10 G-EPON of the ONU has been test accurately that the results of Frame loss is zero. The result of the test on IP and IPTV indicated that the terminal can meet the requirements of 10G-EPON.

  9. 10G SDH帧细粒度解析及多通道加密技术研究%Study on Particular Analysis of 10G SDH Frame Multiplex Structure and Multi-channel Encryption Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涧疆; 李鹰; 张宝燕

    2011-01-01

    10Gb/s SDH作为当今光纤通信网络骨干层的主要传输体制之一,承载着大量的数据业务,对其的加密保护必不可少,保护方式可采用针对10G大容器的粗粒度管道保护和针对业务的细粒度通道保护,其中针对业务的细粒度通道保护可适应多种网络拓扑,配置灵活。此外,各业务对应的各通道独立加密,加密强度更高,应用更为广泛。这里结合SDH的复用原理,深入分析和研究了10G SDH复用结构的细粒度解析和多通道加密实现技术,为SDH光纤加密领域的发展提供了新的思路。%10 G SDH is one of the significant transport systems for current optical communication network core layer,it supports a mass of data operation. So it is necessary to implement crypto protection of 10 G SDH. The protection ways include higher-order container protection for 10 G big container and lower-order container protection for operation,which could adapt various network topologies and have flexible configuration. Furthermore,the independent encryption of every channel for each operation has high crypto strength and broad application. Combined with SDH multiplex principle,this paper gives in-depth analysis on 10 G SDH's multiplex structure and multi-channel encryption technology,and this provides a new idea for development of SDH optical encryption.

  10. The integration of multiple OS-9 stations with a VAX/VMS host via Ethernet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a method for providing embedded microprocessors with virtual disk storage capacity and remote terminal access from a VAX/VMS host via Ethernet is described. The underlying Ethernet driver permits different network protocols to be co-resident in the microprocessors. The system described is in use in many experiments at CERN and elsewhere, and provides a cheap and effective method for sharing data and programs between microprocessors and VAX/VMS systems. Existing approaches to these problems required sole use of a dedicated intelligent network interface, and were biased towards VMEbus systems. One of the goals of the design was to provide a highly transparent and easy-to-use development environment such that users would appear to be working on dedicated microprocessor workstations, unaware of the underlying network connections

  11. Integration of VICbus, FDL, SCI and Ethernet in the CERN CASCADE data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, J; Bogaerts, A; Burckhart, Doris; Divià, R; Ingebritsen, L; Joos, M; Liebhart, M; Niewold, J; Parkman, C; Perrin, Yves; Thiercelin, B; Tremblet, L J; Vascotto, Alessandro; Werner, P

    1995-01-01

    Cascade is a multi-processor real-time data-acquisition system for HEP experiments developed at CERN by the ECP-DS group. Configurations supported today include VMEbus processors running OS-9 and UNIX workstations. The CASCADE data acquisition processes, called stages communicate via links, at present VICbus between VME crates and Ethernet between VMEbus processors and workstations. Work is in progress to introduce new inter-stage links based on the Fast Data Link between VME crates and on SCI for data exchange between SUN stations. The paper gives a short description of the architecture of CASCADE with emphasis on the link aspects. The implementation and current status of the inter-stage links based on VICbus, Ethernet, FDI, and SCI will be described and results on the performances presented.

  12. Low latency protocol for transmission of measurement data from FPGA to Linux computer via 10 Gbps Ethernet link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents FADE-10G—an integrated solution for modern multichannel measurement systems. Its main aim is a low latency, reliable transmission of measurement data from FPGA-based front-end electronic boards (FEBs) to a computer-based node in the Data Acquisition System (DAQ), using a standard Ethernet 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps link. In addition to transmission of data, the system allows the user to send reliably simple control commands from DAQ to FEB and to receive responses. The aim of the work is to provide a possible simple base solution, which can be adapted by the end user to his or her particular needs. Therefore, the emphasis is put on the minimal consumption of FPGA resources in FEB and the minimal CPU load in the DAQ computer. The open source implementation of the FPGA IP core and the Linux kernel driver published under permissive license facilitates modifications and reuse of the solution. The system has been successfully tested in real hardware, both with 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps links

  13. Low latency protocol for transmission of measurement data from FPGA to Linux computer via 10 Gbps Ethernet link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents FADE-10G—an integrated solution for modern multichannel measurement systems. Its main aim is a low latency, reliable transmission of measurement data from FPGA-based front-end electronic boards (FEBs) to a computer-based node in the Data Acquisition System (DAQ), using a standard Ethernet 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps link. In addition to transmission of data, the system allows the user to send reliably simple control commands from DAQ to FEB and to receive responses. The aim of the work is to provide a possible simple base solution, which can be adapted by the end user to his or her particular needs. Therefore, the emphasis is put on the minimal consumption of FPGA resources in FEB and the minimal CPU load in the DAQ computer. The open source implementation of the FPGA IP core and the Linux kernel driver published under permissive license facilitates modifications and reuse of the solution. The system has been successfully tested in real hardware, both with 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps links.

  14. The CMS Event Builder Demonstrator and Results with Ethernet and Myrinet Switch Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Antchev; L.Berti; 等

    2001-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a large and high performance event building network.Several architectures and swithch technologies are currently being evaluated.This paper describes demonstrators which have been set up to study a small-scale event builder based on PCs emulating high performance sources and sinks connected via Ethernet or Myrinet switches.Results from ongoing studies,including measurements on throughput and scaling,are presented.

  15. Design and implementation of a clock recovery circuit for fast Ethernet applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱全庆; 邹雪城; 沈绪榜

    2004-01-01

    A circuit architechure to realize clock recovery for fast Ethernet applications is presented, whick includies system architecture, modified Mueller Muller algorithm for 100BASE-TX, phase detector for 100BASE-TX and multiple output charge pump PLL. The clock recovery circuit is verified by TSMC 0.35um 1P5M CMOS process. The results show that this clock recovery circuit exactly extracts the timing information. It has advantages over others for simple and easy implementation.

  16. A low-cost man-portable free-space optics communication device for ethernet applications

    OpenAIRE

    Alrasheedi, Mohammad H.

    2005-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis sought to design and implement a low-cost, portable, Free-Space Optics (FSO) communications device for Ethernet applications. Under some circumstances such a device would have utility at a Combat Operations Center (COC), a Field Artillery Position, or wherever else fiber optic cable is used in garrison or field. The design was based on commercial off the shelf components originally designed for fiber optic applications. Bas...

  17. A clock synchronization method based on IEEE 1588 and its implementation on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wan; CHEN You-ping; CHEN Bing; XIE Jing-ming

    2008-01-01

    We presented a clock synchronization method that contained a clock adjusting algorithm and a frequency compensated clock to achieve precise synchronization among distributed clocks based on IEEE 1588 protocol. Further, we presented its application on Ethernet and implementation of the frequency compensated clock in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as experiments. The results indicate that this method can support sub-microsecond synchronization with inexpensive standard crystal oscillators.

  18. A topological reliability model for TCP/IP over Ethernet networks / Eugene Coetzee

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Network failures can originate from or be located in any one of several network layers as described by the OSI model. This investigation focuses on the role of physical topological design parameters in determining network reliability and performance as can be expected from the point of view of a typical client-server based connection in an Ethernet local area network. This type of host-to-host IP connection is found in many commercial, military and industrial network based syst...

  19. Reliance communications' flag telecom to provide ethernet link between CERN and TIFR

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Flag Telecom Group Limited (Flag), the undersea cable network arm of Anil Ambani-le Reliance Communications, has announced a landmark deal with CERn (Conseil Européen pour la Recheche Nucléaire), the European organisation for nuclear research based in Geneva, Switzerland and the Tata institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai to provide gigabit Ethernet connectivity between the two." (1 page)

  20. Ethernet-Based Passive Optical Local-Area Networks for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van, WC Wim; Freriks, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Further reduction in overall cost is achieved through decreased network downtime, lower maintenance cost, extended geometrical spans, and larger headroom for future capacity increase. These optically t...

  1. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  2. Design Alternatives for a High-Performance Self-Securing Ethernet Network Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Schuff, Derek L.; Pai, Vijay S

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a strategy for integrating the Snort network intrusion detection system into a high-performance programmable Ethernet network interface card (NIC), considering the impact of several possible hardware and software design choices. While currently proposed ASIC, FPGA, and TCAM systems can match incoming string content in real-time, the system proposed also supports the stream reassembly and HTTP content transformation capabilities of Snort. This system, called L...

  3. A New Solution of Multicast Packets Management for Managed Ethernet Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng LU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a discussion on the new solution of IGMP management for multicast message in industrial Ethernet. It proposed a new mechanism to minimize the congestion which is based on the taking an adaptive decision during transferring multicast messages. Proposed approach is that a device requesting to start and stop the reception of the multicast streams is accomplished through IGMP join and Leave message requests. Quality of Service (QOS as a component is supported by the Switch Manager as well as features built into the micro chip. The IGMP Snooping component monitors (snoops these join and leave messages to allow it to know which streams to prune from which ports. it is a service provided by most managed Ethernet switches. However, the ICIE (Intelligent Controller for Industrial Ethernet does not provide this capability and requires that another device in the network supports the querier functionality. It is through the external devices solicitation of join messages that allow the IGMP Snooping component to correctly decipher on which ports the downstream listeners are connected.

  4. A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xi-Ru, Huang; Jia-Jun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (D...

  5. Contribución para QoS en Redes Metropolitanas Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Álvarez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de control de acceso (ACS permiten apoyar las soluciones actuales de Calidad de Servicio. Éstos consideran entre sus variables el retardo, variación de retardo, pérdida de paquetes o una combinación para asegurar los requerimientos de calidad de servicio para sesiones de voz y video. Proponemos un ACS basado en la pérdida de paquetes de prueba extremo a extremo para la decisión de aceptar nuevas sesiones. La red de transporte será la familia Ethernet, la cual ha incursionado de manera importante en los ámbitos metropolitanos (802.3ae. El presente trabajo muestra la interoperatividad y ventajas de ME-ACS con MPLS./ The access control systems (ACS are useful to improve the Quality of Service solutions. These systems are generally based on delay, jitter or packet loss, employing more of these criteria to maintain the required quality of service requiring for voice or video sessions. We propose an ACS that employs packet loss between probes that send an end-to-end test stream before accepting additional sessions. We used Ethernet as our transport network because the 803.3ae is widely used in metropolitan area networks. This paper presents how the ACS will interoperate with MPLS and describe the improvements related to its use in a metropolitan Ethernet network.

  6. Design and implementation of 10Gigabit EPON ONU hardware%10G EPON的ONU硬件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛杰; 张俊杰; 林如俭

    2009-01-01

    基于802.3av D2.1草案对10G EPON的ONU进行了硬件设计,提出了以Virtex5 FPGA为核心的解决方案.该设计能实现802.3av D2.1草案所规定的ONU基本功能,并且为ONU专用ASIC芯片的设计奠定了基础.

  7. Design of a mutual authentication based on NTRUsign with a perturbation and inherent multipoint control protocol frames in an Ethernet-based passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aihan; Ding, Yisheng

    2014-11-01

    Identity-related security issues inherently present in passive optical networks (PON) still exist in the current (1G) and next-generation (10G) Ethernet-based passive optical network (EPON) systems. We propose a mutual authentication scheme that integrates an NTRUsign digital signature algorithm with inherent multipoint control protocol (MPCP) frames over an EPON system between the optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network unit (ONU). Here, a primitive NTRUsign algorithm is significantly modified through the use of a new perturbation so that it can be effectively used for simultaneously completing signature and authentication functions on the OLT and the ONU sides. Also, in order to transmit their individual sensitive messages, which include public key, signature, and random value and so forth, to each other, we redefine three unique frames according to MPCP format frame. These generated messages can be added into the frames and delivered to each other, allowing the OLT and the ONU to go ahead with a mutual identity authentication process to verify their legal identities. Our simulation results show that this proposed scheme performs very well in resisting security attacks and has low influence on the registration efficiency to to-be-registered ONUs. A performance comparison with traditional authentication algorithms is also presented. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed design of mutual authentication in EPON can be found in the literature up to now.

  8. 基于OracleAS 10g Portal的校园门户应用集成技术研究%Study of the OracleAS 10g Portal-based Application System Integration Technology of Campus Portal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宏斌; 孙霞; 李明杰

    2007-01-01

    以某高校数字化校园网建设作为背景,以应用系统集成技术为对象,先对门户平台中的应用系统集成技术进行研究,然后对基于OracleAS 10g Portal的校园门户应用集成技术进行分析,最后分析校园门户如何集成一个基于Web的外部应用系统的实现方法.

  9. A data transmission method for particle physics experiments based on Ethernet physical layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Due to its advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design for modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with the TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to implement readout systems because designers have to use the operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on the physical layer (PHY) is proposed. In this method, TCP/IP is replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which makes it easier to implement. On each readout module, data from the front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. From the side of the data acquisition system (DAQ), however, the absence of a standard protocol causes problems for the network related applications. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by the network interface card is redirected from the traditional flow to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can easily be accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system has been designed and implemented. Preliminary test results show that this method can meet the requirements of data transmission from the readout module to the DAQ with an efficient and simple manner. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  10. Contribución al diseño de redes campus Ethernet autoconfigurables

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez Fernández, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Los conmutadores Ethernet tienen muy altas prestaciones, coste moderado y configuración mínima, lo que los hace muy adecuados para redes campus, pero los protocolos de capa dos actuales no tienen la escalabilidad suficiente para utilizarse en redes campus de tamaño medio y precisan encaminadores (routers) que compartimenten la red. Estas redes campus, de creciente tamaño, capacidad y complejidad, requieren nuevos dispositivos que superen las limitaciones de escalabilidad de los switches y la ...

  11. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  12. Optical local area network emulations over Ethernet passive optical networks: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG YunFeng; KUANG YuJun; LONG KePing

    2008-01-01

    As a promising solution to efficiently achieving fiber to the home (FTTH), Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is currently improved to provide intercommunica-tion among customers, together with normal traffic delivery, via optical local area network emulation. It is a new research direction and expected to enhance the normal EPON performances. The purpose of this article is to review the state-of-the-art solutions to emulating optical local area networks (OLANs) over EPON. We discuss the major problems involved, e.g., network architecture, control mecha-nisms, and other potential enhancements. We also outline areas for future re-searches.

  13. Case study of mission-critical smart grid remedial action schemes via Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolezilek, David

    2010-09-15

    At Southern California Edison (SCE), RAS systems are implemented to mitigate thermal overloads and system instability upon the loss of one or more transmission lines. RAS automatic protection eliminates expensive alternative measures, including reconductoring transmission lines, building new lines, and/or adding new transformers. SCE has demonstrated successful use of IEC 61850 GOOSE messages over distances up to 460 miles to collect analysis and arming data and transfer status and control indications. This paper explains methods to perform mission-critical RAS and other smart grid actions via nondeterministic bandwidth sharing Ethernet being promoted to move smart grid information.

  14. Diseño de un cuentametros universal con conexión a Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Berlanga Castellví, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste el diseño, desarrollo e implementación de un dispositivo cuentametros de alta precisión, capaz de poder gestionar la monitorización de la fabricación vía Web a través de Ethernet y erradicar totalmente la posibilidad del error humano en la entrada manual de metrajes durante las diferentes fases del producto. El dispositivo electrónico está formado por dos etapas. La etapa principal es en sí el dispositivo cuentametros que realiza el conteo de impulsos que...

  15. Lenze将在L-force系列伺服控制器中集成ETHERNET Powerlink

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    日前,Lenze公司决定把ETHERNET Powerlink(EPL)集成到新型L-force 9400系列伺服控制器中,为其构建一个功能强大的运动控制总线。EPL将作为内建开放式CAN系统总线的补充,以满足某些具有硬实时性要求的应用领域之需。

  16. A Reconfigurable Hybrid Architecture for HomePNA3.1/ Ethernet MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalily Dermany

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demands of home networking, the existing networking technologies are not able to satisfy user expectations any more. HomePNA (Home Phoneline Networking Alliance is a solution for having high bandwidth without new cabling.In this paper, we propose a new reconfigurable hybrid architecture for HomePNA3.0. We implement the architecture in behavioural level using VHDL language. Our implementation was able to have HomePNA3.1 and Ethernet MACs together. The system synthesis show that our implementation decrease number of logical element by 32%.

  17. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  18. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  19. Oracle Database 10g: a platform for BLAST search and Regular Expression pattern matching in life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Susie M; Chen, Jake Y; Davidson, Marcel G; Thomas, Shiby; Trute, Barry M

    2005-01-01

    As database management systems expand their array of analytical functionality, they become powerful research engines for biomedical data analysis and drug discovery. Databases can hold most of the data types commonly required in life sciences and consequently can be used as flexible platforms for the implementation of knowledgebases. Performing data analysis in the database simplifies data management by minimizing the movement of data from disks to memory, allowing pre-filtering and post-processing of datasets, and enabling data to remain in a secure, highly available environment. This article describes the Oracle Database 10g implementation of BLAST and Regular Expression Searches and provides case studies of their usage in bioinformatics. http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/index.html. PMID:15608287

  20. Design and Performance Evaluation of Optical Ethernet Switching Architecture with Liquid Crystal on Silicon-Based Beam-Steering Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Chou, H.-H.; Shiau, Yhi; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2016-07-01

    A non-blocking optical Ethernet switching architecture with liquid crystal on a silicon-based beam-steering switch and optical output buffer strategies are proposed. For preserving service packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, priority and round-robin algorithms are adopted at the optical output buffer in this research. Four methods were used to implement tunable fiber delay modules for the optical output buffers to handle Ethernet packets with variable bit-rates. The results reported are based on the simulations performed to evaluate the proposed switching architecture with traffic analysis under a traffic model captured from a real-core network.

  1. Modulární RGB LED displej s rozhraním Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Zemánek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    V této práci je navrženo schéma zapojení a DSP modulárního RGB LED displeje s rozhraním Ethernet. Nejprve je popsán RGB barevný model, vlastnosti RGB LED displejů, způsoby jejich ovládání. Následuje stručný popis rozhraní Ethernet, protokolů UDP a TCP a lwIP TCP/IP stack. Další část se zabývá popisem architektur mikrokontrolérů ARM Cortex-M3 a Cortex-M4. Následuje samotný návrh hardware zařízení včetně návrhu DPS. Celé zařízení je navrženo tak, aby se jednotlivé moduly daly skládat k sobě a v...

  2. Communication Network Architectures Based on Ethernet Passive Optical Network for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with large-scale offshore wind power farms (WPFs becoming a reality, more efforts are needed to maintain a reliable communication network for WPF monitoring. Deployment topologies, redundancy, and network availability are the main items to enhance the communication reliability between wind turbines (WTs and control centers. Traditional communication networks for monitoring and control (i.e., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems using switched gigabit Ethernet will not be sufficient for the huge amount of data passing through the network. In this paper, the optical power budget, optical path loss, reliability, and network cost of the proposed Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON-based communication network for small-size offshore WPFs have been evaluated for five different network architectures. The proposed network model consists of an optical network unit device (ONU deployed on the WT side for collecting data from different internal networks. All ONUs from different WTs are connected to a central optical line terminal (OLT, placed in the control center. There are no active electronic elements used between the ONUs and the OLT, which reduces the costs and complexity of maintenance and deployment. As fiber access networks without any protection are characterized by poor reliability, three different protection schemes have been configured, explained, and discussed. Considering the cost of network components, the total implementation expense of different architectures with, or without, protection have been calculated and compared. The proposed network model can significantly contribute to the communication network architecture for next generation WPFs.

  3. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  4. China's educational aim and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  5. Manufacturability and reliability on 10-Gb/s transponder for ethernet-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Shen, Kun-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Lee, Shin-Ge

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, manufacturing issues include Optical Sub-Assembly (OSA), Electrical Sub-Assembly (ESA) and reliability considerations of 10 Gb/s Ethernet transponder were studied by using experiments and implementation. In the growing optical communication industry, one of the star products is the Z-axis pluggable optical transceiver module. Under the broad usage of Ethernet means high port density, low cost, high utilities, compact size and still require excellent performance. After standardizing of 10 Gb/s ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae), many transceiver companies, silicon vendors and system vendors reached the agreement and signed up diversity of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement). These MSAs still keep modifying with system demands, customer requirements, cost and performance issue. This paper presents how to achieve these functions description in the MSA and own a highly manufacturability and reliability module design. According to composed block of transponder, we split it into OSA, ESA, mechanical design and related reliability experimental result. In the OSA, traditional TO-CAN package and optical components be introduced. Because the mature manufacture experience, vendor can easy to meet low cost and manufacturability requirements and only need to slightly modifications. A simply solution be implemented to solve this problem and discuss the critical point of the design. Thermal issue on OSA will also be mentioned because of the sensitive of light source and how to calculate the effect to find effective solutions. By the way, some manufacturability criteria will be discussed for OSA characteristics in 10 Gb/s applications. In the ESA, PMD (Physical media dependant) driving methods, Multi-Source Agreement related digital optical monitor function implement and performance comparison will be presented. On the other hand, we will examine the crosstalk effect between transmitter and receiver circuit and impact to the module Optical to Electrical convert interface design. We

  6. 嵌入式系统的以太网接口开发%Ethernet Interface Development of Embedded System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王馨; 高文华; 董增寿

    2012-01-01

    随着网络技术的迅速发展,嵌入式系统也向着网络化的方向发展.而以太网的广泛使用,使得嵌入式技术与以太网结合就成为一个新的发展研究方向.系统采用三星S3C2440嵌入式微处理器,CS8900A以太网控制芯片,分析了以太网芯片软件设计的主要步骤,重点分析其原理及实现过程,最后将驱动程序采用静态编译的方式编译进内核,至此完成了在Linux操作系统下以太网的驱动开发.实现了嵌入式设备更高可靠性以及更快速度的通讯方式,提高了嵌入式系统的整体性能.%Along with the rapid development of network technology,embedded system is developing toward the direction of netwotk. While Ethernet is widely used, embedded technology and Ethernet combination became a new development direction of research. The system adopts the Samsung S3C2440 embedded microprocessor,Ethernet control chip using CS8900A,analyses the main steps of the Ethernet chip software design,focuses on the analysis of its principle and realization process. Finally the driver compiled into the kernel with a static way,this completed the Ethernet driver development in Linux operating system. Realize higher reliability and faster means of communication in embedded equipment,improve the overall performance of the embedded system.

