WorldWideScience

Sample records for 10g ethernet aiming

  1. Optical frame synchronizer for 10 G Ethernet packets aiming at 1 Tb/s OTDM Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist; Laguardia Areal, Janaina;

    2010-01-01

    Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved.......Synchronization of 10 G Ethernet packets to a local clock was demonstrated using a phase modulator and a SMF as retiming elements. Error free performances for the synchronized packets with different lengths were achieved....

  2. Analysis of a time-lens based optical frame synchronizer and retimer for 10G Ethernet aiming at a Tb/s optical router/switch design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes experimentally and by numerical simulations an optical frame retimer and synchronizer unit for 10 Gbit/s Ethernet input frames. The unit is envisaged to be applied in the design of an optically transparent router for Optical Time Division Multiplexed (OTDM) links, aggregating...

  3. Synchronization and NRZ-to-RZ format conversion of 10 G Ethernet packet based on a time lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time.......10 G Ethernet packet with maximum frame size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a global clock using a time lens. The 10 Gb/s NRZ signal is converted into RZ signal at the same time....

  4. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  5. 10G以太网布线标准及产品%10G Ethernet Cabling Standard and the Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    美国西蒙公司

    2005-01-01

    6类系统正在迅速地成为新装布线系统首选的解决方案。1998年美国西蒙公司首家推出了全系列真正的六类结构化布线系统。今天,西蒙把六类的性能又提升了一个台阶,推出了创新的10G6州系统,作为一个被专门设计成处理不断涌现出来的高性能需求应用的UTP和F/UTP布线系统,能向目前基于高端IP服务的桌面系统提供最好性价比。而西蒙的7类TERA系统,则以高带宽(1.2GHz)支持能力轻松支持当前和未来的10G+应用。

  6. Synchronization, retiming and OTDM of an asynchronous 10 Gigabit Ethernet NRZ packet using a time lens for Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2011-01-01

    An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal.......An asynchronous 10G Ethernet packet is synchronized and retimed to a master clock using a time lens. The NRZ packet is converted into an RZ packet and multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal....

  7. Ethernet traffic measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Santschi, Yann; Corthay, François

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a FPGA Ethernet traffic measurement point and interface it with an existing measurement network, named DPMI, that is developed in Blekinge Institute of Technology.

  8. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

    Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

  9. Optical Time-Division Multiplexing of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet Signals Synchronized by All-Optical Signal Processing Based on a Time-Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areal, Janaina Laguardia

    This Thesis presents 3 years work of an optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically transparent and does not req...... coupler, completing the OTDM signal generation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the design by laboratory experiments and simulations with VPI and MatLab....

  10. Division Multiplexing of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet Signals Synchronized by All-Optical Signal Processing Based on a Time-Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areal, Janaina Laguardia

    This Thesis presents 3 years work of an optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically trans-parent and does not re...... coupler, completing the OTDM signal generation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the design by laboratory experi-ments and simulations with VPI and MatLab....

  11. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  12. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  13. Conversion of asynchronous 10 Gbit/s Ethernet NRZ frame into a synchronous RZ frame and multiplexing to 170 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream.......This paper presents an optical circuit for frame synchronization and pulse compression of 10G Ethernet frames with 12000 bits and multiplexing to a 170 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed data stream....

  14. NEC发布10G ROSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    NEC日前推出针对10G Xenpak,Xpak,X2以及XFP光模块应用的ROSA器件NR3312和NR4210。NEC籽在其美国子公司CEL在OFC2005上的展台上展出。NR3312是经济性的基于PIN的ROSA,其最高工作温度可以达到100℃,

  15. Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel , Georg...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Austrian Academy of Sciences Viktor Kaplan StraÃe 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  16. Prototipo de RINA sobre Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Bergesio, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Este PFM se enmarca dentro del trabajo a realizar por el proyecto IRATI. IRATI es un proyecto STReP (Specific Targeted Research Project) financiado por la Unión Europea dentro del programa FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development). El objetivo general de IRATI es conseguir una mayor compresión y exploración de RINA. El trabajo que se reportará en este PFM es (aproximadamente) la primera fase del diseño y desarrollo de un prototipo de RINA sobre Ethernet en e...

  17. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  18. Towards 100 gigabit carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2010-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and TMPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  19. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... technology, making the use of Ethernet as a convergence layer for Next Generation Networks a distinct possibility. Triple Play services, in particular IPTV, are expected to be a main drivers for carrier Ethernet, however, a number of challenges must be addressed including QoS enabled control plane, enhanced...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  20. Modeling and testing of ethernet transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, David

    2011-12-01

    Twisted-pair Ethernet is now the standard home and office last-mile network technology. For decades, the IEEE standard that defines Ethernet has required electrical isolation between the twisted pair cable and the Ethernet device. So, for decades, every Ethernet interface has used magnetic core Ethernet transformers to isolate Ethernet devices and keep users safe in the event of a potentially dangerous fault on the network media. The current state-of-the-art Ethernet transformers are miniature (explored which are capable of exceptional miniaturization or on-chip fabrication. This dissertation thoroughly explores the performance of the current commercial Ethernet transformers to both increase understanding of the device's behavior and outline performance parameters for replacement devices. Lumped element and distributed circuit models are derived; testing schemes are developed and used to extract model parameters from commercial Ethernet devices. Transfer relation measurements of the commercial Ethernet transformers are compared against the model's behavior and it is found that the tuned, distributed models produce the best transfer relation match to the measured data. Process descriptions and testing results on fabricated thin-film dielectric-core toroid transformers are presented. The best results were found for a 32-turn transformer loaded with 100Ω, the impedance of twisted pair cable. This transformer gave a flat response from about 10MHz to 40MHz with a height of approximately 0.45. For the fabricated transformer structures, theoretical methods to determine resistance, capacitance and inductance are presented. A special analytical and numerical analysis of the fabricated transformer inductance is presented. Planar cuts of magnetic slope fields around the dielectric-core toroid are shown that describe the effect of core height and winding density on flux uniformity without a magnetic core.

  1. Framework for Ethernet Network Functionality Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Aamir Mehmood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer networks and telecommunication systems use a wide range of applications. Therefore, the power and complexity of computer networks are increasing every day which enhances the possibilities of the end user, but also makes harder the work of those who have to design, maintain and make a network efficient, optimized and secure. Ethernet functionality testing as a generic term used for checking connectivity, throughput and capability to transfer packets over the network. Especially in the packet-switch environment, Ethernet testing has become an essential part for deploying a reliable network. A platform and vendor independent framework is required to verify and test the functionality of the Ethernet network and to verify the functionality and performance of the TCP/IP stack. NetBurst is developed for Ethernet functionality testing

  2. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang;

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  3. Communication Performance Over A Gigabit Ethernet Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Nitish Meena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A present computing imposes heavy demands on the optical communication network. Gigabit Ethernet technology can provide the required bandwidth to meet these demands. However, it has also involve the communication Impediment to progress from network media to TCP(Transfer control protocol processing. In this paper, present an overview of Gigabit per second Ethernet technology and study the end-to-end Gigabit Ethernet communication bandwidth and retrieval time. Performance graphs are collected using NetPipe in this clearly show the performance characteristics of TCP/IP over Gigabit Ethernet. These indicate the impact of a number of factors such as processor speeds, network adaptors, versions of the Linux Kernel or opnet softwar and device drivers, and TCP/IP(Internet protocol tuning on the performance of Gigabit Ethernet between two Pentium II/350 PCs. Among the important conclusions are the marked superiority of the 2.1.121 and later development kernels and 2.2.x production kernels of Linux or opnet softwar used and that the ability to increase the MTU(maximum transmission unit Further than the Ethernet standard of 1500 could significantly enhance the throughput reachable.

  4. Industrial Communication with Ethernet and Fieldbuses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Müller

    2004-01-01

    @@ With its open protocol structures, its strengths in universal communication and its free choice of topology, Ethernet has long since established itself as the standard in office communication. In the field of industrial communications, on the other hand, various Fieldbuses have emerged to date as the defacto standard. This is largely due to geographical reasons or specific application requirements. In countless machines and systems worldwide, they serve to connect sensors and actuators with control technology. Ethernet is already used in the industry for communicating between various machines and subsystems. It is therefore natural and obvious that the industry should also be interested in using the global communication standard Ethernet for connecting sensors and actuators. However, this is not possible without modifying or adding to the standard Ethernet technology. The reasons for this include the complexity of the protocol, the processing power required in each simple device and the increased project efforts.As a result, various companies and organizations are working on Ethernet extensions, especially those that will enable real-time processing.

  5. Embedded Ethernet Controller using ARM LPC2138

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Magadum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available — With the development of network technology and communication technology needs that industrial control can be completed via network has become a trend. Here the proposed system consists of an ARM processor LPC2148 with an external Ethernet interface controller WIZ810MJ and the whole system can function as a web server. In the system the data can be transmitted transparently between host and serial device. The host can communicate with any serial device connected Ethernet without knowing each other’s physical location. Since ARM processor has fast execution capability and Ethernet standard can provide internet access with reasonable speed, this system is suitable for enhancing security in industrial conditions by remotely monitoring various industrial appliances where high safety and care is a necessity. There is no doubt that this system will be useful for a wide variety of industrial applications.

  6. IP, ethernet and MPLS networks resource and fault management

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management. Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

  7. Analysis and solutions of QoS issue in Ethernet PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; He, Yan; Shi, Lei

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) aims at providing full services to end users over a single platform, which combines the low cost Ethernet equipment and economic fiber infrastructure, appears to be the best candidate for the future broad access network. Due to Ethernet has a seamless connection with modern IP network, EPON has shown excellent performance when transmitting data service. However, a key technical challenge for EPON vendors lies in enhancing Ethernet"s capabilities to support real-time services, such as VoIP, live video and other TDM services, e .g. POTS and T1/E1. In order to guarantee the required QoS, many new technologies are introduced, either common to all IP based network or dedicated to EPON network. Firstly, a short overview of EPON technology is given. Then, two prevailing QoS architectures, Intserv and Diffserv, are presented in detail. Both their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. Subsequently, the light is turned to a certain DBA algorithm, which is more efficient in EPON. Both the features of the algorithm and the main ideas are described in particular. At last, reserving bandwidth for TDM service, which is simple but not very efficient, is also proposed.

  8. Synchronization and NRZ-to-RZ conversion of 10 Gbit/s Ethernet-like data packets and subsequent optical TDM multiplexing to 330 Gbit/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2011-01-01

    A time lens system synchronizes a 10G Ethernet asynchronous data frame to a local master clock and converts the NRZ-frame to an RZ-frame and multiplexes it into a 330 Gbit/s aggregated Optical TDM signal....

  9. Protection switching for carrier ethernet multicast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses network survivability for IPTV multicast transport in Carrier Ethernet networks. The impact of link failures is investigated and suggestions for intelligent multicast resilience schemes are proposed. In particular, functions of the multicast tree are integrated with the Carrier...

  10. Heavy Traffic Feasible Hybrid Intracycle and Cyclic Sleep for Power Saving in 10G-EPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintian Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in optical access networks costs carriers substantial operational expense (OPEX every year and is one of contributing factors for the global warming. To reduce energy consumption in the 10-gigabit Ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON, a hybrid intracycle and cyclic sleep mechanism is proposed in this paper. Under heavy traffic load, optical network units (ONUs can utilize short idle slots within each scheduling cycle to enter intracycle sleep without postponing data transmission. In this way, energy conservation is achieved even under heavy traffic load with quality of service (QoS guarantee. Under light traffic load, ONUs perform long cyclic sleep for several scheduling cycles. The adoption of cyclic sleep instead of intracycle sleep under light traffic load can reduce unnecessary frequent transitions between sleep and full active work caused by using intracycle sleep. Further, the Markov chain of the proposed mechanism is established. The performances of the proposed mechanism and existing approaches are analyzed quantitatively based on the chain. For the proposed mechanism, power saving ability with QoS guarantee even under heavy traffic and better power saving performance than existing approaches are verified by the quantitative analysis. Moreover, simulations validate the above conclusions based on the chain.

  11. Ethernet/IP工业以太网的研究及应用%Research and application of Ethernet/IP industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武杰; 郑晟; 陈文辉

    2011-01-01

    It describes the improvod development status of industrial Ethernet, then it not only makes the detailed analysis about the Ethernet/IP protocol model, its “producer/consumer” communication mode and the CIP message communication mechanism which is facing the “link”, but also points out the advantage of Ethernet/IP network application in industrial control. Simultaneously, it advances the method of Ethernet/lP network composition and communication settings of the Ethernet/IP network in the expressway tunnel. It successfully achieved a good monitoring in the expressway tunnel by using the Ethernet/IP network.%介绍了工业以太网的发展改进状况,对Ethernet/IP这种新型工业以太网的协议模型及其采用的"生产者/消费者"通讯模式和面向"连接"的,CIP(Common Industrial Protocol,CIP)报文通信机制做了详细分析,同时指出了Ether-net/IP网络应用在工业控制领域的优势.提出了Ethernet/IP工业以太网在高速公路隧道监控中具体的组网方案和通讯设置手段,利用Ethernet/IP网络成功地实现了时该高速公路隧道的良好监控.

  12. Ethernet Networks: Current Trends and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    El-Sayed, Abdulqader M

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet topology discovery has gained increasing interest in the recent years. This trend is motivated mostly by increasing number of carrier Ethernet networks as well as the size of these networks, and consequently the increasing sales of these networks. To manage these networks efficiently, detailed and accurate knowledge of their topology is needed. Knowledge of a network's entities and the physical connections between them can be useful in various prospective. Administrators can use topology information for network planning and fault detecting. Topology information can also be used during protocol and routing algorithm development, for performance prediction and as a basis for accurate network simulations. From a network security perspective, threat detection, network monitoring, network access control and forensic investigations can benefit from accurate network topology information. In this paper, we analyze market trends and investigate current tools available for both research and commercial purposes...

  13. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  14. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  15. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  16. Stationarity Testing of Accumulated Ethernet Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the stationarity property of the accumulated Ethernet traffic series. We applied several widely used stationarity and unit root tests, such as Dickey-Fuller test and its augmented version, Phillips-Perron test, as well as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test and some of its generalizations, to the assessment of the stationarity of the traffic traces at the different time scales. The quantitative results in this research provide evidence that when the time scale increases, the accumulated traffic series are more stationary.

  17. Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.

  18. Ethernet Operation Administration and Maintenance ; Opportunities for the NREN community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.J.; Malhotra, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ethernet started its life as a Local Area Network technology and initially did not have Operations, Administration and Maintenance (OAM) features like IP Ping, IP Traceroute and SDH Loss of Frame. Monitoring and management was mainly done on the IP level. In the case of delivery of Ethernet connecti

  19. Proposal for tutorial: Resilience in carrier Ethernet transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2009-01-01

    This tutorial addresses how Carrier Ethernet technologies can be used in the transport network to provide resilience to the packet layer. Carrier Ethernet networks based on PBB-TE and T-MPLS/MPLS-TP are strong candidates for reliable transport of triple-play services. These technologies offer...

  20. 安科特纳Acterna ANT-10G

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    ANT-10G-SDH版是ANT-20SE家族的成员,它可以在实验室也可以在现场使用。由于其优异的测试灵活性,ANT-10G使测试者能够利用多种方法对所有主要质量参数进行测试,从简单的误码率测试(BERTs),性能和指针分析,到复杂的同步问题。ANT-10G也可按照用户需要定制。

  1. Possibilities of implementation of synchronous Ethernet in popular Ethernet version using timing and interference constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetaiah KILARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular network architectures are following packet based architectures instead of conventional Time division multiplexing. The existed Ethernet is basically asynchronous in nature and was not designed based on timing transfer constraints. To achieve the challenge of next generation network with respect to efficient bandwidth and faster data rates, we have to deploy the network which has less latency. This can be achieved by Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE. In Sync-E, Phase Locked Loop (PLL was used to recover the incoming jitter from clock recovery circuit. Then feed the PLL block to transmission device. We have to design the network in an unaffected way that the functions of Ethernet should run in normal way even we introduced timing path at physical layer. This paper will give detailed outlook on how Sync-E is achieved from Asynchronous format. Reference model of 100 Base-TX/FX was analyzed with respect to timing and interference constraints. Finally, it was analyzed with the data rate improvement with the proposed method.

  2. ETHERNET PACKET PROCESSOR FOR SOC APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jitendra Nayaka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for Internet expands significantly in numbers of users, servers, IP addresses, switches and routers, the IP based network architecture must evolve and change. The design of domain specific processors that require high performance, low power and high degree of programmability is the bottleneck in many processor based applications. This paper describes the design of ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoC which performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetization classification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance. Our design has been configured for use with multiple projects ttargeted to a commercial configurable logic device the system is designed to support 10/100/1000 links with a speed advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulated the required functions in FPGA.

  3. Ethernet-Enabled Power and Communication Module for Embedded Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The power and communications module is a printed circuit board (PCB) that has the capability of providing power to an embedded processor and converting Ethernet packets into serial data to transfer to the processor. The purpose of the new design is to address the shortcomings of previous designs, including limited bandwidth and program memory, lack of control over packet processing, and lack of support for timing synchronization. The new design of the module creates a robust serial-to-Ethernet conversion that is powered using the existing Ethernet cable. This innovation has a small form factor that allows it to power processors and transducers with minimal space requirements.

  4. Interfacing the Controllogics PLC over Ethernet/IP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, K. U. (Kay-Uwe); Dalesio, L. R. (Leo R.)

    2001-01-01

    The Allen-Bradley ControlLogix [1] line of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) offers several interfaces: Ethernet, ControlNet, DeviceNet, RS-232 and others. The ControlLogix Ethernet interface module 1756-ENET uses EtherNet/IP, the ControlNet protocol [2], encapsulated in Ethernet packages, with specific service codes [3]. A driver for the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been developed that utilizes this EtherNet/IP protocol for controllers running the vxWorks RTOS as well as a Win32 and Unix/Linux test program. Features, performance and limitations of this interface are presented.

  5. Ethernet ring protection with managed FDB using APS payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinsung; Ryoo, Jeong-dong; Joo, Bheom Soon; Rhee, J.-K. Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Ethernet ring protection (ERP) is a new technology based on OAM (operations, administration, and maintenance) being standardized by the ITU-T G.8032 working group. In this paper, we present the recent development of Ethernet ring protection which is called FDB (filtering database) flush scheme and propose a new Ethernet ring protection technique introducing a managed FDB using APS to deliver information how to fix FDB selectively. We discuss the current development of the ERP technology at ITU-T and performance comparisons between different proposals.

  6. Radiation Hardened Ethernet PHY and Switch Fabric Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innoflight will develop a new family of radiation hardened (up to 3 Mrad(Si)), fault-tolerant, high data-rate (up to 8 Gbps), low power Gigabit Ethernet PHY and...

  7. Jet Engine Control Using Ethernet with a BRAIN (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    of isolation against environment or system faults, such as ground faults or lightning (e.g. by being able to be transformer coupled). Interlocking...Braided Ring Availability Integrity Network. SAE World Congress. Paper No 2007-01-1492. 2007. [IEC04] IEC . “Real Time Ethernet Control Automation...Technology (EtherCAT)”, Proposal for a Publicly Available Specification for Real-Time Ethernet, document IEC , 65C/355/NP, Date of circulation: 2004

  8. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  9. Oracle 10g/11g data and database management utilities LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Hector R

    2011-01-01

    This practical, hands-on book is specifically designed to improve the way you use and work with Oracle database utilities. The material has been carefully selected from Packt's fuller Oracle 10g/11g Data and Database Management Utilities title. The full edition of the book covers a number of additional utilities including Data Pump, SQL*Loader, Recover Manager, and more! This book is aimed at all Oracle professionals who interact with the database through the data and database utilities and are willing to optimize their interaction with it.

  10. Research on performance of ethernet interface in network centric warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永生; 张乃通

    2004-01-01

    The concept of network centric warfare (NCW) and its character, high requirement of real-time synchronization are introduced. The distributed equal-node network architecture in NCW is presented. Based on theoretical analysis on ethernet interface performance, this paper presents that forwarding latency between ethernet interface devices is a key influence factor of real-time synchronization in NCW. Ethernet fundamental is briefly introduced. The model between a switch under test (SUT) and a smartbits card is presented and used for two interconnecting switches in NCW. On condition that ignoring the latency of connecting fiber or twisted pairs and processing latency of the smartbits test system, this paper presents that clock frequency tolerance (CFT) between a SUT and a smartbits card is a leading influence factor of forwarding latency of an ethernet switch. The formulae to calculate internal forwarding latency and forwarding latency caused by its CFT are deduced. Theoretical calculation on forwarding latency of an ethernet switch based on the given CFT and test time is implemented. Experimental study on primary forwarding latency and secondary forwarding latency is implemented and forwarding latency between the SUT and the smartbits card is measured, thus testifying the accuracy of the above theoretical analysis that the CFT is a key influence factor of forwarding latency. The measures to satisfy the needs of forwarding latency in NCW are presented.

  11. FPGA Implementation of Real-Time Ethernet for Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Youdong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an applicable implementation of real-time Ethernet named CASNET, which modifies the Ethernet medium access control (MAC to achieve the real-time requirement for motion control. CASNET is the communication protocol used for motion control system. Verilog hardware description language (VHDL has been used in the MAC logic design. The designed MAC serves as one of the intellectual properties (IPs and is applicable to various industrial controllers. The interface of the physical layer is RJ45. The other layers have been implemented by using C programs. The real-time Ethernet has been implemented by using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology and the proposed solution has been tested through the cycle time, synchronization accuracy, and Wireshark testing.

  12. Low Cost Network Emulator with Ethernet and E1 Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Kocur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Next Generation Networks (NGN are mainly built on the Internet Protocol (IP and Ethernet. Major challenge for emerging types of wired and wireless IP-based networks is to provide an adequate Quality of Service (QoS for different services. The quality of evaluation requires a detailed knowledge of the performance requirements for particular services and applications. The paper is primarily oriented to the end-to-end testing for the Ethernet-based terminal equipment. The low cost Ethernet network emulator was developed on the Department of Telecommunication Technology of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The extension for emulation network with the E1 interfaces and TDM over IP transmission can be used with external converters.

  13. Real-time Performance Evaluation of Line Topology Switched Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Cen; Tao Xing; Ke-Tong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Recently, switched Ethernet has become an active area of research because of its wide uses in industry. However, its uses have various real-time constraints on data communications. This paper analyzes the performance of the line topology switched Ethernet as a data acquisition network. Network calculus theory, which has been successfully applied to assess the real-time performance of packet-switched networks, is used to analyze the networks. To properly describe the activity of switches, a novel approach of modeling data flows into or out of switches is addressed. Based on our model, a concisely analytical expression of the maximal end-to-end delay in line topology switched Ethernet is derived. Finally, the relative simulation results are demonstrated. These results agree well with the analytical results, and thus they validate the data flow modeling techniques.

  14. 10G EPON下行传输加密方案的研究%Encryption research of 10G EPON in down transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇; 张长明; 李伟

    2009-01-01

    10G EPON是下一代宽带接入网的发展趋势以及重要解决方案,然而,由于PON系统点到多点的通信机制,安全问题是必须解决的关键技术之一.文章根据IEEE 802.3av协议,分析了10G EPON系统中仍然存在的安全问题,介绍了AES(128)加密算法和流程,着重研究了AES加密算法在10G EPON中的应用并给出了对10G EPON下行帧传输的加密解决方案.%10G EPON is tendency and the important solution of the next generation boardband.However, com-munication mechanism of PeN system is point-to-mutipoint, security issues is one of the key technology to solve. According to the protocol IEEE 802.3av,the paper analyzes the security issues in 10G EPON.Firstly we indroduce the Advanced Encryption Standard cipher algorithm and process.Then,we work over the application of AES in 10G EPON and get the encryption solution in 10G EPON.

  15. Next generation network based carrier ethernet test bed for IPTV traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Berger, Michael Stübert; Zheng, Yu;

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a Carrier Ethernet (CE) test bed based on the Next Generation Network (NGN) framework. After the concept of CE carried out by Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF), the carrier-grade Ethernet are obtaining more and more interests and being investigated as the low cost and high performance...... services of transport network to carry the IPTV traffic. This test bed is approaching to support the research on providing a high performance carrier-grade Ethernet transport network for IPTV traffic....

  16. A computer tool to support in design of industrial Ethernet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Alexandre Baratella; Santos, Max Mauro Dias; Franco, Lucia Regina Horta Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a computer tool to support in the project and development of an industrial Ethernet network, verifying the physical layer (cables-resistance and capacitance, scan time, network power supply-POE's concept "Power Over Ethernet" and wireless), and occupation rate (amount of information transmitted to the network versus the controller network scan time). These functions are accomplished without a single physical element installed in the network, using only simulation. The computer tool has a software that presents a detailed vision of the network to the user, besides showing some possible problems in the network, and having an extremely friendly environment.

  17. Reliability of datagram transmission on Gigabit Ethernet at full link load

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A; Dufey, J P; Galli, D; Jost, B; Marconi, U; Neufeld, N; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V M

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of datagram transmission over Copper Gigabit Ethernet using commodity hardware at sustained Gb/s rate is crucial for the functioning of the software trigger layers of the LHCb experiment. We aim to demonstrate that a nowadays available high-end commodity PC can be employed to achieve the required network performance, in particular to implement a sub-farm controller node. To evaluate all components ranging from the physical medium up to the operating system running on the sub-farm controllers, several issues are addressed, such as transmission error rate, packet drop in switching hardware, protocol handling on reception.

  18. Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert;

    2010-01-01

    The Internet users behavioural patterns are migrating towards bandwidth-intensive applications, which require a corresponding capacity extension. The emerging 100 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) technology is a promising candidate for providing a ten-fold increase of todays available Internet transmission...

  19. 10Gig Ethernet goes halfway round the world

    CERN Multimedia

    Betts, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    In a project that could enable bigger SANs and computing grids, nuclear physicists have built a native 10 Gigabit Ethernet network linking Switzerland and Japan. The 18,500 kilometer LAN crosses 17 ime zones, as it follows fibers through Amsterdam, Chicago and Seattle

  20. Performance Analysis of Two Ethernet over E1 Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wentao; JIN Depeng; ZENG Lieguang

    2007-01-01

    The Ethernet over E1 approach,which takes advantage of widely deployed telecom networks,is an efficient and economical way to interconnect two Ethernets in different regions.Two Ethernet over E1 schemes, namely a byte granularity scheme and a frame granularity scheme are discussed. The byte granularity scheme partitions Ethernet frames into several pieces for transmission and has a strict requirement on the maximum delay difference of multiple E1 links. To solve this problem, the newly proposed frame granularity scheme transmits separately each frame through E1 links without any partitioning. The architecture designs of both schemes are presented. This paper evaluates the throughput and delay performances of both schemes, both analytically from results calculated from delay models and using test results from field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation. Although the frame granularity scheme has a slightly worse delay performance, it has a higher throughput, and is the only choice able to overcome large delay differences of the E1 links.

  1. Flow Monitoring Experiences at the Ethernet-Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko; Lehnert, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Flow monitoring is a scalable technology for providing summaries of network activity. Being deployed at the IP-layer, it uses fixed flow definitions, based on fields of the IP-layer and higher layers. Since several backbone network operators are considering the deployment of (Carrier) Ethernet in th

  2. The research and application of Ethernet over RPR technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Yun, Xiang

    2008-11-01

    With service competitions of carriers aggravating and client's higher service experience requirement, it urges the MAN technology develops forward. When the Core Layer and Distribution Layer technology are mature, all kinds of reliability technologies of MAN access Layer are proposed. EoRPR is one of reliability technologies for MAN access network service protection. This paper elaborates Ethernet over RPR technology's many advantages through analyzing basic principle, address learning and key technologies of Ethernet over RPR. EpRPR has quicker replacing speed, plug and play, stronger QoS ability, convenient service deployment, band fairly sharing, and so on. At the same time the paper proposed solution of Ethernet over RPR in MAN, NGN network and enterprise Private network. So, among many technologies of MAN access network, EoRPR technology has higher reliability and manageable and highly effectiveness and lower costive of Ethernet. It is not only suitable for enterprise interconnection, BTV and NGN access services and so on, but also can meet the requirement of carriers' reducing CAPEX and OPEX's and increase the rate of investment.

  3. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  4. Wireless optical communication for FDDI, fast Ethernet, and ATM connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, David B.; Azancot, Yossi

    1995-09-01

    The bandwidth limitations of spread spectrum RF technology are easily removed by use of optical carriers. A variety of wireless connectivity system applications have been achieved using IR LED (not laser) at data rates up to 125 Mbps and with low frequency corners below 100 Kbps. By use of the UWINTM principle it is possible to achieve wireless communications which are protocol independent. Thus, an urgent installation which must serve today as an Ethernet or Token Ring wireless connection in the future can be used at FDDI, Fast Ethernet, 100 VG Anylan or ATM without any modification to the original installation. In this paper we describe three separate applications of this principle where there are significant trade-offs between range and angular coverage.

  5. Distribution of combustible gas alarm based on embedded Ethernet technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xi-bo; ZHANG Jun-jie; WANG Yang

    2008-01-01

    One kind of combustible gas alarms based on industrial Ethernet was designed to prevent the gas leakage in industrial production sites. The alarm adopted the high performance microprocessor LPC2214 as the main chip. The embedded operating system μC/OS-Ⅱ and TCP/IP protocol stack ulP running on LPC2214 con-stitute a development platform of application of the combustible gas alarm. The test shows that it can automati-cally and continuously detect combustible gas in industrial production sites in several positions;it can give out sound-light alarm and take protective measures immediately against the gas leakage ; and it can send the detected data to PC through the Etheruet interface to realize the remote detection. The designed project provides a refer-ence to design industrial devices based on industrial Ethernet.

  6. Indoor infrared wireless communication system based on Ethernet network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Gong, Mali; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Ping; Jin, Wei; Jiang, Feng; Meng, Yu; Zou, Shanshan

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we present an infrared wireless indoor communication system that bases on Ethernet network. The bit rate of Ethernet is 10Mbps, but after Manchester coding, in the physical layer the actual bit rate is 20Mbps. In our designs, the transmitter uses laser diodes (LDs). The transmitter consists of differential input circuit, LD driver circuit. The receiver consists of a coated truncated spherical concentrator whose field of view (FOV) is 40 degree, a large area Si PIN photo-detector followed by transimpedance amplifier, second-stage amplifier, low-pass filter (LPF), high-pass filter (HPF), limiting amplifier and differential output circuit. The network is constructed as a base-terminals configuration and two transit wavelengths are used for base and terminals respectively to avoid collision. Experimental testing was conducted in a room with size 5m × 5m × 3m and the network could work well.

  7. High Performance Ethernet Packet Processor Core for Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Jitendra Nayaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As the demand for high speed Internet significantly increasing to meet the requirement of large datatransfers, real-time communication and High Definition ( HD multimedia transfer over IP, the IP basednetwork products architecture must evolve and change. Application specific processors require highperformance, low power and high degree of programmability is the limitation in many general processorbased applications. This paper describes the design of Ethernet packet processor for system-on-chip (SoCwhich performs all core packet processing functions, including segmentation and reassembly, packetizationclassification, route and queue management which will speedup switching/routing performance making itmore suitable for Next Generation Networks (NGN. Ethernet packet processor design can be configuredfor use with multiple projects targeted to a FPGA device the system is designed to support 1/10/20/40/100Gigabit links with a speed and performance advantage. VHDL has been used to implement and simulatedthe required functions in FPGA.

  8. Using CSMA/CD for Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓飞; 范戈

    2004-01-01

    Using CSMA/CD for EPON can eliminate the augmentations, such as multi-point control protocol and point-to-point emulation, added to the existing 802.3 architecture due to the incompatibility of PON to Ethernet.Both full-duplex EPON system and half-duplex EPON system using CSMA/CD were proposed. In the full-duplex EPON, CSMA/CD is used as the upstream MAC protocol. In the half-duplex EPON system, both upstream and downstream traffic contend for the optical channel through CSMA/CD protocol. The upstream lightwave redirection and collision detection techniques were given. By the analysis and simulation, the throughput performance of the half-duplex EPON system is proven to be as well as that of the existing high speed half-duplex Ethernet LAN.

  9. Převodník Ethernet na RS-232

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiseitel, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Práce je věnována problematice konstrukce převodníku Ethernet na RS-232 za pomocí jednočipového mikrokontroléru. Cílem je seznámit čtenáře se síťovou technologií Ethernet a technologií pro sériový přenos založený na protokolu RS-232 a zároveň s technologií vestavěných systémů pro konstrukci zařízení.Součástí práce je kompletní návrh převodníku Ethernet na RS-232 včetně návrhu a implementace firmware v jazyce C za využití LwIP TCP/IP stacku. Převodník je postaven na základě vývojového kitu STM...

  10. Safety management of Ethernet broadband access based on VLAN aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2004-04-01

    With broadband access network development, the Ethernet technology is more and more applied access network now. It is different from the private network -LAN. The differences lie in four points: customer management, safety management, service management and count-fee management. This paper mainly discusses the safety management related questions. Safety management means that the access network must secure the customer data safety, isolate the broad message which brings the customer private information, such as ARP, DHCP, and protect key equipment from attack. Virtue LAN (VLAN) technology can restrict network broadcast flow. We can config each customer port with a VLAN, so each customer is isolated with others. The IP address bound with VLAN ID can be routed rightly. But this technology brings another question: IP address shortage. VLAN aggregation technology can solve this problem well. Such a mechanism provides several advantages over traditional IPv4 addressing architectures employed in large switched LANs today. With VLAN aggregation technology, we introduce the notion of sub-VLANs and super-VLANs, a much more optimal approach to IP addressing can be realized. This paper will expatiate the VLAN aggregation model and its implementation in Ethernet access network. It is obvious that the customers in different sub-VLANs can not communication to each other because the ARP packet is isolated. Proxy ARP can enable the communication among them. This paper will also expatiate the proxy ARP model and its implementation in Ethernet access network.

  11. Interleukin 10.G microsatellite in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 gene in severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background The highly polymorphic interleukin 10.G (IL10.G) microsatellite located in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene exerts a positive transcriptional regulatory effect on IL-10 gene expression and correlates with the in vitro IL-10 secretion. This study was conducted to investigate whether IL10.G microsatellite is associated with the incidence and /or the outcome of severe sepsis.Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with severe sepsis who had been treated at the intensive care unit of the university hospital were studied. One hundred and forty-one healthy individuals served as controls. IL10.G microsatellite genotyping was performed with the following two methods: fluorescent based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and silver staining of the amplified DNA fragment in polyacrylamide gel. Alleles were defined according to the size of the amplified DNA product.Results Ten alleles and 36 genotypes were detected both in the patients with severe sepsis and in the healthy controls. Allele IL10.G9 and allele IL10.G13 were the commonest alleles with the frequencies of 32.6% and 21.3% respectively in the patients with severe sepsis, and 34% and 27% respectively in the healthy controls. The allele frequencies of IL10.G microsatellite were neither different between the patients with severe sepsis and the healthy controls (P > 0.05), nor between survivors and non-survivors (P > 0.05). However, the frequency of one common allele IL10.G13 was slightly lower in the patients with severe sepsis than in the healthy controls (21.3% vs 27%, P > 0.05), and the frequency of allele IL10.G9 was slightly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (37.1% vs 28.1%, P > 0.05).Conclusion IL10.G microsatellite may neither contribute to the susceptibility to severe sepsis nor to the fatal outcome of severe sepsis.

