WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1000au scale properties

  1. Early stages of cluster formation: fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ~1000 AU

    CERN Document Server

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M; Estalella, Robert; Ho, Paul T P; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Busquet, Gemma; Commercon, Benoît; Hennebelle, Patrick; Boissier, Jérémie; Zhang, Qizhou; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Zapata, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed with the PdBI in the most extended configuration the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO(2-1) emission of four massive cores. We detect dust condensations down to ~0.3 Msun and separate millimeter sources down to 0.4" or ~1000 AU, comparable to the sensitivities and separations reached in optical/infrared studies of clusters. The CO(2-1) high angular resolution images reveal high-velocity knots usually aligned with previously known outflow directions. This, in combination with additional cores from the literature observed at similar mass sensitivity and spatial resolution, allowed us to build a sample of 18 protoclusters with luminosities spanning 3 orders of magnitude. Among the 18 regions, ~30% show no signs of fragmentation, while 50% split up into ~4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and foun...

  2. EARLY STAGES OF CLUSTER FORMATION: FRAGMENTATION OF MASSIVE DENSE CORES DOWN TO {approx}< 1000 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti Franques, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Cesaroni, Riccardo [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Commercon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, Ecole Normale Superieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2013-01-10

    In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO (2-1) emission of four massive cores with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration. We detected dust condensations down to {approx}0.3 M {sub Sun} and separate millimeter sources down to 0.''4 or {approx}< 1000 AU, comparable to the sensitivities and separations reached in optical/infrared studies of clusters. The CO (2-1) high angular resolution images reveal high-velocity knots usually aligned with previously known outflow directions. This, in combination with additional cores from the literature observed at similar mass sensitivity and spatial resolution, allowed us to build a sample of 18 protoclusters with luminosities spanning three orders of magnitude. Among the 18 regions, {approx}30% show no signs of fragmentation, while 50% split up into {approx}> 4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and found no correlation of any of these parameters with the fragmentation level. In order to investigate the combined effects of the magnetic field, radiative feedback, and turbulence in the fragmentation process, we compared our observations to radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations and found that the low-fragmented regions are reproduced well in the magnetized core case, while the highly fragmented regions are consistent with cores where turbulence dominates over the magnetic field. Overall, our study suggests that the fragmentation in massive dense cores could be determined by the initial magnetic field/turbulence balance in each particular core.

  3. Mapping ices in protostellar environments on 1000 AU scales: Methanol-rich ice in the envelope of Serpens SMM 4

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, K M; Dartois, E

    2004-01-01

    We present VLT-ISAAC L-band spectroscopy toward 10 stars in SVS 4, a 30"x45" dense cluster of pre-main sequence stars deeply embedded in the Serpens star forming cloud. The ISAAC spectra are combined with archival imaging from UKIRT and ISOCAM to derive accurate extinctions toward the SVS 4 stars. The data are then used to construct a spatial map of the distribution of ice in front of the cluster stars with an average angular resolution of 6" or 1500 AU, three orders of magnitude better than previous maps. We show that water ice is present throughout the region and confirm the presence of methanol ice with an abundance of up to 25% relative to water. It is shown that methanol ice maintains a very high abundance relative to H2 throughout SVS 4, but drops by at least an order of magnitude only 75" away from SVS 4. The maps indicate that some of the lines of sight toward the SVS 4 stars pass through the outer envelope of the class 0 protostar SMM 4. The abundance of water ice relative to the refractory dust comp...

  4. An HST Survey for 100-1000 AU Companions around Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Molecular Clouds: Evidence for Environmentally Dependent Multiplicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kounkel, M; Poteet, C A; Fischer, W J; Hartmann, L

    2016-01-01

    We present a near-IR survey for the visual multiples in the Orion molecular clouds region at separations between 100 and 1000 AU. These data were acquired at 1.6~$\\mu$m with the NICMOS and WFC3 cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional photometry was obtained for some of the sources at 2.05~$\\mu$m with NICMOS and in the $L'$-band with NSFCAM2 on the IRTF. Towards 129 protostars and 197 pre-main sequence stars with disks observed with WFC3, we detect 21 and 28 candidate companions between the projected separations of 100---1000 AU, of which less than 5 and 8, respectively, are chance line of sight coincidences. The resulting companion fraction ($CF$) after the correction for the line of sight contamination is 14.4$^{+1.1}_{-1.3}$% for protostars and 12.5$^{+1.2}_{-0.8}$% for the pre-main sequence stars. These values are similar to those found for main sequence stars, suggesting that there is little variation in the $CF$ with evolution, although several observational biases may mask a decrease in the $C...

  5. Relating biophysical properties across scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenner, Elijah; Marga, Francoise; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of a multicellular living system is that it operates at various scales, from the intracellular to organismal. Genes and molecules set up the conditions for the physical processes to act, in particular to shape the embryo. As development continues the changes brought about by the physical processes lead to changes in gene expression. It is this coordinated interplay between genetic and generic (i.e., physical and chemical) processes that constitutes the modern understanding of early morphogenesis. It is natural to assume that in this multiscale process the smaller defines the larger. In case of biophysical properties, in particular, those at the subcellular level are expected to give rise to those at the tissue level and beyond. Indeed, the physical properties of tissues vary greatly from the liquid to solid. Very little is known at present on how tissue level properties are related to cell and subcellular properties. Modern measurement techniques provide quantitative results at both the intracellular and tissue level, but not on the connection between these. In the present work we outline a framework to address this connection. We specifically concentrate on the morphogenetic process of tissue fusion, by following the coalescence of two contiguous multicellular aggregates. The time evolution of this process can accurately be described by the theory of viscous liquids. We also study fusion by Monte Carlo simulations and a novel Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) model, which is similar to the earlier introduced Subcellular Element Model (SEM; Newman, 2005). Using the combination of experiments, theory and modeling we are able to relate the measured tissue level biophysical quantities to subcellular parameters. Our approach has validity beyond the particular morphogenetic process considered here and provides a general way to relate biophysical properties across scales.

  6. Relating Biophysical Properties Across Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Flenner, Elijah; Neagu, Adrian; Kosztin, Ioan; Forgacs, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of a multicellular living system is that it operates at various scales, from the intracellular to organismal. Very little is known at present on how tissue level properties are related to cell and subcellular properties. Modern measurement techniques provide quantitative results at both the intracellular and tissue level, but not on the connection between these. In the present work we outline a framework to address this connection. We specifically concentrate on the morphogenetic process of tissue fusion, by following the coalescence of two contiguous multicellular aggregates. The time evolution of this process can accurately be described by the theory of viscous liquids. We also study fusion by Monte Carlo simulations and a novel Cellular Particle Dynamics (CPD) model, which is similar to the earlier introduced Subcellular Element Model (Newman, 2005). Using the combination of experiments, theory and modeling we are able to relate the measured tissue level biophysical quantities to s...

  7. Scaling properties of universal tetramers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh, M R; Yamashita, M T; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A; Frederico, T

    2011-09-23

    We evidence the existence of a universal correlation between the binding energies of successive four-boson bound states (tetramers), for large two-body scattering lengths (a), related to an additional scale not constrained by three-body Efimov physics. Relevant to ultracold atom experiments, the atom-trimer relaxation peaks for |a|→∞ when the ratio between the tetramer and trimer energies is ≃4.6 and a new tetramer is formed. The new scale is also revealed for a < 0 by the prediction of a correlation between the positions of two successive peaks in the four-atom recombination process.

  8. Scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, J C; Boldyrev, S; Cattaneo, F

    2014-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in the majority of natural systems, including the interstellar medium, the solar corona, and the solar wind, has Reynolds numbers far exceeding the Reynolds numbers achievable in numerical experiments. Much attention is therefore drawn to the universal scaling properties of small-scale fluctuations, which can be reliably measured in the simulations and then extrapolated to astrophysical scales. However, in contrast with hydrodynamic turbulence, where the universal structure of the inertial and dissipation intervals is described by the Kolmogorov self-similarity, the scaling for MHD turbulence cannot be established based solely on dimensional arguments due to the presence of an intrinsic velocity scale -- the Alfven velocity. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the Kolmogorov first self-similarity hypothesis cannot be formulated for MHD turbulence in the same way it is formulated for the hydrodynamic case. Besides profound consequences for the analytical consideration, this...

  9. Scaling in stratocumulus fields: an emergent property

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Tianle

    2015-01-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds play a critical role in the Earth's climate system. They display an amazing array of complex behaviors at many different spatiotemporal scales. Precipitation in these clouds is in general very light, but it is vital for clouds' systematic evolution and organization. Here we identify areas of high liquid water path within these clouds as potentially precipitating, or pouches. They are breeding grounds for stratocumuli to change their organization form. We show, using different satellite data sets, that the size distribution of these pouches show a universal scaling. We argue that such scaling is an emergent property of the cloud system, which results from numbers interactions at the microscopic scale.

  10. Scaling properties of Navier-Stokes turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-cun LIU

    2009-01-01

    The property of the velocity field and the cascade process of the fluid flow are key problems in turbulence research. This study presents the scaling property of the turbulent velocity field and a mathematical description of the cascade process, using the following methods: (1) a discussion of the general self-similarity and scaling invariance of fluid flow from the viewpoint of the physical mechanism of turbulent flow; (2) the development of the relationship between the scaling indices and the key parameters of the She and Leveque (SL) model in the inertial range; (3) an investigation of the basis of the fractal model and the multi-fractal model of turbulence; (4) a demonstration of the physical meaning of the flowing field scaling that is related to the real flowing vortex. The results illustrate that the SL model could be regarded as an approximate mathematical solution of Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, and that the phenomena of normal scaling and anomalous scaling is the result of the mutual interactions among the physical factors of nonlinearity, dissipation, and dispersion. Finally, a simple turbulent movement conceptional description model is developed to show the local properties and the instantaneous properties of turbulence.

  11. Scaling Properties of Fluctuations in Human Electroencephalogram

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C; Hwa, Rudolph C.; Ferree, Thomas C.

    2002-01-01

    The fluctuation properties of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) time series are studied using detrended fluctuation analysis. For all 128 channels in each of 18 subjects studied, it is found that the standard deviation of the fluctuations exhibits scaling behaviors in two regions. Topographical plots of the scaling exponents reveal the spatial structure of the nonlinear electrical activities recorded on the scalp. Moment analyses are performed to extract the gross features of all the scaling exponents. The correlation between the two scaling exponents in each channel is also examined. It is found that two indices can characterize the overall properties of the fluctuation behaviors of the brain dynamics for every subject and that they vary widely across the subjects.

  12. The Relationship Satisfaction scale - psychometric properties

    OpenAIRE

    Espen Røysamb; Joar Vittersø; Kristian Tambs

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the new Relationship Satisfaction (RS) scale. Two population based samples were used: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, N=117,178) and The Quality of Life study (N=347). Convergent and discriminant validity was investigated in relation to the Quality of Marriage Index (QMI), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Relationship Satisfaction of partner, Big Five personality traits (IPIP50) and future relatio...

  13. Scaling Properties of Multilayer Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J A; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer networks are widespread in natural and manmade systems. Key properties of these networks are their spectral and eigenfunction characteristics, as they determine the critical properties of many dynamics occurring on top of them. In this paper, we numerically demonstrate that the normalized localization length $\\beta$ of the eigenfunctions of multilayer random networks follows a simple scaling law given by $\\beta=x^*/(1+x^*)$, with $x^*=\\gamma(b_{\\text{eff}}^2/L)^\\delta$, $\\gamma,\\delta\\sim 1$ and $b_{\\text{eff}}$ being the effective bandwidth of the adjacency matrix of the network, whose size is $L=M\\times N$. The reported scaling law for $\\beta$ might help to better understand criticality in multilayer networks as well as to predict the eigenfunction localization properties of them.

  14. Scaling properties of multilayer random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; de Arruda, Guilherme Ferraz; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-07-01

    Multilayer networks are widespread in natural and manmade systems. Key properties of these networks are their spectral and eigenfunction characteristics, as they determine the critical properties of many dynamics occurring on top of them. Here, we numerically demonstrate that the normalized localization length β of the eigenfunctions of multilayer random networks follows a simple scaling law given by β =x*/(1 +x*) , with x*=γ (beff2/L ) δ , δ ˜1 , and beff being the effective bandwidth of the adjacency matrix of the network, whose size is L . The scaling law for β , that we validate on real-world networks, might help to better understand criticality in multilayer networks and to predict the eigenfunction localization properties of them.

  15. Scaling properties of polycrystalline graphene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacsson, Andreas; Cummings, Aron W.; Colombo, Luciano; Colombo, Luigi; Kinaret, Jari M.; Roche, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    We present an overview of the electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of polycrystalline graphene. Most global properties of this material, such as the charge mobility, thermal conductivity, or Young’s modulus, are sensitive to its microstructure, for instance the grain size and the presence of line or point defects. Both the local and global features of polycrystalline graphene have been investigated by a variety of simulations and experimental measurements. In this review, we summarize the properties of polycrystalline graphene, and by establishing a perspective on how the microstructure impacts its large-scale physical properties, we aim to provide guidance for further optimization and improvement of applications based on this material, such as flexible and wearable electronics, and high-frequency or spintronic devices.

  16. Properties of the scale factor measure

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, Raphael; Yang, I-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    We show that in expanding regions, the scale factor measure can be reformulated as a local measure: Observations are weighted by integrating their physical density along a geodesic that starts in the longest-lived metastable vacuum. This explains why some of its properties are similar to those of the causal diamond measure. In particular, both measures are free of Boltzmann brains, subject to nearly the same conditions on vacuum stability. However, the scale factor measure assigns a much smaller probability to the observed value of the cosmological constant. The probability decreases further, like the inverse sixth power of the primordial density contrast, if the latter is allowed to vary.

  17. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    1999-06-01

    Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe the characteristics of multiporosity media. I investigated the usefulness of scaling to describe the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K(-h)) functions of a macroporous soil in Las Nutrias, New Mexico. Piecewise-continuous hydraulic conductivity functions suitable for macroporous soils in conjunction with a hybrid similar media-functional normalization scaling approach were used. Results showed that gravity-dominated flow and the related hydraulic conductivity (K(minus;h) functions of the macropore region are more readily scalable than capillary-dominated flow properties of the mesopore and micropore regions. A possible reason for this behavior is that gravity-dominated flow in the larger pores is mostly influenced by the pore diameter which remains more uniform as compared to tortuous mesopores and micropores with variable neck and body sizes along the pore length.

  18. Scale-Free Properties in Traffic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-Ping

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new model of evolution networks, which is based on the evolution of the traffic flow. In our method, the network growth does not take into account preferential attachment, and the attachment of new node is independent of the degree of nodes. Our aim is that employing the theory of evolution network, we give a further understanding about the dynamical evolution of the traffic flow. We investigate the probability distributions and scaling properties of the proposed model. The simulation results indicate that in the proposed model, the distribution of the output connections can be well described by scale-free distribution. Moreover, the distribution of the connections is largely related to the traffic flow states, such as the exponential distribution (i.e., the scale-free distribution) and random distribution etc.

  19. Scaling property of ideal granitic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of granite textures and structures using a mathematical model for characterization of granites has been a long-term attempt of mathematical geologists over the past four decades. It is usually difficult to determine the influence of magma properties on mineral crystallization forming fined-grained granites due to its irregular and fine-grained textures. The ideal granite model was originally developed for modeling mineral sequences from first and second-order Markov properties. This paper proposes a new model for quantifying scale invariance properties of mineral clusters and voids observed within mineral sequences. Sequences of the minerals plagioclase, quartz and orthoclase observed under the microscope for 104 aplite samples collected from the Meech Lake area, Gatineau Park, Québec were used for validation of the model. The results show that the multi-scale approaches proposed in this paper may enable quantification of the nature of the randomness of mineral grain distributions. This, in turn, may be related to original properties of the magma.

  20. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS): psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Xavier; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Llavona, Luis M; García-Fernández, José M

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS), which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82) and temporal stability (r = 0.83) of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  1. Children's separation anxiety scale (CSAS: psychometric properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Méndez

    Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.

  2. Scaling properties in temporal patterns of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dünki, R. M.; Ambühl, B.

    1996-02-01

    Investigations into the patterns of schizophrenia reveal evidence of scaling properties in temporal behaviour. This is shown in the spectral properties of mid-range and long-range (up to two years) daily recordings from a sample of patients drawn at the therapeutic dwelling SOTERIA (Ambühl et al., in: Springer Series in Synergetics, Vol. 58, eds. Tschacher et al. (Springer, Berlin, 1992) pp. 195-203 and references therein) of the Psychiatric University Hospital in Bern. The therapeutic setting is unique in that it tries to avoid treatment by medication. Power law behaviour has been found within fractal walk analysis and Fourier spectra for the daily fluctuations. A simple dynamic principle, based on a generic intermittency model, is put in relation to these time series thus predicting an additional scaling law for the distribution P( T) of time spans T between successive hospitalizations. Testing this hypothesis with our data shows only insignificant deviations. A possible role of this dynamic principle in the risk assignment of psychotic phases is explored with the help of an example.

  3. In search of universal properties of musical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Honingh; R. Bod

    2011-01-01

    Musical scales have both general and culture-specific properties. While most common scales use octave equivalence and discrete pitch relationships, there seem to be no other universal properties. This paper presents an additional property across the world's musical scales that may qualify for univer

  4. Scale Invariant Properties in Heart Rate Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowiec, D.; Dudkowska, A.; Zwierz, M.; Galaska, R.; Rynkiewicz, A.

    2006-05-01

    The rate of heart beat is controlled by autonomic nervous system: accelerated by the sympathetic system and slowed by the parasympathetic system. Scaling properties in heart rate are usually related to the intrinsic dynamics of this physiological regulatory system. The two packages calculating local exponent spectra: Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (accessible from Physionet home page http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215) are tested, and then used to investigate the spectrum of singularity exponents in series of heart rates obtained from patients suffering from reduced left ventricle systolic function. It occurs that this state of a heart could be connected to some perturbation in the regulatory system, because the heart rate appears to be less controlled than in a healthy human heart. The multifractality in the heart rate signal is weakened: the spectrum is narrower and moved to higher values what indicate the higher activity of the sympatethic nervous system.

  5. POLY-SCALE REFINABLE FUNCTION AND THEIR PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shou-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Poly-scale refinable function with dilation factor a is introduced. The existence of solution of poly-scale refinable equation is investigated. Specially, necessary and sufficient conditions for the orthonormality of solution function φ of poly-scale refinable equation with integer dilation factor a are established. Some properties of poly-scale refinable function are discussed. Several examples illustrating how to use the method to construct poly-scale refinable function are given.

  6. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Homophobic Bullying Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to develop the Homophobic Bullying Scale and to investigate its psychometric properties. The items of the Homophobic Bullying Scale were created to measure high school students' bullying behaviors motivated by homophobia, including verbal bullying, relational bullying, physical bullying, property bullying, sexual harassment, and…

  7. Kpc-scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Miller, Sarah H.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C.; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kpc-scale to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. 119 galaxies with high-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectra are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2

  8. Statistical scaling properties of planetary topographic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, François; Schmidt, Frederic; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2016-10-01

    The massive acquisition of altimetric data in the solar system has motivated numerous analysis of the topography of planets, in particular the surface roughness. Many statistical indicators have been proposed and widely explored in order to study the surface of plantets. Useful informations have been obtained by the use of those indicators but they often have the disadvantage of been defined at a given scale. By construction, they do not directly take into account the well-established scale symmetry that generally occurs in the case of natural surfaces. Indeed, topography can not be interpreted as a stationary field, meaning that statistical parameters like the mean or the standard deviation exhibit a dependence toward scales. This subject has been widely studied in the past, parallel to the development of the notion of fractals. It is now well established that topography is often efficiently modelled by fractal simulations. More interestingly, the fractal theory provides a mathematical formalism to describe the scale dependence of statistical parameters toward scales. It turns out that simple power-law relations efficiently approach the variability of planetary surfaces.However, The observed intermittency (spatial dependance of the scaling laws) apparently rejects the idea of a global description of any topographic field at the planetary scale. Still, modern developments in the fractal theory might be able to give full account to the observed variability and intermittency. It is possible to extent the fractal interpretation of topography to a multifractal statistical object requiring an infinite number of fractal dimensions (one for each statistical moment order). In the present study, we analyse the global scaling laws of topography for different body in the solar system in order to test the multifractal formalism. We then compare the fractal and multifractal parameters form a body to the other. We demonstrate that a change of processes governing the global

  9. Parsec Scale Properties of Markarian 501

    CERN Document Server

    Giroletti, M; Feretti, L; Cotton, W D; Edwards, P G; Lara, L; Marscher, A P; Mattox, J R; Piner, B G; Venturi, T

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of a high angular resolution study of the BL Lac object Markarian 501 in the radio band. We consider data taken at 14 different epochs, ranging between 1.6 GHz and 22 GHz in frequency, and including new Space VLBI observations obtained on 2001 March 5 and 6 at 1.6 and 5 GHz. We study the kinematics of the parsec-scale jet and estimate its bulk velocity and orientation with respect to the line of sight. Limb brightened structure in the jet is clearly visible in our data and we discuss its possible origin in terms of velocity gradients in the jet. Quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations allow us to map the spectral index distribution and to compare it to the jet morphology. Finally, we estimate the physical parameters of the parsec-scale jet.

  10. Modelling the scaling properties of human mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaoming; Koren, Tal; Wang, Pu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-10-01

    Individual human trajectories are characterized by fat-tailed distributions of jump sizes and waiting times, suggesting the relevance of continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) models for human mobility. However, human traces are barely random. Given the importance of human mobility, from epidemic modelling to traffic prediction and urban planning, we need quantitative models that can account for the statistical characteristics of individual human trajectories. Here we use empirical data on human mobility, captured by mobile-phone traces, to show that the predictions of the CTRW models are in systematic conflict with the empirical results. We introduce two principles that govern human trajectories, allowing us to build a statistically self-consistent microscopic model for individual human mobility. The model accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws, but also allows us to analytically predict most of the pertinent scaling exponents.

  11. Scaling Property in the Alpha Predominant EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D C; Kwan, H; Lin, Der Chyan; Sharif, Asif; Kwan, Hon

    2004-01-01

    The $\\alpha$ predominant electroencephalographic (EEG) recording of the human brain during eyes open and closed is studied using the zero-crossing time statistics. A model is presented to demonstrate and compare the key characteristics of the brain state. We found the zero-crossing time statistic is more accurate than the power spectral analysis and the detrend fluctuation analysis. Our results indicate different EEG fractal scaling in eyes closed and open for individuals capable of strong $\\alpha$ rhythm.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Teachers' Attitude toward Inclusion Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Jeremy J.; Ewing, Donna L.; Boyle, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the psychometric properties of a questionnaire measure that updates and extends Larrivee and Cook's (1979) Opinions Relative to Mainstreaming Scale in terms of structure, terminology, and language. The revised scale was tested using a sample of 106 teachers based in inclusive mainstream schools. Using Principal Component…

  13. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale: Psychometric Properties in Depressed Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Silva, Susan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Curry, John F.; Feeny, Norah C.; Kennard, Betsy; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Pathak, Sanjeev; Reinecke, Mark A.; Rosenberg, David R.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties and factor structure of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of 422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.93) and correlated significantly with self-report and interview-based measures of…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale in Polio Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Helena; Franchignoni, Franco; Puzic, Natasa; Giordano, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by means of classical test theory and Rasch analysis the scaling characteristics and psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) in polio survivors. A questionnaire, consisting of five general questions (sex, age, age at time of acute polio, sequelae of polio, and new symptoms), the FSS,…

  15. Optical Properties Of Nanometer-Scale Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kudykina, T A

    2016-01-01

    Two approaches (micro- and macro- investigations) are used to determine the dimension dependences of the optical parameters of the nanometer-scale layers of materials. It is shown that both an index of refraction and coefficient of absorption depend strongly on the thickness of the layer. In this region of thicknesses, the dimension resonance occurs, where an index of refraction has a maximum and a coefficient of absorption has a minimum. The numerical calculation of the optical parameters of some materials (Ag, Al, Fe, Ge, Si, Se, Te) have been carried out with the use of the experimental data of reflection and transparency of thin layers, obtained in a series of works, and with our formulas for the wave amplitudes and the laws of refractions. The analogues of the Fresnel formulas and the Snell law have been derived from the Maxwell boundary conditions where the absorption and conductivity of media were taken into account. The use of our formulas for the wave amplitudes leads to the fulfillment of the conser...

  16. Scaling properties of ballistic nano-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, we have suggested a scale-invariant model for a nano-transistor. In agreement with experiments a close-to-linear thresh-old trace was found in the calculated I D - V D-traces separating the regimes of classically allowed transport and tunneling transport. In this conference contribution, the relevant physical quantities in our model and its range of applicability are discussed in more detail. Extending the temperature range of our studies it is shown that a close-to-linear thresh-old trace results at room temperatures as well. In qualitative agreement with the experiments the I D - V G-traces for small drain voltages show thermally activated transport below the threshold gate voltage. In contrast, at large drain voltages the gate-voltage dependence is weaker. As can be expected in our relatively simple model, the theoretical drain current is larger than the experimental one by a little less than a decade.

  17. Small scale plasticity and compressive properties of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    . In the present work, the influence of the mechanical properties of the matrix material on the compression strength is studied by changing the temperature during mechanical testing and thereby making it possible changing the matrix properties keeping all other properties in the experimental setup constant...... in the commercial finite element code Abaqus [3]. In addition, in a supplementary study, taken into account the length scale effect of the yielding behavior using a strain gradient dependent plasticity law [4] implemented as a user element [5], it is possible investigating the scale effect on the yielding behavior...

  18. Psychometric properties of self-report concussion scales and checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Leach, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Alla S, Sullivan SJ, Hale L, McCrory P. Self-report scales/checklists for the measurement of concussion symptoms: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43 (suppl 1):i3-i12. Which self-report symptom scales or checklists are psychometrically sound for clinical use to assess sport-related concussion? Articles available in full text, published from the establishment of each database through December 2008, were identified from PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and AMED. Search terms included brain concussion, signs or symptoms, and athletic injuries, in combination with the AND Boolean operator, and were limited to studies published in English. The authors also hand searched the reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional searches of books, conference proceedings, theses, and Web sites of commercial scales were done to provide additional information about the psychometric properties and development for those scales when needed in articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Articles were included if they identified all the items on the scale and the article was either an original research report describing the use of scales in the evaluation of concussion symptoms or a review article that discussed the use or development of concussion symptom scales. Only articles published in English and available in full text were included. From each study, the following information was extracted by the primary author using a standardized protocol: study design, publication year, participant characteristics, reliability of the scale, and details of the scale or checklist, including name, number of items, time of measurement, format, mode of report, data analysis, scoring, and psychometric properties. A quality assessment of included studies was done using 16 items from the Downs and Black checklist1 and assessed reporting, internal validity, and external validity. The initial database search identified 421 articles. After 131 duplicate

  19. Scaling laws and properties of compositional data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccianti, Antonella; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, AnnaMaria; Minolfi, Giulia; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    Many random processes occur in geochemistry. Accurate predictions of the manner in which elements or chemical species interact each other are needed to construct models able to treat presence of random components. Geochemical variables actually observed are the consequence of several events, some of which may be poorly defined or imperfectly understood. Variables tend to change with time/space but, despite their complexity, may share specific common traits and it is possible to model them stochastically. Description of the frequency distribution of the geochemical abundances has been an important target of research, attracting attention for at least 100 years, starting with CLARKE (1889) and continued by GOLDSCHMIDT (1933) and WEDEPOHL (1955). However, it was AHRENS (1954a,b) who focussed on the effect of skewness distributions, for example the log-normal distribution, regarded by him as a fundamental law of geochemistry. Although modeling of frequency distributions with some probabilistic models (for example Gaussian, log-normal, Pareto) has been well discussed in several fields of application, little attention has been devoted to the features of compositional data. When compositional nature of data is taken into account, the most typical distribution models for compositions are the Dirichlet and the additive logistic normal (or normal on the simplex) (AITCHISON et al. 2003; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2005; MATEU-FIGUERAS and PAWLOWSKY-GLAHN 2008; MATEU-FIGUERAS et al. 2013). As an alternative, because compositional data have to be transformed from simplex space to real space, coordinates obtained by the ilr transformation or by application of the concept of balance can be analyzed by classical methods (EGOZCUE et al. 2003). In this contribution an approach coherent with the properties of compositional information is proposed and used to investigate the shape of the frequency distribution of compositional data. The purpose is to understand data-generation processes

  20. Scale invariant cosmology II: model equations and properties

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Andre

    2016-01-01

    We want to establish the basic properties of a scale invariant cosmology, that also accounts for the hypothesis of scale invariance of the empty space at large scales. We write the basic analytical properties of the scale invariant cosmological models. The hypothesis of scale invariance of the empty space at large scale brings interesting simplifications in the scale invariant equations for cosmology. There is one new term, depending on the scale factor of the scale invariant cosmology, that opposes to gravity and favours an accelerated expansion. We first consider a zero-density model and find an accelerated expansion, going like t square. In models with matter present, the displacements due to the new term make a significant contribution Omega_l to the energy-density of the Universe, satisfying an equation of the form Omega_m + Omega_k + Omega_l = 1. Unlike the Friedman's models, there is a whole family of flat models (k=0) with different density parameters Omega_m smaller than 1. We examine the basic relat...

  1. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  2. Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of a Parental Alienation Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Inez Cunha Gomide

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of forensic evaluation scales is fundamental. This study's purpose was to explore the psychometric properties of a parental alienation scale. Forensic technicians completed 193 scales concerning parents involved in a lawsuit: 48 families with at least one parent indicated as the alienator (group A and 48 families with no parental alienation claim (group B. The scale consisted of five categories and 69 items: denying access to the child; derogatory comparisons; emotional manipulation; behavior of parent and child during assessment. The results show Cronbach's alpha = .965 and split-half = .745; KMO = .884 and Bartlett's sphericity test ( p < .001. Concurrent criterion validity applied to data showed that the scale is able to distinguish between the alienator and target parent. The results showed significant and consistent standards in the instrument's psychometric characteristics.

  3. Multi-Scale Analysis of Lagrangian Properties of Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Michael; Lalescu, Cristian

    2016-11-01

    Turbulence is a multi-scale problem in space and time with a broad range of strongly interacting degrees of freedom. Lagrangian tracer particles advected with the flow sample this spatio-temporal complexity. This naturally leads to the question of how Lagrangian properties are affected by the scales of turbulence. We attempt to answer this question numerically and theoretically adopting a coarse-graining approach. In an extensive DNS (direct numerical simulation) study, we track tracer particles advected by spatially coarse-grained velocity fields. This allows to distinguish the impact of large-scale sweeping effects and small-scale intermittency on Lagrangian aspects of turbulence. In this presentation we will present results on Lagrangian particle dispersion and velocity fluctuations for various coarse-graining scales. The results will furthermore be discussed in the context of Eulerian-Lagrangian bridging relations.

  4. Introducing artificial length scales to tailor magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, J; Strache, T; Liedke, M O; Marko, D; Wintz, S; Lenz, K; Keller, A; Facsko, S [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Moench, I; McCord, J [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research IFW Dresden, PO Box 27 01 16, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: J.Fassbender@fzd.de

    2009-12-15

    Magnetism is a collective phenomenon. Hence, a local variation on the nanoscale of material properties, which act on the magnetic properties, affects the overall magnetism in an intriguing way. Of particular importance are the length scales on which a material property changes. These might be related to the exchange length, the domain wall width, a typical roughness correlation length, or a length scale introduced by patterning of the material. Here we report on the influence of two artificially created length scales: (i) ion erosion templates that serve as a source of a predefined surface morphology (ripple structure) and hence allow for the investigation of roughness phenomena. It is demonstrated that the ripple wave length can be easily tuned over a wide range (25-175 nm) by varying the primary ion erosion energy. The effect of this ripple morphology on the induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in soft magnetic Permalloy films is studied. Only below a ripple wavelength threshold ({approx}60 nm) is a significant induced magnetic anisotropy found. Above this threshold the corrugated Permalloy film acts as a flat film. This cross-over is discussed in the frame of dipolar interactions giving rise to the induced anisotropies. (ii) Ion implantation through a lithographically defined mask, which is used for a magnetic property patterning on various length scales. The resulting magnetic properties are neither present in non-implanted nor in homogeneously implanted films. Here new insight is gained by the comparison of different stripe patterning widths ranging from 1 to 10 {mu}m. In addition, the appearance of more complicated magnetic domain structures, i.e. spin-flop domain configurations and head-on domain walls, during hard axis magnetization reversal is demonstrated. In both cases the magnetic properties, the magnetization reversal process as well as the magnetic domain configurations depend sensitively on the artificially introduced length scale.

  5. Flood quantiles scaling with upper soil hydraulic properties for different land uses at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Luis E.; Barrios, Miguel; Francés, Félix

    2016-10-01

    Changes in land use within a catchment are among the causes of non-stationarity in the flood regime, as they modify the upper soil physical structure and its runoff production capacity. This paper analyzes the relation between the variation of the upper soil hydraulic properties due to changes in land use and its effect on the magnitude of peak flows: (1) incorporating fractal scaling properties to relate the effect of the static storage capacity (the sum of capillary water storage capacity in the root zone, canopy interception and surface puddles) and the upper soil vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity on the flood regime; (2) describing the effect of the spatial organization of the upper soil hydraulic properties at catchment scale; (3) examining the scale properties in the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) probability distribution function, in relation to the upper soil hydraulic properties. This study considered the historical changes of land use in the Combeima River catchment in South America, between 1991 and 2007, using distributed hydrological modeling of daily discharges to describe the hydrological response. Through simulation of land cover scenarios, it was demonstrated that it is possible to quantify the magnitude of peak flows in scenarios of land cover changes through its Wide-Sense Simple Scaling with the upper soil hydraulic properties.

  6. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF BRADBURN AFFECT BALANCE SCALE AMONG ELDERLY PERSONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMPEN, GIJM

    Some psychometric properties of the Affect Balance Scale have been tested on a random sample of 354 elderly people in the Netherlands. Internal reliability estimates were comparable with prior ones, and the 8-wk. test-retest reliability is reasonable for these 5-item measures.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  8. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: Properties and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giodini, S.; Lovisari, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ettori, S.; Reiprich, T.H.; Hoekstra, H.

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters usi

  9. Scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the correlation of scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation with damage accumulation and a change in the fracture mechanism. The experimental results obtained from the glass fragmentation tests indicate that the size distribution of fragments has a fractal character and is described by a power law.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T. Y.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Cultural Beliefs about Adversity scale (CBA). Methods: The CBA was administered in a sample of 275 Chinese parents experiencing economic disadvantage. Results: The CBA was found to be internally consistent. Consistent with the conceptual framework, factor…

  11. Scaling relations for galaxy clusters: properties and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giodini, S; Pointecouteau, E; Ettori, S; Reiprich, T H; Hoekstra, H

    2013-01-01

    Well-calibrated scaling relations between the observable properties and the total masses of clusters of galaxies are important for understanding the physical processes that give rise to these relations. They are also a critical ingredient for studies that aim to constrain cosmological parameters using galaxy clusters. For this reason much effort has been spent during the last decade to better understand and interpret relations of the properties of the intra-cluster medium. Improved X-ray data have expanded the mass range down to galaxy groups, whereas SZ surveys have openened a new observational window on the intracluster medium. In addition,continued progress in the performance of cosmological simulations has allowed a better understanding of the physical processes and selection effects affecting the observed scaling relations. Here we review the recent literature on various scaling relations, focussing on the latest observational measurements and the progress in our understanding of the deviations from self...

  12. [Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sexism Detection (ASD) scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, Patricia; Cuadrado, Isabel; Ramos, Esther

    2007-08-01

    In this article, it is assumed that gender violence, or violence against women, has mainly a sociocultural basis. A scale (Adolescent Sexism Detection; ASD) to detect sexism in adolescents was developed and its psychometric properties were analysed. 245 adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age participated in the study. As a result of the factor analyses carried out, the hostile and benevolent dimensions of sexism were clearly differentiated. Convergent validity of the scale was confirmed by its high correlations with the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Participants scored higher in benevolent than in hostile sexism, an effect even stronger in female participants. These findings suggest that the ASD scale is a valid instrument to measure sexism among adolescents. The main findings of this study are compared to those obtained in other studies using the ASI. The potential of this scale to appropriately detect sexism among adolescents is discussed.

  13. PROPERTIES IMPORTANT TO MIXING FOR WTP LARGE SCALE INTEGRATED TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.; Martino, C.; Poirier, M.

    2012-04-26

    Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc. to address uncertainties in the full scale mixing performance of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. External review boards have raised questions regarding the overall representativeness of simulants used in previous mixing tests. Accordingly, WTP requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in LSIT. Among the first tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that matter to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) mixing of WTP tanks. This report satisfies Commitment 5.2.3.1 of the Department of Energy Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2010-2: physical properties important to mixing and scaling. In support of waste simulant development, the following two objectives are the focus of this report: (1) Assess physical and chemical properties important to the testing and development of mixing scaling relationships; (2) Identify the governing properties and associated ranges for LSIT to achieve the Newtonian and non-Newtonian test objectives. This includes the properties to support testing of sampling and heel management systems. The test objectives for LSIT relate to transfer and pump out of solid particles, prototypic integrated operations, sparger operation, PJM controllability, vessel level/density measurement accuracy, sampling, heel management, PJM restart, design and safety margin, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Verification and Validation (V and V) and comparison, performance testing and scaling, and high temperature operation. The slurry properties that are most important to Performance Testing and Scaling depend on the test objective and rheological classification of the slurry (i

  14. The scaling properties of dynamical fluctuations in temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chi, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The factorial moments analyses are performed to study the scaling properties of the dynamical fluctuations of contacts and nodes in temporal networks based on empirical data sets. The intermittent behaviors are observed in the fluctuations for all orders of the moments. It indicates that the interaction has self-similarity structure in time interval and the fluctuations are not purely random but dynamical and correlated. The scaling exponents for contacts in Prostitution data and nodes in Conference data are very close to that for 2D Ising model undergoing a second-order phase transition.

  15. Thermodynamic scaling of dynamic properties of liquid crystals: verifying the scaling parameters using a molecular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2013-08-28

    The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV(γτ) , where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γ(τ) was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals.

  16. Scale effects on thermal buckling properties of carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yize, E-mail: wangyize@gmail.co [P.O. Box 137, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Li Fengming, E-mail: fmli@hit.edu.c [P.O. Box 137, School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Kishimoto, Kikuo [Department of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    In this Letter, the thermal buckling properties of carbon nanotube with small scale effects are studied. Based on the nonlocal continuum theory and the Timoshenko beam model, the governing equation is derived and the nondimensional critical buckling temperature is presented. The influences of the scale coefficients, the ratio of the length to the diameter, the transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are discussed. It can be observed that the small scale effects are significant and should be considered for thermal analysis of carbon nanotube. The nondimensional critical buckling temperature becomes higher with the ratio of length to diameter increasing. Furthermore, for smaller ratios of the length to the diameter and higher mode numbers, the transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia have remarkable influences on the thermal buckling behaviors.

  17. Properties of Brownian Image Models in Scale-Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2003-01-01

    In this paper it is argued that the Brownian image model is the least committed, scale invariant, statistical image model which describes the second order statistics of natural images. Various properties of three different types of Gaussian image models (white noise, Brownian and fractional...... Brownian images) will be discussed in relation to linear scale-space theory, and it will be shown empirically that the second order statistics of natural images mapped into jet space may, within some scale interval, be modeled by the Brownian image model. This is consistent with the 1/f 2 power spectrum...... law that apparently governs natural images. Furthermore, the distribution of Brownian images mapped into jet space is Gaussian and an analytical expression can be derived for the covariance matrix of Brownian images in jet space. This matrix is also a good approximation of the covariance matrix...

  18. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale: Development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that metacognitions may play a role across the spectrum of addictive behaviours. The goal of our studies was to develop the first self-report scale of metacognitions about online gaming. We conducted two studies with samples of online gamers (n=225, n=348) to test the structure and psychometric properties of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale and examined its capacity to predict weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: positive metacognitions about online gaming, negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming, and negative metacognitions about the dangers of online gaming. Internal consistency, predictive and divergent validity were acceptable. All the factors of the Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale correlated positively with weekly online gaming hours and Internet addiction. Regression analyses showed that negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming and levels of Internet addiction were the only significant predictors of weekly online gaming hours, and that positive metacognitions about online gaming and negative metacognitions about the uncontrollability of online gaming were the only significant predictors of Internet addiction. The Metacognitions about Online Gaming Scale was shown to possess good psychometric properties, as well as predictive and divergent validity within the populations that were tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlations and scaling properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations in liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano; Croccolo, Fabrizio; Vailati, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion in liquids is accompanied by nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations spanning all the length scales comprised between the microscopic scale a and the macroscopic size of the system, L . Up to now, theoretical and experimental investigations of nonequilibrium fluctuations have focused mostly on determining their mean-square amplitude as a function of the wave vector. In this work, we investigate the local properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations arising during a stationary diffusion process occurring in a binary liquid mixture in the presence of a uniform concentration gradient, ∇ c0 . We characterize the fluctuations by evaluating statistical features of the system, including the mean-square amplitude of fluctuations and the corrugation of the isoconcentration surfaces; we show that they depend on a single mesoscopic length scale l =√{a L } representing the geometric average between the microscopic and macroscopic length scales. We find that the amplitude of the fluctuations is very small in practical cases and vanishes when the macroscopic length scale increases. The isoconcentration surfaces, or fronts of diffusion, have a self-affine structure with corrugation exponent H =1 /2 . Ideally, the local fractal dimension of the fronts of diffusion would be Dl=d -H , where d is the dimensionality of the space, while the global fractal dimension would be Dg=d -1 . The transition between the local and global regimes occurs at a crossover length scale of the order of the microscopic length scale a . Therefore, notwithstanding the fact that the fronts of diffusion are corrugated, they appear flat at all the length scales probed by experiments, and they do not exhibit a fractal structure.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Interaction on Supervised Classes Scale (ISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pastor-Barceló

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the construction and validation of a scale designed to assess the quality of the supervised classes: Interaction on Supervised Classes Scale (ISCS. Design/methodology/approach: This is a descriptive correlational study. For the construction of the scale three phases were performed in which different experts assessed the adequacy of the items. Finally, the psychometric properties of the final version were studied in a sample of 314 consumers (69.1% women aged between 18 and 77 with an average of 39.33 years (SD=12.25. Findings: The scale presents adequate validity and reliability, being a useful tool for measuring the interaction in Supervised Classes. Research limitations/implications: The sampling, non-probabilistic or convenience, have taken the sample of a unique sports facility and the small sample size. Practical implications: The ISCS allows managers to receive better feedback, allowing them to obtain deeper insight into the quality and satisfaction of the service. According to its results, the managers may implement different strategies to improve quality in a key service within sports centers. Originality/value: For the first time the interaction between customers and between customers and employees is evaluated both inside and outside the center, a topic that had not yet been studied in the scientific literature. The scale can be applied to any type of directed activity, and will allow a greater understanding of the quality of service.

  1. Psychometric properties of the positivity scale - Brazilian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Callegaro Borsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Positivity Scale (P-Scale. Participants were 730 subjects (65% women, aged from 17 to 70 years old (M = 31.0 years; SD = 11.43, from 21 Brazilian states. The sample was randomly split in two halves to cross-validate the results. With the first half of the sample (n1 = 365, an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted. With the second half of the sample (n2 = 365, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA assessed the fit of the exploratory model. Convergent validity and group differences were also evaluated. The EFA and CFA presented a one-dimensional structure for the P-Scale. Moderate correlations were found between the P-Scale and mental-health, subjective happiness and life-satisfaction. The levels of positivity presented a low positive correlation with age, educational level and financial income. Slightly significant effects were found for occupational status and marital status. Positivity appears to be more closely related to personal dispositions than to sociodemographic aspects. Our results suggest that the P-Scale is a reliable measure with which to evaluate the levels of positivity in Brazil.

  2. Dynamical properties of a dissipative discontinuous map: A scaling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Sánchez, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Leonel, Edson D. [Departamento de Física, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Méndez-Bermúdez, J.A. [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48, Puebla 72570 (Mexico)

    2013-12-13

    The effects of dissipation on the scaling properties of nonlinear discontinuous maps are investigated by analyzing the behavior of the average squared action 〈I{sup 2}〉 as a function of the n-th iteration of the map as well as the parameters K and γ, controlling nonlinearity and dissipation, respectively. We concentrate our efforts to study the case where the nonlinearity is large; i.e., K≫1. In this regime and for large initial action I{sub 0}≫K, we prove that dissipation produces an exponential decay for the average action 〈I〉. Also, for I{sub 0}≅0, we describe the behavior of 〈I{sup 2}〉 using a scaling function and analytically obtain critical exponents which are used to overlap different curves of 〈I{sup 2}〉 onto a universal plot. We complete our study with the analysis of the scaling properties of the deviation around the average action ω.

  3. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Choi, Jeungok

    2014-09-01

    To develop and psychometrically test the Jacelon Attributed Dignity Scale (JADS). The JADS was designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity in community-dwelling older adults. Attributed dignity was conceived of as a state characteristic of the self. The JADS is a short, positively scored, norm-referenced, evaluation index designed to measure self-perceived attributed dignity during the last week. Instrument development and testing including psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure, temporal stability and construct validity. Using a quota sample, 289 older adults (65-99 years old) were recruited from senior centres in western New England to complete the JADS, demographic information, the Self-Esteem Scale and the Social Desirability Scale during 2010-2011. Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, construct validity and temporal stability were evaluated. The resulting positively scored 18-item scale has four factors with high internal consistency for each factor and the entire scale. Construct validity was established by examining correlations with instruments that measured self-esteem and social desirability. Attributed dignity is a unique concept that is stable over time. The JADS is an 18-item Likert-scaled instrument designed to measure attributed dignity. Attributed dignity is a concept with four factors and is defined as a cognitive component of the self-connoting self-value, perceived value from others, self in relation to others and behaving with respect. The importance of attributed dignity for older adults in relation to health, function, independence, quality of life and successful ageing can now be evaluated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Crystalline metamaterials for topological properties at subwavelength scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yves, Simon; Fleury, Romain; Berthelot, Thomas; Fink, Mathias; Lemoult, Fabrice; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-07-18

    The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure. These spatially dispersive systems can support subwavelength topological phases, as we demonstrate at microwaves by direct field mapping. Our approach gives a straightforward tabletop platform for the study of photonic topological phases, and allows to envision applications benefiting the compactness of metamaterials and the amazing potential of topological insulators.

  5. Crystalline metamaterials for topological properties at subwavelength scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yves, Simon; Fleury, Romain; Berthelot, Thomas; Fink, Mathias; Lemoult, Fabrice; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-07-01

    The exciting discovery of topological condensed matter systems has lately triggered a search for their photonic analogues, motivated by the possibility of robust backscattering-immune light transport. However, topological photonic phases have so far only been observed in photonic crystals and waveguide arrays, which are inherently physically wavelength scaled, hindering their application in compact subwavelength systems. In this letter, we tackle this problem by patterning the deep subwavelength resonant elements of metamaterials onto specific lattices, and create crystalline metamaterials that can develop complex nonlocal properties due to multiple scattering, despite their very subwavelength spatial scale that usually implies to disregard their structure. These spatially dispersive systems can support subwavelength topological phases, as we demonstrate at microwaves by direct field mapping. Our approach gives a straightforward tabletop platform for the study of photonic topological phases, and allows to envision applications benefiting the compactness of metamaterials and the amazing potential of topological insulators.

  6. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu, E-mail: zhaodaomu@yahoo.com

    2016-10-07

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge. - Highlights: • We investigated the polarization properties of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization. • We studied the evolution of transverse intensity profiles for the three components of these beams. • The intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components can reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  7. Scaling properties of superoscillations and the extension to periodic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eugene; Garg, Lovneesh; Kempf, Achim

    2016-08-01

    Superoscillatory wave forms, i.e., waves that locally oscillate faster than their highest Fourier component, possess unusual properties that make them of great interest from quantum mechanics to signal processing. However, the more pronounced the desired superoscillatory behavior is to be, the more difficult it becomes to produce, or even only calculate, such highly fine-tuned wave forms in practice. Here, we investigate how this sensitivity to preparation errors scales for a method for constructing superoscillatory functions which is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the energetic expense. We thereby also arrive at very accurate approximations of functions which are so highly superoscillatory that they cannot be calculated numerically. We then investigate to what extent the scaling and sensitivity results for superoscillatory functions on the real line extend to the experimentally important case of superoscillatory functions that are periodic.