  7. Cold front-end electronics and Ethernet-based DAQ systems for large LAr TPC readout

    CERN Document Server

    D.Autiero,; B.Carlus,; Y.Declais,; S.Gardien,; C.Girerd,; J.Marteau; H.Mathez

    2010-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detectors implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. We are carrying on a R&D in electronics on a complete readout chain including an ASIC located close to the collecting planes in the argon gas phase and a DAQ system based on smart Ethernet sensors implemented in a µTCA standard. The choice of the latter standard is motivated by the similarity in the constraints with those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We also developed a synchronization scheme developed from the IEEE1588 standard integrated by the use of the recovered clock from the Gigabit link

  8. High Precision Testbed to Evaluate Ethernet Performance for In-Car Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Kasper; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schiøler, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Validating safety-critical real-time systems such as in-car networks often involves a model-based performance analysis of the network. An important issue performing such analysis is to provide precise model parameters, matching the actual equipment. One way to obtain such parameters is to derive...... them by measurements of the equipment. In this work we describe the design of a testbed enabling active measurements on up to 1 [Gb=Sec] Copper based Ethernet Switches. By use of the testbed it self, we conduct a series of tests where the precision of the testbed is estimated. We find a maximum error...... of 55 [ns] measuring frame traversal time, and quantify the constant error imposed by the testbed it self....

  9. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet Instrumentation for SalSA Electronics Readout (GEISER)

    CERN Document Server

    Varner, G S; Ridley, D; Zhu, C; Gorham, P; Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu, Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored, though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high-speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the hugh capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented.

  10. Evaluation of the Delivery QoS Characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Switches

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, Razvan; Davies, Neil; Dobinson, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The event selection system for ATLAS is designed to perform real-time image processing on particle collision data equivalent to 2 TB/s. This data is filtered by a multi-level architecture, resulting in 200 GB/s of data analysed by a distributed system consisting of several thousand PCs and switches. As part of our ongoing work on this system, we performed tests on several Gigabit Ethernet switches manufactured by market leaders, using our custom-built test equipment. We analysed the implications of running network devices at, and just beyond, saturation while deploying service differentiation mechanisms. We quantified the quality degradation that traffic flows experienced when passing through switches. We focused on emergent properties in saturation, including fairness and fidelity to expectations. We discuss the ideals for switch behaviour and compare them against the observed behaviour of real implementations of differentiation mechanisms in switches. This creates a generic benchmark, which is independent o...

  11. Gigabit Ethernet signal transmission using asynchronous optical code division multiple access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Philip Y; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-12-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for interfacing and transmitting a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal using asynchronous incoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). This is the first such asynchronous incoherent OCDMA system carrying GbE data being demonstrated to be working among multi-users where each user is operating with an independent clock/data rate and is granted random access to the network. Three major components, the GbE interface, the OCDMA transmitter, and the OCDMA receiver are discussed in detail. The performance of the system is studied and characterized through measuring eye diagrams, bit-error rate and packet loss rate in real-time file transfer. Our Letter also addresses the near-far problem and realizes asynchronous transmission and detection of signal.

  12. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of chemokine CXCL10 G-210A and the chronicity and severity of HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ming LIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP in the promoter of chemokine CXCL10 G-201A,and explore the relationship between the SNP and the chronicity and severity of hepatitis B virus(HBV infection.Methods Blood samples were collected from 792 patients with HBV infection,including 200 with acute hepatitis B(AHB,200 with mild/moderate chronic hepatitis B(CHB-M,192 with severe chronic hepatitis B(CHB-S and 200 with acute liver failure of chronic hepatitis(ACLF,and 300 healthy people were enrolled as normal control(NC.DNA were extracted and subjected to PCR amplification of fragment containing C-1596 site that links with G-201 variation,followed by restriction fragment length polymerase(RFLP analysis.Simultaneously,400 samples were randomly extracted from various groups for direct sequencing of G-201 variation.The consistency of SNP typing results of the two methods was analyzed.Results Variation rates of G-201A were 17.77% for AHB group,25.26% for CHB-M group,26.59% for CHB-S group,21.28% for ACLF group,and 13.82% for NC group.The overall P value obtained from the general χ2 test among the 5 groups was 0.0037.The correlation test(P=0.0015 demonstrated that the variation rate was related to different disease status,and the linear trend test(P=0.0029,Z=-2.9748 indicated an increasing trend of variation rate with the disease progression.Paired comparison showed that the differences in variation rate between CHB-M and NC(P=0.0024,CHB-S and NC(P=0.0007,ACLF and NC(P=0.0428,as well as CHB-S and CHB(P=0.0488 were statistically significant.Direct PCR sequencing showed 98.68% identity with the results from PCR-RFLP.Kappa test(U=58.425,P < 0.05 indicated that the consistency of the two assays met the statistical requirements.Conclusion The G-201A variation in CXCL10 promoter is related to chronicity of HBV infection,and the relations between the variation and the severity of HBV infection remains to be further clarified.

  13. Enterasys Networks delivers standards-based 10-Gigabit ethernet modules for its Enterasys X-Pedition Routers and Enterasys Matrix Switches

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Enterasys Networks Inc. has announced new 10-Gigabit Ethernet modules for the Enterasys X-Pedition ER16 routers and Enterasys Matrix E1 OAS (Optical Access Switch). The addition of 10-Gigabit Ethernet technology enables the Enterasys X-Pedition ER16 enables real-time delivery of high-bandwidth, advanced applications across local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN) and metropolitan area network (MAN) environments (1/2 page).

  14. Performance Evaluation of Different QoS Models for Connecting Telephone Exchange Centers over Metro Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Mirjalily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent large deployment of high-speed metro Ethernet networks creates opportunity to connect legacy telephone exchange centers and cellular telephone base stations to the core telephony network. The success of data and legacy voice services convergence shall depend on whether it can provide the customer with the required QoS or not. Packet-base telephony service requires stringent bounds on end-to-end packet delay, jitter, and loss. New protocols such as MPLS and Diffserv are realized due to the major advantages associated with them such as QoS. This paper studies the performance of connecting telephone exchange centers over a metro Ethernet network using MPLS and DiffServ QoS model. We will implement some simulations to evaluate the performance in terms of delay, jitter and loss.

  15. 4×100 Gb/s WDM DD-OFDM using EAM for next generation Ethernet transceivers over SMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ferrera, P.; Vázquez, S. O.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2016-04-01

    The technical feasibility (pre-FEC BERoperation is achieved by finding optimum values for bias voltage and electrical gain in the modulator, and by employing a simple, yet powerful, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR)-reduction technique. A performance comparison with a Mach-Zehnder driven system is presented too. The architecture here put forward can be used to define next-generation 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard.

  16. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MESSAGE PASSING INTERFACE COLLECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON INTEL XEON QUAD-CORE GIGABIT ETHERNET AND INFINIBAND CLUSTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Roswan Ismail; Nor Asilah Wati Abdul Hamid; Mohamed Othman; Rohaya Latip

    2013-01-01

    The performance of MPI implementation operations still presents critical issues for high performance computing systems, particularly for more advanced processor technology. Consequently, this study concentrates on benchmarking MPI implementation on multi-core architecture by measuring the performance of Open MPI collective communication on Intel Xeon dual quad-core Gigabit Ethernet and Inï¬niBand clusters using SKaMPI. It focuses on well known collective communication routines such as MPI-Bca...

  17. The determination of the link with the smallest end-to-end network latency in ethernet architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ethernet fundamental and its data transmission model are introduced in brief and end-to-end network latency was analyzed in this paper. On the premise of not considering transmission quality and transmission cost, latency was the function of the rest of network resource parameter (NRP). The relation between the number of nodes and that of end-to-end links was presented. In ethernet architecture, the algorithm to determine the link with the smallest latency is a polynomial issue when the number of network nodes is limited, so it can be solved by way of polynomial equations. Latency measuring is the key issue to determine the link with the smallest network latency. 3-node brigade (regiment) level network centric warfare (NCW) demonstration platform was studied and the latency between the detectors and weapon control stations was taken as an example. The algorithm of end-to-end network latency and link information in NCW was presented. The algorithm program based on Server/Client architecture was developed. The data transmission optimal link is one whose end-to-end latency is the smallest. This paper solves the key issue to determine the link whose end-to-end latency is the smallest in ethernet architecture. The study can be widely applied to determine the optimal link which is in the complex network environment of multiple service provision points.

  18. ONU auto-discovery of 1OG EPON systems%10G EPON系统ONU注册技术研究(本期优秀论文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华伟; 侯晓荣; 何峥

    2010-01-01

    ONU注册是10G EPON系统正常运行的前提,在不影响系统正常运行的情况下实现新ONU自动注册或故障ONU重新注册是PON系统的突出优点.文章分析了10G EPON系统的双速率MAC协议栈及10GEPON MPCP控制帧相对于1G EPON MPCP控制帧结构所作的扩展,描述了10G EPON系统ONU注册的基本流程,重点讨论了OLT开窗控制和ONU注册响应的基本原理.

  19. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-06-25

    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which allocates bandwidth grants during voids baseless of bandwidth requests. We introduce three different grant sizing schemes for PVT, namely void extension, count controlled batch void filling, and size controlled batch void filling. The proposed approaches canbe integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. Unlike other void filling schemes, PVT is less sensitive to the differential distance between optical network units and can work very well in the case of limited differential distances. We have analytically investigated the packet delay and derived a bound condition for PVT to outperform the other competitors. We support our work with extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependence for both the single-class and differentiated services (DiffServ) scenarios. Numerical results show delay reduction up to 35% compared with the non-void filling scheme for the single-class scenario. For DiffServ traffic, PVT achieves delay reduction up to 80% for expedited forward traffic, 52% for assured forward traffic, and 56% for best effort traffic. © 2015 OSA.

  20. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA system we achieved the theoretical maximum data throughput limited by UDP both for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX links. Furthermore, we show that the random jitter of a synchronous clock over a 1000BASE-T link for a PTP application is below 60 ps

  1. The new LHCb trigger and DAQ strategy a system architecture based on gigabit-ethernet

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A; Gaspar, C; Gavillet, P; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb software trigger has two levels: a high-speed trigger running at 1 MHz with strictly limited latency and a second level running below 40 kHz without latency limitations. The trigger strategy requires full flexibility in the distribution of the installed CPU power to the two software trigger levels because of the unknown background levels and event topology distribution at the time the LHC accelerator will start its operation. This requirement suggests using a common CPU farm for both trigger levels fed by a common data acquisition (DAQ) infrastructure. The limited latency budget of the first level of software trigger has an impact on the organization of the CPU farm performing the trigger function for optimal usage of the installed CPU power. We will present the architecture and the design of the hardware infrastructure for the entire LHCb software triggering system based on Ethernet as link technology that fulfills these requirements. The performance of the event-building of the combined traffic of ...

  2. IPbus A flexible Ethernet-based control system for xTCA hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The ATCA and uTCA standards include industry-standard data pathway technologies such as Gigabit Ethernet which can be used for control communication, but no specific hardware control protocol is defined. The IPbus suite of software and firmware implements a reliable high-performance control link for particle physics electronics, and has successfully replaced VME control in several large projects. In this paper, we outline the IPbus system architecture, and describe recent developments in the reliability, scalability and performance of IPbus systems, carried out in preparation for deployment of uTCA-based CMS upgrades before the LHC 2015 run. We also discuss plans for future development of the IPbus suite.SUMMARY IPbus will be used for controlling the uTCA electronics in the CMS HCAL, TCDS, Pixel and Level-1 trigger upgrades. IPbus control has already been extensively used in the work of these upgrade projects so far, and final uTCA systems will be deployed in the experiment starting from Autumn 2014. IPbus is...

  3. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Födisch, P.; Lange, B.; Sandmann, J.; Büchner, A.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA system we achieved the theoretical maximum data throughput limited by UDP both for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX links. Furthermore, we show that the random jitter of a synchronous clock over a 1000BASE-T link for a PTP application is below 60 ps.

  4. Prototyping a 10Gigabit-Ethernet Event-Builder for a Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    We present the prototyping of a 10Gigabit-Ethernet based UDP data acquisition (DAQ) system that has been conceived in the context of the Array and Control group of CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array). The CTA consortium plans to build the next generation ground-based gamma-ray instrument, with approximately 100 telescopes of at least three different sizes installed on two sites. The genuine camera dataflow amounts to 1.2 GByte/s per camera. We have conceived and built a prototype of a front-end event builder DAQ able to receive and compute such a data rate, allowing a more sustainable level for the central data logging of the site by data reduction. We took into account characteristics and constraints of several camera electronics projects in CTA, thus keeping a generic approach to all front-end types. The big number of telescopes and the remoteness of the array sites imply that any front-end element must be robust and self-healing to a large extent. The main difficulty is to combine very high performances with a...

  5. MicroTCA implementation of synchronous Ethernet-Based DAQ systems for large scale experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Girerd, C; Carlus, B; Gardien, S; Marteau, J; Tromeur, W

    2009-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detector implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. In this article we describe a data acquisition scheme for this new generation of large detectors. The main challenge is to propose a scalable and easy to use solution able to manage a large number of channels at the lowest cost. It is interesting to note that these constraints are very similar to those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We propose to study how emerging technologies like ATCA and $\\mu$TCA could be used in neutrino experiments. We describe the design of an Advanced Mezzanine Board (AMC) including 32 ADC channels. This board receives 32 analogical channels at the front panel and sends the formatted data through the $\\mu$TCA backplane using a Gigabit Ethernet l...

  6. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Sandmann, J; Büchner, A; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2015-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA ...

  7. Assessment of High and Low Rate Protocol-based Attacks on Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Malekzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and Web have significantly transformed the world’s communication system. The capability of the Internet to instantly access information at anytime from anywhere has brought benefit for a wide variety of areas including business, government, education, institutions, medical, and entertainment services. However, the Internet has also opened up the possibilities for hackers to exploit flaws and limitations in the target networks to attack and break in without gaining physical access to the target systems. The OSI layer protocol-based attacks are among them. In this work we investigate feasibility as well as severity of the attacks against three common layering protocols including TCP, UDP, and ICMP on Ethernet-based networks in the real world through a testbed. Then a simulation environment is designed to implement the exact same attacks under similar conditions using NS2 network simulator. The testbed results and simulation results are compared with each other to explore the accuracy of the findings and measure the damages the attacks caused to the network.

  8. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  9. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  10. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  11. Acceso remoto a datos en plataforma ARM vía ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Hernández

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Investigación (GIDAM, de la Universidad de Pinar del Río, trabajó en un proyecto orientado al diagnóstico de sistemas electromecánicos (aerogeneradores, para lo cual se dispuso de un sistema embebido de tecnología ARM, que cuenta con datos de mediciones almacenados en una memoria local USB, pero sin garantizarse el acceso remoto a los datos. Este acceso es importante para monitorear el estado de los componentes electromecánicos desde una computadora situada centralmente en el parque eólico. Como objetivo de la investigación, se pretendió implementar el acceso remoto a los datos almacenados en la memoria USB vía Ethernet, utilizando el servidor web Boa (en el ARM. En particular, se publicó una página web dinámica para el monitoreo de los datos almacenados. Las mediciones realizadas fueron almacenadas en ficheros xml y se hizo uso de la biblioteca libxml2, en combinación con el lenguaje C, para extraer  los datos de cada variable, tratarlos, y mostrar el resultado en la página web. Se utilizó el programa Digi ESP, a través del cual se logró hacer la compilación y simulación del código escrito en C. Al finalizar, se obtuvo el monitoreo y acceso remoto a los datos almacenados en la memoria USB.Palabras Clave:Sistema embebido, Servidor web Boa, acceso remoto a datos.

  12. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  13. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  14. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation......, the time-relative account of representational aims expounded shows that, and how, representational aims should accommodate the changing composition of populations over time....

  15. Auto-triggerable HPD sensors fully readout on Ethernet, applications for high energy physics and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPERA project is dedicated to neutrino oscillation search in the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso. The experiment is designed to characterize the interaction of ντ resulted from the νμ → ντ oscillation. The main element of the detector is a brick consisting of the emulsion sheets interleaved with lead plates. These bricks are assembled in walls of about 7 m side. A total of 72 walls is foreseen for OPERA experiment with a total of fiducial mass of 2 k tons. When a neutrino interaction occurs the tracks of the charged particles are recorded in the emulsions with a high accuracy and the topology of the event is fully reconstructed with an automatic scanning of the emulsions. The role of the target tracker in OPERA is to locate the brick where the primary neutrino interaction occurs to provide triggers and to make a coarser reconstruction of the events. It consists of 2 planes of scintillator strips located after a brick wall.. The scintillation photons are collected by WLS fibers and read by a multi-pixel photodetector. The results obtained with 61 pixels HPDs readout by auto-triggerable front-end electronics of the VA-TA series. A new kind of acquisition system based on Ethernet abler to read the front-end electronics and deliver the data directly to the Ethernet network is described. The Ethernet DAQ system is based on a ORCA (Opera Readout Card) module which includes all the features to control the front-end and the time stamping of the trigger of the events. The front-end electronics and the HPD characteristics are described in Sections 2 and 3 while the PMT which validates the acquisition chain is presented in Section 4. Medical applications and the results obtained with the acquisition system used as micro pet and for characterized photodetectors in High Energy experiment are also presented

  16. 基于FPGA的千兆以太网设计%Design of gigabit Ethernet system based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦宏; 付友涛; 孔凡鹏; 孙洁; 刘金涛

    2012-01-01

    千兆以太网拥有传输速度快、传输距离远、稳定可靠等优点,是当前嵌入式系统的应用热点.FPGA拥有丰富的逻辑和管脚资源,常用于高速数据处理和通信的嵌入式系统.本文描述一个基于FPGA的千兆以太网系统的设计,本设计在硬件上主要使用千兆以太网PHY芯片88E1111和Altera公司的StratixⅢ系列的FPGA,在FPGA的逻辑上实现NiosⅡ嵌入式系统和以太网的MAC控制器,在NiosⅡ系统的软件上移植入MicroC/OS-Ⅱ实时多任务操作系统和NicheStackTCP/IP协议堆栈.在FPGA上实现千兆以太网设计,有效提高了系统的可靠性和集成性,充分扩展FPGA的功能.%Gigabit Ethernet, which has advantages with high-speed transmission, long-distance transmission, high stability and reliability, plays an important role in the current embedded systems. FPGA has rich logic and pins resources, which is often used in high-speed data processing and communication embedded systems. A gigabit Ethernet system is described in this paper. A PHY chip 88E111 and FPGA in Altera Stratix Ⅲ series are used in this system. Nios II embedded system and Ethernet MAC controller are implemented in FPGA, and MicroC/OS-Ⅱ real-time multitask operating system and NicheStack TCP/IP protocol stack are transplanted into NiosⅡ software system. The design of the gigabit Ethernet system was achieved on FPGA. It improved the reliability and integration of the whole system, and extended the functions of FPGA.

  17. Low-power and Low-cost Design of Survival Memory Unit for 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Types of hybrid architectures survivor memory unit (SMU) is presented,which are applicable to IEEE 802.3 ab 1000 Base-T Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) transceiver. Area, power and decoder latency were taken into account and most efficient architectures were compared to optimize area/power tradeoff in different kinds of applications. Suitable SMU architectures are given out respectively in area-restrict, power-restrict and latency-restrict designs. A power-efficient architecture was selected in our GbE project. It provides 48% improvement in area and 71% amelioration in power, compared to classical register exchange architecture (REA) SMU.

  18. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The

  19. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  20. On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.

  1. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....

  2. 基于多核DSP的以太网通信接口设计%Design of Ethernet Communication Interface Based on Multi-core DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦淑红; 焦壮

    2015-01-01

    针对8核DSP TMS320C6678与外部设备进行数据通信的需求,以片上集成千兆以太网交换子系统为核心,选取芯片88E1111作为PHY设备,设计了千兆以太网通信接口的硬件电路。在嵌入式操作系统SYS/BIOS和网络开发环境NDK上,完成了以太网底层驱动和TCP/IP协议的程序设计。通过DSP与上位机进行以太网通信测试,证明了以太网接口电路硬件及软件的正确性和实用性。%For the demand of data communications between TMS320C6678 and external devices, a gigabit Eth-ernet communication interface hardware circuit is designed with on-chip Gigabit Ethernet switching subsystem as the core and 88E1111 as the PHY device.Under embedded operating system SYS/BIOS and network development envi-ronment NDK, the Ethernet underlying driver programming and TCP/IP protocol is completed.The communication tests between DSP and PC verify the correctness and practicability of the Ethernet interface circuit hardware and soft-ware.

  3. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  4. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  5. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  6. A simple 1-byte 1-clock RC4 design and its efficient implementation in FPGA coprocessor for secured ethernet communication

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Rourab; Zaman, Jkm Sadique Uz; Das, Suman; Chakrabarti, Amlan; Ghosh, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    In the field of cryptography till date the 1-byte in 1-clock is the best known RC4 hardware design [1], while the 1-byte in 3clocks is the best known implementation [2,3]. The design algorithm of 1-byte in 1-clock is complex since it takes two consecutive bytes together. The design of 1-byte in 3-clocks is too much modular and clock hungry. In this paper a simpler embedded system design of RC4 in 1-byte in 1-clock is proposed where two successive sequential tasks are executed as two independent events by using rising and falling edges of the same clock and swapping is done using a MUX-DEMUX combination, thereby increasing its throughput. The encryption and decryption designs are respectively implemented on two FPGA boards to achieve Ethernet communication.

  7. A Modification of Gamma Surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A for Monitoring Use Ethernet by PLC T100MD Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been modified a gamma surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A. The Surveymeter represents analogous surveymeter, so that an interface for data acquisition is required. Acquisition system from surveymeter is added to the voltage amplifier module from 0 - 200 mV to 0 - 5 V. This voltage value will represent of doses 0 - 5 mR/hour. Hereinafter the analogous signal 0 - 5 V as signal of input to peripheral of PLC T100MD series. Data in the form of processed analogous signal presented at local display of PLC. For long distance monitoring, data have been sent to a computer from PLC by ethernet. After this modification, the surveymeter can be used to monitor from long distance. By using Internet Service Provider, monitoring can be done at any time and any where as long as network internet is available. (author)

  8. A Telescope Using CMS PSI46 Pixels and the CAPTAN for Acquisition and Control over Gigabit Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Ryan A.; Turqueti, Marcos; Uplegger, Lorenzo; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has assembled a pixel test beam telescope for high energy physics detector research and development. The telescope features CMS PSI46 readout chips and a data acquisition and control system known as the Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node or CAPTAN. The CAPTAN is a flexible and powerful system that meets the readout and control demands of a variety of pixel and strip detectors for high energy physics applications. The CAPTAN functions in a gigabit Ethernet network, which facilitates the coordination of the multiple pixel planes of the telescope. Through the use of the CAPTAN hardware, a unified telescope system is attained encompassing both the CMS PSI46 pixel components and adevice under test. This paper discusses results from the telescope project including mechanical design, alignment procedure, and attainble precision.