  12. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  13. Ethernet Based Remote Monitoring And Control Of Temperature By Using Rabbit Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.S.GOUD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Networking is a major component of the processes and control instrumentation systems as the network’s architecture solves many of the Industrial automation problems. There is a great deal of benefits in the process of industrial parameters to adopt the Ethernet control system. Hence an attempt has been made to develop an Ethernet based remote monitoring and control of temperature. In the present work the experimental result shows that remote monitoring and control system (RMACS over the Ethernet.

  14. Implementation of Embedded Ethernet Based on Hardware Protocol Stack in Substation Automation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; ZHAO Jianguo; LIU Bingxu

    2008-01-01

    Embedded Ethernet technology has been utilized increasingly widely as the communication mode in the substation automation system (SAS). This paper introduces the current applying situation about embedded Ethernet in SAS First. After analyzing the protocol levels used in SAS based on embedded Ethernet and the differences between the TCP and UDP, UDP/IP is selected as the communication protocol between the station-level and bay-level devices for its real-time characteristic. Then a new kind of implementation of the embedded Ethernet is presented based on hardware protocol stack. The designed scheme can be implemented easily, reduce cost significantly and shorten developing cycle.

  15. Flexible scheduling ensuring inter-ONU-group fairness in 1G/10G EPON coexistence system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi; LI Hui; JI Yue-feng

    2009-01-01

    er-ONU and intra-ONU fairness. Most importantly, it can flexibly adapt to the system composition variations and save efforts needed to modify the bandwidth scheduling mechanism during the migration process from GEPON to 10G EPON.

  16. Development of a Beam Loss Measurement System with Gigabit Ethernet Readout at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Angelogiannopoulos, E; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the BLM Dual Polarity module under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is to measure and digitise with high precision the current produced by several types of beam loss detectors. In its default configuration, it is expected to provide data to the processing electronics through two point-to-point connections with bidirectional multi-gigabit optical links. For the development phases as well as later serving as a standalone measurement system, its reconfigurable FPGA device is exploited to provide a soft-core CPU with a custom made server. This server, running on the CPU, will expose through the Gigabit Ethernet connection and the TCP/IP protocol different types of data in the network. In this paper the development of the system and of the communication protocol is explored as well as the accompanying client ap- plication that is realised with the purpose of commanding, collecting storing and viewing the different types of data.

  17. Synchronous ethernet and IEEE 1588 in telecoms next generation synchronization networks

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the multiple technical aspects of the distribution of synchronization in new generation telecommunication networks, focusing in particular on synchronous Ethernet and IEEE1588 technologies. Many packet network engineers struggle with understanding the challenges that precise synchronization distribution can impose on networks. The usual “why”, “when” and particularly “how” can cause problems for many engineers. In parallel to this, some other markets have identical synchronization requirements, but with their own design requirements, generating further questions. This book attempts to respond to the different questions by providing background technical information. Invaluable information on state of-the-art packet network synchronization and timing architectures is provided, as well as an unbiased view on the synchronization technologies that have been internationally standardized over recent years, with the aim of providing the average reader (who is not skilled in the art) wi...

  18. Ethernet-Based DAQ System for QUIET-II Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Higuchi, T.; Ikeno, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Tajima, O.; Tanaka, M.; Uchida, T.

    2012-06-01

    The B-modes in cosmic microwave background polarization are a smoking gun for the inflationary universe. For the detection of the B-modes, having a large detector array is a generic approach since the B-modes is so faint pattern ( T b≲0.1 μK). The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT Phase-II (QUIET-II) is proposed to search the B-modes, using an array with 500 HEMT-based polarimeters. Each polarimeter element has 4-outputs, therefore we have to manage 2000 channels in total. We developed a scalable DAQ system based on TCP/Ethernet for QUIET-II. The DAQ system is composed of the polarimeters, ADC boards, a Master Clock and a control computer (PC). The analog signals from the polarimeters are digitized on the ADC boards. On-board demodulation, which synchronizes the phase flip modulations on the polarimeter, extracts the polarized components in the digitized signal. The Master Clock distributes all necessary clocks to the ADC boards as well as the polarimeters. This scheme guarantees the synchronization of the modulations and demodulations. We employed Ethernet-based communication scheme between the data collection program (Collector) on the PC and the ADC boards as well as the Master Clock. Such an Ethernet-based communication scheme allows us to construct a simple structure of the upper level software, which results in the high scalability to increase the number of channels. All basic functions and requirements are confirmed by the laboratory tests; demonstration with test signals as well as the signals from the polarimeters, measurements of the data transfer rate, and the synchronous operation with two ADC boards. Therefore, the DAQ system is confirmed to be suitable for QUIET-II.

  19. Research on Encryption Mechanism of Ethernet Passive Optical Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-liang; FAN hong

    2006-01-01

    An ethernet-passive-optical-network consists of one optical-line-terminator and multiple optical-network-units oith passive optical components. The network is susceptible to variable security threats. In this paper we propose a security model and an encryption layer placed at reconciliation sublayer. We also propose advanced encryption standard as an ideal cipher algorithm to encrypt downstream data . We then discuss three different methods to solve the problem of the last plaintext group, and the methods are realized on digital signal processing. Finally, we study efficiency and delay issues of the three methods.

  20. Towards Terabit Carrier Ethernet and Energy Efficient Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders

    error correction and energy efficiency. Scheduling and address lookup are key functions and potential bottle necks in high speed network nodes, as the minimum packet/frame sizes in both the popular Ethernet protocol, as well as the Internet Protocol (IP) still remains constant (84B and 40B, respectively...... requirements. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is already a standard component of the Optical Transport Network (OTN) protocol as a means of increasing the bitrate-length product of optical links. However, the requirements for higher bitrates also drive a requirement for higher spectral efficiency in order...

  1. Ethernet-based Mass Volume Train Security Detection Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. He

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the existing train communication network transmission rate is low, large capacity status and fault diagnosis data, the event log data, passenger information which are stored in different vehicles equipments, it is difficult to realize fault diagnosis and intelligent maintenance efficiently and timely. Based on the train level and vehicle level Ethernet network, this paper will focus on network construction technology and real-time performance of mass volume onboard security detection network. The research results will improve control and network function of train.

  2. Capacity planning for Carrier Ethernet LTE backhaul networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Ellegaard, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of LTE networks operators need to plan a new, IP-based mobile backhaul. In this paper, we provide recommendation on dimensioning LTE backhaul networks links using three methods: delay-, dimensioning formula- and overbooking factor-based. Results are obtained from OPNET simul...... and verified. Simulation in this work proves that Carrier Ethernet, one of the candidate technologies for mobile backhaul, protects the network from users that want to flood the network with their data and manages to keep the delay experienced by other users low....

  3. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  4. Upstream Channel Utilization of CSMA/CD-Based Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine Wong; Chang-Joon Chae

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that an asynchronous CSMA/CD protocol with an optical loop-back star coupler can achieve high upstream channel utilization in an Ethernet PON, readily supporting a large installed base of Ethernet 10BaseT and 100BaseT interfaces.

  5. Upstream Channel Utilization of CSMA/CD-Based Ethernet over Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elaine; Wong; Chang-Joon; Chae

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that an asynchronous CSMA/CD protocol with an optical loop-back star coupler can achieve high upstream channel utilizatbn in an Ethernet PON, readily supporting a large installed base of Ethernet 10BaseT and 100BaseT interfaces.

  6. Carrier ethernet network control plane based on the Next Generation Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong; Wang, Yanmeng; Berger, Michael Stubert

    2008-01-01

    architecture of the next generation network (NGN). As an essential candidate among the NGN transport technologies, the definition of Carrier Ethernet (CE) is also introduced here. The second part of this paper depicts the contribution on the T-MPLS based Carrier Ethernet network with control plane based on NGN...

  7. Synchronization, retiming and time-division multiplexing of an asynchronous 10 gigabit NRZ Ethernet packet to Terabit Ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen;

    2011-01-01

    An asynchronous 10 Gb/s Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized and retimed to a master clock with 200 kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The NRZ packet is simultaneously converted into an RZ packet, then further pulse compressed to a FWHM of 400 fs and finally...... time-division multiplexed with a serial 1.28 Tb/s signal including a vacant time slot, thus forming a 1.29 Tb/s time-division multiplexed serial signal. Error-free performance of synchronizing, retiming, time-division multiplexing to a Terabit data stream and finally demultiplexing back to 10 Gb...

  8. Power optimization and performance improvement for embedded Ethernet SOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Zhao-xia; ZOU Lian-ying; GAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    Information appliance is the combination of traditional home appliances and the internet technology. In this article, an Ethernet controller system-on-chip (SOC) solution for information appliances is presented. To achieve high performance, the embedded 8 bits 8051 micro control unit (MCU) is optimized by an independent instruction bus and a data bus. Besides, a two-stage pipeline feature is added. Compared with the existing 8051 core, the enhanced one-cycle MCU offers ten times improvement in instruction execution efficiency. Mean- while, the performance of media access control (MAC) circuit is greatly improved by adopting various techniques such as direct memory access (DMA) control, paging strategy, etc. To reduce the power consumption, clock gating, low power supply, and multi-working-clock are adopted. Moreover, to achieve rapid data communication in different clock frequency circuits, a simple ping-pong first in first out (FIFO) circuit is realized. The chip is implemented using TSMC 0.25 μm two-poly four-metal mixed signal complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Its die area is mm. The test results show that the maximum throughput of Ethernet packets can reach 7 Mb/s while the power consumption is rather low-the working current is just about 200 mA.

  9. Upgrading Gigabit Ethernet with Multi-window CWDM Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井文才; 张以谟; 周革

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new scheme has been proposed to achieve high-performance local area network adopting 5~15 nm separated coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) technique. Using this scheme, the current single-wavelength gigabit Ethernet can be seamlessly upgraded to multi-wavelength network. Not only can the network bandwidth be broadened, but also wavelength routing can be achieved among different sub-networks. The data packet communication latency can be reduced one-to-two magnitudes in comparison with that of the current gigabit Ethernet. To expand the network scale, multi-wavelength-window CWDM technique can be adopted. Two kinds of network interface cards have been designed using opto-electronics devices at the 850 nm and 1300 nm wavelength windows, respectively. Experiments indicate that the two kinds of CWDM signals can be selectively received at the corresponding optical detectors. By introducing two optical dropping devices in the network, multi-wavelength-window (850 nm, 1300 nm and 1550 nm) CWDM system can be achieved.

  10. Prototipo de interfaz de enlace de datos Ethernet/WIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Merlano Duncan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de Investigación en Telecomunicaciones y Señales de la Facultad de Ingeniería Electrónica de la Universidad del Norte comenzó la elaboración de un proyecto, conocido como Wireless IP, por medio del cual un computador portátil pudiera tener acceso a la red cableada de la Universidad utilizando una comunicación inalámbrica, teniendo como base el estándar IEEE 802.11b. La parte de hardware del proyecto Wireless IP se dividió en tres módulos, desarrollados por tres grupos de manera independiente: Interfaz de Enlace de Datos Ethernet / WIP, Modem Banda Base y RF y Potencia. En este artículo se describe el diseño, construcción y funcionamiento de la Interfaz de Enlace de Datos Ethernet / WIP y su interconexión con los demás módulos, así como los resultados obtenidos al conectar un computador a una red cableada usando la Interfaz. Todas las pruebas se realizaron utilizando cables, emulando las funciones de los demás grupos

  11. Precision laser aiming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  12. 一种基于以太网帧的声纳模拟器数据传输方案及实现%A Scheme and Implement of Sonar Simulator Data Transmission System Based on Ethernet Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长清; 蒋景红

    2011-01-01

    在声纳模拟器数据传输实现传统方案中,存在以太网数据传输效率低、扩展性差问题,提出一种基于以太网帧的嵌入式数据传输方案,详细说明了以太网数据传输板的实现,介绍基于LibPCAP库的网络数据采集,并讨论了方案的性能优化.%Aiming at the problem of low Ethernet data transmission rate and poor expansibility of the data dispensation on conventional sonar simulator, a data transmission system based on Ethernet frame was proposed. The implementation of Ethernet data transmission adapter was described in detail. The technology of data capture based on LibPCAP was introduced, and the optimization of system was analyzed.

  13. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  14. 10G EPON国内应用规模已超40万线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青江

    2012-01-01

    伴随着云计算、物联网、高清视频业务的风起云涌,人们已经不再满足于几兆、十几兆的带宽,而是期待可以自由驰骋的更宽广的信息高速公路.欧美和亚太很多国家已经将中期为用户提供100Mbit/s宽带能力、远期为用户提供1G接入能力列入宽带战略目标.统计数据表明,用户带宽以每5年一个数量级递增,并呈现加速趋势,提供1~2G共享总带宽的EPON和GPON技术很快将出现带宽瓶颈,市场已不再纠结于EPON/GPON技术之争,而是在思考下一代FTT×技术何去何从,10G ×PON技术的开发研究早在三年前就成为业界关注的焦点. 10G EPON产业链已经成熟 10G EPON MAC芯片 10G EPON项级芯片厂商众多,呈现快速发展与高集成、高性能、高技术起点特征.Qualcomm(高通)、Broadcom、PMC-Sierra、Cortina、Marvell等全球主流器件商全力投入10G EPON芯片产业.2010年OLT与ONU都分别有2个厂商可提供ASIC芯片,这是10G EPON满足规模商用条件的重要标志.2011年底分别有4个厂商可提供OLT与ONU芯片,10G EPON第二代芯片已有优于E/GPON第三、四代的水平,显著降低了成本与功耗.

  15. Low-Power Design of Ethernet Data Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Pan; Qin Zhang; Jia-Feng Chen; Hao-Yuan Wang; Jia-Chong Kan

    2014-01-01

    For the reliability and power consumption issues of Ethernet data transmission based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA), a low-power consumption design method is proposed, which is suitable for FPGA implementation. To reduce the dynamic power consumption of integrated circuit (IC) design, the proposed method adopts the dynamic control of the clock frequency. For most of the time, when the port is in the idle state or lower-rate state, users can reduce or even turn off the reading clock frequency and reduce the clock flip frequency in order to reduce the dynamic power consumption. When the receiving rate is high, the reading clock frequency will be improved timely to ensure that no data will lost. Simulated and verified by Modelsim, the proposed method can dynamically control the clock frequency, including the dynamic switching of high-speed and low-speed clock flip rates, or stop of the clock flip.

  16. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  17. A new real-time ethernet MAC protocol for time-critical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈钢; 许晓鸣; 蔡云泽; 何星; 张卫东

    2002-01-01

    The authors propose a new persistent transmission-based real-time Ethernet MAC protocol that provides a predictable upper bound for the delivery delay of real-time frames. Moreover, it is compatible with the protocol used by the existing Ethernet controllers for conventional datagram traffic and thus standard Ethernet stations can be used in the system without any modification. The paper describes the protocol in detail and analyses the maximum delivery delay for real-time traffic and the efficiency of the channel.

  18. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  19. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J

    2010-01-01

    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  20. Aims and Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Nursing Research(CNR)is the official peer-reviewed research journal and an international platform of nursing academic exchange.This journal aims to promote excellence in nursing and health care through the dissemination of the latest,evidence-based,peer-reviewed research report,academic papers,review articles and clinical research,to reflect nursing academic trends,scientific research and

  1. A Flexible, Ethernet Fronthaul for 5^th Generation Mobile and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Nathan J.; Jungnickel, Volker; Chanclou, Philippe; Elbers, Joerg-Peter; Turnbull, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Using Ethernet in the fronthaul can deliver the statistical multiplexing gains offered by\\ud the new functional splits proposed for the radio access network, but latency and delay variations\\ud are challenges that must be overcome.

  2. High-Performance Message Passing over generic Ethernet Hardware with Open-MX

    OpenAIRE

    Goglin, Brice

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the last decade, cluster computing has become the most popular high-performance computing architecture. Although numerous technological innovations have been proposed to improve the interconnection of nodes, many clusters still rely on commodity Ethernet hardware to implement message passing within parallel applications. We present Open-MX, an open-source message passing stack over generic Ethernet. It offers the same abilities as the specialized Myrinet Express sta...

  3. An Innovative Algorithm to Implement Flow Control in Full Duplex Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTao; GENing; FENGChongxi

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays Ethernet is a widely used LAN technology.It is based on a Media access control (MAC) method called Carrier sense multiple access with Collision detection(CAMS/CD).With CSMA/CD,hosts on Ethernet must operate in half duplex mode;with collision detection and random backoff,Ethernet is a self-contained LAN in the aspect of flow control.After the appearance of switching Ethernet,applications of full duplex Ethernet are booming,and how to manage network bandwidth and switch ports without CSMA/CD is a major issue.In this way,IEEE specifled and explicit flow control scheme,called "PAUSE operation" in Standard 802.3.In order to implement IEEE PAUSE operation and flow control effectively,we propose an innovative algorithm called Queue Length based PAUSE operation-QLPAUSE.It will set the pause time parameter according to the instant input port queue length and local condition checking.With it the hosts can make better use of the full duplex link.With the simulation results,it is proved that QLPAUSE is an active flow control,and it is an easy-to-implement and high efflciency scheme.Finally,the application of this algorithm is provided,with more and more Switching Ethernet,and PAUSE operation is accepted and supported by more and more manufacturers.Within many implementation methods,QLPAUSE is a best candidate.

  4. BACnet Ethernet与BACnet IP网关的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of a BACnet Ethernet and BACnet IP Gateway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春旺; 田沛哲; 吴义民; 王浩宇

    2012-01-01

    针对BACnet Ethernet驱动技术的应用局限性,设计了一种BACnet IP和BACnet Ethernet网关.通过基于微处理电路LM3S6911+的核心控制单元完成BACnet IP报文和BACnet Ethernet报文的双向解析与重新封装运算,实现了BACnet和IP通信协议之间的互通信和互操作,为楼宇自动化系统的高效便捷管理和先进优化算法嵌入楼宇自动化系统提供了新的途径.%Aimed at application limitations of BACnet ( building automation and control networks) Ethernet driving technology, a gateway is designed for BACnel Ethernet and BACnet IP. The bi-directional parsing and re-encapsulation operations between BACnet IP message and BACnet Ethernet message have been realized through a central control unit of the micro-processing circuit LM3S6911 +, fulfilling interoperability of BACnet and IP communication protocols. Thus, the study provides a new way for building automation system with efficient management and advanced optimization algorithm embedded in building automation system.

  5. Middleware Management with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 10g R5 LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Maheshwari, Arvind

    2011-01-01

    Written by senior members of the Oracle team, this book is a hands-on tutorial detailing Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control's management of Middleware. The material has been carefully selected from Packt's fuller 350 page "Middleware Management with Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control 10g R5". If you are a Middleware or System Administrator or an IT Architect who wants to maximize the system performance of Oracle Fusion Middleware solutions, then this book is for you. You'll also find it helpful if you are a DBA who wants to become a Middleware Administrator. You should have basic knowl

  6. A TTC upgrade proposal using bidirectional 10G-PON FTTH technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotouros, D. M.; Baron, S.; Soos, C.; Vasey, F.

    2015-04-01

    A new generation FPGA-based Timing-Trigger and Control (TTC) system based on emerging Passive Optical Network (PON) technology is being proposed to replace the existing off-detector TTC system used by the LHC experiments. High split ratio, dynamic software partitioning, low and deterministic latency, as well as low jitter are required. Exploiting the latest available technologies allows delivering higher capacity together with bidirectionality, a feature absent from the legacy TTC system. This article focuses on the features and capabilities of the latest TTC-PON prototype based on 10G-PON FTTH components along with some metrics characterizing its performance.

  7. High Performance Gigabit Ethernet Switches for DAQ Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available high performance Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) switches are optimized mostly for Internet and standard LAN application traffic. DAQ systems on the other hand usually make use of very specific traffic patterns, with e.g. deterministic arrival times. Industry's accepted loss-less limit of 99.999% may be still unacceptably high for DAQ purposes, as e.g. in the case of the LHCb readout system. In addition, even switches passing this criteria under random traffic can show significantly higher loss rates if subject to our traffic pattern, mainly due to buffer memory limitations. We have evaluated the performance of several switches, ranging from "pizza-box" devices with 24 or 48 ports up to chassis based core switches in a test-bed capable to emulate realistic traffic patterns as expected in the readout system of our experiment. The results obtained in our tests have been used to refine and parametrize our packet level simulation of the complete LHCb readout network. In this paper we report on the...

  8. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  9. Fast BPM data distribution for global orbit feedback using commercial gigabit ethernet technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulsart, R.; Cerniglia, P.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2011-03-28

    In order to correct beam perturbations in RHIC around 10Hz, a new fast data distribution network was required to deliver BPM position data at rates several orders of magnitude above the capability of the existing system. The urgency of the project limited the amount of custom hardware that could be developed, which dictated the use of as much commercially available equipment as possible. The selected architecture uses a custom hardware interface to the existing RHIC BPM electronics together with commercially available Gigabit Ethernet switches to distribute position data to devices located around the collider ring. Using the minimum Ethernet packet size and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based state machine logic instead of a software based driver, real-time and deterministic data delivery is possible using Ethernet. The method of adapting this protocol for low latency data delivery, bench testing of Ethernet hardware, and the logic to construct Ethernet packets using FPGA hardware will be discussed. A robust communications system using almost all commercial off-the-shelf equipment was developed in under a year which enabled retrofitting of the existing RHIC BPM system to provide 10 KHz data delivery for a global orbit feedback scheme using 72 BPMs. Total latencies from data acquisition at the BPMs to delivery at the controller modules, including very long transmission distances, were kept under 100 {micro}s, which provide very little phase error in correcting the 10 Hz oscillations. Leveraging off of the speed of Gigabit Ethernet and wide availability of Ethernet products enabled this solution to be fully implemented in a much shorter time and at lower cost than if a similar network was developed using a proprietary method.

  10. 烽火通信160×10G DWDM系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建明; 陈德华

    2003-01-01

    1.6T(160×10G)DWDM系统是烽火通信推出的新一代长距离、超大容量的密集波分复用系统,该系统秉承了烽火通信320G系统的先进技术并在功能、性能上有较大提升。系统由光复用终端设备(OMT)、光中继放大设备(OLA)、光分插复用设备(OADM)和网管系统构成,可组成点到点、链形、环形、网状等各种复杂网络。

  11. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  12. Real Time FPGA-Based Ethernet Control Communication for Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Mohamad Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for real time control communication using Ethernet is proposed. The strategy to support this at the network level and include Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA implementation on the Ethernet platform for robotic arm. An embedded Ethernet controller is designed to send data packet via Ethernet Local Area Network (LAN. The transferring data also employs Arduino Mega as the medium of communication between FPGA board and the robotic arm. It is used as the receiver to receive data packet from FPGA board with the interface of Arduino Ethernet shield. The control operation on the robotic arm is performed once the desired data packet length is reached to the Arduino Mega. SolidWorks and MATLAB software are used to design the robotic arm and simulate the robotic arm working flexibility in real world respectively. The result of the average data packet delay between FPGA boards is lower in comparison to Arduiono board. The data packet can send successfully in through the network to test the robotic arm.

  13. 基于10 G EPON的IPTV可控组播的实现方式研究%Research on Implementation of IPTV Controllable Multicast Based on 10 G EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王余浩

    2011-01-01

    10 G EPON被称为下一代PON(NG PON)技术,能更好地满足三网融合条件下IPTV等视频业务的高带宽接入需求.为了在10 G EPON系统上承载IFTTV组播业务,需要引入可控组播技术,对10 G EPON系统的组播方式进行控制.主要研究了10 GEPON系统中IPTV可控组播的实现原理及流程,提出,了基于IGMP控制报文和扩展OAM报文实现IPTV组播业务的控制和管理方法.%10 G EPON is regarded as next generation PON technology, which can meet the broadband access needs of video services such as IPTV in triple play. In order to realize the operation of multicast services in 10 G EPON system, controlled multicast technology is introduced to control the multicast operation in 10 G EPON. The realization principle and procedure of IPTV controlled multieast in 10 G EPONare given, and the controland management methods of IPTV multicast based on IGMP controlled message and extended OAM message are proposed.

  14. A Gigabit Ethernet link for an FPGA based Beam Loss Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, M; Dehning, B; Vigano, W; Zamantzas, C

    2013-01-01

    A new Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is under development at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) within the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project. The multi-channel system will have the ability to measure beam losses from various types of detectors with high precision and wide dynamic range. Several modes of data acquisition are supported. The data rate in the singlechannel mode is 16 Mbps and in the multi-channel mode 128 Mbps. The Gigabit Ethernet link is implemented in an FPGA, which allows both a high throughput and a quick validation of the digital data processing algorithms using standard PCs in the initial stages of the development. Both TCP and UDP protocols were explored. The implementation of the Ethernet link is flexible and proved to be highly reliable, leading to its planned use in other measurement systems developed at CERN. The implementation details of the Ethernet link and the results achieved will be described in this paper.

  15. CAGE100: Real-Time Multi-Port Packet Capture System for 100 Gigabit Ethernet Traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazi, Ali; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Lin, Chujen

    2012-06-14

    Future large scale sciences are anticipated to use massive amount of data in their experiments. DOE's ESnet (Energy Science Network) is developing a 100 Gbps backbone based on this state-of-the-art 100 Gigabit Ethernet standard. ESnet will serve thousands of DOE and non-DOE scientists with its high bandwidth backbone, and connect several national laboratories. Current Ethernet test and debug solutions, such as network traffic capturer/analyzer tools, support up to 10 Gbps speed, and the very few capable of handling 100 Gbps are extremely costly. Such tools are essential in the development of high speed devices and routers, and ultimately the success of 100 Gigabit Ethernet.

  16. A New Verification Method to Prevent Security Threads of Unsolicited Message in IP Over Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Kh. Alzubaidi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet is widely depends on the IP over Ethernet networks architecture. IP and Ethernet protocols uses in each Local Area Network LAN, wire and wireless. Due to the rapid expansion of the technology field this architecture reveals many shortcomings. TCP/IP suite protocols are consists from layers, each layer accomplish its jobs separately. However, these layers susceptible to different attacks. Data link layer one of the most layers targeted by the attackers. Attack at lower layer may lead to more sophisticated attacks to upper layers, like Man-in-The-Middle (MiTM, DNS spoofing and Denial of Service (DoS. These attacks applicable even with encrypted protocols such as HTTPS and SSL. In this paper we discuss the security in the Data Link Layer in IP over Ethernet networks and the attacks depend on the Address resolution protocol (ARP. Moreover, explain our proposed method to prevent address resolution protocol attacks.

  17. Chromosome jumping from D4S10 (G8) toward the Huntington disease gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.E.; Gilliam, T.C.; Cole, J.L.; Drumm, M.L.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Gusella, J.F.; Collins, F.S.

    1988-09-01

    The gene for Huntington disease (HD) has been localized to the distal portion of the short arm of human chromosome 4 by linkage analysis. Currently, the two closest DNA markers are D4S10 (G8), located /approx/3 centimorgans centromeric to HD, and D4S43 (C4H), positioned 0-1.5 centimorgans from HD. In an effort to move closer to the HD gene, with the eventual goal of identifying the gene itself, the authors have applied the technique of chromosome jumping to this region. A 200-kilobase jumping library has been constructed, and a jump from D4S10 has been obtained and its approximate distance verified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified at the jump locus, which is denoted D4S81. Linkage analysis of previously identified recombinants between D4S10 and HD or D4S10 and D4S43 shows that in two of five events the jump has crossed the recombination points. This unequivocally orients D4S10 and D4S81 on the chromosome, provides additional markers for HD, and suggests that recombination frequency in this region of chromosome 4 may be increased, so that the physical distance from D4S10 to HD may not be as large as originally suspected.

  18. Implementation of an Ethernet-Based Communication Channel for the Patmos Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Kenn Toft, Jakob; Lønbæk, Jesper

    The Patmos processor, which is used as the intellectual property of the T-CREST platform, is only equipped with a RS-232 serial port for communication with the outside world. The serial port is a minimal input/output device with a limited speed and without native networking features. An Ethernet 10...... on an Altera Cyclone IV FPGA in the aforementioned board, and it was tested with a software application, running on Patmos, that uses the Ethernet communication channel while the system is connected to a small local area network....

  19. Bidirectional and simultaneous FTTX/Ethernet services using RSOA based remodulation and polarization multiplexing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya S.; Patra, Ardhendu S.

    2015-08-01

    A bidirectional and simultaneous transmission of Ethernet, FTTX services through single optical carrier wavelength employing polarization multiplexing technique in the transmitter end and the user end. 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps datarates are transmitted over 50 km single mode fiber employing POLMUX technique at OLT and ONU to provide Ethernet and FTTX services concurrently to the user. Reflective semiconductor optical amplifier is used to reuse and remodulate the downlink signal to uplink transmission. The upstream and the downstream transmission performances are observed by the bit error rate values and the eye diagrams obtained by the BER analyzer.

  20. Supervising M.Sc. Students working in the 100 Gigabit Ethernet field using OPNET Modeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert; Wessing, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with supervision methods for M.Sc. students who are using OPNET Modeler for their thesis work within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet. We detail how we use OPNET Modeler in our M.Sc. projects at the Technical University of Denmark. In particular, we discuss on how we teach...... students to learn OPNET independently and in a short timeframe, and we outline what students find challenging and rewarding by using OPNET Modeler. Furthermore, we show some cases on how OPNET was applied in specific projects within the field of 100 Gigabit Ethernet....

  1. A Realization of Theoretical Maximum Performance in IPSec on Gigabit Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Inada, Toru; Tokiniwa, Yasuhisa; Ushirozawa, Shinobu

    This paper describes “IPSec(IP Security) VPN system" and how it attains a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. The Conventional System is implemented by software. However, the system has several bottlenecks which must be overcome to realize a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. Thus, we newly propose IPSec VPN System with the FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) based hardware architecture, which transmits a packet by the pipe-lined flow processing and has 6 parallel structure of encryption and authentication engines. We show that our system attains the theoretical maximum performance in the short packet which is difficult to realize until now.

  2. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter;

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...

  3. Enterasys Networks delivers 10-Gigabit ethernet for the enterprise with new matrix E1 switching family

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Enterasys Networks Inc., today announced its new Matrix E1 family of 10-Gigabit and Gigabit Ethernet switches. The Matrix E1 Optical Access Switch (OAS) enables organizations to deliver applications at 10-Gb speeds across a single fibre optic pair. Jacques Altaber, deputy leader of IT at CERN said "High-bandwith solutions are essential to leveraging more computing power, so 10-Gb Ethernet is the next logical step for us...The Matrix E1 allows us to provide the networking support that our scientists need and gives us a certain future for bandwidth and computing expansion".

  4. Hybrid scheduling model and analysis of performance for switched industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Chun-hua; WU Min; LIU Guo-ping; WANG Si-chun

    2007-01-01

    The fact that outburst traffic in industrial Ethernet was focused on that would bring self-similar phenomenon leading to the delay increase of the cyclical data, and a hybrid priority queue schedule model was proposed in which the outburst data was given the highest priority. Some properties of the self-similar outburst data were proved by network calculus, and its service curve scheduled by the switch was gained. And then the performance of the scheduling algorithm was obtained. The simulation results are close to those calculated by using network calculus model. Some results are of actual significance to the construction of switched industrial Ethernet.

  5. ETHERNET Powerlink的多供应商(Multi—Vender)系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    (2005年11月28日,瑞士温特图尔市(Winterthur)在德国纽伦堡市举行的SPS/IPC/DRIVES博览会上,ETHERNET Powerlink标准化协会(EPSG)展示了最新的工业以太网的成果。

  6. Design and Qualification of the Interconnect for a High-Performance Modular 10Gigabit Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana; Martin, B

    2006-01-01

    The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard, IEEE802.3ae, was adopted in 2002 and represented a ten-fold increase in performance over the previous 1Gigabit standard IEEE 802.3z. The standard itself covers only the details of the individual point-to-point links and does not address any system issues of how Ethernet switches may be built or deployed. Designing a switched system involves choosing an appropriate architecture, selecting the best available silicon technology and determining suitable electronic packaging. The EU funded ESTA project was established to perform the basic research and development that would define the specifications for building an Ethernet switch to meet 10Gbps switching requirements. The part of the project carried out at CERN, within which this thesis work was done, involved the development, construction and validation of the backplane support for this 10Gbps Ethernet switch. In addition the program required that there be developed an understanding of where the limits of performance lay in term...

  7. Fault Tolerant Ethernet Based Network for Time Sensitive Applications in Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leos Bohac

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses and experimentally verifies deployment of Ethernet based network technology to enable fault tolerant and timely exchange of data among a number of high voltage protective relays that use proprietary serial communication line to exchange data in real time on a state of its high voltage circuitry facilitating a fast protection switching in case of critical failures. The digital serial signal is first fetched into PCM multiplexer where it is mapped to the corresponding E1 (2 Mbit/s time division multiplexed signal. Subsequently, the resulting E1 frames are then packetized and sent through Ethernet control LAN to the opposite PCM demultiplexer where the same but reverse processing is done finally sending a signal into the opposite protective relay. The challenge of this setup is to assure very timely delivery of the control information between protective relays even in the cases of potential failures of Ethernet network itself. The tolerance of Ethernet network to faults is assured using widespread per VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol potentially extended by 1+1 PCM protection as a valuable option.

  8. A Small One-Fiber WDM Optical Ethernet PC Card for FTTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoto Sugimoto; Seiji Fukushima; Yasuhiro Suzuki; Yoshihisa Sakai; Hiromasa Tanobe; Takeshi Kurosaki; Kazuto Noguchi; Kimio Oguchi; Hiromu Toba

    2003-01-01

    A new generation of network interface card for fiber-to-the-desktop has been fabricated. The fabricated card is PC-card size and suitable for notebook PCs. It could become the key element in the coming optical Ethernet age.

  9. New Ethernet Based Optically Transparent Network for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim

    2003-01-01

    We present a new optical local area network architecture based on multimode optical fibers and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. The presented optically transparent network represent a novel approach in fiber-to-the-desk applications. It is

  10. Ethernet-Based Passive Optical Local-Area Networks for Fiber-to-the-Desk Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radovanovic, Igor; Etten, van Wim; Freriks, Hennie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce optical local-area network (LAN) architectures based on multimode optical fiber and components, short wavelength lasers and detectors, and the widely used fast Ethernet protocol. These architectures are designed to lower the costs associated with passive optical LAN implementation. Furt

  11. Additional Sensitivity Penalty of Burst Mode Receivers in Ethernet PON due to Extinction Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sub Han; Ja-Won Seo; Tae-Whan Yoo; Man-Seop Lee

    2003-01-01

    An additional sensitivity penalty of burst mode receivers due to the extinction ratio is analyzed considering the specific transmitter control in Ethernet PON. For an extinction ratio of 6dB, a penalty of 8dB occurs additionally.