  8. Scaling Properties of Superoscillations and the Extension to Periodic Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Eugene; Kempf, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Superoscillatory wave forms, i.e., waves that locally oscillate faster than their highest Fourier component, possess unusual properties that make them of great interest from quantum mechanics to signal processing. However, the more pronounced the desired superoscillatory behavior is to be, the more difficult it becomes to produce, or even only calculate, such highly fine-tuned wave forms in practice. Here, we investigate how this sensitivity to preparation errors scales for a method for constructing superoscillatory functions which is optimal in the sense that it minimizes the energetic expense. We thereby also arrive at very accurate approximations of functions which are so highly superoscillatory that they cannot be calculated numerically. We then investigate to what extent the scaling and sensitivity results for superoscillatory functions on the real line extend to the experimentally important case of superoscillatory functions that are periodic.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Modified Tonic Immobility Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bados

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tonic Immobility Scale has been only studied in abuse and/or sexual assault survivors, but tonic immobility (TI also occurs after other types of traumatic events. Consequently, we modified the scale for this purpose and studied its factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent, divergent and discriminant validity in 392 university students, most of whom had suffered one or more traumatic events of various kinds. The Fear subscale of the Modified Tonic Immobility Scale (MTIS showed very low internal consistency, and must be eliminated or reformulated. Discrimination indices of items 5 and 8 were very low, and tríese items must be reformulated or removed. After removing the five previous items, the shortened version of the MTIS had a one-factor structure, although model fit was not completely satisfactory. This scale showed acceptable levels of reliability, convergent validity with post-traumatic symptomatology, divergent validity with measures of depression and anxiety, and discriminant validity differentiating between groups that had and had not experienced traumatic events. The psychometric properties of the shortened version of the MTIS should be studied further. It may also be advisable to add new items of TI in order to establish whether this is a construct with more than one dimension.

  10. Dynamic properties of small-scale solar wind plasma fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazantseva, M O; Budaev, V P; Zelenyi, L M; Zastenker, G N; Pavlos, G P; Safrankova, J; Nemecek, Z; Prech, L; Nemec, F

    2015-05-13

    The paper presents the latest results of the studies of small-scale fluctuations in a turbulent flow of solar wind (SW) using measurements with extremely high temporal resolution (up to 0.03 s) of the bright monitor of SW (BMSW) plasma spectrometer operating on astrophysical SPECTR-R spacecraft at distances up to 350,000 km from the Earth. The spectra of SW ion flux fluctuations in the range of scales between 0.03 and 100 s are systematically analysed. The difference of slopes in low- and high-frequency parts of spectra and the frequency of the break point between these two characteristic slopes was analysed for different conditions in the SW. The statistical properties of the SW ion flux fluctuations were thoroughly analysed on scales less than 10 s. A high level of intermittency is demonstrated. The extended self-similarity of SW ion flux turbulent flow is constantly observed. The approximation of non-Gaussian probability distribution function of ion flux fluctuations by the Tsallis statistics shows the non-extensive character of SW fluctuations. Statistical characteristics of ion flux fluctuations are compared with the predictions of a log-Poisson model. The log-Poisson parametrization of the structure function scaling has shown that well-defined filament-like plasma structures are, as a rule, observed in the turbulent SW flows.

  11. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Franck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.

  13. Scaling properties of cosmic (super)string networks

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2013-01-01

    I use a combination of state-of-the-art numerical simulations and analytic modelling to discuss the scaling properties of cosmic defect networks, including superstrings. Particular attention is given to the role of extra degrees of freedom in the evolution of these networks. Compared to the 'plain vanilla' case of Goto-Nambu strings, three such extensions play important but distinct roles in the network dynamics: the presence of charges/currents on the string worldsheet, the existence of junctions, and the possibility of a hierarchy of string tensions. I also comment on insights gained from studying simpler defect networks, including Goto-Nambu strings themselves, domain walls and semilocal strings.

  14. Dispersion controlled by permeable surfaces: surface properties and scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Bowen; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Battiato, Ilenia

    2016-07-19

    Permeable and porous surfaces are common in natural and engineered systems. Flow and transport above such surfaces are significantly affected by the surface properties, e.g. matrix porosity and permeability. However, the relationship between such properties and macroscopic solute transport is largely unknown. In this work, we focus on mass transport in a two-dimensional channel with permeable porous walls under fully developed laminar flow conditions. By means of perturbation theory and asymptotic analysis, we derive the set of upscaled equations describing mass transport in the coupled channel–porous-matrix system and an analytical expression relating the dispersion coefficient with the properties of the surface, namely porosity and permeability. Our analysis shows that their impact on the dispersion coefficient strongly depends on the magnitude of the Péclet number, i.e. on the interplay between diffusive and advective mass transport. Additionally, we demonstrate different scaling behaviours of the dispersion coefficient for thin or thick porous matrices. Our analysis shows the possibility of controlling the dispersion coefficient, i.e. transverse mixing, by either active (i.e. changing the operating conditions) or passive mechanisms (i.e. controlling matrix effective properties) for a given Péclet number. By elucidating the impact of matrix porosity and permeability on solute transport, our upscaled model lays the foundation for the improved understanding, control and design of microporous coatings with targeted macroscopic transport features.

  15. Large Scale Emerging Properties from Non Hamiltonian Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bianucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “large scale” depends obviously on the phenomenon we are interested in. For example, in the field of foundation of Thermodynamics from microscopic dynamics, the spatial and time large scales are order of fraction of millimetres and microseconds, respectively, or lesser, and are defined in relation to the spatial and time scales of the microscopic systems. In large scale oceanography or global climate dynamics problems the time scales of interest are order of thousands of kilometres, for space, and many years for time, and are compared to the local and daily/monthly times scales of atmosphere and ocean dynamics. In all the cases a Zwanzig projection approach is, at least in principle, an effective tool to obtain class of universal smooth “large scale” dynamics for few degrees of freedom of interest, starting from the complex dynamics of the whole (usually many degrees of freedom system. The projection approach leads to a very complex calculus with differential operators, that is drastically simplified when the basic dynamics of the system of interest is Hamiltonian, as it happens in Foundation of Thermodynamics problems. However, in geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Biology, and in most of the physical problems the building block fundamental equations of motions have a non Hamiltonian structure. Thus, to continue to apply the useful projection approach also in these cases, we exploit the generalization of the Hamiltonian formalism given by the Lie algebra of dissipative differential operators. In this way, we are able to analytically deal with the series of the differential operators stemming from the projection approach applied to these general cases. Then we shall apply this formalism to obtain some relevant results concerning the statistical properties of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

  16. Kpc-scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Ferguson, Henry C; Guo, Yicheng; Koekemoer, Anton M; Koo, David C; Papovich, Casey

    2014-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kpc-scale to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. 119 galaxies with high-resolution Keck/DEIMOS spectra are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2

  17. Measuring Procrastination: Psychometric Properties of the Norwegian Versions of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination has been defined in different ways. Two instruments--the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)--focus on a core problem in procrastination--the irrational delay of intended behavior. The present paper examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translations of these scales. In…

  18. Measuring Procrastination: Psychometric Properties of the Norwegian Versions of the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svartdal, Frode

    2017-01-01

    Procrastination has been defined in different ways. Two instruments--the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS) and the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS)--focus on a core problem in procrastination--the irrational delay of intended behavior. The present paper examined the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translations of these scales. In…

  19. Multiwavelength and parsec-scale properties of extragalactic jets

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelia, Müller

    2016-01-01

    Extragalactic jets originating from the central supermassive black holes of active galaxies are powerful, highly relativistic plasma outflows, emitting light from the radio up to the gamma-ray regime. The details of their formation, composition and emission mechanisms are still not completely clear. The combination of high-resolution observations using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and multiwavelength monitoring provides the best insight into these objects. Here, such a combined study of sources of the TANAMI sample is presented, investigating the parsec-scale and high-energy properties. The TANAMI program is a multiwavelength monitoring program of a sample of the radio and gamma-ray brightest extragalactic jets in the southern sky, below -30deg declination. We obtain the first-ever VLBI images for most of the sources, providing crucial information on the jet kinematics and brightness distribution at milliarcsecond resolution. Two particular sources are discussed in detail: PMN J1603-4904, which ca...

  20. Scaling properties of phase-change line memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Xiao-Feng; Song San-Nian; Song Zhi-Tang; Liu Wei-Li; Lü Shi-Long; Gu Yi-Feng; Xue Wei-Jia; Xi Wei

    2012-01-01

    Phase-change line memory cells with different line widths are fabricated using focused-ion-beam deposited C-Pt as a hard mask.The electrical performance of these memory devices was characterized.The current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage (R-V) characteristics demonstrate that the power consumption decreases with the width of the phase-change line.A three-dimensional simulation is carried out to further study the scaling properties of the phase-change line memory.The results show that the resistive amorphous (RESET) power consumption is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the phase-change line,but increases as the line length decreases.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Large-Scale Nanostructured Graphene Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou

    The on-going progress in two-dimensional (2D) materials and nanostructure fabrication motivates the study of altered and combined materials. Graphene—the most studied material of the 2D family—displays unique electronic and spintronic properties. Exceptionally high electron mobilities, that surpass...... those in conventional materials such as silicon, make graphene a very interesting material for high-speed electronics. Simultaneously, long spin-diffusion lengths and spin-life times makes graphene an eligible spin-transport channel. In this thesis, we explore fundamental features of nanostructured...... graphene systems using large-scale modeling techniques. Graphene perforations, or antidots, have received substantial interest in the prospect of opening large band gaps in the otherwise gapless graphene. Motivated by recent improvements of fabrication processes, such as forming graphene antidots and layer...

  2. Psychometric properties of the rating scale sports organizations EPOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Nuviala Nuviala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of user satisfaction and consumers of services is a necessity for those responsible for them. There’s a variety of instruments that assess the perceived quality but are criticized for several reasons: concepts, procedures, lack of specificity... EPOD is a scale with 29 items integrated in four dimensions, direct practical application which had been previously validated. However, nobody had checked the psychometric properties of the instrument. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine them. The sample was 463 users of sports services who were given the instrument. The results show good internal and external validity, while it has a high reliability. Therefore, EPOD becomes a tool to assess the perceived quality of service provided by the sports organizations in a valid, reliable, simple and brief way, considering the different dimensions that make up the provision of sports services.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Scaling properties of planetary calderas and terrestrial volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanism plays an important role in transporting internal heat of planetary bodies to their surface. Therefore, volcanoes are a manifestation of the planet's past and present internal dynamics. Volcanic eruptions as well as caldera forming processes are the direct manifestation of complex interactions between the rising magma and the surrounding host rock in the crust of terrestrial planetary bodies. Attempts have been made to compare volcanic landforms throughout the solar system. Different stochastic models have been proposed to describe the temporal sequences of eruptions on individual or groups of volcanoes. However, comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for volcano formation and eruption and more specifically caldera formation remains elusive. In this work, we propose a scaling law to quantify the distribution of caldera sizes on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Io, as well as the distribution of calderas on Earth depending on their surrounding crustal properties. We also apply the same scaling analysis to the distribution of interevent times between eruptions for volcanoes that have the largest eruptive history as well as groups of volcanoes on Earth. We find that when rescaled with their respective sample averages, the distributions considered show a similar functional form. This result implies that similar processes are responsible for caldera formation throughout the solar system and for different crustal settings on Earth. This result emphasizes the importance of comparative planetology to understand planetary volcanism. Similarly, the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions are independent of the type of volcanism or geographical location.

  5. Weight bias internalization scale: psychometric properties and population norms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Internalizing the pervasive weight bias commonly directed towards individuals with overweight and obesity, co-occurs with increased psychopathology and impaired quality of life. This study sought to establish population norms and psychometric properties of the most widely used self-report questionnaire, the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS, in a representative community sample. DESIGN AND METHODS: In a survey of the German population, N = 1158 individuals with overweight and obesity were assessed with the WBIS and self-report measures for convergent validation. RESULTS: Item analysis revealed favorable item-total correlation of all but one WBIS item. With this item removed, item homogeneity and internal consistency were excellent. The one-factor structure of the WBIS was confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was shown through significant associations with measures of depressive and somatoform symptoms. The WBIS contributed to the explanation of variance in depressive and somatoform symptoms over and above body mass index. Higher WBIS scores were found in women than in men, in individuals with obesity than in individuals with overweight, and in those with lower education or income than those with higher education or income. Sex-specific norms were provided. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed good psychometric properties of the WBIS after removal of one item. Future research is warranted on further indicators of reliability and validity, for example, retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and prognostic validity.

  6. Scaling Laws and Critical Properties for fcc and hcp Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgranges, Caroline; Widhalm, Leanna; Delhommelle, Jerome

    2016-06-16

    The determination of the critical parameters of metals has remained particularly challenging both experimentally, because of the very large temperatures involved, and theoretically, because of the many-body interactions that take place in metals. Moreover, experiments have shown that these systems exhibit an unusually strong asymmetry of their binodal. Recent theoretical work has led to new similarity laws, based on the calculation of the Zeno line and of the underlying Boyle parameters, which provided results for the critical properties of atomic and molecular systems in excellent agreement with experiments. Using the recently developed expanded Wang-Landau (EWL) simulation method, we evaluate the grand-canonical partition function, over a wide range of conditions, for 11 fcc and hcp metals (Ag, Al, Au, Be, Cu, Ir, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, and Rh), modeled with a many-body interaction potential. This allows us to calculate the binodal, Zeno line, and Boyle parameters and, in turn, obtain the critical properties for these systems. We also propose two scaling laws for the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization, and identify critical exponents of 0.4 and 1.22 for these two laws, respectively.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – Short form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordahl Stein

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Vertigo symptom scale – short form (VSS-SF, a condition-specific measure of dizziness, following translation of the scale into Norwegian. Methods A cross-sectional survey design was used to examine the factor structure, internal consistency and discriminative ability (sample I, n = 503. A cross-sectional pre-intervention design was used to examine the construct validity (sample II, n = 36 of the measure and a test-retest design was used to examine reliability (sub-sample of sample II, n = 28. Results The scree plot indicated a two factor structure accounting respectively for 41% and 12% of the variance prior to rotation. The factors were related to vertigo-balance (VSS-V and autonomic-anxiety (VSS-A. Twelve of the items loaded clearly on either of the two dimensions, while three items cross-loaded. Internal consistency of the VSS-SF was high (alpha = 0.90. Construct validity was indicated by correlation between path length registered by platform posturography and the VSS-V (r = 0.52, but not with the VSS-A. The ability to discriminate between dizzy and not dizzy patients was excellent for the VSS-SF and sub-dimension VSS-V (area under the curve 0.87 and 0.91, respectively, and acceptable for the sub-dimension VSS-A (area under the curve 0.77. High test-retest reliability was demonstrated (ICC VSS-SF: 0.88, VSS-V: 0.90, VSS-A: 0.90 and no systematic change was observed in the scores from test to retest after 2 days. Conclusion Using a Norwegian translated version of the VSS-SF, this is the first study to provide evidence of the construct validity of this instrument demonstrating a stable two factor structure of the scale, and the identified sub-dimensions of dizziness were related to vertigo-balance and autonomic-anxiety, respectively. Evidence regarding a physical construct underlying the vertigo-balance sub-scale was provided. Satisfactory internal

  8. KILOPARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Miller, Sarah H.; Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang [University of California, Riverside, CA 92512 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: shoubaneh.hemmati@ucr.edu [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We perform a detailed study of the resolved properties of emission-line galaxies at kiloparsec scales to investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. We use a sample of 119 galaxies in the GOODS fields. The galaxies are selected to cover a wide range in morphologies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.3. High resolution spectroscopic data from Keck/DEIMOS observations are used to fix the redshift of all the galaxies in our sample. Using the HST/ACS and HST/WFC3 imaging data taken as a part of the CANDELS project, for each galaxy, we perform spectral energy distribution fitting per resolution element, producing resolved rest-frame U – V color, stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), age, and extinction maps. We develop a technique to identify ''regions'' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps to select red and blue regions, a broader definition for what are called ''clumps'' in other works. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the ''main sequence'' of star-forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter of ∼0.6 dex. The blue regions show higher specific SFRs (sSFRs) than their red counterparts with the sSFR decreasing since z ∼ 1, driven primarily by the stellar mass surface densities rather than the SFRs at a given

  9. Mechanical properties of materials at micro/nano scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua

    Mechanical properties of materials in small dimensions, including the depth-dependent hardness at the nano/micrometer scales, and the mechanical characterization of thin films and nanotubes, are reported. The surface effect on the depth-dependent nano/microhardness was studied and an apparent surface stress was introduced to represent the energy dissipated per unit area of a solid surface. A plastic bearing ratio model was proposed for the nanoindentation of rough surfaces. The energy dissipation occurring at the indented surface is among the factors that cause the Indentation Size Effect (ISE) at the micro/nanometer scales. Furthermore, an elastic-plastic bearing ratio model was developed for nanoindentation of rough surfaces with a flat indenter tip. The theoretical predictions agree with the experimental results and finite element simulations, from which the elastic constant and the surface hardness were extracted. The surface hardness exhibits an inverse ISE due to the interaction of asperities. The nanoindentation tests on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) may lead to the formation of carbon tubes, which are rolled up by the delaminated graphite layers. The nanoindentation loading-unloading curves reveal single pop-in and multiple pop-in phenomena, which is induced by fracture of the graphite layers and/or by delamination between the layers. From the load at pop-in, the fracture strength of the layers and/or the bonding strength between the layers can be estimated by the elastic field model for Hertzian contact including sliding friction for transverse isotropy. Two novel methods were developed to estimate the mechanical properties of films, including the Raman spectra method for the estimation of residual stresses in thin ferroelectric films and the microbridge testing method for the mechanical characterization of trilayer thin films. Mechanical characterization was also carried out on Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) nanotubes with each being comprised of

  10. KPC-Scale Properties of Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Mobasher, Bahram; Candels

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed -combined spectroscopic and photometric- study of resolved properties of galaxies at kpc scale and investigate how small-scale and global properties of galaxies are related. The sample consists of 119 galaxies to z~1.3 with the unique feature of having very high-resolution spectroscopic data from long exposure observations with the KECK/DEIMOS. Using HST/ACS and WFC3 data taken as part of the CANDELS project, we produce resolved rest-frame (U-V) color, stellar mass and star formation surface densities, stellar age and extinction maps and profiles along the galaxies rotation axes. We model the optical nebular emission lines using the high-resolution DEIMOS spectra and construct the optical line ratio profiles diagnostic of metallicity (R23) and nebular extinction (Ha/Hb). We find that the nebular dust extinction profile, inferred from Balmer decrement, is in agreement with the average extinction derived from the resolved SED modeling. Using the R23 metallicity profiles we examine, for the first time, the mass metallicity relation across galaxies and explore how this relation changes as a function of spatial position. We identify red and blue 'regions' of statistical significance within individual galaxies, using their rest-frame color maps. As expected, for any given galaxy, the red regions are found to have higher stellar mass surface densities and older ages compared to the blue regions. Furthermore, we quantify the spatial distribution of red and blue regions with respect to both redshift and stellar mass, finding that the stronger concentration of red regions toward the centers of galaxies is not a significant function of either redshift or stellar mass. We find that the 'main sequence' of star forming galaxies exists among both red and blue regions inside galaxies, with the median of blue regions forming a tighter relation with a slope of 1.1±0.1 and a scatter of ˜ 0.2 dex compared to red regions with a slope of 1.3 ± 0.1 and a scatter

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis eKoukounari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in animals suggests that the extent of early tactile stimulation by parents of offspring is an important element in early caregiving. We evaluate the psychometric properties of a new parent-report measure designed to assess frequency of tactile stimulation across multiple caregiving domains in infancy. We describe the full item set of the Parent-Infant Caregiving Touch Scale (PICTS and, using data from a UK longitudinal Child Health and Development Study, the response frequencies and factor structure and whether it was invariant over two time points in early development (5 and 9 weeks. When their infant was 9 weeks old, 838 mothers responded on the PICTS while a stratified subsample of 268 mothers completed PICTS at an earlier 5 week old assessment (229 responded on both occasions. Three PICTS factors were identified reflecting stroking, holding and affective communication. These were moderately to strongly correlated at each of the two time points of interest and were unrelated to, and therefore distinct from, a traditional measure of maternal sensitivity at 7-months. A wholly stable psychometry over 5 and 9-week assessments was not identified which suggests that behavior profiles differ slightly for younger and older infants. Tests of measurement invariance demonstrated that all three factors are characterized by full configural and metric invariance, as well as a moderate degree of evidence of scalar invariance for the stroking factor. We propose the PICTS as a valuable new measure of important aspects of caregiving in infancy.

  12. Traffic properties for stochastic routings on scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    For realistic scale-free networks, we investigate the traffic properties of stochastic routing inspired by a zero-range process known in statistical physics. By parameters $\\alpha$ and $\\delta$, this model controls degree-dependent hopping of packets and forwarding of packets with higher performance at more busy nodes. Through a theoretical analysis and numerical simulations, we derive the condition for the concentration of packets at a few hubs. In particular, we show that the optimal $\\alpha$ and $\\delta$ are involved in the trade-off between a detour path for $\\alpha 0$; In the low-performance regime at a small $\\delta$, the wandering path for $\\alpha 0$ and $\\alpha < 0$ is small, neither the wandering long path with short wait trapped at nodes ($\\alpha = -1$), nor the short hopping path with long wait trapped at hubs ($\\alpha = 1$) is advisable. A uniformly random walk ($\\alpha = 0$) yields slightly better performance. We also discuss the congestion phenomena in a more complicated situation with pack...

  13. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  14. Serbian translation of the 20-item toronto alexithymia scale: Psychometric properties and the new methodological approach in translating scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajanović Nikola N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since inception of the alexithymia construct in 1970’s, there has been a continuous effort to improve both its theoretical postulates and the clinical utility through development, standardization and validation of assessment scales. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the Serbian translation of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 and to propose a new method of translation of scales with a property of temporal stability. Methods. The scale was expertly translated by bilingual medical professionals and a linguist, and given to a sample of bilingual participants from the general population who completed both the English and the Serbian version of the scale one week apart. Results. The findings showed that the Serbian version of the TAS-20 had a good internal consistency reliability regarding total scale (α=0.86, and acceptable reliability of the three factors (α=0.71-0.79. Conclusion. The analysis confirmed the validity and consistency of the Serbian translation of the scale, with observed weakness of the factorial structure consistent with studies in other languages. The results also showed that the method of utilizing a self-control bilingual subject is a useful alternative to the back-translation method, particularly in cases of linguistically and structurally sensitive scales, or in cases where a larger sample is not available. This method, dubbed as ‘forth-translation’, could be used to translate psychometric scales measuring properties which have temporal stability over the period of at least several weeks.

  15. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  16. On scaling properties of cluster distributions in Ising models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, C.; Wagner, F.

    1992-01-01

    Scaling relations of cluster distributions for the Wolff algorithm are derived. We found them to be well satisfied for the Ising model in d=3 dimensions. Using scaling and a parametrization of the cluster distribution, we determine the critical exponent β/ν=0.516(6) with moderate effort in computing time.

  17. Scaling Properties of a Hybrid Fermi-Ulam-Bouncer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. M. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    under the framework of scaling description. The model is described by using a two-dimensional nonlinear area preserving mapping. Our results show that the chaotic regime below the lowest energy invariant spanning curve is scaling invariant and the obtained critical exponents are used to find a universal plot for the second momenta of the average velocity.

  18. The Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Balsis, Steve; Otilingam, Poorni G.; Hanson, Priya K.; Gatz, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary evidence for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS), a content and psychometric update to the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Test. Design and Methods: Traditional scale development methods were used to generate items and evaluate their psychometric…

  19. Psychometric Properties of Scores on Three Black Racial Identity Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Crystal; Worrell, Frank C.; Berry, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and the structural validity of scores on the African Self-Consciousness Scale (ASCS), the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), and the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS). Participants consisted of 225 African American college students--75 attending predominantly White institutions…

  20. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property up-scaling in volcanic tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-08-01

    One of the critical issues facing the Yucca Mountain site characterization and performance assessment programs is the manner in which property up-scaling is addressed. Property up-scaling becomes an issue whenever heterogeneous media properties are measured at one scale but applied at another. A research program has been established to challenge current understanding of property up-scaling with the aim of developing and testing improved models that describe up-scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Up-scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. To date, up-scaling studies have been performed on a series of tuff and sandstone (used as experimental controls) blocks. Samples include a welded, anisotropic tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, upper cliff microstratigraphic unit), and a moderately welded tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Caprock microstratigraphic unit). A massive fluvial sandstone (Berea Sandstone) was also investigated as a means of evaluating the experimental program and to provide a point of comparison for the tuff data. Because unsaturated flow is of prime interest to the Yucca Mountain Program, scoping studies aimed at investigating the up-scaling of hydraulic properties under various saturated conditions were performed to compliment these studies of intrinsic permeability. These studies focused on matrix sorptivity, a constitutive property quantifying the capillarity of a porous medium. 113 refs.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Positive Mental Health Scale (PMH-scale)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukat, J.; Margraf, J.; Lutz, R.; Veld, W.M. van der; Becker, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, it has been increasingly recognized that the absence of mental disorder is not the same as the presence of positive mental health (PMH). With the PMH-scale we propose a short, unidimensional scale for the assessment of positive mental health. The scale consists of 9

  2. Properties of Star Clusters - II: Scale Height Evolution of Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Buckner, Anne S M

    2014-01-01

    Until now it has been impossible to observationally measure how star cluster scale height evolves beyond 1Gyr as only small samples have been available. Here we establish a novel method to determine the scale height of a cluster sample using modelled distributions and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. This allows us to determine the scale height with a 25% accuracy for samples of 38 clusters or more. We apply our method to investigate the temporal evolution of cluster scale height, using homogeneously selected sub-samples of Kharchenko et al. (MWSC), Dias et al. (DAML02), WEBDA, and Froebrich et al. (FSR). We identify a linear relationship between scale height and log(age/yr) of clusters, considerably different from field stars. The scale height increases from about 40pc at 1Myr to 75pc at 1Gyr, most likely due to internal evolution and external scattering events. After 1Gyr, there is a marked change of the behaviour, with the scale height linearly increasing with log(age/yr) to about 550pc at 3.5Gyr. The most likely...

  3. Universal scaling properties of extremal cohesive holographic phases

    CERN Document Server

    Goutéraux, B

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we focus on zero-temperature, strongly-coupled, translation-invariant holographic phases at finite density. We show that they can be classified according to the scaling behaviour of the metric, the electric potential and the electric flux. Solutions fall into two classes, depending on whether they break relativistic symmetry or not. We conjecture a universal scaling for the optical conductivity at zero temperature and low frequencies, which reduces to the correct result for both classes of solutions. We also study the scaling behaviour of the electric flux through bulk minimal surfaces, which have been suggested to provide an order parameter for fractionalisation.

  4. Scale invariant alternatives to General Relativity II: Dilaton properties

    CERN Document Server

    Karananas, Georgios K

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we revisit gravitational theories which are invariant under TDiffs - transverse (volume preserving) diffeomorphisms and global scale transformations. It is known that these theories can be rewritten in an equivalent diffeomorphism-invariant form with an action including an integration constant (cosmological constant for the particular case of non scale-invariant unimodular gravity). The presence of this integration constant, in general, breaks explicitly scale invariance and induces a run-away potential for (otherwise massless) dilaton, associated with the determinant of the metric tensor. We show, however, that if the metric carries mass dimension $\\left[\\text{GeV}\\right]^{-2}$, the scale invariance of the system is preserved, unlike the situation in theories in which the metric has mass dimension different from $-2$. The dilaton remains massless and couples to other fields only through derivatives, without any conflict with observations. We observe that one can define a specific limit f...

  5. Empirical study on structural properties in temporal networks under different time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duanbing

    2015-12-01

    Many network analyzing methods are usually based on static networks. However, temporal networks should be considered so as to investigate real complex systems deeply since some dynamics on these systems cannot be described by static networks accurately. In this paper, four structural properties in temporal networks are empirically studied, including degree, clustering coefficient, adjacent correlation, and connected component. Three real temporal networks with different time scales are analyzed in this paper, including short message, telephone, and router networks. Moreover, structural properties of these temporal networks are compared with that of corresponding static aggregation networks in the whole time window. Some essential differences of structural properties between temporal and static networks are achieved through empirical analysis. Finally, the effect of structural properties on spreading dynamics under different time scales is investigated. Some interesting results such as turning point of structure evolving time scale corresponding to certain spreading dynamics time scale from the point of view of infected scale are achieved.

  6. Psychometric Properties of a Social Abilities Evaluation Scale: C-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Rabazo Méndez

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the psychometric data of a scale of evaluation of the social abilities (social expression and motor skills are presented. The scale was constructed to investigate social competence and antisocial conduct in adolescence. The process of the scale’s construction is explained; and the data on its internal consistency, its test-retest reliability, and its concurrent validity are presented. The scale was filled out by 325 teachers from different schools in the city of Badajoz (Spain; however, 20 scales were rejected because they were not properly completed. As well, the scale was analyzed, giving as a result 9 factors that explain 59.4% of the total variance. With the results obtained, the position of situational specificity with regard to social abilities is supported.

  7. Fundamental scaling properties of electro-mechanical switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. W.; Grogg, D.; Despont, M.; Duerig, U.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss the fundamental processes including electron conduction and adhesion of metallic contacts pertaining to the scaling of the performance metrics of nano-electro-mechanical switches. In particular, we show that under most circumstances, the switching energy is governed by the force that is needed in order to break the electrical contact when opening the switch. For an optimally designed parallel plate capacitor switch, the energy consumption does not depend on the actuation voltage. However, stray capacitances degrade the energy efficiency if a high operating voltage is chosen. The limit is of the order of 1 V for an aggressively scaled Si device, for which an overall switching energy of the order of 150 eV, a footprint area of 2500 nm2 and a switching time of 200 ps are predicted. The scaling analysis also stipulates that materials with a low free electron density and high effective mass should be used for the electrical contact, which is counter-intuitive, as such materials are known to be poor conductors on the macroscopic scale.

  8. Development and Psychometric Properties Gender Roles Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…

  9. Scaling properties of Wilson loops pierced by P-vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Patrick; Greensite, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    these ratios are plotted versus loop area in physical units, for a range of lattice couplings, it is found that the points fall approximately on a single curve, consistent with scaling. We also find that the ratios are rather insensitive to the point where the minimal area of the loop is pierced by the P-vortex....

  10. Development and Psychometric Properties Gender Roles Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Child Feeding Scale in Turkish Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Polat, PhD, RN

    2010-09-01

    Conclusions: The present study provides evidence of the CFS's validity and reliability. The scale has potential applications for use in research. The CFS can be used to assess aspects of child-feeding perceptions, attitudes, and practices and their relationships to children's developing food acceptance patterns, the control of food intake and obesity.

  12. Polarization properties of linearly polarized parabolic scaling Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-10-01

    The intensity profiles for the dominant polarization, cross polarization, and longitudinal components of modified parabolic scaling Bessel beams with linear polarization are investigated theoretically. The transverse intensity distributions of the three electric components are intimately connected to the topological charge. In particular, the intensity patterns of the cross polarization and longitudinal components near the apodization plane reflect the sign of the topological charge.

  13. Short-term rainfall: its scaling properties over Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M. Isabel P.

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of rainfall at a variety of space- and time-scales demands usually that data from different origins and resolution are explored. Different tools and methodologies can be used for this purpose. In regions where the spatial variation of rain is marked, the study of the scaling structure of rainfall can lead to a better understanding of the type of events affecting that specific area, which is essential for many engineering applications. The relevant factors affecting rain variability, in time and space, can lead to contrasting statistics which should be carefully taken into account in design procedures and decision making processes. One such region is Mainland Portugal; the territory is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the subpolar depression zones and is characterized by strong north-south and east-west rainfall gradients. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of rain are particularly influenced by the characteristics of the global circulation. One specific feature is the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances in the context of the regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences). Thus, aiming at investigating the statistical signature of rain events of different origins, resulting from the large number of mechanisms and factors affecting the rainfall climate over Portugal, scale-invariant analyses of the temporal structure of rain from several locations in mainland Portugal were conducted. The study used short-term rainfall time series. Relevant scaling ranges were identified and characterized that help clarifying the small-scale behaviour and statistics of this process.

  14. The large-scale properties of simulated cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marinacci, Federico; Mocz, Philip; Pakmor, Ruediger

    2015-01-01

    We perform uniformly sampled large-scale cosmological simulations including magnetic fields with the moving mesh code AREPO. We run two sets of MHD simulations: one including adiabatic gas physics only; the other featuring the fiducial feedback model of the Illustris simulation. In the adiabatic case, the magnetic field amplification follows the $B \\propto \\rho^{2/3}$ scaling derived from `flux-freezing' arguments, with the seed field strength providing an overall normalisation factor. At high baryon overdensities the amplification is enhanced by shear flows and turbulence. Feedback physics and the inclusion of radiative cooling change this picture dramatically. Gas collapses to much larger densities and the magnetic field is amplified strongly, reaching saturation and losing memory of the initial seed field. At lower densities a dependence on the seed field strength and orientation, which in principle can be used to constrain models of cosmological magnetogenesis, is still present. Inside the most massive ha...

  15. Approximate scaling properties of RNA free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, S.; Stadler, P. F.; Schuster, P.

    1996-01-01

    RNA free energy landscapes are analysed by means of "time-series" that are obtained from random walks restricted to excursion sets. The power spectra, the scaling of the jump size distribution, and the scaling of the curve length measured with different yard stick lengths are used to describe the structure of these "time series". Although they are stationary by construction, we find that their local behavior is consistent with both AR(1) and self-affine processes. Random walks confined to excursion sets (i.e., with the restriction that the fitness value exceeds a certain threshold at each step) exhibit essentially the same statistics as free random walks. We find that an AR(1) time series is in general approximately self-affine on timescales up to approximately the correlation length. We present an empirical relation between the correlation parameter rho of the AR(1) model and the exponents characterizing self-affinity.

  16. The sexual self-consciousness scale: psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Geijen, Wendy E H; Sykora, Heidi

    2008-12-01

    An investigation of the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS) is reported that aims to measure individual variability with regard to the construct of self-consciousness as experienced in sexual situations. The construct relates to the attentional-capacity model of sexual arousal. Sexual self-consciousness may constitute a vulnerability factor for the development of sexual dysfunction. In the present study, men and women with sexual dysfunction and healthy control participants were investigated (N = 282). Principal component analysis and multitrait scaling analysis showed that a two-component, oblimin-rotated solution based on 12 items and explaining 53.7% of the total variance could be well interpreted. The Sexual Embarrassment subscale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (alpha = .79), and the full scale (alpha = .85) were found to have satisfactory to good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for the Sexual Embarrassment subscale (r = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (r = .79), and total score (r = .83). An effect of sex was found on the Sexual Embarrassment subscale, with female participants scoring higher than male participants. Compared with sexually functional participants, sexually dysfunctional participants scored higher on the Sexual Embarrassment and Sexual Self-Focus subscales. Convergent and divergent construct validity was investigated by comparing the associations of SSCS subscales with general self-consciousness and psychological distress scales. The pattern of correlations was interpreted as providing support for the instrument's construct validity. In conclusion, the SSCS was found to have satisfactory reliability and validity characteristics, and is expected to contribute to the field of sex research and clinical sexology.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Passion Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chamarro Lusar, Andrés; Penelo Werner, Eva; Fornieles Deu, Albert; Oberst, Ursula; Vallerand, Robert J.; Fernández Castro, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passion has been shown to be involved in psychological processes that emerge in diverse human activities like physical activity and sports, work, leisure, videogaming, pathological gambling, and interpersonal relationships. We aimed to present evidence of validity and internal consistency of the Passion Scale in Spanish based on the Dualistic Model of Passion, comprising harmonious and obsessive dimensions. Method: The sample comprised 1,007 participants (350 females and 657 males...

  18. Density scaling as a property of strongly correlating viscous liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Schrøder, Thomas; Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Bailey, Nicholas; Toxværd, Søren; Dyre, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Results from molecular dynamics simulations of two viscous molecular model liquids -- the Lewis-Wahnstrom model of ortho-terphenyl and an asymmetric dumbbell model -- are reported. We demonstrate that the liquids have a ``hidden'' approximate scale invariance: Equilibrium potential energy fluctuations are accurately described by inverse power law (IPL) potentials, the radial distribution functions are accurately reproduced by the IPL's, and the radial distribution functions obey the IPL predi...

  19. The Body Image Psychological Inflexibility Scale: development and psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Sandoz, Emily K; Darrow, Sabrina M; Feeney, Timothy K

    2015-03-30

    Body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been researched from a variety of psychological approaches. Psychological inflexibility, or avoidance of one's own cognitive and affective states at a cost to personal values, may be a useful construct to understand these problems. In an effort to clarify the role of psychological inflexibility in body image disturbance and BDD, a measure was created based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The scale was developed by generating new items to represent the construct and revising items from an existing scale measuring aspects of body image psychological inflexibility. The study was conducted with an ethnically diverse undergraduate population using three samples during the validation process. Participants completed multiple assessments to determine the validity of the measure and were interviewed for BDD. The 16-item scale has internal consistency (α = 0.93), a single factor solution, convergent validity, and test re-test reliability (r = 0.90). Data demonstrate a relationship between psychological inflexibility and body image disturbance indicating empirical support for an ACT conceptualization of body image problems and the use of this measure for body image disturbance and BDD.

  20. Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale in Women: Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita J. Cousins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One individual's actions may affect the evolutionary fitness of another individual. Sexually antagonistic coevolution occurs when one partner's behavior decreases the fitness of the other partner (Rice, 1996. This conflict pressures the other partner to counter these disadvantageous actions. Mate guarding is a mate retention tactic aimed at keeping a partner from cheating. Mate guarding may reduce mate choice, especially for extra pair mates. Therefore, some individuals may resist their partner's mate guarding tactics. We developed a scale to measure resistance to mate guarding and tested it in women (N = 1069. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA, six theoretically sound factors emerged and explained 69% of the variance. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed strong support for the six original subscales as well as for the overall scale. The subscales had high reliability. The validity of the Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale was also excellent. Women who stated they used more resistance to mate guarding strategies also indicated that they had partners who mate guarded more, were less invested in their relationships, felt their partners were more controlling, had a more avoidant attachment style, and had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation.

  1. Long-Run Properties of Large-Scale Macroeconometric Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth F. WALLIS-; John D. WHITLEY

    1987-01-01

    We consider alternative approaches to the evaluation of the long-run properties of dynamic nonlinear macroeconometric models, namely dynamic simulation over an extended database, or the construction and direct solution of the steady-state version of the model. An application to a small model of the UK economy is presented. The model is found to be unstable, but a stable form can be produced by simple alterations to the structure.

  2. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental

  3. Models and average properties of scale-free directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Minnhagen, Petter

    2006-08-01

    We extend the merging model for undirected networks by Kim [Eur. Phys. J. B 43, 369 (2004)] to directed networks and investigate the emerging scale-free networks. Two versions of the directed merging model, friendly and hostile merging, give rise to two distinct network types. We uncover that some nontrivial features of these two network types resemble two levels of a certain randomization/nonspecificity in the link reshuffling during network evolution. Furthermore, the same features show up, respectively, in metabolic networks and transcriptional networks. We introduce measures that single out the distinguishing features between the two prototype networks, as well as point out features that are beyond the prototypes.

  4. Dispersal ability determines the scaling properties of species abundance distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borda-De-Água, Luís; Whittaker, Robert James; Cardoso, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data on arthr......Species abundance distributions (SAD) are central to the description of diversity and have played a major role in the development of theories of biodiversity and biogeography. However, most work on species abundance distributions has focused on one single spatial scale. Here we used data...... on arthropods to test predictions obtained with computer simulations on whether dispersal ability influences the rate of change of SADs as a function of sample size. To characterize the change of the shape of the SADs we use the moments of the distributions: the skewness and the raw moments. In agreement...... with computer simulations, low dispersal ability species generate a hump for intermediate abundance classes earlier than the distributions of high dispersal ability species. Importantly, when plotted as function of sample size, the raw moments of the SADs of arthropods have a power law pattern similar...

  5. Random lasing in structures with multi-scale transport properties

    CERN Document Server

    Leonetti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    In a random laser (RL), a system possessing in itself both resonator and amplifying medium while lacking of a macroscopic cavity, the feedback is provided by the scattering, which forces light to travel across very long random paths. Here we demonstrate that RL properties may be tuned by the topology of the scattering system retaining unchanged scattering strength and gain efficiency. This is possible in a system based on sparse clusters, possessing two relevant structural lengths: the macroscopic inter cluster separation and the mesoscopic intra-cluster mean free path.

  6. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Yasemin; Kucuk, Leyla; Yildiz Findik, Ummu

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the reliability, validity, and psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism were assessed. The psychometric properties of the scale were studied through a descriptive and correlational design. The study sample consisted of 231 healthy people living in the Marmara region of Turkey. In order to obtain three sets of data, a questionnaire was designed containing demographic questions and the Scale. The content validity index for the full scale was 0.98. The α coefficient for 25 items was 0.84, and the split-half reliability of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism was 0.81. The three factors represented 38.31% of the variance. In this study, we concluded that the Turkish version of the Fraboni Scale of Ageism is a suitable instrument for measuring ageism in the Turkish population.

  7. Ternary eutectic dendrites: Pattern formation and scaling properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rátkai, László; Szállás, Attila; Pusztai, Tamás [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Mohri, Tetsuo [Center for Computational Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Gránásy, László, E-mail: granasy.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-21

    Extending previous work [Pusztai et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 032401 (2013)], we have studied the formation of eutectic dendrites in a model ternary system within the framework of the phase-field theory. We have mapped out the domain in which two-phase dendritic structures grow. With increasing pulling velocity, the following sequence of growth morphologies is observed: flat front lamellae → eutectic colonies → eutectic dendrites → dendrites with target pattern → partitionless dendrites → partitionless flat front. We confirm that the two-phase and one-phase dendrites have similar forms and display a similar scaling of the dendrite tip radius with the interface free energy. It is also found that the possible eutectic patterns include the target pattern, and single- and multiarm spirals, of which the thermal fluctuations choose. The most probable number of spiral arms increases with increasing tip radius and with decreasing kinetic anisotropy. Our numerical simulations confirm that in agreement with the assumptions of a recent analysis of two-phase dendrites [Akamatsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 105502 (2014)], the Jackson-Hunt scaling of the eutectic wavelength with pulling velocity is obeyed in the parameter domain explored, and that the natural eutectic wavelength is proportional to the tip radius of the two-phase dendrites. Finally, we find that it is very difficult/virtually impossible to form spiraling two-phase dendrites without anisotropy, an observation that seems to contradict the expectations of Akamatsu et al. Yet, it cannot be excluded that in isotropic systems, two-phase dendrites are rare events difficult to observe in simulations.

  8. The Psychometric Properties of Scales that Assess Market Orientation and Team Leadership Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of two scales that can be used in predicting team performance: specifically how team members assess the market orientation of their work unit as well the leadership skills present in the team. The first scale is a three-dimensional assessment of the unit's market orientation (innovative, process, or…

  9. Testing properties of potato starch from different scales of isolations - A ringtest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wischmann, Bente; Ahmt, T.; Bandsholm, O.

    2007-01-01

    Five different procedures were used to isolate potato starch from the same batch at three different scales in order to analyse what influence scaling up of the starch process had on the starch physical/chemical properties. Common to the five isolation processes was the steps of washing and macera...

  10. Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with food-related Life Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale and its relation to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in southern Chile. Methods: A survey was applied to a sample of 316 persons in the principal cities of southern Chile distributed...

  11. Psychometric properties of the satisfaction with food-related Life Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Food-related Life (SWFL) scale and its relation to the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in southern Chile. Methods: A survey was applied to a sample of 316 persons in the principal cities of southern Chile distributed ...

  12. Soil properties and preferential solute transport at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J K; Minh, Luong Nhat; Nørgaard, Trine

    An important fraction of water flow and solute transport through soil takes place through preferential flow paths. Although this had been already observed in the nineteenth century, it had been forgotten by the scientific community until it was rediscovered during the 1970s. The awareness...... of the relevance of preferential flow was broadly re-established in the community by the early 1990s. However, since then, the notion remains widespread among soil scientists that the occurrence and strength of preferential flow cannot be predicted from measurable proxy variables such as soil properties or land...... management practices (e.g. Beven, K., 1991, modeling preferential flow - an uncertain future, Preferential Flow, 1-11). In our study, we present evidence that disproves this notion. We evaluated breakthrough curve experiments under a constant irrigation rate of 1 cm/h conducted on 65 soil columns (20 cm...

  13. Properties of large-scale melt-processed YBCO samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, S.; Elschner, S.; Bestgen, H.

    Magnetic bearings and superconducting permanent magnets are some of the first possible applications of bulk high Tc superconductors. Large samples were prepared by a new melt process starting from reacted YBCO 123 and 211 powders. The addition of PtO 2 to the mixture led to reduced 211 inclusion size and better homogeneity. Simultaneously the density of microcracks dividing the a- b basal plane was reduced. For testing the overall magnetic properties of these samples magnetization and levitation force measurements were performed. In comparison to samples without PtO 2 addition a strong increase in the magnetization M and the repulsion force from a magnet were observed. The maximum in the field dependence of M increased to more than 1000 G. According to the time dependence of the trapped field after a field cooling experiment an acceptable flux creep at 77 K for a long-term application was achieved.

  14. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  15. Scaling of semivariograms and the kriging estimation of field-measured properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vieira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were evaluated for scaling a set of semivariograms into a unified function for kriging estimation of field-measured properties. Scaling is performed using sample variances and sills of individual semivariograms as scale factors. Theoretical developments show that kriging weights are independent of the scaling factor which appears simply as a constant multiplying both sides of the kriging equations. The scaling techniques were applied to four sets of semivariograms representing spatial scales of 30 x 30 m to 600 x 900 km. Experimental semivariograms in each set successfully coalesced into a single curve by variances and sills of individual semivariograms. To evaluate the scaling techniques, kriged estimates derived from scaled semivariogram models were compared with those derived from unscaled models. Differences in kriged estimates of the order of 5% were found for the cases in which the scaling technique was not successful in coalescing the individual semivariograms, which also means that the spatial variability of these properties is different. The proposed scaling techniques enhance interpretation of semivariograms when a variety of measurements are made at the same location. They also reduce computational times for kriging estimations because kriging weights only need to be calculated for one variable. Weights remain unchanged for all other variables in the data set whose semivariograms are scaled.

  16. Scaling properties of weakly nonlinear coefficients in the Faraday problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeldon, A C; Porter, J

    2011-07-01

    Interesting and exotic surface wave patterns have regularly been observed in the Faraday experiment. Although symmetry arguments provide a qualitative explanation for the selection of some of these patterns (e.g., superlattices), quantitative analysis is hindered by mathematical difficulties inherent in a time-dependent, free-boundary Navier-Stokes problem. More tractable low viscosity approximations are available, but these do not necessarily capture the moderate viscosity regime of the most interesting experiments. Here we focus on weakly nonlinear behavior and compare the scaling results derived from symmetry arguments in the low viscosity limit with the computed coefficients of appropriate amplitude equations using both the full Navier-Stokes equations and a reduced set of partial differential equations due to Zhang and Vinãls. We find the range of viscosities over which one can expect "low viscosity" theories to hold. We also find that there is an optimal viscosity range for locating superlattice patterns experimentally-large enough that the region of parameters giving stable patterns is not impracticably small, yet not so large that crucial resonance effects are washed out. These results help explain some of the discrepancies between theory and experiment.

  17. Scale-invariant properties of public-debt growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. M.; Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Stanley, H. E.

    2010-05-01

    Public debt is one of the important economic variables that quantitatively describes a nation's economy. Because bankruptcy is a risk faced even by institutions as large as governments (e.g., Iceland), national debt should be strictly controlled with respect to national wealth. Also, the problem of eliminating extreme poverty in the world is closely connected to the study of extremely poor debtor nations. We analyze the time evolution of national public debt and find "convergence": initially less-indebted countries increase their debt more quickly than initially more-indebted countries. We also analyze the public debt-to-GDP ratio {\\cal R} , a proxy for default risk, and approximate the probability density function P({\\cal R}) with a Gamma distribution, which can be used to establish thresholds for sustainable debt. We also observe "convergence" in {\\cal R} : countries with initially small {\\cal R} increase their {\\cal R} more quickly than countries with initially large {\\cal R} . The scaling relationships for debt and {\\cal R} have practical applications, e.g. the Maastricht Treaty requires members of the European Monetary Union to maintain {\\cal R} < 0.6 .