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  10. Aims and methods of nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilst international safeguarding of fissile materials against abuse has been the subject of extensive debate, little public attention has so far been devoted to the internal security of these materials. All countries using nuclear energy for peaceful purposes have laid down appropriate regulations. In the Federal Republic of Germany safeguards are required, for instance, by the Atomic Energy Act, and are therefore a prerequisite for licensing. The aims and methods of national nuclear materials management are contrasted with viewpoints on international safeguards

  11. CHILDREN AIMED INTERFACES FOR ANDROID RUNNING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Tîrziu Georgiana Cristina

    2011-01-01

    The paper focuses on the development of mobile interfaces for children. The Android operating system is presented from appearance with its features, hardware support and its advantages over others operating systems. Mobile software development requirements on different platforms for mobile devices are identified and described. A graphical interface aiming children is designed and its features are presented. The interface includes an application for managing the school related tasks and time. ...

  12. 基于FPGA的Ethernet Powerlink通信节点的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Ethernet Powerlink Communication Node Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁绥泽; 朱同文

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the motion control system of ifeld bus real-time requirements increasing this problem, the FPGA+PHY network chip, Nios II processor as the basic hardware and software platform, combined with the open source Powerlink protocol stack, the design and implementation of the minimum cycle for the communication node 500 (slave), so as to ensure the real-time motion control system communication.%针对目前运动控制系统对现场总线的实时性要求日益增高这一问题,分别以FPGA+PHY网络芯片、Nios II软核处理器作为基本硬件和软件平台,结合Powerlink开源协议,设计并实现最小循环周期为500的通信节点(从站),从而保证运动控制系统通信的实时性。

  13. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  14. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  15. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  16. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  17. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with the consortium T-SYSTEMS (DE) â?" FORCE10 (US), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers, the necessary training of CERN personnel and five yearsâ?? maintenance of the equipment for a total amount not exceeding 6 382 000 US dollars (7 593 671 Swiss francs) for a period of five years. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  18. TRIM11 Suppresses AIM2 Inflammasome by Degrading AIM2 via p62-Dependent Selective Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM2 inflammasome is a key cytosolic signaling complex that is activated by double-stranded DNA, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18. Dysregulated AIM2 inflammasome activity is associated with human inflammatory diseases and cancers, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that control AIM2 levels and activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report tripartite motif 11 (TRIM11 as a key negative regulator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Upon DNA virus infection, TRIM11 binds to AIM2 via its PS domain and undergoes auto-polyubiquitination at K458 to promote an association between TRIM11 and the autophagic cargo receptor p62 to mediate AIM2 degradation via selective autophagy. These findings identify a role for TRIMs in AIM2 inflammasome activation where TRIM11 acts as a secondary receptor to deliver AIM2 to the autophagosomes for degradation in a p62-dependent manner.

  19. Auto-triggerable HPD sensors fully readout on ethernet: applications for high-energy physics and medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPERA project is dedicated to neutrino oscillation search in the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso (Experimental Proposal, CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGS P25/2000, July 10, 2000). The experiment is designed to characterize the interactions of ντ resulting of the νμ→ντ oscillation. The main element of the detector is a brick 10.2 cmx12.8 cm cross-section consisting of 56 emulsion sheets 100 μm wide, interleaved with 1 mm lead plates. These bricks are assembled in walls of ∼7 m side. A total of 72 walls is foreseen for the OPERA experiment with a total fiducial mass of 2 ktons. When a neutrino interaction occurs, the tracks of the charged particles are recorded in the emulsions with a high accuracy and the topology of the event is fully reconstructed with an automatic scanning of the emulsions. The role of the target tracker in OPERA is to locate the brick where the primary neutrino interaction occurs, to provide triggers and to make a coarser reconstruction of the events. It consists of two planes of scintillator strips located after a brick wall. The scintillation photons are collected by WLS fibers and read by a multi-pixels photodetector. We present results obtained with 61 pixels HPD's readout by auto-triggerable front-end electronics of the VA-TA series. We have also developed a new kind of acquisition system based on Ethernet, able to read the front-end electronics and deliver the data directly to the Ethernet network. The full readout chain from the scintillator to the DAQ has been tested with cosmics and with beams from the CERN PS. The acquisition scheme is being proposed for the OPERA DAQ system and can be implemented for medical applications with various photodetectors. A prototype of micro-Positron Emission Tomograph (microPET) is being build on this scheme in collaboration with other Rho[circ ]ne-Alpes Institutes

  20. Cloning and Identification of Sunflower Seed-specific Promoter Ha ds10 G1%向日葵种子特异性启动子Ha ds10 G1的克隆及其功能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彦玲; 朱本忠; 栾春光; 刘宽庆; 罗云波

    2006-01-01

    利用PCR技术从向日葵(Helianthus annuus L.)基因组DNA中克隆了Lea蛋白基因家族中Ha ds10 G1基因上游1414 bp的调控序列.序列分析表明-1~1414 bp与报道序列同源性100%,将其与gus基因融合构建植物表达载体后,通过根癌农杆菌(Agrobacteriumtumefaciens)介导法转化烟草(Nicotiana tabacum)NC89,PCR扩增初步证明目的片段已整合到烟草基因组中,转基因植株的GUS活性检测表明,在茎、叶中无GUS活性,只存在于种子中.Ha ds10 G1基因上游1 414 bp片段具有种子特异性启动子的功能.

  1. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, J. Philipp; Atlas Liquid Argon calorimeter Group

    2014-06-01

    A stepwise upgrade of the LHC is foreseen starting now until the year 2023 to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to five times of its design value. It implies a challenge for the ATLAS experiment coping with the expected event pile-up, especially for the Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. In order to keep the trigger rates within the limited bandwidth new algorithms have to be applied which in turn requires an upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter trigger readout electronics. Towards this upgrade, the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter group develops a high-speed data acquisition interface in ATCA standard using commercial hardware instead of complex and expensive in-house developments where possible. This paper gives an overview of the general concepts of the DAQ interface, the engaged technologies and the current status of the development efforts for an FPGA based fast data link with a standard 10 Gbps Ethernet protocol which may also be useful for DAQ systems of other high energy physics experiments.

  2. Multiple high voltage power supply controls solution using compact, distributed Ethernet based PC boards and Linux/Windows based GUIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact Ethernet based High voltage PC boards have been developed, tested and produced to use as an integrated HV power supply unit to generate and control voltages varying from 0 to 2000 V dc from any OS independent PC platform. The Neutron gamma array (NAND) project at IUAC will need distributed control of at least 120 such units over a private Local Area Network to bias detectors. These Power supplies are being made as five independent boxes, each box consisting of 24 such HV PC boards and they will be interconnected using network switches. Presently, a compact two layer board with the PICO make DC-DC HV converter mounted on PCB, put together in a group of 24 of them, have been built and fully tested. The advantage of such a system is that, it is easily expandable to a large number of power supplies with low cost, globally accessible, multiple users in a network can set or read any power supply value through an OS independent PC. Control GUI applications are developed using C, IUAC PCLI, Qt C++ etc. and have been successfully tested. (author)

  3. Dynamic Wavelength and Bandwidth Allocation Using Adaptive Linear Prediction in WDM/TDM Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-yi; GUO Yong; HE Chen

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)/time-division-multiplexing (TDM) ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) can achieve low per-subscriber cost and scalability to increase the number of subscribers. This paper discusses dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithm in hybrid WDM/TDM EPONs. Based on the correlation structure of the variable bit rate (VBR) video traffic, we propose a quality-of-service (QoS) supported DWBA using adaptive linear traffic prediction. Wavelength and timeslot are allocated dynamically by optical line terminal (OLT) to all optical network units (ONUs) based on the bandwidth requests and the guaranteed service level agreements (SLA) of all ONUs. Mean square error of the predicted average arriv-ing rate of compound video traffic during waiting period is minimized through Wiener-Hopf equation. Simulation results show that the DWBA-adaptive-linear-prediction (DWBA-ALP) algorithm can significantly improve the QoS performances in terms of low delay and high bandwidth utilization.

  4. Limited sharing with traffic prediction for dynamic bandwidth allocation and QoS provisioning over Ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanqiu; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-09-01

    Feature Issue on Optical Access Networks (OAN) As an inexpensive, simple, and scalable solution for broadband access, Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) have the capability of delivering integrated broadband services to the end users. A critical issue of EPONs is the utility of a shared upstream channel among the local users, and thus an efficient bandwidth allocation mechanism is required to facilitate statistical multiplexing among the local network traffic. In this paper we propose a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme, i.e., limited sharing with traffic prediction (LSTP), for upstream channel sharing over EPONs. LSTP enables dynamic bandwidth negotiation between the optical line terminal (OLT) and its associated optical network units (ONUs), alleviates data delay by predicting the traffic arrived during the waiting time and prereserving a portion of bandwidth for delivery, and avoids the aggressive bandwidth competition by upper bounding the allocated bandwidth to each ONU. Theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the feasibility of LSTP by showing that LSTP outperforms other existing schemes with respect to QoS metrics of data delay and data loss.

  5. High-performance, low-cost joint equalizer and trellis decoder for 1000BASE-T gigabit Ethernet transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yue; RONG Meng-tian

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an Af-algorithm (MA) decoder with 4 survival paths (MA4) for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3ab 1000BASE-T gigabit Ethernet (GbE) transceiver. To fulfill the entire requirements, various methods were introduced to accelerate the MA4 decoder while retaining the desired high performance and low complexity. Optimized look-ahead architecture was employed to solve the critical path problem with minimal gate consumption. Symbol compression methods saved registers during pipeline stages. A sorting network accelerated the kernel sorting operation at low hardware cost by utilizing the special characteristics of MA4. Simulations and synthesis results show that the proposed decoder achieves 125 MHz clock frequency and 1 Gb/s throughput in 1.8 V 0.18 μm standard cell complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. It achieves additional 0.4 dB coding gain over 14tap parallel decision feedback decoder (PDFD) with 39% area reduction.

  6. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, J P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout of the trigger signals of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters is foreseen to be upgraded in order to prepare for operation during the first high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Signals with improved spatial granularity are planned to be received from the detector by a Digitial Processing System (DPS) in ATCA technology and will be sent in real-time to the ATLAS trigger system using custom optical links. These data are also sampled by the DPS for monitoring and will be read out by the regular Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of ATLAS which is a network-based PC-farm. The bandwidth between DPS module and DAQ system is expected to be in the order of 10 Gbit/s per module and a standard Ethernet protocol is foreseen to be used. DSP data will be prepared and sent by a modern FPGA either through a switch or directly to a Read-Out System (ROS) PC serving as buffer interface of the ATLAS DAQ. In a prototype setup, an ATCA blade equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA is used to send da...

  7. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, J P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    A stepwise upgrade of the LHC is foreseen starting now until the year 2023 to increase the instantaneous luminosity up to the fivefold of its design value. It implies a challenge for the ATLAS experiment coping with the expected event pile-up, especially for the Level-1 calorimeter trigger system. In order to keep the trigger rates within the limited bandwidth new algorithms have to be applied which in turn requires an upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter trigger readout electronics. Towards this upgrade, the ATLAS Liquid Argon calorimeter group develops a high-speed data acquisition interface in ATCA standard using commercial hardware instead of complex and expensive in-house developments where possible. This paper gives an overview of the general concepts of the DAQ interface, the engaged technologies and the current status of the development efforts for an FPGA based fast data link with a standard 10 Gbps Ethernet protocol which may also be useful for DAQ systems of other high energy physics exper...

  8. 无源光网络技术在配、用电通信网中的组网研究%Research on configuration of distribution and power supply communication network with the ethernet passive optical network technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙圆圆

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty problems of pilot application of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)technology in internal experimental unit of distribution and power supply communication network,through analyzing each structure characteristic of distribution network and power supply net-work,puts forward typical configuration network mode for distribution and power supply communica-tion network and the problems need pay attention to apply. The research result shows that distribution communication network should use chain configuration network based on the distribution line,power supply communication network should use the subsidence mode of optical line terminal(OLT) configu-ration network based on the margin capacity of trunk fiber optic cable and the number of tenement in residential section to calculate comprehensively.%  针对无源光网(Ethernet Passive Optical Network, EPON)技术在全国配、用电通信网中的试点应用的难点问题,通过分析配、用电网各自的结构特点,根据EPON技术在配、用电通信网全国试点的应用经验,提出配、用电通信网目前典型的组网模式及应用中需要注意的问题,为EPON技术在配、用电通信网建设中大规模应用奠定基础。研究结果表明:配电通信网应根据配电线路采用链型组网,用电通信网需要根据主干光纤富裕度和小区户数综合考虑是否采用光线路终端(Optical Line Terminal, OLT)下沉模式进行组网。

  9. Energy Efficiency in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs): Protocol Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    As concerns about energy consumption grow, the power consumption of the EPON becomes a matter of increasing importance. In respect of energy efficiency, the current standard has no management protocols aiming to reduce power consumption in EPONs. In this paper, we propose an Energy Management...... Mechanism (EMM) for downlink EPON systems. The proposed mechanism is designed to enhance the standardized control scheme in EPON with the objective to increase energy efficiency while satisfying diverse QoS requirements. The main idea is to put an Optical Network Unit (ONU) into the sleep mode and determine...... a suitable wakeup time scheduler at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). A generic EPON system is considered, which is composed of an OLT and several ONUs that are EMM enabled. An energy consumption optimization problem aimed at saving energy is proposed and two heuristic sleep mode scheduling policies...

  10. 实时以太网EPL在智能变电站中的应用%Application of real-time Ethernet EPL in intelligent substation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世明; 李森林; 许志成; 呼文强; 闫磊

    2013-01-01

      智能变电站常采用交换式以太网技术共享数据,这种方式简单高效却无法保证数据传输的实时性。比较各种实时以太网技术的特点,引入Ethernet POWERLINK(以下简称EPL)协议来改善智能变电站中数据传输的实时性。通过分析EPL的实时原理和协议结构,用BF536硬件平台加μCOS实时操作系统实现EPL的移植。在此基础上,结合智能变电站数据的特点,提出一种在智能变电站中应用EPL的方案。对该方案的通信性能进行了测试,测试结果表明该方案可行,为EPL技术的应用提供了参考。%Intelligent substation uses switched Ethernet to share data. In spite of simplicity and efficiency, it can’t promise timeliness. This paper introduces Ethernet POWERLINK (EPL) to improve the timeliness in substation. After analyzing EPL’s principle and protocol structure, EPL is transplanted using BF536 andμCOS real-time operating system. On this basis, this paper combines the data attribute in substation, introduces a solution which shows how to apply EPL in substation. Besides this, a comprehensive testing is carried out to explore the performance of the solution mentioned above. The test demonstrates the feasibility and provides a reference for its future application.

  11. Based on ethernet development of OPC client application program%基于以太网的OPC客户端应用程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝利

    2012-01-01

    西门子通过以太网建立起Simatic Net OPC Server与S7系列PLC的S7连接,基于以太网的OPC客户应用程序实现,达到对现场PLC数据的交互访问、远程控制的目的.开发的客户端程序可以成功应用于不同环境中对Siemens、GE PLC数据交互访问,充分达到软件复用性.%Brief description of how Siemens via Ethernet to establish S7 connection between Simatic Net OPC Server and S7 series PLC is also referredlmplementation of OPC client applications based on Ethernet can achieved the objective of field PLC data interactive access and remote control.This client applications has been successfully used in PLC of Siemens and GE data interactive access under different environments,and software reuse is fully realized.

  12. Program Design and Application of Ethernet Communication Based on ARM%基于ARM的以太网通信程序的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷婷; 孙旭; 谢兴红; 侯富强; 张稳

    2012-01-01

    Communication is the basic way to transport and share information between different systems.Ethernet is the basic and common Protocol Standards in the local network.Through the different transport media,Ethernet can realize the communication and connection between different devices.The paper is based on system hardware,focuses on the software design of communication interface,and develops the communication program based on the ARM Development Board.This application can send data which created by sensor to the client.%通信是各个系统进行数据交换,资源共享的基本方法。以太网是当今现有局域网采用的最通用的通信协议标准,它可以通过不同的传输媒体,实现各设备间的数据交换。文章在系统硬件基础上,着重研究了通信接口的软件设计,并编写了基于ARM开发板的通信程序。该程序能将传感器采集的数据传输至客户机。

  13. 基于ZedBoard的SPI和以太网传输设计%Design of SPI Interface and Ethernet Transmission Based on ZedBoard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡典荣; 郭春生

    2013-01-01

    该文介绍了ZedBoard平台下可编程逻辑端SPI接口和ARM处理器端以太网远端传输的设计。结合实例阐述了可编程逻辑端SPI接口设计和Linux下IP驱动生成,以及采用UDP/IP协议实现以太网传输的技术。实验结果证明了该系统能够精确地完成实时数据传输。%This paper introduces the design of SPI interface of programmable logic ( PL) end, and Ethernet transmission of ARM processor end on ZedBoard platform .Combined with instance expounds the design of SPI interface of programmable logic end , and IP driver generated under Linux , and the technology of adopting UDP/IP protocol to realize Ethernet transmission .The experimental results show that the system can accurately complete real-time data transmission .

  14. OBS-Ethernet汇聚网卡的IP设计与实现%Design and implement of IP core for the assembly card in OBS-Ethernet network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞燕如; 乐孜纯; 付明磊

    2011-01-01

    A novel design and implementation of OBS-Ethernet network assembly card based on Xilinx Spartan-3E is presented in this paper. A special SoC (system on chip) is built by means of microblaze which is used to design the IP core for OBS-Ethernet assembly card. The IP core is programmed by Verilog HDL language and debugged by EDK and ISE software.%OBS-Ethernet汇聚网卡以FPGA作为核心硬件,选用XILINX的Spartan 3E系列中的XC3S500E 芯片作为主芯片,在其上构建了基于MicroBlaze软核处理器的SOPC片上系统.根据MicroBlaze软核的开发环境,给出了实现OBS-Ethernet网络适配的IP核结构设计,使用VerilogHDL语言进行硬件实现,并在EDK软件平台和ISE软件平台进行了实验.

  15. Discussion on relationship between Ethernet MAC address and IP address%浅谈以太网中MAC地址与IP地址的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓有辉

    2013-01-01

    从以太网体系结构入手,重点阐述了以太网数据链路层的作用与功能,并引入了MAC地址的概念,分别介绍了MAC地址与IP地址的作用与功能.从而重点阐述了计算机网络中IP地址与以太网MAC地址的相互关系和作用.%This paper starts from the Ethemet architecture,focusing on the role and function of Ethemet data link layer,and describes the concept of MAC address,respectively describes the function of MAC address and IP address.It focuses on the relationship and interaction between computer network IP address and MAC address of the Ethernet.

  16. Remote Control of Tin Bath Power Regulator with Ethernet%以太网实现锡槽调功器远程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文安

    2009-01-01

    利用德国赫优讯Hilscher的NETLINK转换器通过以太网连接西门子S7-300 PLC,进行程序下载,并通过组态软件与PLC之间进行以太网数据通讯实现锡槽调功器的远程控制,使控制更准确,对老厂锡槽调功控制系统改造有一定的参考意义.%Remote control of fin bath power regulator was achieved by program download with NETLINK converter of Hilscher and S7-300PLC of Siemens and by Ethernet data communication between PLC and configuration software.

  17. AVR单片机实现以太网通信的研究%Reaching for the serial of AVR Microchip about Ethernet communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 付江波; 李金涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the design of Ethernet communication based on the serial of AVR microchip,at the same time reaching for driver program about the chip of ENC28J60 and designed the system software on the serial of AVR microchip.%研究基于Atmega16单片机与网络接口芯片ENC28J60实现以太网通信技术,详述ENC28J60网络接口芯片的特点及其应用,同时讨论ENC28J60驱动程序和系统软件程序的设计。

  18. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  19. Database on Aims and Visions in the COINCO Corridor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This database contains aims and visions regarding overall regional development as well as more specific aims and visions related to transport and infrastructure in the Corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The sources used for this database are the most essential planning documents from Denmark...

  20. Patriotism, history and the legitimate aims of American education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Merry

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaini

  1. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  2. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  3. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  4. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  5. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  6. What is Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  7. 开启工业设备无线连网的新纪元!——MOXA NPort NWH 650 Wireless Ethernet Client强热全场!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    工业通讯联网产品国际制造大厂—四零四科技(Moxa Technologies),日前发表全新工业级无线通讯Gateway—MOXA NPort NWH 650 Wireless Ethernet Client,让工业设备联网通讯正式迈入无线的时代。NPort NWH 650 Wireless Ethernet Client是专为工业以太网络设备而设计,可搭配MOXA NPort系列串行设备联网服务器,PLC,Web Camera,I/O Server...等使用,简化网络布线的麻烦,让建构工业以太网络更加的便捷。

  8. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  9. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  10. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  11. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  12. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Victoria I.; Gemma Tur

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analyse...

  13. 工业以太网与物联网互联模型的研究%Internetworking Protocol between Industrial Ethernet and Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉顺平

    2011-01-01

    Based on TCP/IP . A united protocol model of Industrial Ethernet (IE) and internet of things (IoT ) were produced . With which IE and IoT could be interworked. With Ethernet technology, IE and IoT were integrated together > which were former different nets. Applications of IoT and standard data communication of IE were on the basis of standard TCP/IP, while real- time data of IE were transmit-ted by extended TCP/IP. With electrical tags and data bases , functions of IoT also could be achieved to share information of products and components. Basic functions of IE and IoT could be achieved in the internetworked net. And many other integrated applications also could be accomplished. With a example, the feasibility and validity of the internetworking protocol model were confirmed.%以TCP/IP模型为基础,建立了统一的物联网与工业以太网通信模型,实现了物联网与工业网络的互联;基于以太网技术,两种不同功能的网络可通过统一的模型进行集成;物联网和工业以太网的标准数据部分是基于标准TCP/IP模型的,而工业以太网协议的实时数据部分是基于扩展TCP/IP模型的;物联网以电子标签和数据库为基础,实现零部件和产品信息的实时共享和互通;互联网络既可以各自实现工控和物联的基本功能,还可以实现各种综合的交互功能;应用实例证明了网络互联模型的可行性和正确性.

  14. 基于μCOS-II技术的考勤机设计%Design based on ethernet in axle tracing management terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文虎; 杨峰

    2014-01-01

    Designed a attendance system terminal which used a STM32 microprocessor as the core. On the hardware side, the terminal includes the STM32F207 minimum system, Ethernet communication unit, SD card storage unit, ID card recognition unit, video unit, TFT LCD touch unit, detection and control unit and power supply circuit. On the software side, the terminal is embedded a real-time operating system (μC/OS-Ⅱ), the the the lightweight IP protocol stack(LWIP) and a graphical user interface (μC/GUI). On the one hand, the terminal corresponding to the ID card information stored in document form to the local SD card for the query; The other hand, the information is transmitted via Ethernet, and the host computer handles the attendance statistics, which garanteed the efficiency, fairness and truthfulness. Used the Keil MDK and the dragon STM32F207 development board to do the simulation experiment, these futrues make the terminal working reliable, transmissing stable and facing friendly, and basicly realized the attendence function.%基于STM32系列微处理器的考勤系统终端,硬件包括STM32F207最小系统、以太网通信单元、SD卡存储单元、ID卡识别单元、摄像单元、TFT液晶触摸单元、检测及控制单元及电源供电电路;软件嵌入了实时操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ、LWIP轻型IP协议栈及用户图形界面μC/GUI.终端采取无源ID卡识别与头像数据采集同步进行的方式记录员工的出勤情况,一方面将与 ID 卡对应的头像信息以文件形式保存至本地 SD 卡,以供查询;另一方面将信息通过以太网传送至上位机,并由上位机完成考勤统计.利用Keil MDK软件及金龙STM32F207开发板实验仿真表明:终端运行可靠,传输稳定,操作界面友好,实现了设计功能.