  12. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Shaila; Naik, G M

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack.

  13. Industrial Ethernet in the Production of Tomorrow -Requirements- Challenges-Hazards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Klüger

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 Foreword Do we really need Ethernet in the production of tomorrow?I think, the answer is YES. The production technology of today has to meet the challenge to develop new strategies for a highly flexible, highly available and cost-effective automation technology.

  14. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2016-05-15

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved

  15. 基于PAS9401的10G-EPON网络终端设备的研究%Research of 10G-EPON Network Terminal Device Based on PAS9401

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 戴璐平; 刘海英; 戴丽萍

    2015-01-01

    论述了10G-EPON系统的基本特征,具有高带宽、高效率和支持全业务的特点。针对10G-EPON的日渐普及推广,对于ONU的需求也随之增加,设计了一种基于PAS9401的ONU解决方案。该方案采用SoC技术,需要较少的外围器件,便能快速推出ONU产品,硬件设计和软件开发比较简单。对ONU的吞吐量、过载丢包率进行严格的测试,各模式下的丢包率测试结果为0,另外测试基于ONU的IP电话、IPTV能正常使用,满足10G-EPON系统对ONU得需求。%10G-EPON system has the characteristics of high bandwidth,high efficiency and supports the whole ser⁃vice. The system is designed based on PAS9401 to meet with the increasing demand of ONU. It can be launched rapidly for the ONU which is designed with less auxiliary device based on SOC. The Throughput and Frame loss in 10 G-EPON of the ONU has been test accurately that the results of Frame loss is zero. The result of the test on IP and IPTV indicated that the terminal can meet the requirements of 10G-EPON.

  16. Integration of VICbus, FDL, SCI and Ethernet in the CERN CASCADE data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, J; Bogaerts, A; Burckhart, Doris; Divià, R; Ingebritsen, L; Joos, M; Liebhart, M; Niewold, J; Parkman, C; Perrin, Yves; Thiercelin, B; Tremblet, L J; Vascotto, Alessandro; Werner, P

    1995-01-01

    Cascade is a multi-processor real-time data-acquisition system for HEP experiments developed at CERN by the ECP-DS group. Configurations supported today include VMEbus processors running OS-9 and UNIX workstations. The CASCADE data acquisition processes, called stages communicate via links, at present VICbus between VME crates and Ethernet between VMEbus processors and workstations. Work is in progress to introduce new inter-stage links based on the Fast Data Link between VME crates and on SCI for data exchange between SUN stations. The paper gives a short description of the architecture of CASCADE with emphasis on the link aspects. The implementation and current status of the inter-stage links based on VICbus, Ethernet, FDI, and SCI will be described and results on the performances presented.

  17. Low latency protocol for transmission of measurement data from FPGA to Linux computer via 10 Gbps Ethernet link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotny, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents FADE-10G—an integrated solution for modern multichannel measurement systems. Its main aim is a low latency, reliable transmission of measurement data from FPGA-based front-end electronic boards (FEBs) to a computer-based node in the Data Acquisition System (DAQ), using a standard Ethernet 1 Gbps or 10 Gbps link. In addition to transmission of data, the system allows the user to send reliably simple control commands from DAQ to FEB and to receive responses. The aim of the work is to provide a possible simple base solution, which can be adapted by the end user to his or her particular needs. Therefore, the emphasis is put on the minimal consumption of FPGA resources in FEB and the minimal CPU load in the DAQ computer. The open source implementation of the FPGA IP core and the Linux kernel driver published under permissive license facilitates modifications and reuse of the solution. The system has been successfully tested in real hardware, both with 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps links.

  18. Comparison between Networked Control System behaviour based on CAN and Switched Ethernet networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brahimi, Belynda; Rondeau, Eric; Aubrun, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    7 pages; International audience; The distributed control systems are more and more used in many industrial applications. These systems are often referred as “Networked control systems”. The goal of this paper is to show the network influence on feedback control systems. Two networks are considered: Switched Ethernet network and CAN fieldbus. The first one represents the non deterministic network and second one represents the deterministic one. Several scenarii are studied to analyse the stabi...

  19. The Predigest Project of TCP/IP Protocol Communication System Based on DSP Technology and Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    hong-you, Wang; san-ping, Zhao

    The paper introduce a predigest project of TCP/IP based on DSP CMOS chip TMS320F2407 and Ethernet interface. The system design the Network Interface Controller using TMS320F2407and TRL8019AS,it simplify TCP/IP, achieve simple protocol stack in DSP, and achieve Data transmission by software program. The experiment indicated that, the communication system constructed by TMS320F2407andTRL8019AS is low cast, simple and reliable.

  20. The CMS Event Builder Demonstrator and Results with Ethernet and Myrinet Switch Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Antchev; L.Berti; 等

    2001-01-01

    The data acquisition system for the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will require a large and high performance event building network.Several architectures and swithch technologies are currently being evaluated.This paper describes demonstrators which have been set up to study a small-scale event builder based on PCs emulating high performance sources and sinks connected via Ethernet or Myrinet switches.Results from ongoing studies,including measurements on throughput and scaling,are presented.

  1. Design and implementation of a clock recovery circuit for fast Ethernet applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱全庆; 邹雪城; 沈绪榜

    2004-01-01

    A circuit architechure to realize clock recovery for fast Ethernet applications is presented, whick includies system architecture, modified Mueller Muller algorithm for 100BASE-TX, phase detector for 100BASE-TX and multiple output charge pump PLL. The clock recovery circuit is verified by TSMC 0.35um 1P5M CMOS process. The results show that this clock recovery circuit exactly extracts the timing information. It has advantages over others for simple and easy implementation.

  2. Scheduling queues in the Ethernet switch, considering the waiting time of frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizilov Evgeniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors proposes an algorithm to scheduling queues with temporal selection of frames in the Ethernet switches with QoS support, which is based on the waiting time of frames in the queues of different classes. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this algorithm compared to the classical cyclic algorithms by simulation with hierarchical temporal coloured Petri nets using CPN Tools package was conducte.

  3. Reliance communications' flag telecom to provide ethernet link between CERN and TIFR

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "Flag Telecom Group Limited (Flag), the undersea cable network arm of Anil Ambani-le Reliance Communications, has announced a landmark deal with CERn (Conseil Européen pour la Recheche Nucléaire), the European organisation for nuclear research based in Geneva, Switzerland and the Tata institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) in Mumbai to provide gigabit Ethernet connectivity between the two." (1 page)

  4. Ethernet Time Transfer through a U.S. Commercial Optical Telecommunications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Ethernet Time Transfer through a U.S. Commercial Optical Telecommunications Network M. Weiss, NIST Time and Frequency Division, mweiss... telecommunications and data networks through precision synchronization.” Marc founded and has led WSTS, the Workshop on Sync in Telecom Systems...signals through a telecommunication network. This experiment connects UTC(NIST) in Boulder, Colorado with UTC(USNO) at the Alternate Master Clock at

  5. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  6. Design and implementation of digital television over ethernet PON transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Liu, Deming; Mao, Minjing; Wang, Jinjuan

    2005-11-01

    There are two primary methods of transmitting signal of digital television to the home in China. The first one is HFC mode, which is widely used. The other is IPTV mode, which is emerging. In this paper, the scheme of digital television over Ethernet PON is proposed. There are several differences from this system to IPTV and Video over LAN: the real-time transmission of equal-bandwidth based on statistical multiplexing, channel switching based on multicast and IP CA system, etc.. And these are also the key techniques used in this system. The architecture of DTV over EPON system, the function of every component, the framing process and the multiplexing of Ethernet frame are described. The implementation procedure of the system is shown. The mechanism of channel switching using multicast technique is designed and realized. We also present the method of using static VLAN and IGMP snooping mechanism to implement statistical multiplexing on Ethernet layer, and put forward the concept of IP Conditional Access System and define it. An experimental system of DTV over EPON is set up and the experimental result is significant.

  7. Research on DSP Ethernet Communication Technology%DSP以太网通信技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董超; 朱军; 史勃

    2012-01-01

    阐述嵌入式以太网通信技术的一般原理.用TMS320F2812的DSP和RTL8019AS以太网控制芯片为电池化成设备控制系统实现了以太网通信功能.详细介绍硬件接口电路的设计,根据DSP的体系结构编写了简化的协议栈,并用DSP专用的实时操作系统DSP/BIOS与协议栈协同工作,最后用以太网测试程序对所设计的软、硬件进行了测试.%The general principle of embedded Ethernet communication technology was introduced. TI' sTMS320F2812 DSP and Realtek's RTL8019AS Ethernet control chip were employed to implement Ethernetcommunication for battery formation equipment control system. The hardware interface circuit design and theDSP-based simplified protocol stack with simplified architecture were presented to cooperate with DSP's DSP/BIOS real-time operation system,and then Ethernet testing program was applied to the software and hardwaredesigned.

  8. A Data Transmission Method Based on Ethernet Physical Layer for Particle Physics Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Xi-Ru, Huang; Jia-Jun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design of modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to be implemented because designers have to use operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP protocol degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on physical layer (PHY) is proposed in this paper. In this method, TCP/IP protocol is forsaken and replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which make it easier to be implemented. On each readout module, data from front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. While from the side of data acquisition system (D...

  9. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  10. A New Solution of Multicast Packets Management for Managed Ethernet Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng LU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has a discussion on the new solution of IGMP management for multicast message in industrial Ethernet. It proposed a new mechanism to minimize the congestion which is based on the taking an adaptive decision during transferring multicast messages. Proposed approach is that a device requesting to start and stop the reception of the multicast streams is accomplished through IGMP join and Leave message requests. Quality of Service (QOS as a component is supported by the Switch Manager as well as features built into the micro chip. The IGMP Snooping component monitors (snoops these join and leave messages to allow it to know which streams to prune from which ports. it is a service provided by most managed Ethernet switches. However, the ICIE (Intelligent Controller for Industrial Ethernet does not provide this capability and requires that another device in the network supports the querier functionality. It is through the external devices solicitation of join messages that allow the IGMP Snooping component to correctly decipher on which ports the downstream listeners are connected.

  11. Contribución para QoS en Redes Metropolitanas Ethernet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Álvarez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de control de acceso (ACS permiten apoyar las soluciones actuales de Calidad de Servicio. Éstos consideran entre sus variables el retardo, variación de retardo, pérdida de paquetes o una combinación para asegurar los requerimientos de calidad de servicio para sesiones de voz y video. Proponemos un ACS basado en la pérdida de paquetes de prueba extremo a extremo para la decisión de aceptar nuevas sesiones. La red de transporte será la familia Ethernet, la cual ha incursionado de manera importante en los ámbitos metropolitanos (802.3ae. El presente trabajo muestra la interoperatividad y ventajas de ME-ACS con MPLS./ The access control systems (ACS are useful to improve the Quality of Service solutions. These systems are generally based on delay, jitter or packet loss, employing more of these criteria to maintain the required quality of service requiring for voice or video sessions. We propose an ACS that employs packet loss between probes that send an end-to-end test stream before accepting additional sessions. We used Ethernet as our transport network because the 803.3ae is widely used in metropolitan area networks. This paper presents how the ACS will interoperate with MPLS and describe the improvements related to its use in a metropolitan Ethernet network.

  12. 基于10G PON的普遍100M接入方案的研究和探讨%Universal Service of 100M Access Based on 10G PON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海军

    2015-01-01

    普遍100M接入服务将在未来3年普及.通过研究普遍100M接入的带宽模型,探讨对PON网络的技术要求,确定以10G PON为基础的接入网升级方案,为运营商统一规划普遍100M接入网络奠定了基础.

  13. Design of a mutual authentication based on NTRUsign with a perturbation and inherent multipoint control protocol frames in an Ethernet-based passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Aihan; Ding, Yisheng

    2014-11-01

    Identity-related security issues inherently present in passive optical networks (PON) still exist in the current (1G) and next-generation (10G) Ethernet-based passive optical network (EPON) systems. We propose a mutual authentication scheme that integrates an NTRUsign digital signature algorithm with inherent multipoint control protocol (MPCP) frames over an EPON system between the optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network unit (ONU). Here, a primitive NTRUsign algorithm is significantly modified through the use of a new perturbation so that it can be effectively used for simultaneously completing signature and authentication functions on the OLT and the ONU sides. Also, in order to transmit their individual sensitive messages, which include public key, signature, and random value and so forth, to each other, we redefine three unique frames according to MPCP format frame. These generated messages can be added into the frames and delivered to each other, allowing the OLT and the ONU to go ahead with a mutual identity authentication process to verify their legal identities. Our simulation results show that this proposed scheme performs very well in resisting security attacks and has low influence on the registration efficiency to to-be-registered ONUs. A performance comparison with traditional authentication algorithms is also presented. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed design of mutual authentication in EPON can be found in the literature up to now.

  14. Design and implementation of 10Gigabit EPON ONU hardware%10G EPON的ONU硬件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩盛杰; 张俊杰; 林如俭

    2009-01-01

    基于802.3av D2.1草案对10G EPON的ONU进行了硬件设计,提出了以Virtex5 FPGA为核心的解决方案.该设计能实现802.3av D2.1草案所规定的ONU基本功能,并且为ONU专用ASIC芯片的设计奠定了基础.

  15. Genomic Variation in IbA10G2 and Other Patient-Derived Cryptosporidium hominis Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Per; Andersson, Sofia; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Hallström, Björn; Alsmark, Cecilia; Troell, Karin; Beser, Jessica; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve genotyping and epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp., genomic data need to be generated directly from a broad range of clinical specimens. Utilizing a robust method that we developed for the purification and generation of amplified target DNA, we present its application for the successful isolation and whole-genome sequencing of 14 different Cryptosporidium hominis patient specimens. Six isolates of subtype IbA10G2 were analyzed together with a single representative each of 8 other subtypes: IaA20R3, IaA23R3, IbA9G3, IbA13G3, IdA14, IeA11G3T3, IfA12G1, and IkA18G1. Parasite burden was measured over a range of more than 2 orders of magnitude for all samples, while the genomes were sequenced to mean depths of between 17× and 490× coverage. Sequence homology-based functional annotation identified several genes of interest, including the gene encoding Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein 9 (COWP9), which presented a predicted loss-of-function mutation in all the sequence subtypes, except for that seen with IbA10G2, which has a sequence identical to the Cryptosporidium parvum reference Iowa II sequence. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that all the IbA10G2 genomes form a monophyletic clade in the C. hominis tree as expected and yet display some heterogeneity within the IbA10G2 subtype. The current report validates the aforementioned method for isolating and sequencing Cryptosporidium directly from clinical stool samples. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the potential in mining data generated from sequencing multiple whole genomes of Cryptosporidium from human fecal samples, while alluding to the potential for a higher degree of genotyping within Cryptosporidium epidemiology.

  16. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  17. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  18. A data transmission method for particle physics experiments based on Ethernet physical layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi-Ru; Cao, Ping; Zheng, Jia-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Due to its advantages of universality, flexibility and high performance, fast Ethernet is widely used in readout system design for modern particle physics experiments. However, Ethernet is usually used together with the TCP/IP protocol stack, which makes it difficult to implement readout systems because designers have to use the operating system to process this protocol. Furthermore, TCP/IP degrades the transmission efficiency and real-time performance. To maximize the performance of Ethernet in physics experiment applications, a data readout method based on the physical layer (PHY) is proposed. In this method, TCP/IP is replaced with a customized and simple protocol, which makes it easier to implement. On each readout module, data from the front-end electronics is first fed into an FPGA for protocol processing and then sent out to a PHY chip controlled by this FPGA for transmission. This kind of data path is fully implemented by hardware. From the side of the data acquisition system (DAQ), however, the absence of a standard protocol causes problems for the network related applications. To solve this problem, in the operating system kernel space, data received by the network interface card is redirected from the traditional flow to a specified memory space by a customized program. This memory space can easily be accessed by applications in user space. For the purpose of verification, a prototype system has been designed and implemented. Preliminary test results show that this method can meet the requirements of data transmission from the readout module to the DAQ with an efficient and simple manner. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11005107) and Independent Projects of State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics (201301)

  19. 100G Ethernet in the wild - first experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Stoy, Robert; Schröder, Frank; Reymund, Aurelie; Niederberger, Ralf; Mextorf, Olaf; Werner, Sabine

    2011-12-01

    A 100 Gigabit Testbed was established in a collaboration of 6 partners. Three industry partners have contributed the fiber infrastructure, the DWDM equipment, as well as the required routers. 447 kilometer was the distance of the wide area testbed established in collaboration with the German NREN DFN between Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and Forschungszentrum Jülich Before starting, DFN assured the quality of the fiber infrastructure, the operation of the DWDM systems at both locations, as well as the connection of the routers to this WAN link with a bandwidth of 100GE. 12*10GE interfaces were available at each site for connecting the local testnodes to the routers. A monitoring and measurement framework was installed for recording the most important IP network performance metrics, among them the One Way Delay (OWD) and its Variation, Packet Loss and Packet Reordering. The delay measurements were conducted between the GPS time synchronized Hades[1]measurement nodes at each location. Additionally all relevant counters at the routers have been recorded using a SNMP based Network Manangement Station and supplemented special command line interface output gathering and parsing scripts. The interfaces statistics were stored in 60 second intervals. The aim of the testbed was to demonstrate a failure-free transmission of one or more IP datastreams over 100GE during the whole period of 4 weeks.This included the evaluation of the 100 Gbit/s optical transmission system, the 100GE interfaces between the routers and the optical system, and the evaluation of a sustained 100GE transmission as well as the evaluation of the use of 100GE in a production like environment. The evaluation included a circulated (in a routing loop) tunable load between 1 and 100 Gbit/s, measurement of transmission quality of TCP and UDP datastreams between the endsystems, measurements of one way latency, a ramping up data transmission from approx. 8 Gbit/s up to 96 Gbit/s.

  20. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  1. A Reconfigurable Hybrid Architecture for HomePNA3.1/ Ethernet MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalily Dermany

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demands of home networking, the existing networking technologies are not able to satisfy user expectations any more. HomePNA (Home Phoneline Networking Alliance is a solution for having high bandwidth without new cabling.In this paper, we propose a new reconfigurable hybrid architecture for HomePNA3.0. We implement the architecture in behavioural level using VHDL language. Our implementation was able to have HomePNA3.1 and Ethernet MACs together. The system synthesis show that our implementation decrease number of logical element by 32%.

  2. Control PID de un secador mediante autómatas programables conectados por ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este proyecto final de carrera se centra en el control PID de temperatura de un secador convencional mediante autómatas programables conectados por Ethernet. Se busca con ello la configuración de un red de comunicaciones entre dos PLC’s industriales (Programmable Logic Controller en sus siglas en inglés) y el control de temperatura mediante un controlador PID. Los controladores lógicos programables o PLC’s son dispositivos electrónicos muy usados en automatización industrial...

  3. Optical local area network emulations over Ethernet passive optical networks: A survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG YunFeng; KUANG YuJun; LONG KePing

    2008-01-01

    As a promising solution to efficiently achieving fiber to the home (FTTH), Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) is currently improved to provide intercommunica-tion among customers, together with normal traffic delivery, via optical local area network emulation. It is a new research direction and expected to enhance the normal EPON performances. The purpose of this article is to review the state-of-the-art solutions to emulating optical local area networks (OLANs) over EPON. We discuss the major problems involved, e.g., network architecture, control mecha-nisms, and other potential enhancements. We also outline areas for future re-searches.

  4. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van Wig, Faith Virginia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Erickson, Kari Natania [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  5. Case study of mission-critical smart grid remedial action schemes via Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolezilek, David

    2010-09-15

    At Southern California Edison (SCE), RAS systems are implemented to mitigate thermal overloads and system instability upon the loss of one or more transmission lines. RAS automatic protection eliminates expensive alternative measures, including reconductoring transmission lines, building new lines, and/or adding new transformers. SCE has demonstrated successful use of IEC 61850 GOOSE messages over distances up to 460 miles to collect analysis and arming data and transfer status and control indications. This paper explains methods to perform mission-critical RAS and other smart grid actions via nondeterministic bandwidth sharing Ethernet being promoted to move smart grid information.

  6. Design and Performance Evaluation of Optical Ethernet Switching Architecture with Liquid Crystal on Silicon-Based Beam-Steering Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Chou, H.-H.; Shiau, Yhi; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2016-07-01

    A non-blocking optical Ethernet switching architecture with liquid crystal on a silicon-based beam-steering switch and optical output buffer strategies are proposed. For preserving service packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, priority and round-robin algorithms are adopted at the optical output buffer in this research. Four methods were used to implement tunable fiber delay modules for the optical output buffers to handle Ethernet packets with variable bit-rates. The results reported are based on the simulations performed to evaluate the proposed switching architecture with traffic analysis under a traffic model captured from a real-core network.

  7. Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Etsushi; Yamanaka, Shogo; Kisaka, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Tadao; Murata, Koichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Sakano, Toshikazu; Tomizawa, Masahito; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Shinji; Matsui, Junichiro; Shibayama, Atsufumi; Abe, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Noguchi, Hidemi; Fukuchi, Kiyoshi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Fukumitsu, Katsumi; Komaki, Kousuke; Takeuchi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Nakashima, Hisao; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kubo, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Hirano, Susumu; Onohara, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-04

    A field trial of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over an optical transport network (OTN) is conducted using a real-time digital coherent signal processor. Error free operation with the Q-margin of 3.2 dB is confirmed at a 100 Gbit/s Ethernet analyzer by concatenating a low-density parity-check code with a OTN framer forward error correction, after 80-ch WDM transmission through 6 spans x 70 km of dispersion shifted fiber without inline-dispersion compensation. Also, the recovery time of 12 msec is observed in an optical route switching experiment, which is achieved through fast chromatic dispersion estimation functionality.

  8. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  9. Modeling and Algorithm for Multiple Spanning Tree Provisioning in Resilient and Load Balanced Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven S. W. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multitree based fast failover scheme for Ethernet networks. In our system, only few spanning trees are used to carry working traffic in the normal state. As a failure happens, the nodes adjacent to the failure redirect traffic to the preplanned backup VLAN trees to realize fast failure recovery. In the proposed scheme, a new leaf constraint is enforced on the backup trees. It enables the network being able to provide 100% survivability against any single link and any single node failure. Besides fast failover, we also take load balancing into consideration. We model an Ethernet network as a twolayered graph and propose an Integer Linear Programming (ILP formulation for the problem. We further propose a heuristic algorithm to provide solutions to large networks. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve high survivability while maintaining load balancing at the same time. In addition, we have implemented the proposed scheme in an FPGA system. The experimental results show that it takes only few μsec to recover a network failure. This is far beyond the 50 msec requirement used in telecommunication networks for network protection.

  10. Přenos informací po síti Ethernet

    OpenAIRE

    Kutílek, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá přenosem informací po síti Ethernet. V této práci byl vybrán vhodný mikrokontrolér a komunikační modul, který zajištuje přenos dat z Ethernetu na SPI sběrnici, dále bylo zvoleno optimální digitální teplotní čidlo DS1820. Teoreticky popisuje model TCP/IP a síť typu Ethernet. V práci je vytvořeno blokové schéma zapojení, dále bylo vytvořeno elektrické schéma zapojení a deska plošných spojů. V prostředí BascomAVR je naprogramován program, který slouží pro přenos in...

  11. Communication Network Architectures Based on Ethernet Passive Optical Network for Offshore Wind Power Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with large-scale offshore wind power farms (WPFs becoming a reality, more efforts are needed to maintain a reliable communication network for WPF monitoring. Deployment topologies, redundancy, and network availability are the main items to enhance the communication reliability between wind turbines (WTs and control centers. Traditional communication networks for monitoring and control (i.e., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA systems using switched gigabit Ethernet will not be sufficient for the huge amount of data passing through the network. In this paper, the optical power budget, optical path loss, reliability, and network cost of the proposed Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON-based communication network for small-size offshore WPFs have been evaluated for five different network architectures. The proposed network model consists of an optical network unit device (ONU deployed on the WT side for collecting data from different internal networks. All ONUs from different WTs are connected to a central optical line terminal (OLT, placed in the control center. There are no active electronic elements used between the ONUs and the OLT, which reduces the costs and complexity of maintenance and deployment. As fiber access networks without any protection are characterized by poor reliability, three different protection schemes have been configured, explained, and discussed. Considering the cost of network components, the total implementation expense of different architectures with, or without, protection have been calculated and compared. The proposed network model can significantly contribute to the communication network architecture for next generation WPFs.

  12. Manufacturability and reliability on 10-Gb/s transponder for ethernet-based applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Min-Sheng; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Shen, Kun-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Lee, Shin-Ge

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, manufacturing issues include Optical Sub-Assembly (OSA), Electrical Sub-Assembly (ESA) and reliability considerations of 10 Gb/s Ethernet transponder were studied by using experiments and implementation. In the growing optical communication industry, one of the star products is the Z-axis pluggable optical transceiver module. Under the broad usage of Ethernet means high port density, low cost, high utilities, compact size and still require excellent performance. After standardizing of 10 Gb/s ethernet (IEEE 802.3ae), many transceiver companies, silicon vendors and system vendors reached the agreement and signed up diversity of MSA (Multi-Source Agreement). These MSAs still keep modifying with system demands, customer requirements, cost and performance issue. This paper presents how to achieve these functions description in the MSA and own a highly manufacturability and reliability module design. According to composed block of transponder, we split it into OSA, ESA, mechanical design and related reliability experimental result. In the OSA, traditional TO-CAN package and optical components be introduced. Because the mature manufacture experience, vendor can easy to meet low cost and manufacturability requirements and only need to slightly modifications. A simply solution be implemented to solve this problem and discuss the critical point of the design. Thermal issue on OSA will also be mentioned because of the sensitive of light source and how to calculate the effect to find effective solutions. By the way, some manufacturability criteria will be discussed for OSA characteristics in 10 Gb/s applications. In the ESA, PMD (Physical media dependant) driving methods, Multi-Source Agreement related digital optical monitor function implement and performance comparison will be presented. On the other hand, we will examine the crosstalk effect between transmitter and receiver circuit and impact to the module Optical to Electrical convert interface design. We

  13. Evaluation of the Delivery QoS Characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Switches

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, Razvan; Davies, Neil; Dobinson, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The event selection system for ATLAS is designed to perform real-time image processing on particle collision data equivalent to 2 TB/s. This data is filtered by a multi-level architecture, resulting in 200 GB/s of data analysed by a distributed system consisting of several thousand PCs and switches. As part of our ongoing work on this system, we performed tests on several Gigabit Ethernet switches manufactured by market leaders, using our custom-built test equipment. We analysed the implications of running network devices at, and just beyond, saturation while deploying service differentiation mechanisms. We quantified the quality degradation that traffic flows experienced when passing through switches. We focused on emergent properties in saturation, including fairness and fidelity to expectations. We discuss the ideals for switch behaviour and compare them against the observed behaviour of real implementations of differentiation mechanisms in switches. This creates a generic benchmark, which is independent o...

  14. Gigabit Ethernet signal transmission using asynchronous optical code division multiple access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Philip Y; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Wu, Ben; Prucnal, Paul R

    2015-12-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel architecture for interfacing and transmitting a Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) signal using asynchronous incoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). This is the first such asynchronous incoherent OCDMA system carrying GbE data being demonstrated to be working among multi-users where each user is operating with an independent clock/data rate and is granted random access to the network. Three major components, the GbE interface, the OCDMA transmitter, and the OCDMA receiver are discussed in detail. The performance of the system is studied and characterized through measuring eye diagrams, bit-error rate and packet loss rate in real-time file transfer. Our Letter also addresses the near-far problem and realizes asynchronous transmission and detection of signal.

  15. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet Instrumentation for SalSA Electronics Readout (GEISER)

    CERN Document Server

    Varner, G S; Ridley, D; Zhu, C; Gorham, P; Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu, Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-01-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored, though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high-speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the hugh capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented.

  16. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet instrumentation for SalSA electronics readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, Gary S. [Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa (United States)]. E-mail: varner@phys.hawaii.edu; Murakami, Laine [Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa (United States); Ridley, David [Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa (United States); Zhu Chaopin [Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa (United States); Gorham, Peter [Instrumentation Development Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa (United States)

    2005-12-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the enormous capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented.

  17. Cold front-end electronics and Ethernet-based DAQ systems for large LAr TPC readout

    CERN Document Server

    D.Autiero,; B.Carlus,; Y.Declais,; S.Gardien,; C.Girerd,; J.Marteau; H.Mathez

    2010-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detectors implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. We are carrying on a R&D in electronics on a complete readout chain including an ASIC located close to the collecting planes in the argon gas phase and a DAQ system based on smart Ethernet sensors implemented in a µTCA standard. The choice of the latter standard is motivated by the similarity in the constraints with those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We also developed a synchronization scheme developed from the IEEE1588 standard integrated by the use of the recovered clock from the Gigabit link

  18. Enterasys Networks delivers standards-based 10-Gigabit ethernet modules for its Enterasys X-Pedition Routers and Enterasys Matrix Switches

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Enterasys Networks Inc. has announced new 10-Gigabit Ethernet modules for the Enterasys X-Pedition ER16 routers and Enterasys Matrix E1 OAS (Optical Access Switch). The addition of 10-Gigabit Ethernet technology enables the Enterasys X-Pedition ER16 enables real-time delivery of high-bandwidth, advanced applications across local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN) and metropolitan area network (MAN) environments (1/2 page).

  19. Performance Evaluation of Different QoS Models for Connecting Telephone Exchange Centers over Metro Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Mirjalily

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent large deployment of high-speed metro Ethernet networks creates opportunity to connect legacy telephone exchange centers and cellular telephone base stations to the core telephony network. The success of data and legacy voice services convergence shall depend on whether it can provide the customer with the required QoS or not. Packet-base telephony service requires stringent bounds on end-to-end packet delay, jitter, and loss. New protocols such as MPLS and Diffserv are realized due to the major advantages associated with them such as QoS. This paper studies the performance of connecting telephone exchange centers over a metro Ethernet network using MPLS and DiffServ QoS model. We will implement some simulations to evaluate the performance in terms of delay, jitter and loss.

  20. Protocol Conversion Between Ethernet and CAN Bus%以太网和CAN总线的协议转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 蒋道霞

    2011-01-01

    CAN bus and industrial Ethernet are more and more used in the mine building. But in the layer of data management a-bout mining, industrial Ethernet based on standard TCP/IP protocols has been widely used. Therefore, the study about connectiv-ity between CAN bus and Ethernet has an important practical significance.This thesis offers a solution about connectivity between CAN bus and Ethernet on the basis of studies about them. And also control and management are unified. At the same time, this thesis standardizes the information of application layer and unifies the data format of a variety of monitoring equipment according to the characteristics of coal mine monitoring system. It is useful for the management layer on data processing.%CAN总线和工业以太网越来越多地使用在矿山建设上.在矿山数据管理层,基于标准TCP/IP协议的工业以太网得到了巨大的应用,因此研究CAN总线与以太网之间的互联具有重要的现实意义.本文在研究以太网和CAN总线的基础上,分析工业以太网关的具体功能,提出工业以太网和CAN总线的协议互转解决方案.针对煤矿监控系统的特点设计一种应用层的信息规范,统一了各种煤矿监控设备的数据格式,并研究出了详细的CAN网络与以太网协议的转换,有利于管理层的数据处理.

  1. The study on Clock Synchronization Technology for Ethernet%PTP同步技术性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓冬

    2014-01-01

    For the application of network time protocol PTP on ethernet, this paper has made researches on the fucntion and process of PTP and proposed the implemenation soltuion of PTP on NS2 platform. The synchornization performace of PTP on ethernet has been also investigated in this paper through simulation, which indicated that IEEE 1588 PTP on ethernet has excellent synchronization performance which could reach ns level resolution and has good anti-noise capability. The simulation result has proved the validity and feasibility of the proposed solution.%针对网络时间协议PTP在以太网上的应用,研究了PTP协议的功能和流程,提出了PTP协议在NS2平台下的实现方案,并通过仿真研究了PTP协议在以太网环境中的同步性能。研究结果表明,IEEE 1588标准的PTP协议在以太网上具有极佳的同步性能,其同步精度可以达到ns级别,并且具有良好的抗噪能力。数值仿真结果说明了该仿真方案的有效性和可行性。

  2. The determination of the link with the smallest end-to-end network latency in ethernet architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ethernet fundamental and its data transmission model are introduced in brief and end-to-end network latency was analyzed in this paper. On the premise of not considering transmission quality and transmission cost, latency was the function of the rest of network resource parameter (NRP). The relation between the number of nodes and that of end-to-end links was presented. In ethernet architecture, the algorithm to determine the link with the smallest latency is a polynomial issue when the number of network nodes is limited, so it can be solved by way of polynomial equations. Latency measuring is the key issue to determine the link with the smallest network latency. 3-node brigade (regiment) level network centric warfare (NCW) demonstration platform was studied and the latency between the detectors and weapon control stations was taken as an example. The algorithm of end-to-end network latency and link information in NCW was presented. The algorithm program based on Server/Client architecture was developed. The data transmission optimal link is one whose end-to-end latency is the smallest. This paper solves the key issue to determine the link whose end-to-end latency is the smallest in ethernet architecture. The study can be widely applied to determine the optimal link which is in the complex network environment of multiple service provision points.

  3. MicroTCA implementation of synchronous Ethernet-Based DAQ systems for large scale experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Girerd, C; Carlus, B; Gardien, S; Marteau, J; Tromeur, W

    2009-01-01

    Large LAr TPCs are among the most powerful detectors to address open problems in particle and astro-particle physics, such as CP violation in leptonic sector, neutrino properties and their astrophysical implications, proton decay search etc. The scale of such detector implies severe constraints on their readout and DAQ system. In this article we describe a data acquisition scheme for this new generation of large detectors. The main challenge is to propose a scalable and easy to use solution able to manage a large number of channels at the lowest cost. It is interesting to note that these constraints are very similar to those existing in Network Telecommunication Industry. We propose to study how emerging technologies like ATCA and $\\mu$TCA could be used in neutrino experiments. We describe the design of an Advanced Mezzanine Board (AMC) including 32 ADC channels. This board receives 32 analogical channels at the front panel and sends the formatted data through the $\\mu$TCA backplane using a Gigabit Ethernet l...