  18. Silver nanoparticles: Large scale solvothermal synthesis and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Irshad A.; Khatoon, Sarvari [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ganguli, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tokeer.ch@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple and modified solvothermal method at large scale using ethanol as the refluxing solvent and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The nanopowder was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and BET surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the monodisperse and highly uniform nanoparticles of silver of the particle size of 5 nm, however, the size is found to be 7 nm using dynamic light scattering which is in good agreement with the TEM and X-ray line broadening studies. The surface area was found to be 34.5 m{sup 2}/g. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at {approx}425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The percentage yield of silver nanoparticles was found to be as high as 98.5%.

  19. Electronic transport properties of copper and gold at atomic scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadzadeh, Saeideh

    2010-11-23

    The factors governing electronic transport properties of copper and gold atomic-size contacts are theoretically examined in the present work. A two-terminal conductor using crystalline electrodes is adopted. The non-equilibrium Green's function combined with the density functional tight-binding method is employed via gDFTB simulation tool to calculate the transport at both equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The crystalline orientation, length, and arrangement of electrodes have very weak influence on the electronic characteristics of the considered atomic wires. The wire width is found to be the most effective geometric aspect determining the number of conduction channels. The obtained conductance oscillation and linear current-voltage curves are interpreted. To analyze the conduction mechanism in detail, the transmission channels and their decomposition to the atomic orbitals are calculated in copper and gold single point contacts. The presented results offer a possible explanation for the relation between conduction and geometric structure. Furthermore, the results are in good agreement with available experimental and theoretical studies. (orig.)

  20. From Cores to Envelopes to Disks: A Multi-scale View of Magnetized Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles L. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of polarization in star forming regions have been made across many wavelengths, many size scales, and many stages of stellar evolution. One of the overarching goals of these observations has been to determine the importance of magnetic fields -- which are the cause of the polarization -- in the star formation process. We begin by describing the commissioning and the calibration of the 1.3 mm dual-polarization receiver system we built for CARMA (the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy), a radio telescope in the eastern Sierra region of California. One of the primary science drivers behind the polarization system is to observe polarized thermal emission from dust grains in the dense clumps of dust and gas where the youngest, Class 0 protostars are forming. We go on to describe the CARMA TADPOL survey -- the largest high-resolution (~1000 AU scale) survey to date of dust polarization in low-mass protostellar cores -- and discuss our main findings: (1) Magnetic fields (B-fields) on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with protostellar outflows. Rather, the data are consistent both with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular) and where they are randomly aligned. (2) Sources with high CARMA polarization fractions have consistent B-field orientations on large scales (~20'', measured using single-dish submillimeter telescopes) and small scales (~2.5'', measured by CARMA). We interpret this to mean that in at least some cases B-fields play a role in regulating the infall of material all the way down to the ~1000 AU scales of protostellar envelopes. Finally, (3) While on the whole outflows appear to be randomly aligned with B-fields, in sources with low polarization fractions there is a hint that outflows are preferentially perpendicular to small-scale B-fields, which suggests that in these sources the fields have been wrapped up by envelope rotation. This work shows that the ~1000 AU

  1. The 'caring experience': Testing the psychometric properties of the Caring Efficacy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Carol; Courtney, Mary; Anderson, Debra; Hurst, Cameron

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to undertake rigorous psychometric testing of the Caring Efficacy Scale in a sample of Registered Nurses. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 registered nurses was undertaken. The Caring Efficacy Scale was utilized to inform the psychometric properties of the selected items of the Caring Efficacy Scale. Cronbach's Alpha identified reliability of the data. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were undertaken to validate the factors. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the development of two factors; Confidence to Care and Doubts and Concerns. The Caring Efficacy Scale has undergone rigorous psychometric testing, affording evidence of internal consistency and goodness-of-fit indices within satisfactory ranges. The Caring Efficacy Scale is valid for use in an Australian population of registered nurses. The scale can be used as a subscale or total score reflective of self-efficacy in nursing. This scale may assist nursing educators to predict levels of caring efficacy.

  2. Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (Form A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioqueta, Andrea P; Stiles, Tore C

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports the reliability and validity of the Norwegian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale in non-clinical and clinical populations. The participants were 344 young male military recruits, 41 healthy controls and 142 psychiatric outpatients. All the participants completed the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire. The analysis of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale revealed a Cronbach's alpha of 0.85, indicating satisfactory reliability. Evidence for the construct validity was obtained by the correlation between the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (r = 0.47) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (r = 0.47). Finally, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale significantly discriminated between clinically depressed, non-depressed psychiatric patients and healthy controls. The results showed that the Norwegian version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale possess satisfactory psychometric properties suggesting that this instrument is appropriate for use as a cognitive measure in a Norwegian cultural context.

  3. Large-Scale Modeling of Epileptic Seizures: Scaling Properties of Two Parallel Neuronal Network Simulation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo L. Pesce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our limited understanding of the relationship between the behavior of individual neurons and large neuronal networks is an important limitation in current epilepsy research and may be one of the main causes of our inadequate ability to treat it. Addressing this problem directly via experiments is impossibly complex; thus, we have been developing and studying medium-large-scale simulations of detailed neuronal networks to guide us. Flexibility in the connection schemas and a complete description of the cortical tissue seem necessary for this purpose. In this paper we examine some of the basic issues encountered in these multiscale simulations. We have determined the detailed behavior of two such simulators on parallel computer systems. The observed memory and computation-time scaling behavior for a distributed memory implementation were very good over the range studied, both in terms of network sizes (2,000 to 400,000 neurons and processor pool sizes (1 to 256 processors. Our simulations required between a few megabytes and about 150 gigabytes of RAM and lasted between a few minutes and about a week, well within the capability of most multinode clusters. Therefore, simulations of epileptic seizures on networks with millions of cells should be feasible on current supercomputers.

  4. The measurement properties of mentoring relationship quality scales for mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Annalise; Wells, Samantha; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lipman, Ellen; DeWit, David

    2014-10-01

    The measurement properties of two new scales designed to measure global and engagement mentoring relationship quality (Global Mentoring Relationship Quality Scale and Quality of Mentoring Relationship Engagement Scale) were examined among 272 mentors, 491 children, and 554 parents participating in Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring programs across Canada. Results demonstrated their unidimensionality, moderate convergent validity, good external validity, and weak-to-moderate reporter concordance. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated good predictive validity of mentor and parent mentoring relationship quality scales with respect to predicting mentoring relationship status.

  5. Racial discrimination and health: a systematic review of scales with a focus on their psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Joao Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Faerstein, Eduardo; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2010-04-01

    The literature addressing the use of the race variable to study causes of racial inequities in health is characterized by a dense discussion on the pitfalls in interpreting statistical associations as causal relationships. In contrast, fewer studies have addressed the use of racial discrimination scales to estimate discrimination effects on health, and none of them provided a thorough assessment of the scales' psychometric properties. Our aim was to systematically review self-reported racial discrimination scales to describe their development processes and to provide a synthesis of their psychometric properties. A computer-based search in PubMed, LILACS, PsycInfo, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted without any type of restriction, using search queries containing free and controlled vocabulary. After initially identifying 3060 references, 24 scales were included in the review. Despite the fact that discrimination stands as topic of international relevance, 23 (96%) scales were developed within the United States. Most studies (67%, N = 16) were published in the last 12 years, documenting initial attempts at scale development, with a dearth of investigations on scale refinements or cross-cultural adaptations. Psychometric properties were acceptable; sixteen of all scales presented reliability scores above 0.7, 19 out of 20 instruments confirmed at least 75% of all previously stated hypotheses regarding the constructs under consideration, and conceptual dimensional structure was supported by means of any type of factor analysis in 17 of 21 scales. However, independent researchers, apart from the original scale developers, have rarely examined such scales. The use of racial terminology and how it may influence self-reported experiences of discrimination has not yet been thoroughly examined. The need to consider other types of unfair treatment as concurrently important health-damaging exposures, and the idea of a universal instrument which would permit cross

  6. Contribution of polarimetric imaging for the characterization of fibrous surface properties at different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourlonias, Michel; Bigué, Laurent; Bueno, Marie-Ange

    2010-01-01

    The point in using polarimetric imaging for surface characterization is highlighted in this paper. A method for the evaluation of nonwoven surface properties at microscopic and macroscopic scales is described. This method is based on a polarimetric apparatus and various image processing operations are then performed depending on the studied scale. Polarimetric imaging applied to nonwovens, particularly degree of polarization imaging, highlights texture inhomogeneities. At both scales, image processing techniques were designed to analyze surface zones of different textures. At the macroscopic scale, a basic image processing was developed in order to detect the nonwoven manufacturing process defects. Moreover at the microscopic scale, i.e. at the fiber scale, image processing was adapted to evaluate fiber orientation within nonwovens, which is known to be an important information for mechanical behavior prediction.

  7. Development and examination of the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Imai, Takiko; Uemura, Chizuru

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of the Learning Experience Scale. A survey method was used to collect data from a total of 502 nurses. Data were analyzed by factor analysis and the known-groups technique to examine the construct validity of the scale. In addition, internal consistency was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha, and stability was examined by test-retest correlation. Factor analysis showed that the Learning Experience Scale consisted of five factors: learning from practice, others, training, feedback, and reflection. The scale also had the power to discriminate between nurses with high and low levels of nursing competence. The internal consistency and the stability of the scale were also acceptable. The Learning Experience Scale is a valid and reliable instrument, and helps organizations to effectively design learning interventions for nurses.

  8. Scaling properties of a simplified bouncer model and of Chirikov's standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, Denis Gouvea; Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal da [Departamento de FIsica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), CP 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    Scaling properties of Chirikov's standard map are investigated by studying the average value of I{sup 2}, where I is the action variable, for initial conditions in (a) the stability island and (b) the chaotic component. Scaling behavior appears in three regimes, defined by the value of the control parameter K: (i) the integrable to non-integrable transition (K {approx} 0) and K < K{sub c} (K{sub c} {approx} 0.9716); (ii) the transition from limited to unlimited growth of I{sup 2}, K {approx}> K{sub c}; (iii) the regime of strong nonlinearity, K >> K{sub c}. Our scaling results are also applicable to Pustylnikov's bouncer model, since it is globally equivalent to the standard map. We also describe the scaling properties of a stochastic version of the standard map, which exhibits unlimited growth of I{sup 2} even for small values of K.

  9. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Cock, Evi S A; Emons, Wilco H M; Nefs, Giesje

    2011-01-01

    Scale (EDS) is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both......BACKGROUND: Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2), affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression...... to laugh or enjoy) and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. CONCLUSIONS: The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using...

  10. The compensatory health beliefs scale: psychometric properties of a cross-culturally adapted scale for use in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nooijer, Jascha; Puijk-Hekman, Saskia; van Assema, Patricia

    2009-10-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a measuring scale for compensatory health beliefs (CHBs), culturally adapted for use in the Dutch context. CHBs refer to the idea that people can compensate for unhealthy (mostly pleasant) behaviours with healthy behaviours, e.g. 'It is OK to eat a chocolate bar, because I am going to the gym tonight'. We are critical towards such beliefs as they may also be an excuse to justify unhealthy behaviours. Before such effects can be studied, an appropriate tool to measure CHBs must be developed. We adapted a Canadian scale, consisting of four factors relating to beliefs about substance use, eating/sleeping habits, stress and weight regulation, translating it according to guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation and testing it among 145 Dutch students. Factor analysis showed that the structure was not entirely identical in the Dutch context, and the internal consistency of the four subscales was also low. The overall scale showed a high internal consistency (alpha = 0.78), indicating the existence of an underlying construct, and a high Pearson correlation between the first and second measurements (r = 0.82), showing good stability. We recommend using the overall scale and further studying its reliability among other subgroups as well as its validity.

  11. Scaling Properties and Asymptotic Spectra of Finite Models of Phase Transitions as They Approach Macroscopic Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.; Turner, P. S.; Rosensteel, G.

    2004-11-01

    The asymptotic spectra and scaling properties of a mixed-symmetry Hamiltonian, which exhibits a second-order phase transition in its macroscopic limit, are examined for a system of N interacting bosons. A second interacting boson-model Hamiltonian, which exhibits a first-order phase transition, is also considered. The latter shows many parallel characteristics and some notable differences, leaving it open to question as to the nature of its asymptotic critical-point properties.

  12. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Gutman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to describe the development and psychometric properties of the Emotional Intelligence Admission Essay scale. The authors developed an admission essay question and rating scale designed to provide information about applicants’ emotional intelligence (EI. Content validity, convergent validity, interrater reliability, and internal consistency were established. The scale was also examined to determine if it could discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems in the academic and fieldwork settings. Content validity was found to be high by a panel of three experts in EI (content validity index = 1.0. Convergent validity with the Assessing Emotions Scale was moderate (r = .46, p < .02. Interrater reliability between two trained faculty raters was high (ICC = .91, p < .000. Internal consistency of the scale was high with a Cronbach’s alpha of .95. This version of the scale was not able to discriminate between students with and without professional behavior problems. The moderate to strong psychometric properties suggest that the EI Admission Essay Scale has the ability to provide information about applicants’ EI. The wording of the essay question must be modified to better instruct applicants to address interpersonal conflict.

  13. Psychometric properties of the dimensional anxiety scales for DSM-5 in a Brazilian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo A; Moreno, André L; Osório, Flávia L; Crippa, José Alexandre S; LeBeau, Richard; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A; Koller, Silvia H

    2017-09-01

    The DSM-5 highlights the use of dimensional assessments of mental health as a supplement to categorical diagnoses. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Brazilian community sample. Dimensional scales for generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and specific phobia were administered to 930 adults aged 18 to 70, 64.2% female. Psychometric properties investigated were: unidimensionality; measurement invariance; internal consistency; composite reliability; test-retest reliability; convergent and divergent validity; category thresholds and item performance analyses. Analyses revealed unidimensionality for all scales except for specific phobia. Measurement invariance, high internal consistency and composite reliability, and convergent and divergent validity were demonstrated. Test-retest reliability was high for all scales but generalized anxiety disorder. Item-based analyses evidenced that none of the items were very easy to endorse and that the scales offered more information about subjects with high severity estimates of anxiety. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valid and reliable alternative to assess anxiety symptomatology in community settings, although further evaluation is needed, especially for specific phobia. The scales seem to be more useful for characterizing dimensionality of symptoms for subclinical or clinical cases than for slight or mildly anxious subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Length Scales and Turbulent Properties of Magnetic Fields in Simulated Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, Hilary; Hallman, Eric; Burns, Jack; Xu, Hao; Collins, David; Li, Hui; Norman, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Additional physics beyond standard hydrodynamics is needed to fully model the intracluster medium (ICM); however, as we move to more sophisticated models, it is important to consider the role of magnetic fields and the way the fluid approximation breaks down. This paper represents a first step towards developing a self-consistent model of the ICM by characterizing the statistical properties of magnetic fields in cosmological simulations of galaxy clusters. We find that plasma conditions are largely homogeneous across a range of cluster masses and relaxation states. We also find that the magnetic field length scales are resolution dependent and not based on any particular physical process. Energy transfer mechanisms and scales are also identified, and imply the existence of small scale dynamo action. The scales of the small scale dynamo are resolution limited and driven by numerical resistivity and viscosity.

  15. Scaling of material properties for Yucca Mountain: literature review and numerical experiments on saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna, S.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-08-01

    A review of pertinent literature reveals techniques which may be practical for upscaling saturated hydraulic conductivity at Yucca Mountain: geometric mean, spatial averaging, inverse numerical modeling, renormalization, and a perturbation technique. Isotropic realizations of log hydraulic conductivity exhibiting various spatial correlation lengths are scaled from the point values to five discrete scales through these techniques. For the variances in log{sub 10} saturated hydraulic conductivity examined here, geometric mean, numerical inverse and renormalization adequately reproduce point scale fluxes across the modeled domains. Fastest particle velocities and dispersion measured on the point scale are not reproduced by the upscaled fields. Additional numerical experiments examine the utility of power law averaging on a geostatistical realization of a cross-section similar to the cross-sections that will be used in the 1995 groundwater travel time calculations. A literature review on scaling techniques for thermal and mechanical properties is included. 153 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  17. The Psychometric Properties of the Physical Education Lesson Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Erman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Physical Education Attitude Scale for Preservice Classroom Teachers (PEAS-PCT). The study was conducted on 561 Turkish preservice classroom teachers at the end of the 2011-2012 Fall Semester. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to ascertain the…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Locke, Dona E. C.

    2010-01-01

    The MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008) was designed to be psychometrically superior to its MMPI-2 counterpart. However, the test has yet to be extensively evaluated in diverse clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the MMPI-2-RF Somatic Complaints (RC1) scale in…

  19. Psychometric Properties of an Arabic Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Miriam Taouk; Lovibond, Peter; Laube, Roy; Megahead, Hamido A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of an Arabic-language version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). Method: The items were translated, back translated, refined, and tested in an Australian immigrant sample (N = 220). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Arabic DASS discriminates between…

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale within the Greek Educational Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the validity of the existing instruments measuring teachers' efficacy. Recently, a new instrument to measure teachers' perceived efficacy has been presented, namely, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the TSES in the Greek…

  1. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A): psychometric properties in a Dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A) was studied in a sample of adolescents (n = 717; age range, 11-17 years) of the general population. The MAAS-A and other questionnaires measuring other constructs w

  2. The assessment of disability with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Conceptual framework and psychometric properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, G.I J M; Miedema, I; Ormel, J.; Molenaar, W.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual framework, psychometric properties, descriptive statistics, and the rules for administration and scoring of the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (CARS) for assessing disability in the area of ADL (Activities of Daily Living including mobility) as well as IADL (Instrumental Activit

  3. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Sawchuk, Craig N.; Moretz, Melanie W.; David, Bieke; Armstrong, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety (IPS-Anx). Principal components analysis of IPS-Anx items in Study 1 (n = 498) revealed a 2-factor structure consisting of Distal Fear and Contact Fear. However, CFA results in Study 2 (n = 567) suggest that a 1-factor…

  4. The Psychometric Properties of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Kraijer, Dirk; Sytema, Sjoerd; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Survey Form were studied in a total population of children and adolescents with MR, and in the specific levels of functioning (n=826, age 4-18 years). The original division into (sub)domains, as assigned by the authors, was replicated in the total population and in the mild and…

  5. The Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Factor Structure, Psychometric Properties, and Conceptual Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Adams, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany; David, Bieke; Sarawgi, Shivali; Broman-Fulks, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the measurement properties of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS). Principal components analysis in Study 1 (n = 206) revealed three factors of Pathogen, Sexual, and Moral Disgust that demonstrated excellent reliability, including test-retest over 12 weeks. Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 (n = 406)…

  6. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A): psychometric properties in a Dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale for Adolescents (MAAS-A) was studied in a sample of adolescents (n = 717; age range, 11-17 years) of the general population. The MAAS-A and other questionnaires measuring other constructs

  7. Investigating the Measurement Properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Smith, Isabel M.; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann; Bennett, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement properties of the Social Responsiveness Scale in an accelerated longitudinal sample of 4-year-old preschool children with the complementary approaches of categorical confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Measurement models based on the literature and other hypothesized measurement…

  8. Psychometric Properties of an Attitude Scale Measuring Physician-Nurse Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Fields, Sylvia K.; Veloski, J. Jon; Griffiths, Margaret; Cohen, Mitchell J. M.; Plumb, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the psychometric properties of an assessment tool for measuring attitudes toward physician/nurse collaboration. Survey results from 208 medical students and 86 nursing students support the construct validity and reliability of the scale, which can be used to evaluate programs designed to foster physician/nurse collaboration. (SLD)

  9. Psychometric Properties of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale" for the Portuguese Population: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Daniela C.; Guedes, Joana Martins; Fonseca, Antonio M.; Martin, Inacio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties of a version in Portuguese of the "Reminiscence Functions Scale." Total sample was composed of 628 participants aged between 18 and 92 years, divided into three groups according to their age (18-24 years, "n" = 249; 26-54 years, "n" = 174; 55 and…

  10. The Three Domains of Disgust Scale: Factor Structure, Psychometric Properties, and Conceptual Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Adams, Thomas; Ciesielski, Bethany; David, Bieke; Sarawgi, Shivali; Broman-Fulks, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the measurement properties of the Three Domains of Disgust Scale (TDDS). Principal components analysis in Study 1 (n = 206) revealed three factors of Pathogen, Sexual, and Moral Disgust that demonstrated excellent reliability, including test-retest over 12 weeks. Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 (n = 406)…

  11. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  12. The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS) within the South African context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wyk, Sumarie M.; de Beer, Leon T.; Pienaar, Jaco; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context. Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of

  13. Measurement Properties of the Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale with a Residential Group Home Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…

  14. Dependence of River Network Scaling and Geomorphic Properties on Initial Conditions in Landscape Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, G. M.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Initial conditions affect river network scaling and geomorphic properties, but the effect has not been systematically studied. Previous numerical and experimental studies have found that initial conditions affect river network drainage patterns, determining whether patterns are more parallel or more dendritic. They have also found that some network properties depend on initial conditions. We investigated the effect of initial conditions in the context of numerical models, using simulations of a stream power law. A common initial condition consists of a flat or sloping surface combined with random fluctuations in elevation. We used these initial conditions and focused on the effect of the magnitude of initial slope and the magnitude of initial randomness on standard network scaling and geomorphic properties, such as the Hack exponent, sinuosity, and hypsometry. Preliminary results indicate that some of the scaling and geomorphic properties show a strong dependence on initial conditions, while others exhibit little or no dependence. The strength of dependence can be sensitive to the statistical methods employed. Our results are relevant to numerical and analog modeling methodologies. The results suggest that initial conditions deserve greater consideration in attempts to understand the emergence of scaling in river networks.

  15. Measuring Grief Following Miscarriage: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Lee, Dominic T. S.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Lok, Ingrid H.

    2013-01-01

    Grief following miscarriage is a complex psychological response. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). A total of 280 Chinese women completed the PGS immediately following a diagnosis of miscarriage (baseline) and were reassessed at 12 months follow-up. The factor…

  16. Scale Properties of Anisotropic and Isotropic Turbulence in the Urban Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Renmin; Mei, Jie; Sun, Jianning; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-01

    The scale properties of anisotropic and isotropic turbulence in the urban surface layer are investigated. A dimensionless anisotropic tensor is introduced and the turbulent tensor anisotropic coefficient, defined as C, where C = 3d3 + 1 (d3 is the minimum eigenvalue of the tensor) is used to characterize the turbulence anisotropy or isotropy. Turbulence is isotropic when C ≈ 1 , and anisotropic when C ≪ 1 . Three-dimensional velocity data collected using a sonic anemometer are analyzed to obtain the anisotropic characteristics of atmospheric turbulence in the urban surface layer, and the tensor anisotropic coefficient of turbulent eddies at different spatial scales calculated. The analysis shows that C is strongly dependent on atmospheric stability ξ = (z-zd)/L_{MO} , where z is the measurement height, zd is the displacement height, and L_{MO} is the Obukhov length. The turbulence at a specific scale in unstable conditions (i.e., ξ < 0 ) is closer to isotropic than that at the same scale under stable conditions. The maximum isotropic scale of turbulence is determined based on the characteristics of the power spectrum in three directions. Turbulence does not behave isotropically when the eddy scale is greater than the maximum isotropic scale, whereas it is horizontally isotropic at relatively large scales. The maximum isotropic scale of turbulence is compared to the outer scale of temperature, which is obtained by fitting the temperature fluctuation spectrum using the von Karman turbulent model. The results show that the outer scale of temperature is greater than the maximum isotropic scale of turbulence.

  17. Luminescence properties of II/VI semiconductor colloidal nanocrystals at collective and single scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vion, Celine; Barthou, Carlos; Coolen, Laurent; Bennaloul, Paul; MaItre, Agnes [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Unite Mixte de Recherche-CNRS 7588, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Vu Duc Chinh; Pham Thuy Linh; Vu Thi Bich; Pham Thu Nga [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: celine.vion@insp.jussieu.fr

    2009-09-01

    Colloidal nanocrystals are crystalline spheres of semiconductors of a few nanometers, obtained by chemical synthesis. At this size scale, lower than Bohr radius of the exciton, emission properties are dominated by quantum confinement effects and depend crucially on the nanocrystal radius, which can be controlled by adjusting the synthesis parameters. Nanocrystals present high photostability and good quantum efficiency, even at room temperature. Their emission wavelength can be tuned over the whole visible range, making them very attractive solid state light sources which are already used in optoelectronic devices or for biological labeling. The luminescence properties of CdSe colloidal nanocrystals synthesized at the Institute of Materials Science in Hanoi are presented. At collective scale, the emission properties reveal the synthesis quality. Temperature effects from ambient to 4 K on spectra and decay rates will be presented and analyzed in terms of emitting level fine structure. The study of CdSe colloidal quantum dots at the single emitter scale is of great interest as it reveals properties which are hidden by collective studies, such as luminescence 'blinking', a random switching from a fluorescent to a non fluorescent state, which is closely related to the crystalline defects of a nanocrystal and its interaction with its environment. We will present the blinking properties of the prepared nanocrystals, and relate them to the nanocrystals synthesis quality and shell quality.

  18. Remarks on Some Mechanical Small-Scale Tests Applied to Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardu, Marilena; Seccatore, Jacopo

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the results of test campaigns on small-scale strength properties (particularly, micro-hardness) performed on two homogeneous materials: calcite, a very common and widespread mineral that is characterized by its relatively low Mohs hardness and its high reactivity with even weak acids; and glass, an amorphous solid characterized by the absence of the long-range order which defines crystalline materials. After a synthetic description of the principles underlying two of the three classical comminution laws, known as Kick's law and Rittinger's law, experimental results are discussed. The results of the tests performed show that both scale effect and size effect contribute to the non-constancy of mechanical properties at small scale for crystalline materials. On the other hand, for amorphous materials, a theoretical law considering size effects gives considerably different results from empirical measurements. Considerations and an extended discussion address these findings.

  19. Constraints on dark-matter properties from large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2016-01-01

    We use large-scale cosmological observations to place constraints on the dark matter pressure, sound speed and viscosity, and infer a limit on the mass of warm dark matter particles. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies constrain the equation of state and sound speed of the dark matter at last scattering at the per mille level. Since the redshifting of collisionless particles universally implies that these quantities scale like $a^{-2}$ absent shell crossing, we infer that today $w_{\\rm (DM)} 70$ eV, assuming it decoupled while relativistic around the same time as the neutrinos; for a cold relic, we show that $m>100$ eV. We separately constrain the properties of the DM fluid on linear scales at late times, and find upper bounds $c_{\\rm s, (DM)}^2<10^{-5.9}$, $c_{\\rm vis, (DM)}^{2} < 10^{-5.7}$, with no detection of non-dust properties for the DM.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Lignocellulose: A Cell-scale Study down to 41K

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Zhe; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy transport is of great importance in lignocellulose pyrolysis for bio-fuels. The thermophysical properties of lignocellulose significantly affect the overall properties of bio-composites and the related thermal transport. In this work, cell-scale lignocellulose (mono-layer plant cells) is prepared to characterize their thermal properties from room temperature down to 41 K. The thermal conductivities of cell-scale lignocellulose along different directions show a little anisotropy due to the cell structure anisotropy. It is found that with temperature going down, the volumetric specific heat of the lignocellulose shows a slower decreasing trend against temperature than that of microcrystalline cellulose, and its value is always higher than that of microcrystalline cellulose. The thermal conductivity of lignocellulose decreases with temperature from 243 K to 317 K due to increasing phonon-phonon scatterings. From 41 K to 243 K, the thermal conductivity rises with temperature and its change mainly d...

  1. Thermophysical properties of lignocellulose: a cell-scale study down to 41 K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Cheng

    Full Text Available Thermal energy transport is of great importance in lignocellulose pyrolysis for biofuels. The thermophysical properties of lignocellulose significantly affect the overall properties of bio-composites and the related thermal transport. In this work, cell-scale lignocellulose (mono-layer plant cells is prepared to characterize their thermal properties from room temperature down to ∼ 40 K. The thermal conductivities of cell-scale lignocellulose along different directions show a little anisotropy due to the cell structure anisotropy. It is found that with temperature going down, the volumetric specific heat of the lignocellulose shows a slower decreasing trend against temperature than microcrystalline cellulose, and its value is always higher than that of microcrystalline cellulose. The thermal conductivity of lignocellulose decreases with temperature from 243 K to 317 K due to increasing phonon-phonon scatterings. From 41 K to 243 K, the thermal conductivity rises with temperature and its change mainly depends on the heat capacity's change.

  2. Perceived emotional intelligence in nursing: psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2014-04-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context and to determine the relationships between emotional intelligence, self-esteem, alexithymia and death anxiety. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is one of the most widely used self-report measures for assessing perceived emotional intelligence. However, in the nursing context, no extensive analysis has been conducted to examine its psychometric properties. Cross-sectional and observational study. A total of 1417 subjects participated in the study (1208 nursing students and 209 hospital nurses). The Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Death Anxiety Inventory were all applied to half of the sample (n = 707). A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and statistical analyses examined the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, as well as its relationship with relevant variables. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the three dimensions of the original scale (Attention, Clarity and Repair). The instrument showed adequate internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational results indicated that nurses with high scores on emotional Attention experience more death anxiety, report greater difficulties identifying feelings and have less self-esteem. By contrast, nurses with high levels of emotional Clarity and Repair showed less death anxiety and higher levels of self-esteem. The Trait Meta-Mood Scale is an effective, valid and reliable tool for measuring perceived emotional intelligence in the nursing context. Training programmes should seek to promote emotional abilities among nurses. Use of the Trait Meta-Mood Scale in the nursing context would provide information about nurses' perceived abilities to interpret and manage emotions when interacting with patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Scaling properties of rainfall time-series in the urban area of Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Lombardo, F.

    2009-04-01

    The rainfall fields exhibits a high space-time variability which generates a large degree of uncertainty in modelling the process, thus causing lack of accuracy in many key hydrological problems, such as the forecasting of floods and the management of water resources. The large amount of literature produced in the last thirty years about this issue deals with the development of stochastic models able to represent the non-linearity and intermittence of rainfall in order to perform the downscaling process, i.e. transferring to finer scales the information on rainfall observed or forecasted at large scales. Traditionally, these models are based upon point processes in both the time (e.g. Waymire and Gupta, 1981) and the space-time domain (e.g. Rodriguez-Iturbe et al., 1986). Although this approach is cluster-based so as to model the physical structure of rainfall, its application may involve an inconvenient mathematical complexity and a large number of parameters, leading to several problems in parameter estimation. Another approach to this problem is based on the empirical detection of some regularity in hydrological observations, such as the scale-invariance properties of rainfall (e.g. Lovejoy and Schertzer, 1985). Models following this approach are based upon the assumption of a power law dependence of all statistical moments on the scale of aggregation. That means scaling properties can provide simple relationships to link the statistical distribution of the rainfall process at different spatial and temporal scales, in the ranges of which the power-low assumption can be verified (Marani, 2003). This work focuses on the analysis of the scaling properties of rainfall time series from a high density rain gauge network covering the Rome's urban area. The network consists of 24 sites, and the gauge record at each site has 10-minute time resolution and about 16-year length (1992-2007). The aim of the study is the identification of temporal scaling regimes, their ranges

  4. Psychometric properties of a driving self-efficacy scale – short form in Argentinean drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Trogolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to translate and examine the psychometric properties of a driving self-efficacy scale developed by Dorn and Machin (2004. The factor structure, reliability and external validity of the scale were examined in a sample of 447 drivers from Cordoba, Argentina. In addition, measurement invariance across sex was also tested. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis support the unidimensional structure of the scale and the invariance of its parameters (configural, metric and scalar between men and women. Reliability analyses using alpha and omega coefficients revealed high internal consistency (coefficients equal to 0.81 in both cases and satisfactory evidence of external validity of the scale scores, with measures of risk perception, risky driving, history of traffic crashes and fines. Finally, results also showed that the scale seems to be relatively robust against response biases due to social desirability. In summary, findings support the validity and reliability of the scale in Argentina. However, further studies analyzing additional psychometric properties are needed.

  5. Measuring Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the PUMP Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Merlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of an English language measure of problematic mobile phone use. Participants were recruited from a university campus, health science center, and other public locations. The sample included 244 individuals (68.4% female aged 18–75. Results supported a unidimensional factor structure for the 20-item self-report Problematic Use of Mobile Phones (PUMP Scale. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.94. Strong correlations (r=.76, P<.001 were found between the PUMP Scale and an existing scale of cellular phone dependency that was validated in Asia, as well as items assessing frequency and intensity of mobile phone use. Results provide preliminary support for the use of the PUMP Scale to measure problematic use of mobile phones.

  6. Uncertainty analysis and validation of the estimation of effective hydraulic properties at the Darcy scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgouez, A.; Buis, S.; Ruy, S.; Lefeuve-Mesgouez, G.

    2014-05-01

    The determination of the hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soils or porous media remains challenging. In the present study, we focus on determining the effective properties of heterogeneous porous media at the Darcy scale with an analysis of their uncertainties. Preliminary, experimental measurements of the hydraulic properties of each component of the heterogeneous medium are obtained. The properties of the effective medium, representing an equivalent homogeneous material, are determined numerically by simulating a water flow in a three-dimensional representation of the heterogeneous medium, under steady-state scenarios and using its component properties. One of the major aspects of this study is to take into account the uncertainties of these properties in the computation and evaluation of the effective properties. This is done using a bootstrap method. Numerical evaporation experiments are conducted both on the heterogeneous and on the effective homogeneous materials to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. First, the impact of the uncertainties of the component properties on the simulated water matric potential is found to be high for the heterogeneous material configuration. Second, it is shown that the strategy developed herein leads to a reduction of this impact. Finally, the adequacy between the mean of the simulations for the two configurations confirms the suitability of the homogenization approach, even in the case of dynamic scenarios. Although it is applied to green roof substrates, a two-component media composed of bark compost and pozzolan used in the construction of buildings, the methodology proposed in this study is generic.

  7. Statistical properties of continuous composite scales and implications for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Andersen, Scott; Case, Michael; Sparks, JonDavid; Holdridge, Karen C; Wessels, Alette M; Hendrix, Suzanne; Aisen, Paul; Siemers, Eric

    2017-04-12

    Little research has been conducted on the statistical properties of composite measures comprising linear combinations of continuous component scales. We assessed the quantitative relationship between the composites and their individual components regarding their abilities to detect treatment effects. In particular, we developed the mathematical derivation of the treatment effect size of a continuous composite in relation to the treatment effect sizes of its components and proved multiple properties of the composite. We demonstrated that the treatment effect size of a composite is greater than the minimum treatment effect size of its components and that above certain thresholds of correlations of components and ratios of component effect sizes, the composite may outperform its components. Examples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical studies of solanezumab and donepezil using the composite Integrated AD Rating Scale (iADRS) and its components, the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living inventory, instrumental items (ADCS-iADL) were consistent with the theoretical statistical properties. The understanding of the quantitative relationships between continuous composites and their components will be useful in clinical trial design and the development of new scales and composites across therapeutic areas.

  8. Patterns and scaling properties of surface soil moisture in an agricultural landscape: An ecohydrological modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, W.; Reichenau, T. G.; Schneider, K.

    2013-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Soil moisture, and surface soil moisture in particular, is highly variable in space and time. Its spatial and temporal patterns in agricultural landscapes are affected by multiple natural (precipitation, soil, topography, etc.) and agro-economic (soil management, fertilization, etc.) factors, making it difficult to identify unequivocal cause and effect relationships between soil moisture and its driving variables. The goal of this study is to characterize and analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of surface soil moisture (top 20 cm) in an intensively used agricultural landscape (1100 km2 northern part of the Rur catchment, Western Germany) and to determine the dominant factors and underlying processes controlling these patterns. A second goal is to analyze the scaling behavior of surface soil moisture patterns in order to investigate how spatial scale affects spatial patterns. To achieve these goals, a dynamically coupled, process-based and spatially distributed ecohydrological model was used to analyze the key processes as well as their interactions and feedbacks. The model was validated for two growing seasons for the three main crops in the investigation area: Winter wheat, sugar beet, and maize. This yielded RMSE values for surface soil moisture between 1.8 and 7.8 vol.% and average RMSE values for all three crops of 0.27 kg m-2 for total aboveground biomass and 0.93 for green LAI. Large deviations of measured and modeled soil moisture can be explained by a change of the infiltration properties towards the end of the growing season, especially in maize fields. The validated model was used to generate daily surface soil moisture maps, serving as a basis for an autocorrelation analysis of spatial patterns and scale. Outside of the growing season, surface soil moisture patterns at all spatial scales depend mainly upon soil properties. Within the main growing season, larger scale

  9. The Stigma of Suicide Scale. Psychometric properties and correlates of the stigma of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen

    2013-01-01

    There are presently no validated scales to adequately measure the stigma of suicide in the community. The Stigma of Suicide Scale (SOSS) is a new scale containing 58 descriptors of a "typical" person who completes suicide. To validate the SOSS as a tool for assessing stigma toward suicide, to examine the scale's factor structure, and to assess correlates of stigmatizing attitudes. In March 2010, 676 staff and students at the Australian National University completed the scale in an online survey. The construct validity of the SOSS was assessed by comparing its factors with factors extracted from the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ). Three factors were identified: stigma, isolation/depression, and glorification/normalization. Each factor had high internal consistency and strong concurrent validity with the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire. More than 25% of respondents agreed that people who suicided were "weak," "reckless," or "selfish." Respondents who were female, who had a psychology degree, or who spoke only English at home were less stigmatizing. A 16-item version of the scale also demonstrated robust psychometric properties. The SOSS is the first attitudes scale designed to directly measure the stigma of suicide in the community. Results suggest that psychoeducation may successfully reduce stigma.

  10. Elastic modulus and viscoelastic properties of full thickness skin characterised at micro scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Michael L; Chen, Xianfeng; Huang, Han; Kendall, Mark A F

    2013-03-01

    The recent emergence of micro-devices for vaccine delivery into upper layers of the skin holds potential for increased immune responses using physical means to target abundant immune cell populations. A challenge in doing this has been a limited understanding of the skin elastic properties at the micro scale (i.e. on the order of a cell diameter; ~10 μm). Here, we quantify skin's elastic properties at a micro-scale by fabricating customised probes of scales from sub- to super-cellular (0.5 μm-20 μm radius). We then probe full thickness skin; first with force-relaxation experiments and subsequently by elastic indentations. We find that skin's viscoelastic response is scale-independent: consistently a ~40% decrease in normalised force over the first second, followed by further 10% reduction over 10 s. Using Prony series and Hertzian contact analyses, we determined the strain-rate independent elastic moduli of the skin. A high scale dependency was found: the smallest probe encountered the highest elastic modulus (~30 MPa), whereas the 20 μm radius probe was lowest (below 1 MPa). We propose that this may be a result of the load distribution in skin facilitated by the hard corneocytes in the outermost skin layers, and softer living cell layers below. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development: Transcultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Madaschi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scales with evidence of validity and reliability are important to evaluate child development. In Brazil, there is a lack of standardized instruments to evaluate young children. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III. It was translated into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapted and tested on 207 children (12-42 months of age. Evidence of convergent validity was obtained from correlations of the Bayley-III with the: Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2, Leiter International Performance Scale-R, Expressive Vocabulary Assessment List and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. Exploratory factor analyses showed a single component explaining 86% of the variance, supported by goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis. The Bailey-III demonstrated good internal consistency with alpha coefficients greater than or equal to .90 and stability for fine motor scale only. These robust psychometric properties support the use of this tool in future national studies on child development.

  12. Psychometric properties of the Revised Male Body Attitudes Scale among Irish men.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Travis A

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a revised version of the Male Body Attitudes Scale (Tylka, Bergeron, & Schwartz, 2005) were investigated using two independent online samples of Irish men (ns=241 and 253, respectively). Exploratory factor analyses suggested that a 15-item, 3-factor solution representing men\\'s attitudes toward their body fat, muscularity, and height best described the data. The internal consistency and construct validity of scores on the Revised Male Body Attitudes Scale suggest that this measure holds promise as an indicant of men\\'s attitudes toward their physical appearance. Limitations and strengths associated with the current research are discussed and directions for future research are outlined.

  13. Structural and scaling properties of galaxy clusters: probing the physics of structure formation

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, M; Pratt, G W

    2003-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton studies of the total mass, gas density, temperature and entropy profiles in nearby hot and cool clusters, together with follow-up observations of distant clusters from the SHARC Survey. The observed structural and scaling properties are compared with the predictions of the self-similar model of cluster formation. These data indicate that clusters do form a self-similar population down to low mass and up to high redshift, and give support to the standard picture of structure formation for the dark matter component. However, deviations from the standard scaling laws confirm that the specific physics of the gas component is still insufficiently understood.

  14. Properties of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia across Workers with Different Pain Experiences and Cultural Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M B; Damsgård, E; Holtermann, A;

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether the construct validity of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) is consistent with respect to its scaling properties, unidimensionality and targeting among workers with different levels of pain. The 311 participating Danish workers reported...... not fit the Rasch model, but removing one item solved the poorness of fit. Invariance was found across the pain levels, ages and genders. Thus, with a few modifications, the TSK was shown to capture a unidimensional construct of fear of movement in workers with different pain levels, ages, and genders....

  15. Phase transition in evolution of traffic flow with scale-free property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bo; Gao Zi-You

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of traffic flow in traffic systems with a new model based on the NaSch model and cluster approximation of mean-field theory.The proposed model aims at constructing a mapping relationship between the microcosmic behaviour and the macroscopic property of traffic flow.Results demonstrate that scale-free phenomenon of the evolution network becomes obvious when the density value of traffic flow reaches at the critical point of phase transition from free flow to traffic congestion,and jamming is limited in this scale-fres structure.

  16. Biomimic design of multi-scale fabric with efficient heat transfer property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wool fiber has a complex hierarchic structure. The multi-scale fibrils are assembled to form a tree-like channel net in wool fiber, providing an efficient heat transfer property. The optimal inner configuration of wool fiber can also be invited to biomimic design of textile fabrics to improve the thermal comfort of cloth. A heat transfer model of biomimic multi-scale fabric using the fractal derivative is established. Theoretical analysis indicates that the heat flux efficiency in the biomimic fabric can be 2 orders of magnitude comparing with that of the continuous medium.

  17. Scale-free and small-world properties of earthquake network in Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Pasten, Denisse; Munoz, Victor; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2010-01-01

    The properties of earthquake networks have been studied so far mainly for the seismic data sets taken from California, Japan and Iran, and features common in these regions have been reported in the literature. Here, an earthquake network is constructed and analyzed for the Chilean data to examine if the scale-free and small-world properties of the earthquake networks constructed in the other geographical regions can also be found in seismicity in Chile. It is shown that the result is affirmative: in all the regions both the exponent "gamma" of the power-law connectivity distribution and the clustering coefficient C take the universal invariant values "gamma ~1" and "C~0.85", respectively, as the cell size becomes larger than a certain value, which is the scale of coarse graining needed for constructing earthquake network. An interpretation for this remarkable result is presented based on physical considerations.

  18. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample : Psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Bögels, S.M.

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure

  19. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample : Psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure

  20. Multi-scale analysis of the impact of polylactide morphology on gas barrier properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Nassar, Samira; Guinault, Alain; Delpouve, Nicolas; Divry, Véronique; Sollogoub, Cyrille

    2017-01-01

    Semicrystalline polylactide (PLA) films with controlled morphology were produced by thermal crystallization to optimize the oxygen barrier properties. The crystalline morphology of PLA at the scales of the lamella and the spherulite was investigated and the mobile amorphous phase dynamics were studied. The crystalline morphology had a negligible impact on the oxygen diffusion coefficient. The occurrence of a rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) in the amorphous phase due to its insufficient decoupl...

  1. Properties of the Portuguese version of the empowerment scale with mental health organization users

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Maria Fátima Jorge; Ornelas, José H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examines the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Empowerment Scale (ES) to be used in the community/psychosocial mental health field. Authors also reviewed the properties of the development and cross-cultural adaptation of the ES. Because mental health services are required to encourage empowerment and recovery-oriented interventions, adequate empowerment-oriented outcome measures are needed to evaluate services and study interventions ...

  2. Unsolved Problems of AGN Jets in Sub Parsec Scale: Acceleration, Collimation, and Stability Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M.; Meier, D. L.

    2009-08-01

    What can we expect in the VSOP-2 mission to reveal the sub parsec scale structures of AGN jets? Based on the MHD process of jet formation and evolution, we discuss about unsolved problems of sub parsec AGN jets in terms of the acceleration, the collimation, and the stability properties. Several key features will be proved by the VSOP-2 observations; they play an important role in determining how the MHD process will work in the jet dynamics.

  3. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cristiane R.; Ruggeri,Giacommo; Paoli,Marco-A. De

    2003-01-01

    The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units). The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Th...

  4. Measuring patient engagement: Development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina eGraffigna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients’ engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients’ engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health.In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale, a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods.The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model. In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N=382 to assess the measure’s psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed.The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability.Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  5. Multiscale Porosity and Mechanical Properties of Mancos Shale: Evaluation of REV and Scale Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Dewers, T. A.; Yoon, H.; Mozley, P.

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneity from the nanometer to core and larger length scales is a major challenge to understanding coupled processes in shale. To develop methods to address this challenge, we present application of high throughput multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM) and nano-to-micro-scale mechanics to the Mancos Shale. We use a 61-beam mSEM to collect 6 nm resolution SEM images at the scale of several square millimeters. These images are analyzed for pore size and shape characteristics including spatial correlation and structure. Nano-indentation, micropillar compression, and axisymmetric testing at multiple length scales allows for examining the influence of sampling size on mechanical response. The combined data set is used to: investigate representative elementary volumes (and areas for the 2D images) for the Mancos Shale; determine if scale separation occurs; and determine if transport and mechanical properties at a given length scale can be statistically defined. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Measuring patient engagement: development and psychometric properties of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Lozza, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Beyond the rhetorical call for increasing patients' engagement, policy makers recognize the urgency to have an evidence-based measure of patients' engagement and capture its effect when planning and implementing initiatives aimed at sustaining the engagement of consumers in their health. In this paper, authors describe the Patient Health Engagement Scale (PHE-scale), a measure of patient engagement that is grounded in rigorous conceptualization and appropriate psychometric methods. The scale was developed based on our previous conceptualization of patient engagement (the PHE-model). In particular, the items of the PHE-scale were developed based on the findings from the literature review and from interviews with chronic patients. Initial psychometric analysis was performed to pilot test a preliminary version of the items. The items were then refined and administered to a national sample of chronic patients (N = 382) to assess the measure's psychometric performance. A final phase of test-retest reliability was performed. The analysis showed that the PHE Scale has good psychometric properties with good correlation with concurrent measures and solid reliability. Having a valid and reliable measure to assess patient engagement is the first step in understanding patient engagement and its role in health care quality, outcomes, and cost containment. The PHE Scale shows a promising clinical relevance, indicating that it can be used to tailor intervention and assess changes after patient engagement interventions.

  7. Scaling properties of the radius of gyration and surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitulice, L. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Isvoran, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.ro; Craescu, C.T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)

    2009-04-30

    In this paper, we analyze the scaling properties of both the radius of gyration and the surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins. These properties are different for two conformational subfamilies: proteins with extended and compact structures, respectively. The radius of gyration is a measure of the shape of protein, whereas its surface fractal dimension is a measure of its interatomic packing. Different scaling properties for the radius of gyration underline that these two subfamilies present different shapes whilst different scaling properties for the surface area reveal different strengths of their intermolecular forces. All these data suggest different mechanisms responsible for the global folding of proteins belonging to these two subfamilies.

  8. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Eline L.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized an...

  9. Estimating local scaling properties for the classification of interstitial lung disease patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismueller, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Local scaling properties of texture regions were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honeycombing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and the estimation of local scaling properties with Scaling Index Method (SIM). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions including the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the set of SIM features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  10. Multi-scale numerical simulations of thermal expansion properties of CNT-reinforced nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamusi, Affa; Hu, Ning; Qiu, Jianhui; Li, Yuan; Chang, Christiana; Atobe, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Hisao; Liu, Yaolu; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke; Li, Jinhua; Yuan, Weifeng; Watanabe, Tomonori; Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Yajun

    2013-01-07

    In this work, the thermal expansion properties of carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced nanocomposites with CNT content ranging from 1 to 15 wt% were evaluated using a multi-scale numerical approach, in which the effects of two parameters, i.e., temperature and CNT content, were investigated extensively. For all CNT contents, the obtained results clearly revealed that within a wide low-temperature range (30°C ~ 62°C), thermal contraction is observed, while thermal expansion occurs in a high-temperature range (62°C ~ 120°C). It was found that at any specified CNT content, the thermal expansion properties vary with temperature - as temperature increases, the thermal expansion rate increases linearly. However, at a specified temperature, the absolute value of the thermal expansion rate decreases nonlinearly as the CNT content increases. Moreover, the results provided by the present multi-scale numerical model were in good agreement with those obtained from the corresponding theoretical analyses and experimental measurements in this work, which indicates that this multi-scale numerical approach provides a powerful tool to evaluate the thermal expansion properties of any type of CNT/polymer nanocomposites and therefore promotes the understanding on the thermal behaviors of CNT/polymer nanocomposites for their applications in temperature sensors, nanoelectronics devices, etc.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 in older primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Andrew T; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-10-01

    The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important. To determine the psychometric properties of the DASS 21-item version in older adults, we analyzed data from 222 medical patients seeking treatment to manage worry. Consistent with younger samples, a three-factor structure best fit the data. Results also indicated good internal consistency, excellent convergent validity, and good discriminative validity, especially for the Depression scale. Receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the DASS-21 predicted the diagnostic presence of generalized anxiety disorder and depression as well as other commonly used measures. These data suggest that the DASS may be used with older adults in lieu of multiple scales designed to measure similar constructs, thereby reducing participant burden and facilitating assessment in settings with limited assessment resources.

  12. The MUSIC of Galaxy Clusters II: X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, Veronica; De Petris, Marco; Valdarnini, Riccardo; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) dataset. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z~0.11, with 3.2e14M_sun/hproperties of the intracluster medium (ICM), as X-ray temperature (T_X) and luminosity (L_X). T_X is found to slightly under-estimate the true mass-weighted temperature, although tracing fairly well the cluster total mass. We also study the effects of T_X on scaling relations with cluster intrinsic properties: total (M_500) and gas (M_g500) mass; integrated Compton parameter (Y_SZ) of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) thermal effect; Y_X=M_g500 T_X. We confirm that Y_X is a very good mass proxy, with a scatter on M_500-Y_X and Y_SZ-Y_X lower than 5%. The study of scaling relations among X-ray, intrinsic and S...

  13. Gencat Psychometric Properties of Scale of Quality of Life in a Sample of Homeless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María BENITO HERRÁEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research is to analyse the psychometric properties of the Scale Gencat of Quality of Life in a sample of 72 people users of the Municipal Office of Attention for homeless people in the city of Lleida. The analysis of the 69 items was based on Classical Test Theory and in the Item Response Theory. The results obtained with Cronbach’s alpha show appropiate values ranging between .749 and .853. According to the Rating Scale Model reliability is high, with values higher than .95 in all dimensions. The majority of items fit the model. The most important limitation in the study is the sample size, which reduced its reliability. Despite this, it can be concluded that the scale has sufficient evidence of reliability to evaluate the quality of life for homeless.

  14. Scaling Properties of Rainfall-Induced Landslides Predicted by a Physically Based Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alvioli, M; Rossi, M

    2013-01-01

    Natural landslides exhibit scaling properties, including the frequency of the size of the landslides, and the rainfall conditions responsible for landslides. Reasons for the scaling behavior of landslides are poorly known, and only a few attempts were made to describe the empirical evidences of the self-similar scaling behavior of landslides with physically based models. We investigate the possibility of using the TRIGRS code, a consolidated, physically motivated, numerical model to describe the stability conditions of natural slopes forced by rainfall, to determine the frequency of the area of the unstable slopes and the rainfall intensity-duration (I-D) conditions that result in landslides in a region.We apply TRIGRS in a portion of the Upper Tiber River Basin, Central Italy. The spatially distributed model predicts the stability conditions of individual grid cells, given the terrain and rainfall conditions. We run TRIGRS using multiple rainfall histories, and we compare the results to empirical evidences o...

  15. Multi-scale random sets: from morphology to effective properties and to fracture statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeulin, Dominique, E-mail: dominique.jeulin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre de Morphologie Mathematique, Mathematiques et Systemes, Mines ParisTech 35 rue Saint-Honore, F77300 Fontainebleau (France)

    2011-09-15

    Complex microstructures in materials often involve multi-scale heterogeneous textures, modelled by random sets derived from Mathematical Morphology. Starting from 2D or 3D images, a complete morphological characterization by image analysis is performed, and used for the identification of a model of random structure. From morphological models, simulations of realistic microstructures are introduced in a numerical solver to compute appropriate fields (electric, elastic stress or strain, ...) and to estimate the effective properties by numerical homogenization, accounting for scale dependent statistical fluctuations of the fields. Our approach is illustrated by various examples of multi-scale models: Boolean random sets based on Cox point processes and various random grains (spheres, cylinders), showing a very low percolation threshold, and therefore a high conductivity or high elastic moduli for a low volume fraction of a second phase. Multiscale Cox point processes are also a source of instructive models of fracture statistics, such as multiscale weakest link models.

  16. Rough surface electrical contact resistance considering scale dependent properties and quantum effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Robert L., E-mail: jackson@auburn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Crandall, Erika R.; Bozack, Michael J. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of scale dependent mechanical and electrical properties on electrical contact resistance (ECR) between rough surfaces. This work attempts to build on existing ECR models that neglect potentially important quantum- and size-dependent contact and electrical conduction mechanisms present due to the asperity sizes on typical surfaces. The electrical conductance at small scales can quantize or show a stepping trend as the contact area is varied in the range of the free electron Fermi wavelength squared. This work then evaluates if these effects remain important for the interface between rough surfaces, which may include many small scale contacts of varying sizes. The results suggest that these effects may be significant in some cases, while insignificant for others. It depends on the load and the multiscale structure of the surface roughness.

  17. Scaling properties of the perturbative Wilson loop in two-dimensional noncommutative Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, A.; Nardelli, G.; Torrielli, A.

    2002-10-01

    Commutative Yang-Mills theories in 1+1 dimensions exhibit an interesting interplay between geometrical properties and U(N) gauge structures: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a nontrivial scaling intertwines n and N. In the noncommutative case the interplay becomes tighter owing to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries in a larger gauge group U(∞). We perform an explicit perturbative calculation of such a loop up to O(g6) rather surprisingly, we find that in the contribution from the crossed graphs (the genuine noncommutative terms) the scaling we mentioned occurs for large n and N in the limit of maximal noncommutativity θ=∞. We present arguments in favor of the persistence of such a scaling at any perturbative order and succeed in summing the related perturbative series.

  18. Investigation of the Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Nano-scale Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Corey; Kwon, Soyoung; Jhe, Wonho

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of liquids on the nano-scale has become an area of interest as new fabrication techniques have allowed for increasingly smaller structures to be made. While much work has been done on the interactions forces at liquid and solid interfaces, questions still remain regarding the behavior of nano-scale liquids. By incorporating a micro-electromechanical force sensor (MEMS) into the quartz tuning fork based atomic force microscope (QTF-AFM) probe setup we are able to both manipulate and measure nano-scale water, which in turn provides information beyond the standard AFM approach. Here we look at both the static and dynamic mechanical properties of water formed between the tip of a (QTF-AFM) probe and the polysilicon surface of a MEMS device. Work supported by NSF grant OISE #0853104.

  19. The necessary and sufficient conditions for returns to scale properties in generalized data envelopment analysis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Quanling(魏权龄); YU; Gang(于刚); LU; Jianshou(陆剑受)

    2002-01-01

    We give definitions on increasing, constant and decreasing returns to scale under thegeneralized data envelopment analysis (GDEA) model. The GDEA model possesses cone structures fordescribing evaluators' preferences toward different decision making units (DMU) and toward differentinput/output categories. The GDEA model contains many important DEA models as its subclasses.Based upon the definition, we discuss and rigorously prove the necessary and sufficient conditionsfor a DMU to have increasing, constant and decreasing returns to scale under a GDEA model, anddiscuss and clarify the differences and relationships of these conditions under different subclasses ofthe GDEA model. Furthermore, we describe a method based on a two-stage linear program to testreturns to scale properties.

  20. Scaling Properties of Feldspar and Quartz in Micro-images of Ideal Granites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Deyi; Ke Xianzhong; Xie Shuyun; Cheng Qiuming

    2008-01-01

    The properties of feldspar and quartze are studied in this article from a fractal point of view using gray-scale micro-images of granite samples collected at the Fangshan (房山) granite body in Hebei (河北) Province, China, which can be regarded as an ideal granite in the sense of Vistelius. We found that there exist power-law relationships between the eigenvalues of the gray-scale matrices and their ranks for the feldspar and quartz. The fractal model used here is a λ-R model similar to the N-λ model proposed by Qiuming Cheng in 2005. Meanwhile, we found that average variances for the gray-scale matrices of feldspar are larger than those of quartz on the same sections, and this may be useful for auto-identification of feldspar and quartz as well as other minerals.

  1. Development and psychometric properties of the scale for self-consciousness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonas, Kostas; Veligekas, Panayiotis; Gari, Aikaterini; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia

    2012-08-01

    This scale development employed Duval and Wicklund's (1972), Carver's (1979), and Zaborowski's (1987) theories on self-consciousness. The aim of the study was to create a new method to assess the self-consciousness construct, in an effort to operationally express self-consciousness, while circumventing existing metric and other impediments. Initially, 38 pilot interviews were conducted with undergraduate psychology students, and two studies followed, one on 494 participants and one on 248 participants. Exploratory factor analysis models, equivalence testing, followed by a third confirmatory factor analysis study on a separate sample of 216 participants, resulted in a final 24-item scale. A four-factor structure of two public and two private self-consciousness dimensions emerged. The Scale for Self-Consciousness Assessment (SSCA) can be of use in various areas of psychological research, possibly in concurrent use with other constructs of interest, due to its theoretical and research importance and its adequate psychometric properties.

  2. Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialin; Mead, Alan D

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the "neutral" tactic was least successful; success writing "double-barreled" and "average" ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The stability of polysiloxanes incorporating nano-scale physical property modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Lewicki et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported here is the synthesis and subsequent characterization of the physical and chemical properties of novel polysiloxane elastomers modified with a series of polyhedraloligomericsilsequioxane (POSS molecular silicas. The physical properties of the formulated nanocomposite systems have been characterized with a combination of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS and confocal Raman microscopy. The results of the physical property characterization demonstrate that the incorporation of low levels (1–4% by wt. of POSS particles into the polysiloxane network leads to significant improvements in the mechanical properties of the elastomer and significantly alters the motional chain dynamics of the system as a whole. The results of studies performed to assess the long-term stability of these novel nanocomposite systems have demonstrated that POSS physical property modifiers can significantly alter the thermal stability of polysiloxane elastomers. Physically dispersed POSS has also been shown in some cases to be both mobile and disruptive within the polysiloxane networks, agglomerating into domains on a micron scale and migrating to the surface of the elastomers. This work demonstrates both the potential of POSS nanoparticles as physical property modifiers and describes the effects of POSS on the physical and chemical stability of polysiloxane systems.

  4. Psychometric Properties of the BIS/BAS Scales and the SPSRQ in Flemish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vandeweghe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gray’s Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST is a frequently used model of personality that is relevant to the period of adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of the most frequently used questionnaires to measure the RST-constructs, namely the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS Scales and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, are rarely examined in samples of adolescents. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine the two-factor structure, reliability and convergent validity of the BIS/BAS Scales and SPSRQ in a Flemish adolescent community sample.  Method: A sample of 579 adolescents (39.5% boys; 14–19 years was recruited. The proposed two-factor structure was assessed using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and construct validity was examined with the correlations between the two questionnaires and with the Temperament and Character Inventory–short form (TCI-SF.  Results: After the removal of problematic items, and the addition of correlated errors, all indices indicated a good fit for the two-factor structure of the modified BIS/BAS Scales. For the modified SPSRQ, three fit indices indicated a good model fit, while a fourth fit index was slightly below the cut-off score of an adequate model fit. Internal consistency of both questionnaires was sufficient. In general, the associations with scales of the TCI-SF were as expected, with positive correlations between BIS-related scales, and between BAS-related scales of all three instruments.  Discussion: In Flemish adolescents, the use of a two-factor model to analyze data gathered with the modified BIS/BAS Scales or modified SPSRQ seems appropriate.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Scores on the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scales in a Sample of Norwegian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the scores on a version for children of the Carver and White Behavioral Inhibition and Activation scales (the BIS-BAS scales). This involved administering the BIS-BAS scales, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire…

  6. Current Progress of Mechanical Properties of Metals with Nano-scale Twins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei LU

    2008-01-01

    Focus on face-centered cubic (fcc) metals with nano-scale twins lamellar structure, this paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress made in improving mechanical properties, including strength, ductility, work hardening, strain rate sensitivities, and in mechanistically understanding the underling deformation mechanisms. Significant developments have been achieved in nano-twinned fcc metals with a combination of high strength and considerable ductility at the same time, enhanced work hardening ability and enhanced rate sensitivity. The findings elucidate the role of interactions between dislocations and twin boundaries (TBs) and their contribution to the origin of outstanding properties. The computer simulation analysis accounts for high plastic anisotropy and rate sensitivity anisotropy by treating TBs as internal interfaces and allowing special slip geometry arrangements that involve soft and hard modes of deformation. Parallel to the novel mechanical behaviors of the nano-twinned materials, the investigation and developments of nanocrystalline materials are also discussed in this overview for comparing the contribution of grain boundaries/TBs and grain size/twin lamellar spacing to the properties. The recent advances in the experimental and computational studies of plastic deformation of the fcc metals with nano-scale twin lamellar structures provide insights into the possible means of optimizing comprehensive mechanical properties through interfacial engineering.

  7. Effects of galactic disc inclination and resolution on observed GMC properties and Larson's scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Fujimoto, Yusuke; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Colombo, Dario; Benincasa, Samantha M.; Wadsley, James

    2016-05-01

    With ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) making it possible to resolve giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in other galaxies, it is becoming necessary to quantify the observational bias on measured GMC properties. Using a hydrodynamical simulation of a barred spiral galaxy, we compared the physical properties of GMCs formed in position-position-position (PPP) space to the observational position-position-velocity (PPV) space. We assessed the effect of disc inclination: face-on (PPVface) and edge-on (PPVedge), and resolution: 1.5 pc versus 24 pc, on GMC properties and the further implications of using Larson's scaling relations for mass-radius and velocity dispersion-radius. The low-resolution PPV data are generated by simulating ALMA Cycle 3 observations using the CASA package. Results show that the median properties do not differ strongly between PPP and PPVface under both resolutions, but PPVedge clouds deviate from these two. The differences become magnified when switching to the lower, but more realistic resolution. The discrepancy can lead to opposite results for the virial parameter's measure of gravitational binding, and therefore the dynamical state of the clouds. The power-law indices for the two Larson's scaling relations decrease going from PPP, PPVedge to PPVface and decrease from high to low resolutions. We conclude that the relations are not entirely driven by the underlying physical origin and therefore have to be used with caution when considering the environmental dependence, dynamical state, and the extragalactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of GMCs.

  8. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  9. Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale (DASAS – Adaptation of the metod and preliminary psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Finogenow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article presents the results of the study on the Polish version of the revised Emotional Labor Scale (ELS, developed by Lee and Brotheridge. The ELS measures deep acting and 2 aspects of surface acting (hiding feelings and faking emotions. Material and Methods: Psychometric characteristics of the Polish version of the ELS, named Deep Acting and Surface Acting Scale (DASAS, were analyzed in the preliminary study on 332 people working in various service professions. We verified factor structure of the scale, its reliability, and construct validity (that is, the relationships between its subscales and other measures of workplace functioning. Results: The results indicated that the DASAS has good psychometric properties which are comparable with the characteristics of the original scale. We replicated a 3-factor structure of the scale and confirmed its satisfying internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusions: The preliminary findings suggest that the DASAS is an adequate measure of deep and surface acting. Med Pr 2015;66(3:359–371

  10. Psychometric properties of the self-rating organization scale with adult samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Toshinobu Takeda,1 Yui Tsuji,2 Mizuho Ando3 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Ryukoku University, Kyoto, 2School of Psychological Science, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Sapporo, 3Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan Abstract: Organization skills are defined broadly to include both materials and temporal features. Given its symptoms and neurobiological features, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD should be susceptible to impairment in organization. A valid organization scale is imperative to assess and intervene individuals with ADHD. However, there is no validated organization scale in Japan. Referring to existing scales and clinical experience, the self-rating organization scale (SOS was developed and tested in terms of its psychometric properties with 1,017 adults and students including 47 adults with ADHD. Additionally, cutoffs for disorganization were set for clinical utility. Three factors (materials disorganization, temporal disorganization, and mess were extracted by factor analyses. The index for reliability and validity of the SOS was acceptable. The factor “mess” could reflect the unique aspect of the Japanese environment. Further study is needed to enhance the clinical utility of the SOS. Keywords: adult, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, organization, scale

  11. Multifractal properties of embedded convective structures in orographic precipitation: toward subgrid-scale predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, M.; Barros, A. P.; Miranda, P. M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Rain and cloud fields produced by fully nonlinear idealized cloud resolving numerical simulations of orographic convective precipitation display statistical multiscaling behavior, implying that multifractal diagnostics should provide a physically robust basis for the downscaling and sub-grid scale parameterizations of moist processes. Our results show that the horizontal scaling exponent function (and respective multiscaling parameters) of the simulated rainfall and cloud fields varies with atmospheric and terrain properties, particularly small-scale terrain spectra, atmospheric stability, and advective timescale. This implies that multifractal diagnostics of moist processes for these simulations are fundamentally transient, exhibiting complex nonlinear behavior depending on atmospheric conditions and terrain forcing at each location. A particularly robust behavior found here is the transition of the multifractal parameters between stable and unstable cases, which has a clear physical correspondence to the transition from stratiform to organized (banded and cellular) convective regime. This result is reinforced by a similar behavior in the horizontal spectral exponent. Finally, our results indicate that although nonlinearly coupled fields (such as rain and clouds) have different scaling exponent functions, there are robust relationships with physical underpinnings between the scaling parameters that can be explored for hybrid dynamical-statistical downscaling.

  12. Asymptotic scaling properties and estimation of the generalized Hurst exponents in financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, R. J.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.

    2017-04-01

    We propose a method to measure the Hurst exponents of financial time series. The scaling of the absolute moments against the aggregation horizon of real financial processes and of both uniscaling and multiscaling synthetic processes converges asymptotically towards linearity in log-log scale. In light of this we found appropriate a modification of the usual scaling equation via the introduction of a filter function. We devised a measurement procedure which takes into account the presence of the filter function without the need of directly estimating it. We verified that the method is unbiased within the errors by applying it to synthetic time series with known scaling properties. Finally we show an application to empirical financial time series where we fit the measured scaling exponents via a second or a fourth degree polynomial, which, because of theoretical constraints, have respectively only one and two degrees of freedom. We found that on our data set there is not clear preference between the second or fourth degree polynomial. Moreover the study of the filter functions of each time series shows common patterns of convergence depending on the momentum degree.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  14. Petrophysics at the rock matrix scale: hydraulic properties and petrographic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoto, M.

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this publication is to review, summarize and make comprehensive the hydraulic properties of rocks, at the rock matrix or in tact rock scale. Also to describe how to petrographically interpret those properties. For this purpose, the procedures for the characterization and visualisation of the rock-forming components and in special the water path-ways at that scale are explained. Further more, to establish a methodological approach for an appropriate petrographic interpretation of all the mentioned properties is intended. This Technical Report is applied to the geological solution for the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. In any case, most of the aspects covered here are of scientific and technical interest for any researcher interested in the behaviour of water in rocks and vice versa, also in the potential fluid- rock interactions. The document is divided into six Chapters, mainly theoretical and methodological, and six Appen - dixes, more focussed to practical tests and procedures for rock characterization. Two significant rock types in high level radioactive waste, HLW, granites and clays, have been used for illustrating most of the examples here included. Under a wide geological perspective, it must be stated that in any geological scenario two different systems or scales coexist; the rock massif (with fractures of about m to km) and the rock matrix (with internal discontinuities such as fissures and cracks to the order of Fm to dm). Their different behaviour is considered in Chapter 1 as well as the specific role played by the rock matrix in the long- and short-term period. General considerations about physical properties of rocks and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the main candidate rocks for radioactive repositories are also included. (Author)

  15. [Psychometric properties of three rating scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chilean students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Domic, Marcos; Ramos, Mireya; Cerda, Andrea; Quiroz, Jael

    2010-03-01

    To assess, among Chilean students, the reliability and validity of three scales that measure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV); the scale for evaluating attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (EDAH); and Spain's version of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (Spa-ADHD-IV). A study of the instruments was conducted with the tutors (n = 612) and teachers (n = 82) of a controlled sample of 640 children 6-11 years of age, who were students attending public schools (n = 228, 35.6% of total), subsidized schools (n = 200, 31.3%), or private schools (n = 212, 33.1%) in Antofagasta, Chile. The convergent validity of the ADHD rating instruments was determined using Stroop and Wechsler tests. All three scales studied had satisfactory levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.97 for the scales; 0.76-0.97 for the items) and a factor structure that was theoretically-aligned for most of the assessment areas, although only the Spa-ADHD-IV with tutors and teachers and the ADHD-IV with teachers had comparative and relative fit indices greater than 0.90. Significant differences were found by age, gender, and type of evaluator (tutor or teacher). The ADHD-IV and Spa-ADHD-IV met all reliability and validity criteria; so both may be applied for screening and diagnosis in the Chilean population. The Spa-ADHD-IV scale offers the best psychometric properties based on its reliability and validity.

  16. Scaling of plant size and age emerges from linked aboveground and belowground transport network properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Hunt, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation growth modulates cycling of water, carbon, and nutrients at local-to-global scales. It is therefore critical to quantify plant growth rates and how they are constrained by environmental conditions (especially limited resource availability). Various theoretical approaches have been proposed to this aim. Specifically, allometric theory provides a powerful tool to describe plant growth form and function, but it is focused on the properties of plant xylem networks, neglecting any role played by soils in supplying water to plants. On the other hand, percolation theory addresses physical constraints imposed by the soil pore network to water and nutrient transport, neglecting roles of root networks and vegetation taking up soil resources. In this contribution, we merge these two perspectives to derive scaling relations between plant size (namely height) and age. Our guiding hypothesis is that the root network expands in the soil at a rate sufficient to match the rate of transport of water and nutrients in an idealized optimal fractal pore network, as predicted by percolation theory; with nutrient transport distance vs. time scaling exponent 0.82, and water transport (saturated conditions) distance vs. time scaling exponent 1. The root expansion rate is mirrored by growth aboveground, as in allometric theory, which predicts an isometric relation between root extension and plant height. Building on these results, we predict that the scaling of plant height and age should also have exponent 0.82 in natural systems where nutrients are heterogeneously distributed, and 1 in fertilized systems where nutrients are homogeneously distributed. These predictions are successfully tested with extensive datasets covering major plant functional types worldwide, showing that soil and root network properties constrain vegetation growth by setting limits to the rates of water and nutrient supply to plants.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, L; Jonasson, S B; Brogårdh, C; Lexell, J

    2015-09-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a global measure of life satisfaction (LS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties (data completeness, scaling assumptions, targeting and reliability) of the SWLS in a sample of people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A postal survey including a Swedish version of the SWLS and demographic information was administered to 174 persons with PD; 97 responded and received a second survey after 2 weeks. The mean (SD) age and PD duration of the 97 responders were 73 (8) and 7 (6) years, respectively. Data completeness was 92% to 97% for the five items in the SWLS and 92% for the total score (5-35 points). The mean score of the SWLS was 24.2 points (7.7), indicating that this group had an average LS. The items' means and SDs were roughly parallel and the score distribution was even. The internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.90. The test-retest reliability, assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient, was 0.78. The scale showed no systematic difference between the first and second response. The standard error of measurement was 3.6 points, and the smallest detectable difference was 10.0 points. This evaluation of the psychometric properties of the SWLS shows that the scale has good data completeness, scaling assumptions and targeting and that the internal consistency reliability and the test-retest reliability are acceptable. Thus, the SWLS is a psychometrically sound and suitable tool to asses LS in people with PD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  19. A Brief Scale to Measure Problematic Sexually Explicit Media Consumption: Psychometric Properties of the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC) Scale among Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Syed WB; Simon Rosser, B. R.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of hypersexuality has been described in the literature, and scales of compulsive sexual behavior have been published, the existing measures do not assess compulsive sexually explicit media (SEM) consumption. This study tested the psychometric properties of a new scale, the Compulsive Pornography Consumption (CPC). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses results showed good psychometric performance of a five item two factor preoccupation-compulsivity solution. As hypothesized, the scale correlates positively with compulsive sexual behavior, internalized homonegativity, and negatively with sexual self-esteem. The scale will enable researchers to investigate the etiologic factors of compulsive SEM use, and enable clinicians to assess problematic consumption. PMID:25838755

  20. Psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Sadat Khoshouei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS is an instrument used to evaluate the severity of social phobia. It has been widely used in different contexts and cultures, presenting variable psychometric properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of LSAS. Method: The sample consisted of 342 students (184 females, 158 males aged 19 - 34(Mean age=21.93, SD=3.44 years; Subjects were selected from eight faculties of Isfahan University, using a random clustering procedure. In order to measure test-retest reliability, LSAS was re-administered to fifty-eight students three weeks after the first session. Results: The method of Principal components analysis (Varimax Normalized Rotation was applied to evaluate structural validity of LSAS. The factor analysis defined 5 factors which covered 84.68% of the total variability of the data. The five factors extracted were: 1 speaking in a group; 2 social interaction in leisure activity; 3 activity in public; 4 attitude of disagreement or disapproval;and 5 social interaction with unknown person. The reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha, split-half and test- retest were found to be satisfactory for the total scale and its subscales. Conclusions: The scale is valid and reliable for studies that require a standard

  1. Measuring trust in nurses - Psychometric properties of the Trust in Nurses Scale in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Minna; Charalambous, Andreas; Radwin, Laurel; Adam, Christina; Katajisto, Jouko; Lemonidou, Chryssoula; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Sjövall, Katarina; Suhonen, Riitta

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of three translated versions of the Trust in Nurses Scale (TNS) and cancer patients' perceptions of trust in nurses in a sample of cancer patients from four European countries. A cross-sectional, cross-cultural, multi-site survey design was used. The data were collected with the Trust in Nurses Scale from patients with different types of malignancies in 17 units within five clinical sites (n = 599) between 09/2012 and 06/2014. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, multivariate methods and psychometrics using exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficients, item analysis and Rasch analysis. The psychometric properties of the data were consistent in all countries. Within the exploratory factor analysis the principal component analysis supported the one component structure (unidimensionality) of the TNS. The internal consistency reliability was acceptable. The Rasch analysis supported the unidimensionality of the TNS cross-culturally. All items of the TNS demonstrated acceptable goodness-of-fit to the Rasch model. Cancer patients trusted nurses to a great extent although between-country differences were found. The Trust in Nurses Scale proved to be a valid and reliable tool for measuring patients' trust in nurses in oncological settings in international contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Some psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale with cross validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahti Satu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA and treatment dental anxiety (TDA. Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects.

  3. Estimation of regional-scale groundwater flow properties in the Bengal Basin of India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, H.A.; Voss, C.I.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of management strategies for long-term supply of safe groundwater for drinking from the Bengal Basin aquifer (India and Bangladesh) requires estimation of the large-scale hydrogeologic properties that control flow. The Basin consists of a stratified, heterogeneous sequence of sediments with aquitards that may separate aquifers locally, but evidence does not support existence of regional confining units. Considered at a large scale, the Basin may be aptly described as a single aquifer with higher horizontal than vertical hydraulic conductivity. Though data are sparse, estimation of regional-scale aquifer properties is possible from three existing data types: hydraulic heads, 14C concentrations, and driller logs. Estimation is carried out with inverse groundwater modeling using measured heads, by model calibration using estimated water ages based on 14C, and by statistical analysis of driller logs. Similar estimates of hydraulic conductivities result from all three data types; a resulting typical value of vertical anisotropy (ratio of horizontal to vertical conductivity) is 104. The vertical anisotropy estimate is supported by simulation of flow through geostatistical fields consistent with driller log data. The high estimated value of vertical anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity indicates that even disconnected aquitards, if numerous, can strongly control the equivalent hydraulic parameters of an aquifer system. ?? US Government 2009.

  4. Sub-parsec Scale Properties of the TeV Blazar Mrk 501

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroletti, M.; Giovannini, G.

    2009-08-01

    The TeV BL Lac object Markarian 501 is a complex, core dominated radio source. We used VSOP data to discuss some of its parsec scale properties in \\citet{gir04}. The good resolution and sensitivity of VSOP at 1.6 GHz allow us to reveal a limb brightening in the parsec scale jet, which can be interpreted as a signature of a dual velocity structure. We further observed Mrk 501 with the Global millimeter VLBI array at 86 GHz, achieving a resolution of a few hundreds Schwarzschild radii. We detected the nuclear emission and a short one-sided jet. We discuss the source properties at sub-mas resolution, the nuclear spectral index, the possible correlation between the radio and gamma emission, and the correlation from the sub-pc to the kpc scale structure. We anticipate how the VSOP2 mission, thanks to the high resolution and sensitivity, will enable us to improve our understanding of the complex nature of the jet of this TeV blazar.

  5. Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babusa, Bernadett; Urbán, Róbert; Czeglédi, Edit; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    Limited studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale (MASS), a measure of muscle dysmorphia, in different cultures and languages. The aims were to examine the psychometric properties of the Hungarian version of the MASS (MASS-HU), and to investigate its relationship with self-esteem and exercise-related variables. Two independent samples of male weight lifters (ns=289 and 43), and a sample of undergraduates (n=240) completed the MASS, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. Exploratory factor analysis supported the original five-factor structure of the MASS only in the weight lifter sample. The MASS-HU had excellent scale score reliability and good test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the MASS-HU was tested with multivariate regression analyses which indicated an inverse relationship between self-esteem and muscle dysmorphia. The 18-item MASS-HU was found to be a useful measure for the assessment of muscle dysmorphia among male weight lifters.

  6. Decay of Scale-Free Property in Birth-and-Death Network

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Rayman-Bacchus, Lez

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the decay of the scale-free property for a kind of birth-and-death evolving networks, in which at each time step, a node is added with probability p and connected with old nodes by preferential attachment; or a node is randomly deleted from the network with probability q=1-p. Employing the SPR-based Markov chain method, we calculate the degree distribution of the proposed network and discuss its tail features. Our results show that the node deletion probability q has a strong impact on the power-law tail. As q tends to 0, the power-law property is distinct, while with the increasing of q to 1/2, the scale-free character is gradually disappeared. This may imply for the real birth-and-death network, during the emergent and growing stages, since the probability of node deletion is very small, the power-law tail of the degree distribution is apparent. However, when the network is in the matured stage, the deletion probability q will be incrementally increasing, making the scale-free feature de...

  7. Where Are We: A Systematic Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of Pain Assessment Scales for Use in Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinbing; Jiang, Nan

    2015-08-01

    Systematic pain assessment using reliable and valid pain scales is the foundation for optimal pain management in children. To evaluate the available scales for pain assessment in Chinese children, we systematically evaluated the psychometric properties of pain measurements used in Chinese children. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases from their inception to September 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the psychometric properties of pain measures were examined in Chinese children (aged 0-18 years). Two bilingual reviewers independently evaluated the psychometric properties of the identified pain scales by a revised 11-item coding system. In all, 6 studies involving 775 participants were included in this review with six pain scales examined, including the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) Scale, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, Asian Version of Oucher Scale, Pain Observation Scale for Young Children (POCIS), Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) and Pain Assessment Scale for Preterm Infants (PASPI). The FLACC, COMFORT-Behavior Scale, and PASPI had very good psychometric qualities when administered in Chinese children; the Asian Version of Oucher Scale and POCIS showed acceptable to good psychometric qualities; and the NFCS had unacceptable psychometric qualities. Further psychometric testing of these observational measures and self-report pain scales in particular are needed among Chinese children of various age groups and in different pain situations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ecosystem functional properties - useful links to organism and to global scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.

    2015-12-01

    Classical biogeographical observations tell us that ecosystems (vegetation and soils) strongly respond to climate variation in terms of their structure and function. On the other hand the influence of vegetation function on climate via exchange of matter and energy with the atmosphere has become evident in the last decades via observational and modeling studies. Recent continuous observations of this exchange of CO2, H2O and sensible heat within the global observation network FLUXNET have enabled us to quantify ecosystem function in response to large eco-climatological spatio-temporal variability of climate. We see that ecosystem function co-varies strongly with climate, but that climate alone does not suffice to explain the variation in total. Instead vegetation biophysical and structural parameters co-determine the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the ecosystem and the atmosphere. By combining ecosystem level observation and information of spatial meteorological and vegetation remote sensing covariates we can infer global patterns of ecosystem atmosphere fluxes and derive key ecosystem functional properties globally. While this approach is powerful and meteorological and vegetation structural predictors explain more than 70% of the spatial variation of monthly fluxes at FLUXNET sites, it ignores the effect of ecophysiological vegetation properties, which is expected from plant physiological leaf or whole-plant studies. Hence, future research has to more strongly link the organismic trait information with ecosystem functional properties. For this we propose a framework that involves 1) the correlation of community aggregated traits with flux-derived ecosystem properties across a range of ecosystems, 2) the up-scaling of vegetation traits using spatially distributed geo-ecological co-variates and the comparison with global ecosystem functional properties and their co-variation with climate, 3) the use of vegetation traits instead of vegetation classes

  9. [Examination of the psychometric properties of the French translation of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, A; Callahan, S; Bouvard, M

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal attachment (PA) is defined as the relationship that develops between a woman and her foetus. Three measurements exist for evaluating PA: the Maternal Foetal Attachment Scale (MFAS), the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI). Of these three, only the PAI has been used in French. The overall objective of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of this second measure of PA: the MAAS. This scale was developed in 1993 by Condon. The MAAS is a 19-item self-report questionnaire which allows for calculating a total attachment score and two subscale scores; one score estimating the quality of the affective attachment experience and the other that estimates the intensity of concern about the foetus. For each item, the future mother provided an appreciation on a 5-point Likert scale (1=absence of feelings for the foetus; 5=very strong feelings for the foetus). The sample was composed of 117 primiparous French females (27.5 ± 4.27 years) in the third trimester of pregnancy (32.84 ± 3.77 weeks of amenorrhea). The study was carried out over a period of 5 months (January-May 2012). Each woman was asked to provide demographic data, a French version of the MAAS, a validated French version of the PAI, and a scale evaluating depressive symptoms (Edinburgh PostNatal Depression Scale, EPDS). The MAAS demonstrated moderately good psychometric properties. Condon's two-factor structure of MAAS was not supported in our sample. Four factors were identified with exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency was satisfactory for the global scale and for the factor 1 but not sufficiently adequate for the other factors. Concurrent validity was indicated by moderate correlations between the global MAAS scores with the total PAI score. A weak but significant inverse correlation was found between the MAAS and the EPDS suggesting good divergent validity. The authors suggest that additional research be conducted on

  10. Intra-beat Scaling Properties of Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eduardo; Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2008-02-01

    We applied detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to characterize the intra-beat scaling dynamics of electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings from the PhysioNet Sudden Cardiac Death Holter Database. The main finding of this contribution is that, in such recordings involving different types of arrhythmias; the ECG waveform, besides showing a less-random intra-beat dynamics, becomes more regular during bigeminy, ventricular tachycardia (VT) or even atrial fibrillation (AFIB) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) despite the appearance of erratic traces. Thus, notwithstanding that these cardiac rhythm abnormalities are generally considered as irregular and some of them generated by random impulses or wavefronts, the intra-beat scaling properties suggest that regularity dominates the underlying mechanisms of arrhythmias. Among other explanations, this may result from shorted or restricted -less complex- pathways of conduction of the electrical activity within the ventricles.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Eunice Castro Mata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is the period for fetal development and growth. In parallel, for the mother is also a complex adaptation time, which in addition to experience physical changes, there is a greater awareness about their child that creates an affectively approach to his or her. The bond between mother and fetus helps to mitigate physical and emotional problems in this stage, preparing them for the future relationship between mother and child attachment. The objective in this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish translation of the MAAS. Reverse translation process was used in order to achieve a conceptual equivalence of the scale. The study included 169 pregnant women attending prenatal care. Exploratory factor analysis indicated two factors with 36.8% of the explained variance, along with 5 items that were removed. The total scale showed a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.694, Quality subscale obtained an alpha of .771 and .550 Preocupation subscale.

  12. Formation and properties of 3D metamaterial composites fabricated using nanometer scale laser lithography (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokes, Sharka M.; Perkins, Frank K.; Glembocki, Orest J.

    2015-08-01

    Metamaterials designed for the visible or near IR wavelengths require patterning on the nanometer scale. To achieve this, e-beam lithography is used, but it is extremely difficult and can only produce 2D structures. A new alternative technique to produce 2D and 3D structures involves laser fabrication using the Nanoscribe 3D laser lithography system. This is a direct laser writing technique which can form arbitrary 3D nanostructures on the nanometer scale and is based on multi-photon polymerization. We are creating 2D and 3D metamaterials via this technique, and subsequently conformally coating them using Atomic Layer Deposition of oxides and Ag. We will discuss the optical properties of these novel composite structures and their potential for dual resonant metamaterials.

  13. Scaling of Macroscopic Properties of Porous Sediments Experiencing Compaction: Implications for Geothermal Gradient and Methane Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2011-01-01

    Porous sediments in geological systems experience stress by the above-laying mass and consequent compaction, which may be significantly nonuniform across the massif. We derive scaling laws for the compaction of sediments of similar geological origin. With these laws, we evaluate the dependence of the transport properties of a fluid-saturated porous medium (permeability, effective molecular diffusivity, hydrodynamic dispersion, and thermal conductivity) on its porosity. In particular, we demonstrate irrelevance of the assumption of a uniform geothermal gradient for systems with nonuniform compaction and importance of the derived scaling laws for mathematical modelling of methane hydrate deposits, which are believed to have potential for impact on global climate change and Glacial-Interglacial cycles.

  14. Scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tie; Klewicki, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    The scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity V (x ,y ) in zero-pressure-gradient laminar and turbulent boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical simulation data, physical experiment data, and integral analyses of the governing equations. The maximum mean wall-normal velocity V∞ and the boundary-layer thickness δ are evidenced to be the proper scaling for V over most if not all of the boundary layer. This is different from the behavior of the mean streamwise velocity U or the turbulent shear stress T =-ρ , which depend on different characteristic length scales in the regions near and away from the surface, respectively. The reason for this apparent difference in scaling behaviors is described physically relative to the downstream development of the U velocity profile and the mechanisms of boundary-layer growth. Insights pertaining to this are further surmised from an analytical relationship for the ratio of the displacement to momentum thickness, i.e., shape factor H . Integral analyses using the continuity and mean momentum equation show that U∞V∞/uτ2=H , where uτ is the friction velocity. Both the laminar similarity solution and direct numerical simulation data in post-transitional flows convincingly support this relation. Over the transitional regime, data of sufficiently high quality are lacking to check if this relation remains valid.

  15. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Flemish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisen, Koen; Foreman, Marquis D; Hendrickx, Annik; Godderis, Jan; Abraham, Ivo L; Broos, Paul L O; De Geest, Sabina

    2005-03-25

    Determination of a patient's cognitive status by use of a valid and reliable screening instrument is of major importance as early recognition and accurate diagnosis of delirium is necessary for effective management. This study determined the reliability, validity and diagnostic value of the Flemish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale. A sample of 54 elderly hip fracture patients with a mean age of 80.9 years (SD = 7.85) were included. To test the psychometric properties of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale, performance on the NEECHAM was compared to the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), by using aggregated data based on 5 data collection measurement points (repeated measures). The CAM and MMSE served as gold standards. The alpha coefficient for the total NEECHAM score was high (0.88). Principal components analysis yielded a two-component solution accounting for 70.8% of the total variance. High correlations were found between the total NEECHAM scores and total MMSE (0.75) and total CAM severity scores (-0.73), respectively. Diagnostic values using the CAM algorithm as gold standard showed 76.9% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity, 13.5% positive and 97.5% negative predictive values, respectively. This validation of the Flemish version of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale adds to previous evidence suggesting that this scale holds promise as a valuable screening instrument for delirium in clinical practice. Further validation studies in diverse clinical populations; however, are needed.

  17. Scaling Behavior and Magnetic Properties for SmxCo5 Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    SmxCo5 (x=1.3, 0.7, 0.4) thin films were prepared by magnetron co-sputtering technique. The samples were annealed at 723 K under Ar atmosphere. The annealed time was chosen as 30 min. The hysteresis loops of the samples were measured under the ac applied magnetic field with the period Tp (2π/ω), H(t)=H0sin(ωt), by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The experimental results indicate that, (1) the average hysteresis loop areas as functions of the values of H0 and ω display a power scaling law with the exponents, A=A0+H0αωβ; (2) the x composition of SmxCo5 film has evident effect on the scaling behavior and magnetic properties; (3) the anisotropy scaling exponents exist clearly in the anisotropy SmxCo5 thin films. Moreover, the scaling behavior of the anisotropy magnetic film was also simulated with Monte Carlo method. The simulated results are consistent with the experimental fact.

  18. New indication on scaling properties of strangeness production in pp collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, M. V.; Zborovský, I.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental data on transverse momentum spectra of strange particles (KS0,K‑,K∗0,ϕ, Λ, Λ∗, Σ∗, Ξ‑, Ω) produced in pp collisions at s = 200GeV obtained by the STAR and PHENIX collaborations at RHIC are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling approach. The concept of the z-scaling is based on fundamental principles of self-similarity, locality, and fractality of hadron interactions at high energies. General properties of the data z-presentation are studied. Self-similarity of fractal structure of protons and fragmentation processes with strange particles is discussed. A microscopic scenario of constituent interactions developed within the z-scaling scheme is used to study the dependence of momentum fractions and recoil mass on the collision energy, transverse momentum and mass of produced inclusive particle, and to estimate the constituent energy loss. We consider that obtained results can be useful in study of strangeness origin, in searching for new physics with strange probes, and can serve for better understanding of fractality of hadron interactions at small scales.

  19. Got spirit? The spiritual climate scale, psychometric properties, benchmarking data and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doram, Keith; Chadwick, Whitney; Bokovoy, Joni; Profit, Jochen; Sexton, Janel D; Sexton, J Bryan

    2017-02-11

    Organizations that encourage the respectful expression of diverse spiritual views have higher productivity and performance, and support employees with greater organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Within healthcare, there is a paucity of studies which define or intervene on the spiritual needs of healthcare workers, or examine the effects of a pro-spirituality environment on teamwork and patient safety. Our objective was to describe a novel survey scale for evaluating spiritual climate in healthcare workers, evaluate its psychometric properties, provide benchmarking data from a large faith-based healthcare system, and investigate relationships between spiritual climate and other predictors of patient safety and job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey study of US healthcare workers within a large, faith-based health system. Seven thousand nine hundred twenty three of 9199 eligible healthcare workers across 325 clinical areas within 16 hospitals completed our survey in 2009 (86% response rate). The spiritual climate scale exhibited good psychometric properties (internal consistency: Cronbach α = .863). On average 68% (SD 17.7) of respondents of a given clinical area expressed good spiritual climate, although assessments varied widely (14 to 100%). Spiritual climate correlated positively with teamwork climate (r = .434, p climate (r = .489, p climate were less likely to have intentions to leave, to be burned out, or to experience disruptive behaviors in their unit and more likely to have participated in executive rounding (p climate scale exhibits good psychometric properties, elicits results that vary widely by clinical area, and aligns well with other culture constructs that have been found to correlate with clinical and organizational outcomes.

  20. Properties important to mixing and simulant recommendations for WTP full-scale vessel testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-01

    Full Scale Vessel Testing (FSVT) is being planned by Bechtel National, Inc., to demonstrate the ability of the standard high solids vessel design (SHSVD) to meet mixing requirements over the range of fluid properties planned for processing in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Testing will use simulated waste rather than actual Hanford waste. Therefore, the use of suitable simulants is critical to achieving the goals of the test program. WTP personnel requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist with development of simulants for use in FSVT. Among the tasks assigned to SRNL was to develop a list of waste properties that are important to pulse-jet mixer (PJM) performance in WTP vessels with elevated concentrations of solids.

  1. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Body Appreciation Scale-2 in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Tylka and Wood-Barcalow (2015b) developed the Body Appreciation Scale-2 (BAS-2) as a psychometrically robust measure that is conceptually consistent with recent findings on positive body image. The present study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the BAS-2 in Iran. Participants were 568 men and 525 women from seven universities in Tehran, Iran. Two exploratory factor analyses were performed on data from women and men separately. Similar to the original English version, the Persian BAS-2 had a one-factor solution. Persian BAS-2 scores had satisfactory convergent validity (indexed by significantly correlations with self-esteem and life satisfaction) and internal consistency. Men had significantly higher scores on BAS-2 compared to women. The present study suggests that the Persian BAS-2 has adequate psychometric properties to assess body appreciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heuristic algorithm for determination of local properties of scale-free networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrovic, M

    2006-01-01

    Complex networks are everywhere. Many phenomena in nature can be modeled as networks: - brain structures - protein-protein interaction networks - social interactions - the Internet and WWW. They can be represented in terms of nodes and edges connecting them. Important characteristics: - these networks are not random; they have a structured architecture. Structure of different networks are similar: - all have power law degree distribution (scale-free property) - despite large size there is usually relatively short path between any two nodes (small world property). Global characteristics: - degree distribution, clustering coefficient and the diameter. Local structure: - frequency of subgraphs of given type (subgraph of order k is a part of the network consisting of k nodes and edges between them). There are different types of subgraphs of the same order.

  3. An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: scale development and preliminary psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S G; Dibartolo, P M

    2000-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the "Positive Self-Statements" (SSPS-P) and the "Negative Self-Statements" subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument.

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bilenberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , was used to test the psychometric properties of this scale in a sample of 566 Danish school children between 6 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that parents and teachers had different frames of reference when rating symptoms in the mADHD-RS. There was support for the unidimensionality...... of the three subscales when parent and teacher ratings were analyzed independently. Nonetheless, evidence for differential item functioning was found across gender and age for specific items within each of the subscales. The findings expand existing psychometric information about the mADHD-RS and support its...

  5. The MUSIC of galaxy clusters - II. X-ray global properties and scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Sembolini, F.; De Petris, M.; Valdarnini, R.; Yepes, G.; Gottlöber, S.

    2014-03-01

    We present the X-ray properties and scaling relations of a large sample of clusters extracted from the Marenostrum MUltidark SImulations of galaxy Clusters (MUSIC) data set. We focus on a sub-sample of 179 clusters at redshift z ˜ 0.11, with 3.2 × 1014 h-1 M⊙ MUSIC clusters reasonably resemble the self-similar prediction, especially for correlations involving TX. The observational approach also allows for a more direct comparison with real clusters, from which we find deviations mainly due to the physical description of the ICM, affecting TX and, particularly, LX.

  6. Scaling Properties of the Number of Random Sequential Adsorption Iterations Needed to Generate Saturated Random Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Michał

    2016-11-01

    The properties of the number of iterations in random sequential adsorption protocol needed to generate finite saturated random packing of spherically symmetric shapes were studied. Numerical results obtained for one, two, and three dimensional packings were supported by analytical calculations valid for any dimension d. It has been shown that the number of iterations needed to generate finite saturated packing is subject to Pareto distribution with exponent -1-1/d and the median of this distribution scales with packing size according to the power-law characterized by exponent d. Obtained results can be used in designing effective random sequential adsorption simulations.

  7. Synthesis in pilot plant scale and physical properties of sulfonated polystyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cristiane R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogenous sulfonation of polystyrene was developed in a pilot plant scale producing polymers with different sulfonation degrees (18 to 22 mole % of sulfonated styrene units. The reaction yield depends chiefly on the concentration ratio of acetyl sulfate and polystyrene. The morphological and thermal properties of the sulfonated polystyrene obtained by homogeneous sulfonation were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The glass transition temperature of sulfonated polystyrene increases in relation to pure polystyrene and DCp was evaluated in order to confirm the strong interactions among the ~SO3H groups.

  8. An Instrument to Assess Self-Statements During Public Speaking: Scale Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2006-01-01

    Public speaking is the most commonly reported fearful social situation. Although a number of contemporary theories emphasize the importance of cognitive processes in social anxiety, there is no instrument available to assess fearful thoughts experienced during public speaking. The Self-Statements During Public Speaking (SSPS) scale is a 10-item questionnaire consisting of two 5-item subscales, the “Positive Self-Statements” (SSPS-P) and the “Negative Self-Statements” subscale (SSPS-N). Four studies report on the development and the preliminary psychometric properties of this instrument. PMID:16763666

  9. Extracting physical properties of arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv; Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2013-12-23

    We present a method that allows the extraction of relevant physical properties such as sheet resistance and dopant profile from arbitrarily shaped laser-doped micro-scale areas formed in semiconductors with a focused pulsed laser beam. The key feature of the method is to use large laser-doped areas with an identical average number of laser pulses per area (laser pulse density) as the arbitrarily shaped areas. The method is verified using sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped silicon samples. Furthermore, the method is extended to doping with continuous-wave lasers by using the average number of passes per area or density of passes.

  10. Dynamical properties of the growing continuum using multiple-scale method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynčík L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theory of growth and remodeling is applied to the 1D continuum. This can be mentioned e.g. as a model of the muscle fibre or piezo-electric stack. Hyperelastic material described by free energy potential suggested by Fung is used whereas the change of stiffness is taken into account. Corresponding equations define the dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. Its stability and the properties of bifurcations are studied using multiple-scale method. There are shown the conditions under which the degenerated Hopf's bifurcation is occuring.

  11. The Effect of Fluid Properties on Field-Scale Anion Transport During Intermittent Unsaturated Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, A.; Gee, G. W.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments suggest that the properties of hypersaline fluids may influence transport behavior, to extent of finger formation, though an interaction between fluid and hydraulic properties. Yet, the importance of these mechanisms to field-scale transport is largely unknown, thereby limiting the accuracy of contaminant transport predictions. To assess the importance of these interactions in field-scale solute transport, tank leaks were simulated by performing a series of injections, using solute-free and hypersaline waters, in two consecutive years. Starting in May 2000, five 4000-L injections of Columbia River water were made with no-flow periods occurring every 3-5 days. The third injection contained 1000 ppm of Br- and a suite of isotopic tracers. In May 2001, the experiment was repeated with five 4000-L injections of saturated sodium thiosulfate containing 2500 ppm of Cl- with no-flow periods occurring every 3-5 days. Water content distributions were measured by neutron probe in 32 wells (18 m deep) arranged in a concentric pattern extending to 16 m in diameter. Water extracts from soil cores were analyzed for anions including Fl-, Cl-, Br-, NO3{-}, PO42-, SO42-, and S2O32-. Differences in the location of the wetting and solute fronts were apparent with the magnitude dependent on fluid constitution. Resident concentration profiles were generally asymmetric with a large mass occurring at 5-7 m, and a smaller mass at 10-12 m. Fine-textured layers at 6 and 11 m caused a substantial increase in lateral solute convection and confined longitudinal spreading to 12 m, except at one location where solute was detected at 16 m. The locations of multiple peaks were coincident with the finer-textured lenses, emphasizing the need to consider local-scale textural discontinuities in conceptual models of field-scale transport at the Hanford Site. Results show no evidence of fingering due to fluid properties. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for

  12. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Micrometer-Scale Gold Nanoplates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Lan; PENG Xiao-Niu; YANG Zhong-Jian; LI Min; ZHOU Li

    2011-01-01

    Micrometer-scale gold nanoplates have been synthesized in high yield through a polyol process.The morphology, crystal structure and linear optical extinction of the gold nanoplates have been characterized.These gold nanoplates are single-crystalline with triangular, truncated triangular and hexagonal shapes, exhibiting strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) extinction in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region.The linear optical properties of gold nanoplates are also investigated by theoretical calculations.We further investigate the nonlinear opticai properties of the gold nanoplates in solution by Z-scan technique.The nonlinear absorption (NLA )coefficient and nonlinear refraction (NLR) index are measured to be 1.18 × 102 cm/GW and - 1.04 × 10-3 cm2/GW,respectively.%@@ Micrometer-scale gold nanoplates have been synthesized in high yield through a polyol process.The morphology,crystal structure and linear optical extinction of the gold nanoplates have been characterized.These gold nanoplates are single-crystalline with triangular,truncated triangular and hexagonal shapes,exhibiting strong surface plasmon resonance(SPR) extinction in the visible and near-infrared(NIR) region.The linear optical properties of gold nanoplates are also investigated by theoretical calculations.We further investigate the nonlinear optical properties of the gold nanoplates in solution by Z-scan technique.The nonlinear absorption(NLA)coefficient and nonlinear refraction(NLR) index are measured to be 1.18 × 102 cm/GW and - 1.04 × 10-3 cm2/GW,respectively.

  13. Nanometer-scale structural, tribological, and optical properties of ultrathin poly(diacetylene) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARPICK,ROBERT W.; SASAKI,DARRYL Y.; BURNS,ALAN R.

    2000-04-17

    The ability to create organized ultrathin films using organic molecules provides systems whose chemical, mechanical, and optical properties can be controlled for specific applications. In particular, polymerization of oriented mono- and multi-layer films containing the diacetylene group has produced a variety of robust, highly oriented, and environmentally responsive films with unique chromatic properties. These two-dimensional poly(diacetylene) (PDA) films, where the conjugation runs parallel to the film surface, have previously been prepared in a variety of forms. Of particular interest is the optical absorption of PDA due to its {pi}-conjugated backbone. A wide variety of PDA materials, including bulk crystals, thin films, and solutions, exhibit a chromatic transition involving a significant shift in absorption from low to high energy bands of the visible spectrum, thus the PDA appears to transform from a blue to a red color. In addition, the red form is highly fluorescent, while the blue form is not. This transition can be brought about by heat binding of specific biological targets and applied stress (mechanochromism), among others. In this paper, the authors discuss the Langmuir deposition of ultrathin PDA films and the subsequent measurement of their structural, optical, and mechanical properties at the nanometer scale. By altering the head group functionality, the authors can choose between mono- and tri-layer PDA film structures. Measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM) reveal strongly anisotropic friction properties that are correlated with the orientation of the conjugated polymer backbone orientation. Furthermore, the authors can use the AFM tip or a near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) tip to locally convert the PDA from the blue form to the red form via applied stress. This represents the first time that mechanochromism has been observed at the nanometer scale. Dramatic structural changes are associated with this mechanochromic

  14. Effects of Galactic Disc Inclination and Resolution on Observed GMC Properties and Larson's Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Hsi-An; Tasker, Elizabeth J; Rosolowsky, Erik; Colombo, Dario; Benincasa, Samantha M; Wadsley, James

    2016-01-01

    With ALMA making it possible to resolve giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in other galaxies, it is becoming necessary to quantify the observational bias on measured GMC properties. Using a hydrodynamical simulation of a barred spiral galaxy, we compared the physical properties of GMCs formed in position-position-position space (PPP) to the observational position-position-velocity space (PPV). We assessed the effect of disc inclination: face-on (PPV_face) and edge-on (PPV_edge), and resolution: 1.5 pc versus 24 pc, on GMC properties and the further implications of using Larson's scaling relations for mass-radius and velocity dispersion-radius. The low-resolution PPV data are generated by simulating ALMA Cycle 3 observations using the CASA package. Results show that the median properties do not differ strongly between PPP and PPV_face under both resolutions, but PPV_edge clouds deviate from these two. The differences become magnified when switching to the lower, but more realistic resolution. The discrepancy can le...

  15. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Hughes, Sheryl O; O'Connor, Teresia M; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice C; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-02-01

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child's behavioral patterns (i.e., Surgency, Negative Affectivity Effortful Control) using both scales. Psychometrics of the 36-item Children's Behavior Questionnaire were examined using classical test theory, principal factor analysis, and item response modeling. Classical test theory analysis demonstrated adequate internal consistency and factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Potential improvements to the measure were identified using item response modeling. A one-item (three response categories) temperament scale was validated against the three temperament factors of the 36-item scale. The temperament response categories correlated with the temperament factors of the 36-item scale, as expected. The one-item temperament scale may be applicable for clinical use.

  16. Evaluation of Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale in Iran: What Are the Psychometric Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background With the integration of the evaluation of patient satisfaction in the overall assessment of healthcare services, authorities can be assured about the alignment of these services with patient needs and the suitability of care provided at the local level. Objectives This study was conducted in 2013 in Zahedan, Iran, in order to assess the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the mackey childbirth satisfaction rating scale (MCSRS. Patients and Methods For this study, a methodological design was used. After translating the MCSRS and confirming its initial validity, the questionnaires were distributed among women with uncomplicated pregnancies and no prior history of cesarean section. The participants had given birth to healthy, full-term, singletons (with cephalic presentation via normal vaginal delivery at hospitals within the past six months. Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest (via the intraclass correlation coefficient were applied to analyze the internal consistency and reliability of the scale. Moreover, the validity of the scale was tested via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and convergent validity. Results The MCSRS consists of six subscales. Through the process of validation, two partner-related items (“partner” subscale of the scale were excluded due to cultural barriers and hospital policies. Cronbach’s alpha for the total scale was 0.78. It ranged between 0.70 and 0.86 for five subscales, and was 0.31 for the “baby” subscale. Factor analysis confirmed the subscales of “nurse,” “physician,” and “baby,” which were identified in the original scale. However, in the translated version, the “self” subscale was divided into two separate dimensions. The six subscales explained 70.37% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fitness for the new model. Convergent validity showed a significant correlation between the MCSRS and the SERVQUAL scale (r = 0

  17. Psychometric properties of the Danish versions of headache-specific locus of control scale and headache management self-efficacy scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob Sander; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to test the cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of a Danish version of the Headache-Specific Locus of Control Scale (HSLC) and the Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE) in a tertiary headache centre. HSLC and HMSE are headache-specific measures...... with other self-report measures concerning general distress, anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life. Internal stability of the HSLC subscales and the HMSE were analysed using Chronbach's alpha coefficient. The psychometric properties of the Danish version of the HSLC and the HMSE were...

  18. Commercial Properties, Structure_locational_points_commercial, Published in 2007, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Buffalo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Commercial Properties dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  19. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) Exploration of Psychometric Properties in a Heterogeneous Chronic Pain Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; van Baalen, Bianca; Kleen, Marco; Koke, Albere; Reneman, Michiel; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological flexibility receives increasing attention as the overarching process in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS), measuring "avoidance" and "cognitive fusion" with pain, in a

  20. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS) Exploration of Psychometric Properties in a Heterogeneous Chronic Pain Sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; van Baalen, Bianca; Kleen, Marco; Koke, Albere; Reneman, Michiel; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Psychological flexibility receives increasing attention as the overarching process in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS), measuring "avoidance" and "cognitive fusion" with pain, in a het

  1. Commercial Properties, parcel data base attribute, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Commercial Properties dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  2. Psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadosky Alesia B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are a common and bothersome symptom of fibromyalgia (FM. This study reports psychometric properties of a single-item scale to assess sleep quality among individuals with FM. Methods Analyses were based on data from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of pregabalin (studies 1056 and 1077. In a daily diary, patients reported the quality of their sleep on a numeric rating scale ranging from 0 ("best possible sleep" to 10 ("worst possible sleep". Test re-test reliability of the Sleep Quality Scale was evaluated by computing intraclass correlation coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary and Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep scores. Responsiveness to treatment was evaluated by standardized effect sizes computed as the difference between least squares mean changes in Sleep Quality scores in the pregabalin and placebo groups divided by the standard deviation of Sleep Quality scores across all patients at baseline. Results Studies 1056 and 1077 included 748 and 745 patients, respectively. Most patients were female (study 1056: 94.4%; study 1077: 94.5% and white (study 1056: 90.2%; study 1077: 91.0%. Mean ages were 48.8 years (study 1056 and 50.1 years (study 1077. Test re-test reliability coefficients of the Sleep Quality Scale were 0.91 and 0.90 in the 1056 and 1077 studies, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients between baseline Sleep Quality scores and baseline pain diary scores were 0.64 (p Conclusion These results provide evidence of the reproducibility, convergent validity, and responsiveness to treatment of the Sleep Quality Scale and provide a foundation for its further use and evaluation in FM patients.

  3. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard N.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The majority of scales to measure family member distress in dementia are designed for community settings and do not capture the unique burdens of the nursing home (NH) environment. We report the psychometric properties of a new Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale for use in the NH setting. Design, Setting, Participants Cross-sectional questionnaire of 130 family member health care proxies of NH residents with advanced dementia in 31 Boston-area NHs. Methods Thirty-one initial items were evaluated, measuring the frequency over the past 3 months of sources of distress. Exploratory factor analysis identified domains of distress; Cronbach’s alpha was computed for each domain. Associations between the domains and other measures were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients, including measures of depression (PHQ-9), satisfaction with care (Satisfaction with Care at the End-of-Life in Dementia [SWC-EOLD]) and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview short version). Results Factor analysis suggested three domains: Emotional Distress (9 items), Dementia Preparedness (5 items), and NH Relations (7 items). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.82, 0.75 and 0.83 respectively. The PHQ-9 correlated most strongly with the Emotional Distress factor (r = 0.34), the SWC-EOWD correlated most strongly with the NH Relations factor (r = 0.35), as did the Zarit Burden Scale (r = 0.50). Conculsions The Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale encompasses three domains of distress. This scale represents a much needed tool to assess distress among family members of NH residents with advanced dementia and provides a metric to evaluate interventions in the population. PMID:25940236

  4. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  5. Preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of the Psychiatric Scepticism Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-08-01

    Despite much commentary on "psychiatric skepticism", there remains a dearth of appropriate psychometric scales for the measurement of this concept. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined the psychometric properties and correlates of the recently developed Psychiatric Scepticism Scale (PSS). A total of 564 individuals from the community in London, England, completed the PSS along with measures of anti-scientific attitudes, attitudes to authority, knowledge of mental health disorders, and demographics. Results showed that the PSS has a one-dimensional factor structure with very good internal consistency. In addition, it showed adequate convergent (anti-scientific attitudes, knowledge of mental health disorders) and construct validity (attitudes to authority, religiosity). Results also showed that there were small but significant differences in psychiatric skepticism by ethnicity and education, but not sex or previous diagnosis of mental health disorder. These results confirm that the PSS has adequate psychometric properties for the measurement of psychiatric skepticism. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. Detailed Interstellar Polarimetric Properties of the Pipe Nebula at Core Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, G A P; Girart, J M

    2010-01-01

    We use R-band CCD linear polarimetry collected for about 12000 background field stars in 46 fields of view toward the Pipe nebula to investigate the properties of the polarization across this dark cloud. Based on archival 2MASS data we estimate that the surveyed areas present total visual extinctions in the range 0.6 < Av < 4.6. While the observed polarizations show a well ordered large scale pattern, with polarization vectors almost perpendicularly aligned to the cloud's long axis, at core scales one see details that are characteristics of each core. Although many observed stars present degree of polarization which are unusual for the common interstellar medium, our analysis suggests that the dust grains constituting the diffuse parts of the Pipe nebula seem to have the same properties as the normal Galactic interstellar medium. Estimates of the second-order structure function of the polarization angles suggest that most of the Pipe nebula is magnetically dominated and that turbulence is sub-Alvenic. T...

  7. Psychometric properties of the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chou, Chien; Kim, Dong-Il; Watanabe, Hiroko; Ho, Roger C M

    2014-10-01

    The Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was developed to assess Internet addiction in Chinese populations, but its psychometric properties in adolescents have not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of CIAS-R in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. 860 Grade 7 to 13 students (38 % boys) completed the CIAS-R, the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) in a survey. The prevalence of Internet addiction as assessed by CIAS-R was 18 %. High internal consistency and inter-item correlations were reported for the CIAS-R. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure of Compulsive Use and Withdrawal, Tolerance, Interpersonal and Health-related Problems, and Time Management Problems. Moreover, results of hierarchical multiple regression supported the incremental validity of the CIAS-R to predict mental health outcomes beyond the effects of demographic differences and self-reported time spent online. The CIAS is a reliable and valid measure of internet addiction problems in Hong Kong adolescents. Future study is warranted to validate the cutoffs of the CIAS-R for identification of adolescents with Internet use problems who may have mental health needs.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the child PTSD symptom scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Boysan, Murat; Ceylan, Nesrin; Ceri, Veysi

    2014-08-01

    Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) were examined in a sample of young individuals who experienced a severe earthquake. Subjects were 479 children and adolescents recruited from schools after 18 months of Van earthquake. Mean age was 12.83 (SD±1.88), ranging from 8 to 18. Psychometric features were generally good for the CPSS. The original three-factor structure was replicated in this study. Internal consistency of the scale was good (ranged from α=.70 to α=.89 for total and subscale scores). The CPSS demonstrated good convergent validity with Child Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index scores as well as good divergent validity with the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children and Child Depression Inventory. As an evidence for a good discriminant validity, the CPSS successfully distinguished high PTSD individuals from low PTSD individuals. The CPSS had sound psychometric properties in a Turkish youth population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Point contact tunneling spectroscopy apparatus for large scale mapping of surface superconducting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groll, Nickolas; Pellin, Michael J. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Zasadzinksi, John F. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: prolier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We describe the design and testing of a point contact tunneling spectroscopy device that can measure material surface superconducting properties (i.e., the superconducting gap Δ and the critical temperature T{sub C}) and density of states over large surface areas with size up to mm{sup 2}. The tip lateral (X,Y) motion, mounted on a (X,Y,Z) piezo-stage, was calibrated on a patterned substrate consisting of Nb lines sputtered on a gold film using both normal (Al) and superconducting (PbSn) tips at 1.5 K. The tip vertical (Z) motion control enables some adjustment of the tip-sample junction resistance that can be measured over 7 orders of magnitudes from a quasi-ohmic regime (few hundred Ω) to the tunnel regime (from tens of kΩ up to few GΩ). The low noise electronic and LabVIEW program interface are also presented. The point contact regime and the large-scale motion capabilities are of particular interest for mapping and testing the superconducting properties of macroscopic scale superconductor-based devices.

  10. To what extent can global warming events influence scaling properties of climatic fluctuations in glacial periods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The Earth's climate is an extremely unstable complex system consisting of nonlinear and still rather unknown interactions among atmosphere, land surface, ice and oceans. The system is mainly driven by solar irradiance, even if internal components as volcanic eruptions and human activities affect the atmospheric composition thus acting as a driver for climate changes. Since the extreme climate variability is the result of a set of phenomena operating from daily to multi-millennial timescales, with different correlation times, a study of the scaling properties of the system can evidence non-trivial persistent structures, internal or external physical processes. Recently, the scaling properties of the paleoclimate changes have been analyzed by distinguish between interglacial and glacial climates [Shao and Ditlevsen, 2016]. The results show that the last glacial record (20-120 kyr BP) presents some elements of multifractality, while the last interglacial period (0-10 kyr BP), say the Holocene period, seems to be characterized by a mono-fractal structure. This is associated to the absence of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events in the interglacial climate that could be the cause for the absence of multifractality. This hypothesis is supported by the analysis of the period between 18 and 27 kyr BP, i.e. during the Last Glacial Period, in which a single DO event have been registred. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) we were able to detect a timescale separation within the Last Glacial Period (20-120 kyr BP) in two main components: a high-frequency component, related to the occurrence of DO events, and a low-frequency one, associated to the cooling/warming phase switch [Alberti et al., 2014]. Here, we investigate the scaling properties of the climate fluctuations within the Last Glacial Period, where abrupt climate changes, characterized by fast increase of temperature usually called Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, have been particularly pronounced. By using the

  11. A systematic review of the psychometric properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M; Volpe, Ellen M; Klostermann, Keith; Trabold, Nicole; Xue, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified, which reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales is reported according to study population, and several cross-population trends were identified. In general, the SRPS and RC subscale exhibited sound psychometric properties across multiple study populations and research settings. By contrast, the DMD subscale had relatively weak psychometric properties, especially when used with specific populations and research settings. Factors that influenced the psychometric properties of the various scales and subscales included the study population, mean age of the sample, number of items retained in the scale, and modifications to the original scales. We conclude with recommendations for (1) the application and use of the SRPS and subscales, (2) reporting of psychometric properties of the scales in the literature, and (3) areas for future research.

  12. Muscles innervated by a single motor neuron exhibit divergent synaptic properties on multiple time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Dawn M; Pritchard, Amy E; Latimer, John K; Wakefield, Andrew T

    2017-01-19

    Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range. To address these issues, we measured electrical responses in muscles innervated by a chewing circuit neuron, the lateral gastric (LG) motor neuron, in a well-characterized small motor system, the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis In vitro and in vivo, sensory, hormonal and modulatory inputs elicit LG bursting consisting of inter-spike intervals of 50-250 ms and inter-burst intervals of 2-24 s. Muscles expressed similar facilitation measured with paired stimuli except at the shortest inter-spike interval. However distinct decay time constants resulted in differences in temporal summation. In response to bursting activity, augmentation occurred to different extents and saturated at different inter-burst intervals in the three muscles. Further, augmentation interacted with facilitation, resulting in distinct intra-burst facilitation between muscles. Thus, responses of multiple target muscles diverge across a physiological activity range due to distinct synaptic properties sensitive to multiple time scales.

  13. Testing the suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith; Sweetkind, Don; Fenelon, Joe

    2016-08-01

    The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity ( K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.

  14. Testing the suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic properties across regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Halford, Keith J.; Sweetkind, Donald; Fenelon, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of geologic frameworks for extrapolating hydraulic conductivity (K) to length scales commensurate with hydraulic data is difficult to assess. A novel method is presented for evaluating assumed relations between K and geologic interpretations for regional-scale groundwater modeling. The approach relies on simultaneous interpretation of multiple aquifer tests using alternative geologic frameworks of variable complexity, where each framework is incorporated as prior information that assumes homogeneous K within each model unit. This approach is tested at Pahute Mesa within the Nevada National Security Site (USA), where observed drawdowns from eight aquifer tests in complex, highly faulted volcanic rocks provide the necessary hydraulic constraints. The investigated volume encompasses 40 mi3 (167 km3) where drawdowns traversed major fault structures and were detected more than 2 mi (3.2 km) from pumping wells. Complexity of the five frameworks assessed ranges from an undifferentiated mass of rock with a single unit to 14 distinct geologic units. Results show that only four geologic units can be justified as hydraulically unique for this location. The approach qualitatively evaluates the consistency of hydraulic property estimates within extents of investigation and effects of geologic frameworks on extrapolation. Distributions of transmissivity are similar within the investigated extents irrespective of the geologic framework. In contrast, the extrapolation of hydraulic properties beyond the volume investigated with interfering aquifer tests is strongly affected by the complexity of a given framework. Testing at Pahute Mesa illustrates how this method can be employed to determine the appropriate level of geologic complexity for large-scale groundwater modeling.

  15. The psychometric properties of a workplace boredom scale (DUBS within the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarie M. van Wyk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Boredom at work has been shown to be a concern for individuals and organisations. At the time of this research, no validated scale was available to measure and investigate workplace boredom within the South African context.Research purpose: To determine the psychometric properties of the Dutch Boredom Scale (DUBS within the South African context. Motivation for the study: No reliable and valid scale for workplace boredom was available in South Africa at the time of the current research. Boredom at work has been found to affect organisations negatively in other countries. Insights are needed into workplace boredom and how it affects the outcomes of organisations in South Africa. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was utilised. A random convenience sample (N = 490 was obtained from organisations within the manufacturing and logistics sector. In order to validate the DUBS, the factor structure, construct validity (convergent and discriminant validity and scale reliability were investigated. A mediation model was also tested with structural equation modelling to ascertain predictive validity.Main findings: The results showed that the one-factor structure of the DUBS could be confirmed and that this factor had acceptable reliability. In terms of convergent validity, all of the item indicators loaded significantly on the workplace boredom construct, and the relationship between workplace boredom and work underload revealed that they were positively correlated with medium effect size. Furthermore, work engagement and organisational commitment were correlated negatively in terms of practical significance with workplace boredom. A structural mediation model showed that work underload was significantly and positively associated with boredom, which in turn had significant negative relations to both work engagement and organisational commitment. No significant direct relations were found from work

  16. Identifying vulnerability in grief: psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Julius; Machin, Linda; Bartlam, Bernadette

    2014-05-01

    Grief is a reaction to a significant loss that can profoundly affect all aspects of life and capacity to function well. The consequences can vary from severe psychological distress through to physical disturbances and significant social problems. This study sought to identify a measure of vulnerability in grief, by examining the psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief (AAG) scale in a sample of 168 people seeking help in their bereavement. The factor structure of the scale, its internal consistency, its construct validity and optimum classification cutoffs were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis broadly supported the factor structure of the AAG, but identified one item that could profitably be reworded. Internal consistency of the three subscales was acceptable. Construct validity and discriminative validity were supported by correlations with allied constructs (depression and anxiety) and a significant difference between scores for clients with Prolonged Grief Disorder and those without. A correlation with counsellors' own clinical ratings of vulnerability demonstrated criterion-related validity of the AAG. Using receiver operating characteristic methods, optimum cutoff scores on the scale were identified for the classification of different levels of vulnerability. The AAG was found to be a psychometrically promising tool for identifying vulnerability in grief.

  17. Estimating large-scale fractured rock properties from radon data collected in a ventilated tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, Andre; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2003-05-12

    To address regulatory issues regarding worker safety, radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a deep tunnel excavated from a highly fractured tuff formation. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured rock. An iTOUGH2 model was developed to predict radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation rates. The numerical model was used (1) to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractured formation at the length scale of the tunnel and extending tens of meters into the surrounding rock, and (2) to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations that potentially exceed the regulatory limit. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the tunnel is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations propagated down the tunnel. In addition, a slight suction is induced by the ventilation system. The pressure fluctuations are dampened in the fractured formation according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the tunnel drops, formation gases from the rock are pulled into the opening, resulting in high radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentration data measured in the tunnel and gas phase pressure fluctuations observed in the formation yielded independent estimates of effective, large-scale fracture permeability and porosity. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability that radon gas concentrations will exceed the regulatory limit.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS in a Lithuanian-speaking population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinas Rotomskis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that intolerance of uncertainty may be important in understanding worry and may play a key role in the etiology and maintenance of worry. Intolerance of uncertainty is measured using the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS, which has been shown to be reliable and valid in many studies. The aim of the present study was to develop a Lithuanian version of this instrument. 228 university students completed the scale. The Lithuanian version of the IUS was found to have good psychometric properties. The IUS showed high internal consistency and good test-retest reliability over a five-week period, and good convergent and divergent validity when assessed with measures of trait anxiety, situational anxiety, and depression. Factor analysis indicated that the IUS has a two-factor structure that represents the beliefs that “uncertainty about the future is unfair” and that “uncertainty has negative behavioral and self-referent implications”. In conclusion, it was found that the Lithuanian version of the IUS is a sound scale for assessing intolerance of uncertainty.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of microbial properties at different scales in shallow subsurface sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Lehman, R M; Pfiffner, S M; Scarborough, S P; Palumbo, A V; Phelps, T J; Beauchamp, J J; Colwell, F S

    1997-01-01

    Microbial abundance, activity, and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) were examined at centimeter and meter scales in the subsurface environment at a site near Oyster, VA. At the centimeter scale, variations in aerobic culturable heterotrophs (ACH) and glucose mineralization rates (GMR) were highest in the water table zone, indicating that water availability has a major effect on variations in microbial abundance and activity. At the meter scale, ACH and microaerophiles decreased significantly with depth, whereas anaerobic GMR often increased with depth; this may indicate low redox potentials at depth caused by microbial consumption of oxygen. Data of CLPP indicated that the microbial community (MC) in the soybean field exhibited greater capability to utilize multiple carbon sources than MC in the corn field. This difference may reflect nutrient availability associated with different crops (soybean vs corn). By using a regression model, significant spatial and temporal variations were observed for ACH, microaerophiles, anaerobic GMR, and CLPP. Results of this study indicated that water and nutrient availability as well as land use could have a dominant effect on spatial and temporal variations in microbial properties in shallow subsurface environments.

  20. The psychometric properties of the difficult behavior self-efficacy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M

    2010-07-01

    The study was designed to estimate the psychometric properties of Hastings and Brown's (2002a) Difficult Behavior Self-efficacy Scale. Participants were two samples of physical educators teaching in Korea (n=229) and the United States (U.S.; n=139). An initial translation of the questionnaire to Korean and pilot study were conducted along with the larger study using a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Internal consistency estimates (weighed Omega) for the five-item scale were 0.88 both the Korean and U.S. samples. The average variances extracted for the one factor were 0.59 for the total data set and 0.57 each for the Korean and U.S. samples. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a five-item, unidimensional model for self-efficacy for the total sample: Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.97, Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI)=0.95, Comparative Fit Index (CFI)=0.98, and Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR)=0.03. Only the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA=0.12) fell below criterion levels of acceptable fit, with similar fit indices occurring in separate analyses of the Korean and U.S. samples. Invariance testing across the two samples supported metric invariance (similarity of factor loadings) but not scalar invariance (U.S. means higher on all five items). The factor structure for the self-efficacy scale provides an initial estimate of validity and internal consistency for use with different teacher groups.

  1. Scaling Model of Low-Temperature Transport Properties for Molecular and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly B. Rogankov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The universal scaling concept is applied to the low-temperature range of any liquid states and substances located between the melting (Tm and normal boiling (Tb points far away from the critical region. The physical reason to develop such approach is the revealed collapse of all low-temperature isotherms onto the single universal one argued by the model of fluctuational thermodynamics (FT proposed recently by author. The pressure reduced by the molecular parameters of the effective short-range Lennard-Jones (LJ potential depends here only on the reduced density. To demonstrate the extraordinary predictive abilities of the developed low-temperature scaling model it has been applied to the prediction of equilibrium and transport (kinetic and dynamic viscosity, self-diffusion, and thermal conductivity properties not only for molecular liquids but also for molten organic salts termed ionic liquids (ILs. The best argument in favor of the proposed methodology is the appropriate consistency with the scarce experiments prediction of transport coefficients for ILs on the base of universal scaling function constructed for the simplest LJ-like liquid argon. The only input data of any substance for prediction are the linear approximations of T-dependent density and isobaric heat capacity taken from the standard measurements at atmospheric pressure.

  2. Psychometric properties of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale in patients taking warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Kong, Ming Chai; Ko, Yu

    2012-10-01

    There is no patient-reported medication adherence measure that has been validated in Singapore. This study aimed to validate the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) in patients taking warfarin in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a convenience sample of 151 patients taking warfarin at an anticoagulation clinic in 2011. Respondents completed the MMAS in English or Chinese depending on their preference. The MMAS had a Cronbach's alpha of 0.56 and good criterion-related validity as the scale scores were associated with warfarin refill rates (p = 0.04). Respondents with higher MMAS scores were found to have a higher percentage of International Normalised Ratios (INRs) within the therapeutic range (p = 0.01), higher adherence to diet recommendations (p = 0.02), and less perceived difficulty in taking all medications (p warfarin at the same time every day (p warfarin. Future research is needed to investigate the scale's psychometric properties in other patient populations and clinical settings.

  3. Development and properties of a brief scale to assess intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynter, Karen; Tran, Thach Duc; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Poor quality intimate partner relationship is associated with postnatal depression and anxiety among women. Existing scales assessing the quality of this relationship are long and measure stable aspects of the relationship rather than specific behaviours which may respond to targeted interventions. The aim was to develop and investigate the properties of a brief, life stage-specific scale to assess potentially modifiable partner behaviours in the postpartum period. Participants were primiparous women from diverse geographical and socio-economic backgrounds in Victoria, Australia. Seven study-specific items were developed to assess potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship at 6 months postpartum. Women's mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression and generalised anxiety modules. Factor analysis was conducted on the 7 items, and associations calculated between factor scores. Factor scores were compared for women with and without mental health problems. Mean inter-item correlations were computed to assess internal consistency. Factor analysis on data from 355 women revealed two factors with good internal consistency: Caring Partner Behaviours and Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours. Having mental health problems was associated with lower Caring Partner Behaviours and higher Emotionally Abusive Partner Behaviours scores. Interaction between partners was not observed; thus external criterion validity was not assessed. This brief scale is a promising means of assessing potentially modifiable aspects of the intimate partner relationship in the postnatal period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in patients with gambling disorders, hypersexuality, and methamphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rory C; Cyders, Melissa A; Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Although the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS; Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995) is a widely-used self-report measure of impulsivity, there have been numerous questions about the invariance of the factor structure across clinical populations (Haden & Shiva, 2008, 2009; Ireland & Archer, 2008). The goal of this article is to examine the factor structure of the BIS among a sample consisting of three populations exhibiting addictive behaviors and impulsivity: pathological gamblers, hypersexual patients, and individuals seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence to determine if modification to the existing factors might improve the psychometric properties of the BIS. The current study found that the factor structure of the BIS does not replicate in this sample and instead produces a 12-item three-factor solution consisting of motor-impulsiveness (5 items), non-planning impulsiveness (3 items), and immediacy impulsiveness (4 items). The clinical utility of the BIS in this population is questionable. The authors suggest future studies to investigate comparisons with this modified version of the BIS and other impulsivity scales such as the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in clinical populations when assessing disposition toward rash action.

  5. Seeking Observable Imprints of Small-Scale Structure on the Properties of Dark Matter Haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic prediction of the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) model of cosmological structure formation is that the Universe should contain a wealth of small-scale structure -- low-mass dark matter haloes and subhaloes. However, galaxy formation is inefficient in their shallow potential wells and so we expect these low-mass haloes and subhaloes to be dark. Can we tell the difference between a Universe in which low-mass haloes are present but dark and one in which they never formed, thereby providing a robust test of the CDM model? We address this question using cosmological simulations to examine how properties of low-mass haloes that are potentially accessible to observation, such as their spatial clustering, rate of accretions and mergers onto massive galaxies and the angular momentum content of massive galaxies, differ between a LCDM model and dark matter models in which low-mass halo formation is suppressed. Adopting an effective cut-off mass scale M_cut below which small-scale power is suppressed in the in...

  6. Scaling Properties of a Complete X-ray Selected Galaxy Group Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Lovisari, Lorenzo; Schellenberger, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Upcoming X-ray surveys like eROSITA require precise calibration between X-ray observables and mass down to the low mass regime to set tight constraints on the fundamental cosmological parameters. Since an individual mass measurement is only possible for a relatively small number of objects it is crucial to have robust and well understood scaling relations that relate the total mass to easily observable quantities. The main goal of this work is to constrain the galaxy group scaling relations corrected for selection effects, and to quantify the influence of non-gravitational physics at the low-mass regime. We analyzed XMM-Newton observations for a complete sample of galaxy groups selected from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and we compared the derived scaling properties with a galaxy cluster sample. To investigate the role played by the different non-gravitational processes we then compared the observational data with the predictions of hydrodynamical simulations. After applying the correction for selection effects (...

  7. Psychometric properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Benedetta Emanuela; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2015-02-01

    The present study tried to answer the research need for empirically validated and theoretically based instruments to assess cyberbullying and cybervictimization. The psychometric properties of the Florence CyberBullying-CyberVictimization Scales (FCBVSs) were analyzed in a sample of 1,142 adolescents (Mage=15.18 years; SD=1.12 years; 54.5% male). For both cybervictimization and cyberbullying, results support a gender invariant model involving 14 items and four factors covering four types of behaviors (written-verbal, visual, impersonation, and exclusion). The second-order confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that a "global," second-order measure of cyberbullying and cybervictimization fits the data well. Overall, the scales showed good validity (construct, concurrent, and convergent) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest). In addition, using the global key question measure as a criterion, ROC analyses, determining the ability of a test to discriminate between groups, allowed us to identify cutoff points to classify respondents as involved/not involved starting from the continuum measure derived from the scales.

  8. Rural to urban population density scaling of crime and property transactions in English and Welsh Parliamentary Constituencies

    CERN Document Server

    Hanley, Quentin S; Ribeiro, Haroldo V

    2016-01-01

    Urban population scaling of resource use, creativity metrics, and human behaviors has been widely studied. These studies have not looked in detail at the full range of human environments which represent a continuum from the most rural to heavily urban. We examined monthly police crime reports and property transaction values across all 573 Parliamentary Constituencies in England and Wales, finding that scaling models based on population density provided a far superior framework to traditional population scaling. We found four types of scaling: i) non-urban scaling in which a single power law explained the relationship between the metrics and population density from the most rural to heavily urban environments, ii) accelerated scaling in which high population density was associated with an increase in the power-law exponent, iii) inhibited scaling where the urban environment resulted in a reduction in the power-law exponent but remained positive, and iv) collapsed scaling where transition to the high density en...

  9. Dynamical properties of a particle in a wave packet: Scaling invariance and boundary crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.com [CAMTP, Center For Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Robnik, Marko, E-mail: robnik@uni-mb.si [CAMTP, Center For Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Maribor, Krekova 2, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao, UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515-Bela Vista, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Acceleration of particles in a wave packet. > The location of the first invariant spanning curve which borders the chaotic sea. > Scaling to characterise the transition from integrability to non-integrability. > The property of area preservation is broken and attractors emerge. > After a tiny increase of the dissipation the system experience a boundary crisis. - Abstract: Some dynamical properties present in a problem concerning the acceleration of particles in a wave packet are studied. The dynamics of the model is described in terms of a two-dimensional area preserving map. We show that the phase space is mixed in the sense that there are regular and chaotic regions coexisting. We use a connection with the standard map in order to find the position of the first invariant spanning curve which borders the chaotic sea. We find that the position of the first invariant spanning curve increases as a power of the control parameter with the exponent 2/3. The standard deviation of the kinetic energy of an ensemble of initial conditions obeys a power law as a function of time, and saturates after some crossover. Scaling formalism is used in order to characterise the chaotic region close to the transition from integrability to nonintegrability and a relationship between the power law exponents is derived. The formalism can be applied in many different systems with mixed phase space. Then, dissipation is introduced into the model and therefore the property of area preservation is broken, and consequently attractors are observed. We show that after a small change of the dissipation, the chaotic attractor as well as its basin of attraction are destroyed, thus leading the system to experience a boundary crisis. The transient after the crisis follows a power law with exponent -2.

  10. The effects of geometry and length scale on nanomechanical properties in constrained systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungk, John Michael

    2005-07-01

    The determination of mechanical properties in nanoscale geometries is becoming increasingly important as microsystem and integrated circuit technologies continue to mature. Many devices produced by these technologies are composed of materials with critical sample dimensions smaller than 100 nm. In microelectronics, this can be the thickness of a metallization or dielectric layer, while wear coatings on MEMS devices are frequently thinner than this length scale. Since structures of this type are susceptible to plasticity and fracture as a result of either contact or residual stresses, it is critical that the mechanical behavior of the individual components be well described. This thesis is directed at the development of methods for characterizing the mechanical properties in small volume systems. Using instrumented indentation techniques, typically called nanoindentation, a systematic study of the mechanical response of materials ranging from ductile metals to brittle ceramics was executed. More specifically, investigations into how single length scale approaches may be used to describe mechanical properties such as indentation hardening, ductile film delamination and strain energy release rates were performed. In addition, the acoustic energy released during the fracture of brittle ceramics was related to both stress intensity and a strain energy release rate. Finite element simulations of nanoindentation tests were performed using ABAQUS, a commercially available material modeling software program. These simulations were used to separate individual film and substrate responses from the experimentally observed film/substrate composite mechanical behavior. Finally, quasi-tribological experiments were performed to probe for transitions in friction or wear response as the local deformation varied from the nanoscale to the macroscale.

  11. Scale-up of two-phase flow in heterogeneous chalk. Matrix properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This investigation presents scale-up of a detailed heterogeneous geostatistical model to a full field reservoir simulation model, considering both single and two-phase flow properties. The model represents a typical low permeability Danish North Sea chalk reservoir and includes capillary pressure and saturation end-point variations. Two new up-scaling methods has been investigated, all based on fine scale simulation on a cross section of the geomodel. The first methods assumes piston style behaviour and a coupled viscosity is introduced into the basic Darcy`s equations. The second method is a modification of the JBN method traditionally applied in analysing results from core flooding experiments, which emerged as the most successful and therefore also the recommended method. 1. In addition to the up scaling work we review the Equivalent Radius Method for capillary pressure normalisation with explicit derivation of type functions for Maastrichtian and Danian chalk types. Implementation of the Equivalent Radiuo Method in the COSI reservoir simulator by an optikal set of key-words. There are six specific results from this work: 1. The equivalent radius method is robust to changes of scale and yields model initialisations by initial and irreducible water saturations on a full field simulation scale that agree well with values derived from averaging on a fine-scale. 2. The residual oil saturations are strongly scale dependent and the description of the residual oil as a function of the irreducible water is not applicable on a full field scale and will lead to an overestimation of the residual oil present in the reservoir. The effective residual oil saturations on a full field-scale must be considered functions of the effective initial water saturations, in order to take into account fine-scale variations in the oil/water contacts. 3. The effective permeability as calculated by statistical averages does not differ seriously from results obtained by fine-grid numerical

  12. Links between soil properties and steady-state solute transport through cultivated topsoil at the field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koestel, J. K.; Nørgaard, Trine; Loung, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that solute transport through soil is heterogeneous at all spatial scales. However, little data are available to allow quantification of these heterogeneities at the field scale or larger. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of soil properties, hydrologic state variabl...

  13. Scaling properties in the adsorption of ionic polymeric surfactants on generic nanoparticles of metallic oxides by mesoscopic simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoral, E

    2014-01-01

    We study the scaling of adsorption isotherms of polyacrylic dispersants on generic surfaces of metallic oxides $XnOm$ as a function of the number of monomeric units, using Electrostatic Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations. The simulations show how the scaling properties in these systems emerge and how the isotherms rescale to a universal curve, reproducing reported experimental results. The critical exponent for these systems is also obtained, in perfect agreement with the scaling theory of deGennes. Some important applications are mentioned.

  14. Consensus properties and their large-scale applications for the gene duplication problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jucheol; Lin, Harris T; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Solving the gene duplication problem is a classical approach for species tree inference from gene trees that are confounded by gene duplications. This problem takes a collection of gene trees and seeks a species tree that implies the minimum number of gene duplications. Wilkinson et al. posed the conjecture that the gene duplication problem satisfies the desirable Pareto property for clusters. That is, for every instance of the problem, all clusters that are commonly present in the input gene trees of this instance, called strict consensus, will also be found in every solution to this instance. We prove that this conjecture does not generally hold. Despite this negative result we show that the gene duplication problem satisfies a weaker version of the Pareto property where the strict consensus is found in at least one solution (rather than all solutions). This weaker property contributes to our design of an efficient scalable algorithm for the gene duplication problem. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm in analyzing large-scale empirical datasets. Finally, we utilize the algorithm to evaluate the accuracy of standard heuristics for the gene duplication problem using simulated datasets.

  15. The Children’s Behavior Questionnaire very short scale: Psychometric properties and development of a one-item temperament scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little research has been conducted on the psychometrics of the very short scale (36 items) of the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire, and no one-item temperament scale has been tested for use in applied work. In this study, 237 United States caregivers completed a survey to define their child’s behav...

  16. Measuring feedback from clients. The psychometric properties of the Dutch Outcome Rating Scale and Session rating Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, P.D.; Boezen-Hilberdink, L.; Dijk, M.K. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment results can be improved by obtaining feedback from clients concerning their progress during therapy and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. This feedback can be rated using short instruments such as the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS), which are being

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish University Students, Correctional Officers, and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Mithat; Senol-Durak, Emre; Gencoz, Tulin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to extensively examine the psychometric properties of adapted version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in different Turkish samples. In order to test the psychometric properties of the SWLS three separate and independent samples are utilized in this study, namely university students (n = 547), correctional officers (n =…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Patient Self-Advocacy Scale: The Persian Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaghayegh Vahdat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advances in science and technology and the changes in lifestyle have changed the concept of health in terms of etiology and mortality. The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the original Patient Self-Advocacy Scale for use with an Iranian population. Methods: In the current study, 50 chronic patients between the ages of 25 and 75 were selected as samples. This study was conducted in May 2013 at Bou Ali Sina Hospital in Sari. The translation process and cultural adaptation of the Patient Self-Advocacy Scale were conducted. The face validity and content validity of the instrument were formally verified by analyzing the feedback of patients and health professionals. In order to evaluate questionnaire’s reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated for each item and each domain; and the Cronbach’s alpha was calculated for the entire instruments and each domain. Results: Of the 50 patients participating in the study, 36% were male and 64% were female. The mean age of the patients was 42.5. To comply with the Iranian culture and the study target population, slight changes were applied to the process of translation and validation. In the present study, intraclass correlation coefficient for each item was 0.8-1, which demonstrates excellent reliability of the questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.75 for overall scale. Conclusion: The Persian version of Patient Self-Advocacy Scale was valid and reliable. Hence, it can be used by public health researchers and health system policy makers for programming and offering patient-oriented health services based on patients’ comments, needs, and preferences.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Batista Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20. RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17, with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03. When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3 or absence (score < 3 of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002, depressive symptoms (p = 0.000, and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors. In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69 and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0

  1. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Raquel Batista; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp) statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20). RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17), with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03). When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3) or absence (score < 3) of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002), depressive symptoms (p = 0.000), and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors). In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69) and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0.92). CONCLUSIONS

  2. Psychometric properties of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Kazdin, Alan E; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-08-01

    Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies (BTPS-exp), in terms of consistency, structure, parent-child agreement, and validity. The authors obtained data via questionnaires on 1,382 Dutch children aged 4-18 years (response rate 56.6%) enrolled in psychosocial care, and on 666 children (response rate 70.3%) from the community. Internal consistencies of the BTPS-exp total and subscales of both versions were good (lowest Cronbach's alpha = .85). Fit of the data with the assumed scale structure was acceptable. Correlation coefficients between the parent and adolescent scores were low (Pearson's r total scale = 0.25). Parents expecting multiple barriers was significantly more likely in non-Dutch ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1, 1.9]), in lower parental educational levels (primary education: OR = 3.0; 95% CI [1.5, 6.1]; lower-level secondary education: OR = 2.0; 95% CI [1.3, 3.1], both vs. university), in single parent families (1.3; 1.1-1.6), in case of child psychosocial problems (OR = 1.3; 95% CI [1.0, 1.5]) and in adolescents with psychosocial problems (OR = 2.1; 95% CI [1.4, 3.1]). Expecting multiple barriers did not affect the association between psychosocial problems and care enrollment. The authors conclude that the BTPS-exp has good psychometric properties regarding reliability and structure and is reasonably valid. Parents and adolescents have their own separate views, implying that it is valuable to assess both. Use of the scale might be helpful in providing direction to improve access to psychosocial care for children and adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire-Scale Immunoglobulin Properties in Vaccine-Induced B-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja V. Khavrutskii

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 103–105 sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them. To date, most immunosequencing analyses have focused on reporting qualitative trends in immunoglobulin (Ig properties, such as usage or somatic hypermutation (SHM percentage of the Ig heavy chain variable (IGHV gene segment family, and on reducing complex Ig property distributions to simple summary statistics. However, because Ig properties are typically not normally distributed, any approach that fails to assess the distribution as a whole may be inadequate in (1 properly assessing the statistical significance of repertoire differences, (2 identifying how two repertoires differ, and (3 determining appropriate confidence intervals for assessing the size of the differences and their potential biological relevance. To address these issues, we have developed a technique that uses Wilcox’ robust statistics toolbox to identify statistically significant vaccine-specific differences between Ig repertoire properties. The advantage of this technique is that it can determine not only whether but also where the distributions differ, even when the Ig repertoire properties are non-normally distributed. We used this technique to characterize murine germinal center (GC B-cell repertoires in response to a complex Ebola virus-like particle (eVLP vaccine candidate with known protective efficacy. The eVLP-mediated GC B-cell responses were highly diverse, consisting of thousands of clonotypes. Despite this staggering diversity, we identified statistically

  4. Geostatistical analysis of soil properties at field scale using standardized data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, H.; Tarquis, A. M.; Pérez, L. D.; Matos, J.; González-Posada, M.

    2012-04-01

    -regionalization between different soil properties, which is of interest for delineating management zones within sugarcane fields. Cross-semivariograms showed larger correlation ranges than individual, univariate, semivariograms (A 29 m). All the findings were supported by multivariate spatial analysis, which showed the influence of soil tillage operations, harvesting machinery and irrigation water distribution on the status of the investigated area. Reference Millán, H., Tarquis, A.M.; Pérez, L.D.; Mato, J. and González-Posada, M. Spatial variability patterns of some Vertisol properties at a field scale using standardized data. Soil & Tillage Research, doi:10.1016/j.still.2011.11.003, 2012 (in press). Acknowledgements Funding provided by CEIGRAM (Research Centre for the Management of Agricultural and Environmental Risks) and by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  5. Pore-scaling Modeling of Physical Property Changes During CO2 Injection into Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehm, Y.; Yoo, G.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be an important factor in global warming and climate change. Many countries around the world are working on reducing and sequestrating CO2 to follow international regulations. One of promising area for CO2 sequestration is the storage in geological formation. To accurately determine the performance of geological injection and storage, quantification and monitoring of the physical property changes are essential. In this paper, we are presenting a new approach for the monitoring of CO2 sequestration in sandstone using pore-scale simulation techniques. The method consists of three steps: 1) acquisition of high-resolution pore microstructures by X-ray micro-tomography; 2) CO2 injection simulation using lattice-Boltzmann (LB) two-phase flow simulation; and 3) FEM property simulations (electrical and elastic) at different CO2 saturations during the injection. We use three different sandstone samples: sand-pack, Berea sandstone, and B2 sandstone from offshore of Korea. The porosity of the sand-pack is 42% and that of two sandstone samples is around 17%. The digital pore structures were obtained by X-ray micro-tomography with a spatial resolution of 2 micron. The LB two-phase flow simulation is then conducted by injecting CO2 into fully water-saturated samples and gives a realistic movement of CO2 in the pore structure. At each CO2 saturation, electrical and elastic properties are determined by pore-scale FEM simulation techniques. The electrical conductivity decreases almost linearly as CO2 saturations increases; however, the P-wave velocity decrease more rapidly at the low CO2 saturation (up to 30%), than at higher saturation. S-wave velocity does not show any significant changes. The higher porosity rock shows more sensitivity to saturation changes. The modeling shows that we can have quantitative relations between physical properties and CO2 saturation, which can be used to determine injection performance and

  6. Dynamic scaling and optical properties of Zn(S, O,OH) thin film grown by chemical bath deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Li Bo-Yan; Dang Xiang-Yu; Wu Li; Jin Jing; Li Feng-Yan; Ao Jian-Ping; Sun Yun

    2011-01-01

    The scaling behavior and optical properties of Zn(S,O and OH) thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method were studied by combined roughness measurements,scanning electron microscopy and optical properties measurement.From the scaling behaviour,the value of growth scaling exponent β,0.38±0.06,was determined.This value indicated that the Zn(S,O,OH) film growth in the heterogeneous process was influenced by the surface diffusion and shadowing effect.Results of the optical properties measurements disclosed that the transmittance of the film was in the region of 70%-88% and the optical properties of the film grown for 40 min were better than those grown under other conditions.The energy band gap of the film deposited with 40 min was around 3.63 eV.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS-7) in Spanish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Alvarez, Piedad; Sicilia, Álvaro; González-Cutre, David; Ferriz, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish version of Motl and Conroy's model of the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS-7). To achieve this goal, a sample of 398 secondary school students was used, and the psychometric properties of the SPAS-7 were examined through different analyses. The results supported the seven-item model, although the item 5 did not show any significant correlation with two items from this model and had a lower factor loading than the rest of items. The structure of the model was invariant across gender and Body Mass Index (BMI). Alpha value over .70 and suitable levels of temporal stability were obtained. Girls and students classified according to the BMI as overweight and obese had higher scores in social physique anxiety than boys and the group classified as underweight and normal range. The findings of this study provided reliability and validity for the SPAS-7 in a Spanish adolescent sample.

  8. Large-scale identification of membrane proteins with properties favorable for crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jared; Kagawa, Allison; Kurasaki, Kellie; Ataie, Niloufar; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X; Ng, Ho Leung

    2015-11-01

    Membrane protein crystallography is notoriously difficult due to challenges in protein expression and issues of degradation and structural stability. We have developed a novel method for large-scale screening of native sources for integral membrane proteins that have intrinsic biochemical properties favorable for crystallization. Highly expressed membrane proteins that are thermally stable and nonaggregating in detergent solutions were identified by mass spectrometry from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sus scrofa cerebrum. Many of the membrane proteins identified had been crystallized previously, supporting the promise of the approach. Most identified proteins have known functions and include high-value targets such as transporters and ATPases. To validate the method, we recombinantly expressed and purified the yeast protein, Yop1, which is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum curvature. We demonstrate that Yop1 can be purified with the detergent dodecylmaltoside without aggregating.

  9. Effects of nano-scaled fish bone on the gelation properties of Alaska pollock surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2014-05-01

    Gelation properties of Alaska pollock surimi as affected by addition of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) at different levels (0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) were investigated. Breaking force and penetration distance of surimi gels after setting increased significantly as NFB concentration increased up to 1%. The first peak temperature and value of storage modulus (G'), which is known to relate to the unfolding and aggregation of light meromyosin, increased as NFB concentration increased. In addition, 1% NFB treatment demonstrated the highest G' after gelation was completed. The activity of endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) in Alaska pollock surimi increased as NFB calcium concentration increased. The intensity of myosin heavy chain cross-links also increased as NFB concentration increased indicating the formation of more ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine covalent bond by endogenous TGase and calcium ions from NFB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The core self-evaluation scale: psychometric properties of the german version in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger, Markus; Körner, Annett; Maier, Günter W; Hinz, Andreas; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Brähler, Elmar; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    The Core Self-Evaluation Scale (CSES) is an economical self-reporting instrument that assesses fundamental evaluations of self-worthiness and capabilities. The broad aims of this study were to test the CSES's psychometric properties. The study is based on a representative survey of the German general population. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for different models with 1, 2, and 4 latent factors. The CSES was found to be reliable and valid, as it correlated as expected with measures of depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-report health status, and pain. A 2-factor model with 2 related factors (r = -.62) showed the best model fit. Furthermore, the CSES was measurement invariant across gender and age. In general, males had higher values of positive self-evaluations and lower negative self-evaluations than females. It is concluded that the CSES is a useful tool for assessing resource-oriented personality constructs.

  11. Mechanical properties of granular materials: A variational approach to grain-scale simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-01-15

    The mechanical properties of cohesionless granular materials are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. A three-dimensional pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacements of its boundaries. The deformation is described as a sequence of equilibrium configurations. Each configuration is characterized by a minimum of the total potential energy. This minimum is computed using a modification of the conjugate gradient algorithm. Our simulations capture the nonlinear, path-dependent behavior of granular materials observed in experiments. Micromechanical analysis provides valuable insight into phenomena such as hysteresis, strain hardening and stress-induced anisotropy. Estimates of the effective bulk modulus, obtained with no adjustment of material parameters, are in agreement with published experimental data. The model is applied to evaluate the effects of hydrate dissociation in marine sediments. Weakening of the sediment is quantified as a reduction in the effective elastic moduli.

  12. Measuring Moral Injury: Psychometric Properties of the Moral Injury Events Scale in Two Military Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Bryan, AnnaBelle O; Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Green, Bradley A; Etienne, Neysa; Morrow, Chad E; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie

    2016-10-01

    As the construct of moral injury has gained increased conceptual and empirical attention among military personnel and veterans, preliminary attempts to operationalize and measure the construct have emerged. One such measure is the Moral Injury Event Scale (MIES). The aim of the current study was to further evaluate the MIES's psychometric properties in two military samples: a clinical sample of Air Force personnel and a nonclinical sample of Army National Guard personnel. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across both samples supported a three-factor solution: transgressions by others, transgressions by self, and betrayal. Transgressions-Others was most strongly associated with posttraumatic stress; Transgressions-Self was most strongly associated with hopelessness, pessimism, and anger; and Betrayal was most strongly associated with posttraumatic stress and anger. Results support the construct validity of the MIES, although areas for improvement are indicated and discussed.

  13. Polish Version of the Managing the Emotions of Others Scale (MEOS): Psychometric Properties and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Konrad S; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Stolarski, Maciej; Styła, Rafał; Zajenkowska, Anna; Jędrasik-Styła, Małgorzata; Linke, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the managing the emotions of others scale (MEOS). MEOS consists of six dimensions: mood enhancing (Enhance), mood worsening (Worsen), concealing emotions from others (Conceal), use of inauthentic displays for self-serving purposes (Inauthentic), poor emotion skills (Poor skills), and use of diversion to enhance another's mood (Divert). The results showed that among MEOS dimensions, Enhance was the most strongly related to performance-based emotional intelligence. Among the Dark Triad, Narcissism was related to the greatest number of MEOS subscales-all except Poor skills. The results indicated that the MEOS has a similar factor structure, reliability, and pattern of correlations with personality and emotional intelligence in Poland as in previous studies.

  14. Scaling properties of SU(2) gauge theory with mixed fundamental-adjoint action

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, Enrico; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We study the phase diagram of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory with fundamental-adjoint Wilson plaquette action. We confirm the presence of a first order bulk phase transition and we estimate the location of its end-point in the bare parameter space. If this point is second order, the theory is one of the simplest realizations of a lattice gauge theory admitting a continuum limit at finite bare couplings. All the relevant gauge observables are monitored in the vicinity of the fixed point with very good control over finite-size effects. The scaling properties of the low-lying glueball spectrum are studied while approaching the end-point in a controlled manner.

  15. Effects of Atomic-Scale Structure on the Fracture Properties of Amorphous Carbon - Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Benjamin D.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Odegard, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    The fracture of carbon materials is a complex process, the understanding of which is critical to the development of next generation high performance materials. While quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are the most accurate way to model fracture, the fracture behavior of many carbon-based composite engineering materials, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) composites, is a multi-scale process that occurs on time and length scales beyond the practical limitations of QM methods. The Reax Force Field (ReaxFF) is capable of predicting mechanical properties involving strong deformation, bond breaking and bond formation in the classical molecular dynamics framework. This has been achieved by adding to the potential energy function a bond-order term that varies continuously with distance. The use of an empirical bond order potential, such as ReaxFF, enables the simulation of failure in molecular systems that are several orders of magnitude larger than would be possible in QM techniques. In this work, the fracture behavior of an amorphous carbon (AC) matrix reinforced with CNTs was modeled using molecular dynamics with the ReaxFF reactive forcefield. Care was taken to select the appropriate simulation parameters, which can be different from those required when using traditional fixed-bond force fields. The effect of CNT arrangement was investigated with three systems: a single-wall nanotube (SWNT) array, a multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) array, and a SWNT bundle system. For each arrangement, covalent bonds are added between the CNTs and AC, with crosslink fractions ranging from 0-25% of the interfacial CNT atoms. The SWNT and MWNT array systems represent ideal cases with evenly spaced CNTs; the SWNT bundle system represents a more realistic case because, in practice, van der Waals interactions lead to the agglomeration of CNTs into bundles. The simulation results will serve as guidance in setting experimental processing conditions to optimize the mechanical properties of CNT

  16. The suicide assessment scale: Psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koldsland Bjørn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales are valuable tools in suicide research and can also be useful supplements to the clinical interview in suicide risk assessments. This study describes the psychometric properties of a Norwegian language version of the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version (SUAS-S. Methods Participants were fifty-two patients (mean age = 39.3 years, SD = 10.7 with major depression (53.8%, bipolar disorder (25.0% and/or a personality disorder (63.5% referred to a psychiatric outpatient clinic. The SUAS-S, the screening section of the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS-5, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (BHS, the Symptom Check-List-90 R (SCL-90R and the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality (CGI-SS were administered. One week later, the patients completed the SUAS-S a second time. Results Cronbach’s alpha for SUAS-S was 0.88 and the test–retest reliability was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93– 0.97. SUAS-S was positively correlated with the BSS-5 (r = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.85 for the study sample as a whole and for the suicidal (r = 0.52 and non-suicidal groups (r = 0.50 respectively. There was no difference between the SUAS-S and the BSS-5 in the ability to identify suicidality. This ability was more pronounced when the suicide risk was high. There was a substantial intercorrelation between the score on the SUAS-S and the BDI (0.81 and the BHS (0.76. The sensitivity and specificity of the SUAS-S was explored and an appropriate clinical cut-off value was assessed. Conclusions The study revealed good internal consistency, test–retest reliability and concurrent validity for the Suicide Assessment Scale Self-report version. The discriminatory ability for suicidality was comparable to that of the BSS-5.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Wen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; McCreary, Linda L; Yao, Grace; Brooks, Beth A

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we developed and tested the psychometric properties of the Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale along seven subscales: supportive milieu with security and professional recognition, work arrangement and workload, work/home life balance, head nurse's/supervisor's management style, teamwork and communication, nursing staffing and patient care, and milieu of respect and autonomy. An instrument-development procedure with three phases was conducted in seven hospitals in 2010-2011. Phase I comprised translation and the cultural-adaptation process, phase II comprised a pilot study, and phase III comprised a field-testing process. Purposive sampling was used in the pilot study (n = 150) and the large field study (n = 1254). Five new items were added, and 85.7% of the original items were retained in the 41 item Chinese version. Principal component analysis revealed that a model accounted for 56.6% of the variance with acceptable internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity. This study gave evidence of reliability and validity of the 41 item Chinese-version Quality of Nursing Work Life Scale.

  18. Exploring psychometric properties of the interdisciplinary education perception scale in health graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a measure of perceptions of collaboration, the original psychometric testing of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) indicated a four-factor solution to this measure, although subsequent research has suggested a three-factor solution may have better fit indices. This study aimed to better understand psychometric properties of the IEPS in a new population, health graduate students in the United States, to determine which sub-scale structure may be a better fit. Additionally this research explores the IEPS through a targeted literature review and content analysis in combination with factor analysis to better understand what constructs are able to be assessed by this measure. Results showed that the three-factor model was the best fitting model for the IEPS, suggesting this structure should be used when looking at graduate-level health students. Results also suggested that the IEPS may be able to be as a measure of perceived professional prestige, for which there is currently no existing measure. The dimension of professional prestige should be explored in further research to create a more robust understanding of its role in collaboration between professions.

  19. The size distribution, scaling properties and spatial organization of urban clusters: a global and regional perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo García Cantú; Zhou, Bin; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Human development has far-reaching impacts on the surface of the globe. The transformation of natural land cover occurs in different forms and urban growth is one of the most eminent transformative processes. We analyze global land cover data and extract cities as defined by maximally connected urban clusters. The analysis of the city size distribution for all cities on the globe confirms Zipf's law. Moreover, by investigating the percolation properties of the clustering of urban areas we assess the closeness to criticality for various countries. At the critical thresholds, the urban land cover of the countries undergoes a transition from separated clusters to a gigantic component on the country scale. We study the Zipf-exponents as a function of the closeness to percolation and find a systematic decrease with increasing scale, which could be the reason for deviating exponents reported in literature. Moreover, we investigate the average size of the clusters as a function of the proximity to percolation and fi...

  20. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). A sample of 1,806 high-school students between the ages of 13 and 18 years, recruited in 6 Italian cities, completed the A-DES. The A-DES showed high internal consistency, excellent item-to-scale homogeneity, good split-half reliability, and a single-factor structure. The scores of the Italian adolescents were comparable to those found in previous research with the measure. No gender differences were found in mean A-DES scores, but boys and girls showed different patterns of responses on A-DES items. Age differences were also found, with 13- and 18-year-old students scoring higher on the measure than the other participants. A cluster analysis showed that participants could be consistently grouped into 2 clusters of low- and high-dissociative adolescents. This study supports the A-DES as a reliable and valid screening measure for dissociative symptoms in adolescents.

  1. Scaling Properties of Dimensionality Reduction for Neural Populations and Network Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Williamson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have applied dimensionality reduction methods to understand how the multi-dimensional structure of neural population activity gives rise to brain function. It is unclear, however, how the results obtained from dimensionality reduction generalize to recordings with larger numbers of neurons and trials or how these results relate to the underlying network structure. We address these questions by applying factor analysis to recordings in the visual cortex of non-human primates and to spiking network models that self-generate irregular activity through a balance of excitation and inhibition. We compared the scaling trends of two key outputs of dimensionality reduction-shared dimensionality and percent shared variance-with neuron and trial count. We found that the scaling properties of networks with non-clustered and clustered connectivity differed, and that the in vivo recordings were more consistent with the clustered network. Furthermore, recordings from tens of neurons were sufficient to identify the dominant modes of shared variability that generalize to larger portions of the network. These findings can help guide the interpretation of dimensionality reduction outputs in regimes of limited neuron and trial sampling and help relate these outputs to the underlying network structure.

  2. Full-scale computation for all the thermoelectric property parameters of half-Heusler compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, A J; Li, L; He, R; Gong, J J; Yan, Z B; Wang, K F; Liu, J-M; Ren, Z F

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of materials relies substantially on the band structures that determine the electronic and phononic transports, while the transport behaviors compete and counter-act for the power factor PF and figure-of-merit ZT. These issues make a full-scale computation of the whole set of thermoelectric parameters particularly attractive, while a calculation scheme of the electronic and phononic contributions to thermal conductivity remains yet challenging. In this work, we present a full-scale computation scheme based on the first-principles calculations by choosing a set of doped half-Heusler compounds as examples for illustration. The electronic structure is computed using the WIEN2k code and the carrier relaxation times for electrons and holes are calculated using the Bardeen and Shockley's deformation potential (DP) theory. The finite-temperature electronic transport is evaluated within the framework of Boltzmann transport theory. In sequence, the density functional perturbation combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation and the Klemens' equation is implemented for calculating the lattice thermal conductivity of carrier-doped thermoelectric materials such as Ti-doped NbFeSb compounds without losing a generality. The calculated results show good agreement with experimental data. The present methodology represents an effective and powerful approach to calculate the whole set of thermoelectric properties for thermoelectric materials.

  3. Large-scale synthesis and surface plasmon resonance properties of angled silver/silver homojunction nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xuandi; Feng, Xiumei; Zhang, Menghuan; Hong, Ruijin; Chen, Yongxiang; Li, Aiqing; Deng, Xiulong; Hu, Jianqiang

    2014-03-01

    Angled silver/silver (Ag/Ag) homojunction nanowires (HNWs) with an average diameter of about 72 nm have been prepared by a straightforward and effective solvothermal method. The synthesis involves a one-step, non-seed, and template-less process to large-scale Ag/Ag HNWs, which is low-cost and proceeds at moderate temperatures. Two neighboring Ag nanorods or nanowires were connected into obtuse angle by Ag/Ag homojunction. It was found that synthesizing Ag/Ag HNWs were very sensitive to reaction temperature and polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration. Only through finely controlling these reaction parameters, the high-quality Ag/Ag HNWs could be formed in large scale and their surface plasmon resonance properties could be effectively tailored. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction investigations showed that the Ag/Ag HNWs were generated with a twinned crystalline structure. We also proposed a primary experimental model to illustrate the growth mechanism of the angled Ag/Ag HNWs.

  4. Scaling properties and universality of first-passage-time probabilities in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló, Josep; Gutiérrez-Roig, Mario; Masoliver, Jaume

    2011-12-01

    Financial markets provide an ideal frame for the study of crossing or first-passage time events of non-Gaussian correlated dynamics, mainly because large data sets are available. Tick-by-tick data of six futures markets are herein considered, resulting in fat-tailed first-passage time probabilities. The scaling of the return with its standard deviation collapses the probabilities of all markets examined—and also for different time horizons—into single curves, suggesting that first-passage statistics is market independent (at least for high-frequency data). On the other hand, a very closely related quantity, the survival probability, shows, away from the center and tails of the distribution, a hyperbolic t-1/2 decay typical of a Markovian dynamics, albeit the existence of memory in markets. Modifications of the Weibull and Student distributions are good candidates for the phenomenological description of first-passage time properties under certain regimes. The scaling strategies shown may be useful for risk control and algorithmic trading.

  5. Global-scale predictions of community and ecosystem properties from simple ecological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Simon; Mélin, Frédéric; Blanchard, Julia L; Forster, Rodney M; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Wilson, Rod W

    2008-06-22

    We show how theoretical developments in macroecology, life-history theory and food-web ecology can be combined to formulate a simple model for predicting the potential biomass, production, size and trophic structure of consumer communities. The strength of our approach is that it uses remote sensing data to predict properties of consumer communities in environments that are challenging and expensive to sample directly. An application of the model to the marine environment on a global scale, using primary production and temperature estimates from satellite remote sensing as inputs, suggests that the global biomass of marine animals more than 10(-5) g wet weight is 2.62 x 10(9)t (=8.16 gm(-2) ocean) and production is 1.00 x 10(10) tyr-1 (31.15 gm(-2)yr(-1)). Based on the life-history theory, we propose and apply an approximation for distinguishing the relative contributions of different animal groups. Fish biomass and production, for example, are estimated as 8.99 x 10(8)t (2.80 gm(-2)) and 7.91 x 108 t yr(-1) (2.46 gm(2)yr(-1)respectively, and 50% of fish biomass is shown to occur in 17% of the total ocean area (8.22 gm(-2)). The analyses show that emerging ecological theory can be synthesized to set baselines for assessing human and climate impacts on global scales.

  6. Scale-dependent analyses of precipitation forecasts and cloud properties using the Dynamic State Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Névir Claussnitzer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is a scale-dependent analysis of precipitation forecasts of the German Weather Service's (DWD non-hydrostatic Lokal-Modell (LM, COSMO-DE with regard to dynamical-statistical parameters and cloud properties. We propose a newly designed Dynamic State Index (DSI to evaluate precipitation processes. The DSI is presented in the context of a case study in the synoptic scale and in a statistical approach. The DSI quantitatively describes the deviation from a stationary, adiabatic and reversible solution of the primitive equations. As demonstrated by the example of the winter storm "Kyrill", the analysis of the vertical structure of the DSI gives a relation to the IPV-Thinking, introduced by Hoskins et al. (1985. Furthermore, the DSI-pattern features the characteristic filament-like structure of rainbands with embedded convective cells. In a next step the DSI is not only correlated with modelled precipitation but also with observed precipitation as well as cloud types. The absolute value of the DSI shows moderate correlations with hourly LM and high correlations with hourly COSMO-DE forecast data, based on 24 hour predictions. The statistical analysis of clouds with the index reveals a DSI-threshold, which is used to introduce a novel precipitation activity index of different cloud classes. In conclusion, the results highlight the importance of dynamical processes for the generation of rainfall.

  7. Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Diskin, G. S.; Evans, Stuart; Lawson, Paul; Marchand, Roger

    2014-04-16

    In situ microphysical observations 3 of mid-latitude cirrus collected during the Department of Energy Small Particles in Cirrus (SPAR-TICUS) field campaign are combined with an atmospheric state classification for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site to understand statistical relationships between cirrus microphysics and the large-scale meteorology. The atmospheric state classification is informed about the large-scale meteorology and state of cloudiness at the ARM SGP site by combining ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis data with 14 years of continuous observations from the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar. Almost half of the cirrus cloud occurrences in the vicinity of the ARM SGP site during SPARTICUS can be explained by three distinct synoptic condi- tions, namely upper-level ridges, mid-latitude cyclones with frontal systems and subtropical flows. Probability density functions (PDFs) of cirrus micro- physical properties such as particle size distributions (PSDs), ice number con- centrations and ice water content (IWC) are examined and exhibit striking differences among the different synoptic regimes. Generally, narrower PSDs with lower IWC but higher ice number concentrations are found in cirrus sam- pled in upper-level ridges whereas cirrus sampled in subtropical flows, fronts and aged anvils show broader PSDs with considerably lower ice number con- centrations but higher IWC. Despite striking contrasts in the cirrus micro- physics for different large-scale environments, the PDFs of vertical velocity are not different, suggesting that vertical velocity PDFs are a poor predic-tor for explaining the microphysical variability in cirrus. Instead, cirrus mi- crophysical contrasts may be driven by differences in ice supersaturations or aerosols.

  8. Exploration of photonic crystal circulator based on gyromagnetic properties and scaling of ferrite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, C.; sundar, D. Shanmuga; Raja, A. Sivanantha

    2017-01-01

    Three port optical circulators are designed predicated on two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystals and examined with different size of regular (circular) and irregular (triangular) ferrite posts, through the structure optimization and exploration of defect mode coupling. Ferrite, a special type of highly permeable and low-loss magnetic material, which is anisotropic when biased by a much larger static magnetic field is modeled and the gyromagnetic property of the same is investigated. According to theoretical analysis, the optimized geometry structure can make the non-reciprocal transmission of electromagnetic waves accompanying a high caliber isolation and low insertion loss with the avail of ferrite post inserted at the center of the joint. In order to minimize the reflections in the isolated port at the nominal frequencies, the scaling of ferrite post is implemented by defining S parameter. The structural optimization and the calculation of tensor elements of the anisotropic medium is executed by the finite element method. Moreover, the further study shows the importance of scaling the magneto-photonic material and the way it affects the transmission and isolation of the structured contrivance. Numerical simulations are performed to manifest the attainability and the characteristics of the designed circulators. Finally the triangular ferrite post with the scale of 0.518 makes the non-reciprocal transmission of electromagnetic waves with the minimum insertion loss at the normalized frequency range of 191.6 GHz which benefits from a broad operational bandwidth. This optimized device can realize the operations of splitting, routing and isolation and have good technological compatibility for chip level integration into Photonic Integrated Circuits.

  9. Assessing midwives' breastfeeding knowledge: Properties of the Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantrill Ruth M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few reliable and valid tools to assess lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practices. This study tested the psychometric properties of two new scales, the Newborn Feeding Ability (NFA questionnaire and Breastfeeding Initiation Practices (BIP scale to assess midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and practices specific to breastfeeding initiation. Methods A national postal survey of Australian midwives (n = 3500 was conducted in October 2001. Reliability was determined through Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability determined by a test-retest. Content validity was established through a critical review of literature and review by an expert panel. Construct validity was informed by an exploratory factor analysis and principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Correlations between NFA and BKQ knowledge subscale scores and BIP and BKQ practice subscale scores assessed criterion validity. A multiple hierarchical regression analysis determined predictive validity of the NFA and BIP. Results A response rate of 31.6% (n = 1107 was achieved. Adequate internal consistency was established for both instruments. Five factors on the NFA questionnaire were congruent with knowledge about effects of skin-to-skin contact, physiological stability, newborn innate abilities, work practices and effective breastfeeding. The BIP revealed three factors related to observing pre-feeding behavior, mother/baby care and attachment and positioning practices. Predictive validity of knowledge was moderate (r = 0.481, p Conclusion The Newborn Feeding Ability questionnaire and the Breastfeeding Initiation Practices scale can contribute to practice development by assessing lactation and infant feeding knowledge and practice deficits. Individual learning needs can be identified, and effectiveness of education interventions evaluated using these tools. Further testing is required with other samples of midwives and health professionals

  10. Psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, C-Y; Tsai, Y-F; Kao, Y-C

    2013-12-01

    Empathy is central to a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. Valid and reliable Chinese instruments to assess nursing students' empathy are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students (C-JSE-HPS) among Taiwanese undergraduate nursing students. A convenience sample of 613 Taiwanese nursing students participated in the study. Content validity, construct validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were examined. Content validity was confirmed by a content validity index of 0.89. Factor analysis yielded three components of perspective taking, compassionate care and standing in the patient's shoes, explaining 57.14% of total variance. Women scored higher on empathy than men. Also, students who were enrolled in the 4-year Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) indicated greater empathy degrees than those in the 2-year Registered Nurse to Bachelor of Science in Nursing (RN-to-BSN). Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.92 respectively. A C-JSE-HPS demonstrated satisfactory psychometric properties to measure empathy of undergraduate nursing students. Educators may use this instrument to assess empathic qualities among students and design effective empathy-oriented nursing curricula to improve the quality of nursing care.

  11. Energy Dependence and Scaling Property of Localization Length near a Gapped Flat Band

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Li

    2015-01-01

    Using a tight-binding model for a one-dimensional Lieb lattice, we show that the localization length near a gapped flat band behaves differently from the typical Urbach tail in a band gap: instead of reducing monotonically as the energy E moves away from the flat band energy E_{FB}, the presence of the flat band causes a nonmonotonic energy dependence of the localization length. This energy dependence follows a scaling property when the energy is within the spread (W) of uniformly distributed diagonal disorder, i.e. the localization length is only a function of (E-E_{FB})/W. Several other lattices are compared to distinguish the effect of the flat band on the localization length, where we eliminate, shift, or duplicate the flat band, without changing the dispersion relations of other bands. Using the top right element of the Green's matrix, we derive an analytical relation between the density of states and the localization length, which shines light on these properties of the latter, including a summation rul...

  12. Scaling properties of information-theoretic quantities in density functional reactivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Chunying; Lu, Tian; Ayers, Paul W; Chattaraj, Pratim K; Liu, Shubin

    2015-02-21

    Density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) employs the electron density and its related quantities to describe reactivity properties of a molecular system. Quantities from information theory such as Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and Ghosh-Berkowitz-Parr entropy are natural descriptors within the DFRT framework. They have been previously employed to quantify electrophilicity, nucleophilicity and the steric effect. In this work, we examine their scaling properties with respect to the total number of electrons. To that end, we considered their representations in terms of both the electron density and the shape function for isolated atoms and neutral molecules. We also investigated their atomic behaviors in different molecules with three distinct partitioning schemes: Bader's zero-flux, Becke's fuzzy atom, and Hirshfeld's stockholder partitioning. Strong linear relationships of these quantities as a function of the total electron population are reported for atoms, molecules, and atoms in molecules. These relationships reveal how these information-theoretic quantities depend on the molecular environment and the electron population. These trends also indicate how these quantities can be used to explore chemical reactivity for real chemical processes.

  13. Active microrheology determines scale-dependent material properties of Chaetopterus mucus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, W. J.; Messmore, A.; Tu, J.; Morales-Sanz, A.; Blair, D. L.; Deheyn, D. D.; Urbach, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the lengthscale-dependent rheological properties of mucus from the ubiquitous Chaetopterus marine worm. We use optically trapped probes (2–10 μm) to induce microscopic strains and measure the stress response as a function of oscillation amplitude. Our results show that viscoelastic properties are highly dependent on strain scale (l), indicating three distinct lengthscale-dependent regimes at l1 ≤4 μm, l2≈4–10 μm, and l3≥10 μm. While mucus response is similar to water for l1, suggesting that probes rarely contact the mucus mesh, the response for l2 is distinctly more viscous and independent of probe size, indicative of continuum mechanics. Only for l3 does the response match the macroscopic elasticity, likely due to additional stiffer constraints that strongly resist probe displacement. Our results suggest that, rather than a single lengthscale governing crossover from viscous to elastic, mucus responds as a hierarchical network with a loose biopolymer mesh coupled to a larger scaffold responsible for macroscopic gel-like mechanics. PMID:28562662

  14. Small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere. II. Lifetime, total energy, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, N.; Haberreiter, M.; Hansteen, V.; Schmutz, W.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Small-scale heating events (SSHEs) are believed to play a fundamental role in understanding the process responsible for heating of the solar corona, the pervading redshifts in the transition region, and the acceleration of spicules. Aims: We determine the properties of the SSHEs and the atmospheric response to them in 3D magnetohydrodynamics (3D-MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Methods: We developed a method for identifying and following SSHEs over their lifetime, and applied it to two simulation models. We identified the locations where the energy dissipation is greatest inside the SSHEs volume, and we traced the SSHEs by following the spatial and temporal evolution of the maximum energy dissipation inside the SSHEs volume. Results: The method is effective in following the SSHEs. We can determine their lifetime, total energy, and properties of the plasma, as well as the magnetic field orientation in the vicinity of the SSHEs. Conclusions: We determine that the SSHEs that have the potential to heat the corona live less than 4 min, and typically the energy they release ranges from 1020 to 1024 erg. In addition, the directional change of the field lines on the two sides of the current sheet constituting the SSHEs ranges from 5° to 15° at the moment of the absolute maximum energy dissipation.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale in policewomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 is one of most widely used instruments to measure a global level of perceived stress in a range of clinical and research settings. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 in policewomen. METHODOLOGY: A total of 240 policewomen were recruited in this study. The Simplified Chinese versions of the PSS-10, the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI were administered to all participants, and 36 of the participants were re-tested two weeks after the initial testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.86, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was 0.68. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 4.76 and 1.48, accounting for 62.41% of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "negative feelings"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "positive feelings". The item loadings ranged from 0.72 to 0.83. The Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated a very good fit of this two-factor model to this sample. The PSS-10 significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI, indicating an acceptable concurrent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The Simplified Chinese version of the PSS-10 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties for evaluating stress levels. The results support its use among the Chinese population.

  16. Dimensionality and scale properties of the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the DiaDDzoB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Victor JM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a common complication in type 2 diabetes (DM2, affecting 10-30% of patients. Since depression is underrecognized and undertreated, it is important that reliable and validated depression screening tools are available for use in patients with DM2. The Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS is a widely used method for screening depression. However, there is still debate about the dimensionality of the test. Furthermore, the EDS was originally developed to screen for depression in postpartum women. Empirical evidence that the EDS has comparable measurement properties in both males and females suffering from diabetes is lacking however. Methods In a large sample (N = 1,656 of diabetes patients, we examined: (1 dimensionality; (2 gender-related item bias; and (3 the screening properties of the EDS using factor analysis and item response theory. Results We found evidence that the ten EDS items constitute a scale that is essentially one dimensional and has adequate measurement properties. Three items showed differential item functioning (DIF, two of them showed substantial DIF. However, at the scale level, DIF had no practical impact. Anhedonia (the inability to be able to laugh or enjoy and sleeping problems were the most informative indicators for being able to differentiate between the diagnostic groups of mild and severe depression. Conclusions The EDS constitutes a sound scale for measuring an attribute of general depression. Persons can be reliably measured using the sum score. Screening rules for mild and severe depression are applicable to both males and females.

  17. Measurement properties of the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS in an elderly population in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagerström Cecilia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insomnia is common among elderly people and associated with poor health. The Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale (MISS is a three item screening instrument that has been found to be psychometrically sound and capable of identifying insomnia in the general population (20-64 years. However, its measurement properties have not been studied in an elderly population. Our aim was to test the measurement properties of the MISS among people aged 65 + in Sweden, by replicating the original study in an elderly sample. Methods Data from a cross-sectional survey of 548 elderly individuals were analysed in terms of assumptions of summation of items, floor/ceiling effects, reliability and optimal cut-off score by means of ROC-curve analysis and compared with self-reported insomnia criteria. Results Corrected item-total correlations ranged between 0.64-0.70, floor/ceiling effects were 6.6/0.6% and reliability was 0.81. ROC analysis identified the optimal cut-off score as ≥7 (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.84; positive/negative predictive values, 0.256/0.995. Using this cut-off score, the prevalence of insomnia in the study sample was 21.7% and most frequent among women and the oldest old. Conclusions Data support the measurement properties of the MISS as a possible insomnia screening instrument for elderly persons. This study make evident that the MISS is useful for identifying elderly people with insomnia-like sleep problems. Further studies are needed to assess its usefulness in identifying clinically defined insomnia.

  18. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM‐5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED‐A). The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED‐A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM‐5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  20. Effects of dune stabilization on vegetation characteristics and soil properties at multiple scales in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoAn Zuo; XueYong Zhao; ShaoKun Wang; Xin Zhou; Peng Lv; Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Ecological patterns and processes in dune ecosystems have been a research focus in recent years, however information on how dune stabilization influences vegetation and soil at different spatial scales is still lacking. In this study, we measured vegetation characteristics and soil properties across three spatial scales (10, 100 and 1,000 m2) along gradient dune stabi-lization stages (mobile dune, semi-fixed dune and fixed dune) in Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China. Vegetation cover over all scales significantly increased with degree of dune stabilization, as well as species richness and C/N ratio at 10 m2 scale. Species richness significantly increased with the increase in measured scales at each stage of dune stabilization and was higher in fixed dune than that in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune at 100 and 1,000 m2 scales. Over all scales, aboveground biomass was lower in mobile dune than that in semi-fixed dune and fixed dune, and soil organic C, total N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay contents were higher in fixed dune than those in mobile dune and semi-fixed dune. These results suggest that along the gradient dune stabilization, species richness has strong spatial scale-dependence, but vege-tation cover, aboveground biomass and soil properties is generally scale independent (i.e., the pattern of response is con-sistent across all scales). Effect of dune stabilization on vegetation and soil over all spatial scales results in the positive correlation among vegetation cover, species richness, biomass, soil organic C, total N, C/N, EC, very fine sand and silt+clay along the gradient dune stabilization. In addition, species richness at the smallest scale (10 m2) has more sensitive response to dune stabilization. Thus, the monitoring strategies at small scales are essential to detect changes of species diversity in semiarid dune ecosystems.

  1. Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale : A Rasch Rating Scale Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pilatti, Angela; Lozano Rojas, Oscar Martín; Cyders, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in a sample of college students. Participants were 318 college students (36.2% men; mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 6.4 years). The psychometric properties of this Spanish version were analyzed using the Rasch model, and the factor structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The verification of the global fit of the data showed adequate indexes for pe...

  3. Decadal-scale trends in regional aerosol particle properties and their linkage to emission changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Gu, Yu; Diner, David; Worden, John; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Su, Hui; Xing, Jia; Garay, Michael; Huang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Understanding long-term trends in aerosol loading and properties is essential for evaluating the health and climatic effects of these airborne particulates as well as the effectiveness of pollution control policies. While many studies have used satellite data to examine the trends in aerosol optical depth (AOD), very few have investigated the trends in aerosol properties associated with particle size, morphology, and light absorption. In this study, we investigate decadal-scale (13-15 year) trends in aerosol loading and properties during 2001-2015 over three populous regions: the Eastern United States (EUS), Western Europe (WEU), and Eastern and Central China (ECC). We use observations from MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). Relationships between aerosol property trends and air pollutant emission changes are examined. We find that annual mean AOD shows pronounced decreasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, as a result of considerable emission reductions in all major pollutants except for mineral dust and ammonia (NH3). Over the ECC region, AOD increases before 2006 due to emission increases induced by rapid economic development, fluctuates between 2006 and 2011, and subsequently decreases after 2011 in conjunction with effective emission reduction in anthropogenic primary aerosols, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The fraction of small-size AOD (1.4 μm diameter), nonspherical and absorbing AOD have generally shown increasing trends over EUS and WEU regions, indicating that fine and light-scattering aerosol constituents have been more effectively reduced than coarse and light-absorbing constituents. These trends are consistent with the larger reduction ratios in SO2 and NOx emissions than in primary aerosols, including mineral dust and black carbon (BC). Over the ECC region, no significant trends are observed with respect to size distribution, morphology, or light absorption, which

  4. Wear properties of H13 with micron scale and nano scale grains bionic units processed by laser remelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Cheng-tao; Liu, Yan; Ren, Lu-quan

    2013-12-01

    By simulating the cuticles of some soil animals, a combination of soft part (untreated substrate) and hard part (laser remelting area) structure was designed on metal surface to get an improved performance. Different specimens were prepared which contained units with micro and nano scale grains. The microstructures were observed by environmental field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases. The results of these tests indicate that due to the rapid solidification condition in the water, nano scale grains have a high microhardness between 1300 and 1000 HV. Retained austenite was found in it. Some of them transform to martensite in block on ring wear test. Specimens with bionic unit have a better wear resistance. Especially, the units with nano grains bring a further enhancement. The alternate soft and hard in macroscopic (substrate and laser remelting area) and microscopic (austenite and martensite) structure played a key role in improving the H13 wear resistance.

  5. A multi-scale point of view on the structure-property relationships of A15 superconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Ding; Min Pan; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Nb3Sn and other A15 members have been widely applied in nuclear power, nuclear magnetic reso-nance, and high-energy particle accelerators for their high critical current density (Jc) and upper critical field (Bc2). There have been comprehensive and intensive studies on the applications, the fundamental lattice dynamic and electronic properties, etc., of A15 superconductors. Various reviews on the preparations, structures, and properties have already been written in the last few years. Nevertheless, on account of the large amount of existing facts and views, a coherent view on the relations between the structures and properties has not appeared to unify the facts. This article sketches a multi-scale point of view on the relations between the multi-scale structures and the corresponding properties.

  6. THE RADIO PROPERTIES OF RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES ON PARSEC SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Yongjun; Shen, Zhiqiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yuan, Weimin [Key Lab for Space Astronomy and Technology, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wajima, Kiyoaki [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Hongyan, E-mail: gumf@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2015-11-15

    We present the detection of the compact radio structures of 14 radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 5 GHz performed in 2013. While 50% of the sources of our sample show a compact core only, the remaining 50% exhibit a core-jet structure. The measured brightness temperatures of the cores range from 10{sup 8.4} to 10{sup 11.4} K with a median value of 10{sup 10.1} K, indicating that the radio emission is from non-thermal jets, and that, likely, most sources are not strongly beamed, thus implying a low jet speed in these radio-loud NLS1 galaxies. In combination with archival data taken at multiple frequencies, we find that seven sources show flat or even inverted radio spectra, while steep spectra are revealed in the remaining seven objects. Although all of these sources are very radio-loud with R > 100, their jet properties are diverse in terms of their milliarcsecond (mas) scale (parsec scale) morphology and their overall radio spectral shape. The evidence for slow jet speeds (i.e., less relativistic jets), in combination with the low kinetic/radio power, may offer an explanation for the compact VLBA radio structure in most sources. The mildly relativistic jets in these high accretion rate systems are consistent with a scenario where jets are accelerated from the hot corona above the disk by the magnetic field and the radiation force of the accretion disk. Alternatively, a low jet bulk velocity can be explained by low spin in the Blandford–Znajek mechanism.

  7. A Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth: Psychometric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-08-01

    The (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, negatively affects sexual and mental health. Nevertheless, endorsement and enactment of the SDS is still common. In this study, we respond to recent calls for modernization in the field of sexual double standard research. We describe the development of the "Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards among Youth" (SASSY), as well as its psychometric properties. This instrument was designed to measure contemporary sexual double standard endorsement, defined as "the degree to which an individual's attitude reflects a divergent set of expectations for boys and girls, in that boys are expected to be relatively more sexually active, assertive, and knowledgeable and girls are expected to be relatively more sexually reserved, passive, and inexperienced" among adolescents and emerging adults. In Study 1, a pool of 35 items was administered in a Dutch sample (N = 465, 54.8% female, age 16-20). A 20-item set formed a one-dimensional and internally consistent scale and was subsequently administered in a second Dutch sample. Study 2 (N = 818, 58.4% female, age 16-25) again assessed the 20-item set. After dropping one item, the 19-item SASSY proved to be one-dimensional and internally consistent, exhibiting good test-retest reliability, construct validity, and convergent validity. Finally, the instrument showed configural and metric measurement invariance across gender, age, education level, and sexual experience level, and configural, metric, and scalar measurement invariance across time. These studies confirmed the 19-item SASSY to be a reliable and valid new tool for the assessment of contemporary sexual double standard endorsement among adolescents and emerging adults.

  8. Electrical properties and scaling behaviour of Sm3+ doped CaF2-bismuth borate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A A Ali; M H Shaaban

    2011-06-01

    The electrical properties for 20Bi2O3–60B2O3 (20−)–CaF2–Sm2O3 glasses (0 ≤ ≤ 2) were measured in the temperature range 297 K up to 629 K and in the frequency range 0.1–100 kHz. The d.c. and a.c. conductivity values and the dielectric loss (tan ) values were found to increase with increasing Sm2O3 content, whereas the activation energy of conductivities and the dielectric constant decreased. These results were attributed to the introduction of the rare earth ions; promote the formation of a high number of non-bridging oxygen atoms, which facilitate the mobility of charge carriers. The frequency dependence of the a.c. conductivity follows the power law ac() =As . The frequency exponent () values (0.64 < < 0.8) decrease with increasing temperature. This suggested that the a.c. conduction mechanism follows the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH). The dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (tan values) were found to increase with increasing temperature and increasing Sm2O3 concentration in the glass. The a.c. conductivities as a function of frequency at different temperatures of a given glass superimposed onto a master curve (Roling scaling model). Furthermore, we have performed to scale the data as a function of composition. Two master curves were obtained, which suggested that there are differences in dominant charge carriers between glasses having Sm2O3 concentration ≥1 and glass of Sm2O3 concentration <1.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM-5 (PDS-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Zhong, Jody; Powers, Mark B; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Rauch, Sheila; Porter, Katherine; Knowles, Kelly

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 28(10) of Psychological Assessment (see record 2016-36101-001). In the article, the third sentence of the Internal Consistency subsection of the Results section should read: Item 8, “Not being able to remember important parts of the trauma,” had an item–total correlation of .34, and Item 16, “Taking more risks or doing things that might cause you or others harm” had an item–total correlation of .44; the range of item–total correlations for the remaining 18 items was .62–.82, with an average of .70.”] The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale for DSM–5 (PDS–5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on diagnostic criteria of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Participants were 242 urban community residents, veterans, and college undergraduates recruited from 3 study sites who had experienced a DSM–5 Criterion A traumatic experience. The PDS–5 demonstrated excellent internal consistency (α = .95) and test–retest reliability (r = .90) and good convergent validity with the PTSD Checklist—Specific Version (r = .90) and the PTSD Symptom Scale—Interview Version for DSM–5 (PSSI–5; r = .85). The PDS–5 also showed good discriminant validity with the Beck Depression Inventory—II and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory—Trait scale (all ZH > 3.05, ps < .01). There was 78% agreement between the PDS–5 and the PSSI–5. Receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded a cutoff score of 28 for identifying a probable PTSD diagnosis. The PDS–5 is a valid and reliable measure of DSM–5 PTSD symptomatology.

  10. PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTY OF FATIGUE SEVERITY SCALE AND CORRELATION WITH DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CIRRHOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danusa ROSSI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Fatigue is a common complaint in cirrhotic patients and may be considered a debilitating symptom with negative impact on quality of life. Research on its etiology and treatment has been hampered by the lack of relevant and reproducible measures of fatigue. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS in cirrhotic patients and to correlate with depressive symptomatology and quality of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 106 cirrhotic patients, aged between 18 and 70 years, both genders, literate, pre and post liver transplantation in outpatient follow-up. Internal consistency, reproducibility, discriminant validity, criterion validity, construct validity, responsiveness criterion, depressive symptomatology and quality of life were evaluated through questionnaires between January and October 2015. RESULTS: The mean age was 54.75±9.9 years, 65.1% male and 32.1% of the sample had cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus. The mean FSS score was 4.74±1.64. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.93, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient was 0.905 (95% CI: 0.813-0.952. For discriminant validity, FSS differentiated scores from different groups (P=0.009 and presented a correlation with the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (r=0.606, P=0.002. FSS correlated significantly and positively with depressive symptomatology and correlated negatively with the SF-36 domains for construct validity. For responsiveness, no significant changes were observed in the fatigue scores in the pre and post-liver transplantation periods (P=0.327. CONCLUSION: FSS showed good psychometric performance in the evaluation of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis. Fatigue presented a strong correlation with depressive symptomatology and quality of life.

  11. Soil magnetic properties in Bulgaria at a national scale-Challenges and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Petrov, Petar

    2016-02-01

    Establishing topsoil magnetic database at a national scale provides important information for soil classification, evaluation of soil drainage, indirect estimation of the total soil carbon and initial planning in precision agriculture. The Bulgarian database consists of 511 topsoil samples from the upper 20 cm of natural unpolluted soils. Samples have been characterized by detailed magnetic measurements, including mass-specific magnetic susceptibility, frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, isothermal remanence and their ratios, hysteresis parameters and ratios, as well as soil reaction (pH). Histograms of the measured parameters per soil type and for the whole database show specific peculiarities and dependence from various parameters. Statistical factor analysis revealed that 87% from the total variance can be explained by four factors. The main factor is dominated by the contribution from concentration-dependent magnetic parameters, second one reflects the role of fine-grained pedogenic magnetic fraction, the third one is determined by the properties of the parent material, fourth one is governed by the internal structural peculiarities of the magnetic particles. The results from cluster analysis reveal the role of soil type and geology for the observed magnetic characteristics. The results emphasize the major role of geology (parent material) for the magnetic signature of topsoil samples on a national scale using sampling density of 1 sample/200 km2. Spatial interpolation of different magnetic parameters using modelled experimental variograms and kriging algorithm highlight lateral peculiarities in the concentration and grain size of the strongly magnetic iron oxides in the topsoils. Additional geochemical data for selected set of samples and meteorological information reveal the role of climate characteristics (mean annual temperature and precipitation) on the formation and development of the strongly magnetic pedogenic fraction

  12. Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Maartje A M S; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Veerman, Jan W; Kleinjan, Marloes; Aarons, Gregory A; Tiemens, Bea G

    2015-11-16

    The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) was developed in the United States to assess attitudes of mental health and welfare professionals toward evidence-based interventions. Although the EBPAS has been translated in different languages and is being used in several countries, all research on the psychometric properties of the EBPAS within youth care has been carried out in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the EBPAS. After translation into Dutch, the Dutch version of the EBPAS was examined in a diverse sample of 270 youth care professionals working in five institutions in the Netherlands. We examined the factor structure with both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and the internal consistency reliability. We also conducted multiple linear regression analyses to examine the association of EBPAS scores with professionals' characteristics. It was hypothesized that responses to the EBPAS items could be explained by one general factor plus four specific factors, good to excellent internal consistency reliability would be found, and EBPAS scores would vary by age, sex, and educational level. The exploratory factor analysis suggested a four-factor solution according to the hypothesized dimensions: Requirements, Appeal, Openness, and Divergence. Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.67 to 0.89, and the overall scale alpha was 0.72. The confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the factor structure and suggested that the lower order EBPAS factors are indicators of a higher order construct. However, Divergence was not significantly correlated with any of the subscales or the total score. The confirmatory bifactor analysis endorsed that variance was explained both by a general attitude towards evidence-based interventions and by four specific factors. The regression analyses showed an association between EBPAS scores and youth care professionals' age, sex, and educational level. The

  13. Biomat flow: fluorescent dye field experiments, pore-scale modeling of flow and transport properties, and field-scale flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, K.; Sidle, R. C.; Mallants, D.; Vasilyev, R.; Karsanina, M.; Skvortsova, E. B.; Korost, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the important role that the upper litter layer in forest soils (biomat) plays in hillslope and catchment runoff generation. This biomat layer is a very loose material with high porosity and organic content. Direct sampling is usually problematic due to limited layer thickness. Conventional laboratory measurements can mobilize solids or even cause structure failure of the sample thus making measurements unreliable. It is also difficult to assess local variation in soil properties and transition zones using these methods; thus, they may not be applicable to biomat studies. However, if the physics of flow through this layer needs to be quantified and incorporated into a model, a detailed study of hydraulic properties is necessary. Herein we show the significance of biomat flow by staining experiments in the field, study its structure and transition to mineral soil layer using X-ray micro-tomography, assess hydraulic properties and structure differences using a pore-scale modeling approach, and, finally, use conventional variably-saturated flow modeling based on Richards equation to simulate flow in the hillslope. Using staining tracers we show that biomat flow in forested hillslopes can extend long distances (lateral displacement was about 1.2 times larger than for subsurface lateral flow) before infiltration occurs into deeper layers. The three-dimensional structure of an undisturbed sample (4 x 3 x 2.5 cm) of both biomat and deeper consolidated soil was obtained using an X-ray micro-tomography device with a resolution of 15 um. Local hydraulic properties (e.g., permeability and water retention curve) for numerous layers (e.g., transition zones, biomat, mineral soil) were calculated using Stokes flow FDM solution and pore-network modeling. Anisotropy, structure differences, and property fluctuations of different layers were quantified using local porosity analysis and correlation functions. Current results support the hypothesis that small-scale

  14. Testing the Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Tong Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92, test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P<0.01, and internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.86–0.92. Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement, accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ2/df = 1.93, P=0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78 to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54 and family burden (r = 0.49 and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90. The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P<0.01. The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families’ expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Raquel Batista; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2017-04-10

    Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp) statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20). The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94-73.17), with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82-83.03). When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3) or absence (score sexo foi predominantemente feminino (76,2%; IC95% 69,82-83,03). Ao analisar a relação entre os escores da Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso, categorizados em presença (índice > 3) ou ausência (índice sexo, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante. A Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso comportou-se de forma aceitável na avaliação da validade no processo de adaptação transcultural, demonstrando dimensionalidade coerente com a proposta original (quatro fatores). Na análise da consistência interna, o instrumento apresentou bons resultados (KR-20 = 0,69) e a confiabilidade via reprodutibilidade foi considerara excelente para a escala global (Kp = 0,92). A Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao

  16. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ~1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    CERN Document Server

    Palau, Aina; Girart, J M; Fuente, A; Fontani, F; Commercon, B; Busquet, G; Bontemps, S; Sanchez-Monge, A; Zapata, L A; Zhang, Q; Hennebelle, P; Di Francesco, J

    2014-01-01

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 micron (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the Spectral Energy Distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered th...

  17. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fuente, Asunción [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Descriptive Characteristics and Initial Psychometric Properties of the Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Sarah E; Davis, Tchiki; Klonsky, E David

    2016-06-07

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent and associated with tissue damage, emotional distress, and psychiatric disorders. While often discussed in the context of Borderline Personality Disorder and suicide, research demonstrates that NSSI is distinct from these constructs and should be viewed as an independent diagnostic category. Recently, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder (NSSID) was included in the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition for further study. In this article, we describe the properties of a self-report measure designed to assess proposed criteria for NSSID. Undergraduate students at 2 large, public universities completed the NSSID Scale (NSSIDS) along with other measures of NSSI characteristics and psychopathology. Among participants with a history of NSSI, approximately half (54.55%) met diagnostic criteria for NSSID. Participants were most frequently excluded from an NSSID diagnosis on the basis of criterion A (frequency of NSSI) and criterion E (distress or impairment related to NSSI), while participants were least likely to be excluded from diagnosis on the basis of criterion D (NSSI method exclusions) and criterion F (diagnostic "rule-outs"). Consistent with previous literature, the most commonly reported precipitants to NSSI were negative feelings or thoughts (criterion C2). Participants who met criteria for NSSID reported more severe depression, anxiety, and NSSI than participants who engaged in NSSI but did not meet criteria for NSSID. These results support the use of the NSSIDS as a reliable and valid self-report measure of NSSID symptoms.

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Language Version of the System Usability Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Dianat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The System Usability Scale (SUS is a widely used self–administered instrument for evaluating the usability of a wide range of products and services. The aims of this descriptive- methodological study were to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the SUS. Methods: The study was conducted among 202 university students from the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Content validity was evaluated by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was assessed by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, respectively. Additionally the feasibility of the measure was judged by ceiling and floor effect. Results: Content validity of the short form of Iranian SUS was established. Factor analyses supported the conceptual uni-dimensionality, and thus confirmed the construct validity of the measure. The internal consistency (α =0.79 and test retest reliability (ICC = 0.96 were both approved and there was also no ceiling nor floor effect. Conclusions: The findings support the use of SUS for both practical and research settings in Iranian population.

  20. Translation and psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the College Alcohol Problems Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Escoto, Ernesto R; Cruz-Ortega, Luis G; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gattamorta, Karina

    2017-12-01

    Hispanic and Spanish-speaking college students are under-represented in alcohol intervention and prevention research. There is a need for brief, empirically validated Spanish versions of measures related to alcohol use and consequences. The objective of this study was to translate the 8-item College Alcohol Problems Scale (CAPS) into Spanish and evaluate the psychometric properties of this measure compared to the original English. Bilingual experts in interventions for Hispanic college students and youth used a translation back-translation process. 125 Hispanic undergraduate students from a large southeastern public university completed the CAPS and a heavy drinking measure in Spanish. The two-factor model had acceptable model fit in Spanish, χ(2) (df=19)=27.60, p=0.091; CFI=0.966 RMSEA=0.060. Internal consistency of the personal problems subscale was 0.76, and the social problems subscale was 0.73. The two latent factors explained 24-66% of variability in items. Personal problems and social problems were both significantly correlated with heavy drinking, r=0.61, pspeaking students in other nations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical properties of the micro/nano structures of Morpho butterfly wing scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The micro/nano structures of the wing scales in Morpho butterfly are responsible for the structural coloration,with a major part ascribed to interference and diffraction of light.The optical properties of the butterfly wings were investigated by simulating a two-dimensional model using rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique.It is proved that they depend strongly on the structural parameters,incidence angle and refractive index.The peak value and the peak wavelength of the reflection efficiency increase as the vertical periodic thickness increases.The peak value decreases observably,while both of the bandwidth and the peak wavelength increase when the number of the vertical periods decreases.Increase of the horizontal periodic width causes a decrease of the peak value and an increase of the peak wavelength,although the variations are small.The peak value decreases distinctly and the peak wavelength increases as the ambient refractive index increases,which corresponds to the variation in ambient conditions.The research reveals the mechanisms of the brilliant structural color in Morpho butterfly,and is of great significance to the design,manufacture and applications of the bionic micro/nano structures for gas detection.

  2. Influence of voxel size settings in X-Ray CT Imagery of soil in scaling properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, R.; Scaiff, N. T.; Andina, D.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Fundamental to the interpretation and comparison of X-ray CT imagery of soil is recognition of the objectivity and consistency of procedures used to generate the 3D models. Notably, there has been a lack of consistency in the size of voxels used for diverse interpretations of soils features and processes; in part, this is due to the ongoing evolution of instrumentation and computerized image processing capacity. Moreover, there is still need for discussion on whether standard voxels sizes should be recommended, and what those would be. Regardless of any eventual adoption of such standards, there is a need to also consider the manner in which voxel size is set in the 3D imagery. In the typical approaches to X-ray CT imaging, voxel size may be set at three stages: image acquisition (involving the position of the sample relative to the tube and detector), image reconstruction (where binning of pixels in the acquired images may occur), as well as post-reconstruction re-sampling (which may involve algorithms such as tri-cubic convolution). This research evaluates and compares the spatial distribution of intra-aggregate voids in 3D imagery as well as their scaling properties, of equivalent voxel size, generated using various combinations of the afore-mentioned approaches. Funding provided by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MICINN) through project no. AGL2010-21501/AGR is greatly appreciated.

  3. Parsec-scale jet properties of the quasar PG 1302$-$102

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, P; Frey, S; Mangalam, A; Gabanyi, K E; Kun, E

    2016-01-01

    The quasar PG 1302$-$102 is believed to harbour a supermassive binary black hole (SMBBH) system. Using the available 15 GHz and $2-8$ GHz, multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array data, we constrain the pc-scale jet properties based on the inferred mean proper motion, including a bulk Lorentz factor $\\geq 5.1 \\pm 0.8$, jet inclination angle $\\leq (11.4 \\pm 1.7)$ degrees, projected position angle $= 31.8$ degrees, intrinsic half opening angle $\\leq (0.9 \\pm 0.1)$ degrees and a mean $2-8$ GHz spectral index of 0.31. A general relativistic helical jet model is presented and applied to predict quasi-periodic oscillations of $\\sim$ 10 days, power law power spectrum shape and a contribution of up to $\\sim$ 53 percent to the observed variable core flux density. The model is used to make a case for high resolution, moderately sampled, long duration radio interferometric observations to reveal signatures due to helical knots and distinguish them from those due to SMBBH orbital activity including a phase difference $\\sim \\...

  4. Parsec-scale jet properties of the gamma-ray quasar 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    An, T; Zhao, W; Mohan, P; Cheng, X -P; Cui, Y -Z; Zhang, Z -L

    2016-01-01

    The quasar 3C~286 is one of two compact steep spectrum sources detected by the {\\it Fermi}/LAT. Here, we investigate the radio properties of the parsec(pc)-scale jet and its (possible) association with the $\\gamma$-ray emission in 3C~286. The Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) images at various frequencies reveal a one-sided core--jet structure extending to the southwest at a projected distance of $\\sim$1 kpc. The component at the jet base showing an inverted spectrum is identified as the core, with a mean brightness temperature of $2.8\\times 10^{9}$~K. The jet bends at about 600 pc (in projection) away from the core, from a position angle of $-135^\\circ$ to $-115^\\circ$. Based on the available VLBI data, we inferred the proper motion speed of the inner jet as $0.013 \\pm 0.011$ mas yr$^{-1}$ ($\\beta_{\\rm app} = 0.6 \\pm 0.5$), corresponding to a jet speed of about $0.5\\,c$ at an inclination angle of $48^\\circ$ between the jet and the line of sight of the observer. The brightness temperature, jet speed an...

  5. Nonlinear conductive properties and scaling behavior of conductive particle filled high-density polyethylene composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; SHEN Lie; LI Wenchun; SONG Yihu; YI Xiaosu

    2005-01-01

    The blends prepared by incorporation of carbon black (CB) or graphite powder (GP) inHto high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix have been novel and extensively applied polymeric positive temperature coefficient (PTC) composites. A phenomenological model was proposed on the basis of the GEM equation and the dilution effect of filler volume fraction due to the thermal volume expansion of the polymer matrix. Accordingly, the contribution of the thermal expansion of the matrix to the jump-like PTC transition of the composites was quantitatively estimated and a mechanical explanation was given. It was proved that the contribution of the volume expansion to PTC effect decreased for HDPE/CB composites crosslinked through electron-beam irradiation. Furthermore, the influences of the filler content, temperature and crosslinking on the self-heating behavior as well as the nonlinear conduction characteristics at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were examined. Based on the electric-field and initial resistivity dependence of the self-heating temperature and resistance dependence of the critical field, the mechanisms of the self-heating of the polymeric PTC materials were evaluated. The intrinsic relations between macroscopic electrical properties and microscopic percolation network at electrical-thermal equilibrium state were discussed according to the scaling relationship between the self-heating critical parameter and the conductivity of materials.

  6. Online Friendship, Romance, and Sex: Properties and Associations of the Online Relationship Initiation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2016-08-01

    Online relationships are increasingly central to many people's lives. As a result, there is a growing need to scientifically examine their psychosocial implications. This study developed and tested the Online Relationship Initiation Scale (ORIS) through classical and item response theory analyses to address this need. An anonymous online survey included 713 adults, aged 18-71 years. The ORIS was tested on psychometric properties and examined for associations with gender and several standardized psychosocial measures. Results demonstrated unidimensionality of nine items, strong factor loadings, and high internal consistency (α = 0.90, ωt = 0.94). All items captured significant information on the latent trait and none showed differential item functioning by sex, age group, or ethnicity. General linear modeling confirmed hypotheses that men were more likely than women to initiate online relationships. Online relationship initiation was not strongly associated with perceived social support, but was positively related to financial distress, and willingness to engage in infidelity or unprotected sex. The ORIS was negatively associated with age and satisfaction with life and showed modest interactions with ethnicity and hours online. This study provided empirical evidence for an interpersonal relationship initiation construct. The ORIS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for evaluating online interpersonal behaviors and their associations with psychosocial and demographic factors. Such psychometrically sound instruments can be useful in exploring online interpersonal behaviors and their significance.

  7. Large-scale variations of the dust optical properties in the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Cambresy, L; Beichman, C A

    2005-01-01

    We present an analysis of the dust optical properties at large scale, for the whole galactic anticenter hemisphere. We used the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog to obtain the total reddening on each galaxy line of sight and we compared this value to the IRAS 100 microns surface brightness converted to extinction by Schlegel et al (1998). We performed a careful examination and correction of the possible systematic effects resulting from foreground star contamination, redshift contribution and galaxy selection bias. We also evaluated the contribution of dust temperature variations and interstellar clumpiness to our method. The correlation of the near-infrared extinction to the far-infrared optical depth shows a discrepancy for visual extinction greater than 1 mag with a ratio A_V(FIR) / A_V(gal) = 1.31 +- 0.06. We attribute this result to the presence of fluffy/composite grains characterized by an enhanced far--infrared emissivity. Our analysis, applied to half of the sky, provides new insights on the dust grains ...

  8. Effect of sub-pore scale morphology of biological deposits on porous media flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biological deposits often influence fluid flow by altering the pore space morphology and related hydrologic properties such as porosity, water retention characteristics, and permeability. In most coupled-processes models changes in porosity are inferred from biological process models using mass-balance. The corresponding evolution of permeability is estimated using (semi-) empirical porosity-permeability functions such as the Kozeny-Carman equation or power-law functions. These equations typically do not account for the heterogeneous spatial distribution and morphological irregularities of the deposits. As a result, predictions of permeability evolution are generally unsatisfactory. In this presentation, we demonstrate the significance of pore-scale deposit distribution on porosity-permeability relations using high resolution simulations of fluid flow through a single pore interspersed with deposits of varying morphologies. Based on these simulations, we present a modification to the Kozeny-Carman model that accounts for the shape of the deposits. Limited comparison with published experimental data suggests the plausibility of the proposed conceptual model.

  9. General relationships between abiotic soil properties and soil biota across spatial scales and different land-use types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Birkhofer

    Full Text Available Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  11. Conceptual and Psychometric Properties of a Self-Efficacy Perception Scale Based on Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cavus; Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Kocer, Tugba; Kocer, Omer

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive research study is to investigate the conceptual and psychometric properties of a self-efficacy perception scale developed for determining self-efficacy perception of 3rd and 4th grade Turkish pre-service teachers, who took Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) course theoretically in undergraduate level, towards…

  12. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further : Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Geurtzen, Naline; van Zundert, Rinka M P; van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Hartman, Esther E.; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n = 866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the o

  13. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, E.I. de; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Geurtzen, N.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Weijer-Bergsma, E. van de; Hartman, E.E.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Duncan, L.G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (nn=n866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the o

  14. Mindful parenting assessed further: psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Geurtzen, N.; van Zundert, R.M.P.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Hartman, E.E.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Duncan, L.G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n = 866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the o

  15. The Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS): Exploration of psychometric properties in a heterogeneous chronic pain sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Baalen, Bianca; Kleen, Marco; Köke, Albere; Reneman, Michiel; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis

    2014-01-01

    Psychological flexibility receives increasing attention as the overarching process in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale (PIPS), measuring “avoidance” and “cognitive fusion” with pain, in a

  16. Mindful parenting assessed further: psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Geurtzen, N.; van Zundert, R.M.P.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Hartman, E.E.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Duncan, L.G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n = 866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the

  17. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further : Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Geurtzen, Naline; van Zundert, Rinka M P; van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Hartman, Esther E.; Nieuwesteeg, Anke M.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Bögels, Susan M.

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n = 866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the

  18. Mindful Parenting Assessed Further: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, E.I. de; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Geurtzen, N.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Weijer-Bergsma, E. van de; Hartman, E.E.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Duncan, L.G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (nn=n866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the

  19. Mindful parenting assessed further : Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.I.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Geurtzen, N.; van Zundert, R.M.P.; van de Weijer-Bergsma, E.; Hartman, E.E.; Nieuwesteeg, A.M.; Duncan, L.G.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P) were studied in a general population sample of mothers of adolescents (n = 866) (study 1). A six-factor structure (29 items) emerged using exploratory factor analysis. A main difference from the

  20. Modelling Pesticide Leaching At Column, Field and Catchment Scales Ii. Influence of Soil Variability On Small Scale Transfer Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulier, S.; Jarvis, N.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in small scale transfer prop- erties in relation to variability of soil characteristics in a small undulating agricultural catchment (Vemmenhög, 9 km2), where texture and organic C content are strongly related to landscape position (see Gärdenäs et al., this session). Undisturbed soil col- umn samples (20 cm diameter, 20 cm height) were taken at two locations (4 columns at each location): on a hilltop (high clay content), and in a hollow (high C content). Transient leaching experiments for a tracer and a herbicide (MCPA) were carried out in two steps. After a first application of solute and pesticide the columns were ex- posed to natural rainfall. After one pore volume of drainage had flowed through the columns, they were transferred indoors. A second dose of tracer and pesticide was applied, and the columns were irrigated with half a pore volume of natural rainwa- ter. The breakthrough curves obtained for the hilltop columns showed strong evidence of macroporous flow. The flux concentrations and the resident concentration at the end of the experiment measured for the hollow columns suggested that the loss of pesticide from those columns is little. The MACRO model and the inverse modelling package SUFI were used to estimate the small scale parameters for water transfer, so- lute transport, and pesticide. Good agreement was obtained between model and data. Macroporous flow and diffusive transport through hilltop columns was highlighted by the high calibrated values of the effective diffusion pathlength and the dispersivity. As a consequence of the significant organic C content in the hollows, the value of the degradation rate coefficient for hollow columns was important. In both hilltop and hollow columns, the variation of the degradation rate coefficient between the first and the second application of MCPA showed the ability of the micro-organisms to adapt to the pesticide.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale in Mexican elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Reyna, María Cristina; Cruz-Castruita, Rosa María; Ceballos-Gurrola, Oswaldo; García-Cadena, Cirilo Humberto; Hernández-Cortés, Perla Lizeth; Guevara-Valtier, Milton Carlos

    2017-06-05

    analyze and assess the psychometric properties of the subscales in the Spanish version of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale in an elderly population in the Northeast of Mexico. methodological study. The sample consisted of 329 elderly associated with one of the five public centers for senior citizens in the metropolitan area of Northeast Mexico. The psychometric properties included the assessment of the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, the Kaiser Meyer Olkin coefficient, the inter-item correlation, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. in the principal components analysis, two components were identified based on the 43 items in the scale. The item-total correlation coefficient of the exercise benefits subscale was good. Nevertheless, the coefficient for the exercise barriers subscale revealed inconsistencies. The reliability and validity were acceptable. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the elimination of items improved the goodness of fit of the baseline scale, without affecting its validity or reliability. the Exercise Benefits/Barriers subscale presented satisfactory psychometric properties for the Mexican context. A 15-item short version is presented with factorial structure, validity and reliability similar to the complete scale. analisar e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas das subescalas que compõem a versão em espanhol da Escala de Benefícios/Barreiras para o Exercício em uma população idosa do nordeste do México. estudo metodológico. A amostra abrangeu 329 idosas adstritas a uma das cinco casas de convivência públicas da área metropolitana do Nordeste mexicano. As propriedades psicométricas incluíram a avaliação do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, o coeficiente Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, a correlação inter-itens, análise fatorial exploratória e confirmatória. na análise de componentes principais, foram identificados dois componentes a partir dos 43 itens da escala. O coeficiente de correlação item-total da subescala

  2. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  3. Quantification of small-scale physicochemical properties of intact macropore surfaces in Bt-horizons of Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Martin; Gerke, Horst H.

    2017-04-01

    During preferential flow in structured soils, the interaction of percolating water and reactive solutes with the soil matrix is mostly restricted to surfaces of preferential flow paths which affect mass exchange processes by the physical and chemical properties. These properties can strongly differ from bulk soil properties with respect to texture, organic matter (OM), pore geometry, density, and porosity. The aim of our work was to identify and to quantify effective macropore properties which concurrently are appropriate to represent physical mechanisms for entire soil horizons with respect to preferential flow. We studied physical and chemical properties of intact surfaces of soil aggregates, biopores (root channels, worm burrows), and coated cracks from Luvisol Bt-horizons. The spatial distribution of the OM composition and related physical properties such as wettability, the organic carbon content, and the cation exchange capacity of these macropores as characterized by DRIFT spectroscopy and complementary techniques were found spatially distributed at the mm-scale. Differences could be observed for loess and glacial till as parent materials, land use, and macropore types, in particular for cracks and biopores. The geometrical properties (pore volume, diameter, surfaces area, connectivity, and tortuosity) of all potentially available macropores, in particular the differences between cracks and biopores, were quantified in large soil columns using X-ray computed tomography (µCT). Dye tracer experiments at the cm-to-m-scale showed substrate-specific and macropore-specific differences between the active preferential flow paths. In a summarizing step we aim to combine the chemical and physical surface properties with the geometrical properties of the macropores in order to estimate the effects of the surface properties on preferential flow in Bt-horizons. The specific surface areas and chemical compositions may help explain differences in the staining patterns

  4. Semi-empirical correction of ab initio harmonic properties by scaling factors: a validated uncertainty model for calibration and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Pernot, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian Model Calibration is used to revisit the problem of scaling factor calibration for semi-empirical correction of ab initio harmonic properties (e.g. vibrational frequencies and zero-point energies). A particular attention is devoted to the evaluation of scaling factor uncertainty, and to its effect on the accuracy of scaled properties. We argue that in most cases of interest the standard calibration model is not statistically valid, in the sense that it is not able to fit experimental calibration data within their uncertainty limits. This impairs any attempt to use the results of the standard model for uncertainty analysis and/or uncertainty propagation. We propose to include a stochastic term in the calibration model to account for model inadequacy. This new model is validated in the Bayesian Model Calibration framework. We provide explicit formulae for prediction uncertainty in typical limit cases: large and small calibration sets of data with negligible measurement uncertainty, and datasets with la...

  5. Psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale facing Alcohol and Alcoholism in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Divane de; Rocha, Fernanda Mota

    2016-12-19

    to verify the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale facing Alcohol and Alcoholism (EAFAA) and people with disorders related to the use of alcohol in nursing students. a convenience sample (n=420) completed the EAFAA, the data were submitted to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). the EFA resulted in an instrument composed of 48 items divided into four factors. The CFA has established the validity of the factorial structure. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (α=0.85) presenting a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 75%. the EAFAA constitutes a reliable instrument to identify the attitudes of nursing students towards alcohol, alcoholism and persons with disorders related to alcohol use. verificar as propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Atitudes Frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e as pessoas com transtornos relacionados ao uso do Álcool em estudantes de enfermagem. uma amostra de conveniência (n=420) completou a EAFAA, os dados foram submetidos à Análise Fatorial Exploratória (AFE) e Análise Fatorial Confirmatória (AFC). a AFE resultou em um instrumento composto por 48 itens divididos em quatro fatores. A AFC estabeleceu a validade da estrutura fatorial. A consistência interna da escala foi considerada adequada (α=0,85) apresentando sensibilidade de 70% e especificidade de 75%. a EAFAA constitui-se em um instrumento confiável para identificar as atitudes de estudantes de enfermagem frente ao álcool, ao alcoolismo e a pessoa com transtornos relacionados ao uso de álcool. verificar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala de actitudes frente al alcohol, al alcoholismo y a las personas con trastornos por consumo de alcohol en estudiantes de enfermería. una muestra por conveniencia (n=420) completó la EAFAA, cuyos datos se sometieron a un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE) y un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). el AFE dio como resultado un instrumento compuesto por

  6. Quantifying the heterogeneity of soil compaction, physical soil properties and soil moisture across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian; Sander, Graham

    2016-04-01

    England's rural landscape is dominated by pastoral agriculture, with 40% of land cover classified as either improved or semi-natural grassland according to the Land Cover Map 2007. Since the Second World War the intensification of agriculture has resulted in greater levels of soil compaction, associated with higher stocking densities in fields. Locally compaction has led to loss of soil storage and an increased in levels of ponding in fields. At the catchment scale soil compaction has been hypothesised to contribute to increased flood risk. Previous research (Pattison, 2011) on a 40km2 catchment (Dacre Beck, Lake District, UK) has shown that when soil characteristics are homogeneously parameterised in a hydrological model, downstream peak discharges can be 65% higher for a heavy compacted soil than for a lightly compacted soil. However, at the catchment scale there is likely to be a significant amount of variability in compaction levels within and between fields, due to multiple controlling factors. This research focusses in on one specific type of land use (permanent pasture with cattle grazing) and areas of activity within the field (feeding area, field gate, tree shelter, open field area). The aim was to determine if the soil characteristics and soil compaction levels are homogeneous in the four areas of the field. Also, to determine if these levels stayed the same over the course of the year, or if there were differences at the end of the dry (October) and wet (April) periods. Field experiments were conducted in the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK, which has an area of 120km2. The dynamic cone penetrometer was used to determine the structural properties of the soil, soil samples were collected to assess the bulk density, organic matter content and permeability in the laboratory and the Hydrosense II was used to determine the soil moisture content in the topsoil. Penetration results show that the tree shelter is the most compacted and the open field area

  7. Modulation of Leaf Economic Traits and Rates by Soil Properties, at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, V.; Wright, I. J.; Reich, P. B.; Batjes, N. H., Jr.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Bhaskar, R.; Santiago, L. S.; Ellsworth, D.; Niinemets, U.; Cornwell, W.

    2014-12-01

    now be taken into account in broad-scale analyses, and that effects uniquely attributable to soil properties are important determinants of leaf photosynthetic traits and rates. Understanding what soils tell us (that climate does not) is an important step to progress towards more reliable modelling of global vegetation function.

  8. Multi-scale Microstructure Characterization for Improved Understanding of Microstructure-Property Relationship in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hye Yun

    the following. A support is a "temporary" structure typically built in-situ with the primary part to provide the structural support to the mass of overhanging features; it is subsequently removed after fabrication. During the building process, the existence of such support can affect the local heat flow from the build to the substrate, which in turn may influence the local microstructure. The first objective of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the effect of the support on the microstructure fabricated by L-PBF AM. Two groups of as-built samples, with support and without support, are studied. SEM along with EBSD is used to analyze the microstructure characteristics including the growth of the microstructures, the fraction of different microstructure and the misorientation among the microstructure grains. At the nano-scale resolution, TEM is used to identify the precipitate phases. In addition, the micro-hardness values are also measured for samples built with and without support. As a precipitation-strengthened alloy, the heat treatment is critical for IN718, since the desired mechanical properties, such as high-temperature tensile and creep strength, are only acquired by the formation of the strengthening precipitates, namely gamma' prime and gamma''. Currently, the industrial standards for the heat treatment of IN718 are developed for cast and wrought cases and not specifically for AM builds. Thus, it is essential to evaluate the effect of the heat treatment on the formation of the strengthening precipitates in IN718 builds fabricated by L-PBF AM, which is the focus of the second objective. Particularly, a modification to the industry standard heat treatment is developed to maximize the fraction of the strengthening precipitates in the IN718 builds. The microstructural characterizations are performed for several modified heat treatment cases including a homogenization step, solution annealing step and aging step. The micro-hardness values

  9. Linking atomic and mesoscopic scales for the modelling of the transport properties of uranium dioxide under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolus, Marjorie; Freyss, Michel; Dorado, Boris; Martin, Guillaume; Hoang, Kiet; Maillard, Serge; Skorek, Richard; Garcia, Philippe; Valot, Carole; Chartier, Alain; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Fossati, Paul; Grimes, Robin W.; Parfitt, David C.; Bishop, Clare L.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Rushton, Michael J. D.; Staicu, Dragos; Yakub, Eugen; Nichenko, Sergii; Krack, Matthias; Devynck, Fabien; Ngayam-Happy, Raoul; Govers, Kevin; Deo, Chaitanya S.; Behera, Rakesh K.

    2015-07-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the investigations at the atomic scale of the transport properties of defects and fission gases in uranium dioxide, as well as of the transfer of results from the atomic scale to models at the mesoscopic scale, performed during the F-BRIDGE European project (2008-2012). We first present the mesoscale models used to investigate uranium oxide fuel under irradiation, and in particular the cluster dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods employed to model the behaviour of defects and fission gases in UO2, as well as the parameters of these models. Second, we describe briefly the atomic scale methods employed, i.e. electronic structure calculations and empirical potential methods. Then, we show the results of the calculation of the data necessary for the mesoscale models using these atomic scale methods. Finally, we summarise the links built between the atomic and mesoscopic scale by listing the data calculated at the atomic scale which are to be used as input in mesoscale modelling. Despite specific difficulties in the description of fuel materials, the results obtained in F-BRIDGE show that atomic scale modelling methods are now mature enough to obtain precise data to feed higher scale models and help interpret experiments on nuclear fuels. These methods bring valuable insight, in particular the formation, binding and migration energies of point and extended defects, fission product localization, incorporation energies and migration pathways, elementary mechanisms of irradiation induced processes. These studies open the way for the investigation of other significant phenomena involved in fuel behaviour, in particular the thermochemical and thermomechanical properties and their evolution in-pile, complex microstructures, as well as of more complex fuels.

  10. Linking atomic and mesoscopic scales for the modelling of the transport properties of uranium dioxide under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolus, Marjorie, E-mail: marjorie.bertolus@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Freyss, Michel; Dorado, Boris; Martin, Guillaume; Hoang, Kiet; Maillard, Serge; Skorek, Richard; Garcia, Philippe; Valot, Carole [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC, Centre de Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chartier, Alain; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Fossati, Paul [CEA, DEN, DPC/SCCME, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Grimes, Robin W.; Parfitt, David C.; Bishop, Clare L.; Murphy, Samuel T.; Rushton, Michael J.D. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Staicu, Dragos; Yakub, Eugen; Nichenko, Sergii [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); and others

    2015-07-15

    This article presents a synthesis of the investigations at the atomic scale of the transport properties of defects and fission gases in uranium dioxide, as well as of the transfer of results from the atomic scale to models at the mesoscopic scale, performed during the F-BRIDGE European project (2008–2012). We first present the mesoscale models used to investigate uranium oxide fuel under irradiation, and in particular the cluster dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods employed to model the behaviour of defects and fission gases in UO{sub 2}, as well as the parameters of these models. Second, we describe briefly the atomic scale methods employed, i.e. electronic structure calculations and empirical potential methods. Then, we show the results of the calculation of the data necessary for the mesoscale models using these atomic scale methods. Finally, we summarise the links built between the atomic and mesoscopic scale by listing the data calculated at the atomic scale which are to be used as input in mesoscale modelling. Despite specific difficulties in the description of fuel materials, the results obtained in F-BRIDGE show that atomic scale modelling methods are now mature enough to obtain precise data to feed higher scale models and help interpret experiments on nuclear fuels. These methods bring valuable insight, in particular the formation, binding and migration energies of point and extended defects, fission product localization, incorporation energies and migration pathways, elementary mechanisms of irradiation induced processes. These studies open the way for the investigation of other significant phenomena involved in fuel behaviour, in particular the thermochemical and thermomechanical properties and their evolution in-pile, complex microstructures, as well as of more complex fuels.

  11. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale: A Rasch rating scale analysis and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar M; Cyders, Melissa A

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in a sample of college students. Participants were 318 college students (36.2% men; mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 6.4 years). The psychometric properties of this Spanish version were analyzed using the Rasch model, and the factor structure was examined using confirmatory factor analysis. The verification of the global fit of the data showed adequate indexes for persons and items. The reliability estimates were high for both items and persons. Differential item functioning across gender was found for 23 items, which likely reflects known differences in impulsivity levels between men and women. The factor structure of the Spanish version of the UPPS-P replicates previous work with the original UPPS-P Scale. Overall, results suggest that test scores from the Spanish version of the UPPS-P show adequate psychometric properties to accurately assess the multidimensional model of impulsivity, which represents the most exhaustive measure of this construct.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale among a Multiethnic Population during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-05-01

    The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) was developed to measure maternal attitudes toward infant feeding, but a number of validated studies on the IIFAS found that it was subject to methodological limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IIFAS among a multiethnic population in Singapore. A cross-sectional research design was used on a sample of 417 antenatal women. The internal consistency and stability of the IIFAS were evaluated using Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability. Known-group comparisons discriminated certain group differences in a predictable way. A series of exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) was conducted to test the factor structure of the IIFAS using the maximum likelihood and principal axis factoring. The number of factors was selected according to theoretical and statistical considerations. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was further performed to validate the factor structure constructed in the prior EFA. The IIFAS had a Cronbach's α and Pearson correlation of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The known-group comparisons among certain groups were supported. The EFA results showed that the 3-factor structure produced the most interpretable and theoretical sense. A second-order CFA was conducted to confirm the construct dimensionality of the 15-item IIFAS, with satisfactory fit indices found. The 15-item IIFAS is a psychometrically sound measurement tool that health care professionals can use to understand the diverse infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among different ethnic groups in order to provide breastfeeding interventions that are culturally sensitive. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Pore-scale Analysis on Physics Property Changes of CO2 Bleached Sandstone, Entrada Fromation, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Since carbon dioxide injected into geological formations can cause a variety of physical and chemical reaction with minerals, it is important to evaluate the characteristics and aspects of these effects in CO2 geological sequestration. For the analog of the phenomena, we conducted pore-scale analysis on porosity and permeability changes and their characteristics for CO2-bleached Entrada formation, Utah due to natural leakage of CO2. From thin section analysis, we observed mineralogical and pore-shape changes: precipitation of carbonate minerals. Then, we estimated porosity and permeability from thin section, using a computational rock physics technique. The estimated porosity of unbleached sample is approximately 13% and that of bleached sample is around 10%, which implies the precipitation of carbonate minerals. The estimated permeability showed a little differences between two samples. This observations seems to imply that the precipitation would occur where permeability is not significantly affected: grain contacts. For more systematic analysis, we obtained 3D pore microstructures by X-ray microtomography technique. The preliminary analysis using the 3D pore microstructures showed similar results to what we found in the thin-section analysis. And a set of simulations for porosity and permeability are now being conducted. The final result will help understand how injected CO2 changes pore structures and physical properties such as porosity and permeability, and will also help accurate monitoring of geological storage sites. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2010201020001A).

  14. Pattern scaling effect on the radiative properties of wafer’s surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a parametric study of the radiative properties of patterned wafers with a polysilicon gate array on the Si substrate, considering the effect of wavelength and polarization. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was employed to examine the pattern scaling effect on the spectral absorptance via numerical solutions of the Maxwell’s equations. The effective medium theory (EMT) was also used to help explain the absorptance predictions. While the gate sizes are very small compared to wavelength, the results show rather unusual phenomena. The absorptance calculated by EMT is in agreement with FDTD in the cases with small gate and period sizes. With the increase of period and decrease of the ratio of the gate width to the grating period, both EMT and FDTD results for the TM (transverse magnetic) mode approach to pure silicon since the grating effect diminishes. However, the error of EMT results for the TE mode in some cases becomes considerable due to the limitation of EMT, which requires the period to be significantly smaller than the wavelength. Besides, the TE (transverse electric) absorptance curve separates from that of plain Si when the wavelength equals the grating period, this is because the gate can interact with its neighbering region by diffraction and the diffraction effects are weak, when the wavelength is small. The peak absorptance can be attributed to the thin film effect. It shows that a slight increase in the gate height can drastically increase the absorptance and the increased gate height shifts the peak absorptance to longer wavelength due to the increase of optical path length in the effective thin film. This work is of great importance for optimization of advanced annealing techniques in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Psychometric properties of the Trauma and Distress Scale, TADS, in an adult community sample in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo K. R. Salokangas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is increasing evidence that a history of childhood abuse and neglect is not uncommon among individuals who experience mental disorder and that childhood trauma experiences are associated with adult psychopathology. Although several interview and self-report instruments for retrospective trauma assessment have been developed, many focus on sexual abuse (SexAb rather than on multiple types of trauma or adversity. Methods: Within the European Prediction of Psychosis Study, the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS was developed as a new self-report assessment of multiple types of childhood trauma and distressing experiences. The TADS includes 43 items and, following previous measures including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, focuses on five core domains: emotional neglect (EmoNeg, emotional abuse (EmoAb, physical neglect (PhyNeg, physical abuse (PhyAb, and SexAb.This study explores the psychometric properties of the TADS (internal consistency and concurrent validity in 692 participants drawn from the general population who completed a mailed questionnaire, including the TADS, a depression self-report and questions on help-seeking for mental health problems. Inter-method reliability was examined in a random sample of 100 responders who were reassessed in telephone interviews. Results: After minor revisions of PhyNeg and PhyAb, internal consistencies were good for TADS totals and the domain raw score sums. Intra-class coefficients for TADS total score and the five revised core domains were all good to excellent when compared to the interviewed TADS as a gold standard. In the concurrent validity analyses, the total TADS and its all core domains were significantly associated with depression and help-seeking for mental problems as proxy measures for traumatisation. In addition, robust cutoffs for the total TADS and its domains were calculated. Conclusions: Our results suggest the TADS as a valid, reliable, and clinically useful

  16. Improving the psychological evaluation of exercise referral: Psychometric properties of the Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Hilton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to assess the psychological outcomes of exercise referral and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence has called for the routine assessment of life-quality. However, a quality of life scale specific to the requirements of exercise referral is currently unavailable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to produce a quality of life measure for this purpose. The Exercise Referral Quality of Life Scale is a 22-item measure comprising three domains: mental and physical health, injury pain and illness and physical activity facilitators. Exploratory factor analysis determined the initial factor structure and was subsequently confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Additional scale properties were also assessed. The scale contributes to the global need for improved consistent psychological outcome assessment of exercise referral.

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Love of Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, Mohammad Kazem Atef; Dadfar, Mahboubeh; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2016-10-01

    A love of life is defined as an overall positive attitude toward life and a liking for life. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of a Persian version of the Love of Life Scale using a convenience sample of 145 Iranian female volunteer college students (M age = 23.0 years, SD = 3.4). The mean score on the Love of Life Scale was 61.08 (SD = 11.40). A principal component analysis with a Varimax rotation yielded two factors labeled (a) Positive Attitude Towards Life and Happy Consequences of Love of Life and (b) Meaningfulness of Life. Cronbach's alpha was .94 and the one-week test-retest reliability was .85. Love of Life Scale scores had significant positive correlations with scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Adult Hope Scale. The scale displayed negative correlations with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and the Wish to be Dead Scale. It was concluded that the Persian form of the Love of Life Scale can be recommended for future research on positive psychology.

  18. Measuring cognitive errors using the Cognitive Distortions Scale (CDS: psychometric properties in clinical and non-clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Özdel

    Full Text Available The Cognitive Distortions Scale was developed to assess thinking errors using case examples in two domains: interpersonal and personal achievement. Although its validity and reliability has been previously demonstrated in non-clinical samples, its psychometric properties and scoring has not yet been evaluated. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Cognitive Distortions Scale in two Turkish samples and to examine the usefulness of the categorical scoring system. A total of 325 individuals (Sample 1 and Sample 2 were enrolled in this study to assess those psychometric properties. Our Sample 1 consisted of 225 individuals working as interns at the Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Teaching and Research Hospital and Sample 2 consisted of 100 patients diagnosed with depression presenting to the outpatient unit of the same Hospital. Construct validity was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire. Factor analyses supported a one-factor model in these clinical and non-clinical samples. Cronbach's α values were excellent in both the non-clinical and clinical samples (0.933 and 0.918 respectively. Cognitive Distortions Scale scores showed significant correlation with relevant clinical measures. Study Cognitive Distortions Scale scores were stable over a time span of two weeks. This study showed that the Cognitive Distortions Scale is a valid and reliable measure in clinical and non-clinical populations. In addition, it shows that the categorical exists/does not exist scoring system is relevant and could be used in clinical settings.

  19. Thermal and volumetric properties of complex aqueous electrolyte solutions using the Pitzer formalism - The PhreeSCALE code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Adeline; Boulahya, Faïza; André, Laurent; Lassin, Arnault; Azaroual, Mohamed; Serin, Jean-Paul; Cézac, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The thermal and volumetric properties of complex aqueous solutions are described according to the Pitzer equation, explicitly taking into account the speciation in the aqueous solutions. The thermal properties are the apparent relative molar enthalpy (Lϕ) and the apparent molar heat capacity (Cp,ϕ). The volumetric property is the apparent molar volume (Vϕ). Equations describing these properties are obtained from the temperature or pressure derivatives of the excess Gibbs energy and make it possible to calculate the dilution enthalpy (∆HD), the heat capacity (cp) and the density (ρ) of aqueous solutions up to high concentrations. Their implementation in PHREEQC V.3 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) is described and has led to a new numerical tool, called PhreeSCALE. It was tested first, using a set of parameters (specific interaction parameters and standard properties) from the literature for two binary systems (Na2SO4-H2O and MgSO4-H2O), for the quaternary K-Na-Cl-SO4 system (heat capacity only) and for the Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4-HCO3 system (density only). The results obtained with PhreeSCALE are in agreement with the literature data when the same standard solution heat capacity (Cp0) and volume (V0) values are used. For further applications of this improved computation tool, these standard solution properties were calculated independently, using the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations. By using this kind of approach, most of the Pitzer interaction parameters coming from literature become obsolete since they are not coherent with the standard properties calculated according to the HKF formalism. Consequently a new set of interaction parameters must be determined. This approach was successfully applied to the Na2SO4-H2O and MgSO4-H2O binary systems, providing a new set of optimized interaction parameters, consistent with the standard solution properties derived from the HKF equations.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Brand Personality Scale: evidence from a business school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Albert; Pitt, Leyland F; Berthon, Pierre; Berthon, J-P

    2007-06-01

    The Brand Personality Scale has received considerable attention and has been frequently used and cited in the branding literature. This paper describes an investigation of the psychometric characteristics of the Brand Personality Scale in a business school context where umbrella branding is used. A sample (N=262) of students attending the MBA program of a major business school in eastern USA completed the scale. Results indicate problems with the scale's dimensionality, poor reliability, convergent and nomological validity of the Ruggedness dimension, and lack of support for discriminant validity. Managerial and research implications and limitations are noted.

  1. [Psychometric Properties of the Metacognition Scales about Rumination in Clinical and Non-clinical Turkish Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Adviye Esin; Sungur, Mehmet Zihni; Konkan, Ramazan; Şenormancı, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish adaptations of the Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale (PBRS) and the Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale (NBRS) in clinical and non-clinical samples. While the non-clinical sample of the study consisted of 455 participants, the clinical sample was composed of 60 major depressive disorder (MDD), 30 panic disorder (PD) and 30 social anxiety disorder (SAD) cases. The results of the factor analyses confirm the construct validity and original factor structure of the scales. Findings obtained from internal consistency and test-retest analyses indicated good reliability for the scales. Supporting the convergent validity of the scales, the correlations between metacognitions about rumination and depressive symptoms, rumination, metacognitions about worry, pathological worry, and anxiety symptoms were found to be positive and significant in the non-clinical sample. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that both scales have predictive validity for depressive symptoms after controlling for anxiety symptoms. As for extreme group comparisons, it supported the criterion-related validity of the scales. In discriminant clinical validity examinations, although both scales were able to differentiate MDD, PD, and SAD groups from healthy controls, they were unable to differentiate the depressive group from the other anxiety disorder groups. A comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the scales demonstrated that both PBRS and NBRS are reliable and valid assessment devices that can be used for research purposes both in clinical and non-clinical groups in Turkey.

  2. Structure-Property Relationships in Atomic-Scale Junctions: Histograms and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybertsen, Mark S; Venkataraman, Latha

    2016-03-15

    Over the past 10 years, there has been tremendous progress in the measurement, modeling and understanding of structure-function relationships in single molecule junctions. Numerous research groups have addressed significant scientific questions, directed both to conductance phenomena at the single molecule level and to the fundamental chemistry that controls junction functionality. Many different functionalities have been demonstrated, including single-molecule diodes, optically and mechanically activated switches, and, significantly, physical phenomena with no classical analogues, such as those based on quantum interference effects. Experimental techniques for reliable and reproducible single molecule junction formation and characterization have led to this progress. In particular, the scanning tunneling microscope based break-junction (STM-BJ) technique has enabled rapid, sequential measurement of large numbers of nanoscale junctions allowing a statistical analysis to readily distinguish reproducible characteristics. Harnessing fundamental link chemistry has provided the necessary chemical control over junction formation, enabling measurements that revealed clear relationships between molecular structure and conductance characteristics. Such link groups (amines, methylsuflides, pyridines, etc.) maintain a stable lone pair configuration that selectively bonds to specific, undercoordinated transition metal atoms available following rupture of a metal point contact in the STM-BJ experiments. This basic chemical principle rationalizes the observation of highly reproducible conductance signatures. Subsequently, the method has been extended to probe a variety of physical phenomena ranging from basic I-V characteristics to more complex properties such as thermopower and electrochemical response. By adapting the technique to a conducting cantilever atomic force microscope (AFM-BJ), simultaneous measurement of the mechanical characteristics of nanoscale junctions as they

  3. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  4. Parsec-Scale Kinematic and Polarization Properties of MOJAVE AGN Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lister Matthew L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the parsec-scale kinematics and statistical polarization properties of 200 AGN jets based on 15 GHz VLBA data obtained between 1994 Aug 31 and 2011 May 1. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12 to 16 year interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ~ 0.5° to ~ 2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5 to 12 y, however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section, and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. The moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features, are slow (< 0.1 mas per y, are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are

  5. Structural and magnetic properties of ultra-small scale eutectic CoFeZr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjura Hoque, S. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Makineni, S.K. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Pal, A.; Ayyub, P. [Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Chattopadhyay, K. [Dept. of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Development of ultra-small scale eutectic CoFeZr alloys. • Hardness of 713 VHN was obtained for Co{sub 49.2}Fe{sub 49.2}Zr by lamellar spacing of 113 nm. • Highest moment of 1.92 μ{sub B} at 5 K was obtained for Co{sub 49.2}Fe{sub 49.2}Zr. • Decay of magnetization at low temperature can be described by spin wave excitation. - Abstract: Aiming to develop high mechanical strength and toughness by tuning ultrafine lamellar spacing of magnetic eutectic alloys, we report the mechanical and magnetic properties of the binary eutectic alloys Co{sub 90.5}Zr{sub 9.5} and Fe{sub 90.2}Zr{sub 9.8}, as well as the pseudo-binary eutectic alloys Co{sub 82.4}Fe{sub 8}Zr{sub 9.6}, Co{sub 78}Fe{sub 12.4}Zr{sub 9.6} and Co{sub 49.2}Fe{sub 49.2}Zr{sub 9.6} developed by suction-casting. The lower lamellar spacing around 100 nm of the eutectics Co{sub 49.2}Fe{sub 49.2}Zr{sub 9.6} yields a high hardness of 713(±20) VHN. Magnetic measurements reveal high magnetic moment of 1.92 μ{sub B} (at 5 K) and 1.82 μ{sub B} (at 300 K) per formula unit for this composition. The magnetization vs. applied field data at 5 K show a directional preference to some extent and therefore smaller non-collinear magnetization behavior compared to Co{sub 11}Zr{sub 2} reported in the literature due to exchange frustration and transverse spin freezing owing to the presence of smaller Zr content. The decay of magnetization as a function of temperature along the easy axis of magnetization of all the eutectic compositions can be described fairly well by the spin wave excitation equation ΔM/M(0) = BT{sup 3/2} + CT{sup 5/2}.

  6. Correlation of Bulk Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties to the Local Scale Phase Transformations, Domain Morphology, and Crystal Structure Modified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priya, Shashank [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Viehland, Dwight [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Three year program entitled “Correlation of bulk dielectric and piezoelectric properties to the local scale phase transformations, domain morphology, and crystal structure in modified lead-free grain-textured ceramics and single crystals” was supported by the Department of Energy. This was a joint research program between D. Viehland and S. Priya at Virginia Tech. Single crystal and textured ceramics have been synthesized and characterized. Our goals have been (i) to conduct investigations of lead-free piezoelectric systems to establish the local structural and domain morphologies that result in enhanced properties, and (ii) to synthesize polycrystalline and grain oriented ceramics for understanding the role of composition, microstructure, and anisotropy

  7. The Effect of Soil Properties on Metal Bioavailability: Field Scale Validation to Support Regulatory Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    speciation of the metals in the soil with the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy including synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe mapping, microbeam X...its chemical speciation and IVBA solubility will depend on the mining waste mineral not soil property. The ability of soil properties (i.e...by soil properties was found for the Cherry Point soil . Differences in Cr chemical speciation in soil may offer an explanation. Water or wastewater

  8. Testing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdikmenli-Demir, Gözde; Demir, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Scale of Ethnocultural Empathy (SEE) was tested using a sample of 348 emerging adult university students living in Turkey. Different from the original scale's four-factor structure, results of principal components analyses and confirmatory factor analyses exposed that there were three factors explaining 45% of…

  9. Psychometric properties of the extended Care Dependency Scale for older persons in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the modified Arabic Care Dependency Scale for self-assessment of older persons in Egypt and to compare these self-assessments to proxy assessments by care givers and family members. Background. The Care Dependency Scale is a

  10. Psychometric properties of the extended Care Dependency Scale for older persons in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Farid, Tamer; Mohammedin, Ahmed; Dijkstra, Ate; Lohrmann, Christa; Dassen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the modified Arabic Care Dependency Scale for self-assessment of older persons in Egypt and to compare these self-assessments to proxy assessments by care givers and family members. Background. The Care Dependency Scale is

  11. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Taiwan Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley; Wang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Hui-Chuang; Huang, Tsu-Lun

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Career Adapt-Ability Scale--Taiwan Form (CAAS-Taiwan Form). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal…

  12. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marco Antonio Pereira; Bardagi, Marucia Patta; Lassance, Maria Celia Pacheco; Magalhaes, Mauro de Oliveira; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Brazilian Form (CAASBrazil) consists of four scales which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to excellent. The…

  13. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric Properties and Relation to Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Savickas, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports construction and initial validation of the United States form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS). The CAAS consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas.…

  14. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Icelandic Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Guobjorg; Kjartansdottir, Guorun Birna; Smaradottir, Sigriour Briet; Einarsdottir, Sif

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics and construct validity of the Icelandic form of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS-Iceland). The CAAS consists of four scales that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. The…

  15. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--South African Form (CAAS) consists of four scales, each with six items that measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  16. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  17. Time-scale invariance as an emergent property in a perceptron with realistic, noisy neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V.; Oprisan, Sorinel A.

    2013-01-01

    In most species, interval timing is time-scale invariant: errors in time estimation scale up linearly with the estimated duration. In mammals, time-scale invariance is ubiquitous over behavioral, lesion, and pharmacological manipulations. For example, dopaminergic drugs induce an immediate, whereas cholinergic drugs induce a gradual, scalar change in timing. Behavioral theories posit that time-scale invariance derives from particular computations, rules, or coding schemes. In contrast, we discuss a simple neural circuit, the perceptron, whose output neurons fire in a clockwise fashion (interval timing) based on the pattern of coincidental activation of its input neurons. We show numerically that time-scale invariance emerges spontaneously in a perceptron with realistic neurons, in the presence of noise. Under the assumption that dopaminergic drugs modulate the firing of input neurons, and that cholinergic drugs modulate the memory representation of the criterion time, we show that a perceptron with realistic neurons reproduces the pharmacological clock and memory patterns, and their time-scale invariance, in the presence of noise. These results suggest that rather than being a signature of higher-order cognitive processes or specific computations related to timing, time-scale invariance may spontaneously emerge in a massively-connected brain from the intrinsic noise of neurons and circuits, thus providing the simplest explanation for the ubiquity of scale invariance of interval timing. PMID:23518297

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive (C-SHARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Although often lacking "malice", aggression is fairly common in children with intellectual or developmental disability (I/DD). Despite this, there are no scales available that are appropriate for an in-depth analysis of aggressive behavior in this population. Such scales are needed for the study of aggressive behavior, which is a common target…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Gifted Students' Coping with Anger and Decision Making Skills Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…

  20. Professor-Student Rapport Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Brief Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The original Professor-Student Rapport Scale contained 34 items and predicted several single-item student outcomes. A high level of internal consistency encouraged the development of a shorter measure in order to address apparent redundancy. Our goals in the current study were to provide psychometric data for the brief version of the scale and to…

  1. Percolation Properties of Nearby Large-Scale Structures: Every Galaxy has a Neighbour

    CERN Document Server

    Fairall, A; Pretorius, M L; Wiehahn, M; McBride, V; de Vaux, G; Woudt, P A; Fairall, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of nearby (cz < 7500 km/s) galaxies has been explored by minimal spanning trees; allowance has been made for the drastic decrease of data with distance. The investigation finds that all galaxies are members of irregular elongated large-scale structures; there are no `field galaxies'. Based on our local large-scale structure, every galaxy appears to have a neighbouring galaxy within <100 km/s (1.4 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) of redshift space, and thereby all galaxies are found to lie in filaments or tree configurations. Every large-scale structure appears to have a neighbouring large-scale structure within <700 km/s (10 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc), such that large-scale structures interconnect to form a continuous labyrinth.

  2. Controlling mechanical properties of bio-inspired hydrogels by modulating nano-scale, inter-polymeric junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonki Hong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinone tanning is a well-characterized biochemical process found in invertebrates, which produce diverse materials from extremely hard tissues to soft water-resistant adhesives. Herein, we report new types of catecholamine PEG derivatives, PEG-NH-catechols that can utilize an expanded spectrum of catecholamine chemistry. The PEGs enable simultaneous participation of amine and catechol in quinone tanning crosslinking. The intermolecular reaction between PEG-NH-catechols forms a dramatic nano-scale junction resulting in enhancement of gelation kinetics and mechanical properties of PEG hydrogels compared to results obtained by using PEGs in the absence of amine groups. Therefore, the study provides new insight into designing new crosslinking chemistry for controlling nano-scale chemical reactions that can broaden unique properties of bulk hydrogels.

  3. Strategy to document heterogeneity in soil properties and its impact on water transfers from slope to catchment scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohard, J.; Robert, D.; Descloitres, M.; Vandervaere, J.; Braud, I.; Vauclin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneity in soil properties has been identified to impact water transfers at different scales from vertical column, hillslopes to watershed. Thus Distributed physically based hydrological models require distributed hydraulic characteristics to quantify these impacts. To characterize soil properties and their heterogeneity, a multi-scale sampling strategy was proposed based on distributed information including electromagnetic survey maps, topography and land use coverage. Each identified units are characterized by there hydraulic properties including in situ infiltration tests. This strategy was applied over the Ara Catchment (12km2) in northern Benin. It has been instrumented in the framework of the AMMA-Catch experimental network in West Africa, to better determine water resources and to investigate possible hydrological retro-action on monsoon cycle. From hydrological point of view, distributed soil hydraulic properties are supposed to impact water transfers and watershed dynamics all along the monsoon cycle. To document this heterogeneity, an electrical conductivity map and geological survey was used as starting points to identify the ground structures which align with the north-south direction with a dip angle of 20° east. A total of 20 pits have been opened to document the 0-2m horizons, and 2 more for the 0-5m horizons. 3 pits were digged within each geological structure areas at the surface. In each pit, the retention and hydraulic conductivity curves of each pedological horizon were characterized with three replicates. This database is used to document the variability of these properties and to produce soil hydraulic property maps. Using the variability information, we tested their impact with the Parflow-CLM 3D distributed model. It was run in an homogeneous configuration and compared with a data controlled heterogeneous configuration. The latest is prepared using a turning band algorithm to distribute soil hydraulic properties.

  4. The Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish Language Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Champagne, Brian R.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a uni-dimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not be...

  5. Subtask 12A2: Fabrication and properties of laboratory-scale heat of V-5Cr-5Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The immediate objective of this work is to fabricate a new laboratory-scale heat of V-5Cr-5Ti and identify optimal annealing procedure that produces the highest impact toughness in the alloy. By comparing the result with the optimal annealing procedure identified for the production- and laboratory-scale heats of V-4Cr-4Ti, the eventual objective of the study is to demonstrate that excellent and reliable mechanical properties of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy class can be produced through a common annealing procedure. Impact properties were determined on a new 15-kg laboratory heat of V-5Cr-5Ti, fabricated by the same procedures as those used to produce the 500-kg production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti, to identify optimal annealing procedure of the alloy. Charpy-impact tests were conducted on one-third-size specimens because low-temperature (<0{degrees}C) impact properties have been known to be most sensitive to the structure and quality of V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy class. After final annealing at {approx}1000{degrees}C for 1 h in high-quality vacuum, the laboratory heat V-5Cr-5Ti exhibited impact properties as excellent as those of the production-scale heat V-4Cr-4Ti; i.e., DBTT < -200{degrees}C and absorbed energies of 10-16 J. This demonstrates that when annealed at common optimal condition of 1000{degrees}C for 1 h, the V-(4-5)Cr-(4-5)Ti alloy class exhibit excellent impact toughness and a sufficient tolerance to minor variations in alloying element composition. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Arabic Version of PSS Stress Measuring Scale in the Moroccan Population

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal Ben Loubir; Zeineb Serhier; Omar Battas; Mohamed Agoub; Mohammed Bennani Othmani

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the classic Arabic version of the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10) in a large sample of Moroccan population. A cross-sectional survey was yielded between December 2013 and January 2014 following an accidental sampling. Individuals aged above 18, from different socioeconomic categories, were invited to take part in the study. The participants had c...

  7. Scaling properties of field ionization of Rydberg atoms in single-cycle THz pulses: 1D considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueny, H.; Chovancova, M.; Hansen, J. P.; Kocbach, L.

    2016-12-01

    In recent experiments of single-cycle field ionization of excited Na(nd) atoms with principal quantum number n\\in [6,15] (Li and Jones 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 143006) it was shown that the maximum field intensity necessary to ionize 10% of the atoms decreases with increasing n according to an {n}-3 power law dependence. This scaling property at the same ionization probability was confirmed in classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. In this work we note that the scaling relation in the experiment is much more general, it is in fact valid for all ionization probabilities. When applied to the emitted electron energies it places a very wide distribution of electron momenta from different initial states onto a narrow range. These aspects are investigated in a one-dimensional model with a 3D hydrogen-like spectrum. Calculations confirm the general {n}-3 scaling relation for the ionization probability and that this particular scaling of the kinetic emission spectrum puts the ejected electron momenta on a narrow common scale. The ionization mechanism itself is identified as quantum mechanical tunneling and the nature of the tunneling process is the direct origin of the scaling law.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Slovak and Czech Versions of the Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs and Implementation Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleníková, Renáta; Gurková, Elena; Žiaková, Katarína; Tomagová, Martina; Jarošová, Darja; Fineout-Overholt, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The Evidence-Based Practice Beliefs (EBP-B) and Evidence-Based Practice Implementation (EBP-I) scales are psychometrically sound instruments that were used, within an educational setting, to systematically study students' beliefs about and their implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). Czech and Slovak versions of these instruments were developed and evaluated using a sample population of nursing students. The purpose of the study was to test the psychometric properties of the Czech and Slovak versions of the EBP-B and EBP-I scales. Psychometric properties were evaluated using a sample of undergraduate and graduate (nearly graduated) nursing students (n = 223) completing EBP courses. To test psychometric properties of the questionnaire, its reliability and validity were explored. Cronbach´s alpha was computed to evaluate internal structure and internal consistency. The Slovak versions of both the EBP-B and the EBP-I scale have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: .82 and .94, respectively). Similarly, the Czech versions of the EBP-B and the EBP-I scales both have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: .85 and .89, respectively). The results of psychometric analysis of the Czech and Slovak versions of the EBP-B and the EBP-I scales are consistent with the results of the original study and indicate that the Czech and Slovak versions have the potential to be valid, reliable, and sensitive instruments for measuring an individual's beliefs about the value of EBP and their ability to implement it. Both instruments can be used to assess changes in nurses´ beliefs about EBP over time as well as the effectiveness of strategies aimed at promoting the use of evidence in practice. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Metric properties of the Achenbach's Youth Self-Report (YSR scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Novak

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Two problems regarding Youth Self-Report (YSR in translation to Slovene language and modifications are discussed. The scale evaluates general psychopathology. YSR consists of eight scales (Withdrawn, Somatic complaints, Anxious/depressed, Social problems, Thought problems, Attention problems, Delinquent behavior, Agressive behavior and two general factors (internalizing, externalizing. Objective of the first part is to determine item and scale discrimination between referred and non-referred adolescents (applicability in Slovene culture. The second objective is to determine the prediction value by comparing these diagnoses to ICD-10 diagnoses. YSRs were completed by referred and non-referred adolescents (11-18 years matched by gender, age and socio-economic status. The comparison showed high reliability of some scales. The majority of scales as well as both general factors discriminate well between referred and non-referred youths. Some scales, however, have big discriminant power on sex and age. It was found out that YSR can predict well some of the ICD-10 diagnoses (conduct disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder while it is inappropriate to predict other diagnoses. Suggestions of how to change expressions at some items in Slovene version were made. Besides, more exact names of some scales are required.

  10. Using scale dependent variation in soil properties to describe soil landscape relationships through DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corstanje, Ronald; Mayr, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    DSM formalizes the relationship between soil forming factors and the landscape in which they are formed and aims to capture and model the intrinsic spatial variability naturally observed in soils. Covariates, the landscape factors recognized as governing soil formation, vary at different scales and this spatial variation at some scales may be more strongly correlated with soil than at others. Soil forming factors have different domains with distinctive scales, for example geology operates at a coarser scale than land use. By understanding the quantitative relationships between soil and soil forming factors, and their scale dependency, we can start determining the importance of landscape level processes on the formation and observed variation in soils. Three study areas, covered by detailed reconnaissance soil survey, were identified in the Republic of Ireland. Their different pedological and geomorphological characteristics allowed to test scale dependent behaviors across the spectrum of conditions present in the Irish landscape. We considered here three approaches, i) an empirical diagnostic tool in which DSM was applied across a range of scales (20 to 260 m2), ii) the application of wavelets to decompose the DEMs into a series of independent components at varying scales and then used in DSM and finally, iii) a multiscale, window based geostatistical based approach. Applied as a diagnostic approach, we found that wavelets and window based, multiscale geostatistics were effective in identifying the main scales of interaction of the key soil landscape factors (e.g. terrain, geology, land use etc.) and in partitioning the landscape accordingly, we were able to accurately reproduce the observed spatial variation in soils.

  11. Scaling properties of adsorption energies for hydrogen-containing molecules on transition-metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip; Studt, Felix

    2007-01-01

    with the adsorption energy of the central, C, N, O, or S atom, the scaling constant depending only on x. A model is proposed to understand this behavior. The scaling model is developed into a general framework for estimating the reaction energies for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.......Density functional theory calculations are presented for CHx, x=0,1,2,3, NHx, x=0,1,2, OHx, x=0,1, and SHx, x=0,1 adsorption on a range of close-packed and stepped transition-metal surfaces. We find that the adsorption energy of any of the molecules considered scales approximately...

  12. Psychometric properties of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale with adult male sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatman, Anthony W; Swogger, Marc T; Love, Keisha; Cook, Michelle D

    2009-03-01

    This research project investigates the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) when used with a sample of convicted, adult male sexual offenders. Results confirm the two-factor structure (Denial and Attribution) originally proposed by the authors (Study 1, n = 247). Results also reveal that the full-scale MCSDS has strong internal consistency estimates (Study 1), discriminant and convergent validity (Study 2, n = 91), and test-retest reliability over a 3-week period (Study 3, n = 74). Information is provided to aid evaluators' interpretation of MCSDS full-scale and factor scores when used with male adult sexual offenders.

  13. Universal properties of 3d O(4) symmetric models: The scaling function of the free energy density and its derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2011-01-01

    We present direct representations of the scaling functions of the 3d O(4) model which are relevant for comparisons to other models, in particular QCD. This is done in terms of expansions in the scaling variable z=t/h^{1/\\beta\\delta}. The expansions around z=0 and the corresponding asymptotic ones for z --> +/- infty, overlap such that no interpolation is needed. We explicitly present the expansion coefficients which have been determined numerically from data of a previous high statistics simulation of the O(4) model on a three-dimensional lattice of linear extension L=120. This allows to derive smooth representations of the first three derivatives of the scaling function of the free energy density, which determine universal properties of up to sixth order cumulants of net charge fluctuations in QCD.

  14. Scaling properties of the perturbative Wilson loop in two-dimensional non-commutative Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bassetto, A; Torrielli, A

    2002-01-01

    Commutative Yang-Mills theories in 1+1 dimensions exhibit an interesting interplay between geometrical properties and U(N) gauge structures: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with $n$ windings a non trivial scaling intertwines $n$ and $N$. In the non-commutative case the interplay becomes tighter owing to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries in a larger group $U(\\infty)$. We perform an explicit perturbative calculation of such a loop up to ${\\cal O}(g^6)$; rather surprisingly, we find that in the contribution from the crossed graphs (the genuine non-commutative terms) the scaling we mentioned occurs for large $n$ and $N$ in the limit of maximal non-commutativity $\\theta=\\infty$. We present arguments in favour of the persistence of such a scaling at any perturbative order and succeed in summing the related perturbative series.

  15. A review of the psychometric properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS family of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodson Sarity

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales was developed to routinely measure outcomes for adults with mental illness. Comparable instruments were also developed for children and adolescents (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents and older people (the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales 65+. All three are being widely used as outcome measures in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. There is, however, no comprehensive review of these instruments. This paper fills this gap by reviewing the psychometric properties of each. Method Articles and reports relating to the instruments were retrieved, and their findings synthesised to assess the instruments' validity (content, construct, concurrent, predictive, reliability (test-retest, inter-rater, sensitivity to change, and feasibility/utility. Results Mostly, the instruments perform adequately or better on most dimensions, although some of their psychometric properties warrant closer examination. Conclusion Collectively, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales family of measures can assess outcomes for different groups on a range of mental health-related constructs, and can be regarded as appropriate for routinely monitoring outcomes.

  16. Brain scale-free properties in awake rest and NREM sleep: a simultaneous EEG/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Wang, Yulin; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Antao

    2015-03-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed that spontaneous activity in the brain has scale-invariant properties, as indicated by a frequency spectrum that follows a power-law distribution. However, current knowledge about the exact relationship between scaling properties in EEG and fMRI signals is very limited. To address this question, we collected simultaneous EEG-fMRI data in healthy individuals during resting wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. For either of these conditions, we found that both EEG and fMRI power spectra followed a power-law distribution. Furthermore, the EEG and fMRI scaling exponents were highly variable across subjects, and sensitive to the choice of reference and nuisance variables in EEG and fMRI data, respectively. Interestingly, the EEG exponent of the whole brain selectively corresponded to the fMRI exponent of the thalamus during NREM sleep. Together, our findings suggest that scale-free brain activity is characterized by robust temporal structures and behavioral significance. This motivates future studies to unravel its physiological mechanisms, as well as its relevance to behavior.

  17. Investigation of psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis in patients with hemiplegic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Choi, Yoo Im

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis in patients with hemiplegic stroke. [Subjects] Fifty-five community-dwelling hemiplegic stroke patients were selected as participants. [Methods] Data were analyzed using the Winsteps program (version 3.62) with the Rasch model to confirm the unidimensionality through item fit, reliability, and appropriateness of the rating scale. [Results] There were no misfit persons or items. Furthermore, infit and outfit statistics appeared adjacent. The person separation value was 3.07, and the reliability coefficient was 0.90. The reliability of all items was at an acceptable level for patients with hemiplegic stroke. [Conclusion] This was the first study to investigate the psychometric properties of the Falls Efficacy Scale using Rasch analysis. The results of this study suggest that the 6-point Falls Efficacy Scale is an appropriate tool for measuring the self-perceived fear of falling in patients with hemiplegic stroke.

  18. Properties of the patient administered questionnaires: new scales measuring physical and psychological symptoms of hip and knee disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carol A; Ranawat, Amar S; Meftah, Morteza; Koob, Trevor W; Ranawat, Chitranjan S

    2012-04-01

    The Patient Administered Questionnaires (PAQ) incorporate physical and psychological symptoms into one scale and permit more comprehensive self-reports for hip and knee disorders. We tested the psychometric properties of the PAQ-Hip and PAQ-Knee. Correlations between baseline PAQ-Hip and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were .39 to .72 (n = 102), .39 to .69 for score change (n = 68 post-total hip arthroplasty), and most κ values > .60 (n = 50). Correlations between baseline PAQ-Knee and WOMAC were .35 to .64 (n = 100), .62 to .79 for score change (n = 43 post-total knee arthroplasty), and most κ values >.60 (n = 51). For both scales, effect sizes were higher than for the WOMAC, and there was modest correlation between physical and psychological questions, indicating these concepts are not completely interchangeable. Thus, the PAQ scales have strong psychometric properties and are unique compared with existing scales by including physical and psychological symptoms.

  19. Measuring Alcohol Marketing Engagement: The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela; Morse, David T; Hood, Kristina; Walker, Courtney

    Ample evidence exists in support of the influence of media, both traditional and electronic, on perceptions and engagement with alcohol marketing. We describe the development, calibration, and evidence for technical quality and utility for a new measure, the Alcohol Marketing Engagement Scale. Using two samples of college undergraduates (n1 = 199, n2 = 732), we collected field test responses to a total of 13 items. Initial support for scale validity is presented via correlations with attributes previously shown to be related to alcohol engagement. While the joint map of estimated scale locations of items and respondents indicates the need for further scale development, the results of the present analyses are promising. Implications for use in research are discussed.

  20. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12 evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha with only one factor that explains 98.1% of its variance and adequate goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. We also analyzed differences between men and women founding higher scores in men than in women.

  1. Voxel Scale Complex Networks of Functional Connectivity in the Rat Brain: Neurochemical State Dependence of Global and Local Topological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Schwarz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis of functional imaging data reveals emergent features of the brain as a function of its topological properties. However, the brain is not a homogeneous network, and the dependence of functional connectivity parameters on neuroanatomical substrate and parcellation scale is a key issue. Moreover, the extent to which these topological properties depend on underlying neurochemical changes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated both global statistical properties and the local, voxel-scale distribution of connectivity parameters of the rat brain. Different neurotransmitter systems were stimulated by pharmacological challenge (d-amphetamine, fluoxetine, and nicotine to discriminate between stimulus-specific functional connectivity and more general features of the rat brain architecture. Although global connectivity parameters were similar, mapping of local connectivity parameters at high spatial resolution revealed strong neuroanatomical dependence of functional connectivity in the rat brain, with clear differentiation between the neocortex and older brain regions. Localized foci of high functional connectivity independent of drug challenge were found in the sensorimotor cortices, consistent with the high neuronal connectivity in these regions. Conversely, the topological properties and node roles in subcortical regions varied with neurochemical state and were dependent on the specific dynamics of the different functional processes elicited.

  2. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  3. Direct determination of three-phase contact line properties on nearly molecular scale

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, P. M.; McGraw, R. L.; Bauer, P. S.; Rentenberger, C.; Wagner, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Wetting phenomena in multi-phase systems govern the shape of the contact line which separates the different phases. For liquids in contact with solid surfaces wetting is typically described in terms of contact angle. While in macroscopic systems the contact angle can be determined experimentally, on the molecular scale contact angles are hardly accessible. Here we report the first direct experimental determination of contact angles as well as contact line curvature on a scale of the order of ...

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Kazdin, Alan E.; Knorth, Erik J.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Expectations concerning barriers to children's psychosocial care seem to be major drivers when seeking help, but validated questionnaires measuring expectations are not available. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties of the parent and adolescent versions of the Barriers to

  5. The 'emergent scaling' phenomenon and the dielectric properties of random resistor-capacitor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bouamrane, R

    2003-01-01

    An efficient algorithm, based on the Frank-Lobb reduction scheme, for calculating the equivalent dielectric properties of very large random resistor-capacitor (R-C) networks has been developed. It has been used to investigate the network size and composition dependence of dielectric properties and their statistical variability. The dielectric properties of 256 samples of random networks containing: 512, 2048, 8192 and 32 768 components distributed randomly in the ratios 60% R-40% C, 50% R-50% C and 40% R-60% C have been computed. It has been found that these properties exhibit the anomalous power law dependences on frequency known as the 'universal dielectric response' (UDR). Attention is drawn to the contrast between frequency ranges across which percolation determines dielectric response, where considerable variability is found amongst the samples, and those across which power laws define response where very little variability is found between samples. It is concluded that the power law UDRs are emergent pr...

  6. Characterization of scale-free properties of human electrocorticography in awake and slow wave sleep states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Zempel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like many complex dynamic systems, the brain exhibits scale-free dynamics that follow power law scaling. Broadband power spectral density (PSD of brain electrical activity exhibits state-dependent power law scaling with a log frequency exponent that varies across frequency ranges. Widely divergent naturally occurring neural states, awake and slow wave sleep (SWS periods, were used evaluate the nature of changes in scale-free indices. We demonstrate two analytic approaches to characterizing electrocorticographic (ECoG data obtained during Awake and SWS states. A data driven approach was used, characterizing all available frequency ranges. Using an Equal Error State Discriminator (EESD, a single frequency range did not best characterize state across data from all six subjects, though the ability to distinguish awake and SWS states in individual subjects was excellent. Multisegment piecewise linear fits were used to characterize scale-free slopes across the entire frequency range (0.2-200 Hz. These scale-free slopes differed between Awake and SWS states across subjects, particularly at frequencies below 10 Hz and showed little difference at frequencies above 70 Hz. A Multivariate Maximum Likelihood Analysis (MMLA method using the multisegment slope indices successfully categorized ECoG data in most subjects, though individual variation was seen. The ECoG spectrum is not well characterized by a single linear fit across a defined set of frequencies, but is best described by a set of discrete linear fits across the full range of available frequencies. With increasing computational tractability, the use of scale-free slope values to characterize EEG data will have practical value in clinical and research EEG studies.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Social Constraints Scale in a sample of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Tsikkinis, Annivas; Papastylianou, Dona; Lepore, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Social Constraints Scale, developed in English by Lepore and Ituarte (1999). The scale was culturally adapted in Greek and was then administered, along with measures of psychological distress and intrusions, to a sample of 202 women with breast cancer, recruited from July 2012 to October 2013. Although the scale has usually been treated as a unidimensional measure, exploratory factor analysis revealed three underlying factors in the Greek Social Constraints Scale: unsupportive behaviors, avoidant behaviors, and suggestions for pretense and distraction. The three-factor solution explained 55% of the total variance. Subscale reliability was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.88). All subscales were significantly related to intrusions and psychological distress. Thus, the Greek Social Constraints Scale is a reliable and valid multidimensional instrument. The results of the present study show that, among all kinds of social constraints, unsupportive behaviors are the most highly correlated with distress, while distraction/pretense is most correlated with intrusiveness. Findings suggested that health professionals should aim to educate both the patient to claim her right to express feelings and thoughts and her social network to adopt disclosure-facilitating behaviors to compensate for intrusiveness and distress.

  8. Implementing ground surface deformation tools to characterize field-scale properties of a fractured aquifer during a short hydraulic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Boudin, Frédérick; Durand, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    In naturally fractured reservoirs, fluid flow is governed by the structural and hydromechanical properties of fracture networks or conductive fault zones. In order to ensure a sustained exploitation of resources or to assess the safety of underground storage, it is necessary to evaluate these properties. As they generally form highly heterogeneous and anisotropic reservoirs, fractured media may be well characterized by means of several complementary experimental methods or sounding techniques. In this framework, the observation of ground deformation has been proved useful to gain insight of a fractured reservoir's geometry and hydraulic properties. Commonly, large conductive structures like faults can be studied from surface deformation from satellite methods at monthly time scales, whereas meter scale fractures have to be examined under short-term in situ experiments using high accuracy intruments like tiltmeters or extensometers installed in boreholes or at the ground's surface. To the best of our knowledge, the feasability of a field scale (~ 100 m) characterization of a fractured reservoir with geodetic tools in a short term experiment has not yet been addressed. In the present study, we implement two complementary ground surface geodetic tools, namely tiltmetry and optical leveling, to monitor the deformation induced by a hydraulic recovery test at the Ploemeur hydrological observatory (France). Employing a simple purely elastic modeling approach, we show that the joint use of time constraining data (tilt) and spatially constraining data (vertical displacement) makes it possible to evaluate the geometry (dip, root depth and lateral extent) and the storativity of a hydraulically active fault zone, in good agreement with previous studies. Hence we demonstrate that the adequate use of two complementary ground surface deformation methods offer a rich insight of large conductive structure's properties using a single short term hydraulic load. Ground surface

  9. Measurement properties of the brief resilient coping scale in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus using rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pina, José-Antonio; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belén; Gascón-Cánovas, Juan-José; Navarro-Villalba, Dérlis-Julián; Sinclair, Vaughn G; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-09-13

    Resilience has been defined as the capacity or the ability to rebound from and positively adapt to significant stressors, despite experiences of significant adversity or trauma. To capture to what extent an individual copes with stress in a resilient fashion the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) was developed. This tool was validated in people with chronic disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis using standard psychometric techniques of classical test theory, but not yet in patients with Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale in patients with SLE using Rasch analysis. This study used cross-sectional data. The BRCS was administered to 232 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The aspects analyzed were unidimensionality, local independence and differential item functioning (DIF) to construct an interpretative scale of scores with the Rasch model. Rating scale mode (RSM) showed that the four categories used in the items of the BRCS are properly ordered. The four items provided a good fit to the polytomous Rasch model. Moreover, the parameters were sufficiently separated to measure resilience in patients with SLE. BRCS is a unidimensional scale (eigenvalue = 1.843) of resilience and the items were locally independent. There was no DIF between males and females in the sample. Only marginally significant differences depending on the level of education were found. The BRCS showed adequate discriminant validity between groups of scores. BRCS is a suitable scale for measuring resilience in patients with SLE. This scale might be useful for clinicians to obtain information concerning the degree of resilience that each patient has, allowing individuals with low resilience to be identified who need interventions aimed at developing coping skills.

  10. Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS): secondary analysis of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Torres-Castro, Sara; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-09

    The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) has been widely used and has proven to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing satisfaction with life in diverse population groups, however, research on satisfaction with life and validation of different measuring instruments in Mexican adults is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) in a representative sample of Mexican adults. This is a methodological study to evaluate a satisfaction with life scale in a sample of 13,220 Mexican adults 50 years of age or older from the 2012 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) was analysed using Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations. An exploratory factor analysis was also performed. Known-groups validity was evaluated comparing good-health and bad-health participants. Comorbidity, perceived financial situation, self-reported general health, depression symptoms, and social support were included to evaluate the validity between these measures and the total score of the scale using Spearman's correlations. The analysis of the scale's reliability showed good internal consistency (α = 0.74). The exploratory factor analysis confirmed the existence of a unique factor structure that explained 54% of the variance. SWLS was related to depression, perceived health, financial situation, and social support, and these relations were all statistically significant (P life satisfaction between the good- and bad-health groups. Results show good internal consistency and construct validity of the SWLS. These results are comparable with results from previous studies. Meeting the study's objective to validate the scale, the results show that the Spanish version of the SWLS is a reliable and valid measure of satisfaction with life in the Mexican context.

  11. Adaptation and psychometric properties of the SBI-U scale for Academic Burnout in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Boada-Grau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to draw up a Spanish adaptation for university students of the School Burnout Inventory (SBI 9-item scale. This entailed a double adaptation, on the one hand from English into Spanish and then from secondary school students to university students. The scale was applied to 578 university students (25.7% men; 74.3% women from different regions in Spain. The findings indicate that the University students-SBI has the same structure as the original version in English for secondary school students. This was confirmed by factor analysis that pointed to the existence of three factors: Exhaustion, Cynicism and Inadequacy. Furthermore, the three subscales showed acceptable reliability (between .77 and .70 In addition to this, indications of validity were found using eighteen external correlates and seven contrast scales. Finally the SBI-U constitutes a potentially useful instrument for evaluating academic burnout in university students.

  12. Psychometric Properties in Bulgarian Adaptation of Lie Scale From M. Bond’s Defense Styles Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Stoyanova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from the Bulgarian adaptation of Lie Scale from M. Bond’s questionnaire measuring defense styles and defensemechanisms. 994 subjects between 15 and 56 years participated in the study. All items had an optimal difficulty, and good discriminativepower. The factor structure of the scale was confirmed. Its reliability as internal consistency and test-retest reliability is acceptable. The normswere defined for the whole sample, not differentiated by social categories, because there were not any significant differences on the scalescore between the social categories of people. There were some significant differences on some items in gender, age sub-groups, familystatus, and occupation. These differences were consistent with some other authors’ findings when using some other scales measuring socialdesirability.

  13. Attitude toward euthanasia scale: psychometric properties and relations with religious orientation, personality, and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Wasserman, Jason Adam

    2013-12-01

    End-of-life decisions (ELDs) represent a controversial subject, with ethical dilemmas and empirical ambiguities that stand at the intersection of ethics and medicine. In a non-Western population, we examined individual differences in perceiving ELDs that end the life of a patient as acceptable and found that an attitude toward euthanasia (ATE) scale consists of 2 factors representing voluntary and nonvoluntary euthanasia. Also, acceptance of ELDs that end the life of a patient negatively correlated with life satisfaction, honesty-humility, conscientiousness, and intrinsic and extrinsic personal motivation toward religion. These findings provided additional construct validity of the ATE scale.

  14. Petrophysical analysis of regional-scale thermal properties for improved simulations of geothermal installations and basin-scale heat and fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, Andreas; Clauser, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Development of geothermal energy and basin-scale simulations of fluid and heat flow both suffer from uncertain physical rock properties at depth. Therefore, building better prognostic models are required. We analysed hydraulic and thermal properties of the major rock types in the Molasse Basin in Southern Germany. On about 400 samples thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and sonic velocity were measured. Here, we propose a three-step procedure with increasing complexity for analysis of the data set: First, univariate descriptive statistics provides a general understanding of the data structure, possibly still with large uncertainty. Examples show that the remaining uncertainty can be as high as 0.8 W/(m K) or as low as 0.1 W/(m K). This depends on the possibility to subdivide the geologic units into data sets that are also petrophysically similar. Then, based on all measurements, cross-plot and quick-look methods are used to gain more insight into petrophysical relationships and to refine the analysis. Be...

  15. On the properties of slow mhd sausage waves within small-scale photospheric magnetic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Freij, N; Morton, R J; Ruderman, M S; Karlovsky, V; Erdekyi, R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of magneto-acoustic waves in magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere is well-documented. Applying the technique of solar magneto-seismology (SMS) allows us to infer the background properties of these structures. Here, we aim to identify properties of the observed magneto-acoustic waves and study the background properties of magnetic structures within the lower solar atmosphere. Using the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instruments, we captured two series of high-resolution intensity images with short cadence of two isolated magnetic pores. Combining wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD), we determined characteristic periods within the cross-sectional (i.e., area) and intensity time series. Then, by applying the theory of linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we identified the mode of these oscillations within the MHD framework. Several oscillations have been detected within these two magnetic pores. Their periods range from 3 to ...

  16. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  17. Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD

  18. Sedimentary Facies Controls on the Upscaling of Petrophysical Properties from Core to Log Scales and Its Implications to Petroleum Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuKeyu; BrettTopham; LincolnPaterson; PeterEadington; PangXiongqi

    2004-01-01

    The clastic sedimentary realm comprises a number of genetically distinct depositional systems, which are dominated by distinct depositional processes. A variogram and a Levy-stable probability distribution-based geostatistical method have been applied to analyze petrophysical properties from well logs and cores from a variety of depositional environments in sedimentary basins from Australia to quantify the heterogeneity and upscaling range of different depositional systems. Two reservoir sequences with contrasting sedimentary facies, depositional processes and a diagenetic history are investigated for their petrographic, petrophysical and log characters and their scaling behaviour. The microscopic derived petrophysical parameters, including visual porosity, grain size, sorting and amount of matrix, core plug measured porosity and permeability and log-derived V-shale, porosity and permeability, have been found to be well correlated (]R]=0.72 to 0.91) across all the scales for the reservoir sequence deposited under a single predominant depositional process and a gradational change of the energy regime (Bilyara-1). In contrast, for the reservoir sequence (East Swan-2), which was deposited in heterogeneous processes and underwent diagenetic alteration, the crosscorrelation of the petrophysical properties derived from the three different scales is extremely poor (|R|=0.01-0.54). Logderived porosity and permeability for a thinly bedded reservoir sequence with an individual bed thinner than one metre can therefore be affected by the intrinsic averaging effects of the logging tools.

  19. Evaluating the Properties of the Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS) in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melas, Christos D.; Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    The Evidence-Based Practice Attitude Scale (EBPAS; Aarons, 2004) is a relatively new construct for the study of attitudes toward the adoption of innovation and evidence-based practices (EBPs) in mental health service settings. Despite widespread interest in measuring the attitudes of health care providers in conjunction with the adoption of EBPs,…

  20. Psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Global Transformational Leadership (GTL scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia van Beveren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to adapt and consequently validate theGlobal Transformational Leadershipmeasuring scale (GTL. The scale was therefore applied to a sample of 456 members of 70 work groups, belonging to 26 organizations. The factorial structure of the scale was analysed through the exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, with the sample being split in two equal parts: EFA was conducted in both sub-samples and CFA was applied in the second sub-sample. The internal consistency was evaluated via Cronbach's alpha and the nomological validity was analysed via the evaluation of the GTL's correlations with both team-level autonomy and quality of group experience. The results revealed the presence of a unidimensional scale with a good level of internal consistency. Regarding the nomological validity, the results pointed to hypothetical relations, since the GTL showed positive correlations with the variables considered. Thus, the Portuguese version of the GTL is presented as a useful instrument for evaluating transformational leadership.

  1. Scale dependence of the hydraulic properties of a fractured aquifer estimated using transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, D.; Russian, A.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Dentz, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present an investigation of the scale dependence of hydraulic parameters in fractured media based on the concept of transfer functions (TF). TF methods provide an inexpensive way to perform aquifer parameter estimation, as they relate the fluctuations of an observation time series (hydraulic head fluctuations) to an input function (aquifer recharge) in frequency domain. Fractured media are specially sensitive to this approach as hydraulic parameters are strongly scale-dependent, involving nonstationary statistical distributions. Our study is based on an extensive data set, involving up to 130 measurement points with periodic head measurements that in some cases extend for more than 30 years. For each point, we use a single-porosity and dual-continuum TF formulation to obtain a distribution of transmissivities and storativities in both mobile and immobile domains. Single-porosity TF estimates are compared with data obtained from the interpretation of over 60 hydraulic tests (slug and pumping tests). Results show that the TF is able to estimate the scale dependence of the hydraulic parameters, and it is consistent with the behavior of estimates from traditional hydraulic tests. In addition, the TF approach seems to provide an estimation of the system variance and the extension of the ergodic behavior of the aquifer (estimated in approximately 500 m in the analyzed aquifer). The scale dependence of transmissivity seems to be independent from the adopted formulation (single or dual-continuum), while storativity is more sensitive to the presence of multiple continua.

  2. Psychodiagnostic Properties of the Piotr Oles´ "Internal Dialogical Activity Scale"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astretsov, D. A.; Leontiev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of internal dialogue and how it is understood in various schools of psychological research, including both Russia and abroad. The authors briefly investigate how the concept was understood by Mikhail Bakhtin, Lev Vygotsky, G.M. Kuchinskii, and Hubert Hermans. The "Internal Dialogical Activity Scale"…

  3. Entrepreneurial governance: challenges of large-scale property-led urban regeneration projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasan-Kok, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale urban regeneration projects become highly complex as they involve multiple actors with different expectations. In general, the implementation of such projects entails building governance regimes at the city or regional level, but this often means forging partnerships between public and p

  4. Examining the measurement properties of the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) in paramedic education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Webb, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    Healthcare systems are continuing searching for alternative service delivery models while at the same time also promoting interprofessional practice and cooperation among workers. One scale that aims to measure interprofessional cooperation is the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS), although limited psychometric testing on its validity and reliability has been carried out. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the dimensionality and internal consistency of the IEPS (suggested by McFadyen and colleagues) when completed by a group of paramedic undergraduates. Data from the IEPS were analysed with a factor analysis using a Principal Axis Factoring (PAF) with Oblique Oblimin rotation. A total of (n=303) undergraduate paramedic students participated in the study who reported having positive attitudes towards interprofessional cooperation. Factor analysis of the 12-items revealed two factors with eigenvalues above 1, accounting for 53.85% of the total variance. Items with loadings greater than ±.30, with the factor in question were used to describe the two factors: Cooperation and Teamwork, and Positivity. While data from this study produced a multi-dimensional scale with adequate eigenvalues and communalities, improvements to the scales internal consistency can be made with future data sets. The results from the IEPS suggest that undergraduate paramedics have positive regard towards interprofessional cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-France Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Anxiety and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyaud, Jacques; Vignoli, Emmanuelle; Dosnon, Odile; Lallemand, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    The CAAS-France Form consists of four scales, each with six items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from moderate to good. The factor structure was…

  6. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Korea Form: Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Jinkook

    2012-01-01

    The Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS)--Korea Form consists of four subscales, each with six items. The subscales measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from…

  7. Exploring radio and jet properties across the black hole mass scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, P.C.N.

    2016-01-01

    Some black holes are bright in radio while others are not. In this thesis we explore why, relating the radio emission to the relativistic jet phenomenon and examining how the emission behaves across the entire observed, 8 magnitude wide black hole mass scale. First we model detailed broadband spectr

  8. Review of the psychometric properties of the Diabetes Self-Efficacy Scale: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapley, Pat; Passmore, Anne; Phillips, Mike

    2003-12-01

    The current paper presents the findings from the reliability and validity testing of an 18-item Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale derived from the 28-item Insulin Management Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale. Testing in the Australian context occurred at three points over 9 months. Diabetes self-efficacy is defined as the individual's judgement of confidence to carry out tasks specific to diabetes management. Data were obtained from an Australian metropolitan sample of adult, English speaking men and women with diabetes (N = 226). Participants were insulin-using and non-insulin-using. Factor analysis indicated five subscales. The data support the construct validity and reliability of the 18-item scale in terms of stability, internal consistency and item-total correlation matrices. This study provides consistent evidence that the Diabetes Self-efficacy Scale is a valid and reliable measure over time when the individual's efficacy beliefs are changing. Hence this instrument should be a useful outcome measure for educational diabetes related interventions.

  9. Testing the interval-level measurement property of multi-item visual analogue scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Lamers, Leida M; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conditions were studied that may invalidate health-state values derived from the visual analogue scale (VAS). METHODS: Respondents were asked to place cards with descriptions of EQ-5D health states on a 20 cm EuroQol VAS and modified versions of it, positioning them such that the distanc

  10. The Controllability Beliefs Scale Used with Carers of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnan, D.; Hull, A.; McDonnell, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Beliefs about the controllability of behaviour have been consistently shown to be important in understanding the responses of carers to the challenging behaviour of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This paper reports the reliability and validity of the Controllability Beliefs Scale (CBS), a 15-item measure of beliefs…

  11. Assessment of Romantic Perfectionism: Psychometric Properties of the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Melody; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide validity evidence for the scores from the Romantic Relationship Perfectionism Scale. Results indicate a two-factor structure, adequate reliability, and overall good convergent, concurrent, discriminant, and incremental validity evidence. The strengths and limitations of this measure are discussed.…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  13. Psychometric properties and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Kampen, R.K.A.; van Kooten, T.; Meijer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated reliability, validity, and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) in Dutch adolescents. Methods: The Dutch translation of the ASHS was administered to 186 normal-sleeping adolescents and 112 adolescents with insomnia. Their sleep variables

  14. The Quality of Care and Support (QOCS) for People with Disability Scale: Development and Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Carrasco, Ramona; Eser, Erhan; Hao, Yuantao; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Green, Ann; Kullmann, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Quality of Care and Support (QOCS) scale for use with adult persons with physical and intellectual disabilities. In the pilot phase of the study, 12 centers from around the world carried out focus groups with people with physical and disabilities, their carers, and with professionals in order to identify…

  15. Development and measurement properties of the Dutch version of the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutting, N.; Engels, J.A.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Staal, J.B.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a Dutch version of the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) and examine the reliability and discriminant, discriminative and structural validity of the Dutch SPS-6 (DSPS-6). METHODS: The original SPS-6 (English-language) was translated and adapted to the Dutch culture. Thirty pa

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Working Memory Rating Scale for Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Grimm, Ryan; Gerber, Michael; Orosco, Michael; Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Working Memory Rating Scale (WMRS) was designed as a behavioral rating tool to assist teachers in identifying students at risk of working memory difficulties. The instrument was originally normed on 417 monolingual English-speaking children from the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the WMRS…

  17. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happiness Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, Paola; Caetano, Antonio; Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) constitutes an instrument for assessing subjective happiness. This study aims to present the validation of the SHS in a Portuguese adult population. A large representative sample (1,017 participants), from five different age groups was considered. Configurational invariance of the unidimensional structure of…

  18. Scaling properties of inclusive W^± production at hadron colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arleo, François; Chapon, Émilien; Paukkunen, Hannu

    2016-04-01

    We consider the hadroproduction of W gauge bosons in their leptonic decay mode. Starting from the leading-order expressions, we show that by defining a suitable scaling variable the centre-of-mass dependence of the cross sections at the LHC energies can be essentially described by a simple power law. The scaling exponent is directly linked to the small- x behaviour of parton distribution functions (PDF) which, at the high virtualities involved in W production, is largely dictated by QCD evolution equations. This entails a particularly simple scaling law for the lepton charge asymmetry and also predicts that measurements in different collision systems (p-p, p-{overline{p}}, p-Pb Pb-Pb) are straightforwardly related. The expectations are compared with the existing data and a very good overall agreement is observed. It is shown that the PDF uncertainty in certain cross-section ratios between nearby centre-of-mass energies can be significantly reduced by taking the ratios at fixed value of the scaling variable instead of fixed rapidity.

  19. Psychometric properties and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale in Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; van Kampen, R.K.A.; van Kooten, T.; Meijer, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated reliability, validity, and clinical relevance of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS) in Dutch adolescents. Methods: The Dutch translation of the ASHS was administered to 186 normal-sleeping adolescents and 112 adolescents with insomnia. Their sleep variables

  20. Constraints on Dark Energy, Observable-mass Scaling Relations, Neutrino Properties and Gravity from Galaxy Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapetti Serra, David Angelo

    Using a data set of 238 cluster detections drawn from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey and X-ray follow-up observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and/or ROSAT for 94 of those clusters we obtain tight constraints on dark energy, both luminosity-mass and temperature-mass scaling relations, neutrin...