  15. Design of an Ethernet-port Display System Based on Nios II Processor%基于NiosⅡ处理器的以太网口显示屏系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继业

    2013-01-01

    文章提出了一种基于NiosII处理器的以太网口显示屏系统的软硬件实现方案,以取代常见的串口显示屏系统。该方案以一片FPGA为核心,其中设计了NiosII处理器、LCD显示控制器、以太网接口模块等模块,配合外围的SDRAM存储器、以太网接口芯片、显示屏构成整个硬件设计。软件上,接收上位机发送的以太网协议数据包,在显示屏上显示相应图形。该以太网口显示屏系统,克服了与上位机的连接距离限制,具有较高显示分辨率、显示数据更新较快的特点,有较高应用价值。%This paper proposes a display system implementation scheme in order to replace the common serial-port display system, which based on the NiosII processor through Ethernet ports, including software and hardware solution. The hardware solution includes the NiosII processor, LCD display, Ethernet ports, SDRAM memory, Ethernet controlling IC and the major display. In the software solution, it designs a protocol analysis algorithm of network packets based on the Ethernet and shows it on the display. The highlights in this paper are overcoming the limit of the distance between the equipment and the PC, owning super high resolution and much shorter refresh time.

  16. Design of Ethernet-CAN conversion interface circuit based on C8051F040%基于C8051F040的以太网-CAN转换电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车行; 郭建洲

    2011-01-01

    In the development of actual application, Ethernet and CAN bus are used very extensively. Owing to its various communication protocols, the communicating between two kinds of bus device can't be carried out. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, the Ethernet-CAN bus interface circuit based on CP2200 and C8051F040 was designed in this paper,and part of the related hardware circuit and software design analysis were given. On the condition of data's integrity and protocols' reliability, through the handshaking protocols and the simplified the Ethernet protocol, not only the data switching between CAN and Ethernet was realized, but also the differ in velocity and packet size was solved.%以太网和CAN总线应用广泛,但由于其通信协议不同,两种总线器件间无法进行数据通信,因此,设计了基于CP2200与C8051F040的以太网总线与CAN总线接口转换电路,并给出部分相关硬件电路与软件设计分析.在保证数据完整和协议可靠的前提下,通过握手协议和简化的以太网协议,不仅实现了以太网数据与CAN数据的转发,同时还顺利的解决了以太网的高速性与CAN的低速率冲突,以及两者数据包之间的大小不同的矛盾.

  17. Performance analysis of measured FTP/TCP bandwidth which bearer Ethernet private line%以太网专线FTP/TCP实测带宽性能问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑吉妮; 黄河; 王方金

    2015-01-01

    In IP-based communications network development trends, the demand of Ethernet bandwidth leased by corporate customers is growing rapidly. How to solve the problem of bandwidth capacity is particularly important. From two aspects of FTP / TCP theoretical and the measured current network bandwidth, this paper studies the performance issues of PTN + MSTP hybrid network which carrying Ethernet private line service. Finaly gets the effective scheme, which solve the bandwidth problem of transmission network carrying Ethernet services.%在通信网络IP化发展趋势下,集团客户租用运营商以太网专线带宽的需求增长迅速,运营商如何解决带宽容量问题尤为重要.本文将从"FTP/TCP理论及现网带宽实测案例"两个方面对PTN+MSTP混合组网承载以太网专线业务的性能问题进行分析,总结得出传送网络承载以太网业务时带宽局限的有效解决方案.

  18. 基于S3C2416的嵌入式USB2.0/以太网转换器设计%Design of Embedded USB2.0 / Ethernet Converter Based on S3C2416

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博; 曾真; 陈敬东

    2012-01-01

    文章介绍了一个基于S3C2416的嵌入式USB2.0/以太网转换器设计方案,采用以太网控制器DM9000a成功实现USB2.0到以太网的高速、高效率的数据交换.论文阐述了USB接口和网络接口电路基础上,重点对嵌入式Linux系统下的USB Gadget驱动框架和DM9000a的驱动程序进行了具体分析.%This paper describes an embedded USB2. 0 / Ethernet converter design, it is successful to realize the data exchange of USB2. 0 to Ethernet, using Ethernet controller DM9000a,with high-speed, high efficiency. A USB interface and the network interface circuit are described, particularly focusing on the USB Gadget driver framework in embedded Linux systems and DM9000a drivers for specific analysis.

  19. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  20. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics

  1. Research on Time- Triggerd- Ethernet Synchronization and Scheduling Mechanism%时间触发以太网同步及调度机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晚春; 李峭; 何锋; 熊华钢

    2011-01-01

    说明并分析时间触发以太网(TTE,Time -Triggerd-Ethenet)的时间同步机制,对于采用时间触发机制调度的周期性任务,提出生成周期调度时刻表的方法,利用万法可以根据离线生成的调度时刻表进行调度,也可以动态地将通信任务加入或撤出调度时刻表,调度时刻表的设计避免时间触发的数据包争用物理链路.构造相应的网络通信场景,通过生成调度时刻表的算例与仿真结果进行了验证.%With the comprehending and analyzing the time synchronization mechanism in Time-Triggered -Ethernet (TTE) networks, a method is presented for time- triggered periodic communication tasks to generate periodic scheduling timetables. This method can not only provide oil- line generated timetables for scheduling,but also support on- line modification for dynamical task insertion and withdrawal. And well-designed timetables can be used for packet scheduling and routing without congestion in physical links. Constructed a corresponding network communication scenario,by generating an example of schedule timetable and simulation results to verify the method.

  2. Research on free space optical ethernet communication using visible light%以太网自由空间可见光通信系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    干雄龙; 陈长缨; 魏其锋; 李龙亮; 王桂宾

    2013-01-01

    Free space optical base on visible light is widely used in the occasions that optical carrier is requested to be visible.A project that FSO system using visible light serves for Ethernet is proposed.The research focuses on the visible LED array light source,the simulation of parabolic antennas,and new design of optical diversity receiver.In the end,the system performance is evaluated.%基于可见光的自由空间光通信(FSO)在某些要求载体光必须被人眼所见的场合拥有广泛的用途.提出了一种在可见光FSO系统中使用以太网技术的方案,重点研究系统中可见光LED阵列光源,抛物面天线的软件模拟,新型分集接收器的设计原理等关键技术,最后测量系统的实际性能.

  3. Realisation and Analysis on Ethernet-based Switch SDN Functionality%基于以太网交换机的SDN功能实现与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑睿

    2014-01-01

    From terminal to network, virtualisation is the most import trend of IT evolution, to match this trend, SDN network comes true. Consider this evolution based on ethernet switch, definite the position and function requirement of switch, preliminary analysis current conformance and challenge, point out the emphasis interest on time delay and synchronisation, and try to give many examples of thinking and effort to answer this challenge from essential vendors.%适应当前从终端到网络不断虚拟化,面向应用的发展趋势,SDN(Software Defined Network)网络应运而生。从以太网交换机的角度看待这一趋势,明确以太网交换机的位置和作用,初步分析交换机目前的适配能力以及面临的挑战,指出在时延与同步上的关注点,并试举主流厂商在当前SDN挑战下的思考以及在交换机智能化上所做的努力。

  4. Realization of small embedded Ethernet access devices%小型嵌入式以太网接入设备实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Internet applications take PC as the center, now Internet application has gradually turned to embedded equipment for the center. At present in the industrial control area, wide use of SCM system mainly uses RS232 and RS485 and the CAN bus agreement to communicate, and they do not direcdy communicate on the Internet. To meet the needs of access to Internet, data formats and transformation of communicate protocol have to convert. This paper introduces realization of Ethernet access based on microcontroller chip STC and net chip DM9000.%传统的Internet应用以PC为中心,现在Internet应用已逐步转向以嵌入式设备为中心.目前在工业控制领域,大量广泛使用单片机系统主要通过RS232、RS485和CAN总线协议进行通信,它们无法直接接于互联网,要接入互联网这需要进行数据格式的改造和通信协议的转换.介绍了基于STC单片机与DM9000的以太网接入接口实现.

  5. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  6. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  7. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities ove...

  8. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety i

  9. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  10. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  12. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  13. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  14. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  15. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  16. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  17. Expert Systems Aimed at General Design of Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; HOU Ni-na; HU Yu-hui

    2007-01-01

    Expert systems aimed at the general design of projectiles can implement a series of intelligent designs, such as the design of HE shell, the scheme expounded and proved, the emulation analysis and calculation, etc. Aiming at the product design feature, the expert system adopts the object-oriented knowledge representation and all kinds of inference control engines to describe and reason the relevant knowledge regarding the product through the microcomputer. It embodies the foundation of emulation analysis and simulated manufacturing of the shell. It makes use of the method that knowledge expression is combined with condition of inference to carry out the overall design and emulation and reference.The paper gives the ways through which the functions can be achieved, gives the modularization of reference and the design methods of systematization, puts forward the method of knowledge expression and working interface, and supplies a platform for similar products of the shell category that can be quickly designed.

  18. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  19. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its ...

  20. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  1. ESF funded training for unemployed women: policy aims and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Brine, Jacky

    1993-01-01

    The European Social Fund (ESF) provides funding for vocational training projects for unemployed women aged over 25. This research traces the development of ESF policies and interpretations from within the European Commission and the British government from 1958 to 1993. The position of women within the European and British labour markets provides the basis of the evaluation of the ESF's aim to increase employability through training linked to the needs of the labour market. The study is b...

  2. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  3. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  4. Sinochem Aims to Quadruple Overseas Oil Output by 2020

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Di

    2012-01-01

    Sinochem,China's fourth biggest oil company aims to nearly quadruple its overseas oil and gas output to 300,000 barrels oil equivalent per day by 2020, building three production hubs in Colombia, Brazil and the Middle East, according to the company's sources. The plan will require billions of dollars in investment and may prove a tough task for the state-run company that is largely a trader of oil and fertiliser and a property developer. Its oil and gas assets are dwarfed by "big oil" firms such as Sinopec Corp. PetroChina and CNOOC Ltd.

  5. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  6. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  7. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  8. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  9. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  11. Europeans still aiming for 700{degree}C steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, S.; Bugge, J.; Stolzenberger, C. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark)

    2004-11-01

    The AD700 development programme: what has been achieved, what is happening how, what are the next steps? The article presents results of Phase 1 (almost complete); phase 2 on preparatory work (to be completed at the end of 2005), phase 2 component demonstration (underway) and phases 4, 5 and 6 full scale demo (to span 2008-2012). Two materials - nickel based alloy 740 and austenic steel SANICRO have been successfully developed and work on nickel alloy 617 for boiler tubes and steam lines is well under way. Other materials too are being developed. A question remains as to whether the European Commission will give sufficient support to the full scale demonstration plant through FP7. FENCO the 'Fossil Energy Coalition' is aiming to get fossil energy back into the Commission's R & D programme. The article is based on presentation to the VDI conference, Wurzburg, Germany, 13-14 September 2004. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that aim-oriented empiricism (AOE), a conception of natural science that I have defended at some length elsewhere, is a kind of synthesis of the views of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos, but is also an improvement over the views of all three. Whereas Popper's falsificationism protects metaphysical assumptions implicitly made by science from criticism, AOE exposes all such assumptions to sustained criticism, and furthermore focuses criticism on those assumptions most likely to need revision if science is to make progress. Even though AOE is, in this way, more Popperian than Popper, it is also, in some respects, more like the views of Kuhn and Lakatos than falsificationism is. AOE is able, however, to solve problems which Kuhn's and Lakatos's views cannot solve.

  13. Complementary coordination strategies in a joint Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Skewes, Lea; Michael, J.;

    How do dyads coordinate their actions to achieve a common goal when one person has the more difficult task? In the present study, dyads were instructed to engage in a Fitts’s reciprocal aiming task as accurately as possible, and at a given tempo sent through their headphones. They were...... was assigned to either the target’s role – with varying target width, and hence task difficulty – or the reference role – with the widest (easiest) target. Results show that when the task was performed interactively with the other person, they were most synchronized, and also used the target most similarly......, while compromising rhythmic accuracy. In addition, as task difficulty increased for the member with the target’s role, the participant with the reference role became more adaptive to her tempo. This suggests that interacting members of a dyad optimally negotiate coordination strategies to achieve...

  14. Characterization of electric arc furnace dust aiming reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to study the characterize of steelmaking dust, from the primary refining of steel in Electric Arc Furnace, in order to verify feasibility of reuse through the addition of hot metal in the form of briquette. The techniques used to characterize the dust was chemical analyses, size separation tests, X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). After characterization, was the calculation of reductant considering the complete reduction of iron oxides and then to briquetting. The waste sample is composed essentially of spherical particles and has a very small particle size (85% below 10 μm). The XRD has presented compounds such as ZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, ZnO e SiO2. This work showed that its possible recovery approximately 92% of metal iron from dust generated during steelmaking.This (author)

  15. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  16. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  17. Education and religion in advertising aimed at children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ponick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical and analytical reflection on the issue of education and religion in advertising aimed at children. It describes distinctive features of postmodernity – immediacy, consumerism and secularization – as constitutive elements of our time and characterizes media as a sort of all-powerful being that channels, processes, produces and disseminates these postmodern attributes, while offering products that form and shape the way of life of Western society. The article goes on to analyze the content of two advertisements, identifying in them the possible presence of an educational religious-theological discourse. It contends that there is an intrinsic relation between education and religion in advertising, one which strongly influences the learning, thinking and acting patterns of children through such practices as gaining power by what they consume and seeing consumption as a means to attain a more prominent position in this world. In advertising, forms of socialization are presented to children. Finally, it is suggested that one way to introduce and discuss advertisements in educational contexts is by reading and analyzing the narratives of advertising together with the children.

  18. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  19. Ecolabel and ecodesign. Aims impossible for small and medium companies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly held by now that a policy of sustainable development in the production sector cannot be faced in terms of simply reducing the environmental impact at the end of the production chain but should be imprinted with a preventive approach which, intervening on the production cycles and the products themselves, helps minimize pressure on the environment. To be competitive manufacturing industry must contribute a determinant amount to sustainable development by reducing the material content of products and increasing their use value, through processes and products-services that are innovative, safer, cleaner and based on a low use of natural resources. To be effective and avoid merely shifting the problem, this work should not be aimed at the level of individual plants or industries but be broadly planned, taking into account the entire value chain and hence the product's whole life-cycle. In addition, support should be given to small and medium-sized companies that characterize Italian production, because they find it hard to use the tools of a product policy originally ideated for big business

  20. Motivation, procedures and aims of reacting plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project of reacting plasma experiment (R-project) was proposed at the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP), Nagoya University. It is necessary to bridge plasma physics and fusion engineering by means of a messenger wire like burning plasma experiment. This is a motivation of the R-project. The university linkage organization of Japan for fusion engineering category carried out a lot of contribution to R-tokamak design. The project consists of four items, namely, R-tokamak design, research and development (R and D), site and facilities, and international collaboration. The phase 1 experiment (R1 - phase) corresponds to burning plasma experiment without D + T fuel, while the phase-2 experiment (R2-phase) with D + T fuel. One reference design was finished. Intensive efforts have been carried out by the R and D team on the following items, wall material, vacuum system, tritium system, neutronics, remote control system, pulsed superconducting magnet development, negative ion source, and alpha-particle diagnostics. The problems concerning site and major facilities are also important, because tritium handling, neutron and gamma-ray sky shines and the activation of devices cause impact to surrounding area. The aims of burning plasma experiment are to enter tritium into the fusion device, and to study burning plasma physics. (Kato, T.)

  1. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT (CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT) in 2011, and HALO during ML-CIRRUS (Mid-Latitude CIRRUS) in 2014. The comparison of AIMS-H2O with the SHARC tunable

  2. 基于Ethernet/IP可互操作的楼宇自动化解决方案--LonWorks设备联网技术进入IP世界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣卓

    2004-01-01

    本文主要介绍IP建筑自动化市场的需求,LonWorks与工业以太网相结合的标准--EIA852,以及基于Ethernet/IP可互操作BA系统的构成:LonMark IP 852信道、IP852路由器、IP 852控制器、IP 852网络分析;TAC基于IP 852的互操作解决方案.

  3. [Peptide synthesis aiming at elucidation and creation of protein functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaki, S

    1998-11-01

    The recent development of molecular biology has been elucidating outlines of the cross-talk of biomolecules. The understanding of the function of these biomolecules from the viewpoint of chemistry is now demanded not only for the understanding of biological systems but also for the creation of novel functional molecules. Here two topics are described about peptide synthesis aiming at the elucidation and the creation of protein functions. The first topic is the development of approaches for the synthesis of Tyr (SO3H)-containing peptides. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the most popular protein post-translational modifications. Synthetic peptides are of great help for the elucidation of the biological significance of tyrosine sulfation. We have developed two approaches for the efficient synthesis of tyrosine sulfate [Tyr (SO3H)]-containing peptides. The first approach employs a dimethylformamide-sulfur trioxide (DMF-SO3) complex as a sulfating agent and safety-catch protecting groups for the selective sulfation of tyrosine in the presence of serine. The second approach employs the direct introduction of Tyr(SO3H) into the peptide chain in the form of Fmoc-Tyr(SO3Na) followed by deprotection at 4 degrees C in trifluoroacetic acid. These approaches were successfully applied for the synthesis of cholecystokinin (CCK)-related peptides. The second topic deals with new approaches for the creation of artificial proteins through assembling alpha-helical peptides via selective disulfide or thioether formation. Approaches to assemble individual peptide segments on a peptide template were also developed. Four peptides corresponding to the transmembrane segments of the sodium channel (S4 in repeat I-IV) were assembled on a peptide template to give a protein having ion channel activity with rectification.

  4. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p collagen. Delamination of the inferior wall of the SS was mostly possible in its inferior wall, but an attempt to delaminate the lateral walls is not recommended. Ultrastructural assessment corroborated a recent report of the presence of muscle fibers in the inferior wall of the SS. PMID:26745473

  5. Application of cytokine aiming at overcoming marrow control after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative and qualitative changes in hematopoietic stem cells exposed to irradiation in combination of cytokine were investigated aiming to prevent bone marrow suppression. Two cell lines; KM-3 and Reh cells derived human undifferentiated B lymphocyte lymphoma were transplanted to SCID mice, an immunodefficiency mouse and the grafted mice were used as a human pediatric lymphoma model. The subjects were exposed to radiation at 5.0 and 7.0 Gy. After the exposure, the mice were housed under SPF conditions and the surviving rate, tumor cell degeneration and changes in peripheral lymphocyte count were examined. In addition, kinetic changes of the myelo-precursor cells including hematopoietic stem cells were investigated. Although tumor degeneration by the radiation exposure was marked, bone marrow suppression was still distinct. For exposure to 7 Gy, the tumor cells almost disappeared, but bone marrow suppression was severe, resulting that most of the animals died of bone marrow suppression. However, when G-CSF was given in combination with the exposure, its effects on their surviving were marked for either of the doses tested. The number of CFU-S in the bone marrow was significantly decreased in the SCID mice exposed to 5 Gy or 7 Gy, but that of the mice exposed to it in combination with G-CSF was higher than that of the mice exposed without it. The number of CFU-GM showed similar tendency to that of CFU-S. Clinical application of G-CSF has been progressed because it was demonstrated that the cytokine has no adverse effects on human. The present study showed therapeutic efficacy of G-CSF in subjects exposed to radiation. (M.N.)

  6. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  7. DFT and AIM studies of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicoumarols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density functional calculations with Becke's three parameter hybrid method using the correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) were carried out for 3,3'-benzylidenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (phenyldicoumarol, PhDC), 3,3'-methylenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (dicoumarol, DC) and the parent compound, 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC). Different basis sets were tested in the course of the calculations: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311G*. In full agreement with available X-ray data, B3LYP/6-31G* calculations of the lowest-energy conformer, PhDC showed two O-H···O asymmetrical intramolecular hydrogen bonds with O···O distances 2.638 and 2.696 A. The HB energies in PhDC were estimated of -55.46 and -52.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained correlated with the calculated and experimental O···O distances and predicted difference in the hydrogen bonding strengths in PhDC. The total HB energy in PhDC was calculated of -107.73 kJ/mol. At the same level of theory, both O···O intramolecular distances in DC were calculated identical (2.696 A) and thus two symmetrical hydrogen bondings were obtained. The single HB strength was estimated of -50.89 kJ/mol and the total one of -101.79 kJ/mol. The electron density (ρb) and Laplacian (∇2ρb) properties, estimated by AIM calculations, showed that both O···H bonds have low ρb and positive ∇2ρb values (consistent with electrostatic character of the HBs), whereas both O-H bonds have covalent character (∇2ρb-1) in comparison with that obtained for the second O-H which forms the weaker HB in PhDC (-559 cm-1)

  8. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  9. Research and application of EtherCAT based on high speed industrial Ethernet%基于高速工业以太网的EtherCAT应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶一枝

    2016-01-01

    随着工业4.0的发展,基于高速工业以太网的工业自动化现场总线(EtherCAT)技术发展迅速,在微电网、机器人和定日镜厂等领域,需要高速高效控制技术,以实现对控制对象的实时操作与控制,基于高速工业以太网的EtherCAT技术可以实现微秒级的实时控制。%Along with the development of industrial 4.0, based on fast industrial Ethernet in industrial automation Fieldbus EtherCAT technology is developing rapidly,in the field of micro grid,robot and a heliostat factory and need to high speed and high efficiency control technology,to achieve the real-time operation and control of the controlled object,based on fast industrial Ethernet EtherCAT technology can realize the real-time control of the microsecond.

  10. 基于千兆以太网的高清电子警察取证系统设计%Design of evidence gathering system by high-definition electronic police based on gigabit ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 赵海; 张玲

    2012-01-01

    利用高清CCD图像传感器,结合FPGA并行处理、灵活性高等特点,设计一种基于千兆以太网的电子警察取证系统.系统采用200万像素高清CCD采集图像数据,并使用FPGA对图像数据进行格式转换、校正以及千兆以太网数据打包以实现高清真彩图像的快速处理与高速传输.有效地解决了传统取证系统由于画面质量差而造成违章证据不充分所带来的执法纠纷.%Take advantage of HD CCD image sensor,combining with the ability of parallel processing and high flexibility of FPGA,an evidence gathering system by electronic police based on gigabit ethernet is designed. The system uses 200 million pixel HD CCD to acquire image data,and uses FPGA for format conversion,correction of image data and gigabit Ethernet data packing in order to achieve rapid processing and transmission of high-definition true color image. It effectively solves enforcement dispute which is caused by lack of evidence due to bad quality image of traditional evidence gathering system.