  4. Assessment of High and Low Rate Protocol-based Attacks on Ethernet Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Malekzadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and Web have significantly transformed the world’s communication system. The capability of the Internet to instantly access information at anytime from anywhere has brought benefit for a wide variety of areas including business, government, education, institutions, medical, and entertainment services. However, the Internet has also opened up the possibilities for hackers to exploit flaws and limitations in the target networks to attack and break in without gaining physical access to the target systems. The OSI layer protocol-based attacks are among them. In this work we investigate feasibility as well as severity of the attacks against three common layering protocols including TCP, UDP, and ICMP on Ethernet-based networks in the real world through a testbed. Then a simulation environment is designed to implement the exact same attacks under similar conditions using NS2 network simulator. The testbed results and simulation results are compared with each other to explore the accuracy of the findings and measure the damages the attacks caused to the network.

  5. The new LHCb trigger and DAQ strategy a system architecture based on gigabit-ethernet

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A; Gaspar, C; Gavillet, P; Jacobsson, R; Jost, B; Neufeld, N; Vannerem, P

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb software trigger has two levels: a high-speed trigger running at 1 MHz with strictly limited latency and a second level running below 40 kHz without latency limitations. The trigger strategy requires full flexibility in the distribution of the installed CPU power to the two software trigger levels because of the unknown background levels and event topology distribution at the time the LHC accelerator will start its operation. This requirement suggests using a common CPU farm for both trigger levels fed by a common data acquisition (DAQ) infrastructure. The limited latency budget of the first level of software trigger has an impact on the organization of the CPU farm performing the trigger function for optimal usage of the installed CPU power. We will present the architecture and the design of the hardware infrastructure for the entire LHCb software triggering system based on Ethernet as link technology that fulfills these requirements. The performance of the event-building of the combined traffic of ...

  6. IPbus A flexible Ethernet-based control system for xTCA hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Thomas Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The ATCA and uTCA standards include industry-standard data pathway technologies such as Gigabit Ethernet which can be used for control communication, but no specific hardware control protocol is defined. The IPbus suite of software and firmware implements a reliable high-performance control link for particle physics electronics, and has successfully replaced VME control in several large projects. In this paper, we outline the IPbus system architecture, and describe recent developments in the reliability, scalability and performance of IPbus systems, carried out in preparation for deployment of uTCA-based CMS upgrades before the LHC 2015 run. We also discuss plans for future development of the IPbus suite.SUMMARY IPbus will be used for controlling the uTCA electronics in the CMS HCAL, TCDS, Pixel and Level-1 trigger upgrades. IPbus control has already been extensively used in the work of these upgrade projects so far, and final uTCA systems will be deployed in the experiment starting from Autumn 2014. IPbus is...

  7. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    CERN Document Server

    Födisch, P; Sandmann, J; Büchner, A; Enghardt, W; Kaever, P

    2015-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA ...

  8. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  9. Ethernet-based integrated surveillance system for homeland security and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, Michael G.; Thompson, Dean

    2004-09-01

    This report documents the results of an internal DRS effort to develop an Ethernet based integrated defense system to improve defense of cities, harbors, airports, power production, energy supplies, bridges, monuments, dams and so forth. Results of the integration of multiple SCOUT LPI radars and multiple Electro-optical targeting systems will be provided, illustrating the benefits of interfacing surveillance radars with imaging sensors to confirm detection and provide visual recognition and identification. An analysis of the handover errors will be provided including errors due to; sensor platforms location and orientation uncertainty, target location measurement errors, data latency and motion prediction errors, which contribute to target handoff and the re-acquisition timeline. These predictions will be compared to measured results. The system architecture will be defined including; security, support for both stationary and moving sensor platforms, remote control of sensor systems and distribution of imagery through the network and remote diagnostics, maintenance and software upgrades. Growth capabilities include secure wireless communication to/from moving platforms, integration with sonar and seismic sensors, cooperative location of friendly forces and acoustic detection and triangulation of gunshots with automated cueing of sensors and security forces to the shooters most probable location. The use of ad hoc multi-hopping wireless networking supplements hardwire networks, augments disaster response capabilities, provides high-speed communications for moving platforms and supplements GPS outage areas.

  10. Parallel Void Thread in Long-Reach Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-06-25

    This work investigates void filling (idle periods) in long-reach Ethernet passive optical networks. We focus on reducing grant delays and hence reducing the average packet delay. We introduce a novel approach called parallel void thread (PVT), which allocates bandwidth grants during voids baseless of bandwidth requests. We introduce three different grant sizing schemes for PVT, namely void extension, count controlled batch void filling, and size controlled batch void filling. The proposed approaches canbe integrated with almost all of the previously reported dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes. Unlike other void filling schemes, PVT is less sensitive to the differential distance between optical network units and can work very well in the case of limited differential distances. We have analytically investigated the packet delay and derived a bound condition for PVT to outperform the other competitors. We support our work with extensive simulation study considering bursty traffic with long range dependence for both the single-class and differentiated services (DiffServ) scenarios. Numerical results show delay reduction up to 35% compared with the non-void filling scheme for the single-class scenario. For DiffServ traffic, PVT achieves delay reduction up to 80% for expedited forward traffic, 52% for assured forward traffic, and 56% for best effort traffic. © 2015 OSA.

  11. ONU auto-discovery of 1OG EPON systems%10G EPON系统ONU注册技术研究(本期优秀论文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱华伟; 侯晓荣; 何峥

    2010-01-01

    ONU注册是10G EPON系统正常运行的前提,在不影响系统正常运行的情况下实现新ONU自动注册或故障ONU重新注册是PON系统的突出优点.文章分析了10G EPON系统的双速率MAC协议栈及10GEPON MPCP控制帧相对于1G EPON MPCP控制帧结构所作的扩展,描述了10G EPON系统ONU注册的基本流程,重点讨论了OLT开窗控制和ONU注册响应的基本原理.

  12. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut;

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  13. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kumar, R. Sreerama; Abdel-Shafi, Nabil Yassien [Saudi Electricity Company Chair for DSM and EE, Vice Presidency for Projects, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Abdulaziz, Abdulaziz Uthman M.; Obaid, Ramzy R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, King Abdulaziz University Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implement energy conservation measures. The major electrical load in the buildings in the University corresponds to air-handling units and lighting. If the Hajj period, during which millions of pilgrims visit Holy Makah, coincides with the summer, the electricity demand in the country further increases. Considering these issues, the university has taken initiatives to minimize energy consumption in the campuses through the various energy conservation measures. Towards this end, BMS is installed in a few of the typical classrooms and office buildings utilizing the existing campus Ethernet TCP/IP. The data analysis is performed over the period from April to September as it is the peak load period due to summer season. The effectiveness of the BMS in the minimization of the energy consumption in these buildings is established by comparing the results of data analysis with BMS against those before the installation of BMS over the peak period. The investigations reveal that appreciable saving in energy consumption can be achieved with the installation of BMS, the magnitude being dependent upon factors such as building characteristics, type of building, its utilization and period of use.

  14. A programmable, multichannel power supply for SIPMs with temperature compensation loop and Ethernet interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Álvarez, V.; Herrero, V.

    2016-12-01

    Among the different techniques available, the SiPM power supply described in this paper uses output voltage and sensor temperature feedback. A high-resolution ADC digitizes both the output voltage and an analog signal proportional to the SiPM temperature for each of its 16 independent outputs. The appropriate change in the bias voltage is computed in a micro-controller and this correction is applied via a high resolution DAC to the control input of a DC/DC module that produces the output voltage. This method allows a reduction in gain variations from typically 30% to only 0.5% in a 10 °C range. The power supply is housed in a 3U-height aluminum box. A 2.8'' touch screen on the front panel provides local access to the configuration and monitoring functions using a graphical interface. The unit has an Ethernet interface on its rear side to provide remote operation and integration in slow control systems using the encrypted and secure SSH protocol. A LabVIEW application with SSH interface has been designed to operate the power supply from a remote computer. The power supply has good characteristics, such as 85 V output range with 1 mV resolution and stability better than 2 mVP, excellent output load regulation and programmable rise and fall voltage ramps. Commercial power supplies from well-known manufacturers can show far better specifications though can also result in an over featured and over costly solution for typical applications.

  15. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  16. CAN BUS and Ethernet Interconnect System%CAN总线与以太网互连系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬思奇; 戴瑜兴; 肖彬; 王卫国

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize Ethernet and CAN bus's data conversion, Constructed a interconnect system based on embedded technology between CAN bus and Ethernet. Hardware platform of the system let LPC2119 ARM7 as the core,including Ethernet interface module based on ENC28J60, CAN interface module and HMI interface module; Software platform used real-time operating system uC/OS-Ⅱ and embedded LwIP protocol stack. The PC user interface was designed by VC++. Experimental debugging results showed, stable and reliable operation of system on voltage circuit breaker, will have certain practicability and commercial worth.%为了实现以太网与CAN总线的数据交换,构建了一个基于嵌入式的CAN总线与以太网互连系统.系统硬件平台以LPC2119 ARM7为核心,包括由ENC28J60构成的以太网接口模块、CAN接口模块、HMI接口模块;系统软件平台使用了实时操作系统μ C/OS-Ⅱ和嵌入了LwIP协议栈,并用VC++设计了上位机人机界面.实验调试结果表明,该系统在智能断路器上运行稳定可靠,具有一定的实用性和推广价值.

  17. New methods to engineer and seamlessly reconfigure time triggered ethernet based systems during runtime based on the PROFINET IRT example

    CERN Document Server

    Wisniewski, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to design a concept that would allow to increase the flexibility of currently available Time Triggered Ethernet based (TTEB) systems, however, without affecting their performance and robustness. The main challenges are related to scheduling of time triggered communication that may take significant amount of time and has to be performed on a powerful platform. Additionally, the reliability has to be considered and kept on the required high level. Finally, the reconfiguration has to be optimally done without affecting the currently running system.

  18. Low-power and Low-cost Design of Survival Memory Unit for 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet Transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Types of hybrid architectures survivor memory unit (SMU) is presented,which are applicable to IEEE 802.3 ab 1000 Base-T Gigabit Ethernet (GbE) transceiver. Area, power and decoder latency were taken into account and most efficient architectures were compared to optimize area/power tradeoff in different kinds of applications. Suitable SMU architectures are given out respectively in area-restrict, power-restrict and latency-restrict designs. A power-efficient architecture was selected in our GbE project. It provides 48% improvement in area and 71% amelioration in power, compared to classical register exchange architecture (REA) SMU.

  19. Analytical Performance Evaluation of IPv6 and IPv4 Over 10 Gigabit Ethernet and InfiniBand using IPoIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gamess

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 is the response to the shortage of IPv4 addresses. It was defined almost twenty years ago by the IETF as a replacement of IPv4, and little by little, it is becoming more preponderant as the Internet protocol. The growth of Internet has led to the development of high performance networks. On one hand, Ethernet has evolved significantly and today it is common to find 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks in LANs. On the other hand, another approach for high performance networking is based on RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access which offers innovative features such as kernel bypass, zero copy, offload of splitting and assembly of messages in packets to the CAs (Channel Adapters, etc. InfiniBand is currently the most popular technology that implements RDMA. It uses verbs instead of sockets and a big effort of the community is required to port TCP/IP software to InfiniBand, to take advantage of its benefits. Meanwhile, IPoIB (IP over InfiniBand is a protocol that has been proposed and permits the execution of socket-based applications on top of InfiniBand, without any change, at the expense of performance. In this paper, we make a performance evaluation of IPv6 and IPv4 over 10 Gigabit Ethernet and IPoIB. Our results show that 10 Gigabit Ethernet has a better throughput than IPoIB, especially for small and medium payload sizes. However, as the payload size increases, the advantage of 10 Gigabit Ethernet is reduced in comparison to IPoIB/FDR. With respect to latency, IPoIB did much better than 10 Gigabit Ethernet. Finally, our research also indicates that in a controlled environment, IPv4 has a better performance than IPv6.

  20. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  1. 面向空间应用的时间触发以太网%Time-triggered Ethernet for space utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱爱华; 张涛; 顾逸东

    2014-01-01

    Ethernet for space utilization added time-triggered protocol to a star topology network that was used for Ethernet service;moreover it was fully compatible with the standard IEEE802.3.This Ethernet can effectively solve the problems of real-time,uncertainty and reliability on communications for payload communicating through standard Ethernet.Time-triggered Ethernet was based on global reference time,and the real-time data transmission kept strict timing,supported time and event-triggered communication simultaneously.Time-triggered channel in this Ethernet was suitable for real-time synchronous or periodic message transmission,while event-triggered channel was suitable for sporadic or aperiodic message transmission.To prove the result that Ethernet can ensure the network reliability and security,enhance flexibility,and can greatly improve network availability,many work have to be done.For example,it designed an Ethernet topology and protocol stack for space utilization,described system communication process,studied time-triggered protocol,and simulated synchronization and network performance.%将时间触发协议增加到采用星型拓扑结构的以太网业务上,且保持完全兼容IEEE802.3标准,可解决空间有效载荷使用标准以太网通信遇到的实时性、确定性和可靠性问题。时间触发以太网基于全局基准时间,实时数据传输遵循严格的时序,支持时间和事件触发的两种通信过程。时间触发通道适合同步或周期性实时消息的传输,而事件触发通道适用于偶发或非周期性消息的传输。设计了空间应用以太网的拓扑结构和协议栈,介绍了系统通信的过程,进行了时间触发协议的研究,并对同步性能和网络性能进行了仿真验证。该以太网在保证可靠性、安全性的同时,增强了网络的灵活性,提高了网络利用率。

  2. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MESSAGE PASSING INTERFACE COLLECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON INTEL XEON QUAD-CORE GIGABIT ETHERNET AND INFINIBAND CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswan Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of MPI implementation operations still presents critical issues for high performance computing systems, particularly for more advanced processor technology. Consequently, this study concentrates on benchmarking MPI implementation on multi-core architecture by measuring the performance of Open MPI collective communication on Intel Xeon dual quad-core Gigabit Ethernet and InfiniBand clusters using SKaMPI. It focuses on well known collective communication routines such as MPI-Bcast, MPI-AlltoAll, MPI-Scatter and MPI-Gather. From the collection of results, MPI collective communication on InfiniBand clusters had distinctly better performance in terms of latency and throughput. The analysis indicates that the algorithm used for collective communication performed very well for all message sizes except for MPI-Bcast and MPI-Alltoall operation of inter-node communication. However, InfiniBand provides the lowest latency for all operations since it provides applications with an easy to use messaging service, compared to Gigabit Ethernet, which still requests the operating system for access to one of the server communication resources with the complex dance between an application and a network.

  3. On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.

  4. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  5. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....

  6. 基于实时以太网的电力推进船舶IPNCS设计%Design of Electric Propulsion Ship IPNCS Based on Real-time Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑞政; 贾宝柱; 王川

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the deficiency offieldbus application in IPNCS (Integrated Power Networked Control System),the model transplanting network control system based on real-time Ethernet Integrated Power System is developed.By using the methods of adding software scheduling layer to determine the priority online,it can determine the order of real-time take channel and overcome the bus technical weakness on the spot as well as the real time problem based on Ethernet itself It conforms to the requirement and development trend of the integratedpowersystem forelectric propulsion vessel.The simulation result verifies the validity of the conclusion.In order to ensure safety of ships,the hydrodynamic interactions should be fully taken into account when controlling the ships motion in underway replenishment.The ship motion models of underway replenishment are presented when considering the hydrodynamic interactions.Then the control algorithms for ships motion are proposed.The simulation results show that the two ships can successfully maintain the desired lateral distance,and the safety of two ships can be guaranteed.%针对现场总线技术在综合电力网络控制系统中应用的不足,设计了将基于实时以太网的网络控制系统植入综合全电力系统的模型.通过增加软件调度层并在线确定优先级的方法,确定实时节点占用信道的顺序,克服了现场总线技术缺点的同时解决了以太网本身的实时性问题,符合电力推进船舶综合全电力系统的要求及其发展趋势.仿真结果证明了结论的有效性.

  7. Herc SAR Task 106: AIMS Feature Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    prédécesseurs grâce à l’intégration de quatre capteurs dans un seul cardan. Pour offrir un rendement optimal, le système AIMS exige une interface et...qui simule l’utilisation et la commande de l’interface de capteur aéroporté a été élaborée par Recherche et Développement pour la défense Canada...système AIMS et de systèmes d’imagerie électro- optique semblables. Résulats Plusieurs importantes caractéristiques du système de simulation AIMS

  8. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  9. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  10. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  11. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  12. Design of Ethernet Communication Interface Based on Multi-core DSP%基于多核DSP的以太网通信接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦淑红; 焦壮

    2015-01-01

    针对8核DSP TMS320C6678与外部设备进行数据通信的需求,以片上集成千兆以太网交换子系统为核心,选取芯片88E1111作为PHY设备,设计了千兆以太网通信接口的硬件电路。在嵌入式操作系统SYS/BIOS和网络开发环境NDK上,完成了以太网底层驱动和TCP/IP协议的程序设计。通过DSP与上位机进行以太网通信测试,证明了以太网接口电路硬件及软件的正确性和实用性。%For the demand of data communications between TMS320C6678 and external devices, a gigabit Eth-ernet communication interface hardware circuit is designed with on-chip Gigabit Ethernet switching subsystem as the core and 88E1111 as the PHY device.Under embedded operating system SYS/BIOS and network development envi-ronment NDK, the Ethernet underlying driver programming and TCP/IP protocol is completed.The communication tests between DSP and PC verify the correctness and practicability of the Ethernet interface circuit hardware and soft-ware.

  13. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  14. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  15. A simple 1-byte 1-clock RC4 design and its efficient implementation in FPGA coprocessor for secured ethernet communication

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Rourab; Zaman, Jkm Sadique Uz; Das, Suman; Chakrabarti, Amlan; Ghosh, Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    In the field of cryptography till date the 1-byte in 1-clock is the best known RC4 hardware design [1], while the 1-byte in 3clocks is the best known implementation [2,3]. The design algorithm of 1-byte in 1-clock is complex since it takes two consecutive bytes together. The design of 1-byte in 3-clocks is too much modular and clock hungry. In this paper a simpler embedded system design of RC4 in 1-byte in 1-clock is proposed where two successive sequential tasks are executed as two independent events by using rising and falling edges of the same clock and swapping is done using a MUX-DEMUX combination, thereby increasing its throughput. The encryption and decryption designs are respectively implemented on two FPGA boards to achieve Ethernet communication.

  16. A Telescope Using CMS PSI46 Pixels and the CAPTAN for Acquisition and Control over Gigabit Ethernet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Ryan A.; Turqueti, Marcos; Uplegger, Lorenzo; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has assembled a pixel test beam telescope for high energy physics detector research and development. The telescope features CMS PSI46 readout chips and a data acquisition and control system known as the Compact And Programmable daTa Acquisition Node or CAPTAN. The CAPTAN is a flexible and powerful system that meets the readout and control demands of a variety of pixel and strip detectors for high energy physics applications. The CAPTAN functions in a gigabit Ethernet network, which facilitates the coordination of the multiple pixel planes of the telescope. Through the use of the CAPTAN hardware, a unified telescope system is attained encompassing both the CMS PSI46 pixel components and adevice under test. This paper discusses results from the telescope project including mechanical design, alignment procedure, and attainble precision.

  17. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  18. Modeling large Ethernet networks for the ATLAS high level trigger system using parameterized models of switches and nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Golonka, Piotr; Saka, F

    2001-01-01

    Large local area Ethernet networks are strong candidates to connect data sources and processing nodes in high energy physics experiments. In the high level trigger system of the ATLAS LHC experiment several Gbytes/s of data, distributed over 1700 buffers, have to be delivered to around a thousand processing nodes. Due to the network size, its performance and scalability can only be assessed by modeling. To avoid lengthy simulation runs, and concentrate only on characteristics important for network transfers, the components of the system need to be parameterized. The network performance depends on traffic patterns generated by processing nodes and switching capabilities of the network, we therefore evaluated and modeled both processing nodes and switches. We have developed a parameterized model of a class of switches, where a limited set of parameters, collected from measurements on real devices, is used to model switching characteristics. Another set of simple measurements is used to collect values for parame...

  19. User gains and PD aims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of user gains from their participation in a participatory design (PD) project at Danish primary schools. We explore user experiences and reported gains from the project in relation to the multiple aims of PD, based on a series of interviews with pupils, teachers, administrators...... relationships among people, stretching across organizations and project groups. Moreover, we demonstrate how users' gains related to their acting within these networks. These results suggest a heightened focus on the indirect and distributed channels through which the long-term impact of PD emerges....

  20. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  1. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  2. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  3. 基于FPGA的Ethernet Powerlink通信节点的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Ethernet Powerlink Communication Node Based on FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁绥泽; 朱同文

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the motion control system of ifeld bus real-time requirements increasing this problem, the FPGA+PHY network chip, Nios II processor as the basic hardware and software platform, combined with the open source Powerlink protocol stack, the design and implementation of the minimum cycle for the communication node 500 (slave), so as to ensure the real-time motion control system communication.%针对目前运动控制系统对现场总线的实时性要求日益增高这一问题,分别以FPGA+PHY网络芯片、Nios II软核处理器作为基本硬件和软件平台,结合Powerlink开源协议,设计并实现最小循环周期为500的通信节点(从站),从而保证运动控制系统通信的实时性。

  4. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  5. The Cosmic Dust Experiment of AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A.; James, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission is a dust impact experiment designed to monitor the variability of the cosmic dust in ux. The instrument consists of fourteen permanently polarized thin plastic film sensors that generate an electrical signal when an impacting dust particle penetrates them. The total surface area is about 0.1 square meters and the detection threshold is about a micron in particle radius. The variability of these small grains is assumed to follow the variability of the dominant 100 micron radius particles, hence the measured flux can be used in correlation studies with various Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) activity indexes. CDE has been observing the cosmic dust influx since June 2007. In this talk, we present the first nine months of reduced data, focusing on the observed temporal and spatial variability of the dust influx. Data collected after February 2008 show increased levels of background noise and preliminary work on reducing this data will also be presented.

  6. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Executive Summary The AIM-9X Block II missile completed Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) in March 2015 and was found to be...carried. The AIM -9X Block II missile shall be compatible with representative threshold hose aircraft weapon and sensor load-outs with regard to

  7. TRIM11 Suppresses AIM2 Inflammasome by Degrading AIM2 via p62-Dependent Selective Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM2 inflammasome is a key cytosolic signaling complex that is activated by double-stranded DNA, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18. Dysregulated AIM2 inflammasome activity is associated with human inflammatory diseases and cancers, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that control AIM2 levels and activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report tripartite motif 11 (TRIM11 as a key negative regulator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Upon DNA virus infection, TRIM11 binds to AIM2 via its PS domain and undergoes auto-polyubiquitination at K458 to promote an association between TRIM11 and the autophagic cargo receptor p62 to mediate AIM2 degradation via selective autophagy. These findings identify a role for TRIMs in AIM2 inflammasome activation where TRIM11 acts as a secondary receptor to deliver AIM2 to the autophagosomes for degradation in a p62-dependent manner.

  8. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase contract for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers for the LHC. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase contract with the consortium T-SYSTEMS (DE) â?" FORCE10 (US), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the supply of high performance ten-Gigabit Ethernet routers, the necessary training of CERN personnel and five yearsâ?? maintenance of the equipment for a total amount not exceeding 6 382 000 US dollars (7 593 671 Swiss francs) for a period of five years. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  9. The final report for CCM.M-K7: key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungjun; Borys, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Becerra, Luis Omar; Eltawil, Alaaeldin A.; Jian, Wang; Malengo, Andrea; Medina, Nieves; Snegov, Victor; Wüthrich, Christian; Scholz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In order to show equivalence in mass standards calibration among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of member countries of the "Comité international des poids et mesures" (CIPM), key comparisons (KC) of mass standards have been carried out under the auspices of the "Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées" (CCM). This key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards was based on the decision of the CCM during the 12th meeting held in 2010 at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). KRISS (Republic of Korea) and PTB (Germany) acted as pilot laboratory and co-pilot laboratory, respectively. The results were evaluated with the Monte Carlo method using measurement values based on participants' reference standards calculated following the recent BIPM amendments in 2015. Regarding participant results, VNIIM (100 g and 5 g) were not consistent with the key comparison reference values within their expanded uncertainties with the coverage factor, k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Thermal Decomposition and Sensitivity Properties of (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan; YANG Li; QIAO Xiao-jing; WU Bi-dong; ZHANG Tong-lai; ZHOU Zun-ning; YU Kai-bei

    2012-01-01

    Two new energetic compounds (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)(AIM=2-azidoimidazole,TNR=2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol,PA=picric acid) have been prepared by AIM(2-azidoimidazolium) and TNR(2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol) or PA(picric acid) and characterized by elemental analysis and FTIR spectrum.Their crystal structures were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis.The obtained results show that (AIM)(HTNR) crystal belongs to monoclinic,P2(1)/c space group,a=1.1306(2) nm,b=0.70305(14) nm,c=1.7398(4) nm,β=106.91°,V=1.3231(5) nm3,Dc=1.778 g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0524,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1067 and S=1.092 and (AIM)(PA) crystal belongs to monoclinic P21/c space group,a=0.80303(16) nm,b=0.81395(16) nm,c=2.0471(4) nm,β=93.93(3)°,V=1.3349(5) nm3,Dc=1.683g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0784,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1814 and S=1.098.Both the compounds have electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonds,which contribute to making the constructions more stable.The decomposition of the two compounds was studied via differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry(TG-DTG)techniques at a heating rate of 10 ℃/min,and the results show that both the compounds underwent one intensive exothermic decomposition stage.Sensitivity tests reveal that the title compounds were insensitive to friction and impact and sensitive to flame and could be applied in potential pyrotechnics.

  11. A 0.18 μm CMOS transmit physical coding sublayer IC for 100G Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihua, Ruan; Qingsheng, Hu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a transmit physical coding sublayer (PCS) circuit for 100G Ethernet. Based on the 4 × 25 Gb/s architecture according to the IEEE P802.3ba and IEEE P802.3bmTM/D1.1 standards, this PCS circuit is designed using a semi-custom design method and consists of 4 modules including 64B/66B encoder, scrambler, multiple lanes distribution and 66 : 8 gearbox. By using the pipeline structure and several optimization techniques, the working speed of the circuit is increased significantly. The parallel scrambling combined with logic optimization also improve the performance. In addition, a kind of phase-independent structure is employed in the design of the gearbox to ensure it can work stably and reliably at high frequency. This PCS circuit has been fabricated based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology and the total area is 1.7 × 1.7 mm2. Measured results show that the circuit can work properly at 100 Gb/s and the power consumption is about 284 mW with a 1.8 V supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 6504000129) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 6504000052).

  12. High-performance, low-cost joint equalizer and trellis decoder for 1000BASE-T gigabit Ethernet transceiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yue; RONG Meng-tian

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an Af-algorithm (MA) decoder with 4 survival paths (MA4) for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3ab 1000BASE-T gigabit Ethernet (GbE) transceiver. To fulfill the entire requirements, various methods were introduced to accelerate the MA4 decoder while retaining the desired high performance and low complexity. Optimized look-ahead architecture was employed to solve the critical path problem with minimal gate consumption. Symbol compression methods saved registers during pipeline stages. A sorting network accelerated the kernel sorting operation at low hardware cost by utilizing the special characteristics of MA4. Simulations and synthesis results show that the proposed decoder achieves 125 MHz clock frequency and 1 Gb/s throughput in 1.8 V 0.18 μm standard cell complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process. It achieves additional 0.4 dB coding gain over 14tap parallel decision feedback decoder (PDFD) with 39% area reduction.

  13. Limited sharing with traffic prediction for dynamic bandwidth allocation and QoS provisioning over Ethernet passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanqiu; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-09-01

    Feature Issue on Optical Access Networks (OAN) As an inexpensive, simple, and scalable solution for broadband access, Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) have the capability of delivering integrated broadband services to the end users. A critical issue of EPONs is the utility of a shared upstream channel among the local users, and thus an efficient bandwidth allocation mechanism is required to facilitate statistical multiplexing among the local network traffic. In this paper we propose a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme, i.e., limited sharing with traffic prediction (LSTP), for upstream channel sharing over EPONs. LSTP enables dynamic bandwidth negotiation between the optical line terminal (OLT) and its associated optical network units (ONUs), alleviates data delay by predicting the traffic arrived during the waiting time and prereserving a portion of bandwidth for delivery, and avoids the aggressive bandwidth competition by upper bounding the allocated bandwidth to each ONU. Theoretical analysis and simulation results verify the feasibility of LSTP by showing that LSTP outperforms other existing schemes with respect to QoS metrics of data delay and data loss.

  14. FPGA-based 10-Gbit Ethernet Data Acquisition Interface for the Upgraded Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Grohs, J P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The readout of the trigger signals of the ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters is foreseen to be upgraded in order to prepare for operation during the first high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Signals with improved spatial granularity are planned to be received from the detector by a Digitial Processing System (DPS) in ATCA technology and will be sent in real-time to the ATLAS trigger system using custom optical links. These data are also sampled by the DPS for monitoring and will be read out by the regular Data Acquisition (DAQ) system of ATLAS which is a network-based PC-farm. The bandwidth between DPS module and DAQ system is expected to be in the order of 10 Gbit/s per module and a standard Ethernet protocol is foreseen to be used. DSP data will be prepared and sent by a modern FPGA either through a switch or directly to a Read-Out System (ROS) PC serving as buffer interface of the ATLAS DAQ. In a prototype setup, an ATCA blade equipped with a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA is used to send da...

  15. Dynamic Wavelength and Bandwidth Allocation Using Adaptive Linear Prediction in WDM/TDM Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yi-yi; GUO Yong; HE Chen

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)/time-division-multiplexing (TDM) ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) can achieve low per-subscriber cost and scalability to increase the number of subscribers. This paper discusses dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithm in hybrid WDM/TDM EPONs. Based on the correlation structure of the variable bit rate (VBR) video traffic, we propose a quality-of-service (QoS) supported DWBA using adaptive linear traffic prediction. Wavelength and timeslot are allocated dynamically by optical line terminal (OLT) to all optical network units (ONUs) based on the bandwidth requests and the guaranteed service level agreements (SLA) of all ONUs. Mean square error of the predicted average arriv-ing rate of compound video traffic during waiting period is minimized through Wiener-Hopf equation. Simulation results show that the DWBA-adaptive-linear-prediction (DWBA-ALP) algorithm can significantly improve the QoS performances in terms of low delay and high bandwidth utilization.

  16. 无源光网络技术在配、用电通信网中的组网研究%Research on configuration of distribution and power supply communication network with the ethernet passive optical network technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙圆圆

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the difficulty problems of pilot application of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON)technology in internal experimental unit of distribution and power supply communication network,through analyzing each structure characteristic of distribution network and power supply net-work,puts forward typical configuration network mode for distribution and power supply communica-tion network and the problems need pay attention to apply. The research result shows that distribution communication network should use chain configuration network based on the distribution line,power supply communication network should use the subsidence mode of optical line terminal(OLT) configu-ration network based on the margin capacity of trunk fiber optic cable and the number of tenement in residential section to calculate comprehensively.%  针对无源光网(Ethernet Passive Optical Network, EPON)技术在全国配、用电通信网中的试点应用的难点问题,通过分析配、用电网各自的结构特点,根据EPON技术在配、用电通信网全国试点的应用经验,提出配、用电通信网目前典型的组网模式及应用中需要注意的问题,为EPON技术在配、用电通信网建设中大规模应用奠定基础。研究结果表明:配电通信网应根据配电线路采用链型组网,用电通信网需要根据主干光纤富裕度和小区户数综合考虑是否采用光线路终端(Optical Line Terminal, OLT)下沉模式进行组网。

  17. Energy Efficiency in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (EPONs): Protocol Design and Performance Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism (EMM) for downlink EPON systems. The proposed mechanism is designed to enhance the standardized control scheme in EPON with the objective to increase energy efficiency while satisfying diverse QoS requirements. The main idea is to put an Optical Network Unit (ONU) into the sleep mode and determine...... a suitable wakeup time scheduler at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). A generic EPON system is considered, which is composed of an OLT and several ONUs that are EMM enabled. An energy consumption optimization problem aimed at saving energy is proposed and two heuristic sleep mode scheduling policies...... are addressed to solve it. The scheduling algorithms are tightly coupled with the upstream bandwidth allocation and downstream trans mission scheduling together through an integrated approach in which awake time in ONUs is minimized. There is a trade-off decision between maximizing the power saving...

  18. Research and Implementation of Power over Ethernet Technology%以太网供电PoE技术的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景忠; 王俊芳; 于立佳; 王立莹

    2012-01-01

    Power over Ethernet technology defines a method that allows data and DC power to be delivered simultaneously over Ethernet.It can improve the applications of low-power network devices.The paper gives an analysis about the characteristics of PoE technology conforming to IEEE 802.3af standard.The structure and power supply process of the system adopting PoE technology are introduced in detail,and on that base,the power sourcing equipment based on MAX5945 and powered device based on MAX5941 are designed.The engineering practice shows the practicability of the theory and the methods.%以太网供电(Power over Ethernet,POE)技术是一种在以太网上同时传输数据信号和直流电源的方法,促进了低功耗网络设备的应用。阐述了符合IEEE 802.3af标准的以太网供电技术的特点,详细介绍了采用PoE技术的系统构成及其供电过程。在此基础上完成了基于MAX5945的以太网供电设备和基于MAX5941的以太网受电设备的设计。所给出的理论和方法都通过实践检验,具有一定的实用性。

  19. 以太无源光网络接入控制器的实现%Implementation of access controller for Ethernet passive optical network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹君妮; 陈健; 林如俭

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of access controller used for Ethernet passive optical network (EPON).As a first step to develop an ASIC product, the entire system is designed on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded CPU. To reduce working frequency of the FPGA, the byte-to-word conversion is proposed. Propagation delays are equalized by ranging procedure so as to avoid data collision. Implementations of synchronization, classification, as well as Linux porting are illustrated in detail. The interface between the FPGA and CPU are also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed system can properly function in a relatively low cost FPGA.

  20. Program Design and Application of Ethernet Communication Based on ARM%基于ARM的以太网通信程序的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴婷婷; 孙旭; 谢兴红; 侯富强; 张稳

    2012-01-01

    Communication is the basic way to transport and share information between different systems.Ethernet is the basic and common Protocol Standards in the local network.Through the different transport media,Ethernet can realize the communication and connection between different devices.The paper is based on system hardware,focuses on the software design of communication interface,and develops the communication program based on the ARM Development Board.This application can send data which created by sensor to the client.%通信是各个系统进行数据交换,资源共享的基本方法。以太网是当今现有局域网采用的最通用的通信协议标准,它可以通过不同的传输媒体,实现各设备间的数据交换。文章在系统硬件基础上,着重研究了通信接口的软件设计,并编写了基于ARM开发板的通信程序。该程序能将传感器采集的数据传输至客户机。

  1. Based on ethernet development of OPC client application program%基于以太网的OPC客户端应用程序实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段宝利

    2012-01-01

    西门子通过以太网建立起Simatic Net OPC Server与S7系列PLC的S7连接,基于以太网的OPC客户应用程序实现,达到对现场PLC数据的交互访问、远程控制的目的.开发的客户端程序可以成功应用于不同环境中对Siemens、GE PLC数据交互访问,充分达到软件复用性.%Brief description of how Siemens via Ethernet to establish S7 connection between Simatic Net OPC Server and S7 series PLC is also referredlmplementation of OPC client applications based on Ethernet can achieved the objective of field PLC data interactive access and remote control.This client applications has been successfully used in PLC of Siemens and GE data interactive access under different environments,and software reuse is fully realized.

  2. Development of Ethernet communication based on embedded system%基于嵌入式系统的以太网通信开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国法; 刘薇; 段明玮

    2012-01-01

    采用基于ARM内核的嵌入式处理器LPC2478为核心的硬件平台和开源、内核可裁剪的实时多任务操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ,提出了一种嵌入式以太网通信系统设计方案.阐述了硬件平台设计及软件驱动、多任务操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ的移植以及TCP/IP协议栈的实现过程,实现了嵌入式以太网的数据传输.%Using a hardware system based on embedded ARM CPU LPC2478 and open-source, tailorable kernel RTOS μ C/OS-II, proposed the embedded Ethernet communication system design. The paper illustrated the hardware platform design and software driver, multitasking μ C/OS-II system porting and the implementation of TCP/IP protocol stack, implemented the Ethernet communication.

  3. Study on the Power over Ethernet (POE) Technology%对以太网供电(PoE)技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡云

    2011-01-01

    以太网供电这项创新的技术,通过CAT5/5e/6类非屏蔽双绞线,对网络终端设备既传输数据又提供直流供电,极大地减少部署终端设备的电源和管理成本。结合IEEE802.3af/at标准内容,介绍了以太网供电系统的组成,分析了以太网供电的基本原理,展望了超越IEEE802.3at标准的应用。%The new Power over Ethernet (POE) technology allows Ethernet appliances to transmit data as well as provide DC power through the cat 5/5e and cat 6 unshielded twistedpair cable, greatly reduced the amount of power supply for terminals and the management cost. Combining with IEEE802.3 af/at standard, the paper introduced and the constitution of PoE, analyzed its basic principle and looks forward the application of standard beyond IEEE802.3at.

  4. Software Design of RS485 Serial/Ethernet Converter Based on Double-buffer Queue%基于双缓冲队列的RS485串口/以太网转换器软件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马灵娟; 李长青; 刘晖

    2013-01-01

    为了将分散于工业现场的串口设备接入以太网,本文设计一种基于STM32F107VC微处理器的嵌入式RS485串口/以太网的数据转换器。移植嵌入式TCP/IP协议栈LwIP到ARM平台,构造双缓冲队列,保证串行通信的效率,通过软件编程实现串行通信协议和以太网的TCP/IP协议的相互映射,使得串口数据和以太网数据相互转换。实验表明,串口/以太网数据转换器能够正常工作,数据转换稳定、可靠。%In order to connect the serial devices that scattered in industrial field to the Ethernet , this article designed an embed-ded RS485 serial/Ethernet data converter which based on STM 32F107VC microprocessor.The embedded TCP/IP protocol stack LwIP is transplanted to the ARM platform , and double-buffering queue is constructed to ensure the efficiency of serial communica -tion.Serial communication protocol and Ethernet TCP /IP protocol are mapped to each other by software programming , so that the data can be converted between serial port and Ethernet .The experiments show that the serial/Ethernet data converter can work normally, data conversion is stable and reliable .

  5. Discussion on relationship between Ethernet MAC address and IP address%浅谈以太网中MAC地址与IP地址的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓有辉

    2013-01-01

    从以太网体系结构入手,重点阐述了以太网数据链路层的作用与功能,并引入了MAC地址的概念,分别介绍了MAC地址与IP地址的作用与功能.从而重点阐述了计算机网络中IP地址与以太网MAC地址的相互关系和作用.%This paper starts from the Ethemet architecture,focusing on the role and function of Ethemet data link layer,and describes the concept of MAC address,respectively describes the function of MAC address and IP address.It focuses on the relationship and interaction between computer network IP address and MAC address of the Ethernet.

  6. Remote Control of Tin Bath Power Regulator with Ethernet%以太网实现锡槽调功器远程控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文安

    2009-01-01

    利用德国赫优讯Hilscher的NETLINK转换器通过以太网连接西门子S7-300 PLC,进行程序下载,并通过组态软件与PLC之间进行以太网数据通讯实现锡槽调功器的远程控制,使控制更准确,对老厂锡槽调功控制系统改造有一定的参考意义.%Remote control of fin bath power regulator was achieved by program download with NETLINK converter of Hilscher and S7-300PLC of Siemens and by Ethernet data communication between PLC and configuration software.

  7. AVR单片机实现以太网通信的研究%Reaching for the serial of AVR Microchip about Ethernet communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海波; 付江波; 李金涛

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the design of Ethernet communication based on the serial of AVR microchip,at the same time reaching for driver program about the chip of ENC28J60 and designed the system software on the serial of AVR microchip.%研究基于Atmega16单片机与网络接口芯片ENC28J60实现以太网通信技术,详述ENC28J60网络接口芯片的特点及其应用,同时讨论ENC28J60驱动程序和系统软件程序的设计。

  8. Form and Prevent Spoofing Attack in Ethernet%以太网中欺骗攻击的形式与防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文金

    2014-01-01

    Ethernet spoofing at ack hidden high, are more dif icult to detect and prevent. Analyses for the MAC layer and spoofing at acks against the TCP/IP protocol, and introduces the principle and reason of ARP spoofing,DNS spoofing,WEB spoofing at ack, the at ack put forward corresponding countermeasures.%以太网中欺骗攻击的隐蔽性较高,检测和防范都比较困难。深入分析了针对 MAC 层和针对 TCP/IP 协议的欺骗攻击,并介绍了 ARP 欺骗、DNS 欺骗、Web 欺骗等欺骗攻击的原理与原因,对以上欺骗攻击提出相应的防范对策。

  9. GoAhead WebServer在以太网交换机中的应用%Application of GoAhead WebServer in Ethernet Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向群; 渠毅; 徐沛平

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the Web configuration management of Ethernet switch, the function of dynamic Web page creation is elaborated after presenting the characteristics of GoAhead embedded Web server. The methods of daynamic data creation and function setting by Ej script and GoForm are introduced. The application structure and development process of GoAhead Webserver in Ethernet switch are discussed. The whole dynamic data establishment and the interactive process are concretely analyzed through the management of the aging time of MAC address table. And in the design of dynamic pages, the management of the switch is realized effectively on B/S architecture combined with JavaScript flexibly.%为了实现对以太网交换机进行Web配置管理,在简要介绍了GoAhead嵌入式Web服务器的特点后,阐述了其创建动态页面的功能,详细说明了Ejscript和GoForm创建动态数据和进行功能配置的方法.随后介绍了GoAhead WebServer在交换机中的应用结构和开发过程,并通过对地址表老化时间的管理来具体分析了整个动态数据的建立与交互过程,在动态页面的设计中,与JavaScript的灵活结合,更加有效地实现了B/S架构下对交换机的管理.

  10. Patriotism, history and the legitimate aims of American education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaini

  11. Movement planning of video and of manual aiming movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Proteau, Luc

    2005-01-01

    We studied aiming performance of adults for video- and manual aiming tasks when they had visual information about the location of the starting base or when they had not. In video-aiming, foveating the starting base and then the target prior to movement initiation (Foveation) resulted in less aiming bias and variability than when the starting base was not visible (PNV), or visible without the participants foveating it prior to movement initiation (PSV). In manual aiming, Foveation and PSV procedures resulted in identical results but reduced aiming bias and variability in comparison to the PNV procedures. The results indicate that participants had difficulty in transforming the locations of the starting base and of the target when seen on a vertical screen into an appropriate movement trajectory. Successive foveation of the starting base and of the target facilitated this transformation, resulting in direction variability being reduced by more than half in comparison to the PNV and PSV conditions. This suggests that in video-aiming the efference copy of the saccade can be used by the CNS to approximate the hand trajectory in the workspace and/or in joint coordinates (Jouffrais and Boussaoud, 1999). Hand trajectory could be readily available in manual aiming if the target location can be recoded directly in hand-coordinates as recently suggested by Buneo et al. (2002).

  12. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  13. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  14. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  15. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  16. What’s Wrong with Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Maxwell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  17. What is Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, the conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for aim-oriented empiricism are subjected to critical scrutiny.

  18. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  19. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  20. Psychoneuroendocrine interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, M.E.; Muller, G.C.; Correa, B.L.; Vianna, P.; Turner, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that immunosenescence can be accelerated by external factors such as chronic stress. Here we review potential psychoneuroendocrine determinants of premature aging of the immune system and discuss available interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence. Chronic stre

  1. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  2. Mitochondrial ROS potentiates indirect activation of the AIM2 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome is important for the detection and clearance of cytosolic pathogens. In contrast to avirulent F. novicida (Fn, infection with virulent F. tularensis ssp tularensis does not trigger activation of the host AIM2 inflammasome. Here we show that differential activation of AIM2 following Francisella infection is due to sensitivity of each isolate to reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS present at the outset of Fn infection contributes to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, independent of NLRP3 and NADPH oxidase. Rather, mitochondrial ROS (mROS is critical for Fn stimulation of the inflammasome. This study represents the first demonstration of the importance of mROS in the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by bacteria. Our results also demonstrate that bacterial resistance to mROS is a mechanism of virulence for early evasion of detection by the host.

  3. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    balancing the rise of China, and secondly, achieving overall U.S. geostrategic aims in the Asia Pacific, highlighting Vietnam as a case study . 15...NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIVERSITY JOINT FORCES STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL LEVERAGING TRADE AGREEMENTS TO MEET U.S. SECURITY AIMS by... WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER National Defense University Joint

  4. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  5. 基于DSP6678实现多任务以太网络数据传输%Implementation of multi task ethernet data transmission based on DSP6678

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谦; 田欢

    2016-01-01

    The paper realizes the multi process Ethernet transceiver function based on the TMS320C6678 DSP and SYS/BIOS system.This paper firstly introduces the characteristics and architecture of TMS320C6678, and the software environment for network development: V5 SYS/BIOS, CCS 6 and NDK, and ifnally focuses on the implementation method of multi task Ethernet data transmission.%文章基于DSP TMS320C6678和SYS/BIOS系统实现多进程以太网络收发功能。文章首先介绍了TMS320C6678的特性和架构,实现网络开发所需要的软件环境:CCS V5,SYS/BIOS 6和NDK,最后重点介绍多任务以太网数据传输的实现方法。

  6. 以太网无源光纤网络技术在智能电网中的应用%Application of Ethernet Passive Optical Network Technique in Smart Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤新跃

    2011-01-01

    为解决电力通信网络在接入终端存在的问题,介绍了以太网无源光纤网络(ethernet passive optical network,EPON)的结构特性,分析了EPON在智能电网中的应用,给出了EPON的组网方案,并提出其在配电网通信中应用应遵循的原则.

  7. 集成以太网接口的压力检测仪表设计与实现%Design of pressure testing instrument with integrated Ethernet interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩冬林

    2013-01-01

    Discussed and realized a kind of pressure testing instrument with integrated Ethernet interface utilizing PIC18F97J60 high performance microcontroller. According to characteristic and principle of PIC18F97J60, it is carried out pressure sensor signal conditioning circuit, Butterworth Low pass filter circuit and Ethernet interface circuit, developed application programs based on Ethernet protocol stack. The practical application showed that the pressure testing instrument can access Ethernet directly, and realized the compatible TCP/IP and UDP protocol message format of the pressure testing data real-time online reading and network transmission function.%采用集成了以太网控制器的PIC 18F97J60高性能单片机,提出并实现了一种新型的集成以太网接口的压力检测仪表.根据PIC18F97J60单片机的特点和工作原理,设计了压力传感器信号调理电路、Butterworth低通滤波器电路和以太网接口电路,开发了基于以太网协议栈的应用程序.实际使用表明,该压力检测仪表可以直接接入以太网,实现了兼容TCP/IP协议和UDP协议两种报文格式的压力检测数据实时在线读取与网络传输功能.

  8. Design of an Ethernet-port Display System Based on Nios II Processor%基于NiosⅡ处理器的以太网口显示屏系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继业

    2013-01-01

    文章提出了一种基于NiosII处理器的以太网口显示屏系统的软硬件实现方案,以取代常见的串口显示屏系统。该方案以一片FPGA为核心,其中设计了NiosII处理器、LCD显示控制器、以太网接口模块等模块,配合外围的SDRAM存储器、以太网接口芯片、显示屏构成整个硬件设计。软件上,接收上位机发送的以太网协议数据包,在显示屏上显示相应图形。该以太网口显示屏系统,克服了与上位机的连接距离限制,具有较高显示分辨率、显示数据更新较快的特点,有较高应用价值。%This paper proposes a display system implementation scheme in order to replace the common serial-port display system, which based on the NiosII processor through Ethernet ports, including software and hardware solution. The hardware solution includes the NiosII processor, LCD display, Ethernet ports, SDRAM memory, Ethernet controlling IC and the major display. In the software solution, it designs a protocol analysis algorithm of network packets based on the Ethernet and shows it on the display. The highlights in this paper are overcoming the limit of the distance between the equipment and the PC, owning super high resolution and much shorter refresh time.

  9. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  10. 基于μCOS-II技术的考勤机设计%Design based on ethernet in axle tracing management terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文虎; 杨峰

    2014-01-01

    Designed a attendance system terminal which used a STM32 microprocessor as the core. On the hardware side, the terminal includes the STM32F207 minimum system, Ethernet communication unit, SD card storage unit, ID card recognition unit, video unit, TFT LCD touch unit, detection and control unit and power supply circuit. On the software side, the terminal is embedded a real-time operating system (μC/OS-Ⅱ), the the the lightweight IP protocol stack(LWIP) and a graphical user interface (μC/GUI). On the one hand, the terminal corresponding to the ID card information stored in document form to the local SD card for the query; The other hand, the information is transmitted via Ethernet, and the host computer handles the attendance statistics, which garanteed the efficiency, fairness and truthfulness. Used the Keil MDK and the dragon STM32F207 development board to do the simulation experiment, these futrues make the terminal working reliable, transmissing stable and facing friendly, and basicly realized the attendence function.%基于STM32系列微处理器的考勤系统终端,硬件包括STM32F207最小系统、以太网通信单元、SD卡存储单元、ID卡识别单元、摄像单元、TFT液晶触摸单元、检测及控制单元及电源供电电路;软件嵌入了实时操作系统μC/OS-Ⅱ、LWIP轻型IP协议栈及用户图形界面μC/GUI.终端采取无源ID卡识别与头像数据采集同步进行的方式记录员工的出勤情况,一方面将与 ID 卡对应的头像信息以文件形式保存至本地 SD 卡,以供查询;另一方面将信息通过以太网传送至上位机,并由上位机完成考勤统计.利用Keil MDK软件及金龙STM32F207开发板实验仿真表明:终端运行可靠,传输稳定,操作界面友好,实现了设计功能.

  11. Performance analysis of measured FTP/TCP bandwidth which bearer Ethernet private line%以太网专线FTP/TCP实测带宽性能问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑吉妮; 黄河; 王方金

    2015-01-01

    In IP-based communications network development trends, the demand of Ethernet bandwidth leased by corporate customers is growing rapidly. How to solve the problem of bandwidth capacity is particularly important. From two aspects of FTP / TCP theoretical and the measured current network bandwidth, this paper studies the performance issues of PTN + MSTP hybrid network which carrying Ethernet private line service. Finaly gets the effective scheme, which solve the bandwidth problem of transmission network carrying Ethernet services.%在通信网络IP化发展趋势下,集团客户租用运营商以太网专线带宽的需求增长迅速,运营商如何解决带宽容量问题尤为重要.本文将从"FTP/TCP理论及现网带宽实测案例"两个方面对PTN+MSTP混合组网承载以太网专线业务的性能问题进行分析,总结得出传送网络承载以太网业务时带宽局限的有效解决方案.

  12. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  13. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety i

  14. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  15. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  16. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  17. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  18. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...

  19. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  20. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streumer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative j

  1. Learning object for teacher training aimed to develop communication skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.

  2. Expert Systems Aimed at General Design of Projectiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhi-hua; HOU Ni-na; HU Yu-hui

    2007-01-01

    Expert systems aimed at the general design of projectiles can implement a series of intelligent designs, such as the design of HE shell, the scheme expounded and proved, the emulation analysis and calculation, etc. Aiming at the product design feature, the expert system adopts the object-oriented knowledge representation and all kinds of inference control engines to describe and reason the relevant knowledge regarding the product through the microcomputer. It embodies the foundation of emulation analysis and simulated manufacturing of the shell. It makes use of the method that knowledge expression is combined with condition of inference to carry out the overall design and emulation and reference.The paper gives the ways through which the functions can be achieved, gives the modularization of reference and the design methods of systematization, puts forward the method of knowledge expression and working interface, and supplies a platform for similar products of the shell category that can be quickly designed.

  3. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  4. Use of Probiotic Microorganisms for Bio-Protective Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz YANGILAR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It was known that some diseases can be treated as the result of the use of antibiotics in certain periods and at certain dosages while inactivating and deteriorating normal microorganisms performing useful activities in human metabolism (in especially intestinal flora. It was occured that after the use of antibiotics, some defects can be seen resulting from antibiotics (such as allergy, diarrhea, gas formation etc. With this aim, nutraceutics and functional food have gained importance over the last years and consumers began to be interested in probiotics, natural antioxidants, dietary fibres, products with low calorie and cholesterol contents, especially the products containing probioticbacteria. Bacteriocins produced by probiotic bacteria can play important roles as food protective and safeguarding since they can compete with unwanted or pathogen microorganisms survive in the media and colonize in intestines. In this review, is aimed to emphasis bioprotective compounds, advantages and disadvantages of biopreservation method and the importance of the mechanisms of probiotic microorganisms.

  5. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  6. 测控网络安全与工业以太网%Monitoring and Control of Network Security and Industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛百华; 王奕

    2012-01-01

    分析造成工业测控智能装置PLC、FTU、MU等端口堵塞的物理层的风险和数据链路层的安全风险,重点分析了MAC地址漂移、有限MAC地址资源、生成树协议族、组播协议族、地址解析协议等存在的风险,并给出应对各种风险的方法和未来工业以太网交换机应对安全问题的发展方向。%This paper analyzes the cause of security risk of physical layer and data link layer of cause of port congestion for intelligent device industry measurement and control of PLC, FTU, MU, and analyzes the risk of MAC address drift, limited MAC address resources, spanning tree protocol family, multicast protocol family, ARP, and proposes the method of dealing with risk and the future development direction of industrial Ethernet switch security problems.

  7. Automatic Test System of Model 9016 Ethernet Intelligent Pressure Scanner%9016型电子压力扫描阀自动化检定系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂斌

    2014-01-01

    介绍了9016型电子压力扫描阀自动化检定系统的组成、功能、实现方法以及软件系统的结构和设计思路。该检定系统是基于Visual Basic 6.0编写,并通过GPIB卡和网卡实现仪器之间的通信,自动完成数据采集、数据处理及生成记录和证书。该检定系统实用、高效、稳定。%The automatic testing system of the Model 9016 Ethernet Intelligent Pressure Scanner is introduced. The component, function, realization of the automatic system and the structure and design thought of the software system are also introduced. The software of the automatic system was written in Visual Basic 6.0. And the software communicates with the instruments via GPIB interface and Local Area Network. The au-tomatic testing system can handle the data and build up the document voluntarily. The testing system is practical, efficient and reliable.

  8. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  9. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  10. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  11. Initiation Style Optimization of Aimed Warhead by Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ji-feng; LI Na; WEN Yu-quan; WANG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    The kill characteristics of aimed warhead were studied.Emphasis on the improvement of initiation system,experiments and three dimensional numerical investigations were carried out.Simulation results of side three initiation points fit experiments well.Optimal initiation style is obtained through further simulation.It shows that the effective fragments and the effective kill energy of the optimal scheme increase 12.8%and 10.1%respectively.

  12. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applicati...

  13. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  14. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  15. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  16. Desing of Roof Separation Indicator System Based on ZigBee and Industrial Ethernet Technology%基于ZigBee和以太网技术的巷道顶板离层数据在线监测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立飞; 王晓荣

    2016-01-01

    针对目前矿用顶板离层仪主要采用有线的传输方式,这种方式存在安装不方便、成本高、灵活性和扩展性差的缺点。因此,笔者根据顶板离层的测量原理,结合巷道现场实际情况,在STM32处理器上将ZigBee与以太网结合,运用RT-thread操作系统,设计了一种采用ZigBee和以太网技术2层通讯的顶板离层数据在线监测系统。矿下实验证明,该系统测量范围在0~300 mm,测量精度达到2%,ZigBee 部分数据传输稳定,实时上传数据,方便了顶板离层检测的自动化。%Aimed at the present mine roof separation indicator that mainly adopts the transmission mode of cable, this method has the disadvantage of inconvenience for installation,high cost and poor flexibility and scalability. Therefore,according to the measurement principle of roof abscission layer and the practical situation of the roadway scene,the author combined ZiggBee and Ethernet on the STM32 processor,applied RT-thread operating system,de⁃signed an on-line roof separation monitoring system based on ZigBee and Ethernet technology. Mine experiment proves that the measuring range of this system is 0-300 mm,the precision is 2%,and the transmission of partial data of ZigBee is stable and real time,which makes the automatic roof separation and detection convenient.

  17. NASA tells physicists to aim for the stars

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    Dan Goldin, administrator at NASA, suggested that the next generation of instruments for high-energy physics research should be built in space. This did not go down well at Fermilab where a case is being made for a new ground-based accelerator. Goldin's aim though was simply to tell the scientific community that NASA is prepared to spend big money on physics in space. NASA also wants to work more closely with the DOE and the NSF to support space-based experiments (1 page).

  18. Balloon-Borne System Would Aim Instrument Toward Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed system including digital control computer, control sensors, and control actuators aims telescope or other balloon-borne instrument toward Sun. Pointing system and instrument flown on gondola, suspended from balloon. System includes reaction wheel, which applies azimuthal control torques to gondola, and torque motor to apply low-frequency azimuthal torques between gondola and cable. Three single-axis rate gyroscopes measure yaw, pitch, and roll. Inclinometer measures roll angle. Two-axis Sun sensor measures deviation, in yaw and pitch, of attitude of instrument from line to apparent center of Sun. System provides initial coarse pointing, then maintains fine pointing.

  19. Chemical treatment of banana tree pseudostem particles aiming the production of particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Maria Ribeiro Guimarães

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the major banana producers in the world, and consequently generates a great amount of residues from this crop, which could be utilized in particleboard production. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different chemical treatments of the particles of Musa sp. pseudostem, on their chemical and physical properties (basic density, and on the physical and mechanical properties of the particleboards produced with the same material. Five treatments were applied to the particles: 1 without treatment (control; 2 2% acetic acid; 3 0.5% NaOH; 4 acetone (1/1 in volume/volume; and 5 water. Panels with medium density were produced (0.70 g/cm³, bonded with 12% (in relation to the particle mass of urea-formaldehyde adhesive. The pressing cycle was conducted at 160º C, under 4 MPa, during 8 min. The results obtained indicated that the chemical treatments performed in the particles of banana tree pseudostem affected their chemical composition. The basic density of the particles was 0.10 g/cm³, and only the NaOH treatment led to its increase for values around 0.13 g/cm3. The panels produced with particles without treatment (control and particles treated with acetic acid presented the lowest values of water absorption and thickness swelling after 2 and 24 h of immersion. Mechanical properties of all the panels produced were below the minimum recommended by the standard CS 236-66 (COMMERCIAL STANDARD - CS, 1968.

  20. Time-lens based optical packet pulse compression and retiming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new optical circuit that performs both pulse compression and frame synchronization and retiming. Our design aims at directly multiplexing several 10G Ethernet data packets (frames) to a high-speed OTDM link. This scheme is optically transparent and does not require clock...

  1. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  2. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  3. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  4. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  5. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  6. Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that aim-oriented empiricism (AOE), a conception of natural science that I have defended at some length elsewhere, is a kind of synthesis of the views of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos, but is also an improvement over the views of all three. Whereas Popper's falsificationism protects metaphysical assumptions implicitly made by science from criticism, AOE exposes all such assumptions to sustained criticism, and furthermore focuses criticism on those assumptions most likely to need revision if science is to make progress. Even though AOE is, in this way, more Popperian than Popper, it is also, in some respects, more like the views of Kuhn and Lakatos than falsificationism is. AOE is able, however, to solve problems which Kuhn's and Lakatos's views cannot solve.

  7. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  8. Visual Distraction: An Altered Aiming Spatial Response in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Healthy individuals demonstrate leftward bias on visuospatial tasks such as line bisection, which has been attributed to right brain dominance. We investigated whether this asymmetry occurred in patients with probable dementia of the Alzheimer type (pAD which is associated with neurodegenerative changes affecting temporoparietal regions. Methods: Subjects with pAD and matched controls performed a line bisection task in near and far space under conditions of no distraction, left-sided visual distraction and right-sided visual distraction. Results: Participants with pAD manifested different motor-preparatory ‘aiming’ spatial bias than matched controls. There were significantly greater rightward ‘aiming’ motor-intentional errors both without distraction and with right-sided distraction. Conclusion: ‘Aiming’ motor-preparatory brain activity may be induced by distraction in pAD subjects as compared to typical visual-motor function in controls.

  9. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  10. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  11. A proper methodology aimed at surface wave tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Badal

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available When applying a methodology for obtaining the 3D shear-wave velocity structure of a medium from surface wave dispersion data, the problem must be considered with caution since one inverts path-averaged velocities and the use of any inversion method entails some drawbacks such as lack of uniqueness, unwarranted stability and constraints affecting the data. In order to avoid the application of consecutive inversions and to overcome these drawbacks, we propose alternative mapping methods, for example spatial prediction methods, or else the use of an algorithm that, from a mathematical viewpoint, can be understood through the application of the orthogonal projection theorem onto convex sets (POCS. Among the first ones, we try inverse weighted distance interpolation. The POCS algorithm we have used discretises a second order differential equation for the velocity field with boundary conditions. All these imaging techniques aimed at volumetric modelling and the visualisation of data are discussed, and finally we show some results based on ray path velocities obtained previously by inversion of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian peninsula.

  12. 一种多串口和以太网转换方法的研究%Research on Transforming between Multi- serial Ports and Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛文韬; 王乐; 孙靖国

    2011-01-01

    嵌入式系统中普遍应用RS232串口进行调试通信,但RS232串口在复杂的综合化航电处理平台中的应用却有诸多不便,而通过以太网却无相关问题.鉴于当前大多数成熟应用都需要通过RS232进行通信,设计了一种新型接口模块,实现了将多个RS232串口协议数据转换为以太网协议数据的方法.实践表明,方法能很好地应用在复杂的综合化航电处理环境中,简单方便,不影响用户调试习惯,值得推广应用.%RS232 serial port is commonly used in embedded system for debug and communication, but in complicated integrated avionics,problems appeared,while elhernet can solve these problems. As most of the existed mature applications use RS232 for communication,this paper designs a new interface module successfully in communicating between RS232 and Ethernet. The result indicates that this design can do well in applying in complicated integrated avionics without affecting user's debug habit while maintaining simpleness and convenience. In a word,this method is easy for use and worth popularized.

  13. 无线以太网通信系统在风电场的应用%Application of Wireless Ethernet Communication System in Wind Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建军; 赵国群; 邵科; 蔡璐璐

    2013-01-01

    目前风电场内的监控系统是通过在风电机组间铺设光缆,机舱内安装工业以太网交换机的方式将机组运行数据上传到SCADA上位机来实现的。为了适应海上风电场的建设,文章介绍一种能在风电机组内进行快速布置、灵活组网的无线局域网技术的应用,并重点探讨了机组偏航导致天线间相对位置变化带来的天线方向图的不均匀问题和风电机组桨叶运转对无线信号的动态阻挡形成衍射效应导致的多径衰落问题及解决途径。%Nowadays, the monitoring system of wind farm is operated by the installation of optical cable among turbines and industrial Ethernet switch in cabin to upload the operation data to SCADA upper computer. In order to adapt to the construction of offshore wind farm, this paper introduced an application of wireless LAN technology which capable of rapid deployment and fexible networking among turbines. Te focus of the paper is on the problem of the unevenness of antenna patern caused by the relative position change between the antennas by unit yaw and its solution. Moreover, the multipath fading problem formed by the difraction efect because of the dynamic blocking to wireless signal by the operation of fan blade and its solution are another emphasis of the paper.

  14. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Construction of a narrative network aimed at implementing inclusive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of inclusion in its complex aspects aimed at overcoming barriers to learning and involvement has led this research in university, in the light of special pedagogy and didactics, on the basis of inclusion index parameters, detecting the levels of integrated planning with the territory. The purpose of this study is not limited to disability and to special education needs but goes further than that encompassing isolation and/or exclusions. As far as the university system is concerned, it becomes significant to enquire about the inclusion process, in this case by means of a narrative approach, bearing in mind that organizational and learning models, together with access modes may give rise to social exclusion.Università e territorio: costruzione di una rete narrativa per l’implementazione dei processi inclusiviIl costrutto di inclusione nelle sue complesse sfaccettature mirate al superamento delle barriere all’apprendimento e alla partecipazione, ha guidato il presente lavoro di ricerca in ambito universitario alla luce della pedagogia e didattica speciale, sulla base dei parametri dell’Index for Inclusion, rilevando i livelli di progettazione integrata con il territorio. Il suo raggio di azione non si limita alla disabilità ma abbraccia tutti i bisogni educativi speciali, e l’isolamento, la marginalizzazione e/o le esclusioni che ne derivano. Rispetto al sistema universitario è rilevante interrogarsi sul processo di inclusione, in questo caso sulla base dell’approccio narrativo, preso atto che il modello organizzativo e le modalità di accesso e formative possono essere causa di esclusione formativa e sociale.

  16. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.; Rothengatter, T. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Psychology

    2005-09-15

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies (i.e. commitment, goal setting, information, modeling) or consequence strategies (i.e. feedback, rewards). Particular attention is given to the following evaluation criteria: (1) to what extent did the intervention result in behavioral changes and/or reductions in energy use, (2) were underlying behavioral determinants examined (e.g. knowledge, attitudes), (3) to what extent could effects be attributed to the interventions and, (4) were effects maintained over longer periods of time? Interestingly, most studies focus on voluntary behavior change, by changing individual knowledge and/or perceptions rather than changing contextual factors (i.e. pay-off structure) which may determine households' behavioral decisions. Interventions have been employed with varying degrees of success. Information tends to result in higher knowledge levels, but not necessarily in behavioral changes or energy savings. Rewards have effectively encouraged energy conservation, but with rather short-lived effects. Feedback has also proven its merits, in particular when given frequently. Some important issues cloud these conclusions, such as methodological problems. Also, little attention is given to actual environmental impact of energy savings. Often, an intervention's effectiveness is studied without examining underlying psychological determinants of energy use and energy savings. Also, it is not always clear whether effects were maintained over a longer period of time. Recommendations are given to further improve intervention planning and to enhance the effectiveness of interventions. (author)

  17. [Peptide synthesis aiming at elucidation and creation of protein functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaki, S

    1998-11-01

    The recent development of molecular biology has been elucidating outlines of the cross-talk of biomolecules. The understanding of the function of these biomolecules from the viewpoint of chemistry is now demanded not only for the understanding of biological systems but also for the creation of novel functional molecules. Here two topics are described about peptide synthesis aiming at the elucidation and the creation of protein functions. The first topic is the development of approaches for the synthesis of Tyr (SO3H)-containing peptides. Tyrosine sulfation is one of the most popular protein post-translational modifications. Synthetic peptides are of great help for the elucidation of the biological significance of tyrosine sulfation. We have developed two approaches for the efficient synthesis of tyrosine sulfate [Tyr (SO3H)]-containing peptides. The first approach employs a dimethylformamide-sulfur trioxide (DMF-SO3) complex as a sulfating agent and safety-catch protecting groups for the selective sulfation of tyrosine in the presence of serine. The second approach employs the direct introduction of Tyr(SO3H) into the peptide chain in the form of Fmoc-Tyr(SO3Na) followed by deprotection at 4 degrees C in trifluoroacetic acid. These approaches were successfully applied for the synthesis of cholecystokinin (CCK)-related peptides. The second topic deals with new approaches for the creation of artificial proteins through assembling alpha-helical peptides via selective disulfide or thioether formation. Approaches to assemble individual peptide segments on a peptide template were also developed. Four peptides corresponding to the transmembrane segments of the sodium channel (S4 in repeat I-IV) were assembled on a peptide template to give a protein having ion channel activity with rectification.

  18. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  19. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  20. 聚合增强型以太网环境下的数据中心建设%Construction of Data Center in the Convergence Enhanced Ethernet Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志宏; 巫莉莉; 钟焯荣; 张波

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the universities' traditional data center heterogeneous networks including storage network and LAN caused management,high energy consumption,as well as a serious shortage of space,the article is based on the FCoE standard and Convergence Enhanced Ethernet to converge data center LAN and SAN,and builds a test environment to compare the data transmission performance of traditional data center network and Convergence Enhanced Ethernet to validate the advantage of Convergence Enhanced Ethernet.Convergence network not only reduces the number of devices in the network,converges the architecture of data center network,but also protects the upfront investment of data center.Itprovides a viable solution for the alterations of the university data center network.%针对高校传统数据中心因存储网(SAN)与局域网(LAN)并存所导致的管理复杂、能耗高以及空间严重不足等问题,采用FCoE标准和聚合增强型以太网(CEE)对学校数据中心的以太网和存储网进行整合,通过搭建合适的测试环境对传统数据中心网络和CEE的数据传输性能进行比较,验证了CEE的优势.整合后的网络既减少了网络中的设备数量,实现数据中心网络架构的融合,又利用了数据中心的前期投资,为高校数据中心的网络改造提供了可行方案.

  1. The Wireless Gateway Design of the Industrial Ethernet EtherCAT Network%工业以太网EtherCAT的无线网关设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏亚鹏; 韩卫光

    2013-01-01

    The Real-time Ethernet technology is a hot issue in the industrial communication area,and the EtherCAT technology has a bright prospect in such field.The wireless sensor network ZigBee technology can bring forth the convenience of the transmission channel on the deployment and planning,which can reduce many costs and troubles of the network cabling construction.Making a gateway which connects the EtherCAT network with the ZigBee network can expand the range of the industrial communication networks.In this way,the EtherCAT master can achieve a perception of the change in the industrial manufacturing environment.On the basis of further study on these two protocols,an implementation scheme of ZigBee accessing EtherCAT is proposed,and a communication model of an EtherCAT-ZigBee gateway is designed,and the gateway which connects the EtherCAT network and the ZigBee network is designed and realized through using ARM Cortex-A8 and CC2530.After tests,it shows that the EtherCAT network and the ZigBee network can communicate with each other through the gateway,which is able to meet the needs of real-time collection of field data.%实时工业以太网技术是目前工业通信领域研究的热点,EtherCAT技术具有光明的应用前景.无线传感网ZigBee技术可以带来传输通道部署和规划上的便利,可以减少大量布线施工的代价与困扰.开发连接EtherCAT和ZigBee的网关可以拓展工业通信网络的范围,实现对工业制造现场的环境变化的感知.在对两种协议深入研究的基础上,提出了ZigBee接入EtherCAT的实现方案,设计了EtherCAT和ZigBee的网关通信模型,并且采用ARM Cortex-A8和CC2530设计并实现了连接EtherCAT与ZigBee的网关.经过测试表明,该网关实现了EtherCAT与ZigBee网络通信的协议转换功能,能够满足实时采集现场数据的需要.