  11. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2011-01-01

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer. How

  12. Deterministic Ethernet for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidi, C.; Wolff, B.

    2015-09-01

    Typical spacecraft systems are distributed to be able to achieve the required reliability and availability targets of the mission. However the requirements on these systems are different for launchers, satellites, human space flight and exploration missions. Launchers require typically high reliability with very short mission times whereas satellites or space exploration missions require very high availability at very long mission times. Comparing a distributed system of launchers with satellites it shows very fast reaction times in launchers versus much slower once in satellite applications. Human space flight missions are maybe most challenging concerning reliability and availability since human lives are involved and the mission times can be very long e.g. ISS. Also the reaction times of these vehicles can get challenging during mission scenarios like landing or re-entry leading to very fast control loops. In these different applications more and more autonomous functions are required to fulfil the needs of current and future missions. This autonomously leads to new requirements with respect to increase performance, determinism, reliability and availability. On the other hand side the pressure on reducing costs of electronic components in space applications is increasing, leading to the use of more and more COTS components especially for launchers and LEO satellites. This requires a technology which is able to provide a cost competitive solution for both the high reliable and available deep-space as well as the low cost “new space” markets. Future spacecraft communication standards therefore have to be much more flexible, scalable and modular to be able to deal with these upcoming challenges. The only way to fulfill these requirements is, if they are based on open standards which are used cross industry leading to a reduction of the lifecycle costs and an increase in performance. The use of a communication network that fulfills these requirements will be essential for such spacecraft’s to allow the use in launcher, satellite, human space flight and exploration missions. Using one technology and the related infrastructure for these different applications will lead to a significant reduction of complexity and would moreover lead to significant savings in size weight and power while increasing the performance of the overall system. The paper focuses on the use of the TTEthernet technology for launchers, satellites and human spaceflight and will demonstrate the scalability of the technology for the different applications. The data used is derived from the ESA TRP 7594 on “Reliable High-Speed Data Bus/Network for Safety-Oriented Missions”.

  13. Ethernet-удлинитель для USB-устройств

    OpenAIRE

    Долгушин, Сергей

    2011-01-01

    Шина USB в настоящее время является одним из самых распространенных интерфейсов для связи различных устройств с ПК. Но у этого интерфейса есть существенное ограничение на длину кабеля не более 5 м. Предлагаем познакомиться с новыми изделиями немецкой компании AK-Nord, которые представляют собой USB-Ethernet конвертеры или, по терминологии производителя, USB-серверы. Эти устройства можно рассматривать в качестве виртуального удлинителя, использующего локальную сеть для передачи USB-пакетов....

  14. Research on Task Download Technique of Multi-DSP Parallel System Based on Ethernet%多DSP的以太网并行系统任务下载技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦鑫; 黎英

    2012-01-01

    为了实现基于以太网的嵌入式并行系统的实时仿真应用,在分析并行仿真系统结构的基础上,根据BF548装载文件结构的特点,研究了DSP的启动方式和任务程序加载过程,提出一种基于以太网的初始化代码多重加载的下载方法.该方法可实现DSP启动后自动下载任务程序,解决了多DSP并行系统任务下载过程复杂繁琐的问题.通过实际测试,验证了该下载方法的实用性、可行性和有效性,为并行仿真应用提供了一种方便、灵活的实验手段和实现技术.%In order to achieve the real-time simulation application of embedded parallel system based on Ethernet,the DSP boot mode and the loading process are researched according to the analysis of the parallel simulation system structure and the basic characteristic of BF548 loader file structure. This paper also proposes a kind of download method based on Ethernet's initialization code multiple-load. This method can realize task program automatic download after DSP launched and solve the problem of complex download procedure of DSP parallel system. Through the actual test,the feasibility and validity of the download method have been verified,which provide a convenient and flexible experimental method and implementation technique of parallel simulation.

  15. 一种支持USB和以太网端口的数据采集器设计%The design of data acquisition device based on USB and Ethernet port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 宋晓梅; 巩学芳

    2014-01-01

    In order to transmit acquiring data to the industry terminal with different communication ports ,a data acquisition device is designed which can support USB and Ethernet port .The data acquisi‐tion device contains data acquisition and transmission module and PC graphical user interface (GUI) software module .The former configured with dual‐processor by C8051F340 is used to realize data trans‐mission through the USB and the Ethernet port ,meanwhile the latter based on LabVIEW gets acquiring data through such ports and displays the waveform .The data acquisition device supports two different ports ,has a variety of operating mode ,and visually displays acquiring data by waveform .%为了将采集的数据传输给具有不同通信端口的工业终端,设计了一种支持U SB和以太网端口的数据采集器。该数据采集器由数据采集、传输模块和PC机图形用户界面(GUI)软件模块组成,采集与传输模块采用双C8051 F340处理器架构,采集的数据分别实现了U SB传输和以太网传输,基于LabVIEW的GUI软件通过上述端口获取数据并进行波形显示。实验表明,该数据采集器支持两种端口,具有多种工作模式,以波形方式直观显示采集数据。

  16. 基于工业以太的木工机械雕刻机数控系统开发思路%Research of CNC System for Wood Carving Based on Industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王体泮; 张健; 熊金

    2015-01-01

    为了满足木工机械雕刻行业对数控系统在工艺、集成性、成本、集成性、可维修性等方面的综合要求,提出基于工业以太网结构的木工机械雕刻机数控系统的开发思路.阐述了基于以太网接口的木工机械雕刻机数控系统的体系构架,并成功应用于实际产品设计开发中.研究结果表明:新体系构架下的控制系统能极好地满足主机厂的配套要求,提供更为灵活的配置选择,兼顾成本和工艺控制要求,具有很高的性价比.%puts forward a new idea which is used to research the wood carving system based on industrial Ethernet in order to satisfy the need of craftwork and integration and cost and service in wood carving industry for CNC system. The article describes the structure a of CNC system for wood carving based on industry Ethernet, and the method is used to research in practical production successfully. The result of research indicates that the CNC system based on new structure satisfies the need of factory and provides flexible configuration choice and meets requirements of cost control and craftwork control with high cost performance.

  17. 基于单片机—以太网的酒店客房数字终端%Hotel Rooms Digital Terminal Based on Single Chip Microcomputer-ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯宝中; 蔡启仲

    2012-01-01

    本设计实现基于单片机和以太网的酒店客房数字终端.该终端可以为顾客提供“服务项目查询、交通信息查询、天气查询、电话号码查询、服务员呼叫”和“有害气体监控、客人提醒、无匙门锁、远程客房控制”等功能,为酒店加快客房数字化进程提供了有效的解决方案.该数字终端由飞利浦基于ARM7内核的单片微型控制器LPC2136和微芯公司的以太网控制器ENC28J60组成,通过移植TCP/IP协议,使该数字终端可以自由接入局域网络实现与服务器的高速通讯.本文重点阐述了以太网控制器ENC28J60底层驱动的编写过程,以及在LPC2136系统平台上实现TCP/IP协议的过程.系统使用四维导航键和图形点阵式LCD构成良好易用的人机交互界面,使顾客操作起来更加方便.%A hotel room's digital terminal based on a single chip microcomputer and Ethernet is designed. "Service project inquiry, traffic information, weather information, telephone number query, the waiter call" and "harmful gas monitoring, alerting, guests keyless locks and remote control functions such as room" by the digital terminal to provide customers for the hotel rooms, accelerate the process of digital provides effective solution. The digital terminal by Phillips ARM7 based single chip micro controller LPC2136 and Microchip Company Ethernet controller ENC28J60 composition, through the transplantation of TCP/IP protocol; so that the digital terminal can be freely accessed local area network and server t o realize the high speed communication. In the article, the Ethernet controller ENC28J60 bottom-lever driver, as well as in the LPC2136 system platform to achieve TCP/IP protocol process was expounded. Designed dimension navigation keys and dot matrix LCD constitutes a good and easy to use interface, so that customers more convenient operation the digital terminal.

  18. Study and realisation of a gateway between a MIL1553 network and an Ethernet network. Implementation of the OS9NET homogeneous network and of the TCP/IP heterogeneous network on the OS-9/68000 real time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the design of a homogeneous network for machines acquiring data in real time, and the interconnection by a heterogeneous network of this group with three groups of mini-computers, workstations, and personal computers. Thus, this work involved hardware as well as software designs and developments. After a recall of main notions related to networks, and a presentation of the OS9 real time core, the author reports the design and development of the Ethernet controller card. He reports the design and realisation of a gateway between Ethernet and MIL1553 which is notably based on the previously mentioned controller card. An Ethernet driver is then designed for the OS9 operating system. As the connection with other machines which do not support OS9, requires the development of applications using TCP/IP protocols, the author describes how software designed for PCs have been adapted for a use in real time and for the OS9 operating system. He presents an additional software layer to TCP/IP for an inter-process communication through a heterogeneous network. This layer allows the development of applications distributed among systems which possess different processors and operating systems. Finally, the author presents a test protocol which ensures the fast transfer of memory blocks between OS9 machines

  19. Communicating Aims and Learning Goals in Physical Education: Part of a Subject for Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelius, Karin; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also…

  20. 基于以太网的环境安全数据采集系统设计%Design of environmental security data acquisition system based on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慕涵; 张文琪

    2015-01-01

    本系统以STC15F2K60S2单片机为核心控制器,借助W5100网络模块,利用以太网传输技术,将烟雾传感器、温湿度传感器、火焰传感器测得的环境数据通过W5100网络模块的Socket通道发送至多台客户端上位机,上位机也可以发送特定的指令再由W5100模块传回至单片机,实现了上位机与下位机的双向通信。%The system selects STC15F2K60S2 as the core controller,with W5100 network module and the Ethernet transmission technology,using smoke sensor,temperature and humidity sensor,flame sensor measuring environmental data and transmitting them to the client PC,PC can also send a specified instruction to the MCU and order it executing some actions.The bidirectional communication between the upper computer and the lower computer is realized.

  1. Implementation of communication between Siemens PLC and level two computer with Ethernet%利用以太网实现西门子PLC与二级计算机的通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明; 王锬

    2011-01-01

    归纳基于以太网的西门子PLC与二级计算机通信的几种方案。在介绍每种方案的基本原理后,针对常用编程工具在实现过程中可能遇到的问题给出解决办法,并结合马鞍山钢铁股份有限公司的生产实践比较了每种方案的优缺点和适用场合。实际应用表明这些方法简便实用,经过长时间的运行,证明它们可以满足工业生产的要求,对类似项目有一定的借鉴作用。%Several schemes of communication between Siemens PLC and level two computer based on Ethernet are summarized, and basic principle of each communication scheme is introduced. Solutions of problems what common programming tools come across in implementing process of communication scheme are given. Advantages, weaknesses and suitable application occasions of all schemes are compared, combining with Masteel' s production practice. Application shows that these schemes are simple and practical. Long time running proves that they can meet the requirement of industrial production. For similar projects, they have reference role.

  2. 一种实现以太接入网QoS保障技术的探针单元%One kind of probe unit on QoS Assurance in Ethernet Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    文章通过对传统的以太网技术进行分析,在讨论了QoS(Quality of Service,服务质量保证)、SLA(Service Level Agreement,服务等级协议)、带宽管理、运营管理等概念之后,简介以太接入网如何实现为不同的业务提供不同优先级的服务,并能够根据优先级的不同为业务提供一定程度上的服务质量保证。据此研发出了一种新型的、电信级的、能够提供一定服务质量保证的基于以太网技术的宽带接入网产品—探针。%Through analyzing the traditional Ethernet technology, and after the definition of QoS, SLA,bandwidth management, maintain management, this article introduces how to provide different priority service level to different kind of data, also provide some service level assurance to some extent. Based on this, a new kind of product which on telecommunication level and can assure SLA has been opened up.

  3. A kind of intrusion detection system of wireless Ad Hoc ethernet based on domain%一种基于域的无线Ad HOC网络入侵检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚媛媛

    2012-01-01

    无线Ad Hoc网络因其高度动态的拓扑、无线链路、无固定基础设施的支持等一些特性使得它与其他网络相比是非常脆弱的.现有针对有线网络开发的IDS很难适用于这种网络.提出一种称为ZBIDS(Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System)的入侵检测系统,该系统采用两级层次化结构,属于分布式IDS.ZBIDS系统通过基于马尔可夫链的分类器来检测具有序列化特征的入侵.仿真结果表明,基于马尔可夫链的分类器具有较好的入侵检测性能.%Wireless Ad Hoc ethernet is comparatively vulnerable its characteristics such as dynamic topology, wireless connection and non-fixed foundation. The current IDS which are developed to suit network connection can' t adapt to the wireless one. This essay suggests the Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System (ZBIDS) which adopts two-stage hierarchical structure, belonging to distributive IDS. The ZBIDS can detect the ordered intrusion by the Markov chain classifier. The simulation results show that the Markov chain classifier can better detect the intrusion.

  4. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) expression in alveolar macrophages in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Jun; Araya, Jun; Hara, Hiromichi; Ito, Saburo; Takasaka, Naoki; Kobayashi, Kenji; Fujii, Satoko; Tsurushige, Chikako; Numata, Takanori; Ishikawa, Takeo; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Kawaishi, Makoto; Saito, Keisuke; Kamiya, Noriki; Hirano, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Marked accumulation of alveolar macrophages (AM) conferred by apoptosis resistance has been implicated in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), has been shown to be produced by mature tissue macrophages and AIM demonstrates anti-apoptotic property against multiple apoptosis-inducing stimuli. Accordingly, we attempt to determine if AIM is expressed in AM and whether AIM is involved in the regulation of apoptosis in the...

  5. Evaluation of a Dutch version of the AIMS2 for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsma, R.P.; Taal, E.; Rasker, J.J.; Houtman, P.M.; Paassen, van H.C.; Wiegman, O.

    1996-01-01

    DUTCH-AIMS2, a Dutch version of AIMS2 and successor to DUTCH-AIMS, is an instrument to assess health status among patients with rheumatic diseases. It provides measurements of 12 areas of health status on scales for health status proper, satisfaction, attribution and arthritis impact. We assessed th

  6. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979566 Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Vilcek J. I...mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming... at a moving target. PubmedID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  7. Clinical Study of the Value of PCT, ABI and 128 Hz Tuning Fork Combined with 10 g Monofilament in Evaluating the Prognosis of Diabetic Foot%PCT、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10克单丝对糖尿病足预后评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 游东; 梁永

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨降钙素原(PCT)、踝肱指数(ABI)、 Rydel-seifer分级音叉(128 Hz音叉)联合10 g单丝对糖尿病足预后评估的临床价值。方法选择243例糖尿病患者,其中观察组为糖尿病足患者50例,对照组为非糖尿病足183例,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析糖尿病足的相关因素。根据患者预后分为两组,比较其PCT水平、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10 g单丝结果。结果多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低是糖尿病足的危险因素。截肢组患者PCT水平及128 Hz音叉结果高于非截肢组, ABI、10 g单丝结果低于非截肢组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义, P<0.05。结论肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低在糖尿病的进展过程中起着重要作用,应给予足够重视,积极对症治疗,降低其截肢率。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT), ankle brachial index (ABI) and Rydel-seifer tuning fork rating (128 Hz tuning fork) combined with 10 g monofilament in evaluating the prognosis of diabetic foot. Methods 243 cases of patients with diabetes were selected, the observation group of 50 patients with diabetic foot, compared with the control group of 183 cases of non diabetic foot. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and the related factors of diabetic foot were analyzed by SPSS19. 0 statistics software. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the prognosis of the patients and the results of the level of PCT, ABI, and 128 Hz fork combined with 10g monofilament. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase of obesity, fasting blood glucose, 128 Hz tuning fork and PCT and the decrease of ABI and 10 g monofilament were the risk factors for diabetic foot. The scores of the level of PCT level and 128 Hz tuning fork of the patients in amputation group

  8. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  9. 基于工业以太网多PLC的污水处理控制系统%Sewage Treatment Control System of Multi-PLC Based on Industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋青; 王文成

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Siemens S7-300 PLC in sewage treatment plants application of automatic control, The multi-processor distributed system was designed based on industrial Ethernet The details of the system network topology,hardware configuration, PLC programming and monitoring system were introduced. Considering such characteristics of dissolved oxygen in aeration process as non-linearity, time variability and uncertainty, a fuzzy adaptive PID control method was proposed, and adaptive fuzzy PID control of dissolved oxygen system was completed. The system realizes automatic control of urban sewage treatment The actual operating was stable and have good effect.%介绍了西门子公司S7-300PLC在污水处理厂自动控制中的应用,设计基于工业以太网的多处理器分布系统,详细介绍了系统网络拓扑结构,系统的硬件组态,PLC程序设计以及监控系统的设计.针对污水处理中曝气过程溶解氧控制对象的非线性、时变性以及不确定性等特点,提出一种基于模糊自适应PID的控制方法,完成了溶解氧自适应模糊PID控制系统的设计.该系统实现了城市污水处理的全自动控制,实际运行稳定,效果良好.

  10. Research on similarity mapping algorithm for high-speed Ethernet%高速以太网中实时相似性匹配算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Ke; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Yue; CAO Bing-yao

    2014-01-01

    在高速以太网中,针对用户行为的特殊性及数据流五元组的特点,提出了一种自适应相似性匹配算法(ASMA-HN)。该算法充分考虑了数据流五元组的随机性分布特点,通过一种改进的XOR-SHIFT算法将数据流分类索引,并提出了同类数据库(SD)及异类数据库(HD)的概念,基于距离测度分别设计了加权相似性比较函数,使得特征值能更精准地匹配到符合要求的数据文件,提高了整体的匹配效率。通过对校园网实际流量的现场测试,证明该算法具有较高的精准性及可适用性,且匹配时间较低,能很好地满足高速网络中相似性匹配业务的需求。%This paper proposed an adaptive similarity mapping algorithm for high-speed Ethernet based on the special nature of user behavior and characteristics of the flow quintuple. It fully considered the random distribution of the quintuple in this algorithm and

  11. 基于排队论的实时以太网缓存队列优化算法%An optimal algorithm for real-time Ethernet buffer queue based on queuing theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金海波; 仲崇权

    2012-01-01

    An optimal algorithm for a real-time Ethernet buffer queue using queuing theory is proposed.In this algorithm,frames' waiting delay is identified as the key factor in network delay through analyzing frames transmitting process in real-time Ethernet's buffer queue.The process of data frames into the buffer queue is substantially Poisson process according to stochastic process theory so that the mathematical model of transmission delay for frames queue and packet-loss based on cost is established and minimum cost in this model is considered as objective function.At last,the optimal length of queue is obtained by calculating the objective function's minimum value using marginal method.Experimental results show that the proposed model and optimal algorithm are correct and effective.%提出了基于排队论的实时以太网缓存队列优化算法.首先对数据帧在实时以太网缓存队列中的传输过程进行分析,确定了数据帧排队延时是影响网络延时的主要因素;然后根据随机过程理论得到数据帧进入缓存队列的过程符合Poisson分布.针对该分布模型,用排队论对数据帧排队延时及丢包建立基于通信损失代价的数学模型,以损失代价最小为目标函数,再利用边际法计算出目标函数取极值时的最佳队列长度.仿真实验验证了模型的准确性和优化算法的有效性.

  12. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Gerritsma, R.M.; Hofland, R.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and highanxiety condition. In both conditions, running was c

  13. Strong induction of AIM2 expression in human epidermis in acute and chronic inflammatory skin conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.D. de; Bergboer, J.G.M.; Bogaard, E.H. van den; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M. van; Rodijk-Olthuis, D.; Simon, A.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Schalkwijk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-stranded DNA receptor, and its activation initiates an interleukin-1 beta processing inflammasome. AIM2 is implicated in host defense against several pathogens, but could hypothetically also contribute to autoinflammatory or autoimmune diseases, such as is the

  14. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  15. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  16. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the inv

  17. RAISING THE EFFICIENCY OF BUILDING ENVIRONMENT, AIMED AT THE FORMATION OF TOLERANCE IN THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Ivanovna ZUBOVA

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the relevance of the use of evaluation of the effectiveness of constructing educative medium educational organization aimed at the formation of toler-ance. The developed model of level of development of tolerance, social trust and empathy upbringing environ-ment, aimed at creating a tolerant attitude to the repre-sentatives of subcultures.

  18. Cultural adaptation and validation of a German version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) 2 in primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. METHOD: The AIMS2 was translated into German and culturally adapted. The questionnaire then was administered to

  19. Measurements of AIM for Visible Wavelength Based on Individual Eye Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Zhao-Qi; WANG Yan; ZUO Tong; ZHAO Kan-Xing

    2006-01-01

    We measure and calculate the aerial image modulation (AIM) of human retina for visible wavelengths based on the individual eye model. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, we obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF) of human eye in visible wavelengths. Using CSV-1000 and VAF-1000, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the visual acuity (VA) for the same eye are measured. Then the AIM of human retina could be acquired by the relations between MTF and CSF and between MTF and VA. The AIM of human retina is independent of MTF, and the values of AIM for normal eyes (without retina disease) are similar, so the assembly average for large numbers of normal eyes can be a standard AIM curve, which is helpful for the diagnosis of diseases in the retina system.

  20. 基于高速以太网的数字化靶道设计%Digitized Ballistic Range Design Based on High-Speed Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宗伟; 孔德仁; 贾云飞

    2012-01-01

    With further research on the high-tech weapons, ballistic experiment requires more and more on integration of the whole trajectory testing. However, most domestic ballistic ranges still remain on conventional weapons researching level, and experimental ability should be improved. Aiming at this situation, a digital ballistic range design method based on network measurement and control technology is proposed. The method can integrate interior ballistic testing tasks, intermediate ballistic testing tasks, external ballistic testing tasks and terminal ballistic testing tasks organically, get comprehensive evaluation of experimental results and increase experiment efficiency. So it can satisfy the research needs of high-tech weapons.%随着对高新武器研究的深入,弹道试验对全弹道测试的综合集成要求将越来越高,而国内大多数弹道靶道仍停留在常规武器的研究水平上,试验测试能力有待提高.针对国内大多数靶道的现状,提出了基于网络化测控技术的数字化靶道设计方法,旨在实现内弹道、中间弹道、外弹道和终点弹道不同测试任务的有机结合,在得到试验结果综合性评价的同时提高试验效率,以适应高新武器研究的需要.

  1. Design of Data Transmitting System Between Multi-Channel RS232 and Ethernet Based on DSP and ENC28J60%基于DSP和ENC28J60的多串口与以太网数据传输系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 吴成富; 邓红德

    2011-01-01

    For the requirement of ground simulation experiment for UAV s flight and control system, according to the problem that traditional serial port' s connection mode is one to one and has low transmission rate, DSP TMS320F2808 and Ethernet controller ENC28J60 are adopted to realize data transmission between multi-channel serial ports and Ethernet, the design can expand five channels serial ports at most. A new-type universal a-synchronous receiver transmitter MAX3100 accomplishes conversion between SPI interface and asynchronous serial port. In software, TCP/IP protocol is cut out and realized. The result indicates that the system not only has steady operation between Ethernet and multi-channel serial port, but also implements high transmission performance and low cost.%根据无人机飞控系统半物理仿真实验的需要,针对传统串口传输速度慢且多数采用一对一连接方式的问题,采用DSP TMS320F2808和新型以太网控制器ENC28J60设计了多串口与以太网之间的数据传输系统,最多可以实现5路串口的扩展.串口扩展方案中选用新型通用异步收发器MAX3100完成了SPI与异步串口之间的转换,软件设计中对TCP/IP协议进行了裁剪并实现.结果表明,采用此方案可以使系统具有简单可靠、传输效率高、成本低的特点.

  2. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuiqing; Peng, Lan; Kwak, Youn-Tae; Tekippe, Erin McElvania; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Malter, James S; Hooper, Lora V; Zaki, Md Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2(-/-) mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2(-/-) mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2(-/-) mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  3. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2−/− mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2−/− mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2−/− mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2−/− mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  4. What Should We Share? : Understanding the Aim of Intercultural Information Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Pak-Hang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of Intercultural Information Ethics (IIE), as Ess aptly puts, is to “(a) address both local and global issues evoked by ICTs / CMC, etc., (b) in a ways that both sustain local traditions / values / preference, etc. and (c) provide shared, (quasi-) universal responses to central ethical problems” (Ess 2007a, 102). This formulation of the aim of IIE, however, is not unambiguous. In this paper, I will discuss two different understandings of the aim of IIE, one of which advocates “shared ...

  5. Mobile lidars. Influence of external mechanical actions on accuracy of lidar aiming

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, Viktor Stepanovich; Kostyuchenko, T. G.; Yangulov, V. S.; Teploukhov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The questions of designing mechanical system load-bearing elements «lidar radiator-lidar basis-automobile» in order to reduce external mechanical effects on lidar aiming accuracy have been considered

  6. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa [Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022 (Japan); Arai, Satoko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toru, E-mail: tm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  7. Good Vibrations : A vibrotactile aid toward music sensation aiming at helping deaf people

    OpenAIRE

    Mahzoun, Emanuel E.

    2013-01-01

    This project is aiming at helping deaf people to listen to music through vibrotactile sensation. In this thesis, music is converted into vibrations through extraction of rhythmic pattern of music. By using this approach people particularly who suffer from deafness are able to be touched by music and enjoy vibrations of music on their skin. This work is mainly based on two remarkable jobs, which have been previously done in this field. One aimed at converting environmental sound to its vibrati...

  8. CoAIMs: a cost-effective panel of ancestry informative markers for determining continental origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Londin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic ancestry is known to impact outcomes of genotype-phenotype studies that are designed to identify risk for common diseases in human populations. Failure to control for population stratification due to genetic ancestry can significantly confound results of disease association studies. Moreover, ancestry is a critical factor in assessing lifetime risk of disease, and can play an important role in optimizing treatment. As modern medicine moves towards using personal genetic information for clinical applications, it is important to determine genetic ancestry in an accurate, cost-effective and efficient manner. Self-identified race is a common method used to track and control for population stratification; however, social constructs of race are not necessarily informative for genetic applications. The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs is a more accurate method for determining genetic ancestry for the purposes of population stratification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce a novel panel of 36 microsatellite (MSAT AIMs that determines continental admixture proportions. This panel, which we have named Continental Ancestry Informative Markers or CoAIMs, consists of MSAT AIMs that were chosen based upon their measure of genetic variance (F(st, allele frequencies and their suitability for efficient genotyping. Genotype analysis using CoAIMs along with a Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE is able to discern continental origins including Europe/Middle East (Caucasians, East Asia, Africa, Native America, and Oceania. In addition to determining continental ancestry for individuals without significant admixture, we applied CoAIMs to ascertain admixture proportions of individuals of self declared race. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CoAIMs can be used to efficiently and effectively determine continental admixture proportions in a sample set. The CoAIMs panel is a valuable resource for genetic researchers performing case

  9. Modeling Training of Future Teachers Aimed on Innovation Activities Based on the System of Design Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury S. Tyunnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of training system of future teachers aimed on innovation activities performed in a certain project logic and procedures, which is possible only through a specific set of design features, based on capability and peculiar properties of the university. The article is formulated and solved the problem of design features, revealing in its set the characteristic properties, organization and functioning of training system aimed on innovation in specific terms of professional education.

  10. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techn...

  11. Empirical analysis of values on interactive advertisement aimed at a teenage audience

    OpenAIRE

    Frutos-Torres, B. (Belinda) de; Sánchez-Valle, M. (María); Vázquez-Barrio, T. (Tamara)

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the values reflected in Internet advertising. To achieve this, a content analysis which identifies the values reflected by advertisements on web sites targeting teenagers, has been performed. Analysis results show that the most frequent values are related to transgression, adventure, materialism, competitiveness and power. The study also reveals a relationship between the target audience and the type of values. Campaigns aimed at youth have a significant presence of...

  12. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  13. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events. PMID:22618299

  14. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine  the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting  is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  15. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes that lyse in the macrophage cytosol trigger AIM2-mediated pyroptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E.; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To gain insight into the mechanisms by which host cells detect cytosolic invasion by intracellular pathogens, a genetic screen was performed to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death. A mutation in lmo2473 resulted in hyper-stimulation of host cell death and IL-1β secretion (pyroptosis) following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 receptors, but dependent on ASC and AIM2. Importantly, wild type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. Since AIM2 is activated by DNA, these data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during lysis. PMID:20417169

  17. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  18. Antagonism of the STING Pathway via Activation of the AIM2 Inflammasome by Intracellular DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Leticia; Woo, Seng-Ryong; Williams, Jason B; McWhirter, Sarah M; Dubensky, Thomas W; Gajewski, Thomas F

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that innate immune sensing of cytosolic DNA in dendritic cells via the host STING pathway is a major mechanism leading to spontaneous T cell responses against tumors. However, the impact of the other major pathway triggered by intracellular DNA, the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome, on the functional output from the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway is poorly understood. We found that dendritic cells and macrophages deficient in AIM2, apoptosis-associated specklike protein, or caspase-1 produced markedly higher IFN-β in response to DNA. Biochemical analyses showed enhanced generation of cyclic GMP-AMP, STING aggregation, and TANK-binding kinase 1 and IFN regulatory factor 3 phosphorylation in inflammasome-deficient cells. Induction of pyroptosis by the AIM2 inflammasome was a major component of this effect, and inhibition of caspase-1 reduced cell death, augmenting phosphorylation of TANK-binding kinase 1/IFN regulatory factor 3 and production of IFN-β. Our data suggest that in vitro activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine macrophages and dendritic cells leads to reduced activation of the STING pathway, in part through promoting caspase-1-dependent cell death.

  19. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  20. On Heterogeneity in Mobile Sensing Applications Aiming at Representative Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Franke, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    on collective, mobile sensed data are valid. In this paper, we aim to inform researchers and developers about mobile sensing data heterogeneity and ways to combat it. We do so via distilling a vocabulary of underlying causes, and via describing their effects on mobile sensing---building on experiences from...

  1. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  2. What Should We Share? : Understanding the Aim of Intercultural Information Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, Pak-Hang

    2009-01-01

    The aim of Intercultural Information Ethics (IIE), as Ess aptly puts, is to “(a) address both local and global issues evoked by ICTs / CMC, etc., (b) in a ways that both sustain local traditions / values / preference, etc. and (c) provide shared, (quasi-) universal responses to central ethical probl

  3. Process evaluation of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evuate the process of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Quantitative data on seven process items were assessed and linked to effects on employees' waist circumference and body weight at 6 months. Results: Occupational physicians (n = 7) implemen

  4. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  5. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative method

  6. Geochemical Mapping——Evolution of Its Aims, Ideas and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xuejing

    2008-01-01

    The development of geochemical mapping progressed from local geochemical prospecting through regional geochemical exploration and regional geochemical mapping to national and global geochemical mapping. This paper discusses the evolution of aims, ideas and methodology of geochemical mapping in Western countries, Russia and China. The sophistication of geochemical mapping methodology will make great contributions to solving resources and environmental problems in the 21st century.

  7. SALEIE: An EU project aiming to propose new EIE curricula oriented to key global technical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poboroniuc, Marian-Silviu; Friesel, Anna; Livint, Gheorghe;

    2014-01-01

    in European Higher Education Institutions) is one of its new EU projects which coagulate a global team aiming to provide higher education models in the EIE disciplines that can respond to the key global technical challenges. The SALEIE project's work package WP3 (Global Challenges) is related to: state...

  8. AN ADAPTIVE ACO-DRIVEN SCHEME FOR LEARNING AIM ORIENTED PERSONALIZED E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Hans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The e-learning paradigm is now a well-established vehicle of modern education. It caters to a wide spectrum of students with diverse backgrounds who enroll with their own learning aims. A core challenge under this scenario is to generate personalized learning paths so that each student can achieve her learning aim most effectively. Prior works used static attributes such as prior knowledge level, learning ability, browsing preferences, learning style etc. to generate personalized learning paths. In this paper, we take an entirely new route by taking into account the continuous improvement of a learner in the light of her own learning aim, to redefine her learning path at each level of the course. We introduce the concept of personalized examination system that systematically evaluates the dynamic learning ability of every student according to her pre-set goals. The proposed intelligent e-learning system uses Ant Colony Optimization to iteratively optimize the forward learning paths. Experimental results reveal that the system is able to tap a student’s improved learning ability to choose more difficult paths that contribute highly towards her own aims. We demonstrate that the overall learning success of weaker students doubles as compared to statically generated paths while there is considerable improvement of 50% in the learning success for average students as well. This clearly indicates that our approach gives realistic benefits to initially weak students who gradually evolve as the course progresses.

  9. The Moral and Ethical Aims of the School Viewed through a Cosmopolitan Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section…

  10. Pressure ulcers: diagnostics and interventions aimed at wound-related complaints: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, H.E.W. de; Scholte op Reimer, W.J.; Achterberg, T. van

    2005-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the current scientific evidence in the field of diagnostics and treatment of pain, malodour and exudate from pressure ulcers and to give recommendations for practice, based on these findings. BACKGROUND: Patients with pressure ulcers are confronted with symptoms of c

  11. Effects of an intervention aimed at improving nurse-patient communication in an oncology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Mette Trøllund; Jensen, Mette Lund; Andersen, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    In an ever more burdened healthcare system, there is an urgent need to investigate whether patients benefit from the resources allocated to nurses' communication skills training in terms of improved patient outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate a standardized two 2-day (33 hours) communication s...

  12. Developing Young Thinkers: An Intervention Aimed to Enhance Children's Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly popular to "teach" thinking skills in schools. A diverse variety of programmes exist to support practitioners in this task, and some research has been gathered on the effectiveness of individual approaches. However, the difficulties when assessing the development of thinking skills are widely documented. This study aimed to…

  13. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  14. Chemistry Journal Articles: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Move Analysis with Pedagogical Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Robinson, Marin S.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights aspects of an interdisciplinary (chemistry-applied linguistics) English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course- and materials-development project. The project was aimed at raising genre awareness among chemistry students and faculty, in addition to improving students' disciplinary reading and writing. As part of the project,…

  15. Evaluation of On-Line Searching in MEDLARS (AIM-TWX) by Biomedical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine how effectively biomedical practitioners, with a minimum of introduction to the system, can conduct on-line searches to satisfy their own information needs. The searches were conducted on the Abridged Index Medicus data base as implemented on the on-line ELHILL system (AIM-TWX). ELHILL is the ORBIT…

  16. Disseminating hypnosis to health care settings: Applying the RE-AIM framework

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Vivian M.; Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis is a brief intervention ready for wider dissemination in medical contexts. Overall, hypnosis remains underused despite evidence supporting its beneficial clinical impact. This review will evaluate the evidence supporting hypnosis for dissemination using guidelines formulated by Glasgow and colleagues (1999). Five dissemination dimensions will be considered: Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM).

  17. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  18. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  19. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  20. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  1. Differential identification of aims and results of formation plans: an application to the Spanish aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Monserrat Cruz González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of the formation, related theoretically to the performance of human resources, self-training, information and effectiveness, have been identified as the amount in which the company goes further from knowledge to learning. In this paper three hypotheses applied to the Spanish aquaculture are proposed to model the differential aim follow-up and the achievements of the formation plans. The empirical analysis has been carried out with the data of 99 representative companies of the aquaculture sector. The SPSS 19 statistical program was used for the data analysis. A factor analysis was made by the method of principal components. Eighteen nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis type were applied, as well as 36 chi-squared tests. As a result, three principal components were identified that explain 80% of the variance of the aims: the first one refers to policies of implication of human resources, the second one is relatedto objective circumstances and the third one is associated to dynamism. It was confirmed that the relevance of aims is proportional to the percentage of expense in formation and, specifically, it is greater in suppliers. Finally, significantdifferences in the results of the formation with respect to the reduction of errors were observed, this reduction being greater in fish distribution and production. Significant differences were also observed in the effect of the formation on the motivation of the employee, this being greater in fish suppliers and producers

  2. An Index (PC) Aimed at Monitoring the (P)olar (C)ap for Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PC is an index for magnetic activity in the (P)olar (C)ap. It is based on data from a single nearpole station, and aimed to monitor the polar cap magnetic activity...

  3. Effects of Direction and Index of Difficulty on Aiming Movements after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ribeiro Coqueiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain hemispheres play different roles in the control of aiming movements that are impaired after unilateral stroke. It is not clear whether those roles are influenced by the direction and the difficulty of the task. Objective. To evaluate the influence of direction and index of difficulty (ID of the task on performance of ipsilesional aiming movements after unilateral stroke. Methods. Ten individuals with right hemisphere stroke, ten with left hemisphere stroke, and ten age- and gender-matched controls performed the aiming movements on a digitizing tablet as fast as possible. Stroke individuals used their ipsilesional arm. The direction (ipsilateral or contralateral, size (0.8 or 1.6 cm, and distance (9 or 18 cm of the targets, presented on a monitor, were manipulated and determined to be of different ID (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Results. Individuals with right hemisphere lesion were more sensitive to ID of the task, affecting planning and final position accuracy. Left hemisphere lesion generated slower and less smooth movements and was more influenced by target distance. Contralateral movements and higher ID increased planning demands and hindered movement execution. Conclusion. Right and left hemisphere damages are differentially influenced by task constraints which suggest their complementary roles in the control of aiming movements.

  4. Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy : The greatest Happiness Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractUtilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at advancing human happiness. This moral theory meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideological grounds as undesirable. As a result the principle is marginal in policy making. In this

  5. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security in the AIMS SIDS: Integrating External and Local Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches for food security under climate change, specifically for the Small Island Developing States (SIDS comprising the Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS region. The focus is on integrating different knowledge forms. An analysis of current EbA approaches for food security is undertaken, alongside a review of methodologies for integrating local and external knowledge. Key gaps and actions for EbA for food security in the AIMS region, and potentially further afield, are identified. The gaps indicate the lack of coherence in AIMS SIDS approaching food security, in terms of policies and actions not reflecting the ecosystem-food-climate nexus, the lack of a regional framework despite similarities amongst the SIDS, and the infrequency with which knowledge integration occurs. To fill these gaps, suggested actions highlight knowledge identification and combination, learning from others and from history, using local champions, and regularly monitoring and evaluating progress. These actions will push forward the EbA agenda through improved development and use of knowledge, better connections amongst the AIMS SIDS and farther afield, and more local-national-regional collaboration.

  6. Empowering employees with chronic diseases : process evaluation of an intervention aimed at job retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, Inge; Krol, Boudien; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Employees with a chronic disease may experience work-related problems that contribute to the risk of job loss. We developed a group-based intervention programme aimed at clarifying problems, making these a subject of discussion at work, and realizing solutions. This process evaluation invest

  7. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  8. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  9. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  10. Remote Power Control of Ethernet PON System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inkwun; Jung; Chunghwan; Lim; Youngil; Park

    2003-01-01

    A power control scheme to make all ONU channels' power received at OLT nearly equal is proposed. Implemented by monitoring powers at OLT and sending control message to each ONU, it helps data recovery from the burst type upstream optical signals.

  11. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  12. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2010-05-20

    A host defense strategy against pathogens is the induction of cell death, thereby eliminating the pathogen's intracellular niche. Pyroptosis, one such form of cell death, is dependent on inflammasome activation. In a genetic screen to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death, we identified a mutation in lmo2473 that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasome receptors but dependent on the inflammasome adaptor ASC and the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2. Importantly, wild-type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. These data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during cytosolic lysis.

  14. Synchronised and complementary coordination mechanisms in an asymmetric joint aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua Charles; Skewes, Lea; Michael, John;

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of social interaction require that behaviour be coordinated in the here and now. Much research has been conducted on how people coordinate their actions in real time to achieve a joint goal, showing that people use both synchronised (i.e. symmetric) and complementary (i.e. asymmetric......) strategies. These two mechanisms have been mostly studied independently, the former in the context of rhythmic tasks, and the latter in non-rhythmic tasks. However, people often balance these two strategies in real life social interactions, in order to achieve a joint goal more effectively. Here, our aim...... was to investigate how people may implicitly balance synchronisation and complementarity in a continuous joint aiming task. We asked dyads to synchronise the timing of their clicks between targets, while changing task constraints for one member of the dyad (i.e. different task difficulties) to asymmetrically perturb...

  15. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  16. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  17. [Aims and tasks of the Chambers of Physicians before the year 1939].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowska, E

    1998-01-01

    The main aims of the Chambers of Physicians, which were called into being at the time when Poland was partitioned, were to protect the interest of physicians employed at health service after the introduction of compulsory insurance against sickness. They played a function of quasi-trade unions (in former Prussian sector). After Poland regained independence, based on the Chamber of Physicians Act of 1921 the Chief Chamber and regional chambers were created. Their aim was to assemble all doctors practicing in the country on obligatory basis. They performed a role of trade union, carried out social activity, ran saving and loan banks as well as funeral funds, controlled even distribution of physicians all over Poland, worked on ethical and deonthological codes, carried out arbitration by colleagues, performed the function of an organ of professional supervision.

  18. The Impact of Multiple Runway Aiming Points on Runway Capacity - Technical Capacity of a Single Runway

    OpenAIRE

    Dzikus, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Environmental aspects of air transport are constraining factors for the present and future air transportation system. On the local scale, especially aircraft noise impacts the potential of traffic growth negatively. In order to reduce noise impact of aircraft operations around airports there are several technological and operational approaches. A promising measure to reduce aircraft noise is the adaption of approach procedures. A variety of concepts exist that aim at the ...

  19. Taking a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program to the Home: The AIM 4 Teen Moms Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles. The program is delivered primarily in participants' homes. The report describes the program's development and design, recruiting approach, facilitators' training in and delivery of the program, and youth engagement and response, concluding with lessons for future ...

  20. Midline body actions and leftward spatial Aiming in patients with spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eChaudhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial motor-intentional Aiming bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques such as visual scanning training do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated 1 whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space, and 2 whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: look to the left, point with your nose to the left, point with your [right] hand to the left, and stick out your tongue and point it to the left. She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested 9 more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  1. APEINTA: a spanish educational project aiming for inclusive education in and out of the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias, Ana; Moreno, Lourdes; Revuelta, Pablo; Jiménez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    APEINTA is a Spanish educational project founded by the Spanish Minister of Education and Sciences that aims for inclusive education for every student of all abilities in and out of the classroom. In this work, the APEINTA project is presented [Poster] 14th Annual ACM SIGCSE Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education (ITiCSE'09), July 06-09, 2009, Paris (France)

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  3. Integration of a Balanced Virtual Manikin in a Virtual Reality Platform aimed at Virtual Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Rennuit, Antoine; Micaelli, Alain; Merlhiot, Xavier; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    International audience The work presented here is aimed at introducing a virtual human controller in a virtual prototyping framework. After a brief introduction describing the problem solved in the paper, we describe the interest as for digital humans in the context of concurrent engineering. This leads us to draw a control architecture enabling to drive virtual humans in a real-time immersed way, and to interact with the product, through motion capture. Unfortunately, we show this control...

  4. Concepts, Aims and Drawbacks in Interdisciplinary Dentistry: Results of an International Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Slavicek, Gregor; Slavicek, Florian; Makarevich, Alexandra; Makarevich, Ivan; Bulatova, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This article describes the results of a survey among dentists and dental technician regarding interdisciplinary teamwork. Interdisciplinary dental collaborations seem to be based on different conceptions with the consequence of various strengths but also weaknesses within teams. Study Design: International questionnaire (Germane, English, Russian). Place and Duration of Study: 250 questionnaires were handed out in paper form and 100 access codes for the Web-based version were sent. The ...

  5. Prosecution and Diversion within Criminal Justice Systems in Europe. Aims and Design of a Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jehle, Jörg-Martin; Wade, Marianne; Elsner, Beatrix

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the aims, approach and design of a 11 countries study on diversion and prosecution in European Criminal Justice Systems. The basic assumption is that the flood of proceedings ismastered by procedural short cuts and simplifications with the public prosecutor as the key player. The article describes the methods developed in order to compare the different national concepts and and competencies of criminal justice agencies and procedures. Furthermore, it demon...

  6. Educational interventions aimed at improving the oral health conditions of workers: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma Perez Castro; Sônia Cristina Lima Chaves; Luísa Silva Lima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify studies describing the educational and/or health-promoting interventions and strategies used in various programs of oral healthcare conducted in populations of industrial workers. A review of the Science, MEDLINE, LILACS and SCIELO databases was performed for the period between 1980 and 2009. The criteria for a publication to be in- cluded were: 1) the population had to consist of adult workers; and 2) the educational and/or health-promoting interventi...

  7. QUANTIFYING SOCIAL OBJECTIVES AIMING POLLUTION CONTROL – AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE UPON STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Oana - Catalina Tapurica; Florin TACHE

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims to emphasize certain methods and modern instruments used for quantifying the economic impact of setting-up either pollution control or environment protection related social objectives, in the context of strategic management and project management processes carried out within economic organizations. The paper also underlines that setting-up social objectives in the field of pollution control and environment protection may lead to short-run tangible economic benefits for organiza...

  8. Aplikace marketingu ve společnosti AIMS International, s.r.o.

    OpenAIRE

    Kukura, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The main target of the Master's thesis is to evaluate international marketing activities of the AIMS International, s.r.o which belongs to the category of Small and Medium-sized Entities Within the Theory, definitions of marketing applications in the field of conference and incentive travel are described. Practical part is dealing with situation analysis of chosen company. Marketing budget and plan are included.

  9. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets

  10. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets.

  11. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho; Silvaldo Felipe da Silveira; Roberto Ferreira da Silva; Alexandre Pio Viana

    2014-01-01

    Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylf...

  12. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients. PMID:26263193

  13. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients.

  14. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Seyhan Yücel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study has designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview technique and the content analysis technique was used in the data analysis. In the research, the findings gathered from the interviews with the teacher candidates are presented in themes, and then interpreted. Considering findings of the study, it has been seen that Internet should be used for learning-teaching purpose. Teacher candidates of German Language support the fact that Internet has a crucial role in education, and particularly it is useful and essential as Internet provides lots of opportunities for German Language Teaching such as authentic study samples, rich materials and exercises on skills, contemporary videos reflecting German culture or film sections. Internet is also a good material which provides accessing various information and also realizing and sharing many goals. If the information is gathered via audio and visual ways, it will be retentive. Thus, German Language teacher candidates can have opportunity to study on the foreign language and its culture through Internet. Furthermore, they have met the contemporary approaches like realizing self-directed learning individually. That’s why, the views of German Language pre-service teacher about the use of Internet with the aim of learning are very important.

  15. O caso Aimée e a causalidade psíquica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Hortélio Fernandes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as formulações acerca da causalidade psíquica nos primórdios da obra de Jacques Lacan. Com base na análise do caso Aimée, presente na tese de psiquiatria de Lacan, busca demonstrar como a hipótese de uma origem social nos mecanismos psíquicos de autopunição da paranóia permite a Lacan articular, alguns anos depois, identificação e causalidade psíquica.The case of Aimée and psychic causality. The article discusses the formulations about psychic causality in Lacan's early work. Based on the analysis of the Aimée case of Lacan's psychiatric thesis, it tries to demonstrate how the hypothesis of social origin in the psychic mechanisms of self-punishment present in the paranoia, make it possible for Lacan to articulate, years later, identification and psychic causality.

  16. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollands Louk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing work environments (NWEs in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi- experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies, the educational toolbox (one study, the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study, and the violence prevention intervention (one study. Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we

  17. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  18. VALUE JUDGMENTS ON MEANING AND AIMS OF USING GAMES GIVEN BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa V. Usoltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented article is to understand value, aims and practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of using games by preschool teachers with different levels of education.Methods. In the conducted survey, 308 preschool teachers answered a questionnaire developed by leading researcher in ethnopedagogy of play V. M. Grigoriev. Examinees were divided into three groups different in educational level (undergraduated, graduated from college, specialized secondary education. The data were analyzed by comparing value judgments about meaning and aims of using games given by preschool teachers with different levels of education. Also value judgments were compared with practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of the use of games in teachers’ professional work, and with their degree of satisfaction with it. Special attention was paid to the usage of ethno games. The analysis was done out in the program stаstistica 5.0 v and using the methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The results have showed statistically significant differences between value judgments given by preschool teachers with different levels of education on values of games for developing various children personal qualities, frequency and diversity of use of different types of games. Problems in practical application of national games (Russian national games, games of the people of Russia and people of other countries, international games are designated.Scientific novelty. The author is the first to state the data about divergence influence in valuable representations and purposes of teachers of preschool centres on potential use of game technologies in daily work, and that is reflected in education productivity of younger children; wherein the game is the main activity. Specificity of national games in teaching is shown.Practical significance. The paper materials can be useful at the organisation of methodical work in preschool educational institutions, and by

  19. H12: Examination of safety assessment aims, procedures and results from a wider perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety assessment (SA) are a familiar tool for the evaluation of disposal concepts for radioactive waste. There is, however, often confusion in the wider community about the aims, methods and results used in SA. This report aims to present the H12 SA in a way that makes the assessment process clearer and the implications of the results more meaningful both to workers within the SA field and to a wider technical audience. The reasonableness of the assessment results, the quality of the models and databases and redundancy within the natural and engineered barrier system have been considered. A number of recent and somewhat older SAs that address a range of different waste types, host rocks and disposal concepts have been considered, and comparisons made to H12. A further aim is to put both doses and timescales in a more meaningful context. It has been necessary to: consider ways of demonstrating the meaningfulness of calculations that give results for many thousands of years in the future; provide a framework timescale as a context for SA results over long times; demonstrate the smallness of the risk associated with the doses by comparison with other radiological and non-radiological risks. The perception of risk, which is a critical issue for public acceptance of radioactive waste disposal and must be considered when seeking to present safety assessment results 'in perspective' to a wider audience, is also discussed. It is concluded that H12 is comparable in many ways to assessments carried out internationally. Some assumptions are somewhat arbitrary reflecting the generic stage of the Japanese programme, and are likely to become better founded in future exercises. Nevertheless, H12 provides a clear and well-founded message that it is feasible to site and construct a safe repository from HLW in Japan. (author)

  20. Time and Energy Measurement Electronics for Silicon Drift Detector Aimed for X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Er-Lei; Feng, Chang-Qing; Ye, Chun-Feng; Liu, Shu-Bin; Jin, Dong-Dong; Lian, Jian; HU, HUI-JUN

    2016-01-01

    A readout electronic with high time and energy resolution performance is designed for the SDD (Silicon Drift Detector) signals readout, which is aimed for X-ray pulsar based navigation (XNAV). For time measurement, the input signal is fed into a fast shaping and Constant Fraction Discrimination (CFD) circuit, and then be digitalized by a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which is designed with a bin size of 2.5 ns. For energy measurement, ...

  1. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  2. Collection and valuation of numerical models with the aim to investigate the impact of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical models which are used to simulate the dynamics and chemistry of the Earth atmosphere are an important expedient to improve the knowledge of atmospheric processes. With such models it is possible to investigate single effects separately and to estimate their meaning for the whole system. It is possible to make sensitivity studies as well as calculations of different scenarios. This paper aims to describe different models which are available in the present time and which can be used for investigations dealing with the impact of aircraft emission on the Earth climate. Actual deficits of the modelling of atmospheric processes are discussed and the subsequent conclusions are presented. (orig.) 49 refs

  3. Construction of a digital and physical mouse model aimed at the study of electrical shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Optical methods have been used to investigate electrical injury on animal models such as live mice, rats, and rabbits. Here we introduce a completely digital phantom of a mouse, with the aim of investigating electrical injury through spectroscopic imaging techniques. The basis of our phantom is a three-dimensional digital mouse reconstructed from co-registered computed tomographic images and cryosection by a different group. Image processing algorithms were applied to make the model suitable to Finite Element Analysis of thermal and electrical transport. Our digital model is capable of simulating temperature, voltage, current changes along the animal body during and after electrical shocks.

  4. Willingness-to-pay for a population program aimed at reducing dietary salt in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Nexøe, Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    -74 was interviewed in-person in year 2000. They were asked how much they would be willing to contribute in additional tax for a population program that would half the intake of salt. The respondents were randomized to presentation of effectiveness format (number-needed-to-treat (NNT), relative risk reduction (RRR......BACKGROUND: High intake of salt increases blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease. Population programs aimed at reducing dietary salt may be cost-effective, but little is known about people's valuation of such programs. METHODS: A random sample (n = 924) of Danish people aged 20...

  5. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Katherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo, grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies and compliance with guidelines (one study. Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in

  6. Common Aims, Values And Principles Of Intellectual Property, Right To Competence And Others Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims the definition of which are the pourposes, values and common principles of intellectual property, competence law of advertising, consumer and information. It shows how the principles are anchored in values, and these in turn into rights purposes, making palpable the hierarchy such purposes, values ​​and principles have in the legal system. Thus, the outcome of the research is threefold: (i definition of the purposes, values ​​and principles common to these areas of law, (ii its interface, and (iii their ranking.

  7. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  8. A critical review of Singapore's policies aimed at supporting families caring for older members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kalyani K

    2006-01-01

    This article critically examines the family-oriented social policies of the Singapore government aimed at supporting families caring for older members. The sectors focused on are financial security, health, and housing. Singaporeans have been reminded that the family should be the first line of defense for aging families, followed by the community - the state would step in as the last resort. Drawing from recent research and examination of the state policies, the author argues that more should be done to help family caregivers looking after elder relatives. Recommendations for innovative ways to recognize and reward family carers conclude the paper.

  9. Analysis of different alternatives for a reactor aimed to produce Co60. Neutronic part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different alternatives are presented for a reactor aimed to produce radioisotopes with a low enrichment fuel element geometrically equal to those of low enrichment. Different alternatives are presented which essentially differ in the core's configuration, fuel management and 'meat' fuel material: U3O8, U3Si or U3Si2 in aluminium matrix. Fluxes at different irradiation positions and power full peak factors are described for each case. The main aspects to be taken into account for cobalt irradiation and the method to be followed to measure the reactor as a function of a required production are presented. (Author)

  10. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    OpenAIRE

    João Vieira Neto; Adelson Francisco de Oliveira; Csaignon Mariano Caproni; Fabíola Villa; Luiz Fernando de Oliveira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina) were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each othe...

  11. Design and Evaluation of Dual-Band Antennas Aimed for Contactless Health Monitoring Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Gokarna; Soh, Ping Jack; Mercuri, Marco; Vandenbosch, Guy; Schreurs, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of two antenna designs aimed for a Step Frequency Continuous Wave (SFCW) radar capable of non-invasive fall detection in a pseudo-static radar configuration. The performance of a dual-band rectangular planar monopole is compared against a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW) fed bowtie slot antenna in free space. Two elements of the better performing CBCPW fed bow-tie antenna are then combined, separated by a metal plate, and evaluated on the level of...

  12. Appearance and reality. Socrates’ aims and strategies in Plato’s Cratylus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen Lund

    What are Socrates ’ aims and strategies in the Cratylus? Does Socrates seek to convince his interlocutors that there is a source of linguistic correctness, which goes beyond human agreement, and which really determines whether the name of something is the correct name? Or does Socrates seek...... to achieve the opposite? What strategies does Socrates use, and why? These questions are central to my thesis, which offer s a new interpretation of Plato’s Cratylus . In the thesis I argue that Socrates really does seek to convince his interlocutors that there is a “natural correctness of names...

  13. The History and Aim of LADY CATS —Simple and Beautiful Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Yokoe, Mika; Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kutome, Yuusuke; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers. We have demonstrated "Simple and beautiful experiments" since ICPE 2005. We aim to encourage both students and teachers who are not interested in physics. Our concepts of experiments are as follows: the "simple" experiments which the teachers in the world can utilize in their classes easily, the "beautiful" experiments in which children get interested, and the "essential" experiments which can demonstrate the principles of physics. We demonstrate several educational experiments of our group.

  14. The role of leader to effectuate the employees in realization of aims of organization

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko

    2006-01-01

    The role of the leader is to work with people through his cooperates in order to achieve the goals of the organization. For that aim, he has to understand the human behavior and to be capable of communication, in order to motivate the lead other peoples. The function of management consists of the capability to influence the behavior of individuals and groups on their work. Each leader must be aware of the influence he has over others. Due to the important role of manager-leader of organizatio...

  15. AIMS: Acousto-optic imaging spectrometer for spectral mapping of solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenar, David A.; Blaney, Diana L.; Hillman, John J.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, two-channel acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) camera is being built at GSFC as a candidate payload instrument for future Mars landers or small-body rendezvous missions. This effort is supported by the NASA Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), Office of Space Science Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies. Acousto-optic Imaging Spectrometer (AIMS) is electronically programmable and provides arbitrary spatial and spectral selection from 0.48 to 2.4 μm. The geometric throughput of AOTF's are well matched to the requirements for lander mounted cameras since (I) they can be made very compact, (II) "slow" (f/14-f/18) optics required for large depth-of-field fall well within the angular aperture limit of AOTF's, and (III) they operate at low ambient temperatures. A breadboard of the AIMS short-wavelength channel is now being used for spectral imaging of high-interest Mars analog materials (iron oxides, carbonates, sulfates and sedimentary basalts) as part of the initial instrument validation exercises.

  16. Aiming at Sustainable Innovation in Teacher Education - from Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta TURCSÁNYI-SZABÓ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper composes a framework for learning design, using Web 2.0 technologies in teacher training, transferring the advancement in technology to become an affordance in the teaching/learning process, based on Bloom's Extended Digital Taxonomy in order to enhance the Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge of teachers. As a case study, it shows how ELTE University tries to develop sustainable innovation of competencies in digital literacy and modern teaching/learning methodologies directly among the teaching staff in teacher training and student/future teachers as well as indirectly within public education in order to transfer innovation there. The complex aims of a specific course Educational Technology are described with detailed explanation of the methodology used in attaining the prescribed aims, giving links to the concrete tools and resources used. The description of course requirements are tagged with features of the nature of the learning design as being transmissive, dialogic, constructionist and co-constructive, illustrating how each element contributes to the adaptation of theory into practice. The role of a newly established T@T Mentoring Network is explained, which presumes sustainability for innovation within teacher training and the network of in-service and practicing teachers.

  17. Electricity produced from renewable energy sources - What target are we aiming for?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter ''EC'') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter ''RES-E''). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner. (author)

  18. Electricity produced from renewable energy sources-What target are we aiming for?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the European Commission (hereafter 'EC') formulated an ambitious target of 21% of total community electricity consumption to be generated with renewable energy sources by 2010. Moreover, national indicative targets per Member State were specified. In practice, the latter are implemented in all Member States as national production targets, achievable exclusively through an increase of the domestic production of electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hereafter 'RES-E'). However, in this article it will be shown that this is not in line with the EC's intent. Looking at the legislative process resulting in the Directive on the promotion of RES-E, it is demonstrated that instead the EC aimed for European trade in renewable electricity through national consumption targets. It is shown that the legislative process has resulted in confusion on both the nature (absolute or proportional figures) and the subject (consumption or production) of the RES-E targets that are being aimed for. Despite the EC's attempt to clarify this confusion, the reality of national production targets remains, hindering the attainment of the European RES-E target in the most cost-efficient manner

  19. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  20. Topological and AIM analyses beyond the Born-Oppenheimer paradigm: New opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Goli, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The multi-component quantum theory of atoms in molecules (MC-QTAIM) analysis is done on methane, ethylene, acetylene and benzene as selected basic hydrocarbons. This is the first report on applying the MC-QTAIM analysis on polyatomic species. In order to perform the MC-QTAIM analysis, at first step the nuclear-electronic orbital method at Hartree-Fock level (NEO-HF) is used as a non-Born-Oppenheimer (nBO) ab initio computational procedure assuming both electrons and protons as quantum waves while carbon nuclei as point charges in these systems. The ab initio calculations proceed substituting all the protons of each species first with deuterons and then tritons. At the next step, the derived nBO wavefunctions are used for the "atoms in molecules" (AIM) analysis. The results of topological analysis and integration of atomic properties demonstrate that the MC-QTAIM is capable of deciphering the underlying AIM structure of all the considered species. Also, the results of the analysis for each isotopic composition...

  1. Centroid Tracker Aim Point Estimation In The Presence Of Sensor Noise And Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheeden, Don R.; Jones, Richard A.

    1986-03-01

    The development of automatic target tracking systems has enabled more accurate determination of target position, velocity, acceleration, and other parameters needed for weapons guidance and target designation. With the advent of low cost, high speed digital computers and image processing hardware, it has become more and more feasible to incorporate digital image processing techniques in target tracking systems. When computing target position ( aim point) from discrete images, several problems can arise. A major problem is caused by noise. In target tracking noise originates from two sources. The first source is system and sensor noise. This is usually modeled by additive white Gaussian noise. Another type of noise is caused by clutter near the target. Clutter objects can make it more difficult for the tracker to separate the target from its surrounding background. The result is target pixels can be classified as background pixels and visa versa. This, in turn, causes errors in computing the target aim point. An investigation of the effects of system and sensor noise on target tracking is presented. Two statistical models are derived and simulation results are presented showing the accuracy of the models. The results obtained are applicable to the clutter noise case when clutter causes pixel classification errors which are random in nature.

  2. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  3. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  4. EFFECT OF AGE AND CLONE ON THE QUALITY OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD AIMING BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814587The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of age and clone on the quality of Eucalyptus spp wood aiming the production of charcoal and bioenergy. Four Eucalyptus spp clones at the ages of 57 and 69 months were evaluated. Four trees per clone in each age were evaluated. The average basic density, the basic density at the DBH, higher heating value and contents of lignin, total extractives, ashes, holocellulose an elemental chemica analylsis (C, H, N, S and O were evaluated. In the evaluation of the assay, and entirely randomized design in the factorial scheme 4 x 2 was used. Besides, a multivariate analysis of main components was made. In general, it was observed effect of age on wood quality. Ash, hydrogen and nitrogen contents tended to diminish with increases in age for all the clones evaluated. However, oxygen content presented an increase with the increase in age of the clones. Lignin content presented significant increase with age increase, being the contrary observed for holocellulose content. The clones at the age of 69 months presented the highest contents of lignin, but the same did not happen for basic density of wood. The clones I144 and I220 had the highest average values for this characteristic, what may be advantageous for charcoal production. 

  5. Thailand's Low-Carbon Scenario 2050: The AIM/CGE analyses of CO2 mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change and CO2 mitigation have become increasingly important environmental issues. Recently Thailand has proposed policies on GHG mitigation such as Thailand’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), which aims at GHG mitigation in the energy sector. This study used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, called “AIM/CGE” model, to analyse GHG mitigation measures under emission trading and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Thailand. Results show that the international free emission trading policy can drive more GHG reduction by decreasing energy supply and demand, and increasing prices of emissions. The CCS technologies would balance emission reduction but they would reduce energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization. In the energy security aspect, the policy options in this study would improve energy security, energy import dependency, and co-benefits of GHG mitigation in forms of improving local air quality. Results are also helpful to GHG mitigation policy in developing countries. -- Highlights: •A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was used to analyze GHG mitigation policies in Thailand. •The CCS and emission trading will increase GHG mitigation in Thailand. •The 30% GHG mitigation target with 50% emission trading will give the best result in GDP. •The share of biomass resource and energy efficiency will decrease with CCS. •The emission trading will play an important role in decreasing fossil consumption and increasing renewable energy utilization

  6. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  7. Aiming at Excellence as Our Science Evolves Amidst the Bumpiness of Modern Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furbish, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    The health and stature of an academic department are strongly influenced by how its vision and mission mesh with those of the college/school and university. Aiming at this alignment is a continuous process, as it typically involves engaging competing interests and disparate world views of all participants, and is punctuated by weighty, albeit academically normal, events with varying recurrence intervals. For example, the typical (35-year) career faculty member in the U.S. will, on average, see 8.8 department chair (re)appointments, experience 7.8 academic deans and 5.3 presidents/chancellors, be eligible for 5 sabbaticals, hear about if not undergo 3.5 NRC ranking processes, contribute to 1.8 curriculum revisions at the college/school level and to one major curriculum revision at the department level, participate in at least N - 1 faculty searches and at least 0.8N tenure reviews (where N is faculty size, assumed to be steady), and see about one full turnover of the department faculty. If affiliated with a program where securing external funding is expected, this typical academician will with luck participate, on average, in at least 11.7 external grants. These events are sources of both inertia and acceleration, stability and instability; they are triggers of change as well as tools of change. Moreover, geoscience departments in particular are facing the need to reexamine their missions in response to the rapidly evolving scope of our science -- within the context of institutional pressures driven by changing student interests, prioritization in allocation of resources, changes in emphasis on educational level, and changing societal expectations of education. No steady states exist. Strength comes in aiming at a vision centered on agreed-upon principles of excellence that possess long time constants, using shorter recurrence-interval events as tools for tuning to this vision. Important examples occur in curriculum development/revision, hiring and mentoring

  8. [AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow); a training model aimed at enhancement of clinical scientific research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees-Wortelboer, M M; Lamberts, S W; Klasen, E C

    1997-06-21

    The enhancement of clinical scientific research in the Netherlands is being stimulated to a substantial extent by the introduction and stimulation of a training model aimed at the combined training of physicians to both a general practitioner or specialist and a clinical researcher, the AGIKO (Clinical Research Fellow). The model has been recognized by the Central College for Recognition and Registration of Medical Specialists. Extra stimulation by the section Medical Sciences of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (MW-NWO) makes it possible to appoint AGIKOs on second or third flows of funds but also within the first flow of funds. During the last two years, 25 AGIKO applications from ten medical specialisms have been approved. The AGIKO model may help to meet (expected) needs for future clinical-medical research workers in specific research areas. PMID:9380169

  9. A reduction clamp for an aiming component in associated acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Fu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of acetabular fractures is complex and requires specialized equipment. However, all currently available instruments have some disadvantages. A new reduction clamp that can firmly enable reduction and not hinder subsequent fixation procedures for some special fracture types is needed. Materials and Methods: In this study, we introduce a new acetabular clamp and its preliminary clinical application in three T-shaped acetabular fractures. Results: This new clamp can successfully pull the posterior column back to the anterior column and firmly maintain the reduction. This clamp′s aiming plate can facilitate the insertion of long lag screws. The clamp is also easy to assemble and use. Conclusion: This reduction clamp is a useful instrument that can facilitate open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures.