  2. Research and application of EtherCAT based on high speed industrial Ethernet%基于高速工业以太网的EtherCAT应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶一枝

    2016-01-01

    随着工业4.0的发展,基于高速工业以太网的工业自动化现场总线(EtherCAT)技术发展迅速,在微电网、机器人和定日镜厂等领域,需要高速高效控制技术,以实现对控制对象的实时操作与控制,基于高速工业以太网的EtherCAT技术可以实现微秒级的实时控制。%Along with the development of industrial 4.0, based on fast industrial Ethernet in industrial automation Fieldbus EtherCAT technology is developing rapidly,in the field of micro grid,robot and a heliostat factory and need to high speed and high efficiency control technology,to achieve the real-time operation and control of the controlled object,based on fast industrial Ethernet EtherCAT technology can realize the real-time control of the microsecond.

  3. 基于TCP/IP协议栈的串口-网口转换器设计%Design of Serial Interface/Ethernet Converter Based on TCP/IP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 王冬捷

    2015-01-01

    基于轮机模拟器的以太网通信的要求,提出了一种W5500网络芯片+AVR系列单片机ATmega16L的串口-网口转换器的设计方案,阐述了硬件设计以及通信软件的设计。采用W5500省去了TCP/IP协议集的编程,降低开发难度的同时缩短了开发周期。该模块具有自动更新目标IP地址功能,通过ATmega16L的编程进行SPI时序控制以及以太网配置参数设置。在轮机模拟器上进行现场调试,实现串口与以太网络的数据传输和共享。%Because of the requirements of Ethernet communication of the Marine Engineer Simulator,a convert project be-tween serial interface and Ethernet is introduced based on W5500 and ATmega16.The design of hardware,communication software program and related interfaces are described.Eliminate the programming of TCP/IP protocol suite,reduce the de-velopment effort and shorten the development cycle.

  4. Research and Application of High Performance Ethernet Switch Chip-BCM56132%高性能以太网交换芯片BCM56132的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟芳; 邱里鑫

    2012-01-01

    With the development of ethernet switch technology and super large-scale integrated circuit technology, the fuctions and performance of ethernet switch chips are incresingly improved. A multilayer switch chip, BCM56132, whose internal architecture, functions and characteristics, access method, layer 2 and 3 switch dataflow, and so on are detailly introduced in this paper. Then the design of layer 2 and 3 switch platform based on BCM56132 is completed. At the same time, the description of the hardware and soft development process is given. Finally, the conclusion indicates that the design is correct.%随着以太网交换技术的发展和超大规模集成电路技术的进步,以太网交换芯片功能与性能不断提高.详细介绍了以太网交换芯片BCM56132的内部结构、功能特性、访问方式及2,3层交换的数据流程等,并基于该芯片完成了2、3层交换平台设计,同时对软、硬件实现过程进行了描述,最后通过测试验证了设计的正确性.

  5. 工业以太网和CAN总线在污水处理系统中的应用%Application of Industrial Ethernet and CANbus in the System of Swage Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树东; 孟静静; 陈仕彬; 闫媛媛

    2011-01-01

    介绍了工业以太网以及现场总线标准CAN的特点及其应用.分析了某污水处理厂的工艺和控制要求,提出采用工业以太网和CAN总线集成的网络结构,将PCC视为分散式现场设备,充分利用贝加莱PCC"全集成自动化"方案实现了厂方管理层到现场设备层的透明访问.实际运行后证明:该方案极大地节约了项目成本,并提高了企业的生产力.%The characteristics and applications of Industrial Ethernet and fieldbus standards are introduced in this paper. After analyzing the technique and control requirements of a wastewater treatment plant, Industrial Ethernet and CANbus integrated network structure is adopted, PCC is regarded as a distributed field devices. At last, the transparent visit from the management layer to the Field is realized using B&R PCC “Totally Integrated Automation” option. The actual operation proves that the project has greatly saved the costs and improved their productivity.

  6. Aiming Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    positive definite solution of A1Qy+QyAo+I--QyBBTQY=O (5.2) The logarithmic residence time of system (3.1) with the stabilizing control (5.1) in a I...a bounded is E bou,,,,dby, ii I)-2=(6 2 This completes the prooof the necesity. Suffidency: The proof is by conatnction. Select a stabilizing control u...a - . Q.LD. Proof of Theorem 3.3: It follows from the results of [151, [21] that for each y > 0, K? defined by (3.4) is a stabilizing control and

  7. Ethernet Flow Monitoring with IPFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Rick; Drago, Idilio; Sperotto, Anna; Pras, Aiko

    2011-01-01

    The increasing amount of network traffic and the huge bandwidth needed to carry it requires managers to use scalable solutions to monitor their networks. Nowadays, flow-based techniques, such as Cisco’s NetFlow, provide aggregated network data and an overview of network activity at the IP layer. How

  8. Deterministic Ethernet for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidi, C.; Wolff, B.

    2015-09-01

    Typical spacecraft systems are distributed to be able to achieve the required reliability and availability targets of the mission. However the requirements on these systems are different for launchers, satellites, human space flight and exploration missions. Launchers require typically high reliability with very short mission times whereas satellites or space exploration missions require very high availability at very long mission times. Comparing a distributed system of launchers with satellites it shows very fast reaction times in launchers versus much slower once in satellite applications. Human space flight missions are maybe most challenging concerning reliability and availability since human lives are involved and the mission times can be very long e.g. ISS. Also the reaction times of these vehicles can get challenging during mission scenarios like landing or re-entry leading to very fast control loops. In these different applications more and more autonomous functions are required to fulfil the needs of current and future missions. This autonomously leads to new requirements with respect to increase performance, determinism, reliability and availability. On the other hand side the pressure on reducing costs of electronic components in space applications is increasing, leading to the use of more and more COTS components especially for launchers and LEO satellites. This requires a technology which is able to provide a cost competitive solution for both the high reliable and available deep-space as well as the low cost “new space” markets. Future spacecraft communication standards therefore have to be much more flexible, scalable and modular to be able to deal with these upcoming challenges. The only way to fulfill these requirements is, if they are based on open standards which are used cross industry leading to a reduction of the lifecycle costs and an increase in performance. The use of a communication network that fulfills these requirements will be essential for such spacecraft’s to allow the use in launcher, satellite, human space flight and exploration missions. Using one technology and the related infrastructure for these different applications will lead to a significant reduction of complexity and would moreover lead to significant savings in size weight and power while increasing the performance of the overall system. The paper focuses on the use of the TTEthernet technology for launchers, satellites and human spaceflight and will demonstrate the scalability of the technology for the different applications. The data used is derived from the ESA TRP 7594 on “Reliable High-Speed Data Bus/Network for Safety-Oriented Missions”.

  9. 融合GPRS与嵌入式以太网技术的指纹考勤系统设计%DESIGNING FINGERPRINT TIME AND ATTENDANCE SYSTEM BASED ON INTEGRATION OF GPRS AND EMBEDDED ETHERNET TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟海林; 王宜怀; 舒胜强

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, by integrating the techniques of GPRS, embedded Ethernet, flash memory and intelligent power management, we designed a fingerprint Time and Attendance System, which is based on embedded Ethernet module integrated microcontroller MCF52223 (produced by Freescale Corporation) and GTM900-B of HuaWei Company. This design has some excellent advantages, such as optional communication mode, offline attendance checking supported and intelligent power management, can meet the needs of diverse attendance management. As the fingerprint is unique and can not be replicated, it eliminates the problem of surrogated attendance checking in IC attendance system. This research can be the reference to similar applications.%结合GPRS、嵌入式以太网、Flash存储、智能电源管理等技术,并以Freescale公司集成嵌入式以太网模块的MCF52233微控制器和华为GTM900-B为基础,设计了融合GPRS与嵌入式以太网技术的指纹考勤系统.该设计具有通信方式可选、支持脱机考勤、智能电源管理等特点,满足了考勤管理的多样性需求.同时由于指纹的唯一性和不可复制性,杜绝了IC考勤中的替考问题,可为同类应用借鉴.

  10. Study and design of condition monitoring system in wind farms based on Ethernet%基于以太网的风电场监控系统的研究与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦康; 葛召炎; 刘姣; 吴轩

    2011-01-01

    针对风电场机组之间物理距离远、维护难度大等特点,设计了以ARM7和以太网控制芯片ENC28J60为平台,具有TCP/IP通信功能的风电场状态监控方案.给出了以太网接口的设计电路、网络协议栈的实现方法和程序总流程图,并进行测试实验,实现了远程PC对传感器数据的实时监测.实验结果表明,该系统能使用户方便的监控风电场的运行状态,从而有效地保护机组,避免设备过多的损坏.%In present, the distance between the wind generator is long and maintenance is difficult. Based on ARM7 and Ethernet Controller ENC28J60, a condition monitoring program for wind farms with TCP/IP communications functions is designed. The designed circuit of Ethernet interface, network protocol and the software flow are designed. In the experiment, remote PC realized real-time monitoring of sensors. The results show that the system enables users to easily monitor the wind farm operations, so as to effectively protect the wind generator, to avoid excessive equipment damage.

  11. Design Based on Ethernet of the Remote Engine Power Test Apparatus%基于以太网的发动机功率远程测试装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    2013-01-01

      This paper presents the design of a new type of engine power test machine. The design makes ARM Cortex-M3 core LM3S9B92 as a core, which can achieve remote communication by the host computer via an Ethernet controller, and take homemade two-stroke engines for the test object. Users transmit the set parameters of the host computer via Ethernet to the next bit machine master chip which controls the engine gun, with torque sensors measuring torque and speed to obtain the engine power. The design is stable and has accurate test data and wide range of applications, which exceeds the existing dynamometer distance limit.%  提出一种新型发动机功率测试机的设计方法。该系统以ARM Cortex-M3内核的LM3S9B92为控制器核心,由上位机通过以太网与控制器进行远程通信,以自制两冲程发动机为测试对象。用户采用上位机设定参数通过以太网传送给下位机主控芯片控制发动机的油门,通过扭矩传感器测出扭矩和转速,从而获得发动机的功率。本系统突破了现有测功机距离的限制,系统工作稳定,测试数据精确,应用广泛。

  12. Design of Embedded Communication System Between Multi-Channel UART And Ethernet Based on RL-ARM Library%基于RL-ARM的嵌入式以太网与串口通信系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓红德; 李阳; 吴佳楠

    2012-01-01

    According to the demand for expanding UART interfaces in simulation experiment of UAV flight control system, the communication between four UART interfaces and Ethernet is accomplished based on LPC1768 host processor, and receiving function contains three intelligent communication modes, which is frame head and frame length mode, frame head and frame tail mode and frame length and frame tail mode. The design of software implements UDP communication in RL-ARM real time library. The result indicates that the system not only has the feature of real-time communication of serial port, but also low-cost implemention and steady operation of Ethernet.%针对无人机飞控系统半物理仿真实验中需要对串口进行扩展的问题,系统采用主控制器LPC1768设计了基于以太网方式的串口扩展,完成了4个串口与以太网之间的双向通信,且串口接收支持帧头+帧长、帧头+帧尾和帧长+帧尾3神智能通信方式.软件设计中利用RL-ARM实时库实现了与PC之间的UDP协议通信.结果表明,采用此方案可以使系统具有实时、可靠和成本低的特点.

  13. Research on Task Download Technique of Multi-DSP Parallel System Based on Ethernet%多DSP的以太网并行系统任务下载技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦鑫; 黎英

    2012-01-01

    为了实现基于以太网的嵌入式并行系统的实时仿真应用,在分析并行仿真系统结构的基础上,根据BF548装载文件结构的特点,研究了DSP的启动方式和任务程序加载过程,提出一种基于以太网的初始化代码多重加载的下载方法.该方法可实现DSP启动后自动下载任务程序,解决了多DSP并行系统任务下载过程复杂繁琐的问题.通过实际测试,验证了该下载方法的实用性、可行性和有效性,为并行仿真应用提供了一种方便、灵活的实验手段和实现技术.%In order to achieve the real-time simulation application of embedded parallel system based on Ethernet,the DSP boot mode and the loading process are researched according to the analysis of the parallel simulation system structure and the basic characteristic of BF548 loader file structure. This paper also proposes a kind of download method based on Ethernet's initialization code multiple-load. This method can realize task program automatic download after DSP launched and solve the problem of complex download procedure of DSP parallel system. Through the actual test,the feasibility and validity of the download method have been verified,which provide a convenient and flexible experimental method and implementation technique of parallel simulation.

  14. 工业以太网EtherCAT协议逻辑寻址方案研究%Researching on the Logical Addressing Scheme of Industrial Ethernet EtherCAT Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 韩宾

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the working principle of real-time industrial Ethernet EtherCAT protocol,and analyses the log-ical addressing scheme of EtherCAT subordinate control chip ET1100.The paper elaborates the ET1100 configuration method of implementation logical addressing schemes adopted in the specific application.This is of great significance to understand the work process and the realization of practical engineering design of EtherCAT protocol.%介绍了实时工业以太网EtherCAT协议的工作原理,并分析EtherCAT从站控制芯片ET1100的逻辑寻址方案,阐述在具体应用中采用逻辑寻址方案实现 ET1100的配置方法。这对于理解 EtherCAT 协议的工作过程和实现实际工程设计具有重要意义。

  15. Implementation of communication between Siemens PLC and level two computer with Ethernet%利用以太网实现西门子PLC与二级计算机的通信

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋明; 王锬

    2011-01-01

    归纳基于以太网的西门子PLC与二级计算机通信的几种方案。在介绍每种方案的基本原理后,针对常用编程工具在实现过程中可能遇到的问题给出解决办法,并结合马鞍山钢铁股份有限公司的生产实践比较了每种方案的优缺点和适用场合。实际应用表明这些方法简便实用,经过长时间的运行,证明它们可以满足工业生产的要求,对类似项目有一定的借鉴作用。%Several schemes of communication between Siemens PLC and level two computer based on Ethernet are summarized, and basic principle of each communication scheme is introduced. Solutions of problems what common programming tools come across in implementing process of communication scheme are given. Advantages, weaknesses and suitable application occasions of all schemes are compared, combining with Masteel' s production practice. Application shows that these schemes are simple and practical. Long time running proves that they can meet the requirement of industrial production. For similar projects, they have reference role.

  16. 一种实现以太接入网QoS保障技术的探针单元%One kind of probe unit on QoS Assurance in Ethernet Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚

    2014-01-01

    文章通过对传统的以太网技术进行分析,在讨论了QoS(Quality of Service,服务质量保证)、SLA(Service Level Agreement,服务等级协议)、带宽管理、运营管理等概念之后,简介以太接入网如何实现为不同的业务提供不同优先级的服务,并能够根据优先级的不同为业务提供一定程度上的服务质量保证。据此研发出了一种新型的、电信级的、能够提供一定服务质量保证的基于以太网技术的宽带接入网产品—探针。%Through analyzing the traditional Ethernet technology, and after the definition of QoS, SLA,bandwidth management, maintain management, this article introduces how to provide different priority service level to different kind of data, also provide some service level assurance to some extent. Based on this, a new kind of product which on telecommunication level and can assure SLA has been opened up.

  17. 基于Xilinx Spartan-3E和LwIP协议的以太网通讯%Ethernet Communication Based on Xilinx Spartan-3E and LwIP Protocol Stack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳芳; 沈莉

    2013-01-01

    Faced with a growing number of FPGA network communication,we propose a network application platform based on programmable chip(SOPC)using a target device of Xilinx Spartan-3E development board,based on Xilinx MicroBlaze microprocessor soft-core,built together with the related peripheral IP core.FPGA and Ethernet communications through transplant open source TCP/IP protocol stack LwIP.Proposed a LwIP efficient operating mode does not require operating system.The paper describes the design of the system's hardware and software platform,and the experimental validation of the designed system.%面对越来越多的FPGA网络通讯方式,提出了一种以Xilinx Spartan-3E开发板为目标器件,基于Xilinx MicroBlaze微处理器软核,与相关外设IP核一起构建基于片上可编程系统的网络应用平台,通过移植开源TCP/IP协议栈LwIP,提出了一种不需要操作系统的LwIP协议栈的高效工作模式,实现FPGA与以太网的通讯.设计给出了系统的软硬件平台设计,以及对整体设计的实验验证.

  18. Appeals in television advertising: A content analysis of commercials aimed at children and teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    A content analysis of 601 commercials was conducted in order to identify the appeals that characterize commercials aimed at children and teenagers. Our findings demonstrated that the use of appeals (a) showed strong age differences and (b) was highly gender-role stereotyped, particularly in commercials aimed at children. The most typical appeals in commercials aimed at male children were action-adventure, sports, and play, whereas commercials aimed at female children emphasized nurturing, phy...

  19. Important treatment aims at the end of life: a nationwide study among GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Echteld, M.A.; Francke, A.L.; Block, L. van den; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about treatment aims during the last 3 months of life. Aim: To investigate important treatment aims in the last 3 months of patients' lives in cases of on-sudden death. Design and setting: Mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands. Method: data were collected retrosp

  20. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16979566 Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Vilcek J. I...mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming... at a moving target. PubmedID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  1. Comments on evolvement into aeronautical information management(AIM)%浅析向航空情报管理(AIM)发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹阳

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010年8月,国际民航组织(ICAO)的全球航空情报管理(AIM)大会将在北京召开.ICAO认为,为了满足全球空中交通管理运行概念的新要求,航空情报服务必须过渡到航空情报管理这一更广泛的概念.

  2. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  3. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  4. Failed culture change aimed at more service provision: A test of three agentic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, P.Y.; Wilderom, C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Headquarters managers of a medium-sized manufacturing company initiated a culture change in five of their dispersed wholesale units. The aim was for more external service quality. This paper aims to report the results of a test of three hypotheses, shedding light on the behavior of the inv

  5. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  6. Cultural adaptation and validation of a German version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS2).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) 2 in primary care patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee. METHOD: The AIMS2 was translated into German and culturally adapted. The questionnaire then was administered to

  7. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Gerritsma, R.M.; Hofland, R.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and highanxiety condition. In both conditions, running was c

  8. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers.…

  9. Lessons from the AIME Approach to the Teaching Relationship: Valuing Biepistemic Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Samantha; Harwood, Valerie; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; O'Shea, Sarah; McKnight, Anthony; Chandler, Paul; Priestly, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) is a national, extra-curricular mentoring programme that is closing the educational gap for young Indigenous Australians. So what is AIME doing that is working so well? This article draws on a large-scale classroom ethnography to describe the pedagogies that facilitate the teacher-student…

  10. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  11. Aim24 and MICOS modulate respiratory function, tafazzin-related cardiolipin modification and mitochondrial architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harner, Max Emanuel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Izawa, Toshiaki; Walther, Dirk M; Ozbalci, Cagakan; Geimer, Stefan; Reggiori, Fulvio; Brügger, Britta; Mann, Matthias; Westermann, Benedikt; Neupert, Walter; Reggiori, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Structure and function of mitochondria are intimately linked. In a search for components that participate in building the elaborate architecture of this complex organelle we have identified Aim24, an inner membrane protein. Aim24 interacts with the MICOS complex that is required for the formation of

  12. Prey catching in archer fish: the role of posture and morphology in aiming behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, P.J.A.; Souren, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Archer fishes (Toxotidae) bring down aerial prey with a squirt of water from their mouth. How they aim, however, is not clear. Measurements of the angle between the squirt and the fish's body axis (the mouth angle) already yielded agreement that pointing the body plays a part in aiming, and it has b

  13. Measurements of AIM for Visible Wavelength Based on Individual Eye Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Zhao-Qi; WANG Yan; ZUO Tong; ZHAO Kan-Xing

    2006-01-01

    We measure and calculate the aerial image modulation (AIM) of human retina for visible wavelengths based on the individual eye model. By employing the optical design software ZEMAX, we obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF) of human eye in visible wavelengths. Using CSV-1000 and VAF-1000, the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) and the visual acuity (VA) for the same eye are measured. Then the AIM of human retina could be acquired by the relations between MTF and CSF and between MTF and VA. The AIM of human retina is independent of MTF, and the values of AIM for normal eyes (without retina disease) are similar, so the assembly average for large numbers of normal eyes can be a standard AIM curve, which is helpful for the diagnosis of diseases in the retina system.

  14. Researh and Application of Industrial Ethernet Safety Based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT的工业以太网安全技术的研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘才思; 刘峰; 郑飂默; 尹震宇

    2015-01-01

    在研究EtherCAT协议栈,以及EtherCAT的软、硬件结构特性和帧结构特点的基础上,分析了EtherCAT工业以太网存在的通信故障错误,及其对应的安全通信机制措施,建立了安全系统体系结构和安全通信协议模型,设计了EtherCAT功能安全通信过程,开发了安全协议层软件。经过试验测试表明,通过在EtherCAT应用层之上添加EtherCAT安全通信,并且对EtherCAT通信报文中用户数据单元进行扩展,来实现关键安全措施,满足了安全相关领域通信的要求,保障了EtherCAT系统的安全性和可靠性。%Under the study of EtherCAT protocol stack and the characteristics of software , hardware and frame of EtherCAT , we analyzed communication faults and errors in the industrial ethernet and the counter safety communication mechanism measures, established the safety system architecture and safety communi-cation protocol model, designed the EtherCAT safety communication process, and developed safety protocol layer software. As the result of experimental test shows, by adding EtherCAT safety layer upon application layer and safety measures into user data unit with some critical safety measures, we made the protocol meet the safety requirements of communication related fields and guarantee the EtherCAT system safety and relia-bility.

  15. A downstream transmission scheme of optical burst switching in ethernet passive optical networks with burst access mode%支持突发接入模式EPON下行传输方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希; 范红

    2012-01-01

    分析了支持突发接入模式的EPON在下行传输中业务流特性的变化问题,提出了在下行传输时OLT向ONU分解转发帧的传输方案.通过对下行带宽资源实行基于优先级的调度,减少因数据帧到达的突发性对某些高优先级的数据帧的影响;利用滑动窗控制每个ONU的数据帧到达速率,解决大量数据帧到达造成ONU处理负荷过重的问题.利用OPNET Modeler仿真平台建立网络模型并进行仿真,验证了方案的可行性.%The data flow characteristics in downstream transmission of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) , which is integrated with burst access mode,are analyzed in this paper,and a downstream transmission scheme based on optical burst switching is proposed hereby. The bursting arrival of data frames from Optical Line Terminal (OLT) will fully occupy the downlink bandwidth, thus delay the transmission of data frame with higher priority, and overload the Optical Network Unit (ONU). The influences of burst arriving data frames on the transmission of higher-priority data frames can he, reduced through scheduling the downlink bandwidth resources based on priority. The sliding windows are used to regulate the arrival rate of each ONU data frame to relieve the overload of ONU processing. The transmission scheme is simulated and evaluated on OPNET Modeler. The results verify the feasibility of the scheme.

  16. 基于工业以太网多PLC的污水处理控制系统%Sewage Treatment Control System of Multi-PLC Based on Industrial Ethernet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋青; 王文成

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Siemens S7-300 PLC in sewage treatment plants application of automatic control, The multi-processor distributed system was designed based on industrial Ethernet The details of the system network topology,hardware configuration, PLC programming and monitoring system were introduced. Considering such characteristics of dissolved oxygen in aeration process as non-linearity, time variability and uncertainty, a fuzzy adaptive PID control method was proposed, and adaptive fuzzy PID control of dissolved oxygen system was completed. The system realizes automatic control of urban sewage treatment The actual operating was stable and have good effect.%介绍了西门子公司S7-300PLC在污水处理厂自动控制中的应用,设计基于工业以太网的多处理器分布系统,详细介绍了系统网络拓扑结构,系统的硬件组态,PLC程序设计以及监控系统的设计.针对污水处理中曝气过程溶解氧控制对象的非线性、时变性以及不确定性等特点,提出一种基于模糊自适应PID的控制方法,完成了溶解氧自适应模糊PID控制系统的设计.该系统实现了城市污水处理的全自动控制,实际运行稳定,效果良好.

  17. The design of text sound and light warning system based on Ethernet%基于以太网的文字声光警示系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈博敏; 卫建华; 王锦

    2014-01-01

    The text sound and light warning system based on Ethernet is designed .This system using UDP protocol to transmit alarm data ,has completed hardware design and software programming .In or‐der to make the system suitable for different applications ,the text and voice data is stored in the SD card and the file naming conventions are given in design‐time .The warning system can be triggered in manual or automatic ways to produce the appropriate warning information ,including the LED display showing , text warning information ,the voice system broadcasting warning voice and police lights flashing ,achie‐ving multiple reminders in visual and auditory .%在确定以UDP协议进行报警数据传输的基础上,研究其硬件设计及软件编程.为了使系统能够适用于不同的应用场合,设计时将文字及语音数据存储于SD卡中,并给出了SD卡中文件的命名规则.该警示系统在需要警示的情况下可人工操作或以自动触发方式产生.L ED显示屏显示文字警示信息,语音系统播放警示语音,警灯闪烁进行灯光警示,实现了视觉和听觉上的多重提醒等警示信息.

  18. 浅析以太网与 web技术在铝电解工业控制系统中的应用%Brief Analysis on Application of Ethernet and Web Technology in Control System of Aluminum Electrolytic Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 李凌晶

    2012-01-01

    阐述了在铝电解工业控制系统中通过采用以太网和web技术进行数据整合的方法,通过节点服务器的架设实现公司内四级网络的物理连通,再使用数据库编程和.NET技术开发应用程序,制作统一的用户界面和综合数据报表,并根据管理人员的需求对数据进行深度挖掘和处理,有效缩短了管理人员获取生产相关数据的时间,为铝电解生产管理人员提供一个便捷、高效、实用的数据分析平台.%n the control system of aluminum electrolytic industry, by means of the data integration method adopting Ethernet and Web technology, the uniform user interface and the comprehensive data reporting were made by setting up node servers to achieve physical connection for four-level network in the company, and using database programming and. Net technology to develop the application program. In addition, according to managements' demand, deep-mining data and data processing were earned out so as to effectively reduce the time to obtain related production data, which provides a convenient, efficient and practical data analysis platform for management in aluminum electrolytic production.

  19. Research on Ethernet remote update technology for TMS320C6416 program%TMS320C6416程序以太网远程更新技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍炜; 魏刚; 王子

    2014-01-01

    In view of remote software maintenance and update of DSP without debugger,a scheme of remote update for DSP program which is based on trivial file transfer protocol(TFTP)and can be applied to a platform without operation system is pro-posed according to bootloading principle of TI C6000 series DSP. A hierarchical structure of system software design laying em-phasis on the procedure of program loading and updating is presented. High efficiency and stability embedding of the network protocol is realized in DSP platform by transplanting the lightweight TCP/IP stack (LwIP). Project practice indicates that the scheme optimizes the expense of system resource from network protocol,improves the flexibility of Ethernet development on DSP,and is beneficial to promote the system performance.%针对脱离调试器下,DSP远程软件维护和升级问题,从TI C6000系列DSP程序自加载原理出发,提出了一种基于简单文件传输协议(TFTP)和可用于无操作系统平台的程序远程更新方案,给出了系统软件设计结构,重点设计了程序加载更新的过程,并通过移植轻型TCP/IP协议栈(LwIP),实现了网络协议在DSP平台下的高效稳定嵌入。工程实践表明,该方案优化了网络协议对系统资源的开销,提高了DSP下以太网功能开发的灵活性,有益于系统性能的提升和改进。

  20. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuiqing; Peng, Lan; Kwak, Youn-Tae; Tekippe, Erin McElvania; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Malter, James S; Hooper, Lora V; Zaki, Md Hasan

    2015-12-01

    Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2(-/-) mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2(-/-) mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2(-/-) mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  1. The DNA Sensor AIM2 Maintains Intestinal Homeostasis via Regulation of Epithelial Antimicrobial Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Hu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pattern molecules in the intestine play immunoregulatory roles via diverse pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2 in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis is unknown. Here, we show that Aim2−/− mice are highly susceptible to dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis that is associated with microbial dysbiosis as represented by higher colonic burden of commensal Escherichia coli. Colonization of germ-free mice with Aim2−/− mouse microbiota leads to higher colitis susceptibility. In-depth investigation of AIM2-mediated host defense responses reveals that caspase-1 activation and IL-1β and IL-18 production are compromised in Aim2−/− mouse colons, consistent with defective inflammasome function. Moreover, IL-18 infusion reduces E. coli burden as well as colitis susceptibility in Aim2−/− mice. Altered microbiota in inflammasome-defective mice correlate with reduced expression of several antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these findings implicate DNA sensing by AIM2 as a regulatory mechanism for maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  2. Clinical Application of AIMS65 Scores to Predict Outcomes in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manik; John, Anil K; Al-Ejji, Khalid Mohsin; Wani, Hamidulla; Sultan, Khaleel; Al-Mohannadi, Muneera; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz; Al-Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Muhammed Tariq; Al-Kaabi, Saad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the ability of the recently proposed albumin, international normalized ratio (INR), mental status, systolic blood pressure, age >65 years (AIMS65) score to predict mortality in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Methods AIMS65 scores were calculated in 251 consecutive patients presenting with acute UGIB by allotting 1 point each for albumin level 1.5, alteration in mental status, systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, and age ≥65 years. Risk stratification was done during the initial 12 hours of hospital admission. Results Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, endoscopic therapy, or surgery were required in 51 patients (20.3%), 64 (25.5%), and 12 (4.8%), respectively. The predictive accuracy of AIMS65 scores ≥2 was high for blood transfusion (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.59), ICU admission (AUROC, 0.61), and mortality (AUROC, 0.74). The overall mortality was 10.3% (n=26), and was 3%, 7.8%, 20%, 36%, and 40% for AIMS65 scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively; these values were significantly higher in those with scores ≥2 (30.9%) than in those with scores <2 (4.5%, p<0.001). Conclusions AIMS65 is a simple, accurate, non-endoscopic risk score that can be applied early (within 12 hours of hospital admission) in patients with acute UGIB. AIMS65 scores ≥2 predict high in-hospital mortality. PMID:26473120

  3. Clinical Study of the Value of PCT, ABI and 128 Hz Tuning Fork Combined with 10 g Monofilament in Evaluating the Prognosis of Diabetic Foot%PCT、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10克单丝对糖尿病足预后评估价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 游东; 梁永

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨降钙素原(PCT)、踝肱指数(ABI)、 Rydel-seifer分级音叉(128 Hz音叉)联合10 g单丝对糖尿病足预后评估的临床价值。方法选择243例糖尿病患者,其中观察组为糖尿病足患者50例,对照组为非糖尿病足183例,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析糖尿病足的相关因素。根据患者预后分为两组,比较其PCT水平、 ABI、128 Hz音叉联合10 g单丝结果。结果多因素 Logistic 回归分析显示,肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低是糖尿病足的危险因素。截肢组患者PCT水平及128 Hz音叉结果高于非截肢组, ABI、10 g单丝结果低于非截肢组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义, P<0.05。结论肥胖、空腹血糖、128 Hz音叉及PCT升高、 ABI、10 g单丝降低在糖尿病的进展过程中起着重要作用,应给予足够重视,积极对症治疗,降低其截肢率。%Objective To investigate the clinical value of procalcitonin (PCT), ankle brachial index (ABI) and Rydel-seifer tuning fork rating (128 Hz tuning fork) combined with 10 g monofilament in evaluating the prognosis of diabetic foot. Methods 243 cases of patients with diabetes were selected, the observation group of 50 patients with diabetic foot, compared with the control group of 183 cases of non diabetic foot. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and the related factors of diabetic foot were analyzed by SPSS19. 0 statistics software. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the prognosis of the patients and the results of the level of PCT, ABI, and 128 Hz fork combined with 10g monofilament. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the increase of obesity, fasting blood glucose, 128 Hz tuning fork and PCT and the decrease of ABI and 10 g monofilament were the risk factors for diabetic foot. The scores of the level of PCT level and 128 Hz tuning fork of the patients in amputation group

  4. ACA and the Triple Aim: Musings of a Health Care Actuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mac

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) promulgated the Triple Aim, which advocates simultaneous improvements in patient experiences, improved population health and lower cost per capita. In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised quality, affordable health care for all Americans. It's fair to assume that the framers of ACA were aware of the Triple Aim, and it is likely that much of ACA was heavily influenced by IHI's positions. So it is reasonable, from time to time, to assess ACA's impact on health care against the Triple Aim principles.

  5. Flight testing of the AIM/RIM-7M missile, preflight analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, W.; Greenberg, E.

    1981-11-01

    The AIM/RIM-7M missile is the most recent version of the AIM-7 missile series. It is in the preproduction phase and has completed most of the preproduction flight test evaluation. A description is presented of the preflight simulation techniques used, taking into account the value of the techniques in predicting the results of actual flights. The AIM/RIM-7M is a semiactive, radar-guided homing missile with sophisticated onboard digital processing. It may be launched from either an aircraft or a surface system. To a large degree, the AIM/RIM-7M represents problems typical of all guided missiles. The described techniques are directly applicable to radar-guided missiles and generically to all types of guided missiles. Attention is given to simulation bay activities, the anechoic chamber, aspects of RF control, the target array, computer models, aspects of preflight simulations, and the test setup.

  6. Constant error in aiming movements without visual feedback is higher in the preferred hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2007-05-01

    There is convincing evidence for a left hand advantage for the spatial planning of aiming movements in right-handers. However, little is known about equivalent proficiency in left-handers. Therefore, 48 participants (24 right-handers and 24 left-handers) performed aiming movements of the hand without visual feedback. While the variable aiming error tended to be lower for the preferred hand, the constant aiming error was consistently lower for the non-preferred hand. Data are consistent with the idea of a spatial accuracy advantage for the controller of the non-preferred hand. Data from an ambidextrous participant suggest that this functional difference might be innate rather than acquired through practice.

  7. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa [Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022 (Japan); Arai, Satoko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toru, E-mail: tm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  8. Modeling Training of Future Teachers Aimed on Innovation Activities Based on the System of Design Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury S. Tyunnikov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of training system of future teachers aimed on innovation activities performed in a certain project logic and procedures, which is possible only through a specific set of design features, based on capability and peculiar properties of the university. The article is formulated and solved the problem of design features, revealing in its set the characteristic properties, organization and functioning of training system aimed on innovation in specific terms of professional education.

  9. Molecular Mechanism for p202-Mediated Specific Inhibition of AIM2 Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mouse p202 containing two hemopoietic expression, interferon inducibility, nuclear localization (HIN domains antagonizes AIM2 inflammasome signaling and potentially modifies lupus susceptibility. We found that only HIN1 of p202 binds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, while HIN2 forms a homotetramer. Crystal structures of HIN1 revealed that dsDNA is bound on face opposite the site used in AIM2 and IFI16. The structure of HIN2 revealed a dimer of dimers, the face analogous to the HIN1 dsDNA binding site being a dimerization interface. Electron microscopy imaging showed that HIN1 is flexibly linked to HIN2 in p202, and tetramerization provided enhanced avidity for dsDNA. Surprisingly, HIN2 of p202 interacts with the AIM HIN domain. We propose that this results in a spatial separation of the AIM2 pyrin domains, and indeed p202 prevented the dsDNA-dependent clustering of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain (ASC and AIM2 inflammasome activation. We hypothesize that while p202 was evolutionarily selected to limit AIM2-mediated inflammation in some mouse strains, the same mechanism contributes to increased interferon production and lupus susceptibility.

  10. PERAN GEN AIM1 DAN INTENSITAS CAHAYA TERHADAP KARAKTER POLA PIGMEN IKAN BADUT HITAM (Amphiprion percula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniar Kusumawati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pola pigmen merupakan faktor utama yang menentukan tingginya kualitas ikan hias. Pada benih-benih F1 populasi budidaya ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula diketahui mengalami degeneratif pola pigmen yang menyimpang dibandingkan dengan populasi di alam. Pola pigmen merupakan salah satu karakter fenotip yang diturunkan di mana ekspresinya bergantung pada interaksi genetik dengan faktor eksternal yaitu lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji peran gen yaitu Aim1 yang mengontrol sintesis melanin dan kondisi lingkungan dalam menginduksi pola pigmen hitam ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula. Analisis gen Aim1 dilakukan dengan menggunakan program speedy PCR dilanjutkan dengan SSCP (single strand confirmation polymorphism untuk mengidentifikasi variasi genetik dari gen Aim1. Analisis SDS Page dilakukan untuk mengetahui peranan lingkungan terhadap profil protein yang disintesis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa primer Aim1 memiliki sisi pengenalan pada whole genom ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula pada target sequence 45 bp. Berdasarkan analisis SSCP profil fragmentasi amplicon primer Aim1 pada masing-masing tingkatan pada populasi budidaya homolog dengan populasi alam, sehingga gen Aim1 bukan merupakan gen yang mengontrol fenomena degeneratif pola pigmen ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula. Peran lingkungan yaitu cahaya memberikan pengaruh positif dalam menginduksi pola pigmen melalui stimulus pada sistem neuron dan migrasi melanophore.

  11. AIM2 inflammasome in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity: Role in DNA sensing, inflammation, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of DNA by the cell is an important immunological signature that marks the initiation of an innate immune response. AIM2 is a cytoplasmic sensor that recognizes dsDNA of microbial or host origin. Upon binding to DNA, AIM2 assembles a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, which drives pyroptosis and proteolytic cleavage of the proinflammatory cytokines pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Release of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm during infection by Francisella, Listeria, Mycobacterium, mouse cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Aspergillus, and Plasmodium species leads to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. In contrast, inappropriate recognition of cytoplasmic self-DNA by AIM2 contributes to the development of psoriasis, dermatitis, arthritis, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome-independent functions of AIM2 have also been described, including the regulation of the intestinal stem cell proliferation and the gut microbiota ecology in the control of colorectal cancer. In this review we provide an overview of the latest research on AIM2 inflammasome and its role in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity.

  12. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine  the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting  is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  13. The effects of heart rate and aiming time on performance in Turkish National Archery Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Eroğlu Kolayiş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of aiming time and heart rate on the performance. Three elite female national subject was used in this study. The shooting performance was observed only in 70 m. To evaluate heart rate, Delta Plus CP/I portable, interpreting model ECG, to determine the releasing time double channel ME 3000 micro-processor, Muscle Tester were used. The results of the study; the shooting heart rate is116,2±7,16 bpm., aiming time is 3,56±0,59 s. And the heart rate of the time between two shooting is 113,13±9,54 bpm. According to statistical analysis, a significant difference between shooting HR and aiming time of arrows which hit the different point on the target has been observed (p<0,05.The relationships between shooting HR-performance and shooting HR-Aiming time have been observed.While shootings come close to the center of the target (through the 10 point the shooting heart rate and aiming time has decreased and there is no change in the value of the heart rate of the time between two shooting.

  14. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  15. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  16. Listeria monocytogenes that lyse in the macrophage cytosol trigger AIM2-mediated pyroptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E.; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To gain insight into the mechanisms by which host cells detect cytosolic invasion by intracellular pathogens, a genetic screen was performed to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death. A mutation in lmo2473 resulted in hyper-stimulation of host cell death and IL-1β secretion (pyroptosis) following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 receptors, but dependent on ASC and AIM2. Importantly, wild type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. Since AIM2 is activated by DNA, these data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during lysis. PMID:20417169

  17. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    ) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...... people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009...

  18. Feasibility of a transition intervention aimed at adolescents with chronic illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Signe; Boisen, Kirsten A; Schmiegelow, Kjeld;

    2017-01-01

    intervention aimed at adolescents with chronic illness focusing on declines, drop-outs, no-shows and advantages and disadvantages of participating. METHODS: We invited 236 adolescents (12-20 years) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) to participate in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) transition...... and being too busy. Advantages of participating were stated as 'participating without parents', 'trust and confidentiality', 'being able to set the agenda' and 'responsiveness'. Disadvantages were 'unclear aim of the study', 'meeting others with JIA', 'too few conversations' and 'transport issues...

  19. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  20. Appeals in television advertising: A content analysis of commercials aimed at children and teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    A content analysis of 601 commercials was conducted in order to identify the appeals that characterize commercials aimed at children and teenagers. Our findings demonstrated that the use of appeals (a) showed strong age differences and (b) was highly gender-role stereotyped, particularly in commerci

  1. Geochemical Mapping——Evolution of Its Aims, Ideas and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xuejing

    2008-01-01

    The development of geochemical mapping progressed from local geochemical prospecting through regional geochemical exploration and regional geochemical mapping to national and global geochemical mapping. This paper discusses the evolution of aims, ideas and methodology of geochemical mapping in Western countries, Russia and China. The sophistication of geochemical mapping methodology will make great contributions to solving resources and environmental problems in the 21st century.

  2. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  3. An Index (PC) Aimed at Monitoring the (P)olar (C)ap for Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PC is an index for magnetic activity in the (P)olar (C)ap. It is based on data from a single nearpole station, and aimed to monitor the polar cap magnetic activity...

  4. AN ADAPTIVE ACO-DRIVEN SCHEME FOR LEARNING AIM ORIENTED PERSONALIZED E-LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Hans

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The e-learning paradigm is now a well-established vehicle of modern education. It caters to a wide spectrum of students with diverse backgrounds who enroll with their own learning aims. A core challenge under this scenario is to generate personalized learning paths so that each student can achieve her learning aim most effectively. Prior works used static attributes such as prior knowledge level, learning ability, browsing preferences, learning style etc. to generate personalized learning paths. In this paper, we take an entirely new route by taking into account the continuous improvement of a learner in the light of her own learning aim, to redefine her learning path at each level of the course. We introduce the concept of personalized examination system that systematically evaluates the dynamic learning ability of every student according to her pre-set goals. The proposed intelligent e-learning system uses Ant Colony Optimization to iteratively optimize the forward learning paths. Experimental results reveal that the system is able to tap a student’s improved learning ability to choose more difficult paths that contribute highly towards her own aims. We demonstrate that the overall learning success of weaker students doubles as compared to statically generated paths while there is considerable improvement of 50% in the learning success for average students as well. This clearly indicates that our approach gives realistic benefits to initially weak students who gradually evolve as the course progresses.

  5. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  6. Effects of Direction and Index of Difficulty on Aiming Movements after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Ribeiro Coqueiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain hemispheres play different roles in the control of aiming movements that are impaired after unilateral stroke. It is not clear whether those roles are influenced by the direction and the difficulty of the task. Objective. To evaluate the influence of direction and index of difficulty (ID of the task on performance of ipsilesional aiming movements after unilateral stroke. Methods. Ten individuals with right hemisphere stroke, ten with left hemisphere stroke, and ten age- and gender-matched controls performed the aiming movements on a digitizing tablet as fast as possible. Stroke individuals used their ipsilesional arm. The direction (ipsilateral or contralateral, size (0.8 or 1.6 cm, and distance (9 or 18 cm of the targets, presented on a monitor, were manipulated and determined to be of different ID (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. Results. Individuals with right hemisphere lesion were more sensitive to ID of the task, affecting planning and final position accuracy. Left hemisphere lesion generated slower and less smooth movements and was more influenced by target distance. Contralateral movements and higher ID increased planning demands and hindered movement execution. Conclusion. Right and left hemisphere damages are differentially influenced by task constraints which suggest their complementary roles in the control of aiming movements.

  7. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  8. Differential identification of aims and results of formation plans: an application to the Spanish aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Monserrat Cruz González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of the formation, related theoretically to the performance of human resources, self-training, information and effectiveness, have been identified as the amount in which the company goes further from knowledge to learning. In this paper three hypotheses applied to the Spanish aquaculture are proposed to model the differential aim follow-up and the achievements of the formation plans. The empirical analysis has been carried out with the data of 99 representative companies of the aquaculture sector. The SPSS 19 statistical program was used for the data analysis. A factor analysis was made by the method of principal components. Eighteen nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis type were applied, as well as 36 chi-squared tests. As a result, three principal components were identified that explain 80% of the variance of the aims: the first one refers to policies of implication of human resources, the second one is relatedto objective circumstances and the third one is associated to dynamism. It was confirmed that the relevance of aims is proportional to the percentage of expense in formation and, specifically, it is greater in suppliers. Finally, significantdifferences in the results of the formation with respect to the reduction of errors were observed, this reduction being greater in fish distribution and production. Significant differences were also observed in the effect of the formation on the motivation of the employee, this being greater in fish suppliers and producers

  9. Chemistry Journal Articles: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Move Analysis with Pedagogical Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Robinson, Marin S.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights aspects of an interdisciplinary (chemistry-applied linguistics) English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course- and materials-development project. The project was aimed at raising genre awareness among chemistry students and faculty, in addition to improving students' disciplinary reading and writing. As part of the project,…

  10. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  11. A description of bicycle and moped rider accidents aimed to indicate priorities for injury prevention research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbers, J.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study is to indicate priorities in the field of bicycle and moped injury prevention research, based on criteria given. The study is a part of a preparation for a SWOV accident investigation project that has to identify and to gratify factors influencing injuries of pedestrians, cyclis

  12. Kui suur peaks olema õpetaja palk? / Aime Klandorf, Kaja Sarapuu, Jaanus Rooba...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Rapla ühisgümnaasiumi emakeeleõpetaja Aime Klandorf, Oru põhikooli emakeeleõpetaja Kaja Sarapuu, Tartu Maarja kooli direktor Jaanus Rooba, Kuressaare gümnaasiumi õpetaja Marit Tarkin, Tartu Tamme gümnaasiumi bioloogiaõpetaja Urmas Tokko, Tallinna Kristiine gümnaasiumi õppealajuhataja Malle Ling

  13. The AIME Statewide Survey of School Library Media Centers: Expenditures & Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel; Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    This report is based on an Indiana statewide survey of school library media center collections, budgets, and services which was sponsored by the Association for Indiana Media Educators (AIME). Completed and usable surveys were received from 823 public and private school library media programs representing 44% of the total possible school library…

  14. Development Principles of the Pedagogical System Aimed at Bachelor Training Based on Modern Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurymbayev, Sayat G.; Samashova, Gulfarida E.; Alshynbayeva, Zhuldyz E.; Mukhametzhanova, Aigul O.; Sharazdin, Adilzada M.; Kalybekova, Kalamkas S.; Kosybaeva, Umitzhan A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern education is aimed at training competent specialists, which requires modernizing the training process by implementing innovative technologies, especially information technologies. Information technologies allow quickly accessing necessary data, which speeds up the training process. This paper deals with issues related to training bachelors…

  15. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  16. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative method

  17. Happiness as an Aim in Public Policy : The greatest Happiness Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractUtilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at advancing human happiness. This moral theory meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideological grounds as undesirable. As a result the principle is marginal in policy making. In this

  18. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  19. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B

    2001-01-01

    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  20. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  1. Pressure ulcers: diagnostics and interventions aimed at wound-related complaints: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, H.E.W. de; Scholte op Reimer, W.J.; Achterberg, T. van

    2005-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the current scientific evidence in the field of diagnostics and treatment of pain, malodour and exudate from pressure ulcers and to give recommendations for practice, based on these findings. BACKGROUND: Patients with pressure ulcers are confronted with symptoms of c

  2. DIFFERENCES IN AIMS OF HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'AGOSTINO, BROTHER C. JOSEPH

    AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE OF THE ARTICULATION GAP WHICH RESULTS FROM THE LACK OF COMMUNICATION IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION BETWEEN HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS AND COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS OF FIRST-YEAR COURSES, AND FROM A LACK OF AGREEMENT ABOUT THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF CHEMISTRY COURSES AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL. ELIMINATION OF THIS GAP WAS CONSIDERED BY THE…

  3. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  4. Synchronised and complementary coordination mechanisms in an asymmetric joint aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua Charles; Skewes, Lea; Michael, John

    2015-01-01

    ) strategies. These two mechanisms have been mostly studied independently, the former in the context of rhythmic tasks, and the latter in non-rhythmic tasks. However, people often balance these two strategies in real life social interactions, in order to achieve a joint goal more effectively. Here, our aim...... was to investigate how people may implicitly balance synchronisation and complementarity in a continuous joint aiming task. We asked dyads to synchronise the timing of their clicks between targets, while changing task constraints for one member of the dyad (i.e. different task difficulties) to asymmetrically perturb...... the continuous interaction. This allowed us to investigate how individuals implicitly negotiate complementary leader-follower dynamics to achieve synchronisation. We found that dyads flexibly switch from mutual to asymmetric adaptation given variations in task constraints. Specifically, our results show...

  5. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2010-05-20

    A host defense strategy against pathogens is the induction of cell death, thereby eliminating the pathogen's intracellular niche. Pyroptosis, one such form of cell death, is dependent on inflammasome activation. In a genetic screen to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death, we identified a mutation in lmo2473 that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasome receptors but dependent on the inflammasome adaptor ASC and the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2. Importantly, wild-type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. These data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during cytosolic lysis.

  6. Efficient Analysis of Surface-Wire Configurations Using AIM and Best Uniform Rational Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Hailin; GONG Shuxi; WANG Xing; ZHANG Penfei; ZHAO Bo

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive integral method (AIM) in conjunction with the best uniform approximation tech-nique is applied to analyze the electromagnetic problems of surface-wire junction geometries over a wide frequency band. To improve the computation efficiency, the best uniform approximation method is utilized. The AIM can reduce memory requirements and accelerate the matrix-vector multiplications in iterative process. Some numeri-cal examples are shown to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. Compared with the di-rect solution method and Asymptotic waveform evaluation (AWE) technique, the proposed technique is found to be efficient in a broadband with the lower Central processing unit (CPU) time required and without loss of accuracy.

  7. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  8. Planning of excavation of seams characterized by complicated structure with the aim of coal mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, Yu.I.; Pushkin, S.P. (Kievskii Inzhenerno-Stroitel' nyi Institut (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Discusses use of mathematical modeling for optimization of surface mining in mines with a complicated coal deposit structure and changing coal quality. The modeling is aimed at stabilizing coal quality, especially ash content. Surface mines with bucket wheel excavators for overburden removal and mining and locomotives and railroad cars for mine haulage are modeled. The mines supply 2 classes of coal: with 47% ash and with 55%. The modeling is aimed at determining optimum advance rates of the bucket wheel excavators. Effects of mine haulage system, coal yard capacity, coal seam structure, fluctuations of coal quality in a coal deposit, requirements for optimum geometry of the working faces, benches and other elements that influence slope stability are considered. 2 refs.

  9. A RE-AIM evaluation of theory-based physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antikainen, Iina; Ellis, Rebecca

    2011-04-01

    Although physical activity interventions have been shown to effectively modify behavior, little research has examined the potential of these interventions for adoption in real-world settings. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the external validity of 57 theory-based physical activity interventions using the RE-AIM framework. The physical activity interventions included were more likely to report on issues of internal, rather than external validity and on individual, rather than organizational components of the RE-AIM framework, making the translation of many interventions into practice difficult. Furthermore, most studies included motivated, healthy participants, thus reducing the generalizability of the interventions to real-world settings that provide services to more diverse populations. To determine if a given intervention is feasible and effective in translational research, more information should be reported about the factors that affect external validity.

  10. [Aims and tasks of the Chambers of Physicians before the year 1939].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowska, E

    1998-01-01

    The main aims of the Chambers of Physicians, which were called into being at the time when Poland was partitioned, were to protect the interest of physicians employed at health service after the introduction of compulsory insurance against sickness. They played a function of quasi-trade unions (in former Prussian sector). After Poland regained independence, based on the Chamber of Physicians Act of 1921 the Chief Chamber and regional chambers were created. Their aim was to assemble all doctors practicing in the country on obligatory basis. They performed a role of trade union, carried out social activity, ran saving and loan banks as well as funeral funds, controlled even distribution of physicians all over Poland, worked on ethical and deonthological codes, carried out arbitration by colleagues, performed the function of an organ of professional supervision.

  11. The didactics of group work – between means and aims in theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss aims and means of group work as a teaching and learning method. In Denmark, group work has been implemented at all levels of education since the 1970s from primary school to university but also in training sessions in organizations. The discussion in this paper...... will take its point of departure in pedagogical textbook introductions where group work is often presented as a means to learning social skills and co-workability. However, as most students and teachers know, this is not always the case. Observations of long-term group work show that this can be a tough...... experience for the students (Christensen 2013). Contrary to expectations, the group work seemed to foster anti-social behavior and development of selfish skills. The paper will therefore conclude by suggesting how the (often) laissez-faire group pedagogy, which is dominant in Denmark, could be improved...

  12. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them......Animal health and welfare is an important part of organic husbandry, both in terms of the organic principles and owing to the consumer interest. But problems in the organic egg production resulting in high mortality and feather pecking, have led to the need for management tools in order to secure...... animal health and welfare. The aim of the project is to develop management tools for the organic egg production, aimed to secure animal health and welfare in the flocks. In the first part of the project a welfare assessment system for organic egg production was developed and tested on 10 fl ocks during...

  13. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  14. The Model Proposal Which Aims to build up a Balanced Scorecard in Thermal Tourism Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇAY, İ. Cemal

    2014-01-01

    According to the Balanced Scorecard named as “corporate performance scorecard”, corporate performance, finance, customer, internal processes, learning and development must be evaluated with dimensions. Balanced Scorecard proposes that businesses are supposed to be managed with a strategic management system mainly based on measurement and evaluation. This study aims to present the model objectives, criteria and the process that guides about how to build up the corporate performance (Bala...

  15. Processing and surface modification of novel natural-origin architectures aimed for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências e Tecnologia de Materiais - Área de Conhecimento em Biomateriais In the last decades, tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutical tool aimed at developing substitutes that are able to restore proper function of the damaged organs/tissues. Nature‐inspired routes involving natural origin polymer‐based systems represent an attractive alternative to produce novel materials by mimicking the tissue environment required for tissue regen...

  16. Midline body actions and leftward spatial Aiming in patients with spatial neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eChaudhari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial motor-intentional Aiming bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques such as visual scanning training do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated 1 whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space, and 2 whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: look to the left, point with your nose to the left, point with your [right] hand to the left, and stick out your tongue and point it to the left. She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested 9 more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  17. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas; Viviane Tavares de Morae; Eduardo Junca; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório; Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an ox...

  18. Research of a Video Aiming%一种视频瞄准具的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡本睿; 曾园燕; 李平; 李卓

    2012-01-01

    A video aiming with 1 mil accuracy and 15 ~ 25 meters aiming distance has been developed. It consists of image acquisition system and display system. The former includes optical lens, CCD image sensor and picatinny rail, and the latter includes sub-dash generator, button control panel, monitor and power conversion module. By applying the technology of on screen display, the electronic sub-dash is produced with the use of MAX7456 ship. The experimental results indicate that this video aiming could generate electronic sub-dash accurately and display the target image clearly. It also has the advantages of aiming in real-time, simple operation, flexibility and reliability.%研究了一种视频瞄准具,其结构组成包括由光学镜头、图像传感器CCD以及皮卡导轨构成的图像采集系统和由分划线产生器、控制面板、显示器以及电源变换模块构成的显示系统;瞄准精度为1 mil,瞄准距离可达到15~25 m;应用视频叠加技术,以MAX7456为核心产生电子分划线.实验结果表明,该瞄准具可准确地叠加电子分划线、显示清晰的瞄准目标图像,具有瞄准实时、操作简便、灵活可靠等特点.

  19. The role of NLRP3 and AIM2 in inflammasome activation during Brucella abortus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R.; Miraglia, Maria Cruz; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is essential for detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which leads to control of infection. This protective effect is due to inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death. Brucella DNA is sensed by AIM2 and bacteria induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is detected by NLRP3. However, deregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production can lead to immunopathology. Nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder termed neurobrucellosis. Herein we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus. Our results demonstrate that the ASC inflammasome is indispensable for inducing the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β upon infection of astrocytes and microglia with Brucella. Moreover, our results demonstrate that secretion of IL-1β by Brucella-infected glial cells depends on NLRP3 and AIM2 and leads to neurobrucellosis. Further, the inhibition of the host cell inflammasome as an immune evasion strategy has been described for bacterial pathogens. We discuss here that the bacterial type IV secretion system VirB is required for inflammasome activation in host cells during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes mainly NLRP3 and AIM2 that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. PMID:27405866

  20. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS): Mission, Function, Task Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    design concepts for controlling the AIMS system were developed under contract to CAE Professional Services (PS) (formerly Greenley and Associates Inc...d’un marché adjugé à CAE Services professionnels (nouvelle appellation de Greenley and Associates Inc.). Dans le cadre de la conception, une analyse... Greenley and Associates Inc.) has been contracted to provide human factors research and development support in the development, design, and evaluation

  1. Taking a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program to the Home: The AIM 4 Teen Moms Experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles. The program is delivered primarily in participants' homes. The report describes the program's development and design, recruiting approach, facilitators' training in and delivery of the program, and youth engagement and response, concluding with lessons for future ...

  2. Incorporating Level-2 PSA Feature of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Hogon; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CONPAS (CONtainment Performance Analysis System) utilizes a methodology to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. In mid 2000's, KAERI has developed very fast cut set generator FTREX and PC's OS (Operating system) has changed into Windows 95. Thus, KAERI has developed new Level-1 PSA software, called AIMS-PSA (Advanced Information Management System for PSA) to replace KIRAP. Recently, KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA platform, called OCEANS (On-line Consolidator and Evaluator of All mode risk for Nuclear System), for the risk assessment of all power modes and all hazards. CONPAS for Level-2 PSA was developed in 1990's using the Visual Basic 6.0 compiler which is not supported any more. It needs to be updated for the integrated PSA software framework. This paper describes a study to incorporate the features of CONPAS into AIMS-PSA. The basic idea is to follow the approach of CONPAS, but in the integrated way. Various approaches for Level-2 PSA have been used since WASH-1400. APET approach of NUREG-1150 study would be most comprehensive and complex methodology for containment event tree analysis. CONPAS is the Level-2 PSA software to utilize an approach to treat containment phenomena in detail like APET but in simple way. But, new Level-2 PSA software is required to develop more integrated PSA framework. A modified approach of CONPAS is developed and incorporated in AIMS-PSA software that can handle Level-1 and Level-2 PSA in the integrated way (from the viewpoint of event tree and fault tree). AIMS-PSA combines whole Level-2 PSA model to produce a One Top fault tree and to generate cut sets in the same way as Level-1 PSA. Quantification results of Level-2 PSA such as frequency for each STC can be calculated from the minimal cut sets.

  3. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  4. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Seyhan Yücel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study has designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview technique and the content analysis technique was used in the data analysis. In the research, the findings gathered from the interviews with the teacher candidates are presented in themes, and then interpreted. Considering findings of the study, it has been seen that Internet should be used for learning-teaching purpose. Teacher candidates of German Language support the fact that Internet has a crucial role in education, and particularly it is useful and essential as Internet provides lots of opportunities for German Language Teaching such as authentic study samples, rich materials and exercises on skills, contemporary videos reflecting German culture or film sections. Internet is also a good material which provides accessing various information and also realizing and sharing many goals. If the information is gathered via audio and visual ways, it will be retentive. Thus, German Language teacher candidates can have opportunity to study on the foreign language and its culture through Internet. Furthermore, they have met the contemporary approaches like realizing self-directed learning individually. That’s why, the views of German Language pre-service teacher about the use of Internet with the aim of learning are very important.

  5. O caso Aimée e a causalidade psíquica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Hortélio Fernandes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as formulações acerca da causalidade psíquica nos primórdios da obra de Jacques Lacan. Com base na análise do caso Aimée, presente na tese de psiquiatria de Lacan, busca demonstrar como a hipótese de uma origem social nos mecanismos psíquicos de autopunição da paranóia permite a Lacan articular, alguns anos depois, identificação e causalidade psíquica.The case of Aimée and psychic causality. The article discusses the formulations about psychic causality in Lacan's early work. Based on the analysis of the Aimée case of Lacan's psychiatric thesis, it tries to demonstrate how the hypothesis of social origin in the psychic mechanisms of self-punishment present in the paranoia, make it possible for Lacan to articulate, years later, identification and psychic causality.

  6. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients.

  7. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs. Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow.

  8. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed.

  9. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  10. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollands Louk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing work environments (NWEs in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi- experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies, the educational toolbox (one study, the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study, and the violence prevention intervention (one study. Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we

  11. Remote Power Control of Ethernet PON System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inkwun; Jung; Chunghwan; Lim; Youngil; Park

    2003-01-01

    A power control scheme to make all ONU channels' power received at OLT nearly equal is proposed. Implemented by monitoring powers at OLT and sending control message to each ONU, it helps data recovery from the burst type upstream optical signals.

  12. Extreme Networks' 10-Gigabit Ethernet enables

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    " Extreme Networks, Inc.'s 10-Gigabit switching platform enabled researchers to transfer one Terabyte of information from Vancouver to Geneva across a single network hop, the world's first large-scale, end-to-end transfer of its kind" (1/2 page).

  13. Remote Power Control of Ethernet PON System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inkwun Jung; Chunghwan Lim; Youngil Park

    2003-01-01

    A power control scheme to make all ONU channels’ power received at OLT nearly equal is proposed. Implemented by monitoring powers at OLT and sending control message to each ONU, it helps data recovery from the burst type upstream optical signals.

  14. VALUE JUDGMENTS ON MEANING AND AIMS OF USING GAMES GIVEN BY PRESCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inessa V. Usoltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented article is to understand value, aims and practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of using games by preschool teachers with different levels of education.Methods. In the conducted survey, 308 preschool teachers answered a questionnaire developed by leading researcher in ethnopedagogy of play V. M. Grigoriev. Examinees were divided into three groups different in educational level (undergraduated, graduated from college, specialized secondary education. The data were analyzed by comparing value judgments about meaning and aims of using games given by preschool teachers with different levels of education. Also value judgments were compared with practical aspects (frequency, diversity, etc. of the use of games in teachers’ professional work, and with their degree of satisfaction with it. Special attention was paid to the usage of ethno games. The analysis was done out in the program stаstistica 5.0 v and using the methods of nonparametric statistics.Results. The results have showed statistically significant differences between value judgments given by preschool teachers with different levels of education on values of games for developing various children personal qualities, frequency and diversity of use of different types of games. Problems in practical application of national games (Russian national games, games of the people of Russia and people of other countries, international games are designated.Scientific novelty. The author is the first to state the data about divergence influence in valuable representations and purposes of teachers of preschool centres on potential use of game technologies in daily work, and that is reflected in education productivity of younger children; wherein the game is the main activity. Specificity of national games in teaching is shown.Practical significance. The paper materials can be useful at the organisation of methodical work in preschool educational institutions, and by

  15. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects.

  16. The Aims of Education: some areas of controversy教育的目的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莲

    2005-01-01

    Education is a highly complicated process which is connected with families, schools and society throughout one's whole life. Harry Chester's Schools for Children and Institutes for Adults (1860) says, Education is the development and training of the human being in all his capacities, spiritual, intellectual and physical;and in National Education we ought to have no less grand an object than to develop to the greatest possible extent, and to direct to the best possible aims, the spiritual, intellectual,and physical capacities of all the individuals who compose the nation…' (Dyson and Lovelock,1975:161)。

  17. The Aims of Education: some areas of controversy教育的目的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛莲

    2005-01-01

    Education is a highly complicated process which is connected with families, schools and society throughout one's whole life. Harry Chester's Schools for Children and Institutes for Adults (1860) says, Education is the development and training of the human being in all his capacities, spiritual, intellectual and physical;and in National Education we ought to have no less grand an object than to develop to the greatest possible extent, and to direct to the best possible aims, the spiritual, intellectual,and physical capacities of all the individuals who compose the nation…' (Dyson and Lovelock,1975:161)。

  18. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Katherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo, grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies and compliance with guidelines (one study. Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in

  19. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique. Il pourra ainsi servir à une multitude...unique jusqu’à cinq capteurs , y compris des capacités de déclenchement actif et d’imagerie thermique. Il peut ainsi servir à une multitude de...AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique

  20. Teaching portfolios and a competence framework aimed to build faculty teaching competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Kobayashi, Sofie

    as a need for a common language and reference. Main barriers are scepticism towards the teaching portfolio for assessment of competencies, fear of extra work load, possible use as control measures, and fear that standards will narrow teaching development. In a research intensive university it is very......The University of Copenhagen has decided to introduce teaching portfolios and a competence framework as initiatives aimed to address the relatively low status of teaching compared to research. The two measures have been designed in a bottom-up process and are also backed by university leadership...

  1. Reactivity of brazilian coal, charcoal, imported coal and blends aiming to their injection into blast furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Gonçalves Maria da Silva Machado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For about 10 years the steel industry in Brazil has used pulverized coal injection (PCI technology in the blast furnaces based on imported coals. In order to decrease the dependence on imported coals, Brazilian coal, which has limited use due to high ash content, was suggested to be mixed with imported coal and charcoal. The aim was to examine the reactivity of the samples. The charcoal use in the steel industry contributes to the CO2 emission reduction, since it represents a renewable source of energy. The reactivity of the coals, charcoal and mixtures was evaluated through simultaneous thermal analyses. Results of this study are presented and discussed.

  2. Appearance and reality. Socrates’ aims and strategies in Plato’s Cratylus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Steffen Lund

    What are Socrates ’ aims and strategies in the Cratylus? Does Socrates seek to convince his interlocutors that there is a source of linguistic correctness, which goes beyond human agreement, and which really determines whether the name of something is the correct name? Or does Socrates seek...... to achieve the opposite? What strategies does Socrates use, and why? These questions are central to my thesis, which offer s a new interpretation of Plato’s Cratylus . In the thesis I argue that Socrates really does seek to convince his interlocutors that there is a “natural correctness of names...

  3. Open3DALIGN: an open-source software aimed at unsupervised ligand alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas; Shiri, Fereshteh

    2011-08-01

    An open-source, cross-platform software aimed at conformer generation and unsupervised rigid-body molecular alignment is presented. Different algorithms have been implemented to perform single and multi-conformation superimpositions on one or more templates. Alignments can be accomplished by matching pharmacophores, heavy atoms or a combination of the two. All methods have been successfully validated on eight comprehensive datasets previously gathered by Sutherland and co-workers. High computational performance has been attained through efficient parallelization of the code. The unsupervised nature of the alignment algorithms, together with its scriptable interface, make Open3DALIGN an ideal component of high-throughput, automated cheminformatics workflows.

  4. A critical review of Singapore's policies aimed at supporting families caring for older members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kalyani K

    2006-01-01

    This article critically examines the family-oriented social policies of the Singapore government aimed at supporting families caring for older members. The sectors focused on are financial security, health, and housing. Singaporeans have been reminded that the family should be the first line of defense for aging families, followed by the community - the state would step in as the last resort. Drawing from recent research and examination of the state policies, the author argues that more should be done to help family caregivers looking after elder relatives. Recommendations for innovative ways to recognize and reward family carers conclude the paper.

  5. Determining the marketing mix for a start-up travel agency aimed at the Belgian market

    OpenAIRE

    Hanák, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This thesis suggests a marketing mix consisting of 4 P's for a start-up travel agency. It created a product according to the quantitative research, n=140, and a qualitative research on the Belgian market. It includes the price of the product according to a competitor analysis, price expectation of the segment and a calculation of all costs connected with providing the service. It suggests also a promotion strategy aimed at the target audience and describes the place in terms point of sale ded...

  6. On Heterogeneity in Mobile Sensing Applications Aiming at Representative Data Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Franke, Tobias;

    2013-01-01

    on collective, mobile sensed data are valid. In this paper, we aim to inform researchers and developers about mobile sensing data heterogeneity and ways to combat it. We do so via distilling a vocabulary of underlying causes, and via describing their effects on mobile sensing---building on experiences from......Gathering representative data using mobile sensing to answer research questions is becoming increasingly popular, driven by growing ubiquity and sensing capabilities of mobile devices. However, there are pitfalls along this path, which introduce heterogeneity in the gathered data, and which...

  7. The Danish National Birth Cohort--its background, structure and aim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    ) was established. A large cohort of pregnant women with long-term follow-up of the offspring was the obvious choice because many of the exposures of interest cannot be reconstructed with sufficient validity back in time. The study needs to be large, and it is aimed to recruit 100,000 women early in pregnancy...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...

  8. Professional Development Program Aimed at Physicians to Develop Drug Utilization Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacelis Dahilet Cisneros Nápoles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: one of the deficiencies presented by physicians in their professional activity is related to the development of drug utilization studies. Objective: to design a professional development program aimed at physicians to develop drug utilization studies. Methods: an educational research was conducted at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos during the 2011-2012 academic year. Theoretical methods such as the analytic-synthetic, the inductive-deductive, the historical-logical, modeling and system approach were used in the methodological and theoretical process. Results: the program aims at training physicians to develop drug utilization studies and its contents include: drug-related problems; criteria for selecting a drug in the prescription process; Pharmacoepidemiology; objectives, types of studies, characteristics and steps for the design and development of drug utilization studies; drug therapy and aspects on the selection and analysis of drug information sources. The methods are based on reflection and research itself developed by physicians during the activities for their professional development. Discussion and presentation of essays and research projects will be used to assess learning in the program, which integrates forms of professional development including specialized conferences, self-study, postgraduate courses, workshops and consultancies. Conclusions: the program serves as a reference to design the different activities required to train physicians for the development of drug utilization studies and it can be integrated in the graduate strategy of the university.