  10. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  11. Computational study of formamide-water complexes using the SAPT and AIM methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the complexes formed between formamide and water were studied by means of the SAPT and AIM methods. Complexation leads to significant alterations in the geometries and electronic structure of formamide. Intermolecular interactions in the complexes are intense, especially in the cases where the solvent interacts with the carbonyl and amide groups simultaneously. In the transition states, the interaction between the water molecule and the lone pair on the amide nitrogen is also important. In all the complexes studied herein, the electrostatic interactions between formamide and water are the main attractive force, and their contribution may be five times as large as the corresponding contribution from dispersion, and twice as large as the contribution from induction. However, an increase in the resonance of planar formamide with the successive addition of water molecules may suggest that the hydrogen bonds taking place between formamide and water have some covalent character

  12. Spray aiming in bombardier beetles: jet deflection by the coanda effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    1982-01-01

    Bombardier beetles of the carabid subfamily Paussinae have a pair of flanges, diagnostic for the group, that project outward from the sides of the body. Behind each flange is a gland opening, from which the beetles discharge a hot, quinone-containing secretion when disturbed. The flanges are curved and grooved and serve as launching guides for anteriorly aimed ejections of secretion. Jets of fluid, on emergence from the gland openings, follow the curvature of the flanges and are thereby bent sharply in their trajectory and directed forward. The phenomenon is illustrative of the Coanda effect, widely applicable in engineering and responsible for the familiar tendency of liquids to curve around spouts and down the front of containers when being poured. PMID:17790472

  13. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  14. Overview of project Entsorgungsnachweis: aims and methodology for making the safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Nagra, is responsible for research and development, geological investigations, design studies and safety assessment studies leading to the development of facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland. This paper (and the other accompanying papers) discusses Project Entsorgungsnachweis, a project assessing the geological and engineering feasibility and long-term safety of a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent UO2 or mixed-oxide fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) in the Opalinus Clay of the Zurcher Weinland of northern Switzerland, This paper provides the background to and describes the aims of project Entsorgungsnachweis. It also discusses key aspects of the methodology adopted by Nagra in developing the safety case for the proposed repository. (author)

  15. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  16. Geographic health information systems: a platform to support the 'triple aim'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ferranti, Jeffrey; Strauss, Benjamin; Neelon, Brian; Califf, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the rapid growth of electronic health data, most data systems do not connect individual patient records to data sets from outside the health care delivery system. These isolated data systems cannot support efforts to recognize or address how the physical and environmental context of each patient influences health choices and health outcomes. In this article we describe how a geographic health information system in Durham, North Carolina, links health system and social and environmental data via shared geography to provide a multidimensional understanding of individual and community health status and vulnerabilities. Geographic health information systems can be useful in supporting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim Initiative to improve the experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce per capita costs of health care. A geographic health information system can also provide a comprehensive information base for community health assessment and intervention for accountable care that includes the entire population of a geographic area. PMID:24019366

  17. Current and future microbicide approaches aimed at preventing HIV infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzetto, Bruno; Delézay, Olivier; Brunon-Gagneux, Amandine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Lucht, Frédéric; Bourlet, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Women from developing countries, in which the prevalence of HIV infection is very high, are at risk of becoming infected without having the possibility of personally controlling this risk. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-HIV vaginal microbicide strategies. This review considers the modes of entry of HIV through the mucosa of the female genital tract, the different classes of vaginal microbicide compounds, the mode of delivery of these drugs, the aims and methods of in vitro and animal experiments at the preclinical stage, the results of the Phase III trials conducted in different countries, including the ongoing assays, and the future orientations for the next 5 years with a discussion relative to antiviral resistance, combination strategies and development of new-generation compounds. PMID:22339191

  18. Moving beyond the "Five Freedoms" by Updating the "Five Provisions" and Introducing Aligned "Animal Welfare Aims".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J

    2016-01-01

    Although the Five Freedoms paradigm has been very influential in shaping animal welfare thinking for the last two decades, it has two key disadvantages. First, the focus on "freedom" from a range of negative experiences and states has been misunderstood in a number of quarters to mean that complete freedom from these experiences and states is possible, when in fact the best that can be achieved is for them to be minimised. Second, the major focus of the Freedoms on negative experiences and states is now seen to be a disadvantage in view of current understanding that animal welfare management should also include the promotion of positive experiences and states. The challenge therefore was to formulate a paradigm that overcame these two main problems and yet was straightforward enough to be accessible to non-specialists, including members of the lay public who are interested in animal welfare. This was achieved by highlighting the Five Provisions, originally aligned with the Five Freedoms, but now updated to direct welfare management towards activities that both minimise negative experiences or states and promote positive experiences or states as specified by particular Animal Welfare Aims assigned to each Provision. Aspects of the four welfare principles from the European Welfare Quality assessment system (WQ (®) ) and elements of all domains of the Five Domains Model for animal welfare assessment have been incorporated into the new Five Provisions/Welfare Aims paradigm. Thus, the paradigm is easily understood and provides clear guidance on beneficial objectives for animal welfare management. It is anticipated that the paradigm will have application to many species found in a wide range of circumstances. PMID:27669313

  19. Immune-Complexed Adenovirus Induce AIM2-Mediated Pyroptosis in Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholz, Karsten; Bru, Thierry; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Fernandes, Paulo; Mennechet, Franck J. D.; Manel, Nicolas; Alves, Paula; Perreau, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped proteinaceous particles containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome. HAdVs cause a spectrum of pathologies in all populations regardless of health standards. Following repeat exposure to multiple HAdV types, we develop robust and long-lived humoral and cellular immune responses that provide life-long protection from de novo infections and persistent HAdV. How HAdVs, anti-HAdV antibodies and antigen presenting cells (APCs) interact to influence infection is still incompletely understood. In our study, we used physical, pharmacological, biochemical, fluorescence and electron microscopy, molecular and cell biology approaches to dissect the impact of immune-complexed HAdV (IC-HAdV) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We show that IC-HAdV generate stabilized complexes of ~200 nm that are efficiently internalized by, and aggregate in, MoDCs. By comparing IC-HAdV, IC-empty capsid, IC-Ad2ts1 (a HAdV-C2 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation that impacts protease encapsidation) and IC-AdL40Q (a HAdV-C5 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation in protein VI), we demonstrate that protein VI-dependent endosomal escape is required for the HAdV genome to engage the DNA pattern recognition receptor AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2). AIM2 engagement induces pyroptotic MoDC death via ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a caspase activation/recruitment domain) aggregation, inflammasome formation, caspase 1 activation, and IL-1β and gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how humoral immunity initiates an innate immune response to HAdV-C5 in human professional APCs. PMID:27636895

  20. PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY AIMED AT STUDENTS’ ADAPTATION TO DISCIPLINE-BASED EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina M. Cheprakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to describe the educational technology aimed at students adaptation to discipline-based education in basic school; results discussion of the application practice to the educational process of the 5th grade.Methods. The methods involve learning experience, school documentation analysis, pedagogical experiment, study of students’ creativity and pedagogical experience on its organizational work. Systematic approach is used while structuring of the 5th grade students’ representations on the disciplines’ content of primary and basic general education on the methodological levelResults. The pedagogical technology of breaking the students’ educational disadaptation in the basic school is presented. The program of the course «All the subjects are good» is worked out. This program may allow students to adapt to the discipline content of the general education, to understand the essence of curriculum disciplines content and links between them, and the motivation development towards disciplinebased education evidence students’ adaptation. These objectives can be achieved through generation of skills based on the algorithmic of the concepts’ definitions mastering. The pilot implementation of the proposed technology in secondary school № 65 and in the Center «Giftedness and technology» of Yekaterinburg is presented.Scientific novelty. The effective way of neutralization and elimination of students’ discipline-educational disadaptation based on purposeful development of their conceptual thinking is proposed.Practical significance. The technology developed by authors allows teachers to form and develop the universal educational actions representing itself as a result of school training in the requirements of the educational standard. Timely use of this technology at transition age of children from primary school to secondary one provides the further success of their education.

  1. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation. PMID:25715801

  2. Investigation of individuals going to coffeehouse with the aim of leisure time activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main basis of this research is to investigate pe ople going to coffeehouse with the aim of leisure time activities. The research group of this study consist of individuals going to the coffeehouses with the aim of leisure time activities in the city of Gaz iantep, Turkey. A total of 421 individuals joined to the research voluntarily. The Research consists of two parts. In the first part, personal information was used. In the second part, the leisure questionnaire form developed by Binarbaşı (2006 was u sed in order to determine individuals’ leisure time habits. The statistical programme SPSS 16.0 software packed programme was used to analyze the data. While analyzing the data, descriptive statistics methods were used as frequency percentage so P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. As the result of research; it is seen that 41 years of age and older people prefer going to coffehouses more than the others, the big majority of them are elementary and junior high school graduates and mostly they are married people, mostly they have 1 - 2 children, as a profession they are mostly workers who take minimum wage and they work very little over salary as monthly income. People going to the coffeehouses in their free time preffered at a high rate that they mostly go to the coffeehouses to spend time with their friends, they are happy with this activity, in the same time they find it very relaxing and they mostly watch TV when they don’t go to coffeehouses in their spare time and they in dicated the reason for failure to participate in other activities except coffeehouses as the absence of relevant activities and programmes appealing to them and economic handicap.

  3. Organogenesis and plant selection by kanamycin of strawberry in vitro aiming at genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Reis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of genetic transformation of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is strongly influenced by the cultivar and depends on efficient regeneration and plant-transformed selection. In plant regeneration, efficient organogenesis depends on the concentrations of plant growth regulators that are present in the culture medium, and the response varies according to the explant type and cultivar. Similarly, in the selection of transformed plants, the sensitivity to selective agents induced by marker genes depends on the concentration of the selective substance in the regeneration medium and must be adjusted according to the chosen cultivar. The aim of this work was to test different combinations and concentrations of TDZ (Thidiazuron and IBA (indolebutyric-acid added to the base medium MS (MURASHIGE; SKOOG, 1962 for shoot regeneration of Camiño Real and Festival cultivars from leaf and petiole explants. In the case of ‘Camiño Real’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L-1 of IBA were tested. In the case of ‘Festival’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1 of IBA were evaluated. Another aim was to define the lowest concentration of the selective agent Kanamycin (marker gene npt II able to inhibit regeneration of the untransformed shoots. For this purpose, Kanamycin doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1 were added to the pre-established regeneration medium. In the petiole explant test, normal shoot regeneration did not occur; thus, only shoot regeneration and the sensitivity to Kanamycin from leaf explants were analyzed. For ‘Camiño Real’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. On the other hand, for ‘Festival’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.5 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. As far as Kanamycin sensitivity is concerned, total inhibition of the shoots was observed with 10 mg

  4. Low Power and Shutdown PSA Modeling using AIMS-PSA and SIMA Script

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) software package, called OCEANS. OCEANS includes software for Level- 1, 2 and 3 PSAs, fire PSA, seismic PSA, and shutdown PSA. OCEANS is being developed to simplify and automate the modeling and quantification procedures in PSA. The AIMS-PSA software plays a key role in OCEANS, which takes charge of the event tree and fault tree modeling, as well as automates the quantification procedure. The first low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA in Korea was performed for the purpose of estimating the risk during the LPSD operation for YGN 5 and 6 in 2000. The LPSD PSA requires a lot of time and effort for the following 2 reasons: 1) The risk is analyzed for 14 POSs (Plant Operating States). A PSA for each POS corresponds to a full power PSA. The size of a LPSD PSA can be as large as 14 times a full power PSA. 2) The states of systems/components are changed for every overhaul. The LPSD PSA should be revised for every overhaul to reflect the overhaul schedule. Another study was performed to improve the quality and enhance the methodology for the LPSD PSA in 2006. A method to use the conditioning gate was introduced for the purpose of handling a change in the state of a component. This approach has a benefit compared with the previous one, but still requires modifying the model manually. An approach has been developed in this study to simply the modeling of the LPSD PSA by using a script, called SIMA (Script Interpreter for Mapping Algorithm), in conjunction with AIMS-PSA. The SIMA script consists of a series of script commands to describe the changes in the fault tree model, which enables modifying the system fault trees of a full power PSA automatically to incorporate the situation of LPSD, so as not to modify the fault tree manually. The approach developed in this study was tested and verified for the LPSD PSA model developed in 2006

  5. The Outlook for Some Fission Products Utilization with the Aim to Immobilize Long-Lived Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for development of nuclear power are intimately associated with solving the problem of safe management and removal from the biosphere of generated radioactive wastes. The most suitable material for fission products and actinides immobilization is the crystalline ceramics. By now numerous literature data are available concerning the synthesis of a large range of various materials with zirconium-based products. It worth mentioning that zirconium is only one of fission products accumulated in the fuel in large amounts. The development of new materials intended for HLW immobilization will allow increasing of radionuclides concentration in solidified product so providing costs reduction at the stage of subsequent storage. At the same time the idea to use for synthesis of compounds, suitable as materials for long-term storage or final disposal of rad-wastes some fission products occurring in spent fuel in considerable amount and capable to form insoluble substances seems to be rather attractive. In authors opinion in the nearest future one can expect the occurrence of publications proposing the techniques allowing the use of 'reactor's zirconium, molybdenum or, perhaps, technetium as well, with the aim of preparing materials suitable for long-lived radionuclides storage or final disposal. The other element, which is generated in the reactor and worth mentioning, is palladium. The prospects for using palladium are defined not only by its higher generation in the reactor, but by a number of its chemical properties as well. It is evident that the use of natural palladium with the purpose of radionuclides immobilization is impossible due to its high cost and deficiency). In author's opinion such materials could be used as targets for long-lived radionuclides transmutation as well. The object of present work was the study on methods that could allow to use 'reactor' palladium with the aim of long-lived radionuclides such as I-129 and TUE immobilization. In the

  6. Oral Health Care Reform in Finland – aiming to reduce inequity in care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, dental services are provided by a public (PDS and a private sector. In the past, children, young adults and special needs groups were entitled to care and treatment from the public dental services (PDS. A major reform in 2001 – 2002 opened the PDS and extended subsidies for private dental services to all adults. It aimed to increase equity by improving adults' access to oral health care and reducing cost barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of the reform on the utilization of publicly funded and private dental services, numbers and distribution of personnel and costs in 2000 and in 2004, before and after the oral health care reform. An evaluation was made of how the health political goals of the reform: integrating oral health care into general health care, improving adults' access to care and lowering cost barriers had been fulfilled during the study period. Methods National registers were used as data sources for the study. Use of dental services, personnel resources and costs in 2000 (before the reform and in 2004 (after the reform were compared. Results In 2000, when access to publicly subsidised dental services was restricted to those born in 1956 or later, every third adult used the PDS or subsidised private services. By 2004, when subsidies had been extended to the whole adult population, this increased to almost every second adult. The PDS reported having seen 118 076 more adult patients in 2004 than in 2000. The private sector had the same number of patients but 542 656 of them had not previously been entitled to partial reimbursement of fees. The use of both public and subsidised private services increased most in big cities and urban municipalities where access to the PDS had been poor and the number of private practitioners was high. The PDS employed more dentists (6.5% and the number of private practitioners fell by 6.9%. The total dental care expenditure (PDS plus private

  7. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  8. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  9. Time and Energy Measurement Electronics for Silicon Drift Detector Aimed for X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Er-Lei; Ye, Chun-Feng; Liu, Shu-Bin; Jin, Dong-Dong; Lian, Jian; Hu, Hui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A readout electronic with high time and energy resolution performance is designed for the SDD (Silicon Drift Detector) signals readout, which is aimed for X-ray pulsar based navigation (XNAV). For time measurement, the input signal is fed into a fast shaping and Constant Fraction Discrimination (CFD) circuit, and then be digitalized by a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which is designed with a bin size of 2.5 ns. For energy measurement, a slow shaping and analog peak detection circuit is employed to acquire the energy information of input signals, which is then digitalized by a 14-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). Both the time and energy measurement results are buffered and packaged in FPGA and then transmitted to Data Processing (DP) system. Test results indicate that the time resolution is about 3 ns, while the FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of energy spectrum is better than 160 eV @ 5.9 keV, with the energy dynamic range from 1 keV to 10 keV....

  10. Making didactics proposals aimed at improving socioeducational programs for youngters at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Violeta Álvarez Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators at Sograndio Juvenile Detention Center in Asturias were sure that they were able to offer new alternatives to improve their socio-educational intervention. That is the reason why they got involved in an action research training process aimed at making didactic proposals which tried to optimize the development of social competence programs for youngsters with criminal behavior. In order to do this, the Short Version of the Prosocial Thinking Program for Young People (Alba et al., 2005 was applied to nine inmates, eight males between 14 and 20 years old and a female of 16 years old. Theywere the basis and reflection of ourmethodological intervention. The teamtaking part in this intervention is formed by nine inmates and three external members (two coordinators and a woman psychologist. The investigation, mainly qualitative, includes different instruments (both qualitative and quantitative, such as: observation registries, discussion groups, questionnaires and notebooks. After the implementation of the program, positive changes must be highlighted in the emotional dimension, the resolution of problems, self-control and frustration tolerance. Besides, very high levels of satisfaction have been observed among youngsters, educators and external informants. It is important to have created a climate of professional compromise towards change and this way to have abandoned a passive attitude towards training, so that we were able to start an active search for practical answers, adjusted to our necessities and professional interests. Finally, we make several observations and intervention proposals that contribute to generate didactic knowledge thought and adapted for social education.

  11. A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (IDRAIM) aimed at promoting integrated river management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, M.; Surian, N.; Comiti, F.; Bussettini, M.

    2015-12-01

    A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (named IDRAIM) has been developed with the specific aim of supporting the management of river processes by integrating the objectives of ecological quality and flood risk mitigation. The framework builds on existing and up-to-date geomorphological concepts and approaches and has been tested on several Italian streams. The framework includes the following four phases: (1) catchment-wide characterization of the fluvial system; (2) evolutionary trajectory reconstruction and assessment of current river conditions; (3) description of future trends of channel evolution; and (4) identification of management options. The framework provides specific consideration of the temporal context, in terms of reconstructing the trajectory of past channel evolution as a basis for interpreting present river conditions and future trends. A series of specific tools has been developed for the assessment of river conditions, in terms of morphological quality and channel dynamics. These include: the Morphological Quality Index (MQI), the Morphological Dynamics Index (MDI), the Event Dynamics Classification (EDC), and the river morphodynamic corridors (MC and EMC). The monitoring of morphological parameters and indicators, alongside the assessment of future scenarios of channel evolution provides knowledge for the identification, planning and prioritization of actions for enhancing morphological quality and risk mitigation.

  12. A Molecular-Modeling Toolbox Aimed at Bridging the Gap between Medicinal Chemistry and Computational Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Eid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of high-throughput drug discovery and development, molecular modeling has become an indispensable tool for identifying, optimizing and prioritizing small-molecule drug candidates. The required background in computational chemistry and the knowledge of how to handle the complex underlying protocols, however, might keep medicinal chemists from routinely using in silico technologies. Our objective is to encourage those researchers to exploit existing modeling technologies more frequently through easy-to-use graphical user interfaces. In this account, we present two innovative tools (which we are prepared to share with academic institutions facilitating computational tasks commonly utilized in drug discovery and development: (1 the VirtualDesignLab estimates the binding affinity of small molecules by simulating and quantifying their binding to the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; and (2 the MD Client launches molecular dynamics simulations aimed at exploring the time-dependent stability of ligand–protein complexes and provides residue-based interaction energies. This allows medicinal chemists to identify sites of potential improvement in their candidate molecule. As a case study, we present the application of our tools towards the design of novel antagonists for the FimH adhesin.

  13. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®). PMID:25284237

  14. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  15. Educational strategies aimed at improving student nurse's medication calculation skills: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Medication administration is an important and essential nursing function with the potential for dangerous consequences if errors occur. Not only must nurses understand the use and outcomes of administering medications they must be able to calculate correct dosages. Medication administration and dosage calculation education occurs across the undergraduate program for student nurses. Research highlights inconsistencies in the approaches used by academics to enhance the student nurse's medication calculation abilities. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the literature available on effective education strategies for undergraduate student nurses on medication dosage calculations. A literature search of five health care databases: Sciencedirect, Cinahl, Pubmed, Proquest, Medline to identify journal articles between 1990 and 2012 was conducted. Research articles on medication calculation educational strategies were considered for inclusion in this review. The search yielded 266 papers of which 20 meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 5206 student nurse were included in the final review. The review revealed educational strategies fell into four types of strategies; traditional pedagogy, technology, psychomotor skills and blended learning. The results suggested student nurses showed some benefit from the different strategies; however more improvements could be made. More rigorous research into this area is needed.

  16. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

  17. Shikonin Suppresses NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes by Direct Inhibition of Caspase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorman, Jernej; Sušjan, Petra; Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin is a highly lipophilic naphtoquinone found in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon used for its pleiotropic effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Based on its reported antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether shikonin suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that serve as scaffolds for recruitment and activation of caspase-1, which, in turn, results in cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. NLRP3 inflammasome activation involves two steps: priming, i.e. the activation of NF-κB pathway, and inflammasome assembly. While shikonin has previously been reported to suppress the priming step, we demonstrated that shikonin also inhibits the second step of inflammasome activation induced by soluble and particulate NLRP3 instigators in primed immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Shikonin decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to nigericin more potently than acetylshikonin. Our results showed that shikonin also inhibits AIM2 inflammasome activation by double stranded DNA. Shikonin inhibited ASC speck formation and caspase-1 activation in murine macrophages and suppressed the activity of isolated caspase-1, demonstrating that it directly targets caspase-1. Complexing shikonin with β-lactoglobulin reduced its toxicity while preserving the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting that shikonin with improved bioavailability might be interesting for therapeutic applications in inflammasome-mediated conditions. PMID:27467658

  18. Spectroscopic analysis, AIM, NLO and VCD investigations of acetaldehyde thiosemicarbazone using quantum mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N.; Prabakar, P. C. Jobe; Ramalingam, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gnanamuthu, S. Joshua; Pandian, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    The prepared Acetaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (ATSC) have been investigated by both the experimental and theoretical methods; through this work, the essentiality of elucidation of molecular fragments source linear and non-linear optical properties was explored. The stability of the structure and entire calculations have been performed on HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. The Mulliken charge profile, electronic, optical and hyper polarizability analyses have been carried out in order to evaluate nonlinear optical (NLO) performance of the present compound. The exact optical location of the ATSC was determined by executing UV-Visible calculations on TDSCF method. The existence of the molecular group for the inducement and tuning of NLO properties were thoroughly investigated by performing fundamental vibrational investigation. The optical energy transformation among frontier molecular levels has been described in UV-Visible region. The Gibbs energy coefficient of thermodynamic functions was monitored in different temperature and it was found constant irrespective of temperatures. The appearance of different chemical environment of H and C was monitored from the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The vibrational optical polarization characteristics with respect to molecular composition in the compound have been studied by VCD spectrum. The bond critical point, Laplacian of electron density, electron kinetic energy density and total electron energy density have calculated and analysed using AIM study.

  19. DESTINATION BRANDING AIMED AT INTERNATIONAL AFFIRMATION OF TOURISTIC POTENTIALS OF BiH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Rakita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain how application of marketing and branding principles contributes to effective management of destinations under conditions of globalization. The paper emphasizes the importance of understanding of tourists’ behavior model, with special focus on importance of destination image in process of decision making on destination choice. Case of the city of Rovinj was presented as good practice example in development of destination brand. In order to get the answer to the question where BiH is located in comparison to other countries of the Western Balkans in regard to the most important tourism indicators, findings of relevant research of the World Tourism Organization and the World Economic Forum were presented. In the last part of the paper, some of the shortcomings that usually arise in the process of destination management in BiH were presented, with recommendations how they can be overcome in accordance with the principles of destination marketing and branding, in order to better utilize tourism potentials in BiH.

  20. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each other, totaling nine plants per plot, being evaluated only the three most vigorous plants. For evaluation, three plants were pruned 20 cm height above soil, after 12 months of cultivation, it was evaluated the yield of cuttings with four knots and two pairs of leaves; plants height (m, torso diameter the 20 cm height of the soil (cm; branches length (m; and total green mass accumulated (kg. In most features evaluated, the best results were observed in the ‘Ascolano 315’. The successive cuts may be extended over a three year period. The parameter estimates indicate that plants of both cultivars y responded satisfactorily to regrowth.