  9. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  10. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r = 0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  11. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  12. ACTIVITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION AIMED AT PREVENTING WORK ACCIDENTS WITH NEEDLESTICK MATERIALS: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Vangeris Silva Fernandes de Lima

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health services are composed of complex work environments. For this reason, they present several risks to the health of workers and also of people being treated at these places. Among these risks, one that is peculiar to health services is the risk of occupational accidents with biological material involving sharps. Objective: This study aimed to describe a health education activity conducted in a Health Center of the Federal District, Brazil. Methods: This is an experience report that discusses the final paper of the discipline “Administration Applied to Nursing and Internship”, offered by the Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia. A lecture was prepared, aimed at health workers and support staff, on general aspects of occupational accidents involving sharps, as well as preventive aspects. Results: In each clinical room of the Health Center were fixed two posters: the first discussing the proper disposal of sharps and the second, in turn, was a message of reflection. 31 professionals attended the lecture as listeners. Conclusion: We understand the validity of the lecture delivered, based on scientific studies that highlight the need and shortage of health education activities that address the prevention of occupational accidents involving sharps among Health Professionals. Additionally, it is important mentioning that such activity demand was estimated by the workers of the Health Center in study.

  13. The Research Site Vrchslatina – an experimental design and the main aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konôpka Bohdan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012, we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts, we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation in the particular years for net primary productivity.

  14. EFFECT OF AGE AND CLONE ON THE QUALITY OF Eucalyptus spp WOOD AIMING BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814587The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of age and clone on the quality of Eucalyptus spp wood aiming the production of charcoal and bioenergy. Four Eucalyptus spp clones at the ages of 57 and 69 months were evaluated. Four trees per clone in each age were evaluated. The average basic density, the basic density at the DBH, higher heating value and contents of lignin, total extractives, ashes, holocellulose an elemental chemica analylsis (C, H, N, S and O were evaluated. In the evaluation of the assay, and entirely randomized design in the factorial scheme 4 x 2 was used. Besides, a multivariate analysis of main components was made. In general, it was observed effect of age on wood quality. Ash, hydrogen and nitrogen contents tended to diminish with increases in age for all the clones evaluated. However, oxygen content presented an increase with the increase in age of the clones. Lignin content presented significant increase with age increase, being the contrary observed for holocellulose content. The clones at the age of 69 months presented the highest contents of lignin, but the same did not happen for basic density of wood. The clones I144 and I220 had the highest average values for this characteristic, what may be advantageous for charcoal production. 

  15. Endowing non-cellulolytic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity aiming for consolidated bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    With the exhaustion of fossil fuels and with the environmental issues they pose, utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels and bio-based chemicals has recently become an attractive option. Lignocellulosic biomass is primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and has a very rigid and complex structure. It is accordingly much more expensive to process than starchy grains because of the need for extensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Efficient and cost-effective methods for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulose are required. A consolidated bioprocess (CBP), which integrates all biological steps consisting of enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation, is considered a promising strategy for reducing production costs. Establishing an efficient CBP using lignocellulosic biomass requires both lignocellulose degradation into glucose and efficient production of biofuels or chemicals from glucose. With this aim, many researchers are attempting to endow selected microorganisms with lignocellulose-assimilating ability. In this review, we focus on studies aimed at conferring lignocellulose-assimilating ability not only to yeast strains but also to bacterial strains by recombinant technology. Recent developments in improvement of enzyme productivity by microorganisms and in improvement of the specific activity of cellulase are emphasized.

  16. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  17. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  18. Effects of an intervention aimed at improving nurse-patient communication in an oncology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Mette Trøllund; Jensen, Mette Lund; Andersen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    In an ever more burdened healthcare system, there is an urgent need to investigate whether patients benefit from the resources allocated to nurses' communication skills training in terms of improved patient outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate a standardized two 2-day (33 hours) communication...... skills training program in nursing cancer care. Twenty-four nurses in an oncology outpatient clinic participated and were randomly assigned to the intervention program or a control group. A total of 413 patients treated in the clinic during 2 recruitment periods (before and after the communication skills...... training) completed a questionnaire package assessing the nurse-patient relationship, psychological well-being, and cancer-related self-efficacy. Nurse group differences in change scores between time points (baseline, 1 week, and 3 months after the communication skills training) on measures related...

  19. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A. R.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E. M.; Emig, J.; Flocke, N.; Fiuza, F.; Forest, C. B.; Foster, J.; Graziani, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryu, D.; Ryutov, D.; Weide, K.; White, T. G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2017-04-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  20. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  1. STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PROJECTS, AIMED AT THE BIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burneo Valarezo Servio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in the management of projects aimed at Building Information Modeling, represents the main action to be developed during the development of the investment lifecycle, from inception to the development of life, decision marking is present in all phases of project management. In the Fund's shares of the production system by projects, decision making integrated from the priorities of the projects play an important role in the success of the company.The present work has as objective the development of a procedure for decision making during the life cycle of the project, the conditions for its implementation and the process for its development, with the purpose of raising their quality, to ensure decision making effective, consistent with the current development of the techniques of management.

  2. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  3. About the aims, objects and problems in Brazilian research on Mathematical Modeling in Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of scientific communications published in the IV Mathematical Modeling National Conference (CNMEM in the Brazilian abbreviation, which took place in 2005. The analysis consists of a meta-analytical and content qualitative approach, aided by the software Atlas T.i. The data collected was originated in the above mentioned conference which is the first of the three which will be analyzed in the study that aims to unveil the research on Mathematical Modeling in Brazil. The categories established in this paper and which will be interpreted are: a Meta-study on Mathematics Modeling; b Modeling application; c Articulation between Modeling and other theories, and d Modeling and teachers education.

  4. Engineering strategies aimed at control of acidification rate of lactic acid bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Solem, Christian; Holm, Anders Koefoed

    2013-01-01

    The ability of lactic acid bacteria to produce lactic acid from various sugars plays an important role in food fermentations. Lactic acid is derived from pyruvate, the end product of glycolysis and thus a fast lactic acid production rate requires a high glycolytic flux. In addition to lactic acid......, alternative end products - ethanol, acetic acid and formic acid - are formed by many species. The central role of glycolysis in lactic acid bacteria has provoked numerous studies aiming at identifying potential bottleneck(s) since knowledge about flux control could be important not only for optimizing food...... fermentation processes, but also for novel applications of lactic acid bacteria, such as cell factories for the production of green fuels and chemicals. With respect to the control and regulation of the fermentation mode, some progress has been made, but the question of which component(s) control the main...

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  6. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  7. Teaching-learning sequences: aims and tools for science education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méheut, Martine; Psillos, Dimitris

    2004-05-01

    One notable line of inquiry, aspects of which date back to the early 1980s, involves the design and implementation not of long-term curricula, but of topic-oriented sequences for teaching science. One distinguishing characteristic of a teaching-learning sequence (TLS) is its inclusion in a gradual research-based volutionary process aiming at interlacing the scientific and the student perspective. In the present paper, which is introductory to the special issue, we attempt to serve a double purpose: on the one hand, we provide an overview of developments and trends with regard to TLSs and their classroom validation, discussing empirical studies, theoretical proposals, methodological tools and approaches to describing the design of these sequences in ordinary language, while on the other the paper serves as an introduction to this volume, making it easier for the reader to apprehend the processes of development and validation of research on TLSs.

  8. The ‘Lifeblood’ of Science and Its Politics: Interrogating Epistemic Curiosity as an Educational Aim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Papastephanou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social- and virtue-epistemologies connect intellectual and moral concerns in ways significant for education and its theory. For most educationists, epistemic and ethical virtues are no longer dissociated. However, many political framings or operations of epistemic virtues and vices remain neglected in educational discourses. This article illustrates why a politicization of epistemic issues is relevant to education through reference to political performances of a curiosity typically considered educationally valuable. Curiosity bore political connotations from antiquity to late modernity whose exploration may add critical nuance to educational-philosophical conceptions of epistemic desire. This leads us to the main argument of the article, which is that such politicization helps us interrogate unqualified, uniform, and glorifying treatments of curiosity as an educational aim.

  9. SPOrt an Experiment Aimed at Measuring the Large Scale Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Carretti, E; Bernardi, G; Cecchini, S; Macculi, C; Sbarra, C; Monari, J; Orfei, A; Poloni, M; Poppi, S; Bölla, G; Bonometto, S A; Gervasi, M; Sironi, G; Zannoni, M; Tucci, M; Baralis, M; Peverini, O A; Tascone, R; Virone, G; Fabbri, R; Nicastro, L; Ng, K W; Razin, V A; Vinyajkin, E N; Sazhin, M V; Strukov, I A

    2002-01-01

    SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) is a space experiment to be flown on the International Space Station during Early Utilization Phase aimed at measuring the microwave polarized emission with FWHM = 7deg, in the frequency range 22-90 GHz. The Galactic polarized emission can be observed at the lower frequencies and the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 90 GHz, where contaminants are expected to be less important. The extremely low level of the CMB Polarization signal (< 1 uK) calls for intrinsically stable radiometers. The SPOrt instrument is expressly devoted to CMB polarization measurements and the whole design has been optimized for minimizing instrumental polarization effects. In this contribution we present the receiver architecture based on correlation techniques, the analysis showing its intrinsic stability and the custom hardware development carried out to detect such a low signal.

  10. A reduction clamp for an aiming component in associated acetabular fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Fu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of acetabular fractures is complex and requires specialized equipment. However, all currently available instruments have some disadvantages. A new reduction clamp that can firmly enable reduction and not hinder subsequent fixation procedures for some special fracture types is needed. Materials and Methods: In this study, we introduce a new acetabular clamp and its preliminary clinical application in three T-shaped acetabular fractures. Results: This new clamp can successfully pull the posterior column back to the anterior column and firmly maintain the reduction. This clamp′s aiming plate can facilitate the insertion of long lag screws. The clamp is also easy to assemble and use. Conclusion: This reduction clamp is a useful instrument that can facilitate open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures.

  11. Nozzle Fuzzy Controller of Agricultural Spraying Robot Aiming Toward Crop Rows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jianqiang

    A novel nozzle controller of spraying robot aiming toward crop-rows based on fuzzy control theory was studied in this paper to solve the shortcomings of existing nozzle control system, such as the long regulation time, the higher overshoot and so on. The new fuzzy controller mainly consists of fuzzification interface, defuzzification interface, rule-base and inference mechanism. Considering the actual application, the fuzzy controller was designed as a 2-inputs&1-output closed-loop system. The inputs are the distance from nozzle to crop row and its change rate, the output is the control signal to the execution unit. Based on the design project, we selected the FMC chip NLX230, the EMCU chip AT89S52 and the EEPROM chip AT93C57 to make the fuzzy controller. Experimental results show that the project is workable and efficient, it can solve the shortcomings of existing controller perfectly and the control efficiency can be improved greatly.

  12. Quantifying warfighter performance in a target acquisition and aiming task using wireless inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Steven P; Cain, Stephen M; McGinnis, Ryan S; Vitali, Rachel R; Perkins, Noel C; McLean, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    An array of inertial measurement units (IMUS) was experimentally employed to analyze warfighter performance on a target acquisition task pre/post fatigue. Eleven participants (5M/6F) repeated an exercise circuit carrying 20 kg of equipment until fatigued. IMUs secured to the sacrum, sternum, and a rifle quantified peak angular velocity magnitude (PAVM) and turn time (TT) on a target acquisition task (three aiming events with two 180° turns) within the exercise circuit. Turning performance of two turns was evaluated pre/post fatigue. Turning performance decreased with fatigue. PAVMs decreased during both turns for the sternum (p performance after fatigue. Similar methodologies can be applied to many movement tasks, including quantifying movement performance for load, fatigue, and equipment conditions.

  13. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation.

  14. PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGY AIMED AT STUDENTS’ ADAPTATION TO DISCIPLINE-BASED EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina M. Cheprakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to describe the educational technology aimed at students adaptation to discipline-based education in basic school; results discussion of the application practice to the educational process of the 5th grade.Methods. The methods involve learning experience, school documentation analysis, pedagogical experiment, study of students’ creativity and pedagogical experience on its organizational work. Systematic approach is used while structuring of the 5th grade students’ representations on the disciplines’ content of primary and basic general education on the methodological levelResults. The pedagogical technology of breaking the students’ educational disadaptation in the basic school is presented. The program of the course «All the subjects are good» is worked out. This program may allow students to adapt to the discipline content of the general education, to understand the essence of curriculum disciplines content and links between them, and the motivation development towards disciplinebased education evidence students’ adaptation. These objectives can be achieved through generation of skills based on the algorithmic of the concepts’ definitions mastering. The pilot implementation of the proposed technology in secondary school № 65 and in the Center «Giftedness and technology» of Yekaterinburg is presented.Scientific novelty. The effective way of neutralization and elimination of students’ discipline-educational disadaptation based on purposeful development of their conceptual thinking is proposed.Practical significance. The technology developed by authors allows teachers to form and develop the universal educational actions representing itself as a result of school training in the requirements of the educational standard. Timely use of this technology at transition age of children from primary school to secondary one provides the further success of their education.

  15. Immune-Complexed Adenovirus Induce AIM2-Mediated Pyroptosis in Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichholz, Karsten; Bru, Thierry; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Fernandes, Paulo; Mennechet, Franck J. D.; Manel, Nicolas; Alves, Paula; Perreau, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped proteinaceous particles containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome. HAdVs cause a spectrum of pathologies in all populations regardless of health standards. Following repeat exposure to multiple HAdV types, we develop robust and long-lived humoral and cellular immune responses that provide life-long protection from de novo infections and persistent HAdV. How HAdVs, anti-HAdV antibodies and antigen presenting cells (APCs) interact to influence infection is still incompletely understood. In our study, we used physical, pharmacological, biochemical, fluorescence and electron microscopy, molecular and cell biology approaches to dissect the impact of immune-complexed HAdV (IC-HAdV) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We show that IC-HAdV generate stabilized complexes of ~200 nm that are efficiently internalized by, and aggregate in, MoDCs. By comparing IC-HAdV, IC-empty capsid, IC-Ad2ts1 (a HAdV-C2 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation that impacts protease encapsidation) and IC-AdL40Q (a HAdV-C5 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation in protein VI), we demonstrate that protein VI-dependent endosomal escape is required for the HAdV genome to engage the DNA pattern recognition receptor AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2). AIM2 engagement induces pyroptotic MoDC death via ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a caspase activation/recruitment domain) aggregation, inflammasome formation, caspase 1 activation, and IL-1β and gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how humoral immunity initiates an innate immune response to HAdV-C5 in human professional APCs. PMID:27636895

  16. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  17. Investigation of individuals going to coffeehouse with the aim of leisure time activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin ÖZTÜRK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main basis of this research is to investigate pe ople going to coffeehouse with the aim of leisure time activities. The research group of this study consist of individuals going to the coffeehouses with the aim of leisure time activities in the city of Gaz iantep, Turkey. A total of 421 individuals joined to the research voluntarily. The Research consists of two parts. In the first part, personal information was used. In the second part, the leisure questionnaire form developed by Binarbaşı (2006 was u sed in order to determine individuals’ leisure time habits. The statistical programme SPSS 16.0 software packed programme was used to analyze the data. While analyzing the data, descriptive statistics methods were used as frequency percentage so P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. As the result of research; it is seen that 41 years of age and older people prefer going to coffehouses more than the others, the big majority of them are elementary and junior high school graduates and mostly they are married people, mostly they have 1 - 2 children, as a profession they are mostly workers who take minimum wage and they work very little over salary as monthly income. People going to the coffeehouses in their free time preffered at a high rate that they mostly go to the coffeehouses to spend time with their friends, they are happy with this activity, in the same time they find it very relaxing and they mostly watch TV when they don’t go to coffeehouses in their spare time and they in dicated the reason for failure to participate in other activities except coffeehouses as the absence of relevant activities and programmes appealing to them and economic handicap.

  18. Organogenesis and plant selection by kanamycin of strawberry in vitro aiming at genetic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Reis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of genetic transformation of the strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa is strongly influenced by the cultivar and depends on efficient regeneration and plant-transformed selection. In plant regeneration, efficient organogenesis depends on the concentrations of plant growth regulators that are present in the culture medium, and the response varies according to the explant type and cultivar. Similarly, in the selection of transformed plants, the sensitivity to selective agents induced by marker genes depends on the concentration of the selective substance in the regeneration medium and must be adjusted according to the chosen cultivar. The aim of this work was to test different combinations and concentrations of TDZ (Thidiazuron and IBA (indolebutyric-acid added to the base medium MS (MURASHIGE; SKOOG, 1962 for shoot regeneration of Camiño Real and Festival cultivars from leaf and petiole explants. In the case of ‘Camiño Real’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg L-1 of IBA were tested. In the case of ‘Festival’, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ combined with 0.1 and 0.3 mg L-1 of IBA were evaluated. Another aim was to define the lowest concentration of the selective agent Kanamycin (marker gene npt II able to inhibit regeneration of the untransformed shoots. For this purpose, Kanamycin doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1 were added to the pre-established regeneration medium. In the petiole explant test, normal shoot regeneration did not occur; thus, only shoot regeneration and the sensitivity to Kanamycin from leaf explants were analyzed. For ‘Camiño Real’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.0 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. On the other hand, for ‘Festival’ the best shoot regeneration was established with a combination of 2.5 mg L-1 of TDZ + 0.1 mg L-1 of IBA. As far as Kanamycin sensitivity is concerned, total inhibition of the shoots was observed with 10 mg

  19. Low Power and Shutdown PSA Modeling using AIMS-PSA and SIMA Script

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) software package, called OCEANS. OCEANS includes software for Level- 1, 2 and 3 PSAs, fire PSA, seismic PSA, and shutdown PSA. OCEANS is being developed to simplify and automate the modeling and quantification procedures in PSA. The AIMS-PSA software plays a key role in OCEANS, which takes charge of the event tree and fault tree modeling, as well as automates the quantification procedure. The first low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA in Korea was performed for the purpose of estimating the risk during the LPSD operation for YGN 5 and 6 in 2000. The LPSD PSA requires a lot of time and effort for the following 2 reasons: 1) The risk is analyzed for 14 POSs (Plant Operating States). A PSA for each POS corresponds to a full power PSA. The size of a LPSD PSA can be as large as 14 times a full power PSA. 2) The states of systems/components are changed for every overhaul. The LPSD PSA should be revised for every overhaul to reflect the overhaul schedule. Another study was performed to improve the quality and enhance the methodology for the LPSD PSA in 2006. A method to use the conditioning gate was introduced for the purpose of handling a change in the state of a component. This approach has a benefit compared with the previous one, but still requires modifying the model manually. An approach has been developed in this study to simply the modeling of the LPSD PSA by using a script, called SIMA (Script Interpreter for Mapping Algorithm), in conjunction with AIMS-PSA. The SIMA script consists of a series of script commands to describe the changes in the fault tree model, which enables modifying the system fault trees of a full power PSA automatically to incorporate the situation of LPSD, so as not to modify the fault tree manually. The approach developed in this study was tested and verified for the LPSD PSA model developed in 2006

  20. What is interaction science? Revisiting the aims and scope of JoIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Susanne Bahr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interaction Science has undergone rapid development since JoIS’ (the Journal of Interaction Science founding in 2013. The advent of novel techniques and tools required reviewing the understanding of Interaction Science and the scope and aims of JoIS. More particularly, the set of methods and frameworks needed to be revisited and checked against the characteristics of today’s ecological system and the resulting requirements for developing socio-technical systems. In this editorial, we tackle the interdisciplinary nature of Human-Computer-Interaction, the different thematic areas in Interaction Science, and diverse scientific research methods (and methodologies. We also examine the JoIS articles published so far, in order to provide a sound baseline for re-defining Interaction Science and update the mission of JoIS accordingly. The newly proposed definition of Interaction Science explicitly takes into account diversity and transdisciplinarity of interactional phenomena. We recognize the action space of Interaction Science being complex and ever-changing, and thus opt for wide generalization. Such way, the interaction is considered as the exchange of material or immaterial goods between acting parties (biological or technical entities embodied in a certain context. Regarding scientific methodology, one of the important proposals relevant to JoIS is to relax emphasize on the use of empirical investigation based on traditional laboratory experiment. Traditional laboratory empiricism (usually empowered by statistics and hypothesis testing is too restrictive to exclusively represent JoIS’ aims and scope, so we make way to complementary methods such as modeling, simulation, case studies, and design as science. By acknowledging studies of new methodologies, metrics and measurements, as well as work grounded in theories and applications, we ask for future contributors to stay committed to the TEAM (Theory advancement, Empirical advancement

  1. Oral Health Care Reform in Finland – aiming to reduce inequity in care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widström Eeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Finland, dental services are provided by a public (PDS and a private sector. In the past, children, young adults and special needs groups were entitled to care and treatment from the public dental services (PDS. A major reform in 2001 – 2002 opened the PDS and extended subsidies for private dental services to all adults. It aimed to increase equity by improving adults' access to oral health care and reducing cost barriers. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of the reform on the utilization of publicly funded and private dental services, numbers and distribution of personnel and costs in 2000 and in 2004, before and after the oral health care reform. An evaluation was made of how the health political goals of the reform: integrating oral health care into general health care, improving adults' access to care and lowering cost barriers had been fulfilled during the study period. Methods National registers were used as data sources for the study. Use of dental services, personnel resources and costs in 2000 (before the reform and in 2004 (after the reform were compared. Results In 2000, when access to publicly subsidised dental services was restricted to those born in 1956 or later, every third adult used the PDS or subsidised private services. By 2004, when subsidies had been extended to the whole adult population, this increased to almost every second adult. The PDS reported having seen 118 076 more adult patients in 2004 than in 2000. The private sector had the same number of patients but 542 656 of them had not previously been entitled to partial reimbursement of fees. The use of both public and subsidised private services increased most in big cities and urban municipalities where access to the PDS had been poor and the number of private practitioners was high. The PDS employed more dentists (6.5% and the number of private practitioners fell by 6.9%. The total dental care expenditure (PDS plus private

  2. Evaluation of activities aimed at preventing microbiological risks in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Szymańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbiological contamination of water in dental unit waterlines (DUWL creates a risk of cross-infections, and is a source of biological risk factors in the work environment of a dentist. The aim of the study was to evaluate dentists' knowledge on DUWL microbiological contamination and the scope of activities/procedures they undertake to monitor it. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among 107 Polish dentists using dental units in everyday clinical practice. Results: It has been found that in their daily practice, dentists do not follow procedures leading to reduction or elimination of microbiological contamination of dental unit reservoir water. They are not aware of microbiological contamination of DUWL that supply working handpieces with water. They are unaware of the principles of dealing with dental water and water supply systems or the health risk posed by microbiological contamination of unit water for a dental team and patients. Conclusions: It is necessary to provide dentists with information on microbiological contamination of water in dental units, on the correct procedures of handling water and waterlines that supply working handpieces with water. Med Pr 2013;64(1:11–17

  3. DESTINATION BRANDING AIMED AT INTERNATIONAL AFFIRMATION OF TOURISTIC POTENTIALS OF BiH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Rakita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain how application of marketing and branding principles contributes to effective management of destinations under conditions of globalization. The paper emphasizes the importance of understanding of tourists’ behavior model, with special focus on importance of destination image in process of decision making on destination choice. Case of the city of Rovinj was presented as good practice example in development of destination brand. In order to get the answer to the question where BiH is located in comparison to other countries of the Western Balkans in regard to the most important tourism indicators, findings of relevant research of the World Tourism Organization and the World Economic Forum were presented. In the last part of the paper, some of the shortcomings that usually arise in the process of destination management in BiH were presented, with recommendations how they can be overcome in accordance with the principles of destination marketing and branding, in order to better utilize tourism potentials in BiH.

  4. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  5. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  6. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

  7. A molecular-modeling toolbox aimed at bridging the gap between medicinal chemistry and computational sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Sameh; Zalewski, Adam; Smieško, Martin; Ernst, Beat; Vedani, Angelo

    2013-01-04

    In the current era of high-throughput drug discovery and development, molecular modeling has become an indispensable tool for identifying, optimizing and prioritizing small-molecule drug candidates. The required background in computational chemistry and the knowledge of how to handle the complex underlying protocols, however, might keep medicinal chemists from routinely using in silico technologies. Our objective is to encourage those researchers to exploit existing modeling technologies more frequently through easy-to-use graphical user interfaces. In this account, we present two innovative tools (which we are prepared to share with academic institutions) facilitating computational tasks commonly utilized in drug discovery and development: (1) the VirtualDesignLab estimates the binding affinity of small molecules by simulating and quantifying their binding to the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; and (2) the MD Client launches molecular dynamics simulations aimed at exploring the time-dependent stability of ligand-protein complexes and provides residue-based interaction energies. This allows medicinal chemists to identify sites of potential improvement in their candidate molecule. As a case study, we present the application of our tools towards the design of novel antagonists for the FimH adhesin.

  8. Educational strategies aimed at improving student nurse's medication calculation skills: a review of the research literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolic, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Medication administration is an important and essential nursing function with the potential for dangerous consequences if errors occur. Not only must nurses understand the use and outcomes of administering medications they must be able to calculate correct dosages. Medication administration and dosage calculation education occurs across the undergraduate program for student nurses. Research highlights inconsistencies in the approaches used by academics to enhance the student nurse's medication calculation abilities. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the literature available on effective education strategies for undergraduate student nurses on medication dosage calculations. A literature search of five health care databases: Sciencedirect, Cinahl, Pubmed, Proquest, Medline to identify journal articles between 1990 and 2012 was conducted. Research articles on medication calculation educational strategies were considered for inclusion in this review. The search yielded 266 papers of which 20 meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 5206 student nurse were included in the final review. The review revealed educational strategies fell into four types of strategies; traditional pedagogy, technology, psychomotor skills and blended learning. The results suggested student nurses showed some benefit from the different strategies; however more improvements could be made. More rigorous research into this area is needed.

  9. Time and Energy Measurement Electronics for Silicon Drift Detector Aimed for X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Er-Lei; Ye, Chun-Feng; Liu, Shu-Bin; Jin, Dong-Dong; Lian, Jian; Hu, Hui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A readout electronic with high time and energy resolution performance is designed for the SDD (Silicon Drift Detector) signals readout, which is aimed for X-ray pulsar based navigation (XNAV). For time measurement, the input signal is fed into a fast shaping and Constant Fraction Discrimination (CFD) circuit, and then be digitalized by a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) implemented in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which is designed with a bin size of 2.5 ns. For energy measurement, a slow shaping and analog peak detection circuit is employed to acquire the energy information of input signals, which is then digitalized by a 14-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC). Both the time and energy measurement results are buffered and packaged in FPGA and then transmitted to Data Processing (DP) system. Test results indicate that the time resolution is about 3 ns, while the FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of energy spectrum is better than 160 eV @ 5.9 keV, with the energy dynamic range from 1 keV to 10 keV....

  10. Multilayer stacks obtained by ion assisted EB PVD aimed at thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Lyutovich, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (DE). Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) using Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition (EB PVD) is widely implemented, especially for aero-engine turbine blades. Generally, multilayer stacks are used for these aims. For the additional improvement of intermediate layers with graded transitions to the initial Ni-based alloy, the use of accelerated ions in the EBPVD-process is advantageous. The effect of the substrate bias potential, ion current density and deposition temperature on the structure and properties of Ti and Zr intermediate layers are investigated. The morphology of the films is studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is found that the surface morphology becomes smoother with rising bias potential and decreasing ion current density. Measurements of Vicker's micro-hardness performed on these coatings have shown its increase with higher values of the bias and its reduction with the growing temperature. This effect is caused by the observed decrease in grain size and higher porosity of the films. A multilayer coating system Ni (based substrate)-Si-Si{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al with graded transitions between the layers is obtained using ion assisted EBPVD. Architecture of a multilayer stack for TBC with graded transitions is proposed. (orig.)

  11. A new adaptive controller of facts-based FMRLC aimed at improving power system stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellatif Naceri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Various control techniques using Advanced Super-conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (ASMES aimed at improving power system stability have been proposed. As fuzzy controller has proved its value in some applications, the number of investigations employing fuzzy controller with ASMES has been greatly increased over recent period. Nevertheless, it is sometimes difficult to specify the rule base for some plants, or the need can arise for tuning the rule-base parameters if the plant changes. In order to solve such problems the Fuzzy Model Reference Learning Controller (FMRLC is proposed. This paper investigates multi-inputs/multi-outputs FMRLC for time-variant nonlinear system. This provides the motivation for adaptive fuzzy control, whereby the focus is placed on the automatic on-line synthesis and tuning of fuzzy controller parameters (i.e., the use of on-line data for continuous learning of the fuzzy controller which ensures that the performance objectives are met. The simulation results show that the proposed robust controller is able to work with nonlinear power system (i.e., single machine connected at infinite bus, under various fault conditions and significant disturbances.

  12. Effectiveness of an exercise program aimed at pregnant institutionalized by premature rupture of membranes (PROM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ramón Arbués

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances such as premature rupture of membranes (PROM or preterm labor is usually recommended hospital bed rest. But if this is prolonged, may result from negative consequences both physically and emotionally. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a specific exercise program on physical self-concept and levels of anxiety and depression in a group of pregnant women diagnosed with uncomplicated PROM. A clinical trial was performed on a sample of 50 women diagnosed with uncomplicated RPM at week 32-33 of gestation. In the intervention group performed aerobic exercise routine specifically designed for later (week 34 of gestation to compare their levels of physical self and emotional discomfort (anxiety and depression with a control group with similar characteristics. Results of this investigation show that, in pregnant women uncomplicated diagnostic PROM, a specific exercise program improves physical self-concept and levels of anxiety and depression (p <0.05. Despite recommended further research in this field, does not seem justified the conservative management of complete rest is usually performed in these patients.

  13. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD rates of 30 - 60 Hz and provide thermal resolutions of NETD exchangeability of the units. New modular image processing hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  14. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Machado Benassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 ºC, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 ºC. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35-40 ºC, while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 ºC. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes.

  15. Performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Vieira Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the performance of clonal olive tree gardens in successive cuts aiming cutting propagation. The clonal garden was installed in March 2006, in grooves 40 cm deep. Two cultivars (Ascolano 315 and Arbequina were evaluated and cut in 2007, 2008 and 2009. The test was carried out in split plot in time in a randomized block design with five replications. The plots were composed of three lines, one meter spaced between them, three plants in each line, spaced 0,5 m from each other, totaling nine plants per plot, being evaluated only the three most vigorous plants. For evaluation, three plants were pruned 20 cm height above soil, after 12 months of cultivation, it was evaluated the yield of cuttings with four knots and two pairs of leaves; plants height (m, torso diameter the 20 cm height of the soil (cm; branches length (m; and total green mass accumulated (kg. In most features evaluated, the best results were observed in the ‘Ascolano 315’. The successive cuts may be extended over a three year period. The parameter estimates indicate that plants of both cultivars y responded satisfactorily to regrowth.

  16. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  17. Chemical treatment of papaya seeds aiming at long-term storage and control of damping off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Carvalho Campos Botelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping off is a nursery disease of great economic importance in papaya and seed treatment may be an effective measure to control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of papaya seeds treated with fungicides and stored under two environmental and packaging conditions. Additionally, the efficiency of fungicide treatments in the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani was evaluated. Papaya seeds were treated with the fungicides Captan, Tolylfluanid and the mixture Tolylfluanid + Captan (all commercial wettable powder formulations. Seeds of the control group were not treated. The seeds were stored for nine months in two conditions: packed in aluminum coated paper and kept at 7 ± 1ºC and in permeable kraft paper and kept in non-controlled environment. At the beginning of the storage and every three months the seed quality (germination and vigor tests, emergence rate index, height, dry mass and damping of plants in pre and post-emergence (in contaminated substrate and mycelia-free substrate were analyzed. Both storage conditions as well as the fungicide treatments preserved the germination and seed vigor. In the infested substrate, seedling emergence was favored by fungicides, but in post-emergence, fungicides alone did not control the damping off caused by R. solani. Symptoms of damping off were not observed in the clean substrate. The results showed that the fungicide treatments may be used to pretreat papaya seed for long-term storage and commercialization.

  18. Making didactics proposals aimed at improving socioeducational programs for youngters at risk of social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Violeta Álvarez Fernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Educators at Sograndio Juvenile Detention Center in Asturias were sure that they were able to offer new alternatives to improve their socio-educational intervention. That is the reason why they got involved in an action research training process aimed at making didactic proposals which tried to optimize the development of social competence programs for youngsters with criminal behavior. In order to do this, the Short Version of the Prosocial Thinking Program for Young People (Alba et al., 2005 was applied to nine inmates, eight males between 14 and 20 years old and a female of 16 years old. Theywere the basis and reflection of ourmethodological intervention. The teamtaking part in this intervention is formed by nine inmates and three external members (two coordinators and a woman psychologist. The investigation, mainly qualitative, includes different instruments (both qualitative and quantitative, such as: observation registries, discussion groups, questionnaires and notebooks. After the implementation of the program, positive changes must be highlighted in the emotional dimension, the resolution of problems, self-control and frustration tolerance. Besides, very high levels of satisfaction have been observed among youngsters, educators and external informants. It is important to have created a climate of professional compromise towards change and this way to have abandoned a passive attitude towards training, so that we were able to start an active search for practical answers, adjusted to our necessities and professional interests. Finally, we make several observations and intervention proposals that contribute to generate didactic knowledge thought and adapted for social education.

  19. Critical View on graphene oxide production and its transfer to surfaces aiming electrochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Ronaldo Adriano; Kisner, Alexandre; Bassetto, Victor Costa; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2014-09-01

    Graphene and related materials has been studied aiming their use in several applications including electrochemical sensing systems for a large number of different analytes. However, there have been proportionally only a few studies discussing deeply the implications of the different variables that could be tuned in the preparations of these materials for the development of the electrochemical platforms. In this review it is discussed how the size, number of layers, crystallinity and purity of the graphite starting material affects the final graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) prepared by chemical exfoliation. The exfoliation process and the most frequently applied transfer methods used to prepare thin films of GO and rGO on surfaces/electrodes of sensing platforms are also discussed. The electrochemical behavior of these materials is evaluated as a role of surface organization and adsorption. Considering the parameters previously presented, it is outlined some of the most relevant sensors and biosensor systems, which employ graphene related materials and attempts to explore different possibilities of deposition.

  20. THE AIMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DECAY DATA EVALUATORS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NICHOLS,A.L.; TULI, J.K.

    2007-04-22

    International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centers in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals ''Nuclear Physics A'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', the World Wide Web, on CD-ROM, wall charts of the nuclides and ''Nuclear Wallet Cards''. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centers including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new evaluators to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics.