Sample records for 10-year longitudinal study

  1. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.


    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  2. Pubertal development, personality, and substance use: a 10-year longitudinal study from childhood to adolescence. (United States)

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Séguin, Jean R


    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age--related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages--related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses.

  3. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study

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    Torsheim Torbjørn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to show how participation in leisure-time physical activity changes between ages 13 to 23, and to what extent engaging in specific types of sports tracks into young adulthood. Methods The sample comprised 630 subjects who responded to questionnaires at age 13, with seven follow-ups over a 10-year period in the Norwegian Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study. The associations between adolescent participation in global and specific types of leisure-time physical activity were examined by analyses of variance, regression analysis and growth curve analysis. Results The findings suggest that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is, on average, a period of decline in physical activity, but with the decline levelling off into adulthood. The decline was significantly greater among males than females. There were substantial individual differences in the amount of change, in particular among males. Jogging alone and cycling, recreational activities such as skiing and hiking, and ball games, showed a high degree of tracking from age 15 to 23. The findings indicate low associations between participation in specific types of activities during adolescence and global leisure-time physical activity in young adulthood, while participation in several adolescent physical activities simultaneously was moderately related to later activity. Thus, being involved in various types of physical activity may offer good opportunities for establishing lifelong involvement in physical activity, independent of the specific type of activity. Conclusion The observed variation in change might suggest a need for a more targeted approach, with a focus on subgroups of individuals. The group of inactive youth may be considered as a high risk group, and the findings suggest that adolescent males who are inactive early seem likely to continue to be inactive later. The observed heterogeneity in change highlights the limitation of

  4. Adolescent Psychological and Social Predictors of Young Adult Smoking Acquisition and Cessation: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Bricker, J.B.; Liu, J.M.; Comstock, B.A.; Peterson, A.V.


    Objective: A 10-year follow-up study to test the extent to which theory-based adolescent psychological and social factors directly predict and moderate the prediction of young adult smoking acquisition and cessation. Design: A prospective community-based sample. A total of 2,970 adolescents particip

  5. The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): The First 10 Years and a Look at Public Perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). (United States)

    Crowe, Remle P; Bentley, Melissa A; Levine, Roger


    Crowe RP , Bentley MA , Levine R . The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS): the first 10 years and a look at public perception of Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s1-s6.

  6. Genetic contributions to age-related decline in executive function: a 10-year longitudinal study of COMT and BDNF polymorphisms

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    Kirk I Erickson


    Full Text Available Genetic variability in the dopaminergic and neurotrophic systems could contribute to age-related impairments in executive control and memory function. In this study we examined whether genetic polymorphisms for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were related to the trajectory of cognitive decline occurring over a 10-year period in older adults. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the COMT (Val158/108Met gene affects the concentration of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, a Val/Met substitution in the pro-domain for BDNF (Val66Met affects the regulated secretion and trafficking of BDNF with Met carriers showing reduced secretion and poorer cognitive function. We found that impairments over the 10-year span on a task-switching paradigm did not vary as a function of the COMT polymorphism. However, for the BDNF polymorphism the Met carriers performed worse than Val homozygotes at the first testing session but only the Val homozygotes demonstrated a significant reduction in performance over the 10-year span. Our results argue that the COMT polymorphism does not affect the trajectory of age-related executive control decline, whereas the Val/Val polymorphism for BDNF may promote faster rates of cognitive decay in old age. These results are discussed in relation to the role of BDNF in senescence and the transforming impact of the Met allele on cognitive function in old age.

  7. Factors associated with newly diagnosed tic disorders among children in Taiwan: a 10-year nationwide longitudinal study. (United States)

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lin, Ju-Hwa; Chang, Tsung-Kai; Tsai, Hui-Ju


    Increased attention has been paid to tic disorders clinically, yet relatively few studies have probed potential factors that account for the occurrence of tic disorders in the general population. In this study, we used data derived from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database to examine an array of factors related to the diagnosis of tic disorders and to further probe gender heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Poisson regression analyses were applied to model the effects of birth cohort, period, and age, separately, on tic disorders. A total of 880 newly diagnosed tic disorders were identified from 2002 to 2009 among 100,516 youngsters in the study dataset who were born between 1997 and 2005. The results showed that a significant increase in the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was observed when age increased, with the highest adjusted IRR found at age 8-9 years. Compared to the time period from 2002 to 2005, an elevated IRR was found in the time period from 2006 to 2009 (adjusted IRR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Boys tended to be more likely to receive their initial diagnosis from psychiatrists and have higher comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their girl counterparts. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effects of age and period, respectively, influence the occurrence of newly diagnosed tic disorders. Gender difference and higher frequent comorbid ADHD in boys than in girls were observed in this study.

  8. Changes on magnetic resonance tomography in the knee joints of marathon runners: a 10-year longitudinal study

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    Krampla, Wolfgang W.; Newrkla, Stephan P.; Hruby, Walter F. [Danube Hospital, Radiology Department, Vienna (Austria); Kroener, Andreas H. [Danube Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vienna (Austria)


    The aim of the study was to evaluate long-term damage in the internal structures of the knee joints of recreational long-distance runners. Ten years after their participation in a baseline study concerning their knee joints, seven long-distance runners and one who had given up long-distance running were invited to participate in a repeat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigation. The same evaluation criteria and the same technical equipment were used, and the results of the two investigations were compared. No adverse long-term consequences were observed in six of the seven active runners, regardless of pre-existing damage at the baseline investigation. In one case the arthrotic changes were progressive in nature. The person who had given up running presented with severe deterioration of the internal structures of the knee joint. Non-physiological maximal loads secondary to the marathon race do not cause any permanent damage in the internal structures of the knee joint in individuals without significant pre-existing damage. A disposition for premature arthrosis was not registered in the population investigated. A protective value of long distance running on the internal structures of the knee joint is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review. (United States)

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P


    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term.

  10. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.


    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  11. Impact of genotype-specific herd immunity on the circulatory dynamism of norovirus: a 10-year longitudinal study of viral acute gastroenteritis. (United States)

    Sakon, Naomi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Nakata, Keiko; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Yoda, Tomoko; Mantani, Masanobu; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo; Komano, Jun


    Human norovirus is a major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis worldwide. However, the transition of endemic norovirus genotypes remains poorly understood. The characteristics of natural immunity against norovirus are unclear because few studies have been performed in the natural infection setting. This prospective 10-year surveillance study of acute gastroenteritis in the province of Osaka, Japan, revealed that norovirus spread shows temporal, geographic, and age group-specific features in the humans. Genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) was detected in most sporadic pediatric cases, as well as in foodborne and nursing home outbreaks, respectively. The dominant genotypes in outbreaks at childcare facilities and schools shifted every season and involved GI, GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6. Evidence at both the facility and individual levels indicated that genotype-specific herd immunity lasted long enough to influence the endemic norovirus genotype in the next season. Thus, norovirus circulates through human populations in a uniquely dynamic fashion.

  12. Association between 5-HTTLPR genotypes and persisting patterns of anxiety and alcohol use: results from a 10-year longitudinal study of adolescent mental health. (United States)

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Lotfi-Miri, M; Collins, V; Williamson, R; Patton, C; Anney, R J L


    The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) encodes a transmembrane protein that plays an important role in regulating serotonergic neurotransmission and related aspects of mood and behaviour. The short allele of a 44 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism (S-allele) within the promoter region of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTLPR) confers lower transcriptional activity relative to the long allele (L-allele) and may act to modify the risk of serotonin-mediated outcomes such as anxiety and substance use behaviours. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (or not) 5-HTTLPR genotypes moderate known associations between attachment style and adolescent anxiety and alcohol use outcomes. Participants were drawn from an eight-wave study of the mental and behavioural health of a cohort of young Australians followed from 14 to 24 years of age (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study, 1992 - present). No association was observed within low-risk attachment settings. However, within risk settings for heightened anxiety (ie, insecurely attached young people), the odds of persisting ruminative anxiety (worry) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 30% per allele: OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.97, P=0.029). Within risk settings for binge drinking (ie, securely attached young people), the odds of reporting persisting high-dose alcohol consumption (bingeing) decreased with each additional copy of the S-allele (approximately 35% per allele: OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.64-0.86, P<0.001). Our data suggest that the S-allele is likely to be important in psychosocial development, particularly in those settings that increase risk of anxiety and alcohol use problems.

  13. The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth / Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação

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    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro


    Full Text Available This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  14. Percursos da gravidez na adolescência: estudo longitudinal após uma década da gestação The pathway for adolescent maternity: longitudinal study 10 years after child's birth

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    Nancy Ramacciotti de Oliveira-Monteiro


    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma pesquisa longitudinal qualitativa sobre maternidade na adolescência em contextos de vulnerabilidade social, com objetivo de verificar indicadores psicossociais no seguir dos anos. Oito díades mães-crianças/primeiros filhos nascidos na adolescência foram investigadas quando as crianças tinham: menos de cinco meses, três anos e meio, e 10 anos. Entrevistas de discurso livre e escala para triagem de competência e condições psicológicas das crianças (CBCL foram instrumentos aplicados nos próprios ambientes de moradia. Resultados são apresentados em eixos temáticos indicando valorização da maternidade, maior distanciamento de cenários violentos, instabilidade de moradia associada a prejuízos escolares/profissionais, crianças não apresentando maiores queixas quanto ao desenvolvimento. A maternidade na adolescência pode representar proteção frente a riscos ambientais associados a violência e drogas.This article presents a longitudinal qualitative research about maternity in adolescence in a context of social vulnerability, seeking to check psychosocial indicators along the years of the study. Eight dyads of mothers in adolescence and their firstborns were interviewed when their children were less than five months old; three and a half years old and ten years old. The instruments used in their daily environment were free speech interviews and observation submitted to scales for screening the competence and psychological conditions of the children. The results are presented in thematic axis, indicating valorization of maternity, distance from violent scenarios and instability in residence associated to school/professional damages and, children who do not present developmental problems. Maternity in adolescence may represent protection for the mothers concerning environmental risks associated to violence and drugs.

  15. Who is maintaining weight in a middle-aged population in Sweden? A longitudinal analysis over 10 years

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    Wall Stig


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has primarily been addressed with interventions to promote weight loss and these have been largely unsuccessful. Primary prevention of obesity through support of weight maintenance may be a preferable strategy although to date this has not been the main focus of public health interventions. The aim of this study is to characterize who is not gaining weight during a 10 year period in Sweden. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted in adults aged 30, 40, 50 and 60 years during the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in Sweden. Height, weight, demographics and selected cardiovascular risk factors were collected on each participant. Prevalences of obesity were calculated for the 40, 50 and 60 year olds from the cross-sectional studies between 1990 and 2004. In the longitudinal study, 10-year non-gain (lost weight or maintained body weight within 3% of baseline weight or weight gain (≥ 3% was calculated for individuals aged 30, 40, or 50 years at baseline. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict weight non-gain. Results There were 82,927 adults included in the cross-sectional studies which had an average annual participation rate of 63%. Prevalence of obesity [body mass index (BMI in kg/m2 ≥ 30] increased from 9.4% in 1990 to 17.5% in 2004, and 60 year olds had the highest prevalence of obesity. 14,867 adults with a BMI of 18.5–29.9 at baseline participated in the longitudinal surveys which had a participation rate of 74%. 5242 adults (35.3% were categorized as non-gainers. Older age, being female, classified as overweight by baseline BMI, later survey year, baseline diagnosis of diabetes, and lack of snuff use increased the chances of not gaining weight. Conclusion Educational efforts should be broadened to include those adults who are usually considered to be at low risk for weight gain – younger individuals, those of normal body weight, and those without health

  16. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R


    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence.

  17. A 10-year retrospective study on odontogenic tumors in Iran

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    Nasim Taghavi


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to review cases of odontogenic tumors diagnosed in two pathology centers in Tehran, Iran, during a 10-year period. Study Design: Patients′ records were seen at two teaching pathology Centre′s of Shahid Beheshti University between the months of March 2000 to 2010 with histologic diagnosis of any type of odontogenic tumors. The records were analyzed for frequency, age, sex, site, as well as clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings. Results: Of 30706 biopsies, 4767 (15.5% cases were diagnosed as oral and maxillofacial lesions. Among these, 720 cases were tumoral with 188 (26.1% cases of odontogenic tumors. Tumors with odontogenic epithelium origin formed 70.2% of total numbers of odontogenic tumors. Mixed odontogenic tumors and tumors of odontogenic ectomesenchyme comprised 12.2% and 17.5% of the cases respectively. Ameloblastoma, with a frequency of 62.2% was the most common tumor in this review which was followed by odontoma and odontogenic myxoma. Conclusion: Although there are few studies on odontogenic tumors in literature, the comparison of our results with existing data shows significant differences in the distribution of tumors and age of patients, which may be due to ethnic features and geographic distribution of patients. Future studies on other ethnic groups are essential for further clarification of the findings in this research.

  18. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.


    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  19. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.


    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  20. Self-Esteem during University Studies Predicts Career Characteristics 10 Years Later (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    To examine how self-esteem measured during university studies would impact on the characteristics of the work career 10 years later, 297 university students completed the Rosenberg's self-esteem inventory four times while at university and various career-related questionnaires 10 years later. Latent Growth Curve Modeling showed that a high overall…

  1. Natural History of Thyroid Function in Adults with Down Syndrome--10-Year Follow-Up Study (United States)

    Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.


    Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…

  2. One-Month to 10-Year Survival in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

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    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj


    We studied the association of stroke severity with survival from 1 month to 10 years after stroke and explored how stroke severity interacts with other prognostic indicators with time. The study is based on 999 stroke patients from the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study (mean age, 74.3 ± 11.......5% of the variance was explained for the endpoints of 1 month, 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years, respectively. When SSS was left out of the model, the corresponding values were 6.9%, 13.3%, 29.0%, and 35.1%. Factors significantly associated with survival were SSS at 1 month; SSS, age, diabetes, and stroke type at 1...... year; SSS, age, sex, previous stroke, other complicating diseases, diabetes, smoking, and atrial fibrillation at 5 years; and SSS, age, sex, other complicating diseases, and diabetes at 10 years. Our data suggest that stroke severity is significantly associated with short-term and long-term survival...

  3. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  4. Subsequent fracture rates in a nationwide population-based cohort study with a 10-year perspective

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    Hansen, Louise; Petersen, Karin Dam; Eriksen, Stine Aistrup;


    Summary: Fractures after the age of 50 are frequently observed in Denmark, and many of these may be osteoporotic. This study examined the incidence of all and subsequent fractures in a 10-year period from 2001 to 2011. The incidence of subsequent fractures was high, especially following hip fract...

  5. A 10-Year Prospective Study of Single Tooth Implants Placed in the Anterior Maxilla

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    Gotfredsen, Klaus


    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the biological and technical outcomes of early and delayed placed single tooth implants after 10 years of follow-up. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive patients who needed a single tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla were included in this...

  6. Physical Activity Patterns During School Recess: A Study in Children 6 to 10 Years Old (United States)

    Lopes, Victor; Vasques, Catarina Margarida Silva; de Oliveira Pereira, Maria Beatriz Ferreira Leite


    The aims of this study were to characterize the spontaneous physical activity of children during school recess, and to estimate variation in physical activity associated with gender and age. A MTI actigraph (Model 7164) was used with a sample of 140 boys and 131 girls, 6 to 10 years of age. MTI counts were converted to METs using a regression…

  7. The fate of titanium miniplates and screws used in maxillofacial surgery: a 10 year retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J


    The objective of this 10 year, retrospective study is to evaluate the indications for the removal of titanium miniplates following osteosynthesis in maxillofacial trauma and orthognathic surgery. All patients who had miniplates placed in a Regional Oral and Maxillofacial Department between January 1998 and October 2007 were included. The following variables were recorded: patient gender and age, number of plates inserted, indications for plate placement, location of plates, number and location of plates removed, indications for plate removal, time between insertion and removal, medical co-morbidities, and the follow-up period. During the 10 years of the study, 1247 titanium miniplates were placed in 535 patients. A total of 32 (3%) plates were removed from 30 patients. Superficial infection accounted for 41% of all plates removed. All complications were minor and most plates were removed within the first year of insertion. A low removal rate of 3% suggests that the routine removal of asymptomatic titanium miniplates is not indicated.

  8. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

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    Agnès Le Port

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on the association between dietary patterns and depression are scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms assessed repeatedly over 10 years in the French occupational GAZEL cohort. METHODS: A total of 9,272 men and 3,132 women, aged 45-60 years in 1998, completed a 35-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ at baseline. Dietary patterns were derived by Principal Component Analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2008. The main outcome measure was the repeated measures of CES-D. Longitudinal analyses were performed with logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The highest quartile of low-fat, western, high snack and high fat-sweet diets in men and low-fat and high snack diets in women were associated with higher likelihood of depressive symptoms at the start of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile (OR between 1.16 and 1.50. Conversely, the highest quartile of traditional diet (characterized by fish and fruit consumption was associated with a lower likelihood of depressive symptoms in women compared to the lowest quartile, with OR = 0.63 [95%CI, 0.50 to 0.80], as the healthy pattern (characterized by vegetables consumption with OR = 0.72 [95%CI, 0.63 to 0.83] and OR = 0.75 [95%CI, 0.61 to 0.93] in men and women, respectively. However, there was probably a reverse causality effect for the healthy pattern. CONCLUSION: This longitudinal study shows that several dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms and these associations track over time.

  9. What factors influence motor complications in Parkinson disease?: a 10-year prospective study. (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Pedro J; Del Val, Javier; Fernández, Ignacio Mahillo; Herranz, Antonio


    The causes and mechanism behind motor complications in Parkinson disease (PD) are still a subject of debate. Several factors including age at onset, evolution in years, and initial medication can influence the onset and severity of motor complications in PD.We studied patients with recent diagnosis of PD who were followed up prospectively for 10 years. Analysis included the progression of these patients, as measured by the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale scores and the presence of motor complications (motors fluctuations, dyskinesias, and gait freezing) over time. The patient group was studied as a whole and by subgroups classified according to age at onset, initial treatment, and sex.By the end of the first decade, most patients exhibited dyskinesias (91%), motor fluctuations (62%), and freezing of gait (68%). An association was found between several patients' characteristics and presence of motor complications by 5 years, though not after 10 years of follow up. The apparition of motor fluctuations was mainly related to initial treatment (odds ratio [OR], 3.87). The development of dyskinesias was linked to initial treatment (OR, 8.31), age at onset (OR, 0.90), and sex (OR, 12.87).

  10. Injuries in a Professional Ballet Dance Company: A 10-year Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Farber, Joseph; Arnouk, Johnny; Varner, Kevin E; Mcculloch, Patrick C


    Ballet dancers are high-performance athletes who are particularly susceptible to a wide variety of musculoskeletal injuries. However, they are relatively understudied, and data on their injury rates are lacking. This retrospective study features the largest aggregate data on professional ballet dancers to date and aims to identify the most common diagnoses and areas of injury in this unique population to better direct preventative and clinical practices. The study encompassed a 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2010 of dancers from a single company. Data regarding the dancers' age, gender, location of injury, and diagnosis were collected from workers' compensation claims, company records, and medical records maintained by the treating doctors. These were analyzed to determine metrics on injury incidence, frequency, and diagnosis. Over the 10-year span, 574 injuries occurred. There were approximately 52 dancers per year for a total of 153 who danced at least one complete season during the study period. The average age was 27, and 53% were female. Given turnover with retirement and replacements, the total number of dancer-years was 520, indicating an injury incidence per annum of 1.10 (574 injuries per 520 dancer-years). The most common locations of injury were foot and ankle and the lumbar spine, with the three most common diagnoses making up greater than a third (37%) of the total. As the current largest study in professional ballet, the findings set the benchmark metrics for musculoskeletal injury to the foot, ankle, and lumbar spine sites. Future studies should aim to identify injury risk factors and modalities for prevention of these injuries.

  11. Health Care Finance Executive Personalities Revisited: A 10-Year Follow-up Study. (United States)

    Lieneck, Cristian; Nowicki, Michael


    A dynamic health care industry continues to call upon health care leaders to possess not one but multiple competencies. Inherent personality characteristics of leaders often play a major role in personal as well as organizational success to include those in health care finance positions of responsibility. A replication study was conducted to determine the Myers-Briggs personality-type differences between practicing health care finance professionals in 2014, as compared with a previous 2003 study. Results indicate a significant shift between both independent samples of health care finance professionals over the 10-year period from original high levels of introversion to that of extraversion, as well as higher sensing personality preferences, as compared with the original sample's high level of intuition preferences. Further investigation into the evolving role of the health care finance manager is suggested, while continued alignment of inherent, personal characteristics is suggested to meet ongoing changes in the industry.

  12. Epidemiological, Clinical and Paraclinical Study of Hydatid Cysts in Three Educational Medical Centers in 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Shoaee


    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus, is an important public health problem in many areas of the world  and  Iran is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis In the present study, we evaluated epidemiological, complications and clinical characteristics of hydatidosis at three University Medical Centers in Tehran over a 10-year period.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed in patients with hydatid cysts. Information about age, gender, number of cysts, organ involvement, morbidity and mortality and relapse were collected from medical records of hydatid patients. Paraclinic information such as CT Scan, MRI, ultrasound, complete blood count, pathological diagnosis and complication of disease were collected.Results: Overall, 81 patients, 35 (43.2% male and 46 (56.8% female, who were diagnosed as having hydatid cyst by clinical and radiological findings, with pathologic documentation were studied in three university medical center registries over a 10-year period (2003- 2012 in Tehran. Fourteen patients (17% of cases had complications resulting from this disease. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 86 years, and the peak prevalence of the disease was between 20 and 40 (34% of cases.Conclusion: Iran  is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis. Prevalence rate of hydatidosis in Iran was reported to be 0.61-2 in 100000 populations. The highest  rate of infection and complications were in patients of 20-40 years age. Clinical examination revealed that abdominal pain was the most common complaint and was present in 51.7% of the cases. Other most common complain were cough, abdominal mass, dyspnea, icterus, chest pain, dyspepsia, back pain and seizure; and it was result of occupying effect of cysts in organs. This is similar with previous studies in Iran

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Jenin Governorate, Palestine:a 10-year retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami Bdir; Ghaleb Adwan


    Objective:To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among Jenin Governorate (Northern Palestine) population.Methods:A retrospective laboratory analysis of stool specimens was carried out for intestinal parasite examination in Jenin Governmental Hospital, Jenin Governorate, Northern Palestine. The records were collected from the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Jenin Governmental Hospital between January2000and December2009. Results: Our retrospective study showed that the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection during10 years ranged from32.0-41.5%. There are at least7 different parasitesencountered. The most common pathogenic parasites identified were:Entamoeba histolytica(8.2-18.2%),Enterobius vermicularis(15.6-28.9%). The other parasites present wereGiardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis,Taenia species andAncylostoma duodenale (Hookworms).Conclusions:Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Jenin governorate, Palestine. It is necessary to develop effective prevention and control strategies including health education and environmental sanitation improvement.

  14. Blood pressure and 10-year mortality risk in the Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon;


    BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics......: the correlations of SBP and DBP with mortality were U-shaped. Higher SBP is related to lower mortality in subjects with impaired ADL and MMSE. ADL and MMSE may identify older subjects who benefit from higher blood pressure.......BACKGROUND: optimal blood pressure targets in older adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: to investigate whether the relation of blood pressure with mortality in older adults varies by age, functional and cognitive status. DESIGN: longitudinal geriatric outpatient cohort. SETTING: Milan Geriatrics...... 75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination...

  15. Energy-water analysis of the 10-year WECC transmission planning study cases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Passell, Howard David; Castillo, Cesar; Moreland, Barbara


    modules for calculating water withdrawal and consumption for current and planned electric power generation; projected water demand from competing use sectors; and, surface and groundwater availability. WECC's long range planning is organized according to two target planning horizons, a 10-year and a 20-year. This study supports WECC in the 10-year planning endeavor. In this case the water implications associated with four of WECC's alternative future study cases (described below) are calculated and reported. In future phases of planning we will work with WECC to craft study cases that aim to reduce the thermoelectric footprint of the interconnection and/or limit production in the most water stressed regions of the West.

  16. Natural history of heartburn: A 10-year population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Bjork Olafsdottir; Hallgrimur Gudjonsson; Heidur Hrund Jonsdottir; Bjarni Thjodleifsson


    AIM: To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities.METHODS: A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same ageand gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week,based on the definition of heartburn.RESULTS: Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI)below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects.CONCLUSION: Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn.Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.

  17. Sphenoid sinus fungall ball: a retrospective study over a 10- year period. (United States)

    Eloy, Ph; Grenier, J; Pirlet, A; Poirrier, A L; Stephens, J S; Rombaux, Ph


    A fungal ball consists of a dense conglomerate of fungal hyphae growing at the surface of the sinus mucosa without tissue infiltration. The maxillary sinus is by far the most commonly involved paranasal sinus cavity followed by the sphenoid sinus. The present study is a retrospective study of 25 consecutive cases treated during the last 10 years in the two hospitals be- longing to the Catholic University of Louvain (CHU Mont-Godinne and UCL Saint Luc). We report the symptomatology, the imaging and discuss the different surgical managements. We conclude that the clinician must have a high index of suspicion when dealing with a unilateral rhinosinusitis persisting despite a maximal and well conducted medical treatment. This is particularly so in elderly women when associated with facial pain and post nasal drip, particularly when the computed tomography shows an unilateral opacity of the sphenoid sinus with or without a sclerosis or an erosion of the bony walls, a polyp in the sphenoethmoidal recess or a hyperdensity mimicking a foreign body. An endonasal endoscopic sphenoidotomy is the treatment of choice in most cases, allowing good ventilation of the sinus and radical removal of all the fungal concretion. A biopsy of the sinus mucosa adjacent to fungal elements is of upmost important to confirm the non- invasiveness of the fungi within the tissue. Antifungal medication is not required in uncomplicated forms. All host factors producing some degree of immunosuppression must be corrected when present and must alert the clinician to rule out any forms of invasive disease.

  18. Pattern of salivary gland tumors in Manipur, India: A 10 year study

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    Rajesh Singh Laishram


    Full Text Available Background: Salivary gland lesions, especially the neoplastic lesions constitute a highly heterogeneous histopathologic group. Several studies have reported a significant difference in the global distribution of salivary gland tumors, but no formal study has been carried out in this part of the globe. Objectives: To document the pattern of various salivary gland tumors in Manipur, a state in North Eastern India. Materials and Methods: This is a 10 years (2002-2011 retrospective study of all salivary gland specimens received at our referral teaching hospital in Manipur, India. All the histopathology slides of salivary gland specimens during the study period were reviewed and clinical details were obtained from the archives. Restaining of slides and fresh sections of tissue blocks were performed whenever required. Data thus collected were analyzed. Results: A total of 104 cases of salivary gland lesions were studied during the study period. Age ranged from 5 years to 78 years with an overall slight female preponderance (M:F = 1:1.08. Parotid (56.65% was the commonest gland involved followed by submandibular gland (31.73%.Neoplastic lesions comprised of 78 (75% cases and non-neoplastic lesions constituted 25% (26 cases. Among the neoplastic lesions, benign lesions (53.85% predominated over malignant lesions (21.15%. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign neoplastic lesion and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumor. Chronic sialadenitis was the predominant lesion in the non-neoplastic group. Conclusion: The principal site for salivary gland tumors was the parotid gland and pleomorphic adenoma outnumbered all the other tumors. Females are more affected in the malignant group.

  19. Social functioning and survival: A 10-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Arve, Seija; Lavonius, Sirkku; Savikko, Niina; Lehtonen, Aapo; Isoaho, Hannu


    Although otherwise extensively researched, one aspect of social functioning in older people that has received less attention is its association with staying at home for as long as possible. This 10-year follow-up examines factors of social functioning that support older people's independent living in their own homes and that reduce the risk of mortality. The data were collected in 1991 by a postal questionnaire that was sent to all residents of Turku, Finland, born in 1920. A physical examination was also conducted. Ten years later, in 2001, the mortality rate of this population was determined. The data were examined statistically. Female gender reduced the risk of mortality. In addition, daily outdoor activities, and not needing help (from different sources) were associated with a reduced risk of mortality. No need for help and a more positive attitude towards life reduced the risk of mortality of women. There were found only non-significant trends for men. Having plans for the future also reduced the risk of mortality. The findings of this study offer useful clues for planning the services provided by home health care personnel. In planning these services it is important that home health care workers take into account the differences between women and men customers: men may need and want different things from the home health care service than women do.

  20. Children of treated substance-abusing mothers: a 10-year prospective study. (United States)

    Hser, Y-I; Evans, E; Li, L; Metchik-Gaddis, A; Messina, N


    This study examined children of substance-abusing mothers approximately 10 years after mothers' admission to drug abuse treatment, and identified maternal characteristics that may be risk factors for child behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Data were obtained from 396 mothers who were included in a sample consecutively admitted to 44 treatment programs in 13 California counties during 2000-2002. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at both intake and follow-up. Each mother reported on one child 6-17 years of age. All of the children had been exposed to drugs, either in utero or postnatally. At follow-up about 22% of the children demonstrated borderline or clinical range problem behaviors. Child behavior problems were related significantly to the mothers' ethnicity (lower among Hispanics relative to white), and problem severity in family/social relationship and mental health, marginally related to her prior medical/health problem, and not related to severity of alcohol, drug, legal and employment problems. Assisting mothers to address their family/social relationship and psychological problems may have an added value to prevent or reduce behavioral problems of their children.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in overweight and weight-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings from Project EAT. (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Mason, Susan M; Loth, Katie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne


    Reducing socioeconomic disparities in weight-related health is a public health priority. The purpose of this paper was to examine 10-year longitudinal patterns in overweight and weight-related behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood as a function of family-level socioeconomic status (SES) and educational attainment. Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) followed a diverse sample of 2287 adolescents from 1999 to 2009. Mixed-effects regression tested longitudinal trends in overweight, fast food, breakfast skipping, physical inactivity, and screen use by family-level SES. The influence of subsequent educational attainment in young adulthood was examined. Results revealed that the prevalence of overweight increased significantly from adolescence to young adulthood with the greatest change seen in those from low SES (mean change=30.7%, 95% CI=25.6%-35.9%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=21.7%, 95% CI=18.2%-25.1%). Behavioral changes from adolescence to young adulthood also differed by SES background; the prevalence of frequent fast food intake (≥3times/week) increased most dramatically in those from low SES (mean change=6%, 95% CI=0.5%-11%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=-1.2%, 95% CI=-5.2%-2.9%). Overall trends suggest that a higher educational attainment mitigates the negative impacts of a low SES background. These findings suggest that continued effort is needed to ensure that public health strategies addressing obesity and related behaviors reach adolescents and young adults from low SES backgrounds and do not contribute to widening socioeconomic gaps in weight-related health.

  2. Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A 10-Year Study. (United States)

    Dunlop, Rosemary; Burns, Ailsa; Bermingham, Suzanne


    Explored links between self-image, family structure (divorced or intact), parent-child relations, and gender at 3 intervals over 10 years during adolescence to early adulthood. Results suggest a consistent relationship between high parental care, low overprotective control, and better self-image scores with a stronger effect among subjects from…

  3. Sex Differences in Stroke Survival: 10-Year Follow-up of the Copenhagen Stroke Study Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter


    the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (0-58); computed tomography determined stroke type. A risk factor profile was obtained for all including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Date of death was obtained within a 10-year follow-up...

  4. Sex differences in stroke survival: 10-year follow-up of the Copenhagen stroke study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter


    the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (0-58); computed tomography determined stroke type. A risk factor profile was obtained for all including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Date of death was obtained within a 10-year follow-up...

  5. Etiology of precocious puberty, 10 years study in Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari


    Full Text Available Background: Precocious puberty, as early physical development and low final height might lead to psychosocial problems.Objective: To evaluate etiology and clinical feature of precocious puberty in a cohort of Iranian children.Materials and Methods: In this case-series study, 44 girls and 8 boys with precocious puberty referred to Endocrine Reserch Centre (Firouzgar, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism (Hemmat Campus, were examined in a 10 years period of time. Results: Mean age of girls and boys was 7.43±1.4 years and 5.8±2.1 years respectively. Most of the patients fell within the age category of 7-7.9 years old (40.9% for girls and 50% for boys. Patients, concerning etiology of precocious puberty were classified in three categories: 42.6% of patients had central precocious puberty (CPP, including idiopathic CPP (87.5% and neurogenic CPP (12.5%. 23.3% of patients had peripheral precocious puberty (PPP, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH (42.8%, ovarian cysts (28.4%, McCune-Albright syndrome (14.2% and adrenal carcinoma (14.2%. 34.1% of girls and 25% of boys had normal variant puberty including premature thelarche (57%, premature adrenarche (38% as well as premature menarche (4.7%l. Conclusion: The most common etiology of precocious puberty in girls was idiopathic central precocious puberty and premature thelarche, while in boys they were neurogenic central precocious puberty and CAH. Therefore precocious puberty in girls is usually benign. In boys, CNS anomalies should first be considered in the differential diagnosis of CPP. Therefore brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is mandatory in all cases.

  6. Incidence of Alzheimer′s disease in India: A 10 years follow-up study

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    P S Mathuranath


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine overall and age-specific incidence rates of Alzheimer′s disease (AD in a southern Indian province, Kerala. Materials and Methods: A 10-year (2001-2011 prospective epidemiologic study of community residing subjects aged ≥55 years at enrollment. The catchment area included four urban and semi-urban regions of Trivandrum city in Kerala, India, was selected to provide a range of demographic and socioeconomic representation. Cognitive and functional ability screening were done at baseline and 24-month follow-up assessments. Consensus diagnostic procedures were done using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition (DSM-IV, and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINDS-ADRDA criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and AD. Results: Among the 1066 eligible participants who were cognitively normal at baseline, 104 developed dementia (98 with AD over a follow-up period of 8.1 years. The incidence rates per 1000 person-years for AD was 11.67 (95% CI: 10.9-12.4 for those aged ≥55 years and higher for those aged ≥65 years (15.54, 95% CI: 14.6-16.5. In those aged ≥65 years, the world age standardized incidence rate was 21.61 per 100,000, and standardized against the age distribution for the year 2000 U.S. Census, the age-adjusted incidence rate was 9.19 (95% CI: 9.03-9.35 per 1000 person-years. Incidence rate of AD increased significantly and proportionately with increasing age. Conclusion: These are the first AD incidence rates to be reported from southern India. The incidence rates appear to be much higher than that reported from rural north India, comparable with that reported from China, and marginally lower than that reported from the western world.

  7. Pediatric septic arthritis: a 10- year epidemiologic study in Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex

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    Zamani A


    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Septic Arthritis is an acute infection of intra-arthicular space. Delay in diagnosis and in appropriate treatment may lead to prolongation of treatment duration and poor outcome. We decided to evaluate clinical aspects of this disease in our department pediatric department, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, Tehran, Iran during a 10 years period."n"nMethods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study, 60 patients with age from 1 month to 14 year-old during 1996-2005 were evaluated. The demographics characteristics, clinical observations (signs & symptoms and paraclinic values were gathered from medical records and analyzed with statistical tests. "n"nResults: Pain and Swelling was seen in all, joint limited motion in 80% (50 cases claudicating in 64% (38 cases, fever in 80% (48 cases, monoarticular disease in 80% (48 cases and polyarticular one in 20% (12 cases of them. Hip was most Common involved joint 62% (37 cases, elevated ESR was seen in all patients. CRP was positive in 85% (51 cases. Leuckocytosis was found in 65/8% (17 cases of cases. In infectious cases, Staphylococcus aurous was responsible organism in 65.6% (16 cases, klebsiella in 12.4% (3 cases, Streptococcus pneumonia in 12.3% (3 cases, group b

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of frozen section in Central nervous system lesions, a 10-year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh KHODDAMI*


    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khoddami M, Akbarzadeh A, Mordai A, Bidari Zerehpoush F, Alipour H, Samadzadeh S, Alipour B.Diagnostic Accuracy of Frozen Section of Central Nervous System Lesions: A 10-Year Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:25-30. AbstractObjectiveDefinitive diagnosis of the central nervous system (CNS lesions is unknown prior to histopathological examination. To determine the method and the endpoint for surgery, intraoperative evaluation of the lesion helps the surgeon.In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of using frozen section (FS ofCNS lesions is determined.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of FS and permanent diagnoses of all CNS lesions by reviewing reports from 3 general hospitals between March 2001 and March 2011.Results273 cases were reviewed and patients with an age range from 3 to 77 years of age were considered. 166 (60.4% had complete concordance between FS and permanent section diagnosis, 83 (30.2% had partial concordance, and 24 cases (9.5% were discordant. Considering the concordant and partially concordant cases, the accuracy rate was 99.5%, sensitivity was 91.4%, specificity was 99.7%, and positive and negative predictive values were 88.4% and 99.8%, respectively.ConclusionOur results show high sensitivity and specificity of FS diagnosis in the evaluation of CNS lesions. A Kappa agreement score of 0.88 shows high concordance for FS results with permanent section. Pathologist’s misinterpretation, small biopsy samples (not representative of the entire tumor, suboptimal slides, and inadequate information about tumor location and radiologic findings appear to be the major causes for these discrepancies indicated from our study. ReferencesTaxy JB, Anthony G. Biopsy interpretation: the frozen section. 1st ed. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. P.301-3.Somerset HL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. Approach to the intraoperative consultation for

  9. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Mucinous Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of a 10-Year Study.

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    Lei Lei

    Full Text Available Mucinous breast carcinoma (MC is a special type of breast cancer that presents with a large amount of extracellular mucin. MC comprises approximately 4% of all invasive breast cancers. This type of tumor has a better prognosis and higher incidence in peri- and post-menopausal patients. Pathologically, there are two main subtypes of MC: pure and mixed. In this study, we describe 10 years of experience with MC at the Zhejiang Cancer Hospital in China, specifically, clinical data, histological findings and immunohistochemical features.We identified MC patients who were diagnosed as operable and completed clinical treatment from January 2001 to January 2011. The clinicopathological data included the age at diagnosis, tumor size, TNM stage, presence and number of lymph node (LN metastases, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2 status and p53 expression. If the tumor was defined as mixed mucinous carcinoma (MMC, IHC was performed on a non-mucinous part, such as invasive ductal and lobular cancer. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of all MC patients using chi-square, one-way ANOVA and LSD tests. We also studied the correlations between all of the clinical parameters and LN metastasis in a binary logistic regression analysis. We used ten consecutive years of data that were collected at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital.We identified 48 cases of pure mucinous carcinoma (PMC and 77 cases of MMC. The 48 PMC cases consisted of 38 PMC-A and 10 PMC-B subtypes. The MMCs were divided into two groups, those with partial mixed mucinous breast carcinoma (pMMC, 58 cases and those with main mixed mucinous breast carcinoma (mMMC, 19 cases. pMMC was defined by tumors with less than 50% mucinous components, while mMMC was defined by tumors where the mucinous component accounted for 50% to 90% of the tumor. No significant differences in the clinicopathological characteristics were noted between the patients

  10. Mortality in perforated duodenal ulcer depends upon pre-operative risk: a retrospective 10-year study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, J O


    INTRODUCTION: Most patients presenting with acutely perforated duodenal ulcer undergo operation, but conservative treatment may be indicated when an ulcer has spontaneously sealed with minimal\\/localised peritoneal irritation or when the patient\\'s premorbid performance status is poor. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with operative and conservative management of perforated duodenal ulcers over a 10-year period and analysed outcome according to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score. METHODS: The records of all patients presenting with perforated duodenal ulcer to the Department of Surgery, Mayo General Hospital, between January 1998 and December 2007 were reviewed. Age, gender, co-morbidity, ASA-score, clinical presentation, mode of management, operative procedures, morbidity and mortality were considered. RESULTS: Of 76 patients included, 48 (44 operative, 4 conservative) were ASA I-III, with no mortality irrespective of treatment. Amongst 28 patients with ASA-score IV\\/V, mortality was 54.5% (6\\/11) following operative management and 52.9% (9\\/17) with conservative management. CONCLUSION: In patients with a perforated duodenal ulcer and ASA-score I-III, postoperative outcome is uniformly favourable. We recommend these patients have repair with peritoneal lavage performed, routinely followed postoperatively by empirical triple therapy. Given that mortality is equivalent between ASA IV\\/V patients whether managed operatively or conservatively, we suggest that both management options are equally justifiable.

  11. Personal and socio-environmental predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings (United States)

    Loth, K; MacLehose, R; Bucchianeri, M; Crow, S; Neumark-Stainer, D


    Aim To identify personal and socio-environmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Methods Participants (n= 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1082 females and 820 males). Results Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors ten years later. For example, among both males and females weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared to 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (Prevalence difference: 34.3, 95% CI: 10.5, 58.1; p<0.01). Parental weight concerns, peer dieting and weight teasing at baseline were not found to be predictive of dieting or disordered eating at 10-year follow-up. Conclusions Personal factors identified during adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. PMID:24925491

  12. Influence of Age on Clinical Performance of Mandibular Two-Implant Overdentures : A 10-Year Prospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, Arie R.; Visser, Anita; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.


    Purpose: The aim of this prospective comparative study was to assess whether age has influence on peri-implant health in patients treated with mandibular two-implant overdentures during a 10-year evaluation period. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out with two groups of edentul

  13. Microbial profile of the vitreous aspirates in culture proven exogenous endophthalmitis: A 10-year retrospective study

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    H Bhattacharjee


    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the microbiological profile and clinical outcome in the eyes with culture-proven exogenous endophthalmitis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 495 eyes diagnosed as exogenous endophthalmitis was performed over a period of 10 years. In all, aseptically collected aqueous and vitreous aspirates were cultured for bacteria and fungus using standard microbiological techniques. Gram-stain and KOH preparation of the specimens were also performed. The antibiotic susceptibility testing for bacterial isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The treatment was modified according to the antibiotic sensitivity profile. The final clinical ocular condition was divided into improved, stable or deteriorated. Results: Of 148 culture-proven endophthalmitis eyes, 137 (92.57% were referred from elsewhere, and 11 (7.43% belonged to our institute. Aetiologically, 76 (51.35% eyes were post-cataract surgery, 61 (41.22% were post-traumatic, 5 (3.38% eyes post-intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injection, 5 associated with corneal diseases and 1 bleb-related endophthalmitis. In 31 (20.95% eyes, primary intravitreal antibiotics were given outside. The cultures revealed monomicrobial growth in 92.57% (n = 137 and polymicrobial growth in 7.43% (n = 11. Among the bacteria (n = 121, 81.76%, Pseudomonas species dominated overall (n = 32, 27.11% and post-operative (n = 26, 38.23% endophthalmitis group. Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14, 28% was prominent in post-traumatic endophthalmitis group. Ninety-two percent (n = 108 isolates of bacteria were sensitive to vancomycin. In 78 (52.7% eyes, the clinical ocular condition improved or remained stable while deteriorated in 51 (34.46%. Conclusion: A bacterial predominance was observed among causative organisms of exogenous endophthalmitis with Pseudomonas species being the most common. The appropriate surgical intervention improved or stabilised the visual acuity in nearly

  14. Morbidity and mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome during a 10-year period : A multicentre prospective study of 1000 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervera, R.; Serrano, R.; Pons-Estel, G. J.; Ceberio-Hualde, L.; Shoenfeld, Y.; De Ramón, E.; Buonaiuto, V.; Jacobsen, S.; Zeher, M. M.; Tarr, T.; Tincani, A.; Taglietti, M.; Theodossiades, G.; Nomikou, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Bellisai, F.; Meroni, P. L.; Derksen, R. H W M; De Groot, P. G D; Baleva, M.; Mosca, S.; Bombardieri, M.; Houssiau, F.; Gris, J. C.; Quéré, I.; Hachulla, E.; Vasconcelos, C.; Fernández-Nebro, A.; Haro, M.; Amoura, Z.; Miyara, M.; Tektonidou, M.; Espinosa, G.; Bertolaccini, M. L.; Khamashta, M. A.


    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of the main causes of morbi-mortality in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) during a 10-year-follow-up period and to compare the frequency of early manifestations with those that appeared later. Methods: In 1999, we started an observational study of 1000 APS pat

  15. Race, socioeconomic status, and obesity in 9- to 10 year-old girls : The NHLBI Growth and Health Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimm, SYS; Obarzanek, E; Barton, BA; Aston, CE; Similo, SL; Morrison, JA; Sabry, ZI; Schreiber, GB; McMahon, RP


    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether measures of socioeconomic status (SES) are inversely associated with obesity in 9- to 10-year-old black and white girls and their parents. Subjects were participants in the Growth and Health Study (NGHS) of the National Heart, Lung, and Bloo

  16. 10-Year Study Links Faster Progression of Atherosclerosis to Air Pollution (United States)

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution Study (MESA Air) was the first U.S. research study to measure directly how long-term exposure to air pollution contributes to the development of heart disease.

  17. Herpes Zoster Induced Osteomyelitis in the Immunocompromised Patients: A 10-year Multicenter Study

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    Reza Tabrizi


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Alveolar bone necrosis induced by Herpes zoster infection is considered as a rare manifestation of osteomyelitis and few case reports are presented in the literature. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate mandibular osteomyelitis caused by herpes zoster in the immunocompromised patients with histopathologically documented osteomyelitis in the mandible and herpes zoster infection. Materials and Method: 30 patients were recruited in this cross-sectional study. 19 patients were completely edentulous, 4 patients were partially edentulous and 7 with complete dentition. In all cases, specimens were analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR test for varicella zoster virus. Results: 16 patients underwent dialysis, 9 patients received chemotherapy treat-ments and 5 patients had transplantation (four kidneys and one liver. Histopa-thological assessment demonstrated a nonspecific bone necrosis exhibiting an eosinophilic, homogeneous non-vital bone tissue with peripheral resorption sur-rounded by reactive connective tissue. PCR test was positive in 21 cases. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the frequency of osteomyelitis induced by herpes zoster could be more than the records provided by previous studies. Histopathological findings might be nonspecific in such patients. PCR test was not positive for all HZ induced osteomyelitis patients.

  18. Patterns of adolescent smoking and later nicotine dependence in young adults: A 10-year prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.O.M. van de; Greenwood, P.A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Olsson, C.A.; Patton, G.C.


    Objectives: There is considerable variability in progression from smoking initiation to established smoking. This paper addresses the extent to which different patterns of adolescent smoking, including periods of cessation, predict smoking status in young adults. Study design: Ten-year, eight-wave p

  19. The SENECA study: potentials and problems in relating diet to survival over 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staveren, van W.A.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Haveman-Nies, A.


    Objective: To give an overview of the evaluation of the modified diet history applied in the SENECA study (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly; a Concerted Action). Design: Nineteen centres in 12 countries participated at baseline. Nine of these SENECA centres conducted a repeat measuremen

  20. Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis. A 10-year nationwide study of 96 consecutive cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael; Benfield, Thomas L; Skinhoej, Peter;


    BACKGROUND: Haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus meningitis is rare but associated with high mortality. Knowledge about the disease is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate demographic and clinical prognostic features of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis. METHODS: Nationwide...... surveillance in Denmark from 1991 to 2000 with clinical and bacteriological data. Risks of death were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 12480 cases of S. aureus bacteraemia/sepsis, we identified 96 cases of non-surgical bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis (0.8%). Incidence...... > or = 4) (HR, 2.14; CI, 1.09 to 4.19) remained independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence, but not mortality of bacteraemic S. aureus meningitis decreased during the study period. Co morbidity and critical illness were independent predictors of a poor outcome....

  1. Recurrent bacteraemia: A 10-year regional population-based study of clinical and microbiological risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, U.S.; Knudsen, J.D.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard;


    .4-2.8), endocarditis ( 2.7; 1.6-4.3), and an unknown focus (1.9; 1.5-2.3). Conclusions: This study showed recurrent bacteraemia to be common and the following risk factors were identified: a health care-associated or nosocomial origin, poly-microbial or fungal aetiology, a focus within the abdomen, endocardium, iv......Background: A population-based nested case-control study was conducted in order to characterize patient factors and microbial species associated with recurrent bacteraemia. Methods: All patients with bacteraemia in a Danish region during 1996-2006 were investigated. Recurrence was defined based...... on pathogen identity, site of infection and time frame, and not restricted to homologous pathogens. Results: We identified 8672 patients with first-time bacteraemia, of whom 1003 (12%) had a recurrence within 1 year. The proportion of mono-microbial bacteraemia was similar for first (86%) and recurrent...

  2. Asthma changes at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit after 10 years: Observational study

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    Ayman A Al-Eyadhy


    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the change in the management, and outcome of children with acute severe asthma (ASA admitted to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU at tertiary institute, as compared to previously published report in 2003. Methods : This is a retrospective observational study. All consecutive pediatric ASA patients who were admitted to PICU during the study period were included. The data were extracted from PICU database and medical records. The Cohort in this study (2013 Cohort was compared with the Cohort of ASA, which was published in 2003 from the same institution (2003 Cohort. Results: In comparison to previous 2003 Cohort, current Cohort (2013 revealed higher mean age (5.5 vs. 3.6 years; P ≤ 0.001, higher rate of PICU admission (20.3% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.007, less patients who received maintenance inhaled steroids (43.3% vs. 62.4%; P ≤ 0.03, less patients with pH <7.3 (17.9% vs. 42.9%; P ≤ 0.001. There were more patients in 2013 Cohort who received: Inhaled Ipratropium bromide (97% vs. 68%; P ≤ 0.001, intravenous magnesium sulfate (68.2% vs. none, intravenous salbutamol (13.6% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ 0.015, and noninvasive ventilation (NIV (35.8% vs. none while no patients were treated with theophylline (none vs. 62.5%. The median length of stay (LOS was 2 days while mean LOS was half a day longer in the 2013 Cohort. None of our patients required intubation, and there was no mortality. Conclusion: We observed slight shift toward older age, considerably increased the rate of PICU admission, increased utilization of Ipratropium bromide, magnesium sulfate, and NIV as important modalities of treatment.

  3. Traumatic Brain Injury and Substance Related Disorder: A 10-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan (United States)

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Zhang, Zi-Hao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Ming-Kung; Chang, Chih-Hui; Kuo, Keng-Liang


    Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD) is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000–2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio) were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the follow-up period, SRD developed in 340 patients in the TBI group and in 118 patients in the control group. After controlling for covariates, the overall incidence of SRD was 3.62-fold higher in the TBI group compared to the control group. Additionally, patients in the severe TBI subgroup were 9.01 times more likely to have SRD compared to controls. Notably, patients in the TBI group were prone to alcohol related disorders. The data in this study indicate that TBI is significantly associated with the subsequent risk of SRD. Physicians treating patients with TBI should be alert to this association to prevent the occurrence of adverse events.

  4. Dental trauma involving root fracture and periodontal ligament injury: a 10-year retrospective study

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    Sônia Regina Panzarini


    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the cases of traumatic dental injuries involving root fracture and/or periodontal ligament injury (except avulsion treated at the Discipline of Integrated Clinic, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil, from January 1992 to December 2002. Clinical and radiographic records from 161 patients with 287 traumatized teeth that had sustained root fracture and/or injuries to the periodontal ligament were examined. The results of this survey revealed that subluxation (25.09% was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury, followed by extrusive luxation (19.86%. There was a predominance of young male patients and most of them did not present systemic alterations. Among the etiologic factors, the most frequent causes were falls and bicycle accidents. Injuries on extraoral soft tissues were mostly laceration and abrasion, while gingival and lip mucosa lacerations prevailed on intraoral soft tissues injuries. Radiographically, the most common finding was an increase of the periodontal ligament space. The most commonly performed treatment was root canal therapy. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that traumatic dental injuries occur more frequently in young male individuals, due to falls and bicycle accidents. Subluxation was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury. Root canal therapy was the type of treatment most commonly planned and performed.

  5. Traumatic Brain Injury and Substance Related Disorder: A 10-Year Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan

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    Chieh-Hsin Wu


    Full Text Available Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000–2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the follow-up period, SRD developed in 340 patients in the TBI group and in 118 patients in the control group. After controlling for covariates, the overall incidence of SRD was 3.62-fold higher in the TBI group compared to the control group. Additionally, patients in the severe TBI subgroup were 9.01 times more likely to have SRD compared to controls. Notably, patients in the TBI group were prone to alcohol related disorders. The data in this study indicate that TBI is significantly associated with the subsequent risk of SRD. Physicians treating patients with TBI should be alert to this association to prevent the occurrence of adverse events.

  6. DIETARY HABITS of CHILDREN 5-10 Years old: A Hospital Based Study

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    Shantanu Sharma


    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing countries research in nutrition has primarily be focusing on preschool children and women of reproductive age.1,2 A large, multicountry study on the anthropometric status of rural school children in Ghana, Tanzania, Indonesia, Vietnam, and India found a high prevalence of stunting and underweight, ranging from 48% to 56% for stunting and from 34% to 62% for underweight.1 Anemia is estimated to affect 46% of 5- to 12-year-old children in low-income countries, with the highest prevalence in South Asia (50%.2 Because school-age children undergo a period of rapid growth, nutrient deficiencies at this age can lead to retarded growth3, anemia2, reduced immune function4 and impaired motor and cognitive development5, all of which may adversely affect academic performance through reduced learning capacity and poor school attendance6. Nutritional deficiency in children of school going age result from increased micronutrient needs for growth, as well as changes in eating and lifestyle habits arising from increasing independence from the family. During this time, nutritional requirements are high, yet vitamin and mineral intakes tend to be reduced as there is a greater consumption of ‘empty calories’, frequent meal skipping, adoption of inappropriate weight control behavior and decreased vegetable and fruit intake.7,8,9 In spite of the fact that in many countries much is known about the nutritional situation of children and adolescents10-16, less information is available for this age group than for adults, and no data exist on risk factors associated with inadequate intakes in the younger cohort. The quantity and quality of available information is scarce. There is mutual synergistic interrelationship between infections and nutritional status. Poor nutritional status increases the likelihood of acquiring an infectious disease and increased severity of infectious episode whereas infectious disease leads to worsening of

  7. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults. (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D


    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior.

  8. Performance and Clique Analysis of the Iranian Universities and Research Institutions Informetrics: 10 Years Study

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    Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh


    Full Text Available Objective: The current research aims to investigate the co-authorship network of Iranian universities and research institutions in informetrics research during 2002-2012 using social network analysis. Methodology: Using scientometric approach and social network analysis measures, this paper studies co-authorship network of Iranian universities and research institutions in informetrics research. The research population includes 779 articles published in both English and Persian and indexed in 4th edition of scientometrics bibliography during 2002-2012. First, the co-authorship matrix of institutions was drawn by using excel software second, the UCINET and VOSviewer software were utilized for data analysis. Findings: Results revealed that institutions like Tehran University, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tarbiat Modares University, Shahed University, Shahid Chamran University of Aheaz, Regional Information Center for Science and Technology, and National Research Institute for Science Policy play the most important and central roles in the informetrics collaboration network based on productivity, centrality, and collaboration measures. The highest number of co-authored papers in this network have been written by the following pairs of institutions: “Tarbiat Modares University- Shahed University”, “Payame Noor University- Regional Information Center for Science and Technology”, and “Shahed University- National Research Institute for Science Policy” respectively. Conclusion: Results of the clique analysis showed that this network is made of 12 cliques with at least 5 institutions. Tehran University and Islamic Azad University were in the highest number of subgroups of the network with 7 cliques.

  9. Amoebiasis: a 10 year retrospective study at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Shekhar, K C


    A hospital based retrospective study of amoebiasis was carried out for a ten-year period at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Of the 51 cases traced, 30 (59%) had amoebic dysentery, 20 (39%) were amoebic liver abscess (ALA) and one patient had both conditions. Entameoba histolytica trophozoites were identified in 13 (43%) of the amoebic dysenteric stools and 9 (30%) from biopsy. Of the 20 (39%) ALA cases, only one showed parasites in the stool and biopsy. Majority of the patients with dysentery were Malays while Chinese comprised 40% with ALA. Males predominated overall with a male female ratio of 3:1, while for ALA it was 9:1. Most of ALA were single (71.4%) and were localised in the right lobe. The majority of the patients were unemployed. Eighty three percent (83%) of the patients presented with diarrhoea or dysentery followed by abdominal pain while those with ALA had fever, chills, rigors and pain in the right hypochondrium. Eighty percent of the ALA cases showed hepatomegaly. All patients responded to treatment with metronidazole.

  10. Epidemiology of pemphigus vulgaris in the Northeast China: a 10-year retrospective study. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoling; Pan, Jisheng; Yu, Zhiming; Wang, Yanhua; Cai, Limin; Zheng, Shuyun


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence, epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of patients with pemphigus vulgaris in China. We retrospectively investigated a total of 221 patients with pemphigus vulgaris. The parameters including age at diagnosis/onset, sex, diagnostic methods, hospitalizations, side-effects with different treatments, pemphigus vulgaris-associated diseases, the therapeutic features and duration of follow up were evaluated. The male : female ratio was 1:1.40. The incidence rate was obviously higher in two age groups, 31-40 years and 41-50 years. The mean age at onset was 44.19 ± 21.45 years. The majority of patients (56.56%) presented the mucocutaneous type. In addition, we found that various doses of corticosteroids (including the mean initial dose, maximum control dose, total dose before reducing and hospitalized total dose) exhibited statistical differences between only corticosteroids and corticosteroids-immunosuppressant groups in mild, moderate and severe pemphigus vulgaris (P pemphigus vulgaris most frequently occurred in the 41-50-year age group in China and the majority of patients manifested mucocutaneous lesions. Importantly, the incidence rate in females was higher than in males. The patients who needed combined immunosuppressant treatment, usually needed higher doses of corticosteroids initially, to control the disease and over the total course of treatment.

  11. High incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys with phimosis: prospective 10-year study. (United States)

    Kiss, András; Király, László; Kutasy, Balázs; Merksz, Miklós


    This prospective study was designed to address the incidence and clinical and histologic characteristics of balanitis xerotica obliterans in a large random pediatric population with phimosis. We investigated 1178 boys who presented consecutively with phimosis between 1991 and 2001. All patients who underwent complete circumcision and surgical specimens were typed histologically as early, intermediate, or late forms of this disorder or as nonspecific chronic inflammation. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans were controlled at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, then yearly. Balanitis xerotica obliterans was found in 471 of the 1178 patients (40%), with the highest incidence in boys aged 9 to 11 years (76%). Secondary phimosis occurred in 93% of boys with balanitis xerotica obliterans and in 32% of those without the disorder. In six instances of balanitis xerotica obliterans, meatotomy and in one meatoplasty was performed, as well as circumcision. On histologic evaluation, we found 19% had early, 60% intermediate, and 21% late form of balanitis xerotica obliterans. Glanular lesions disappeared completely within 6 months in 229 out of 231 patients. Our data strongly suggest that the true incidence of childhood balanitis xerotica obliterans is higher than previously assumed. Its incidence peaks in the 9 to 11 years age group, in whom secondary phimosis was almost exclusively caused by balanitis xerotica obliterans.

  12. Clinical Study of Extrapulmonary Head and Neck Tuberculosis: A Single-Institute 10-year Experience

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    Oishi, Masahiro


    Full Text Available Introduction Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB in Japan has been decreasing yearly, Japan remains ranked as an intermediate-burden country for TB. Objective This study aims to investigate the current situation of head and neck extrapulmonary TB (EPTB diagnosed in our department. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with EPTB in the head and neck in our department between January 2005 and December 2014. The extracted data included sex and age distribution, development site, chief complaint, presence or absence of concomitant active pulmonary TB (PTB or history of TB, tuberculin skin test (TST results, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA results, and duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB. Results The subjects consisted of 20 men and 27 women, and age ranged from 6 to 84 years. The most common site was the cervical lymph nodes (30 patients, with the supraclavicular nodes being the most commonly affected (60%. Histopathological examination was performed on 28 patients. TST was positive in 9 out of 9 patients and the IGRA was positive in 18 out of 19 patients. We observed concomitant PTB in 15 out of the 47 patients. Mean duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB was 56 days. Conclusion The clinical symptoms of TB, especially those in the head and neck region, are varied. Otolaryngologists should be especially aware of the extrapulmonary manifestations of TB to ensure early diagnosis and treatment from the public health viewpoint.

  13. Epidemiology of pemphigus in northeast Iran: A 10-year retrospective study

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    Javidi Zari


    Full Text Available Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes with different reported epidemiological aspects from different countries. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of pemphigus in Mashhad city. This is the first report with regard to the characteristics of pemphigus in Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all the patients with pemphigus, who were referred to the Dermatology Department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, were examined over nine years, i.e., from May 1998 to March 2007. The data obtained through questionnaires, including age, sex, profession, mucosal or skin or the involvement of both, lag-time period between the onset of disease and the first presentation, gap between cutaneous and mucosal involvements, season of onset and family history, were analysed by using statistical tests of Chi square and Student′s t -test and the statistical software of SPSS. Results: In 178 patients with pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris was the most common type (86.5%. Female to male ratio was 1.4. In pemphigus vulgaris patients, there was involvement of both the skin and mucosa in 64.3%, mucosal involvement in 14% and skin involvement in 21.7%. There was no mucosal involvement in patients with pemphigus foliaceus. Two patients (1.4% had a positive family history. Summer was the most common season for the onset of the disease (37.5%. Most of the patients were housewives in the premenopausal age group. Conclusion: The results reveal a high incidence of pemphigus in northeast Iran with an incidence of 20 patients per year.

  14. Antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for COPD exacerbation in ICU: a 10-year retrospective study

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    Planquette B


    Full Text Available Benjamin Planquette,1–4 Julien Péron,2 Etienne Dubuisson,1 Ariane Roujansky,1 Virginie Laurent,1 Alban Le Monnier,3 Stephane Legriel,1 Alexis Ferre,4 Fabrice Bruneel,1 Peter G Chiles,5 Jean P Bedos1 1Réanimation Polyvalente, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France; 2Unité de Biostatistique Médicale, Hôpital Lyon Sud, Lyon, France; 3Service de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France; 4Service de Pneumologie et de Soins Intensifs, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Université Paris René Descartes, Paris, France; 5Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Summary: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a frequent source of hospitalization. Antibiotics are largely prescribed during COPD exacerbation. Our hypothesis is that large broad-spectrum antibiotics are more and more frequently prescribed. Our results confirm this trend and highlight that the increase in large broad-spectrum use in COPD exacerbation is largely unexplained. Background: Acute COPD exacerbation (AECOPD is frequently due to respiratory tract infection, and the benefit of antipseudomonal antibiotics (APA is still debated. Health care–associated pneumonia (HCAP was defined in 2005 and requires broad-spectrum antibiotherapy. The main objectives are to describe the antibiotic use for AECOPD in intensive care unit and to identify factors associated with APA use and AECOPD prognosis. Methods: We conducted a monocentric, retrospective study on all AECOPDs in the intensive care unit treated by antibiotics for respiratory tract infection. Treatment failure (TF was defined by death, secondary need for mechanical ventilation, or secondary systemic steroid treatment. A multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with APA prescription and TF. Results: From January 2000 to December 2011, 111 patients were included. Mean age was 69 years (±12, mean

  15. Education status determines 10-year (2002-2012) survival from cardiovascular disease in Athens metropolitan area: the ATTICA study, Greece. (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Notara, Venetia; Pitaraki, Evangelia; Kokkou, Eleni; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Yannis; Metaxa, Vassiliki; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and educational level seems to be an important determinant of the disease occurrence. The aim of this work was to investigate the association between education status and 10-year incidence of CVD, controlling for various socio-demographic lifestyle and clinical factors. From May 2001 to December 2002, 1514 men and 1528 women (>18 years) without any clinical evidence of CVD or any other chronic disease, at baseline, living in greater Athens area, Greece, were enrolled. In 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed in 2583 participants (15% of the participants were lost to follow-up). Incidence of fatal or non-fatal CVD was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. Education status was measured in years of schooling. The 10-year incidence of CVD was 15.7% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 14.1%-17.4%], 19.7% in men and 11.7% in women (Pgender education (education (>12 years of schooling). People in the low education group had higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemias, were more likely to be smokers and sedentary, had less healthy dietary habits, as compared with those in the high education group. When controlling for participants' medical history, smoking, dietary and lifestyle habits, low education was no longer significantly associated with CVD, illustrating the mediating effect of clinical and behavioural factors in the link between education and disease. It was of interest that low education status interacted with alcohol drinking, enhancing the adverse effect of low education on CVD risk (relative risk 1.44, 95% CI 0.94%-2.20%), after various adjustments made. In this study, it was concluded that low educational level was associated with increased CVD risk. This was mainly explained by the intermediate association of low education with unhealthy choices that consequently worsen clinical status.

  16. Long Term Clinical Prognostic Factors in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from a 10-Year Observational Study.

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    Gabriel Bsteh

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS has a highly heterogenic course making prediction of long term outcome very difficult.The objective was to evaluate current and identify additional clinical factors that are linked to long term outcome of relapsing-remitting MS assessed by disability status 10 years after disease onset.This observational study included 793 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical factors hypothesized to influence long term outcome measured by EDSS scores 10 years after disease onset were analysed by Kaplan-Meier-estimates. Multinomial logistic regression models regarding mild (EDSS ≤2.5, moderate (EDSS 3.0-5.5 or severe (EDSS ≥6.0 disability were calculated to correct for confounders.Secondary progression was the strongest predictor of severe disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 503.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 160.0-1580.1; p<0.001. Complete remission of neurological symptoms at onset reduced the risk of moderate disability (HR 0.42; CI 0.23-0.77; p = 0.005, while depression (HR 3.59; CI 1.14-11.24; p = 0.028 and cognitive dysfunction (HR 4.64; CI 1.11-19.50; p = 0.036 10 years after disease onset were associated with severe disability. Oligoclonal bands and pregnancy were not correlated with disability.We were able to identify clinically apparent chronic depression and cognitive dysfunction to be associated with adverse long term outcome in MS and to confirm that pregnancy has no negative impact. Additionally, we emphasize the positive predictive value of complete remission of initial symptoms.

  17. Association of depression and anxiety status with 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults: The ATTICA Study. (United States)

    Kyrou, Ioannis; Kollia, Natasa; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tsigos, Constantine; Randeva, Harpal S; Yannakoulia, Mary; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Pitsavos, Christos


    Background Chronic stress frequently manifests with anxiety and/or depressive symptomatology and may have detrimental cardiometabolic effects over time. As such, recognising the potential links between stress-related psychological disorders and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular epidemiology research. The primary aim of this study was to explore prospectively potential associations between clinically relevant depressive symptomatology and anxiety levels and the 10-year CVD incidence among apparently healthy Greek adults. Design A population-based, health and nutrition prospective survey. Methods In the context of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012), 853 adult participants without previous CVD history (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent psychological evaluations through validated, self-reporting depression and anxiety questionnaires. Results After adjustment for multiple established CVD risk factors, both reported depression and anxiety levels were positively and independently associated with the 10-year CVD incidence, with depression markedly increasing the CVD risk by approximately fourfold (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 3.6 (1.3, 11) for depression status; 1.03 (1.0, 1.1) for anxiety levels). Conclusions Our findings indicate that standardised psychological assessments focusing on depression and anxiety should be considered as an additional and distinct aspect in the context of CVD preventive strategies that are designed and implemented by health authorities at the general population level.

  18. Bacteriological conversion in twenty urinary tuberculosis patients treated with ofloxacin, rifampin and isoniazid: a 10-year follow-up study. (United States)

    Castiñeiras, A Alberte; Pérez-Pascual, P; Zarranz, J Estébanez; Della-Latta, P; Herreras, A


    Twenty patients with urinary tuberculosis were treated with ofloxacin (200 mg/day, 6 months), rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months) and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months) between 1989 and 1990. All patients were new cases, diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization) was assessed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients) with urinary tuberculosis who received conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in both groups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment. In the 20 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (>50%); the smear was positive in 45% of the patients (most were 2+). All strains were susceptible to rifampin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Two patients discontinued treatment. Beginning with the first month of treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 100%, 89.5% and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, which received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment with ofloxacin resulted in a bacteriological conversion similar to that following conventional treatment ( p>0.05, Fisher's exact test). After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination with rifampin and isoniazid (both for 3 months only is effective against M. tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.

  19. Relationship of Helicobacter pylori eradication with gastric cancer and gastric mucosal histological changes: a 10-year follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Liya; Lin Sanren; Ding Shigang; Huang Xuebiao; Jin Zhu; Cui Rongli; Meng Lingmei


    Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a common and potentially curable cause of gastric mucosa lesion.This study investigated the relationship of Hp infection with histological changes in gastric mucosa and gastric cancer in Hp-positive patients compared with Hp-eradication patients followed up for ten years.Methods From an initial group of 1 006 adults,552 Hp-positive subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group (T;n=276) or a placebo group (P; n=276).In the randomized,double-blind,placebo-controlled,parallel trial,T group subjects received oral doses of omeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin for 1 week; those in the P group received a placebo.One month after treatment ended,a 13C urea breath test was performed,and Hp was undetectable in 88.89% of the T group.All subjects were followed at 1,5,8,and 10 years after treatment,with endoscopy and biopsies for histological examination.Results Gastric mucosa inflammation was significantly milder in the T group than that in the P group one year after Hp eradication and this persisted for 10 years.Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia (IM) had deteriorated in both groups during ten years.However,the increased score of glandular atrophy at both the gastric antrum and corpus,and IM only at the gastric antrum,in the P group was more obvious than that in the T group.During the 10 years,9 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer (2 in the T group; 7 in the P group; P=0.176).When mucosal atrophy was absent at the gastric antrum and corpus when entering the study,the incidence of gastric cancer in the P group (n=6) was much higher than that in the T group (n=0,P=0.013).Conclusions Hp eradication may significantly diminish and help halt progression of gastric mucosal inflammation and delay the development of IM and atrophy gastritis.Hp eradication is helpful for reducing the risk for gastric cancer,especially in the early stage of Hp infection.

  20. Wide-diameter locking-taper implants: a prospective clinical study with 1 to 10-year follow-up

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    C. Mangano


    Full Text Available Aim: Wide-diameter implants (WDIs, diameter ≥4.5 mm are increasingly being used in patients with poor bone quality and reduced bone height. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival rate, peri-implant bone loss, biological and prosthetic complications of wide-diameter (4.8 mm locking-taper implants used in the restoration of partially and fully edentulous patients. Materials and methods: Between January 2002 and December 2011, all patients referred to a private clinic for treatment with WDIs were considered for inclusion in the study. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed: the outcome measurements were implant failure, peri-implant bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact: DIB, biological and prosthetic complications. The cumulative survival rate (CSR was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator; Log-rank was applied to evaluate correlations between the study variables. The statistical analysis was performed at the patient and at the implant level. Results: A total of 438 WDIs were placed in 411 patients. Four implants failed, for a CSR of 99% (patient-based and 99.1% (implant-based at 10-year follow-up. The CSR did not differ significantly with respect to patients’ gender, age, smoking or parafunctional habit, implant location, position, length, bone type or prosthetic restoration. A mean DIB of 0.34 mm (± 0.23, 0.45 mm (± 0.27 and 0.75 mm (± 0.33 was shown at the 1-, 5- and 10-year follow-up examination. Conclusions: Wide-diameter, locking-taper implants can be a good treatment option for the rehabilitation of partially and fully edentulous patients over the long term.

  1. Mold allergy in the Mediterranean Island of Crete, Greece: a 10-year volumetric, aerobiological study with dermal sensitization correlations. (United States)

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Baritaki, Maria A; Bouros, Demosthenis; Potamias, George; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi S


    Mold spores are universal outdoor and indoor components and generally are recognized as possible sources of respiratory allergies. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) was conducted in the city of Heraklion located at the center of the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece. Eighteen mold species exhibiting a normal annual seasonal pattern have been identified and recorded. The most abundant mold species include (a) Cladosporium, (b) Alternaria, (c) miscellaneous ascosporas (d) Leptosphaeria, and (e) basidiomycete Coprinus. In parallel, 571 atopic individuals were tested by skin-prick tests (SPTs). Among these 571 patients 42.5% showed dermal positivity to mold allergens. Most positive SPTs were those of (a) Alternaria, (b) Cladosporium, (c) Fusarium, (d) Aspergillus, and (e) Mucor. No linear relationship was noted between SPT frequencies and percentages of mold species. All of these aerobiological and sensitization data constitute a firm basis for further medical and biological research and application.

  2. 10-Year cardiovascular event risks for women who experienced hypertensive disorders in late pregnancy: the HyRAS study

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    Ponjee Gabrielle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is the cause of death in 32% of women in the Netherlands. Prediction of an individual's risk for cardiovascular disease is difficult, in particular in younger women due to low sensitive and specific tests for these women. 10% to 15% of all pregnancies are complicated by hypertensive disorders, the vast majority of which develop only after 36 weeks of gestation. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in later life show both features of "the metabolic syndrome" and atherosclerosis. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and cardiovascular disease may develop by common pathophysiologic pathways initiated by similar vascular risk factors. Vascular damage occurring during preeclampsia or gestational hypertension may contribute to the development of future cardiovascular disease, or is already present before pregnancy. At present clinicians do not systematically aim at the possible cardiovascular consequences in later life after a hypertensive pregnancy disorder at term. However, screening for risk factors after preeclampsia or gestational hypertension at term may give insight into an individual's cardiovascular risk profile. Methods/Design Women with a history of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension will be invited to participate in a cohort study 2 1/2 years after delivery. Participants will be screened for established modifiable cardiovascular risk indicators. The primary outcome is the 10-year cardiovascular event risk. Secondary outcomes include differences in cardiovascular parameters, SNP's in glucose metabolism, and neonatal outcome. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the potential health gains of a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor screening program for women whose pregnancy was complicated by hypertension or preeclampsia. The calculation of individual 10-year cardiovascular event risks will allow identification of those women who will benefit from primary prevention by tailored

  3. Prediction of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence in the Japanese population: the JPHC study cohort II. (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Inoue, Manami; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro


    Gastric cancer is a particularly important issue in Japan, where incidence rates are among the highest observed. In this work, we provide a risk prediction model allowing the estimation of the 10-year cumulative probability of gastric cancer occurrence. The study population consisted of 19,028 individuals from the Japanese Public Health Center cohort II who were followed-up from 1993 to 2009. A parametric survival model was used to assess the impact on the probability of gastric cancer of clinical and lifestyle-related risk factors in combination with serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody titres and pepsinogen I and pepsinogen II levels. Based on the resulting model, cumulative probability estimates were calculated and a simple risk scoring system was developed. A total of 412 cases of gastric cancer occurred during 270,854 person-years of follow-up. The final model included (besides the biological markers) age, gender, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer and consumption of highly salted food. The developed prediction model showed good predictive performance in terms of discrimination (optimism-corrected c-index: 0.768) and calibration (Nam and d'Agostino's χ(2) test: 14.78; p values = 0.06). Estimates of the 10-year probability of gastric cancer occurrence ranged from 0.04% (0.02, 0.1) to 14.87% (8.96, 24.14) for men and from 0.03% (0.02, 0.07) to 4.91% (2.71, 8.81) for women. In conclusion, we developed a risk prediction model for gastric cancer that combines clinical and biological markers. It might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programmes.

  4. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a clinical and epidemiological study of 112 cases, with 10-year follow-up. (United States)

    Bizzaro, N


    In the past 10 years, we have observed 112 cases of EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) due to in vitro platelet clumping at room temperature. 93 patients had antiplatelet antibodies (48 IgM, 30 IgG, 3 IgA, and 12 had two different isotypes concomitantly). In 20% of patients, the presence of IgM antibodies characteristically accompanied platelet agglutination also at 37 degrees C, and in citrated blood. The phenomenon was not age or sex related, nor was it associated with any particular pathology or use of specific drugs, and was present in both healthy subjects and patients with various diseases. Flow cytofluorimetric analysis of CD5-positive B cells, which are responsible for autoantibody production, did not demonstrate any changes in the percentage and absolute number of this lymphocyte subset. Average follow-up was 5 years (6 months-10 years); however, previous clinical records disclosed that PTCP was present for more than 15 years in four cases, and more than 20 years in three others, with no clinical manifestation of disease. This study confirms that EDTA-dependent PTCP is a phenomenon related to the presence of natural autoantibodies with antiplatelet activity, devoid of pathological significance. Its clinical interest resides in the need for its prompt and certain recognition in order to avoid unnecessary examinations and therapeutic interventions. The best and most rapid technique for obtaining accurate platelet counts in PTCP subjects is to collect and examine EDTA blood at 37 degrees C; however, clumping will still be present in about 20% of these cases, and even in citrated blood. To obviate this phenomenon, blood should be collected in ammonium oxalate, and platelets counted in a Burker chamber.

  5. Measles Morbidity and Mortality Trend in Nigeria: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Retrospective Study in Lagos State, Nigeria

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    Akeeb O. Bola Oyefolu


    Full Text Available Objective: This hospital-based retrospective cohort study was undertaken with a view to determine the epidemiological trend of measles in Lagos State, Nigeria Methods: Medical records of clinically diagnosed measles patients from nine referral public hospitals in Lagos State between 1998 and 2007 were retrieved, transcribed and reviewed. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results: A total of 35,500 clinically confirmed cases and 835 deaths (case fatality rate = 2.35%/10 years were recorded. The mean incidence was estimated at 19 cases per 100,000 population/year. A consistent seasonality pattern of measles was observed for the study period. The under-fives accounted for the highest reported cases (76.30% while, the under-1 year recorded highest mortality (53.8%. Notable shift of measles vulnerability from under-1year to under-fives was observed. Although there was significant difference between cases and deaths among the age groups (p0.05. Conclusion: This study recorded high incidence and case fatality of measles, which poses serious public health threat. Poor demographic data collection and storage were revealed thus, computerization of medical records for collection, storage and retrieval of data is imperative for adequate planning and control of measles imperil in Nigeria. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1:12-18

  6. A 10 year follow-up study after Roux-Elmslie-Trillat treatment for cases of patellar instability

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    Wilke Axel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A retrospective study concerning patients presenting with patella instability, treated using a Roux-Elmslie-Trillat reconstruction operation and followed up for 10 years following surgery, is presented. Methods Pre-operative and follow-up radiographic evaluation included the weight-bearing anteroposterior and merchant views. Evaluation was carried out using the Insall-Salvati index, sulcus and congruence angle. The Roux-Elmslie-Trillat reconstruction operation was performed on 18 patients. The clinical evaluation at follow-up was performed using the Knee-Society-Score (KSS and Tegner-Score. Results Subjective results of the operation were classed as excellent or good in 16 of the 18 patients ten years after surgery; persistent instability of the patella was recorded in only one of the 18 patients. The majority of patients returned to the same level of sporting activity after surgery as they had participated in before injury. Conclusions The Roux-Elmslie-Trillat procedure could be recommended in cases presenting with an increased q-angle, trochlea dysplasia or failed soft tissue surgery. In the present study the majority of patients report a return to previous sporting activity ten years after surgery.

  7. Serratia marcescens in a neonatal intensive care unit: two long-term multiclone outbreaks in a 10-year observational study. (United States)

    Casolari, Chiara; Pecorari, Monica; Della Casa, Elisa; Cattani, Silvia; Venturelli, Claudia; Fabio, Giuliana; Tagliazucchi, Sara; Serpini, Giulia Fregni; Migaldi, Mario; Marchegiano, Patrizia; Rumpianesi, Fabio; Ferrari, Fabrizio


    We investigated two consecutive Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) outbreaks which occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary level hospital in North Italy in a period of 10 years (January 2003-December 2012). Risk factors associated with S. marcescens acquisition were evaluated by a retrospective case-control study. A total of 21,011 clinical samples was examined: S. marcescens occurred in 127 neonates: 43 developed infection and 3 died. Seven clusters were recorded due to 12 unrelated clones which persisted for years in the ward, although no environmental source was found. The main epidemic clone A sustaining the first cluster in 2003 reappeared in 2010 as an extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strain and supporting the second epidemic. Birth weight, gestational age, use of invasive devices and length of stay in the ward were significantly related to S. marcescens acquisition. The opening of a new ward for non-intensive care-requiring neonates, strict adherence to alcoholic hand disinfection, the timely identification and isolation of infected and colonized neonates assisted in containing the epidemics. Genotyping was effective in tracing the evolution and dynamics of the clones demonstrating their long-term persistence in the ward.

  8. Neck Circumference and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). (United States)

    Cho, Nam H; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Hong Kyu; Lim, Soo


    Neck circumference, a proxy for upper-body fat, may be a unique fat depot that indicates metabolic risk beyond whole body fat. We investigated whether neck circumference is associated with development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a subset of data with Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (n = 3521, age range = 42-71 years). Nondiabetic subjects at the baseline were categorized into 4 groups (Q1-Q4) according to their neck circumference. Parameters related with β-cell function and insulin resistance including Epworth sleepiness scale and snoring habit were examined. The development of DM was confirmed biannually based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Over the 10 years, 2623 (74.5%) among 3521 subjects were followed-up. Among them, 632 (24.1%) developed DM. The incidence of DM increased from 17.6% in Q1 to 18.2% in Q2, to 25.4% in Q3, and to 36.0% in Q4 (P neck circumference in the development of DM.

  9. The pattern of homicidal slash/chop injuries: a 10 year retrospective study in University Hospital Kuala Lumpur. (United States)

    Ong, B B


    Homicides as a result of slash/chop injuries are not commonly reported in forensic literature. A 10 year retrospective study from 1987 to 1996 was performed on the pattern of homicidal slash/chop injuries in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A total of 37 cases were analysed. The ages ranged from 17 to 85 years. The victims consisted of Indonesian (37.8%), Chinese (27.0%), Indian (24.3%) and Malay (8.1%) ethnic groups; 2.7% of the cases were not identified. Most of the cases were due to intentional violence (n = 27), while the rest consisted of domestic violence (n = 2), robbery (n = 2), psychiatric homicide (n = 1), accident (n = 2) and unclassified (n = 3). In the intentional violence group, the majority of the victims (n = 16) had more than five wounds. In contrast, the victims in other categories had less than five wounds each, with the exception of a single case in the psychiatric-homicide group. In homicide victims with a single wound, the most common site of injury was the neck. In those with multiple wounds, the common sites were the head and neck. Sixteen cases showed defence injuries, all of them belonging to the intentional-violence group. The reasons for the high incidence of homicidal slash/chop wounds are discussed, as well as the difficulties associated with interpretation of such wounds.

  10. Antidepressant use and 10-year incident fracture risk: the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMoS) (United States)

    Bernatsky, S.; Abrahamowicz, M.; Papaioannou, A.; Bessette, L.; Adachi, J.; Goltzman, D.; Prior, J.; Kreiger, N.; Towheed, T.; Leslie, W. D.; Kaiser, S.; Ioannidis, G.; Pickard, L.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rahme, E.


    Summary We used data from a large, prospective Canadian cohort to assess the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and fracture. We found an increased risk of fractures in individuals who used SSRI or SNRI, even after controlling for multiple risk factors. Introduction Previous studies have suggested an association between SSRIs and increasing risk of fragility fractures. However, the majority of these studies were not long-term analyses or were performed using administrative data and, thus, could not fully control for potential confounders. We sought to determine whether the use of SSRIs and SNRIs is associated with increased risk of fragility fracture, in adults aged 50+. Methods We used data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective randomly selected population-based community cohort; our analyses focused on subjects aged 50+. Time to event methodology was used to assess the association between SSRI/SNRI use, modeled time-dependently, and fragility fracture. Results Among 6,645 subjects, 192 (2.9 %) were using SSRIs or/and SNRIs at baseline. During the 10-year study period, 978 (14.7 %) participants experienced at least one fragility fracture. In our main analysis, SSRI/SNRI use was associated with increased risk of fragility fracture (hazard ratio (HR), 1.88; 95 % confidence intervals (CI), 1.48–2.39). After controlling for multiple risk factors, including Charlson score, previous falls, and bone mineral density hip and lumbar bone density, the adjusted HR for current SSRI/SNRI use remained elevated (HR, 1.68; 95 % CI, 1.32–2.14). Conclusions Our results lend additional support to an association between SSRI/SNRI use and fragility fractures. Given the high prevalence of antidepressants use, and the impact of fractures on health, our findings may have a significant clinical impact. PMID:24566587

  11. Genetic determinants of long-term changes in blood lipid concentrations: 10-year follow-up of the GLACIER study.

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    Tibor V Varga


    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide meta-analyses identified 157 loci associated with cross-sectional lipid traits. Here we tested whether these loci associate (singly and in trait-specific genetic risk scores [GRS] with longitudinal changes in total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG levels in a population-based prospective cohort from Northern Sweden (the GLACIER Study. We sought replication in a southern Swedish cohort (the MDC Study; N = 2,943. GLACIER Study participants (N = 6,064 were genotyped with the MetaboChip array. Up to 3,495 participants had 10-yr follow-up data available in the GLACIER Study. The TC- and TG-specific GRSs were strongly associated with change in lipid levels (β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0 × 10(-11 for TC; β = 0.02 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.0 × 10(-5 for TG. In individual SNP analysis, one TC locus, apolipoprotein E (APOE rs4420638 (β = 0.12 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 2.0 × 10(-5, and two TG loci, tribbles pseudokinase 1 (TRIB1 rs2954029 (β = 0.09 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 5.1 × 10(-4 and apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1 rs6589564 (β = 0.31 mmol/l per effect allele per decade follow-up, P = 1.4 × 10(-8, remained significantly associated with longitudinal changes for the respective traits after correction for multiple testing. An additional 12 loci were nominally associated with TC or TG changes. In replication analyses, the APOE rs4420638, TRIB1 rs2954029, and APOA1 rs6589564 associations were confirmed (P ≤ 0.001. In summary, trait-specific GRSs are robustly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels and three individual SNPs were strongly associated with 10-yr changes in lipid levels.

  12. Dietary quality and lifestyle factors in relation to 10-year mortality in older Europeans: the SENECA study. (United States)

    Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette P G M; Burema, Jan; Cruz, José A Amorim; Osler, Merete; van Staveren, Wija A


    The single and combined effects of three healthy lifestyle behaviors-nonsmoking, being physically active, and having a high-quality diet-on survival were investigated among older people in the SENECA Study. This European longitudinal study started with baseline measurements in 1988-1989 and lasted until April 30, 1999. The study population consisted of 631 men and 650 women aged 70-75 years from Belgium, Denmark, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland. A lifestyle score was calculated by adding the scores of the lifestyle factors physical activity, dietary quality, and smoking habits. The single lifestyle factors and the lifestyle score were related to mortality. Even at ages 70-75 years, the unhealthy lifestyle behaviors smoking, having a low-quality diet, and being physically inactive were singly related to an increased mortality risk (hazard ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.1). The risk of death was further increased for all combinations of two unhealthy lifestyle behaviors. Finally, men and women with all three unhealthy lifestyle behaviors had a three- to fourfold increase in mortality risk. These results underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle, including multiple lifestyle factors, and the maintenance of it with advancing age.

  13. Oncologist use of the Adjuvant! model for risk communication: a pilot study examining patient knowledge of 10-year prognosis

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    Hutton David W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our purpose was to collect preliminary data on newly diagnosed breast cancer patient knowledge of prognosis before and after oncology visits. Many oncologists use a validated prognostic software model, Adjuvant!, to estimate 10-year recurrence and mortality outcomes for breast cancer local and adjuvant therapy. Some oncologists are printing Adjuvant! screens to use as visual aids during consultations. No study has reported how such use of Adjuvant! printouts affects patient knowledge of prognosis. We hypothesized that Adjuvant! printouts would be associated with significant changes in the proportion of patients with accurate understanding of local therapy prognosis. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 20 patients seen by 2 senior oncologists using Adjuvant! printouts of recurrence and mortality screens in our academic medical center. We asked patients for their estimates of local therapy recurrence and mortality risks and counted the number of patients whose estimates were within ± 5% of Adjuvant! before and after the oncology visit, testing whether pre/post changes were significant using McNemar's two-sided test at a significance level of 5%. Results Two patients (10% accurately estimated local therapy recurrence and mortality risks before the oncology visit, while seven out of twenty (35% were accurate afterwards (p = 0.125. Conclusion A majority of patients in our sample were inaccurate in estimating their local therapy recurrence and mortality risks, even after being shown printouts summarizing these risks during their oncology visits. Larger studies are needed to replicate or repudiate these preliminary findings, and test alternative methods of presenting risk estimates. Meanwhile, oncologists should be wary of relying exclusively on Adjuvant! printouts to communicate local therapy recurrence and mortality estimates to patients, as they may leave a majority of patients misinformed.

  14. Prevalence of flatfoot in school between 3 and 10 years. Study of two different populations geographically and socially

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    Enrrique Vergara-Amador


    Full Text Available Children present with flatfoot from birth and it resolves along infancy. There have been several risk factors identified for the development of flatfoot: male sex, young age, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of flatfoot decreases with age.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flatfoot in two different populations with different social, cultural and geographically characteristics in Colombia. Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional study made on school children between 3 to 10 years of age, from several schools in Bogota and Barranquilla. From 940 total children 60% were from Bogota. Flatfoot was diagnosed according to physical exam.Results: We found a global prevalence of flatfoot of 15.74%, distributed 20,8% in Bogota and 7.9% in Barranquilla. The children from 3 to 5 years had a prevalence of 30,9%, decreasing significantly after this age. It was found that children 3 to 5 years old from Bogota had a prevalence of flatfoot of 38.3% while children from Barranquilla only 17.3%, decreasing significantly in children older than 6 years. In the multivariate analysis we found an association between flatfoot with age, city, gender and body mass index.Discussion: We found a bigger prevalence of flatfoot in the population of Bogota compared to Barranquilla suggesting an influence of social, cultural and racial factors in the development of flatfoot. The diminished prevalence of flatfoot in children over 6 years of age suggest that therapeutic measures before this age are not recommended.

  15. Treatment and violent behavior in persons with first episode psychosis during a 10-year prospective follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, Johannes; Bjørkly, Stål; Auestad, Bjørn


    to be predictive of violent behavior during the year preceding the 10-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: After treatment initiation, the overall prevalence of violence in psychotic patients drops gradually to rates close to those of the general population. However, persistent illicit drug abuse is a serious risk factor...

  16. Interaction of FKBP5 Gene Variants and Adverse Life Events in Predicting Depression Onset: Results From a 10-Year Prospective Community Study (United States)

    Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Nocon, Agnes; Pfister, Hildegard; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Uhr, Manfred; Lieb, Roselind; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Caspi, Avshalom; Holsboer, Florian; Ising, Marcus


    Objective The binding protein FKBP5 is an important modulator of the function of the glucocorticoid receptor, the main receptor of the stress horm one system. This turns the FKBP5 gene into a key candidate for gene-environment interactions, which are considered critical for pathogenesis of stress-related disorders. The authors explored gene-environment interactions between FKBP5 gene variants and adverse life events in predicting the first occurrence of a major depressive episode. Method The analyses were based on 884 Caucasians in a 10-year prospective community study. At baseline, they were 14–24 years old and did not fulfill criteria for a major depressive episode. The DSM-IV-based Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess adverse life events preceding baseline and major depressive episodes during follow-up. On the basis of previous findings, five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FKBP5 gene were selected for genotyping. Results While the authors did not observe genetic main effects, they found interactions between the five SNPs and traumatic (but not separation) events, with the strongest effect for severe trauma. The effect of trauma on incident major depressive episodes was evident among subjects homozygous for the minor alleles but not subjects with other genotypes. The findings were replicated in the U.K. Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study. Conclusions These hypothesis-driven results suggest that an interaction between FKBP5 genotype and trauma is involved in the onset of depression. Subjects homozygous for the minor alleles of the investigated FKBP5 SNPs seem to be particularly sensitive to effects of trauma exposure in terms of triggering depression onset. PMID:21865530

  17. A longitudinal study


    Hantel, Hajo


    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of stress, coping and occlusion in the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). 99 dental students (m/w = 33/66) could be observed over a period of 24 months. Clinical data were recorded using the protocol of RDC/TMD-axis I, Helkimo’s clinical Dysfunction Index (DI) as well as Helkimo’s Index for Occlusal State (OI). For quantitative evaluation the findings of RDC/TMD were transferred into the RDC-Index (Kanzlivius). Data regardin...

  18. [Oxaliplatin -- A 10-Year Trajectory]. (United States)

    Kanaji, Shingo; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Kitao, Hiroyuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Kakeji, Yoshihiro


    Oxaliplatin(Elplat(®)iv infusion solution)is a third-generation 1,2-DACH-platinum derivative. A number of international clinical trials have investigated the effects of this drug for each of its four indications. Building on the results of these earlier studies, much research has also been carried out in Japan in terms of developing and accumulating evidence on oxaliplatin. This report reviews the trajectory of its use over the last 10-years and considers its future potential.

  19. Burden of morbidity in 10+ year survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: report from the bone marrow transplantation survivor study. (United States)

    Sun, Can-Lan; Kersey, John H; Francisco, Liton; Armenian, Saro H; Baker, K Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Forman, Stephen J; Bhatia, Smita


    Long-term morbidity after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. The risk of physical and psychological health in 324 patients who had survived 10 or more years after HCT and a sibling comparison group (n = 309) was evaluated. Using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, the 15-year cumulative incidence of severe/life-threatening/fatal conditions was 41% (95% confidence interval, 34% to 48%). HCT survivors were 5.7 times as likely to develop a severe/life-threatening condition (P survivors returned to the transplantation center for their cancer-related care. The burden of long-term physical and emotional morbidity borne by survivors remains substantial, even beyond 10 years after HCT; however, specialized health care is underused. Patients, families, and healthcare providers need to be made aware of the high burden, so they can plan for post-HCT care, even many years after HCT.

  20. Monitoring the Affordability of Healthy Eating: A Case Study of 10 Years of the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Williams


    Full Text Available Healthy food baskets have been used around the world for a variety of purposes, including: examining the difference in cost between healthy and unhealthy food; mapping the availability of healthy foods in different locations; calculating the minimum cost of an adequate diet for social policy planning; developing educational material on low cost eating and examining trends on food costs over time. In Australia, the Illawarra Healthy Food Basket was developed in 2000 to monitor trends in the affordability of healthy food compared to average weekly wages and social welfare benefits for the unemployed. It consists of 57 items selected to meet the nutritional requirements of a reference family of five. Bi-annual costing from 2000–2009 has shown that the basket costs have increased by 38.4% in the 10-year period, but that affordability has remained relatively constant at around 30% of average household incomes.

  1. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population (United States)

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.


    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  2. Posterior Mandibular Residual Ridge Resorption in Patients with Overdentures Supported by Two or Four Endosseous Implants in a 10-year Prospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marjolein H. M.; Wright, Paul S.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Tymstra, Nynke


    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment with either two or four mandibular endosseous implants with an overdenture on mandibular posterior residual ridge resorption over a 10 year period Materials and Methods Sixty edentulous patients with residual mandibular height bet

  3. Risk of peptic ulcer, oesophagitis, pancreatitis or gallstone in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a 10-year Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, E M; Drewes, A M; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;


    : This Danish 10-year cohort study focused on UCEP patients (n = 386), diagnosed in 1992-93. Ten age- and gender-matched controls were selected per patient from Denmark's Civil Registration System (n = 3860). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox's regression analysis was used to calculate the risk of hospitalization...

  4. How do retirement dynamics influence mental well-being in later life? A 10-year panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, E.; Henkens, K.


    Objectives Empirical studies have consistently shown the negative impact of involuntary retirement on mental well-being. However, few studies have thus far investigated the degree to which post-retirement work affects late-life outcomes. The present study improves our understanding of the impact of

  5. MVPA Is Associated with Lower Weight Gain in 8–10 Year Old Children: A Prospective Study with 1 Year Follow-Up


    Abigail Fisher; Claire Hill; Laura Webber; Lisa Purslow; Jane Wardle


    BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA) to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than total physical activity (total PA) or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part ...

  6. Genetic association studies of suicidal behaviour: A review of the past 10 years, progress, limitations and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviours, which range from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health. The involvement of genetic risk factors in suicidal behaviour is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. The aim of this paper is to review recent genetic association studies in suicidal behaviours including (i case-control studies, (ii family-based association studies and (iii genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes (e.g., tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin receptors and transporters or brain-derived neurotrophic factors are linked to suicidal behaviours, but these findings are not consistently supported by the results obtained. Although the candidate-gene approach is useful, it is hampered by the present state of knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of diseases. Interpretations of GWAS results are mostly hindered by a lack of annotation describing the functions of most variation throughout the genome.Association studies have addressed a wide range of SNPs in numerous genes. We have included 104 such studies, of which 10 are family-based association studies and 11 are GWAS studies. Numerous meta-analyses of case-control studies have shown significant associations of suicidal behaviour with variants in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT or SLC6A4 and the tryptophane hydroxylase1 gene (TPH1, but others report contradictory results. The gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its receptor (NTRK2 are also promising candidates. Only two of the GWAS studies showed any significant associations. Several pathways are mentioned in an attempt to understand the lack of reproducibility and the disappointing results. Consequently, we review and discuss here the following aspects: (i sample characteristics and confounding factors; (ii statistical limits; (iii gene-gene interactions; (iv gene

  7. Prevalence of flatfoot in school between 3 and 10 years. Study of two different populations geographically and socially


    Enrrique Vergara-Amador; Rafael Fernando Serrano Sánchez; Juan Rafael Correa Posad; Adriana Carolina Molano


    Children present with flatfoot from birth and it resolves along infancy. There have been several risk factors identified for the development of flatfoot: male sex, young age, overweight and obesity. The prevalence of flatfoot decreases with age.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flatfoot in two different populations with different social, cultural and geographically characteristics in Colombia. Patients and methods: This is a cross sectional study made on school children...

  8. Risk of gastrointestinal cancer in patients with unexplained chest/epigastric pain and normal upper endoscopy: a Danish 10-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Estrid Muff; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders;


    Unexplained chest/epigastric pain is a common symptom in the general population. However, it has not previously been studied whether such pain could be a marker of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer. We aimed to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a Danish 10-year follow-up study among...... patients with chest/epigastric pain, normal upper endoscopy, and no prior discharge diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (N = 386), compared with population controls (N = 3860). The overall 10-year risk of gastrointestinal cancer (stomach, colorectal, liver, and pancreas) was 2.9% for patients...... of gastrointestinal cancer within the first year after upper endoscopy. Consequently, unexplained chest/epigastric pain might be an early gastrointestinal cancer symptom....

  9. Does ADHD Predict Substance-Use Disorders? A 10-Year Follow-up Study of Young Adults with ADHD (United States)

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Martelon, MaryKate; Joshi, Gagan; Bateman, Clancey; Fried, Ronna; Petty, Carter; Biederman, Joseph


    Objective: High rates of substance-use disorders (SUD) have been found in samples of adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Predictors of SUD in children with ADHD who are at risk for the development of SUDs remain understudied. The main aims of this study were to identify clinically meaningful characteristics…

  10. Is Plagiarism Changing over Time? A 10-Year Time-Lag Study with Three Points of Measurement (United States)

    Curtis, Guy J.; Vardanega, Lucia


    Are more students cheating on assessment tasks in higher education? Despite ongoing media speculation concerning increased "copying and pasting" and ghostwritten assignments produced by "paper mills", few studies have charted historical trends in rates and types of plagiarism. Additionally, there has been little comment from…

  11. In-transit sentinel nodes must be found: implication from a 10-year follow-up study in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette H; Hansen, Lone B; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen;


    The aim was to study the occurrence of in-transit nodes at a preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for patients with primary melanoma, and to reveal their potential role in prognosis. From 1984 to 1996, 911 patients, hospitalized for wide excision of a clinically localized primary cutaneous head-neck o...

  12. Racial Disparities in Colorectal Carcinoma Incidence, Severity and Survival Times Over 10 Years: A Retrospective Single Center Study (United States)

    Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad Sharjeel; Tetangco, Eula; Shah, Natasha; Kabir, Christopher; Raddawi, Hareth


    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Although studies have been performed on malignancy behavior in African Americans and Caucasians, scant data are present on other minority racial groups. Methods A retrospective single center study was performed where 1,860 patient charts with a diagnosis of CRC from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data collected on each patient included age, gender, ethnicity, primary site and histological stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival time over the course of 5 years was documented for patients from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2009. Comparisons were made amongst different racial groups for the above mentioned factors. Results Study population consisted of 27.09% African Americans, 65.61% Caucasians, 3.86% Hispanics, 0.54% South Asians, 1.03% Arabs, 0.54% Asians and 0.22% American Indians. Mean age of CRC presentation was found to be significantly different (P < 0.05) between the three largest racial groups: 71 years for Caucasians, 69 years for African Americans, and 61 years for Hispanics. African Americans (27.09%) and Hispanics (28.79%) presented predominantly at stage IV in comparison to other racial groups. Caucasians presented predominantly at stage III (24.84%). The rectum was the most common site of CRC across all racial groups with the exception of Asians, where sigmoid colon was the predominant site (30%). Adenocarcinoma remained the predominant cancer type in all groups. Hispanics had relatively higher incidence rate of carcinoid tumor (12.68%). Survival time analysis showed that Caucasians tend to have better survival probability over 5 years after initial diagnosis as compared to African Americans and Hispanic (P < 0.05). Conclusion There is lack of studies performed on minority racial groups in North America. Our study highlighted some important clinical differences of CRC presentation in different racial groups which are not

  13. Time to First Shunt Failure in Pediatric Patients over 1 Year Old: A 10-Year Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Shannon, Chevis N; Carr, Kevin R; Tomycz, Luke; Wellons, John C; Tulipan, Noel


    Studies comparing alternatives to ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting for treatment of hydrocephalus have often relied upon data from an earlier era that may not be representative of contemporary shunt survival outcomes. We sought to determine the shunt survival rate of our cohort and compare our results to previously published shunt survival and endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) success rates. We identified 95 patients between 1 and 18 years of age, who underwent initial VP shunt placement between January 2001 and December 2010. Our study shows a shunt survival rate of 85% at 6 months and 79% at 2 years, for initial shunts in pediatric patients over 1 year of age in this cohort. The overall infection rate was 3%. This compares favorably with published success rates of ETV at similar time points as well as with the rate of infection. This suggests that ventricular shunting remains a viable alternative to ETV in the older child.

  14. A 10-year study of specimens submitted to oral pathology laboratory analysis: lesion occurrence and demographic features


    Marina Mendez; Vinicius Coelho Carrard; Alex Nogueira Haas; Isabel da Silva Lauxen; João Jorge Diniz Barbachan; Pantelis Varvaki Rados; Manoel Sant'Ana Filho


    The purpose of the present paper was to describe the range of lesions histologically diagnosed in an oral pathology laboratory in southern Brazil. A retrospective study of 8,168 specimen analyses recorded between 1995 and 2004 was conducted. The records were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. A total of 6,831 valid cases (83.63%) were examined. Of these, inflammatory lesions were the most common occurrences (...

  15. Mortality among young injection drug users in San Francisco: a 10-year follow-up of the UFO study. (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer L; Tsui, Judith I; Hahn, Judith A; Davidson, Peter J; Lum, Paula J; Page, Kimberly


    This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (UFO ("U Find Out") Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths.

  16. Health-related services use and the onset of functional disability: 10 year follow-up study. (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Min; Su, Yung-Yu; Lan, Tzuo-Yun; Mullan, Judy; Shi, Hon-Yi; Chiu, Herng-Chia


    This study aimed to examine the effect of health-related service use on the development of functional disability in an older adult Taiwanese cohort. The sample population consisted of 871 participants without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) disabilities, 1061 participants without Activities of Daily Living (ADL) disabilities and 817 participants without IADL and ADL disabilities at baseline. The onset of IADL and ADL disabilities were estimated as the follow-up survey year that these functional disabilities were first noted, or the follow-up survey year that the participant was noted as having died. A Cox proportional hazards model, with time-dependent covariates, was used to analyze the association between the time of onset of the functional disabilities and the health-related service use, after controlling for age, gender, education, marital status and time varying chronic disease status. This study found that an increase in the number of services used by the participants resulted in fewer IADL and ADL disabilities. Furthermore, participants who attended recreational programs, regular health examinations, and who received the information assistance and meal preparation were significantly less likely to develop disabilities. Participants who used one or more services were 55-77% less likely to be IADL disabled, and were 54-81% less likely to be ADL disabled, and were also 59-89% less likely to develop IADL and ADL disabilities as compared to those who used none. In the present study therefore, as the number of health services used increased the likelihood of developing a functional disability decreased.

  17. Nutrition and mortality in the elderly over 10 years of follow-up: the Three-City study. (United States)

    Letois, Flavie; Mura, Thibault; Scali, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Laure-Anne; Féart, Catherine; Berr, Claudine


    In the last 20 years, many prospective cohort studies have assessed the relationships between food consumption and mortality. Result interpretation is mainly hindered by the limited adjustment for confounders and, to a lesser extent, the small sample sizes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary habits and all-cause mortality in a multicentre prospective cohort that included non-institutionalised, community-based elderly individuals (Three-City Study). A brief FFQ was administered at baseline. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for all-cause mortality were estimated relative to the consumption frequency of several food groups, using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, centre, socio-demographic characteristics and health status indicators. Among the 8937 participants (mean age: 74·2 years, 60·7 % women), 2016 deaths were recorded during an average follow-up of 9 years. The risk of death was significantly lower among subjects with the highest fruit and vegetable consumption (HR 0·90; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·99, P=0·03) and with regular fish consumption (HR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·97, P=0·01). The benefit of olive oil use was found only in women (moderate olive oil use: HR 0·80; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·94, P=0·007; intensive use: HR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·85, P=0·0002). Conversely, daily meat consumption increased the mortality risk (HR 1·12; 95 % CI, 1·01, 1·24, P=0·03). No association was found between risk of death and diet diversity and use of various fats. These findings suggest that fruits/vegetables, olive oil and regular fish consumptions have a beneficial effect on the risk of death, independently of the socio-demographic features and the number of medical conditions.

  18. Antibody levels in children after 10 years of vaccination against hepatitis B: a brazilian community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Danielle Fagundes


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that the hepatitis B (HB vaccine is effective, but it is alarming that sudden drops of antibody levels may coincide with the onset of adolescence. METHODS: Antibody levels against HB vaccine surface antigen (anti-HBs and HB vaccine core antigen (anti-HBc were measured on the blood samples of children with a mean age of 11.4 years. RESULTS: About 54.8% had protective levels of anti-HBs. Of those who were anti-HBc-positive (4.4%, an average of 218.4 anti-HBs mIU/mL was found. CONCLUSIONS: Immunological protection was found in the majority of children. However, more studies are needed to elucidate the heritability of nonresponders and establish strategies against such events.

  19. The effect of a monocular helmet-mounted display on aircrew health: a 10-year prospective cohort study of Apache AH MK 1 pilots: study midpoint update (United States)

    Hiatt, Keith L.; Rash, Clarence E.; Watters, Raymond W.; Adams, Mark S.


    A collaborative occupational health study has been undertaken by Headquarters Army Aviation, Middle Wallop, UK, and the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory, Fort Rucker, Alabama, to determine if the use of the Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting System (IHADSS) monocular helmet-mounted display (HMD) in the Apache AH Mk 1 attack helicopter has any long-term (10-year) effect on visual performance. The test methodology consists primarily of a detailed questionnaire and an annual battery of vision tests selected to capture changes in visual performance of Apache aviators over their flight career (with an emphasis on binocular visual function). Pilots using binocular night vision goggles serve as controls and undergo the same methodology. Currently, at the midpoint of the study, with the exception of a possible colour discrimination effect, there are no data indicating that the long-term use of the IHADSS monocular HMD results in negative effects on vision.

  20. Surgical treatment for septic arthritis of the knee joint in elderly patients: a 10-year retrospective clinical study. (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ming; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Tung-Fu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Liu, Chien-Lin; Chen, Tain-Hsiung


    Septic arthritis is the most rapidly destructive joint disease, but its early diagnosis remains challenging; delayed or inadequate treatment, even by expert physicians, can lead to irreversible joint destruction. Between 25% and 50% of patients develop irreversible loss of joint function, which is especially concerning in elderly patients. To understand the factors influencing the outcome of septic arthritis, the authors reviewed patients aged older than 50 years who had undergone debridement surgery for primary septic arthritis at their institution between 1998 and 2008. Ninety-two patients (92 knees) were enrolled in the study; 14 did not meet inclusion criteria and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the 78 included patients, 7 underwent arthrodesis, 22 underwent total knee arthroplasty, 19 were indicated for total knee arthroplasty for severe knee joint osteoarthritis but did not undergo surgery by the end of this study, and the remaining 30 had no or mild symptoms of osteoarthrosis and did not receive any surgical procedure. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogenic agent (38%), followed by mixed bacterial infection (10%). Several factors negatively influenced the final clinical outcome, including delayed treatment, advanced macroscopic staging made during debridement surgery, performing multiple debridement surgeries, and a larger Lysholm score difference pre- and posttreatment. More antibiotics administered, longer duration of antibiotic treatment, and more pathogenic agents present were also significantly correlated with poor outcome. These findings shed new light on the management of septic arthritis. Accurate diagnoses and effective treatments are important for the clinical outcome of knee joint bacterial infection in elderly patients.

  1. A 10-year study of specimens submitted to oral pathology laboratory analysis: lesion occurrence and demographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mendez


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to describe the range of lesions histologically diagnosed in an oral pathology laboratory in southern Brazil. A retrospective study of 8,168 specimen analyses recorded between 1995 and 2004 was conducted. The records were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. A total of 6,831 valid cases (83.63% were examined. Of these, inflammatory lesions were the most common occurrences (n = 4,320; 63.24%. Benign and malignant tumors accounted for 7.66% (n = 523 and 1.9% (n = 130 of the occurrences, respectively. Significant associations were observed between nonneoplastic proliferative disorders and benign mesenchymal tumors in females, and between squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia in males. Most diagnoses were benign in nature and had an inflammatory etiology. The association of some demographic characteristics with the occurrence of lesions suggests that these characteristics should be considered in performing differential diagnoses.

  2. A 10-year study of specimens submitted to oral pathology laboratory analysis: lesion occurrence and demographic features. (United States)

    Mendez, Marina; Carrard, Vinicius Coelho; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Lauxen, Isabel da Silva; Barbachan, João Jorge Diniz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel


    The purpose of the present paper was to describe the range of lesions histologically diagnosed in an oral pathology laboratory in southern Brazil. A retrospective study of 8,168 specimen analyses recorded between 1995 and 2004 was conducted. The records were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, RS, Brazil. A total of 6,831 valid cases (83.63%) were examined. Of these, inflammatory lesions were the most common occurrences (n = 4,320; 63.24%). Benign and malignant tumors accounted for 7.66% (n = 523) and 1.9% (n = 130) of the occurrences, respectively. Significant associations were observed between nonneoplastic proliferative disorders and benign mesenchymal tumors in females, and between squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia in males. Most diagnoses were benign in nature and had an inflammatory etiology. The association of some demographic characteristics with the occurrence of lesions suggests that these characteristics should be considered in performing differential diagnoses.

  3. Impact of physical activity category on incidence of cardiovascular disease: Results from the 10-year follow-up of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012). (United States)

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Chrysohoou, Christina; Kouli, Georgia-Maria; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos


    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) level on 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, taking into consideration several clinical and lifestyle risk factors along with the potential moderating role of gender. An analysis was undertaken on data from the ATTICA prospective cohort study (10-year follow-up, 2002-2012), which followed a Greek adult population (aged 18-89years). A total n=317 of fatal and nonfatal CVD events occurred among the 2020 participants. After adjusting for the lifestyle and clinical risk factors as potential confounders, odds ratio (ORs) of CVD risk of individuals who reported being sufficiently active and highly active were decreased by 58% (95% CI: 0.30, 0.58) and 70% (95% CI: 0.15, 0.56), when compared to those who were inactive/insufficiently active, respectively. Men had nearly two-fold increase in risk of CVD (95% CI: 1.62, 2.18) versus women. Stratified analysis by gender, revealed that sufficiently active men, had 52% (95% CI: 0.24, 0.97) reduced risk of CVD incidence when compared to inactive males, while, for women, the role of PA lost significance following adjusting for lifestyle factors. The current data suggests a beneficial effect of even moderate physical activity levels on 10-year incidence of CVD, reinforcing the importance of physically activity, especially for men.

  4. Complications in IDDM are caused by elevated blood glucose level: the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) at 10-year follow up. (United States)

    Reichard, P; Pihl, M; Rosenqvist, U; Sule, J


    Blood glucose values close to normal reduce the microvascular complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Stockholm study of this effect continued after the initial 7.5-year period in order to see what happened when intensively treated patients were left to control their own treatment while treatment was intensified in the control group. Forty-three patients with insulin-dependent diabetes randomised to intensified conventional treatment (ICT) and 48 patients randomised to standard treatment (ST) were followed-up for 10 years. Vascular complications, treatment side-effects and well-being were studied. Risk factors for complications were sought. HbA1c (normal range 3.9-5.7%) was reduced from 9.5 +/- 1.4% (mean +/- SD) in the ICT group and 9.4 +/- 1.2% in the ST group to a mean (during 10 years) of 7.2 +/- 0.6% and 8.3 +/- 1.0%, respectively (p < 0.001). Serious retinopathy (63 vs 33%, p = 0.003), nephropathy (26 vs 7%, p = 0.012) and symptoms of neuropathy (32 vs 14%, p = 0.041) were more common in the ST group after 10 years. HbA1c and age were the only risk factors for complications. Self-reported well-being increased to a greater degree and severe hypoglycaemia was more common in the ICT group. Cognitive function after 10 years was similar in both treatment groups, and was not related to the number of severe hypoglycaemic episodes. Intensified insulin treatment leads to reduced long-term complications and increased well-being without causing undue side-effects.

  5. Risk of heart failure after community acquired pneumonia: prospective controlled study with 10 years of follow-up. (United States)

    Eurich, Dean T; Marrie, Thomas J; Minhas-Sandhu, Jasjeet K; Majumdar, Sumit R


    Objective To determine the attributable risk of community acquired pneumonia on incidence of heart failure throughout the age range of affected patients and severity of the infection.Design Cohort study.Setting Six hospitals and seven emergency departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2000-02.Participants 4988 adults with community acquired pneumonia and no history of heart failure were prospectively recruited and matched on age, sex, and setting of treatment (inpatient or outpatient) with up to five adults without pneumonia (controls) or prevalent heart failure (n=23 060).Main outcome measures Risk of hospital admission for incident heart failure or a combined endpoint of heart failure or death up to 2012, evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses.Results The average age of participants was 55 years, 2649 (53.1%) were men, and 63.4% were managed as outpatients. Over a median of 9.9 years (interquartile range 5.9-10.6), 11.9% (n=592) of patients with pneumonia had incident heart failure compared with 7.4% (n=1712) of controls (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 1.81). Patients with pneumonia aged 65 or less had the lowest absolute increase (but greatest relative risk) of heart failure compared with controls (4.8% v 2.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.53), whereas patients with pneumonia aged more than 65 years had the highest absolute increase (but lowest relative risk) of heart failure (24.8% v 18.9%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.55, 1.36 to 1.77). Results were consistent in the short term (90 days) and intermediate term (one year) and whether patients were treated in hospital or as outpatients.Conclusion Our results show that community acquired pneumonia substantially increases the risk of heart failure across the age and severity range of cases. This should be considered when formulating post-discharge care plans and preventive strategies, and assessing downstream episodes of

  6. Focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound for prostate cancer in the elderly: a feasibility study with 10 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine B. El Fegoun


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of prostate cancer control and complication rates, in the elderly, after focal therapy with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between June 1997 and March 2000, patients with localized prostate cancer were included into a focal therapy protocol. Inclusion criteria were: PSA < 10 ng/mL, < 3 positive biopsies with only 1 lobe involved, clinical stage < T2a, Gleason score < 7 (3+4, negative CT scan and bone scan. Hemi-ablation of the prostate was performed with the Ablatherm(R device. Survival, complication rates and urinary continence were evaluated. Control biopsies were performed at 1 year. Treatment failure was defined as a positive biopsy or need for salvage therapy. RESULTS: Twelve patients with a mean age 70 years were included. Median follow-up was 10 years. Control prostate biopsies were negative in 11/12 (91% patients. Overall survival was 83% (10/12 and cancer specific survival was 100% at 10 years. Two patients died from other causes. Recurrence free survival was 90% (95% CI; 0.71-1 at 5 years, and 38% (95% CI; 0.04-0.73 at 10 years. Five patients had salvage therapy with repeat HIFU (n = 1 or hormonal therapy (n = 4 and all salvage patients were alive at 10 years. No patients developed lymph node or bone metastasis. No patients suffered from urinary incontinence. International Prostate Symptom Score was stable at 1 year. Complications included two urinary tract infections and one episode of acute urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS: Hemi-prostate ablation with HIFU can be safely performed in selected elderly patients with adequate long-term cancer control and low complication rates. Results from larger prospective studies using improved imaging techniques and extensive biopsy protocols are awaited.

  7. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study


    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.


    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examin...

  8. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Study on BEPCII

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    Dou, Wang; Zhe, Duan; Na, Wang; Li, Wang; Lin, Wang; Jie, Gao


    In order to study the single bunch longitudinal instability in BEPCII, experiments on the positron ring (BPR) for the bunch lengthening phenomenon were made. By analyzing the experimental data based on Gao's theory, the longitudinal loss factor for the bunch are obtained. Also, the total wake potential and the beam current threshold are estimated.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Rebrov


    Full Text Available Objective: to assess liver function changes in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA taking NSAIDs regularly over a long period.Patients and methods. The data obtained during a 10-year PROGRESS prospective single-center cohort study of functional status, activity, and comorbidity (including gastrointestinal tract diseases in patients with SpA were analyzed. The data of 363 SpA patients receiving NSAIDs regularly over a long period and followed up for 10 years were also explored. The changes that had occurred over a decade in the liver enzyme levels, the number of discontinued NSAID treatments because of a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels, and the number of prescriptions of hepatoprotective agents were analyzed.Results. For 10 years, 18 patients with SpA discontinued their NSAID intake due to elevated liver enzyme levels (≥3 times greater than the reference value; during that time, the same increase in enzyme levels was observed in 2 healthy individuals (χ2 =1.39; p=0.2. In the patients with SpA as compared to the healthy individuals, the relative risk of abnormal liver function was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.009–1.405; odds ratio was 2.9 (95% CI, 0.65–12.95. There was no increased risk for discontinuation of some NSAIDs, including nimesulide (χ2 =0.03, p=0.85, the frequency of using hepatoprotective drugs was proved to be highest for diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, nimesulide, and ketoprofen.Conclusion. The regular long-term (as long as 10 years use of NSAIDs to treat SpA is associated with treatment discontinuation because of elevated enzyme levels in every 10 patients. The maximum rate of discontinuation of NSAIDs due to a persistent increase in liver enzyme levels is observed 6–8 years after their regular use, so long-term NSAID therapy requires continuous monitoring of hepatic safety. The longterm intake of nimesulide, as compared with other NSAIDs, is shown to be unassociated with the higher rate of its discontinuation because of

  10. Prevalence of prematurely lost primary teeth in 5–10-year-old children in Thamar city, Yemen: A cross-sectional study (United States)

    Murshid, Sakhr A.; Al-Labani, Mohammed A.; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Rodis, Omar M. M.


    Objectives: The premature loss of primary teeth is a potential risk factor for poor arch length development. Adequate arch length is important to the progression of the permanent teeth. Poor arch length can lead to crowding, ectopic eruption, or impaction of these teeth. This study is designed to assess the prevalence of premature loss of primary teeth in the 5-10-year-old age group. Materials and Methods: The study group included 185 children, that is, 91 boys and 94 girls. The dental examination was conducted by an experienced examiner under sufficient artificial light. Data including patient age and missing teeth were collected. Descriptive statistics were applied for data analysis, and from the results, Chi-square tests were used at a level of significance of 5% (P space problems associated with the early loss of primary teeth would help in reducing malocclusion problems. PMID:27652244

  11. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten


    the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (birth weight (children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...

  12. Estimation of 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in nepalese patients with type 2 diabetes: Framingham versus United Kingdom prospective diabetes study

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    Daya Ram Pokharel


    Full Text Available Background: Predicting future coronary heart disease (CHD risk with the help of a validated risk prediction function helps clinicians identify diabetic patients at high risk and provide them with appropriate preventive medicine. Aim: The aim of this study is to estimate and compare 10-year CHD risks of Nepalese diabetic patients using two most common risk prediction functions: The Framingham risk equation and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine that are yet to be validated for Nepalese population. Patients and Methods: We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study on 524 patients with type 2 diabetes. Baseline and biochemical variables of individual patients were recorded and CHD risks were estimated by the Framingham and UKPDS risk prediction functions. Estimated risks were categorized as low, medium, and high. The estimated CHD risks were compared using kappa statistics, Pearson′s bivariate correlation, Bland-Altman plots, and multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean 10-year CHD risks estimated by the Framingham and UKPDS risk functions were 17.7 ± 12.1 and 16.8 ± 15 (bias: 0.88, P > 0.05, respectively, and were always higher in males and older age groups (P < 0.001. The two risk functions showed moderate convergent validity in predicting CHD risks, but differed in stratifying them and explaining the patients′ risk profile. The Framingham equation predicted higher risk for patients usually below 70 years and showed better association with their current risk profile than the UKPDS risk engine. Conclusions: Based on the predicted risk, Nepalese diabetic patients, particularly those associated with increased numbers of risk factors, bear higher risk of future CHDs. Since this study is a cross-sectional one and uses externally validated risk functions, Nepalese clinicians should use them with caution, and preferably in combination with other guidelines, while making important medical decisions in

  13. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls. (United States)

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping


    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Discrepancies between Clinical and Histopathological Diagnoses in Head and Neck Lesions: An Institutional Study with 10 Years Database

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    Ketki P Kalele


    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral and maxillofacial lesions present a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from an asympto - matic small lesion to a large destructive one. Several lesions mimic each other in their clinical presentation posing a diag - nostic dilemma. Due to interoperator subjectivity and lack of defined objective diagnostic criteria, histopathological investi - gation, most of the times, plays a vital role in final diagnosis. Many studies have reported the concordance rates among the clinical and histopathological diagnoses of oral lesions, however, there are very few studies which have highlighted the discrepancies in them that have led to drastic changes in the lines of diagnoses and treatment. This institutional retro - spective descriptive study intended to highlight this lacuna by going through histopathological registry to study such cases with discrepancies in clinical and histopathological diagnoses in last 10 years. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the discrepancies in clinical and histopathological diagnoses of various oral lesions with an emphasis on malig - nant and nonmalignant groups so as to stress the importance of histopathological examination to ultimately minimize the risk of inadvertent inappropriate treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 1570 cases that were reported to our institute over a period of 10 years were evaluated from the histopathology registry. Out of these, 1300 cases met our inclusion criteria. Discrepancies were charted as major and minor discrepancies and discrepancy indices were calculated. Lesions were divided into malignan t and nonmalignant groups and were subjected to d i agnostic-screening test evaluation to assess the discrepancies. Results: Total discrepancy value (discrepancy index obtained was 12.9%, out of which 9.23% showed major discrepancies and 3.69% showed minor discrepancies. Ninety-five percent confidence interval (CI was calculated, and was found in

  15. A Survey Study of Cryptosporidium Infection in Children under 10 Years Old Referred to the Health Care Centers of Hamadan District in 2013

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    M. Asadi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Cryptosporidium is one of the most important zoonotic and oppor-tunistic protozoa and can cause diarrhea in those with impaired immune systems, as well as the children. Considering the high sensitivity of children against infection caused by crypto-sporidium, its zoonotic nature and lack of treatment, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidium infection in children under 10 years old, referred to the health care centers of Hamadan district. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted in 2013 on 420 children (222 males and 198 females, who were referred to urban and rural health care centers in Hamadan district. Stool samples were examined using formalin-ether method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The results were analyzed with chi-square test. Results: Of the 420 children studied, 2 individuals (0.47% (A 16-month-old boy and a 6-year-old girl were infected with cryptosporidium spp. The infection was observed only in rural areas and in children that were in direct contact with the animals. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a presence of cryptosporidium in rural areas compared to urban areas and in children in contact with animals. Therefore it is necessary to promote the public health awareness of rural population. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 211-217

  16. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period

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    Hussein Walijee


    Full Text Available There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004 advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson’s r=0.762, p=0.010 and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r=0.825, p=0.003. In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r=-0.939, p<0.001. This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted.

  17. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period. (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David


    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = -0.939, p study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted.

  18. Comparison of 10-year clinical wear of annealed and remelted highly cross-linked polyethylene: A propensity-matched cohort study. (United States)

    Hamai, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Mashima, Naohiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Kamada, Tomomi; Motomura, Goro; Imai, Hiroshi; Fukushi, Jun-Ichi; Miura, Hiromasa; Iwamoto, Yukihide


    No previous studies comparing the clinical wear rates of the two different kinds of cross-linked ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (XLPE), annealed and remelted, are available. We compared the creep and steady wear rates of 36 matched pairs (72 hips in total) adjusting for baseline characteristics with propensity score matching techniques. Zirconia femoral heads with 26-mm diameter were used in all cases. The femoral-head cup penetration was measured digitally on radiographs. Significantly greater creep (p=0.006) was detected in the remelted (0.234mm) than annealed (0.159mm) XLPE. However, no significant difference (p=0.19) was found between the steady wear rates (0.003 and 0.008mm/year, respectively) of the annealed and remelted XLPE. Multiple regression analyses showed that remelted XLPE is significant independent variable (p0.05) on the steady wear rates. No patients exhibited above the osteolysis threshold of 0.1mm/year, progressive radiolucencies, osteolysis, or polyethylene fracture. This propensity-matched cohort study document no significant difference in wear resistant performances of annealed and remelted XLPE over an average period of 10 years.

  19. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David


    There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To study the maternal mortality due to PPH over last 10 years at a tertiary centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective study of all maternal death due to PPH from October 2004 to September 2014 was carried out. RESULT There were a total of 60 maternal deaths which occurred due to PPH. Majority of maternal mortality in women with parity >3 (56.67%. Unbooked cases accounted for 96.67% of maternal deaths. Most of the cases were in age group of 21-30 years. Commonest cause of maternal mortality due to PPH was atonic PPH (50%. CONCLUSION Effective measures should be taken to ensure provision of antenatal care to all pregnant ladies and safe hospital deliveries, prophylactic therapeutic management of anaemia as well as availability of blood bank at the peripheral centres. Training of health personnel at the peripheral level for timely identification and referral of the high risk cases, timely availability of blood products and to ensure that all women have access to the high quality essential and emergency obstetric services along with the provisions of safe abortion, contraceptive services, and family planning counselling to reduce unplanned pregnancy

  1. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) in the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece: trees, aerobiologic data, and botanical and clinical correlations. (United States)

    Gonianakis, Michael I; Baritaki, Maria A; Neonakis, Ioannis K; Gonianakis, Ioannis M; Kypriotakis, Zacharias; Darivianaki, Eleftheria; Bouros, Dimosthenis; Kontou-Filli, Kalliopi


    Pollen grains from the plant cover of a given area participate largely in the composition of aeroflora (pollen and molds) of this area. Association of allergic respiratory disorders with concentration of allergenic particles in the atmosphere is well documented, and aerobiologic studies are of great relevance. A 10-year volumetric aerobiologic study was conducted in the city of Heraklion, located in the center of the north-shore of the island of Crete, Greece. Main allergenic families and genera encountered were, in descending order of frequency Oleaceae, Quercus, Platanaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Populus, Moraceae, and Corylaceae. Concentrations noted for most of these aeroallergens were much lower than those reported from other European regions. In parallel, an atopic population of 576 individuals, exhibiting allergic symptoms mainly of the respiratory tract were subjected to a battery of skin-prick tests. A fair degree of agreement between total pollen counts and positive skin-prick test frequencies for the families of Oleaceae, Platanaceae, and Cupressaceae was noted. On the contrary a poor degree of concordance was noted for the rest of the families and genera.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Gaidukova


    Full Text Available Objective: assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD incidence among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS and psoriatic arthritis (PsA without manifestation of cardiovascular diseases.Materials and methods. We analyzed the data of 10-year prospective follow-up of the patient with AS (n = 278, psoriatic arthritis (n = 85 and healthy controls (n = 150 without any cardiovascular diseases. All groups were comparable in regard to cardiovascular risk factors. During these 10 years all new cases of CAD (verified by cardiologist in the study population were tracked.Results. New cases of CAD were fixed in 64 out of 278 patietns with AS and in 16 out of 150 controls (p = 0.0017. Using log-rank MantelCox test and logrank test for trend we demonstrated statistically significant differences in CAD incidence between patients without spondyloarthritis (SpA and patients with AS and PsA (p < 0,0001. The risk of CAD development was higher in PsA group than in the control group; relative risk was 4.16 (95 % confidence interval (CI 2.36–7.33, RR 6.1 (95 % CI 3.05–12.44 (p < 0.05. Increased risk of myocardial infarction was observed both in patients with AS (RR 4.98; 95 % CI 1.54–6.12 and patients with PsA (RR 5.2; 95 % CI 2.4–7.8 comparing to healthy controls. There was no significant difference between the AS-group and the control group in terms of risk of stenocardia development (p > 0.05.Conclusion. The risk of exertional stenocardia in patients with AS was not higher than that in individuals without SpA. However, patients with AS have higher risk of myocardial infarction than those without SpA. PsA patients have increased risk of CAD development comparing to healthy controls and individuals with AS.

  3. High lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease vs low 10-year Framingham risk score in HIV-infected subjects under ART in Spain: the Coronator study

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    C Miralles


    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to the relative low age of HIV-infected patients, Framingham risk score (FRS usually estimates a low CVD risk. Lifetime risk estimations use the risk of developing CVD over the course of an individual's remaining lifetime and may be useful in communicating the risk of CVD to young patients. Our aim is to estimate the lifetime risk of CVD in a representative sample of HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy in Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in 10 HIV units across Spain, including information on demographics, HIV disease status, treatment history and cardiovascular risk factors of subject under ART. Lifetime CVD risk was calculated with the method of Berry et al, which classifies the lifetime risk in five mutually exclusive categories: 1. All risk factors are optimal; 2. At least one risk factor is not optimal; 3. At least one risk factor is elevated; 4. One major risk factor is present; and 5. Two or more major risk factors are present. Risk factors included are cholesterol level, blood pressure, diabetes and tobacco smoking. We grouped these five categories in two major groups, low-risk (groups 1+2+3 and high-risk category (groups 4+5. We calculated the prevalence of having a high lifetime risk, and its crude and aOR (adjusted by age, sex, place of origin, education level, transmission category, time since HIV diagnosis, CDC stage, current and nadir CD4 count, HCV coinfection, time on current and total ART, being on the first ART regimen, and PI vs. NNRTI regimen. Results: We included 839 subjects free of previous CVD disease: 72% men, median age 45.6y, median CD4 count 598 cells, median time since HIV diagnosis 11y, median time on ART 6.3y, 87% had undetectable VL. Estimated 10-year CVD risk was low (<5% in 78% of the patients, and intermediate (5–10% in 20%. Lifetime risk estimation shows a high risk profile for 71.4% of the population studied (≥1 major risk factors. Factors significantly and independently

  4. MVPA is associated with lower weight gain in 8-10 year old children: a prospective study with 1 year follow-up.

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    Abigail Fisher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating physical activity (PA to weight gain in children have produced mixed results, although there is some evidence for stronger associations with more intense physical activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that weight gain over one year in 8-10 year olds would be more strongly predicted by moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA than total physical activity (total PA or sedentary behaviour. METHODOLOGY: Participants were 280 children taking part in the Physical Exercise and Appetite in Children Study (PEACHES. Weight status was assessed using body mass index (BMI, fat mass index (FMI, and waist circumference (WC in school Year 4 (baseline; age 8.7 yrs and Year 5 (follow-up; age 9.7 yrs. Physical activity was measured at baseline using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer to assess total PA (mean accelerometers counts per minute, MVPA; ≥ 4000 counts per minute and sedentary time (<100 counts per minute. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After adjustment for baseline BMI, SES, sex and ethnicity, MVPA was significantly associated with follow-up BMI (adjusted β  = -0.07; p = 0.002. This association was independent of total PA or sedentary time. Similar results were observed for FMI; again MVPA was significantly associated with follow up FMI (β = -0.16; p = 0.001 independent of total PA or sedentary time. The pattern was similar for WC (β = -0.07, but the association between MVPA and WC did not reach significance at p = 0.06. CONCLUSION: The results of this study strongly support promotion of MVPA in children.

  5. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery (United States)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website ( These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP

  6. A 10-year interval study to compare the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction in Korea: the Korean internet sexuality survey (KISS) 2014. (United States)

    Shin, H; Min, B; Park, J; Son, H


    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle, which cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. Female sexual dysfunction is strongly related to socio-cultural characteristics of a certain region and can change over time. Authors previously reported the features of FSD in Korea through an analysis of an internet-based survey conducted in 2004. This time, we designed a 10-year interval study to compare the prevalence of and risk factors of FSD through the Korean Internet Sexuality Survey (KISS) 2014. The internet-based survey was targeted towards 20-59-year-old women, who were asked to answer the questionnaire only if they were sexually active. In total, 516 responses were analyzed and the mean age of the subjects was 38.1±10.3 years. We defined FSD as having a total FSFI score of under 25.0, and resulted in a prevalence of FSD of 46.7%. The prevalence of FSD in each age group increased with age from 23.7, 45.4, 51.4 to 72%, for those in their 20, 30, 40 and 50s, respectively. Among the 50s age group, lubrication and pain domain dysfunctions were highly prevalent. The risk factors for FSD were identified as constipation, depression, incontinence, age of first intercourse, number of sexual partners and the use of oral contraceptive pills. Although the some demographic features of this study was different with those of the 2004 repot, the prevalence of FSD was similar with that reported previously in 2004 and a few risk factors of FSD was consistently significant in these interval studies.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 8 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijir.2016.41.

  7. Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year coronary heart disease incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands.

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    Linda M Oude Griep

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. Therefore, we quantified the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with 10-year CHD incidence in a population-based study in the Netherlands and the effect of processing on these associations. METHODS: Prospective population-based cohort study, including 20,069 men and women aged 20 to 65 years, enrolled between 1993 and 1997 and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Diet was assessed using a validated 178-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated for CHD incidence using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 10.5y, 245 incident cases of CHD were documented, which comprised 211 non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions and 34 fatal CHD events. The risk of CHD incidence was 34% lower for participants with a high intake of total fruit and vegetables (>475 g/d; HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45-0.99 compared to participants with a low total fruit and vegetable consumption (≤241 g/d. Intake of raw fruit and vegetables (>262 g/d vs ≤92 g/d; HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.47-1.04 as well as processed fruit and vegetables (>234 g/d vs ≤113 g/d; HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.54-1.16 were inversely related with CHD incidence. CONCLUSION: Higher consumption of fruit and vegetables, whether consumed raw or processed, may protect against CHD incidence.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske...... forsvarsminister, er den estiske og litauiske forsvarsminister og NATO’s vicegeneralsekretær blandt bidragyderne. Konferencens formål var at fejre, inddrage og diskutere 10 års forsvarspolitisk NATO-samarbejde i Østersøområdet. Den internationale udvikling i Europa betød at konferencens dagsorden i stedet for kom...... billede af hvordan den russiske aggression på Krimhalvøen blev italesat af de repræsenterede landes Forsvarsministre samt fra hovedkvarteret i NATO. Konferencen blev afholdt tidligere i år i København, og var et resultat af et tæt samarbejde mellem Forsvarsakademiet, Forsvarsministeriet og ambassadørerne...

  9. The association between malaria parasitaemia, erythrocyte polymorphisms, malnutrition and anaemia in children less than 10 years in Senegal: a case control study

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    Tine Roger CK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria and anaemia (Haemoglobin Methods Study participants were randomly selected from a list of children who participated in a survey in December 2010. Children aged from 1 to 10 years with haemoglobin level below 11 g/dl represented cases (anaemic children. Control participants were eligible if of same age group and their haemoglobin level was >= 11 g/dl. For each participant, a physical examination was done and anthropometric data collected prior to a biological assessment which included: malaria parasitaemia infection, intestinal worm carriage, G6PD deficiency, sickle cell disorders, and alpha-talassaemia. Results Three hundred and fifty two children 5 years (aOR=0.03, 95%CI[0.01-0.08]. Stratified by age group, anaemia was significantly associated with stunting in children less than 5 years (aOR=3.1 95%CI[1.4 – 6.8], with, sickle cell disorders (aOR=3.5 95%CI [1.4 – 9.0], alpha-thalassemia (or=2.4 95%CI[1.1–5.3] and stunting (aOR=3.6 95%CI [1.6–8.2] for children above 5 years. No association was found between G6PD deficiency, intestinal worm carriage and children’s gender. Conclusion Malaria parasitaemia, stunting and haemoglobin genetic disorders represented the major causes of anaemia among study participants. Anaemia control in this area could be achieved by developing integrated interventions targeting both malaria and malnutrition.

  10. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feron


    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  11. Life expectancy in a follow-up study of a birth cohort of boxer dogs from post weaning to 10-years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, van M.A.E.; Ducro, B.J.; Knol, B.W.


    Objective-To determine mortality rate over time, risk factors for death, and heritability of life expectancy in Boxers. Animals-1,733 purebred Boxers born in The Netherlands between January 1994 and March 1995. Procedure-Dogs were followed up from weaning (ie, 49 days of age) to 10 years of age thro

  12. Serum vitamin D in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease does not correlate with mortality--results from a 10-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Back Holmgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found vitamin D (25-OHD deficiency and insufficiency to be common among patients with COPD. Serum level of 25-OHD seems to correlate to pulmonary function, COPD disease staging, and increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. We wanted to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency was associated with mortality rate in patients suffering from advanced COPD. METHODS: 25-OHD serum levels were measured in 462 patients suffering from moderate to very severe COPD. Patients were stratified into three groups according to serum levels of 25-OHD. Outcome measure was mortality in a 10 year follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier curves (KM were plotted and mortality hazard ratios (HR were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazard regression (Cox PH. RESULTS: Serum 25-OHD deficiency and insufficiency were prevalent. We were unable to demonstrate any association between baseline serum levels of 25-OHD and mortality rate. We found an association between mortality and age [HR 1.05 (CI 95%: 1.03-1.06], Charlson score [HR 1.49 (CI 95%: 1.06-2.09], increasing neutrophil count [HR 1.05 (CI 95%: 1.02-1.09], severe [HR 1.41 (CI 95%: 1.06-1.86]/very severe COPD [HR 2.19 (CI 95%: 1.58-3.02] and a smoking history of more than 40 pack years [HR 1.27 (CI 95%: 1.02-1.70]. CONCLUSIONS: Serum level of 25-OHD does not seem to be associated with mortality rate, suggesting no or only a minor role of 25-OHD in disease progression in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.

  13. Prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy in eastern India: A 10-year high-performance liquid chromatography study of 119,336 cases

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    Santosh Kumar Mondal


    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary hemoglobin (Hb disorders are the most commonly encountered single gene disorders in India. Proper timely identification of these disorders is of paramount importance to prevent thalassemia major and clinically severe hemoglobinopathy as well as for epidemiologic purposes. Aims: Our aim was to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy in patients of a tertiary care hospital of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 119,336 cases over a period of 10 years. After taking clinical history and familial history, complete hemogram report was obtained by an automated cell counter. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was performed on the samples with Bio-Rad Variant using beta thalassemia short program. Confirmatory tests were performed whenever required. Results: A normal Hb pattern was observed in 104,804 (87.83% cases and abnormalities were detected in 14,532 (12.17% patients. β (beta thalassemia trait was the commonest abnormality found in 5,488 (4.60% patients. HbE trait was found in 3,604 (3.02% patients, β thalassemia major/intermedia in 1,981 (1.66% cases, and Eβ thalassemia in 1,384 (1.16 % cases. Other variants detected included HbE disease, sickle-cell disease, sickle β thalassemia, HbD-Punjab trait, HbQ-India trait, α-thal trait, double heterozygous state of HbS and HbE, double heterozygous state of HbS and HbD, HbJ-Meerut, hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH, HbH, delta β-thal trait, and Hb Lepore. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of hemoglobinopathy in this region, a routine premarital screening program is needed for the identification and prevention of high-risk marriages and thus, prevention of the psychosocial trauma of bearing a transfusion-dependent child for life.

  14. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.


    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  15. Burnout development among dentists: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. te Brake; N. Smits; J.M. Wicherts; R.C. Gorter; J. Hoogstraten


    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  16. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko


    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  17. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan


    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  18. Tuberculosis trends in Saudis and non-Saudis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia--a 10 year retrospective study (2000-2009.

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    Mohammad S Abouzeid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. METHODS: A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. RESULTS: There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P = <0.05. All but four provinces (Najran, Riyadh, Makkah, Tabuk showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15-24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P = <0.05. The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries.

  19. Usefulness of Left Ventricular Mass and Geometry for Determining 10-Year Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease in Adults Aged >65 Years (from the Cardiovascular Health Study). (United States)

    Desai, Chintan S; Bartz, Traci M; Gottdiener, John S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Gardin, Julius M


    Left ventricular (LV) mass and geometry are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to determine whether LV mass and geometry contribute to risk prediction for CVD in adults aged ≥65 years of the Cardiovascular Health Study. We indexed LV mass to body size, denoted as LV mass index (echo-LVMI), and we defined LV geometry as normal, concentric remodeling, and eccentric or concentric LV hypertrophy. We added echo-LVMI and LV geometry to separate 10-year risk prediction models containing traditional risk factors and determined the net reclassification improvement (NRI) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD (CHD, heart failure [HF], and stroke), and HF alone. Over 10 years of follow-up in 2,577 participants (64% women, 15% black, mean age 72 years) for CHD and CVD, the adjusted hazards ratios for a 1-SD higher echo-LVMI were 1.25 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.37), 1.24 (1.15 to 1.33), and 1.51 (1.40 to 1.62), respectively. Addition of echo-LVMI to the standard model for CHD resulted in an event NRI of -0.011 (95% CI -0.037 to 0.028) and nonevent NRI of 0.034 (95% CI 0.008 to 0.076). Addition of echo-LVMI and LV geometry to the standard model for CVD resulted in an event NRI of 0.013 (95% CI -0.0335 to 0.0311) and a nonevent NRI of 0.043 (95% CI 0.011 to 0.09). The nonevent NRI was also significant with addition of echo-LVMI for HF risk prediction (0.10, 95% CI 0.057 to 0.16). In conclusion, in adults aged ≥65 years, echo-LVMI improved risk prediction for CHD, CVD, and HF, driven primarily by improved reclassification of nonevents.

  20. Similarities and Differences in Field Projects for the Study of Tropical Cyclones within the Last 10 Years: An Overview of Operations Support (United States)

    Moore, J.; Meitin, J. G.


    network required to support real-time mission planning and data collection. The capability to share real-time data and products has only been available in the last 5-10 years. The advent of Internet-based communications technology has proven invaluable. Unique communication solutions will be described. The impact of these capabilities on the success of the project will be discussed.Selected Field Projects Focused on Tropical SystemsTable includes project acronym, time frame, primary funding source and major mobile facilities

  1. Lanthanum carbonate: safety data after 10years


    Hutchison, Alastair


    Despite 10years of post-marketing safety monitoring of the phosphatebinder lanthanum carbonate, concerns about aluminium-like accumulationand toxicity persist. Here, we present a concise overview of the safety profileof lanthanum carbonate and interim results from a 5-year observationaldatabase study (SPD405-404; identifier: NCT00567723). Thepharmacokinetic paradigms of lanthanum and aluminium are different inthat lanthanum is minimally absorbed and eliminated via the hepat...

  2. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age. (United States)

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta


    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  3. Association between trans fatty acid intake and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease in the Zutphen Elderly Study : a prospective population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, C.M.; Ocké, M.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Erp-Baart, M.A. J. van; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.


    Background: Evidence on the relation between trans fatty acid intake and coronary heart disease is limited. We investigated this relation in a Dutch population with a fairly high trans fatty acid intake, including trans fatty acids from partly hydrogenated fish oils. Methods: We prospectively studie

  4. Are job and personal resources associated with work ability 10 years later? The mediating role of work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airila, Auli; Hakanen, Jari J.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Luukkonen, Ritva; Punakallio, Anne; Lusa, Sirpa


    Using a two-wave 10-year longitudinal design, this study examined the motivational process proposed by the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The aim was to examine whether work engagement acts as a mediator between job resources (i.e. supervisory relations, interpersonal relations and task resourc

  5. Pediatric lung transplantation: 10 years of experience (United States)

    Camargo, Priscila C. L. B.; Pato, Eduardo Z. S.; Campos, Silvia V.; Afonso, José E.; Carraro, Rafael M.; Costa, André N.; Teixeira, Ricardo H. O. B.; Samano, Marcos N.; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M.


    Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for advanced lung diseases. In children, the diseases that most commonly lead to the need for a transplantation are cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, and bronchiolitis. However, the number of pediatric lung transplantations being performed is low compared with the number of transplants performed in the adult age group. The objective of this study was to demonstrate our experience with pediatric lung transplants over a 10-year period in a program initially designed for adults. PMID:24860860

  6. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales. (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel


    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  7. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong


    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz


    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  9. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS

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    Likeman Marcus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA, allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st

  10. Marital history from age 15 to 40 years and subsequent 10-year mortality: a longitudinal study of Danish males born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete


    marital break-ups was associated with higher mortality, whereas increasing number of years married was associated with lower mortality. Inclusion of current marital status attenuated the strength of the associations but most of them remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Marital status...

  11. The Effect of Lifestyle Intervention and Metformin on Preventing or Delaying Diabetes Among Women With and Without Gestational Diabetes: The Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study 10-Year Follow-Up



    Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Context: Gestational diabetes (GDM) confers a high risk of type 2 diabetes. In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), intensive lifestyle (ILS) and metformin prevented or delayed diabetes in women with a history of GDM. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of ILS and metformin intervention over 10 years inwomenwithandwithout a history of GDM in the DPP/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Design: This was a randomiz...

  12. Antibiotic protocol for the prevention of osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: A 10 years prospective study


    Saleh A Al-Bazie; Mesaad Bahatheq; Mohamad Al-Ghazi; Nasser Al-Rajhi; Sundar Ramalingam


    Aims of Study: The aim of the study was to establish the long term efficacy of a perioperative antibiotic protocol combined with antibacterial mouthwashes in preventing osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Materials and Methods: Irradiated head and neck cancer patients reporting for dental extractions were prospectively enrolled to the study between January 2002 and December 2009. Selection criteria for the patients included the presence of nonrestorable tooth/teeth in the field of radiation, latency...

  13. Antibiotic protocol for the prevention of osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: A 10 years prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A Al-Bazie


    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, perioperative oral antibiotics in combination with antibacterial mouthwashes are effective in preventing ORN following dental extractions in irradiated patients.

  14. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, Marissa C.; de Munck, Linda; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jobsen, Jan J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Linn, Sabine C.; Poortmans, Philip; Strobbe, Luc J. A.; Siesling, Sabine


    Background Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving surgery

  15. Forty-year coronary mortality trends and changes in major risk factors in the first 10 years of follow-up in the seven countries study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, A.; Lanti, M.; Kromhout, D.; Blackburn, H.; Nissinen, A.; Dontas, A.; Kafatos, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Adachi, H.


    Time trends in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality during a 40-year follow-up were studied in the Seven Countries Study. Thirteen cohorts of men aged 40¿59 at entry were enrolled in seven countries (USA, Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Serbia, Greece and Japan) for a total of 10,628 subjects. Ca

  16. The occurrence of hyponatremia in SCLC and the influence on prognosis: a retrospective study of 453 patients treated in a single institution in a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Sørensen, Peter; Holmskov, Karin


    Hyponatremia is often seen in SCLC, and is thought to be caused by the paraneoplastic syndrome SIADH. Variable results of the prognostic significance of low P-sodium (P-Na) have been reported. This study was performed to investigate the prognostic value of hyponatremia in SCLC. Data was obtained...

  17. Raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption and 10-year stroke incidence in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.


    Background/Objectives: Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is related to a lower risk of stroke. Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. We evaluated the associations of raw and processed fruit and vegetable consumption independently f

  18. Raw and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Incidence in a Population-Based Cohort Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Verschuren, W.M.M.


    Background - Prospective cohort studies have shown that high fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Whether food processing affects this association is unknown. Therefore, we quantified the association of fruit and vegetable consumption with 10-yea


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart diseases (CHDs affect approx 6 – 8 infants per1000 live births have multifactorial origin. Various studies attribute number of maternal (e.g. family history of congenital heart diseases , consanguinity , febrile illness , co - morbidities like diabetes or hypertension and fetal factors (prematurity , LBW , chromosomal abnormality for development of CHDs. There is paucity of data in India; hence this study was conducted to evaluate risk factors in causation of CHDs in children. METHOD: It was a case control study conducted from Mar to Aug 2012 among children up to 10 ye ars of age attending tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra , India. A total of 75 cases of CHDs and equal number of matched controls were included in the study. RESULTS: The mean age of cases was 19 months and that of controls 18 months. Male to female rati o was 1.5:1 among cases and 1.7:1 among controls. VSD was the commonest cardiac anomaly found in 37(49.33% cases. In neonatal characteristics , cases had significantly increased number of prematurity and low birth weight as , compared to control(p=0.006 , O R - 3.25(95% CI 1.35 - 8.25 and(p<0.001 , OR - 3.86 (95% CI 1.85 - 8.11 respectively. Twenty six (35% children among cases were born of consanguineous marriage while 8(11% in controls and association was found statistically significant [p<0.01 , OR - 4.44 (95% C.I =1.75 - 12.24]. Similar associations were seen with family history of congenital heart diseases [OR 4.10(95% C.I=1.34 - 14.97 , co - morbidities [p=0.02 , OR - 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 - 6.93]. CONCLUSION: Our study showed maternal factors like consanguinity , family histor y of congenital heart diseases , co - morbidities like gestational diabetes , hypertension and drug intake during pregnancy were significant underlying risk factors for development of CHDs in children.

  20. Peer Interaction Does Not Always Improve Children’s Mental State Talk Production in Oral Narratives. A Study in 6- to 10-Year-Old Italian Children (United States)

    Pinto, Giuliana; Tarchi, Christian; Bigozzi, Lucia


    Joint narratives are a mean through which children develop and practice their Theory of Mind (ToM), thus they represent an ideal means to explore children’s use and development of mental state talk. However, creating a learning environment for storytelling based on peer interaction, does not necessarily mean that students will automatically exploit it by engaging in productive collaboration, thus it is important to explore under what conditions peer interaction promotes children’s ToM. This study extends our understanding of social aspects of ToM, focusing on the effect of joint narratives on school-age children’s mental state talk. Fifty-six Italian primary school children participated in the study (19 females and 37 males). Children created a story in two different experimental conditions (individually and with a partner randomly assigned). Each story told by the children, as well as their dialogs were recorded and transcribed. Transcriptions of narratives were coded in terms of text quality and mental state talk, whereas transcriptions of dialogs were coded in terms of quality of interaction. The results from this study confirmed that peer interaction does not always improve children’s mental state talk performances in oral narratives, but certain conditions need to be satisfied. Peer interaction was more effective on mental state talk with lower individual levels and productive interactions, particularly in terms of capacity to regulate the interactions. When children were able to focus on the interaction, as well as the product, they were also exposed to each other’s reasoning behind their viewpoint. This level of intersubjectivity, in turn, allowed them to take more in consideration the contribution of mental states to the narrative. PMID:27826283

  1. Visual plus nonvisual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease: development and evolution over 10 years. (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G; Stebbins, Glenn T; Ouyang, Bichun


    The objective of the study was to assess the development and evolution of visual and nonvisual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease over 10 years. Hallucinations increase over time, but minimal attention has been placed on nonvisual domains. We studied 60 patients with Parkinson's disease who had never hallucinated at baseline and followed them over 10 years. The Rush Hallucination Inventory monitored frequency and type (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory) of hallucinations at baseline and after 0.5, 1.5, 4, 6, and 10 years. Descriptive statistics were applied, and general estimating equation modeling assessed longitudinal risks. Over 10 years, visual hallucinations were endorsed by patients more frequently than other sensory modalities. Whereas isolated visual hallucinations dominated the early hallucination profile, visual plus nonvisual hallucinations accounted for progressively higher proportions of hallucinators over 10 years: 0.5 years, 0%; 4 years, 26%; 6 years, 47%; 10 years, 60% (odds ratio, 1.17; confidence interval, 1.01-1.37; P = .04). Once visual plus nonvisual hallucinations developed, the risk of continuing to have multidomain hallucinations was high (odds ratio, 3.67; confidence interval, 1.13-11.93; P = .03). Hallucination severity was highly associated with current visual plus nonvisual hallucinations (odds ratio, 4.06; confidence interval, 2.93-5.61; P hallucinations (odds ratio, 1.58; confidence interval, 1.12-2.24; P = .01). Whereas visual hallucinations in isolation are classic in Parkinson's disease, nonvisual hallucinations emerge over time, and the combination of visual with nonvisual hallucinations predominates in late Parkinson's disease. To capture the breadth and severity of hallucinations in chronically hallucinating patients with Parkinson's disease, screening inventories and practice-based interviews must include questions on both visual and nonvisual components.

  2. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po


    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65.

  3. A 10-year study of Alternaria and Cladosporium in two Polish cities (Szczecin and Cracow) and relationship with the meteorological parameters. (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Stępalska, Danuta; Myszkowska, Dorota

    Alternaria and Cladosporium spores belong to the most frequent and allergenic particles in bioaerosol in the temperate climate. The investigation of Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations was performed in two cities in Poland, Szczecin and Cracow, in 2004-2013. The meteorological parameters taken to assess their impact on fungal spores were average, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and average wind velocity. In order to reveal whether changes in dynamics of spore seasons are driven by meteorological conditions, ordination methods were applied. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to explore redundancy among the predictors (meteorological parameters). Prior to ordination analyses, the data were log(x)-transformed. Concentrations of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores were significantly higher in Szczecin comparing to Cracow, but it was also observed the decreasing trend in the spore concentrations in Szczecin. As regards temperature, it was higher in Cracow and was still increasing in the studied years. Relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly lower in Cracow. In Szczecin meteorological conditions did not explain changes in spore season characteristics (insignificant redundancy analysis models), while in Cracow's redundancy analysis models indicated that spore season parameters were in over 40 % determined by meteorological conditions, mainly air temperature and wind velocity. If they increase, the peak value, total number of spores and their average concentrations in a season will also increase.

  4. A 10-year Study of the Academic Progress of Students Identified as Low Performers after Their First Semester of Pharmacy School (United States)

    Battise, Dawn M.; Neville, Michael W.


    Objective. To examine whether pharmacy students characterized as low performers at the conclusion of their first semester remained low performers throughout their academic career. Methods. Bottom quartile performance on first semester grade point average (GPA) was compared to licensing examination success, cumulative grade point average at the end of the didactic education and whether the student graduated on time, using cross tabulation analysis. Relative risk ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Results. Students in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their first semester in pharmacy school were approximately six times more likely not to graduate on time, not to pass the North American Pharmacist Licensure Exam on their first attempt and to remain in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their didactic education. Conclusion. This study suggests that pharmacy students who score in the bottom quartile for GPA at the end of their first semester are more likely to underperform academically unless they take corrective action. PMID:27756926

  5. Analysis of the effect of medical insurance on cancer inpatients:A 10-year retrospective study on a large hospital in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhendong Zheng; Lu Wang; Quanwei Fu; Tao Han; Xiaodong Xie


    Objective The aim of the study was to analyze hospital costs for cancer inpatients availing dif erent methods of payment and the influencing factors, to provide inputs to improve the medical insurance pay-ment policy. Methods We analyzed the information related to length of hospital stay, hospitalization cost, and self-pay cost, col ected from one large-scale, Grade A, Class Three hospital in Shenyang, China, during 2004–2013. Results The number of cancer inpatients with dif erent payment types (medical insurance group and non-medical insurance group) presented a rising trend. Further, the ratio of medical insurance inpatients increased rapidly (from 22.2% to 48.7%); however, this group was stil a minority. The length of hospital stay became shorter (21 d vs. 17 d; P = 0.000) while the gap got narrower; the hospitalized expense showed an upward trend and the dif erence was remarkable (¥24048.6 ± ¥4376.28 vs. ¥20544.36 ± ¥4057.01; P = 0.000). Conclusion Along with normalization of cancer therapy, the influence of payment on treatment has been getting weak, the policy has impact on control ing hospitalization cost, lightening burden of cancer patient, as wel as al ocating medical resources in a reasonable way, becoming an important defray pattern of hospitalization cost.

  6. A 10-year aerobiological study (1994-2003) in the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece: grasses and other weeds, aerobiological data, and botanical and clinical correlations. (United States)

    Gonianakis, Michael; Neonakis, Ioannis; Gonianakis, Ioannis; Baritaki, Maria; Kypriotakis, Zacharias; Potamias, George; Bouros, Demosthenis; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi


    Grasses and weeds contain species that produce abundant pollen grains and have been implicated as causative agents in both asthma and allergic rhinitis. In this study, we present the pollen counts of allergenic grasses and weeds on the island of Crete and show their impact on allergic individuals. Heraklion is located at the center of the north shore of Crete and has been monitored with a Burkard 7-day volumetric spore trap since 1994, to determine the identity, concentration, and seasonal variation of airborne pollen grains. Data from 10 consecutive years were recorded, analyzed, and correlated to the growth of respective plants on this island. The island's vegetation and blossoming periods have been investigated by conducting field trips. In parallel, an atopic population of 576 individuals with a convincing history of allergic respiratory disease-rhinitis and/or asthma-was subjected to skin-prick tests with 50 common allergens. Quantitatively, there was a fair agreement between total pollen counts and positive skin-prick test frequencies for Parietaria (Urticaceae family). For the majority of the grass and weed genera, strongly positive skin test responses were observed frequently, despite rather low pollen counts.

  7. Understanding of δ13C behavior and its significance in the Furong Cave system through a 10-year cave monitoring study (United States)

    Li, J.; Li, H. C.; Li, T.; Li, X.; Yuan, N.; Zhang, T.


    The debate about how speleothem δ13C to reflect paleoclimate and paleovegetation changes calls for understanding of δ13C behavior in a cave system. We have conducted a monitoring study in Furong Cave, Chongqing, China since 2005 involving multiple sites in the overlying soil and inside the cave. The measured proxies include pCO2 of the atmosphere, soil and cave air; dripping rate, pH, electronic conductivity, Ca2+, HCO3-, d13CDIC of the dripwaters; and deposition rate, d13C of seasonally selected carbonate deposits. The many observations from this study are: (1) Soil pCO2 is close to the atmospheric pCO2 in winter and reaches >10000 ppm during the summer due to high productivity under warm and wet climates. (2) The pCO2 in cave air is slightly higher than Soil pCO2 and atmospheric pCO2 in winter (400~900 ppm), but elevates up to ~2000 ppm around October due to seepage of soil CO2 into the cave. The cave air pCO2 exhibits double peaks following the seasonal rainfall (1st peak in April-June controlled by Indian monsoon and 2nd peak in July-September influenced by the North Western Pacific monsoon). The cave air pCO2 has about 2-3 month lag to the soil pCO2. (3) Under the influence of soil CO2 and rainfall, the d13CDIC of drpiwaters are depleted in the summer and enriched during the winter. During 2009-2011, southwestern China experienced extremely drought due to summer monsoon failure. The d13CDIC of dripwater in Furong Cave was strongly enriched because of low soil CO2 productivity, less transportation of soil CO2 into the cave, and high CO2 ratio from bedrock input. Dripping rate does not affect the d13CDIC significantly. (4) The d13C of speleothems is controlled by the open/closed system of the seepage pathway on the first order. Monitoring site MP1 owns a relatively open system shown by fast dripping rates, low Ca and HCO3- contents, and low carbonate deposition rate. The d13C of modern deposits from this site not only shows the seasonal variation following

  8. The Impact of Diabetes on the Risk of Prostate Cancer Development according to Body Mass Index: A 10-year Nationwide Cohort Study (United States)

    Choi, Jin Bong; Moon, Hyong Woo; Park, Young Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Sae Woong; Han, Kyung-Do; Ha, U-Syn


    Purpose: We examined the association between obesity and prostate cancer both with and without diabetic patients included in the analysis using nationally representative data of the Korean population from the National Health Insurance System (NHIS). Materials and Methods: Of the 424,712 participants who underwent health examinations in 2002-2008, 139,519 men ≥40 years old and without prostate cancer were followed from the beginning of 2002 to the end of 2012. Multivariate adjusted Cox regression analysis was conducted to examine the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between prostate cancer and body mass index (BMI) both with and without diabetes. Results: The HR for prostate cancer according to the existence of diabetes was stratified by BMI in both age- and multivariable-adjusted models. In the population without diabetes, the HR for prostate cancer significantly increased as BMI increased beyond the reference range in a model adjusted for age and multiple variables; however, the increase in the HR was small. In the population with diabetes, the HR for prostate cancer significantly increased as BMI increased from < 18.5 kg/m2 to within the reference range (18.5 to 22.9) in the multivariable-adjusted model. In addition, a marked decrease in HR in the population with BMI of < 18.5 kg/m2 was seen compared to the reference or higher BMI population. Conclusion: This population-based study shows the evidence of association between obesity and development of prostate cancer, and the risk increases vary according to the change of BMI category and the existence of diabetes. PMID:27877221

  9. Brain response to images of food varying in energy density is associated with body composition in 7- to 10-year-old children: Results of an exploratory study. (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; English, Laural K; Lasschuijt, Marlou; Wilson, Stephen J; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer O; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L


    Energy balance is regulated by a multifaceted system of physiological signals that influence energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, variability in the brain's response to food may be partially explained by differences in levels of metabolically active tissues throughout the body, including fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children's body composition would be related to their brain response to food images varying in energy density (ED), a measure of energy content per weight of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure brain response to High (>1.5kcal/g) and Low (energy homeostasis and reward processing. Pearson's correlations were then calculated between activation in these regions for various contrasts (High ED-Low ED, High ED-Control, Low ED-Control) and child body composition (FFM index, FM index, % body fat). Relative to Low ED foods, High ED foods elicited greater BOLD activation in the left thalamus. In the right substantia nigra, BOLD activation for the contrast of High ED-Low ED foods was positively associated with child FFM. There were no significant results for the High ED-Control or Low ED-Control contrasts. Our findings support literature on FFM as an appetitive driver, such that greater amounts of lean mass were associated with greater activation for High ED foods in an area of the brain associated with dopamine signaling and reward (substantia nigra). These results confirm our hypothesis that brain response to foods varying in energy content is related to measures of child body composition.

  10. A nation-wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008 retrospective clinical study of endocrine therapy for Chinese females with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhou

    Full Text Available Endocrine therapy (ET is one of the main systemic treatments for patients with breast cancer. To our knowledge, few studies have addressed the performance of ET or relevant influencing factors in cancer treatment in China. By retrospectively analyzing the clinicopathological data on breast cancer collected from representative hospitals of 7 traditional areas in China in one random month from each year between year 1999 and 2008, we found that: 1 The rate of the use of hormone receptor (HR testing was 83.8% (3529/4211, with the estrogen receptor-positive (ER+ rate and/or the progesterone receptor-positive (PR+ rate being 67.9% (2395/3529, and the ER-PR rate being 32.1% (1134/3529. 2 Of the 1599 patients who had received ET, 999 patients (58.3% were premenopausal while 600 (41.7% were postmenopausal; 1598 patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT, whereas only 1 patient received palliative therapy. The medications mainly administered to patients were anti-estrogen agents (80.3% [1283/1598], followed by AIs (15.5% [248/1598]. Of the 1598 patients receiving AHT, 1416 patients (88.6% were positive for ER and/or PR, while 75 (4.7% were negative for both and 108 patients (6.7% had unknown HR status. The ratio of the use of endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients with ER+ and/or PR+ status was 60.0% (1416/2395. 3 Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that geography, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were dependent factors affecting the application of ET in breast cancer treatment in China (P<0.001. In conclusion, the use of ET on Chinese women with breast cancer is increasingly and gradually accounted into the standardized process. Economic status, occupations, and history of chemotherapy and surgery were key factors affecting the application of ET. People residing in developed areas, engaging in mental labour, having history of chemotherapy and surgery are susceptible to accept ET.

  11. Safety and efficacy of semiextended field intensity-modulated radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin in locally advanced cervical cancer patients: An observational study of 10-year experience. (United States)

    Lee, Jie; Lin, Jhen-Bin; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Yu-Jen; Chang, Chih-Long; Jan, Ya-Ting; Wu, Meng-Hao


    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) are at risk of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) metastasis. Pelvic concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the current standard treatment for LACC, has a PALN failure rate of 9% according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 90-01, suggesting that it may not completely eliminate all microscopic tumors in the PALNs. To minimize the toxicities associated with conventional prophylactic extended-field radiotherapy, our institute use prophylactic semiextended field radiotherapy that includes only the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels. Use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is another means of reducing the incidence of toxicity. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of prophylactic semiextended field IMRT (SEF-IMRT) and concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with LACC.We retrospectively assessed survival and toxicity in 76 patients with stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer and negative PALNs who received prophylactic SEF-IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m) between 2004 and 2013. The region targeted by SEF-IMRT included the PALNs below the level of the renal vessels, and the prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Brachytherapy was administered at a dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions. Survival outcomes were calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method, and acute and late toxicities were scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0.All patients completed the planned SEF-IMRT, as well as brachytherapy. Acute grade ≥3 gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematologic toxicities were observed in 2, 0, and 41 patients, respectively. The median follow-up time after SEF-IMRT was 55 (range, 11-124) months. Eight patients developed out-field distant recurrences without PALN failure, and 1 patient experienced out-field PALN failure with simultaneous distant metastasis. No patients had late genitourinary toxicities, and 3 patients had late grade 3

  12. Kidney function and specific mortality in 60-80 years old post-myocardial infarction patients: A 10-year follow-up study (United States)

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Stijnen, Theo; Kromhout, Daan


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent among older post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients. It is not known whether CKD is an independent risk factor for mortality in older post-MI patients with optimal cardiovascular drug-treatment. Therefore, we studied the relation between kidney function and all-cause and specific mortality among older post-MI patients, without severe heart failure, who are treated with state-of-the-art pharmacotherapy. From 2002–2006, 4,561 Dutch post-MI patients were enrolled and followed until death or January 2012. We estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) with cystatin C (cysC) and creatinine (cr) using the CKD-EPI equations and analyzed the relation with any and major causes of death using Cox models and restricted cubic splines. Mean (SD) for age was 69 years (5.6), 79% were men, 17% smoked, 21% had diabetes, 90% used antihypertensive drugs, 98% used antithrombotic drugs and 85% used statins. Patients were divided into four categories of baseline eGFRcysC: ≥90 (33%; reference), 60–89 (47%), 30–59 (18%), and cancer, and 194 (22%) from other causes. After adjustment for age, sex and classic cardiovascular risk factor, hazard ratios (95%-confidence intervals) for any death according to the four eGFRcysC categories were: 1 (reference), 1.4 (1.1–1.7), 2.9 (2.3–3.6) and 4.4 (3.0–6.4). The hazard ratios of all-cause and cause-specific mortality increased linearly below kidney functions of 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. Weaker results were obtained for eGFRcr. To conclude, we found in optimal cardiovascular drug-treated post-MI patients an inverse graded relation between kidney function and mortality for both cardiovascular as well as non-cardiovascular causes. Risk of mortality increased linearly below kidney function of about 80 ml/min/1.73 m2. PMID:28182761

  13. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development. (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie K; Coffman, Jennifer L; Ornstein, Peter A; Morrison, Frederick J


    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children's cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children's basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one's research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development.

  14. 10-year ionospheric equivalent current statistics from the ECLAT project (United States)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Viljanen, Ari; Van de Kamp, Max; Juusola, Liisa; Partamies, Noora; Amm, Olaf; Zivkovic, Tatjana; Ågren, Karin; Opgenoorth, Hermann


    The ECLAT (European Cluster Assimilation Technology,) is an EU FP7 project which develops value added data products to support the Cluster Active Archive (CAA). The supporting data set will include 10 years of spatial maps of ionospheric equivalent currents (Jeq) calculated from the data of the magnetometers in the MIRACLE network operated in the Fennoscandian mainland and extending poleward until Svalbard. The Jeq database combined with the other data in Cluster Active Archive will offer a unique opportunity to conduct statistical studies on ionospheric current systems and their linkage with different magnetospheric processes. In this presentation we will introduce the process used to generate the Jeq data base, demonstrate how Jeq data can be browsed with an on-line tool and show some examples how the data can be used in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling studies. In particular, we will show results from a preliminary study where Jeq recorded during 2003 are used to study the spatial distribution of Jeq and its curl (which in certain conditions can be used as a proxy for field-aligned currents) in different geophysical conditions. With this example we want to emphasize that the ECLAT Jeq database, in contrast to previously used data bases (e.g. from LEO satellites), is constructed from a 2-dimensional magnetometer network, which allows statistical studies on the horizontal gradients of Jeq in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions simultaneously. More information about ECLAT and the associated data archives is available from the following links:;;;

  15. PBL – Reflections after 10 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies for stud......The poster describes course 34357 at DTU, where PBL has been used in the last 10 years. While the course responsibles where not aware initially that the used methodology was PBL, the poster describes the triggering idea for the initial taken choices, i.e. homogenize working methodologies...

  16. A 10-year follow-up study on subjective well-being and relationships to person-environment (P-E) fit and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence of older Swedish adults.


    Werngren-Elgström, Monica; Carlsson, Gunilla; Iwarsson, Susanne


    In order to investigate how well-being and ill health is affected by the process of aging, the main aim was to investigate these self-perceived aspects of health over a 10-year period among older Swedish adults. The aim was also to study how these aspects correlated with objectively assessed functional limitations, use of mobility device, person-environment (P-E) fit (also denoted accessibility), problems in housing, and activity of daily living (ADL) dependence. Using the Swedish national po...

  17. Neurology--the next 10 years. (United States)

    Baron, Ralf; Ferriero, Donna M; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Bettegowda, Chetan; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Kessler, John A; Vezzani, Annamaria; Waxman, Stephen G; Jarius, Sven; Wildemann, Brigitte; Weller, Michael


    Since the launch of our journal as Nature Clinical Practice Neurology in 2005, we have seen remarkable progress in many areas of neurology research, but what does the future hold? Will advances in basic research be translated into effective disease-modifying therapies, and will personalized medicine finally become a reality? For this special Viewpoint article, we invited a panel of Advisory Board members and other journal contributors to outline their research priorities and predictions in neurology for the next 10 years.

  18. AMS at ANTARES - The first 10 years (United States)

    Lawson, E. M.; Elliott, G.; Fallon, J.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G. E.; Lee, P.; Smith, A. M.; Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.


    The status and capabilities of the ANTARES AMS facility after 10 years are reviewed. The common AMS radioisotopes, 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl and 129I, are routinely analysed. A capability for the detection of 236U and other actinide isotopes has been developed. The measurement program includes support to Quaternary science projects at Australian universities and to ANSTO projects in global climate change and nuclear safeguards.

  19. Increases in Entamoeba histolytica Antibody–Positive Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected and Noninfected Patients in Japan: A 10-Year Hospital-Based Study of 3,514 Patients (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Oka, Shinichi


    Serological evidence of the epidemiological trends in Entamoeba histolytica infection is scarce, especially in nonendemic countries. We aimed to determine the antibody-positive rates over a 10-year period, and compare the trends between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and –noninfected patients. We reviewed 3,514 patients who underwent antibody testing during the study periods, which were divided into five annual categories: 2004–2005, 2006–2007, 2008–2009, 2010–2011, and 2012–2013. Anti-E. histolytica antibody was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The antibody-positive rate increased yearly from 2004–2005 to 2012–2013 (P histolytica antibody rates increased over 10 years, even though the annual number of antibody tests remained constant. Moreover, this trend was identified in non-high-risk patients (females and non-HIV-infected patients) as well as in high-risk patients. The proportion of patients with high antibody titers significantly increased among the antibody-positive patients. PMID:27296390

  20. 10-year survival of total ankle arthroplasties (United States)


    Background and purpose There is an ongoing need to review large series of total ankle replacements (TARs) for monitoring of changes in practice and their outcome. 4 national registries, including the Swedish Ankle Register, have previously reported their 5-year results. We now present an extended series with a longer follow-up, and with a 10-year survival analysis. Patients and methods Records of uncemented 3-component TARs were retrospectively reviewed, determining risk factors such as age, sex, and diagnosis. Prosthetic survival rates were calculated with exchange or removal of components as endpoint—excluding incidental exchange of the polyethylene meniscus. Results Of the 780 prostheses implanted since 1993, 168 (22%) had been revised by June 15, 2010. The overall survival rate fell from 0.81 (95% CI: 0.79–0.83) at 5 years to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.67–0.71) at 10 years. The survival rate was higher, although not statistically significantly so, during the latter part of the period investigated. Excluding the STAR prosthesis, the survival rate for all the remaining designs was 0.78 at 10 years. Women below the age of 60 with osteoarthritis were at a higher risk of revision, but age did not influence the outcome in men or women with rheumatoid arthritis. Revisions due to technical mistakes at the index surgery and instability were undertaken earlier than revisions for other reasons. Interpretation The results have slowly improved during the 18-year period investigated. However, we do not believe that the survival rates of ankle replacements in the near future will approach those of hip and knee replacements—even though improved instrumentation and design of the prostheses, together with better patient selection, will presumably give better results. PMID:22066551

  1. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN


    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  2. 10年来我国大学生学习倦怠研究综述%A Review of Studies in Past 10 Years on Chinese College Student Learning Burnout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    答会明; 高国娇


    This thesis reviews and summarizes studies in the past 10 years on Chinese college student learning burnout from aspects including the concept of learning burnout, the origins, performances, and influencing factors of it, and its measurements of preventing and intervening.It hopes to arouse extensive concern from and further re-search among psychology workers and the public in related fields.%通过文献综述从学习倦怠的概念、大学生学习倦怠的产生、表现、影响因素以及预防和干预措施等方面,综述了十年来我国大学生学习倦怠的研究现状,并对未来研究进行展望。

  3. Spousal similarity in coping and depressive symptoms over 10 years. (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Moos, Rudolf H; Moerkbak, Marie L; Cronkite, Ruth C; Holahan, Carole K; Kenney, Brent A


    Following a baseline sample of 184 married couples over 10 years, the present study develops a broadened conceptualization of linkages in spouses' functioning by examining similarity in coping as well as in depressive symptoms. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated (a) similarity in depressive symptoms within couples across 10 years, (b) similarity in coping within couples over 10 years, and (c) the role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive similarity between spouses. Spousal similarity in coping was evident for a composite measure of percent approach coping as well as for component measures of approach and avoidance coping. The role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive symptom similarity was observed for percent approach coping and for avoidance coping. These findings support social contextual models of psychological adjustment that emphasize the importance of dynamic interdependencies between individuals in close relationships.

  4. 10 years of the Medipix2 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Michael


    The Medipix2 Collaboration was started officially in September 1999 with the aim of disseminating hybrid pixel detector technology from High Energy Physics to other fields. The Collaboration was initially composed of 13 European research institutes. Over the ensuing 10 years the Collaboration expanded to reach a peak of 17 member institutes. Although our main scientific focus has been the development of the Medipix2 and Timepix single photon counting pixel detector readout chips the Collaboration members have expanded the range of applications for the technology to many more scientific fields than initially foreseen. We have signed a number of Technology Transfer Agreements during that time, most notably with PANalytical, whose commercially available PIXcel detector is based on the second version of the Medipix2 chip. This paper will review the history of the Collaboration covering as much as possible the main technical highlights. The success of the Collaboration is testimony to the willingness of a large nu...

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan


    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  6. Peritoneal dialysis in an ageing population: a 10-year experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Andrew


    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming increasingly prevalent and there are increasing numbers of older patients with advanced CKD. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a potential treatment. This study aims to compare PD outcomes in age-defined populations in the largest PD centre in the Republic of Ireland over 10 years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  8. [Longitudinal studies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases]. (United States)

    Balaguer Vintró, Ignacio


    Longitudinal studies of well defined cohorts have contributed to the identification of risk factors of coronary heart disease and other clinical complications of atherosclerosis. After commenting on the conclusions of experimental atherosclerosis and risk factors suggested by the study of a series of myocardial infarction in young adults and their matched controls, we discuss the methodology, management and results of longitudinal studies carried out in the United States since 1949: Twin Cities, Framingham, Pooling Project, Western Collaborative, Puerto Rico Evans County, NI-IION-SAN, San Francisco, Harvard, Bogalusa and CARDIA. Special attention is given to the hypothesis proposed at the beginning of the Framingham Study and the obstacles and changes to continue the project after the first twenty-four years. We also expose the Seven Countries Study, designed and managed by Ancel Keys, as the first study performed with centralized methodology in various countries, and the studies in various European countries: Whitehall, Manresa, Paris, British Regional, Northwick Park, Caerphilly, Speedwell and PROCAM. We analyse the role of the longitudinal studies in the methodology of later studies: sons and daughters of the Framingham participants, longitudinal studies based on questionnaires, studies of the other risk factors, prevalence of risk factors in retrospective studies, trials of primary prevention (MRFIT, WHO European Collaborative Trial and Gotenburg Study) and the participation of the trained teams in the MONICA Project. We present the issues still under debate in connection with the methodology and results of the longitudinal studies: problems in the periodic examination of the participants in the epidemiologic studies, changes in definition of the new cases of acute cardiovascular events, use and selection of risk functions based on coronary charts to calculate the individual risk and cardiovascular risk factors as yet unknown.

  9. Positive illusions in marital relationships: a 13-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Miller, Paul J E; Niehuis, Sylvia; Huston, Ted L


    This study examined the long-term consequences of idealization in marriage, using both daily diary and questionnaire data collected from a sample of 168 newlywed couples who participated in a 4-wave, 13-year longitudinal study of marriage. Idealization was operationalized as the tendency for people to perceive their partner as more agreeable than would be expected based on their reports of their partner's agreeable and disagreeable behaviors. Spouses who idealized one another were more in love with each other as newlyweds. Longitudinal analyses suggested that spouses were less likely to suffer declines in love when they idealized one another as newlyweds. Newlywed levels of idealization did not predict divorce.

  10. Public Health in Europe : 10 years EUPHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kirch


    Full Text Available

    What is Public Health (PH? What are the links between Public Health research and policy in Europe? Where is PH coming from in the 20th century and where is it directed to?

    These are some of the questions addressed by Public Health in Europe – 10 years EUPHA, the volume, edited by Prof.W. Kirch and published by Springer in 2004, that presents a selection of the manuscripts from the 10th Annual Congress of EUPHA, held in Dresden in 2002.

    Gunnar Tellness, the President of EUPHA, reminds us what PH is, or what it should be: the science devoted to reduce in the population the amount of disease, premature death and disease-related discomfort, sickness and disability.

    In addressing these themes,Tellness suggests to improve PH by employing healthpromoting and cultural activities, in order to establish strong collaborations between public agencies, private business, organisations and pioneers.

  11. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten


    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  12. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula (United States)

    Hanna, Linda G.


    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  13. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde


    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  14. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava


    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  15. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.


    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  16. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia


    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  17. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Letouze, Dominique; Landau, Anick


    A 1-year longitudinal study with three testing points was conducted with 215 British Asian children aged 5 to 11 years to test hypotheses from Berry's acculturation framework. Using age-appropriate measures of acculturation attitudes and psychosocial outcomes, it was found that (a) children generally favored an "integrationist" attitude, and this was more pronounced among older (8-10 years) than in younger (5-7 years) children and (b) temporal changes in social self-esteem and peer acceptance were associated with different acculturation attitudes held initially, as shown by latent growth curve analyses. However, a supplementary time-lagged regression analysis revealed that children's earlier "integrationist" attitudes may be associated with more emotional symptoms (based on teachers' ratings) 6 months later. The implications of these different outcomes of children's acculturation attitudes are discussed.

  18. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies. (United States)

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng


    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Survival and Success Rates of Dental Implants Placed Using Osteotome Sinus Floor Elevation Without Added Bone Grafting: A Retrospective Study with a Follow-up of up to 10 Years. (United States)

    French, David; Nadji, Nabil; Shariati, Batoul; Hatzimanolakis, Penny; Larjava, Hannu


    This retrospective study with a follow-up period of 4 months to 10 years evaluated survival, success, and complication rates of implants placed using osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) without added bone grafting. A total of 926 implants were placed, including 530 short implants (6 mm to 8.5 mm) and 209 implants in low residual bone height (RBH) (implants were placed. The implant survival rate was 98.3% at the 5-year follow-up. Twelve of the 926 implants failed (6 preprosthetic, 6 postprosthetic). The success rate was 95.4% at a threshold of less than 1 mm of bone loss for combined systems (Straumann; Nobel Biocare). Short implant survival and success rates were statistically comparable to conventional-length implants. Low-RBH implants had a lower but acceptable survival rate of 95.7%. Adverse events were rare, with one case of infection and zero cases of vertigo reported. The findings of this study indicate that implant placement with OSFE without added bone graft is highly successful, even when short implants are used in low RBH.

  20. 10-Year Observation of Bullous Pemphigoid Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengu Nisa Akay


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune skin disorder characterized by large, tense blisters of the skin. It occurs mainly in the elderly. The one year mortality associated with bullous pemphigoid ranges from 19% to 41%. We aim to analyse the etiologic factors, demographic features, clinical course and response to treatment in patients with BP. Material and Method: Between January 1999 and January 2008, 31 patients with BP were evaluated retrospectively. We assessed duration of the disease, presence of associated symptoms, clinical findings, drug intake, response to treatment, recurrence rates and also extensive laboratory testing and radiologic evaluations on each patient to clarify a possible underlying malignancy. Results: In a 10-year period, 31 patients with BP, female male ratio was 19/12, ranging in age from 59 to 96 (mean 78.8±8.67 years were evaluated. Duration of the disease was 16.58±18.48 months. Direct immunoflourescence of the perilesional skin showed linear deposition of IgG and C3 along the dermoepidermal junction in 24 patients (77.4%. There was no significant relationship between drug usage and bullous pemphigoid. No malignancy was detected. Medium dosage of prednisolone (50-60 mg/day was the first choice of treatment in 8 patients with a complete response rate in all but two patients died during therapy. Four patients died during hospitalization with unknown reasons before any treatment was started. In 16 cases the initial treatment was prednisolone and azathioprine. The mean follow-up period was 12 months and 11 (35% cases had relapsed. The longest remission was achieved with prednisolone and azathioprine combination. Conclusion: In conclusion, no association was found between BP and drug usage or malignancy. All patients responded well to treatment. Therapy with prednisone maintained with azathiopyrine significantly reduced the recurrences. However, disease-specific mortality is found to be high and

  1. Relationship Status Predicts Lower Restrictive Eating Pathology for Bisexual and Gay Men across 10-year Follow-up (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A.; Keel, Pamela K.


    Objective Cross-sectional studies support that bisexual and gay (BG) men are at increased risk for eating pathology, and romantic relationships may buffer against risk; however, no studies have examined this association longitudinally. The current study examined how romantic relationships impact the trajectory of eating pathology in BG versus heterosexual men. Method BG (n=51) and heterosexual (n=522) men completed surveys of health and eating behaviors at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Results For BG men, being single at baseline prospectively predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over 10-year follow-up. Additionally, for BG men in relationships at baseline, lower relationship satisfaction predicted an increase in Drive for Thinness scores over time. Conversely, these relationship variables did not predict trajectory of eating pathology for heterosexual men. Discussion Implications for theoretical models of risk, including objectification theory and sexual minority stress theory, and prevention, including peer-led cognitive dissonance based interventions, are discussed. PMID:26172055

  2. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf


    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 4...

  3. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo


    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel


    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Adjustment during Elementary School. (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    A 7-year, longitudinal study of children's social development from kindergarten through sixth grade was designed to identify unusually prosocial children and characteristics that differentiated them from average and antisocial peers. Another objective was to identify functional socioemotional predictors of changes in children's social adjustment.…

  6. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea


    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  7. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children,...... collection newcomers into care from the 1995 cohort will be included in the sample....

  8. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S


    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  9. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.


    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  10. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina


    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  11. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study (United States)

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine


    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  12. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea


    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  13. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.


    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  14. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio


    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  15. Food-related behavior and intake of adult main meal preparers of 9-10 year-old children participating in iCook 4-H: A five-state childhood obesity prevention pilot study. (United States)

    Miller, Ashley; Franzen-Castle, Lisa; Aguirre, Trina; Krehbiel, Michelle; Colby, Sarah; Kattelmann, Kendra; Olfert, Melissa D; Mathews, Douglas; White, Adrienne


    It is important to understand adult outcomes in childhood obesity prevention programs as parents and caregivers have a significant influence on the eating and physical activity habits of youth. Grounded in the social cognitive theory, the iCook 4-H study was centered on a dyad model (9-10 year-olds and their primary meal preparers) to teach healthy cooking skills, shopping and meal habits, and being active as a family. The program took place in five states and dyads (n = 54) were recruited through flyers, e-mails, and in-person contact. The focus of this article is to provide findings from adult program participants. Demographics and self-reported food intake, procurement, preparation and safety practices, feeding relationships, mealtime routines, and height and weight were collected through surveys at baseline and program completion, which spanned 3 months. Descriptive statistics including two-related samples tests and paired samples t tests were used to assess pre- and post-program survey data responses at p choices, shopping with a grocery list, and reading Nutrition Facts Labels. There were also significant, positive differences noted in cooking skill confidence (p = 0.015), desire to cook more meals at home, and fewer fast food meals. Adult-youth feeding interactions also significantly improved. There were also significant increases in fruit juice (100%), vegetable soup, and whole grain consumption. Based on results, adults reported improvements in meal planning, cooking, and purchasing skills that were taught in classes.

  16. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla: A 10-year analysis



    Background Previous analysis of jaw fracture hospitalisations in Western Australia (WA) indicated disproportionately high rates of hospitalisations for Aboriginal people. This study was to follow-up on the earlier analysis to determine if inequalities in terms of jaw fracture hospitalisation rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people have changed. Aims This study, done over a 10-year period from 1999/2000 to 2008/2009, aimed to determine rates of hospitalisations for jaw f...

  17. Political and social determinants of life expectancy in less developed countries: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ro-Ting


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the longitudinal contributions of four political and socioeconomic factors to the increase in life expectancy in less developed countries (LDCs between 1970 and 2004. Methods We collected 35 years of annual data for 119 LDCs on life expectancy at birth and on four key socioeconomic indicators: economy, measured by log10 gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; educational environment, measured by the literacy rate of the adult population aged 15 years and over; nutritional status, measured by the proportion of undernourished people in the population; and political regime, measured by the regime score from the Polity IV database. Using linear mixed models, we analyzed the longitudinal effects of these multiple factors on life expectancy at birth with a lag of 0-10 years, adjusting for both time and regional correlations. Results The LDCs' increases in life expectancy over time were associated with all four factors. Political regime had the least influence on increased life expectancy to begin with, but became significant starting in the 3rd year and continued to increase, while the impact of the other socioeconomic factors began strong but continually decreased over time. The combined effects of these four socioeconomic and political determinants contributed 54.74% - 98.16% of the life expectancy gains throughout the lag periods of 0-10 years. Conclusions Though the effect of democratic politics on increasing life expectancy was relatively small in the short term when compared to the effects of the other socioeconomic factors, the long-term impact of democracy should not be underestimated.

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment. (United States)

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  19. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    . The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...... aorta wall and 21 $% (p aorta. We have made a prediction model for the atherosclerotic growth that is significantly better to predicting...

  20. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques......High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...

  1. Physical activity and dietary behaviour in a population-based sample of British 10-year old children: the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SPEEDY study was set up to quantify levels of physical activity (PA and dietary habits and the association with potential correlates in 9–10 year old British school children. We present here the analyses of the PA, dietary and anthropometry data. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 2064 children (926 boys, 1138 girls in Norfolk, England, we collected anthropometry data at school using standardised procedures. Body mass index (BMI was used to define obesity status. PA was assessed with the Actigraph accelerometer over 7 days. A cut-off of ≥ 2000 activity counts was used to define minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA. Dietary habits were assessed using the Health Behaviour in School Children food questionnaire. Weight status was defined using published international cut-offs (Cole, 2000. Differences between groups were assessed using independent t-tests for continuous data and chi-squared tests for categorical data. Results Valid PA data (>500 minutes per day on ≥ 3 days was available for 1888 children. Mean (± SD activity counts per minute among boys and girls were 716.5 ± 220.2 and 635.6 ± 210.6, respectively (p Conclusion Results indicate that almost 70% of children meet national PA guidelines, indicating that a prevention of decline, rather than increasing physical activity levels, might be an appropriate intervention target. Promotion of daily fruit and vegetable intake in this age group is also warranted, possibly focussing on children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds.

  2. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan


    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  3. HRI in the home: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study with Roomba


    Fink, Julia; Bauwens, Valérie; Mubin, Omar; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre


    Personal service robots, such as the iRobot Roomba vacuum cleaner provide a promising opportunity to study human-robot interaction (HRI) in domestic environments. Still rather little is known about long-term impacts of robotic home appliances on people’s daily routines and attitudes and how they evolve over time. We investigate these aspects through a longitudinal ethnographic study with nine households, to which we gave a Roomba cleaning robot. During six months, data is gathered through a c...

  4. Longitudinal Deformation of Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseinsabet


    Full Text Available Objectives:: In this study, pulmonary artery longitudinal deformation was evaluated and attempted to clarify pulmonary artery deformation. Methods:: Eight healthy men and seven healthy women with structurally normal hearts were enrolled. In the parasternal short axis view at the aortic valve level, longitudinal axis of pulmonary artery was obtained and color coded Doppler myocardial imaging applied. Results:: The systolic strain was positive in most the pulmonary segments, velocity and strain rate waves had three defined peaks, one positive in systole and two negative in diastole. Conclusions:: This study revealed for first time, deformation pattern of pulmonary artery by color coded Doppler myocardial imaging and can be basis for future researches in cardiopulmonary diseases.

  5. Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study.


    Lindström, Martin; Isacsson, Sven-Olof


    Objective: To investigate differences in snuff consumption, sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics between baseline intermittent smokers that had become daily smokers, stopped smoking or remained intermittent smokers at the one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: A population of 12 507 individuals interviewed at baseline in 1992-94 and at a one year follow up, aged 45-69 years, was investigated in a longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline intermittent...

  6. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies. (United States)

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R


    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  7. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. iPS Cells 10 Years Later. (United States)


    In 2006, Takahashi and Yamanaka reported the breakthrough discovery of induction of pluripotent stem cells from fibroblasts by a combination of defined factors. Ten years later, Cell editor João Monteiro brings together Shinya Yamanaka and Hans Schöler, one the original reviewers of the landmark study, to revisit the history behind the paper and its long-lasting legacy.

  9. Studies of longitudinal instability with an electron beam (United States)

    This progress report covers the research on the 'Study of Longitudinal Instability with an Electron Beam' performed at the University of Maryland during the period from September 1, 1993 to February 28, 1994 of the two-year grant sponsored by the Department of Energy, under Grant No. DEFG02-92ER54178. This research is motivated by the issue of longitudinal instability in induction linacs as drivers for heavy ion inertial fusion. The Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) in its final report to DOE (September 1990) identified longitudinal instability as a key physics problem that needs to be solved if an induction linac is to be developed into a successful HIF driver. The FPAC report also stated that 'in parallel' to the design and construction of ILSE 'enhanced theoretical and experimental efforts are required for an improved understanding of potentially serious longitudinal beam instability issues'. The experiment with electron beams in this area is a low-cost way to gain a thorough understanding of the instability and to test computer codes in collaboration with LBL, LLNL, and I. Haber at NRL. The last six months saw the transition of the research activities from phase 1 to phase 2. By the end of last September, the experiments on space-charge waves had been completed. This had fulfilled the first year's goal of this two-year grant. Though the completion of the experiments was one month later than that scheduled and the data analysis still continues up to now, the authors have done much more than was originally proposed.

  10. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli


    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jadali


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTumors of the central nervous system constitute the largest group of solid neoplasms in children and are second only to leukemia in their overall frequency during childhood. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence, age, sex, location and histological diagnosis of CNS tumors in children, less than 15 years of age, in the Mofid Children’s Hospital, in the past 10 years.Materials and Methods In this descriptive retrospective study we reviewed the medical records of 143children with diagnosis of CNS tumors admitted during the past 10 years in neurology and surgery departments of Mofid Children’s Hospital between the years 1996 and 2006.ResultsDuring the 10 year study period, CNS tumor was diagnosed in 143 patients; of these tumors, 119 were intracranial and 58 were intraspinal; 51.3% of brain tumors were located in the supratentorial and 48.7% in the infratentorial regions. The most common intracranial neoplasms were astrocytic tumors (36.8%, embryonal tumors (31.1% and ependymal tumors (13.4%. Of the intraspinal neoplasms the most frequently noted were embryonal tumors (37.5%, mesenchymal meningothelial tumors (20.8%, followed by astrocytic tumors (16.7%. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 ± 4.1 years with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1 (P<0.5. The most common intracranial astrocytic and embryonal neoplasms were pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma / PNET respectively.ConclusionBrain tumors in children constitute a diverse group in terms of incidence, distribution and histopathological diagnosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jadali


    Full Text Available AbstractObjectiveTumors of the central nervous system constitute the largest group of solid neoplasms in children and are second only to leukemia in their overall frequency during childhood. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence, age, sex, location and histological diagnosis of CNS tumors in children, less than 15 years of age, in the Mofid Children's Hospital, in the past 10 years. Materials and MethodsIn this descriptive retrospective study we reviewed the medical records of 143 children with diagnosis of CNS tumors admitted during the past 10 years in neurology and surgery departments of Mofid Children's Hospital between the years 1996 and 2006.ResultsDuring the 10 year study period, CNS tumor was diagnosed in 143 patients; of these tumors, 119 were intracranial and 58 were intraspinal; 51.3% of brain tumors were located in the supratentorial and 48.7% in the infratentorial regions. The most common intracranial neoplasms were astrocytic tumors (36.8%, embryonal tumors (31.1% and ependymal tumors (13.4%. Of the intraspinal neoplasms the most frequently noted were embryonal tumors(37.5%, mesenchymal meningothelial tumors (20.8%, followed by astrocytic tumors (16.7%. The median age at diagnosis was 8.9 ± 4.1 years with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1 (P Conclusion Brain tumors in children constitute a diverse group in terms of incidence,distribution and histopathological diagnosis.Keywords: CNS tumors, Histopathology, Children.

  13. Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staedke Sarah G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. Methods All households in a geographically defined area were enumerated and mapped. Probability sampling was used to recruit a representative sample of children and collect baseline descriptive data for future longitudinal studies. Results 16,172 residents living in 4931 households in a densely-populated community (18,824 persons/km2 were enumerated. A total of 582 households were approached with at least one child less than 10 years of age in order to recruit 601 children living in 322 households. At enrollment, 19% were parasitaemic, 24% were anaemic, 43% used bednets, and 6% used insecticide-treated nets. Low G6PD activity (OR = 0.33, P = 0.009 and bednet use (OR = 0.64, P = 0.045 were associated with a decreased risk of parasitaemia. Increasing age (OR = 0.62 for each year, P Conclusion Detailed surveys of target populations in urban Africa can provide valuable descriptive data and provide a sampling frame for recruitment of representative cohorts for longitudinal studies. Plans to use a multi-disciplinary approach to improve the understanding of the distribution and determinants of malaria incidence and response to therapy in this population are discussed.

  14. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging


    Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.


    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–19...

  15. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams (United States)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  16. Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC). (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E


    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (

  17. A longitudinal study on enteropathogenic infections of livestock in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun A.A.


    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp. and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus. The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.

  18. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research. (United States)

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim


    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  19. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy. (United States)

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A


    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  20. Estudo comparativo das proporções faciais entre jovens melanodermas e leucodermas dos 8 aos 10 anos de idade Comparative study of facial proportions between Afro Brazilian and White Brazilian children from 8 to 10 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Rocha Sobreira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as proporções faciais, em jovens melanodermas e leucodermas do sexo feminino, dos 8 aos 10 anos de idade, e verificar as possíveis diferenças existentes entre os grupos. MÉTODOS : os autores examinaram, de forma transversal, 70 telerradiografias realizadas em norma lateral, igualmente divididas entre os dois grupos, sendo 22 aos 8 anos, 18 aos 9 anos e 30 aos 10 anos. Todas as pacientes apresentavam perfil facial harmonioso e oclusão normal, e ausência de tratamento ortodôntico prévio. Avaliaram-se as proporções AFAI/AFAT (ENA-Me/N-Me, AFPT/AFAT (S-Go/N-Me, AFPI/AFPT (Ar-Go/S-Go e AFPI/AFAI (Ar-Go/ENA-Me. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, teste t de Student para a comparação entre os grupos raciais, análise de variância com teste de Bonferroni para comparação entre as idades e coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para a verificação do grau de associação entre as proporções faciais. Em todos os testes estatísticos utilizou-se o nível de 5% de significância. RESULTADOS: não existiram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos e entre as idades dentro dos grupos, independentemente da variável analisada. CONCLUSÃO: não ocorreram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas proporções faciais entre jovens leucodermas e melanodermas brasileiras. As proporções faciais mantiveram-se constantes dos 8 aos 10 anos de idade, independentemente do grupo racial.AIM: To evaluate the vertical facial proportions of Afro Brazilian and White Brazilian female children aged 8 to 10 years old, and to evaluate the differences between the racial groups. METHODS: The authors evaluated 70 cephalometric radiographs, in lateral norm, equally divided into two groups, 22 at 8 years, 18 at 9 years, and 30 at 10 years old. All the patients showed harmonious facial esthetics, normal occlusion and none of them were subjected to previous orthodontic treatment. The following

  1. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M


    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  2. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods (United States)


    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  3. Poor 10-year survivorship of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (United States)

    Seppänen, Matti; Karvonen, Mikko; Virolainen, Petri; Remes, Ville; Pulkkinen, Pekka; Eskelinen, Antti; Liukas, Antti; Mäkelä, Keijo T


    Background and purpose In a previous registry report, short-term implant survival of hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) in Finland was found to be comparable to that of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Since then, it has become evident that adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMDs) may also be associated with HRA, not only with large-diameter head metal-on-metal THA. The aim of the study was to assess medium- to long-term survivorship of HRA based on the Finnish Arthroplasty Register (FAR). Patients and methods 5,068 HRAs performed during the period 2001–2013 in Finland were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate survival probabilities and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Cox multiple regression, with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, femoral head size, and hospital volume was used to analyze implant survival of HRA devices with revision for any reason as endpoint. The reference group consisted of 6,485 uncemented Vision/Bimetric and ABG II THAs performed in Finland over the same time period. Results The 8-year survival, with any revision as an endpoint, was 93% (CI: 92–94) for Birmingham Hip Resurfacing (BHR), 86% (CI: 78–94) for Corin, 91% (CI: 89–94) for ReCap, 92% (CI: 89–96) for Durom, and was 72% (CI: 69–76) for the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR). The 10-year survival, with any revision as an endpoint, for reference THAs was 92% (CI: 91–92) and for all HRAs it was 86% (CI: 84–87%). Female HRA patients had about twice the revision risk of male patients. ASR had an inferior outcome: the revision risk was 4-fold higher than for BHR, the reference implant. Interpretation The 10-year implant survival of HRAs is 86% in Finland. According to new recommendations from NICE (The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), an HRA/THA should have a revision rate of 5% or less at 10 years. None of the HRAs studied achieved this goal. PMID:27759474

  4. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.


    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  5. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... multi-faceted language training. We conducted two experiments (identification and discrimination) with the two groups of cadets. The cadets were tested at four time points (at the start (T0), after three weeks (T1), after six months (T2), and after 20 months (T3)). We used a phonemic Arabic contrast...

  6. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes. (United States)

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia


    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  7. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children. (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru


    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  8. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence. (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C


    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  9. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Ramos


    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  10. Polygonal triple (Kotz) osteotomy (over 10 years experience). (United States)

    Sen, Cengiz; Gunes, Taner; Erdem, Mehmet; Ozger, Harzem; Tozun, I Remzi


    We evaluated the results of polygonal triple (Kotz) osteotomy for the treatment of acetabular dysplasia over 10 years. This study included 31 hips of 27 patients who had the Kotz osteotomy for acetabular dysplasia. The mean age was 21.5 years. We performed the original Kotz osteotomy for the first 22 hips (group I), while the modified Kotz osteotomy through an intra-pelvic approach without damage to the abductor muscle was applied for the last 9 hips (group II). Patients were evaluated by clinically and radiologically. The average follow-up was 106 months in group I, and 18 months in group II. The Trendelenburg gait was unchanged for four patients in group I and for one patient in group II. The Harris Hip Score improved in all patients postoperatively. Radiographic assesment showed improvement in both groups in terms of the angle of CE, VCE, and Sharp postoperatively(PTrendelenburg gait compared to the original Kotz osteotomy.

  11. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander


    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  12. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento


    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  13. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian


    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  14. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula


    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001).

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Hedges in Different Moves of EMRAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper investigates the evolutionary change in the OF (OF) of hedges in different moves of EMRAs (EMRAs). Two corpora are established for longitudinal study, with Corpus A consisting of EMRAs from 1990-1994 and Corpus B from 2005-2009. Generally, no significant change has been found in overall use of hedges. However, apart from move 6, 7 and 10, we have found some interesting changes in the other moves. On the one hand, the OF of hedges in move 1, move 3, move 4 and move 5 shows a significant increase. On the other hand, the OF of hedges in move 2, 8, 9 and move 11 show a significant de⁃crease.

  16. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C


    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  17. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik


    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  18. Recent 10 years research advances in toxicology study and material base of eighteen imcompatible pairs%近10年来对中药十八反毒理及其物质基础的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将中药十八反分为乌头组、甘草组及藜芦组进行综述.近10年来对于中药十八反的毒理及其物质基础的研究取得了一定的成就,如基于药物代谢酶机制的探讨,对细胞色素P450酶及其同功酶与毒性关系作了研究,充分利用现代药物分析和色谱学技术研究反药配伍前后化学成分的变化,对十八反药物作用于机体后产生毒性的机理和物质基础做了一定探讨,但对配伍后的物质基础变化与毒效之间的关系还没有形成统一认识,尚无突破性进展.如何缩小体内、体外环境的差异及个体体内环境的差异,或许是将来揭示十八反毒理和物质基础的关键.%Traditional Chinese herb eighteen antagonisms were reviewed , divided into Radix Glycyrrhizae group, Radix Aconiti groupand Radix Veratri Nigri group. Recent 10 years research in toxicology and material base of eighteenantagonisms havegot some achievements, such as thediscussionbased on drug metabolizing enzymes mechanism ,the relationship of cytochrome P450 enzymes and toxicity, the change in the chemical composition before and after combination using modern drugsanalysis and chromatographictechnology. But the relationship between the change ofmaterial base and toxic effect after the combination is not unify , there is no breakthrough. How to reduce the difference of inside and outside environment and the individual differences in the body environment, perhaps is the key to reveal thetoxicology and material base of eighteenantagonisms .

  19. 近10年来新疆入境旅游市场时空动态变化研究%A study on characteristics of the time and spatial variation of inbound tourism in Xinjiang in recent 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从旅游需求的角度出发,根据1999-2008年新疆入境市场的相关统计数据,运用地理集中指数、年际集中指数、亲景度等指标,对新疆入境旅游市场时空变化特征进行分析.结果表明,新疆入境旅游客源地地理集中指数比较高;大多数国家是新疆入境旅游稳定的客源市场,少数国家反映出较大的年际间差异性;入境游客数量总体上在增加,入境游客流向集中且空间分布不均衡,未来多极旅游将是一种趋势;入境旅游客源市场亲景度差异显著,大部分属于亲景市场,入境旅游客源市场亲景度年际变化大,整体呈下降趋势,亲景度空间变化层次明显.建议从旅游客源地和旅游目的地两个方面,进一步开拓新疆入境旅游市场.%From the perspective of the tourism demand, This paper analyzed the characteristics of the time and spatial variation of inbound tourism in Xinjiang from 1999 to 2008 based on geographic concentration index, year border concentration index,familiarity with scenic destination according to Chinese Traveling Statistics Yearbook, China Statistical Yearbook and Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook as well as other data materials. It mainly utilized the quantitative method. The results showed as follows about the characteristics of the time and spatial variation of inbound tourism in Xinjiang since recent 10 years: (1) It was still high for geographic concentration index of inbound tourist countries in Xinjiang. (2) Most countries were relatively stable tourist markets for inbound tourism in Xinjiang. Annual big change was reflected among the countries which were Mongolia, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Korea and Spain. (3) The number of inbound tourist in Xinjiang was being present to a ascending trend, the space concentration and unbalanced characteristics were still obvious. Multi-polarization tourism would be a trendency in the future. (4) Difference of the degree of familiarity with scene for

  20. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.W. Bos; N.K. Gartrell; H. Peyser; F. van Balen


    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  1. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  2. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa


    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  3. [Changes in interpersonal values in student nurses: a longitudinal study]. (United States)

    Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S


    Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.

  4. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia


    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  5. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells


    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  6. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study. (United States)

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  7. Reproducibility of anthropometric measurements in children: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak


    The purpose of this study was to establish the reproducibility of a series of anthropometric measures performed twice during one week during a three year period in boys and girls. The subjects of this investigation were 39 children (21 boys and 18 girls), 9-10 year of age at the beginning of the study. Children were measured three times with one year interval. Children were classified by Tanner stage 1-2 during the first measurements, stage 1-3 during the second measurements and stage 1-4 during the third measurements. Body height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. All anthropometric parameters were measured according to the protocol recommended by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (Norton & Olds 1996). Nine skinfolds, 13 girths, eight lengths and eight breadths/lengths were measured. The reproducibility of body height (r = 0.995-0.999), body weight (r = 0.990-0.999) and BMI (r = 0.969-0.999) was very high in boys and girls. The intraclass correlations (ICC), technical errors (TE) and coefficients of variation (CV) were quite different depending on the measurement site of the skinfold thickness. It was surprising that the ICCs were highest and TEs and CVs were lowest during the second year of the measurement. The computed ICC was high, and TE and CV values were quite similar and relatively low in girth, length and breadth/length measurements. It was concluded that the reproducibility of girths, lengths and breadths/lengths in children is very high and the reproducibility of skinfolds is high. Specifically, the reproducibility is very high immediately before puberty in boys and girls.

  8. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration (United States)


    ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

  9. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip;


    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later......We use a longitudinal design to examine associations for 2,120 16-30 months old children between early expressive vocabulary and later reading and math outcomes in the 6th Grade based on a large and diverse sample of Danish children. Educational outcomes, in particular decoding and reading...... educational attainment as the majority of children experiencing early language delay obtain scores below average in measures of reading in the 6th Grade. Low scores have the greatest predictive power indicating that children with early delays have elevated risk for later reading problems....

  10. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes. (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah


    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  11. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  12. 10 years of Terra Outreach over the Internet (United States)

    Yuen, K.; Riebeek, H.; Chambers, L. H.


    1 Author Yuen, Karen JPL (818) 393-7716 2 Author Riebeek, Holli Sigma Space Corporation (department) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Institution), Greenbelt, Maryland 3 Author Chambers, Lin NASA Abstract: Since launch, Terra has returned about 195 gigabytes (level 0) of data per day or 1 terabyte every 5 days. Few outlets were able to accommodate and quickly share that amount of information as well as the Internet. To honor the 10-year anniversary of the launch of Terra, we would like to highlight the education and outreach efforts of the Terra mission on the Internet and its reach to the science attentive public. The Internet or web has been the primary way of delivering Terra content to different groups- from formal and informal education to general public outreach. Through the years, many different web-based projects have been developed, and they were of service to a growing population of the science attentive public. One of Terra’s original EPO activities was the Earth Observatory. It was initially dedicated to telling the remote sensing story of Terra, but quickly grew to include science and imagery from other sensors. The web site allowed for collaboration across NASA centers, universities and other organizations by exchanging and sharing of story ideas, news and images. The award winning Earth Observatory helped pave the way for the more recently funded development of the Climate Change website. With its specific focus on climate change studies, once again, Terra stories and images are shared with an even more specific audience base. During the last 10 years, Terra as a mission has captured the imagination of the public through its visually stunning and artistically arresting images. With its five instruments of complementary but unique capabilities, the mission gave the world not just pretty pictures, but scientific data-based images. The world was able to see from space everything from calving icebergs to volcanic eruption plumes and the eye of a

  13. METEONETWORK: 2002-2012, 10 years of activities (United States)

    Mazza, Edoardo


    The role of citizen-scientists in collecting data and observations has been increasingly crucial in the last 10 years of atmospheric sciences. Meteonetwork is a non-profit organization founded by citizen scientists in 2002, in Lombardia, with the aim of raising public awareness about meteorological and climatological issues. Throughout the years the organization, besides the continuous holding of events such as meeting, conferences and talks, has been standing out because of its forum and its wide network of weather stations. Meteonetwork's forum is, in this field, the most read and followed in the country and with its 8459 members and over 4,217,505 posts turns out to be the 17th forum over the entire country. Its network is operated in cooperation with Centro Epson Meteo and collects amateur semi-professional stations distributed all over the Italian territory, providing real-time and daily data. It consists of 706 stations, among which more than 400 regularly updated; volunteers constantly work to perform quality control and ensure data reliability. Meteonetwork has also developed several collaborations with private and public institutions, among which DRIHM - Cima Research Foundation, Centro Epson Meteo di Milano, Arpa Veneto, Arpa Emilia-Romagna, Arpa Lombardia, Arpa Friuli - Venezia Giulia, Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo, C. N. R. - C. I. S. A, Università di Pisa, Università di Milano, University of Aberdeen, Protezione Civile - Regione Lombardia, Protezione Civile - Regione Piemonte stand out. As WMO emphasized in 2001 World Meteorological Day "Volunteers for the weather, climate and water" the contribution of citizen-scientists to scientific studies is remarkable. In this perspective Meteonetwork and the University of Milan, in April 2011, started a project of technical and scientific cooperation called Weatherness. The university is provided with data gathered by Meteoneonetwork's stations with the aim of improving the knowledge of the impact that heat


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  15. Predictors of English fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Westermeyer, J; Her, C


    The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with later acquisition of English language fluency among Hmong refugees in Minnesota. Fluency in a society's lingua franca is a critical skill in psychosocial adaptation and mental health. A longitudinal study design was used, in which premigration and early postmigration factors were related to subsequent English fluency. The first group of 102 Hmong refugees located in Minnesota by the Immigration and Naturalization Service participated, and were interviewed in their homes. Hmong research assistants collected data using a questionnaire format at 1.5 years following resettlement in the U.S. Eight years later, two measures of English language competence were obtained: a self-assessment and an objective measure of English language fluency. Self-assessed fluency and performance on a brief English test showed good correlation. Greater English fluency on both measures was predicted by the following: younger age, male gender, education or vocational training in Laos prior to migration, occupation in Laos requiring literacy, study of English while in Asia, less proximity to other Hmong households in the U.S., any educational involvement in the U.S. (except English as a second language or ESL training), and not receiving welfare. Self-assessment of English fluency appeared to be a valid measure of competence in English. Demographic characteristics, certain premigration experiences, and early postmigration experiences predicted English fluency after 10 years in the U.S. ESL training was not associated with eventual English fluency on either self-assessment or objective testing. Recommendations are made to enhance English fluency, and hence the psychosocial adaptation of refuguees and other immigrants to the U.S.

  16. Vocal aging and the impact on daily life: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de I.M.; Mahieu, H.F.


    Longitudinal studies on vocal aging are scarce, and information on the impact of age-related voice changes on daily life is lacking. This longitudinal study reports on age-related voice changes and the impact on daily life over a time period of 5 years on 11 healthy male speakers, age ranging from 5

  17. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.


    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  18. Ten-Year Retrospective Longitudinal-Study of Student Perspectives on Value of REU (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.


    For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational

  19. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Nooe, Allison


    Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female). Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03). Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  20. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I


    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  1. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A


    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  2. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  3. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang


    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  4. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  5. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  6. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies]. (United States)

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A


    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality.

  7. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Laarhoven

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of

  8. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study. (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin


    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  9. Normal ageing in adults with Down's syndrome: a longitudinal study. (United States)

    Devenny, D A; Silverman, W P; Hill, A L; Jenkins, E; Sersen, E A; Wisniewski, K E


    The ubiquitous presence of the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) over 40 years of age suggests that this group of people will exhibit a high prevalence of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) as they age. The present study indicates that there is a clear discrepancy between the presumed presence of AD neuropathology and the clinical expression of DAT among older people with DS. In the first 6 years of a longitudinal study, the present authors compared 91 adults (31-63 years of age) with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation to 64 adults (31-76 years of age) with other forms of mental retardation (MR) on yearly measures of mental status, short- and long-term memory, speeded psychomotor function, and visuospatial organization. The results indicated that, over repeated testing on the verbal long-term memory test, younger participants with DS showed small increases in their scores, while older participants with DS showed very slight decreases. Overall performance scores on this test and a speeded psychomotor task were poorer for both diagnostic groups in individuals aged 50 years and older. The magnitude and type of these selective changes in performance were consistent with performance profiles observed in older healthy adults without mental retardation on tests measuring similar cognitive functions. Only four out of the 91 people with DS in the present sample showed changes in functioning that have led to a diagnosis of possible DAT, and in these individuals, alternative causes of performance declines were concurrently present (e.g. thyroid dysfunction). These findings indicate that some age-associated changes in functioning are related to "normal' but probably precocious ageing among adults with DS. Furthermore, these findings suggest that adults with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation may be at lower risk for dementia during their fourth and fifth decades of life than previous studies have suggested.

  10. Expected innovations of optical lithography in the next 10 years (United States)

    Owa, Soichi; Hirayanagi, Noriyuki


    In the past 10 years, immersion lithography has been the most effective high volume manufacturing method for the critical layers of semiconductor devices. Thinking of the next 10 years, we can expect continuous improvement on existing 300 mm wafer scanners with better accuracy and throughput to enhance the total output value per input cost. This value productivity, however, can be upgraded also by larger innovations which might happen in optical lithography. In this paper, we will discuss the possibilities and the impossibilities of potential innovation ideas of optical lithography, which are 450 mm wafer, optical maskless, multicolor lithography, and metamaterial.

  11. Looking forward, looking back-10 years in urology. (United States)

    Albersen, Maarten; Cartwright, Rufus; Choyke, Peter; Goldenberg, S Larry; Goldman, Howard; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Linehan, W Marston; Murphy, Declan; Nagler, Harris; Scardino, Peter; Shortliffe, Linda; Stenzl, Arnulf; Theodorescu, Dan


    When Nature Reviews Urology launched in 2004, the field of urology was vastly different to that which we work in today, and the past 10 years have seen the field change immensely. As a specialty on the forefront of cutting-edge innovation, urologists are often the first to embrace new technologies and ideas. In this Viewpoint, members of the Nature Reviews Urology advisory board were asked what they thought was the most important change, issue or innovation in urology in the past 10 years, and what they expected to be the most important in the next decade. Here are their opinions.

  12. Is the relationship between BMI and mortality increasingly U-shaped with advancing age? A 10-year follow-up of persons aged 70-95 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; Jacobsen, Rune; Jeune, Bernard;


    populations comprised two surveys: the Longitudinal Study of Aging of Danish Twins (LSADT) and the Danish 1905 Cohort Survey. From 1995 to 1999, 4253 individuals aged 70-95 years from the LSADT were interviewed at home. In 1998, 2,262 individuals aged 92-93 years from the 1905 Cohort were interviewed at home....... The information in both surveys included self-reported weight and height. With virtually no loss to follow-up, survival was assessed through a 10-year follow-up period, during which 4,664 (72%) of the persons died. RESULTS: The association between BMI and mortality is changing with advancing age for people aged...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Objective: To (I) describe anthropometric and body-size measurements in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study (NGHS) population at baseline and (2) examine potential secular trends in the prevalence of obesity in young black and white girls by comparing NGHS baseline

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop


    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  15. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.


    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  16. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy


    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  17. Ovarian function and reproductive hormone levels in girls with prader-willi syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, E.P.; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Otten, B.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.


    Context: The etiology of hypogonadism in girls with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) remains uncertain. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate gonadal function longitudinally in girls and female adolescents with PWS. Measurements: We performed a longitudinal assessment of anti-Mullerian hormone

  18. Electron Correlation Effects on the Longitudinal Polarizabilities and Second Hyperpolarizabilities of Polyenes: A Finite Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Li


    perturbation theory and coupled cluster with singles and doubles method. Calculations with density functional theory are also made to compare with wave-function based methods. Our study shows that electron correlation reduces linear longitudinal polarizability and enhances longitudinal second hyperpolarizability for short polyenes, but the effects decrease as the chain increases; choosing appropriate basis sets is important when quantitative results are required.

  19. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong


    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  20. [Shift the skin paddle in an additional incision improves the result: Study of a series of 82 breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation at 10 years]. (United States)

    Chiriac, S; Dissaux, C; Bruant-Rodier, C; Djerada, Z; Bodin, F; François, C


    The position of the skin paddle on the breast area is a fundamental element for the breast reconstructions by latissimus dorsi flap and prosthesis implantation. Should, as Millard advocated, to recreate the initial defect and include it in the mastectomy scar or is it better in an additional incision as have others authors. This study compares the long-term morphological results of these two attitudes, with or without additional incision.

  1. Racial differences in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: a longitudinal cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meigs James B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to oral antidiabetic medications is often suboptimal. Adherence differences may contribute to health disparities for black diabetes patients, including higher microvascular event rates, greater complication-related disability, and earlier mortality. Methods In this longitudinal retrospective cohort study, we used 10 years of patient-level claims and electronic medical record data (1/1/1992–12/31/2001 to assess differences in short- and long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic medication among 1906 newly diagnosed adults with diabetes (26% black, 74% white in a managed care setting in which all members have prescription drug coverage. Four main outcome measures included: (1 time from diabetes diagnosis until first prescription of oral antidiabetic medication; (2 primary adherence (time from first prescription to prescription fill; (3 time until discontinuation of oral antidiabetic medication from first prescription; and (4 long-term adherence (amount dispensed versus amount prescribed over a 24-month follow-up from first oral antidiabetic medication prescription. Results Black patients were as likely as whites to initiate oral therapy and fill their first prescription, but experienced higher rates of medication discontinuation (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7 and were less adherent over time. These black-white differences increased over the first six months of therapy but stabilized thereafter for patients who initiated on sulfonylureas. Significant black-white differences in adherence levels were constant throughout follow-up for patients initiated on metformin therapy. Conclusion Racial differences in adherence to oral antidiabetic drug therapy persist even with equal access to medication. Early and continued emphasis on adherence from initiation of therapy may reduce persistent racial differences in medication use and clinical outcomes.

  2. Review and Prospect on the Study of Antarctic Glaciology in China during the Last 10 Years%中国南极冰川学研究10 a回顾与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大河; 任贾文; 康世昌


    The study of Antarctic glaciology in China is reviewed with the emphasis on the past decade. Much progress has been achieved in the physical characteristics of the Antarctic ice sheet and caps and in the study of climatic and environmental records in Antarctic snow and ice. Through observations of snow profiles of numerous snow-pits and shallow cores in the Wilkes Land and Lambert Glacier basin and along the route of the 1990 International Trans-Antarctica Science Expedition (ITASE), the regional features of snow deposition and densification in Antarctica were revealed. The Nelson Island ice cap in South Shetland Islands was investigated in detail that greatly enriched the knowledge of glaciers under a sub-Antarctic maritime climate. From the analyses of shallow ice cores and surface snow samples, in particular those taken along the ITASE route, the systematic data of stable isotopes, soluble impurities and heavy metal Pb in present precipitation in Antarctica has been obtained. Some suggestions are proposed through discussing the present hot points in the above fields.

  3. The 10-Year Cost-Effectiveness of Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin for Diabetes Prevention




    OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its Outcomes Study (DPPOS) demonstrated that either intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin could prevent type 2 diabetes in high-risk adults for at least 10 years after randomization. We report the 10-year within-trial cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on resource utilization, cost, and quality of life were collected prospectively. Economic analyses were performed from health system and societal...

  4. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla: A 10-year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estie Kruger


    Full Text Available Background Previous analysis of jaw fracture hospitalisations in Western Australia (WA indicated disproportionately high rates of hospitalisations for Aboriginal people. This study was to follow-up on the earlier analysis to determine if inequalities in terms of jaw fracture hospitalisation rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people have changed. Aims This study, done over a 10-year period from 1999/2000 to 2008/2009, aimed to determine rates of hospitalisations for jaw fractures in WA, trends over the 10–year period, and direct costs associated with these hospital admissions. Methods Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data System (HMDS. Episodes were selected on the basis of an ICD10-AM code being S02.4 (Fracture of the malar and maxillary bones and S02.6 (Fracture of the mandible. Self-reported Aboriginality were used to compare Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal populations. Estimated cost of care was determined for each episode using the national standard diagnostic-related group (DRG average price. Results Our findings indicate that inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in terms of hospital admissions for jaw fractures exist in WA, and continued over a decade-long period. Higher fracture rates occurred amongst males, Aboriginal people, younger adult age-groups, those from low socioeconomic areas, and those from remote and very remote areas. The DRG cost per person for jaw fractures ranged between AUD $842 and $109,002, with a median cost of $4,965. Conclusion Hospital admission rates for the treatment of maxillary and mandibular fractures is very strongly divided along racial and socioeconomic lines in WA.

  5. Dose to patients in mammography. Retrospective study during more than 10 years of mammography screening program; Dosis a pacientes en mamografia. Estudio retrospectivo de mas de 10 anos de programa de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Munoz, A.; Chapel Gomez, M. L.


    Breast screening programs include large number of women, most of them asymptomatic, receiving a significant absorbed dose. Under these circumstances, estimation of breast dose arises as a valuable tool to evaluate carcinogenic risk to the patient. Dose estimation can also become a tool for comparison of imaging systems, beam qualities and techniques for mammography. Mammographic systems have undergone many changes since its origins: new beam qualities have been introduced and digital mammography has replaced conventional systems. Data obtained from 2266 mammographic studies, during more than ten years of experience on the Canary Islands Breast Cancer Screening Program, have been analysed. Semi-automatic exposure control, completely automatic exposure control, screen-film and full field digital systems have been considered, Average glandular dose (the carcinogenic risk indicator) received by patients has been compared. A reduction in average glandular dose of full field digital mammography has been found. The optimisation of exposition parameters appears as critical factor on dose reduction. (Author) 26 refs.

  6. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela


    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  7. Effects of organizational and team commitment - a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neininger, A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.; Henschel, A.


    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially teamcommitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of te

  8. Treatment of non-response in longitudinal network studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian


    The collection of longitudinal data on complete social networks often faces the problem of actor non-response. The resulting incomplete data pose a challenge to statistical analysis, as there typically is no natural way to treat the missing cases. This paper examines the problems caused by actors mi

  9. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van


    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  10. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer


    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...

  11. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy. (United States)

    Mohamed, Zouari; Habib, Bouthour; Rabia, Ben Abdallah; Youssef, Hlel; Riath, Ben Malek; Youssef, Gharbi; Nejib, Kaabar


    Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  12. Duodenal adenocarcinoma in a 10-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouari Mohamed


    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal malignancies are extremely rare in the paediatric population and duodenal cancers represent an even more unusual entity. It represents 0.3-1% of all gastrointestinal tumours. A case report of a 10-year-old boy with duodenal adenocarcinoma is reported and the difficulties of diagnosing and treating this rare tumour are discussed.

  13. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng


    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  14. Career Theory Building in AJCD during Its Inaugural 10 Years. (United States)

    Prideaux, Lee-Ann; Creed, Peter


    A review of the first 10 years of the Australian Journal of Career Development identified 26 articles meeting methodological criteria. These topics predominated: cross-sectional analyses, Holland's theory of vocational choice, self-efficacy/self-concept theory, gender issues, and career counseling/career education. A need for an…

  15. Reduction in fluoroquinolone use following introduction of ertapenem into a hospital formulary is associated with improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems: a 10-year study. (United States)

    Cook, Paul P; Gooch, Michael; Rizzo, Shemra


    We examined the effect of the addition of ertapenem to our hospital formulary on the resistance of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem). This was a retrospective, observational study conducted between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2009 at a large, tertiary-care hospital. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression models were used to evaluate the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems as well as on the use of the group 2 carbapenems, ciprofloxacin, and other antipseudomonal drugs (i.e., tobramycin, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam). Resistance was expressed as a percentage of total isolates as well as the number of carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates per 10,000 patient days. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between antibiotic use and carbapenem resistance. Following the addition of ertapenem to the formulary, there was a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (P = 0.003). Group 2 carbapenem use and the number of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates per 10,000 patient days did not change significantly over the time period. There was a large decrease in the use of ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0033), and there was a correlation of ciprofloxacin use with the percentage of isolates resistant to the group 2 carbapenems (ρ = 0.47, P = 0.002). We suspect that the improvement in susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to group 2 carbapenems was related to a decrease in ciprofloxacin use.

  16. Predictors and longitudinal course of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 10years after baseline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Sara; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Sørensen, Holger J;


    premorbid achievement and later age of onset. Having finished high school and receiving early intervention treatment was associated with better CF. Age, growing up with both parents, number of family and friends, primary caregivers education, premorbid social function, negative symptoms, GAF (symptoms...

  17. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Dulmen, S. van


    Objectives: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  18. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Dulmen, S. van


    OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  19. Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins in neuroscience. (United States)

    Deisseroth, Karl


    Over the past 10 years, the development and convergence of microbial opsin engineering, modular genetic methods for cell-type targeting and optical strategies for guiding light through tissue have enabled versatile optical control of defined cells in living systems, defining modern optogenetics. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of spatiotemporally precise causal control over cellular signaling, for nearly the first half (2005-2009) of this 10-year period, as optogenetics was being created, there were difficulties in implementation, few publications and limited biological findings. In contrast, the ensuing years have witnessed a substantial acceleration in the application domain, with the publication of thousands of discoveries and insights into the function of nervous systems and beyond. This Historical Commentary reflects on the scientific landscape of this decade-long transition.

  20. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination. (United States)

    Ryan, Aisling M; Bermingham, Niamh; Harrington, Hugh J; Keohane, Catherine


    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  1. [Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), 10 years of experience]. (United States)

    Estevan Solano, J M; García-Cosío, J; Rodríguez, E; Barreiro, A; Maynar, M


    Authors present their experiences during 10 years (1980-89) with the treatment of peripheral arteriopathies with the ATP. Between a total of 455 procedures, an accumulative permeability of 82% in the iliac sector and 71% in the femoro-popliteal sector in elective indications was reached. The total availability of this therapeutic method, the accurate selection of indications and the valious cooperation between Angioradiology and Vascular Surgery Departments should be noted.

  2. Atypical presentation of macrophagic myofasciitis 10 years post vaccination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Aisling M


    Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an uncommon inflammatory disorder of muscle believed to be due to persistence of vaccine-derived aluminium hydroxide at the site of injection. The condition is characterised by diffuse myalgias, arthralgia and fatigue. We describe a patient with histologically confirmed MMF whose presentation was atypical with left chest and upper limb pain beginning more than 10 years post vaccination. Treatment with steroids led to symptomatic improvement. Although rare, clinicians should consider MMF in cases of atypical myalgia.

  3. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.


    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  4. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices


    Yeh, Cathery


    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  5. A longitudinal study of food intake patterns and obesity in adult Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togo, P; Osler, M; Sørensen, T I A


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that specific food intake patterns or changes in food intake patterns were related to future changes in body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study, with clinical and questionnaire examinations at baseline and two fol...... factor scores, changes in factor scores and subsequent BMI changes or obesity were found. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal study of a Danish population, food intake factors could not consistently predict changes in BMI or obesity development....

  6. Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study. (United States)

    Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno


    One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale

  7. The GLOBE Program 10 Years On: Challenges and Opportunities (United States)

    Blurton, C.


    ). This session will examine what was accomplished during GLOBE's first 10 years as a Federal program, what challenges the Program faces, and what plans are afoot for GLOBE's next ten years under UCAR's leadership.

  8. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bane, Karl


    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because many vacuum chamber objects of the ring have not yet been designed.

  9. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina


    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assis

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;


    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  11. Executive Functions in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD : An 18-Month Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter


    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family Background Factors on Mathematics Achievements Using Quantile Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-zhi Wu; Mao-zai Tian


    Quantile regression is gradually emerging as a powerful tool for estimating models of conditional quantile functions, and therefore research in this area has vastly increased in the past two decades. This paper, with the quantile regression technique, is the first comprehensive longitudinal study on mathematics participation data collected in Alberta, Canada. The major advantage of longitudinal study is its capability to separate the so-called cohort and age effects in the context of population studies. One aim of this paper is to study whether the family background factors alter performance on the mathematical achievement of the strongest students in the same way as that of weaker students based on the large longitudinal sample of 2000,2001 and 2002 mathematics participation longitudinal data set. The interesting findings suggest that there may be differential family background factor effects at different points in the mathematical achievement conditional distribution.

  13. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA


    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at stud

  14. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina


    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  15. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup;


    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...... and showed that ND obtained during quiet standing could not predict the MLAD during gait. The 3D method, or alternatively the 2D method, may be used in clinical settings as reliable methods for easy estimation of the foot longitudinal stability....

  16. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study. (United States)

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen


    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  17. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology. (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M


    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  18. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  19. Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery. (United States)

    Grossman, Linda S; Harrow, Martin; Rosen, Cherise; Faull, Robert; Strauss, Gregory P


    This longitudinal study was designed to provide data on sex differences in the course of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Ninety-seven participants (43 women and 54 men) were assessed during index hospitalization when they were in the acute phase of illness and then reassessed prospectively at 6 consecutive follow-ups over a 20-year period. Patients were evaluated by a series of standardized measures on many aspects of illness including the presence of psychosis, global outcome, and rate of recovery. When women were compared to men in this sample, the data demonstrated a lower percentage of psychotic activity for women over the course of illness (significant at the 7.5- and 20-year follow-ups), and a significant improvement in psychotic activity over 20 years for women (P < .05), but not for men. In addition, women showed significantly better global functioning (P < .05) at 3 of the 6 follow-ups (the 2-, 7.5-, and 10-year follow-ups). Significantly higher percentages (P < .05) of women were in recovery at 2 of the 6 follow-up years (the 2- and 10-year follow-ups). Cumulatively, 61% of the women with schizophrenia showed a period of recovery at some point during the 20-year period compared to 41% of the men. The sex difference patterns were similar for patients with schizophrenia and for those with other types of psychotic disorders. Sex differences in this sample were specifically not attributable to differences in age of onset or premorbid developmental achievements.

  20. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy


    Susana Llorens-Gumbau; Marisa Salanova-Soria


    The present longitudinal study (two waves), conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators) as well as personal resources (self-efficacy) on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and se...

  1. An experimental study of the longitudinal aerodynamic and static stability characteristics of hang gliders


    Kilkenny, E. A.


    A mobile experimental test facility has been developed to carry out the aerodynamic evaluation of hang glider wings normally performed in a wind tunnel. Longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained using this facility is presented for three modern hang glider wings, a Silhouette, Demon 175 and Magic 166, together with surface flow patterns for the latter two wings. The longitudinal stability criterion are studied and alternatives established, equivalent to the stick fixed an...

  2. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira


    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Teacher Education Curriculum: A First Year Report Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods. (United States)

    Heidelbach, Ruth

    A 10-year study is exploring the understanding and validation of the curricular decision making process in an early childhood teacher education curriculum. The inquiry focuses on four major questions: (1) Do teacher educators integrate data describing various aspects of teacher preparation, teacher practice, and pupil performance into their…

  4. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas


    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  5. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA's power system. This document -- the 1992 OM R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction's critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA's ability to accomplish its OM R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  6. Draft 1992 : Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    Two years ago, BPA released its first-ever Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement (OM&R) 10-Year Plan. That effort broke new ground and was an extensive look at the condition of Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement on BPA`s power system. This document -- the 1992 OM&R 10-Year Plan -- uses that original plan as its foundation. It takes a look at how well BPA has accomplished the challenging task set out in the 1990 Plan. The 1992 Plan also introduces the Construction Program. Construction`s critical role in these programs is explored, and the pressures of construction workload -- such as the seasonal nature of the work and the broad swings in workload between projects and years -- are discussed. The document then looks at how situations may have changed with issues explored initially in the 1990 Plan. Importantly, this Plan also surfaces and explains some new issues that threaten to impact BPA`s ability to accomplish its OM&R workload. Finally, the document focuses on the revised strategies for Operations, Maintenance, Replacement, Construction, and Environment for the 1992 to 2001 time period, including the financial and human resources needed to accomplish those strategies.

  7. Visual Impairment, Hearing Loss and Cognitive Function in an Older Population: Longitudinal Findings from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hong

    Full Text Available The presence of visual impairment (VI and hearing loss (HL with may be a marker for subsequent cognitive decline over time in older people. A prospective, longitudinal population-based study of the 3654 participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study were assessed for the associations between VI and HL and a decline in mini-mental state examination (MMSE scores over a duration of 10 years from the 5-year (baseline of this report to the 15-year follow-up visits. MMSE was assessed at the 5-, 10- and 15-year follow-up visits. A decline ≥3 scores from 5-year to 10- or 15-year visits indicated possible cognitive decline. VI was defined as best-corrected visual acuity 40 decibels in the worse-ear and dual sensory impairment (DSI was defined by the co-presence of VI and HL, detected at 5-year follow-up (baseline of this report. Participants with no VI and HL over the same 5- or 10-year corresponding period were controls. Associations of VI, HL and DSI with possible cognitive decline were assessed using logistic regression models adjusting for age and sex after excluding subjects with a stroke history. The presence of VI, HL or DSI was not associated with possible cognitive decline over 5 years (odds ratio (OR 0.84, 95% confidence-intervals (CI 0.40-1.79, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.61-1.70 and 1.41, 95% CI 0.54-3.72, respectively or 10 years (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.52-2.30, OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.65-1.82 and 1.15, 95% CI 0.28-4.73, respectively. There were no changes to these findings after adjustment for other potential confounders. Age was significantly associated with possible cognitive decline (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.10 for both periods. Neither visual impairment, hearing loss nor dual sensory impairment was independently associated with subsequent decline in cognition.

  8. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children. (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C


    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  9. Sociocultural Determinants of Risky Sexual Behaviors among Adult Latinas: A Longitudinal Study of a Community-Based Sample (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Huang, Hui; Li, Tan; Ravelo, Gira J.; Sanchez, Mariana; Dawson, Christyl; Brook, Judith; Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario


    Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads (n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U.S. culture; (e) interpersonal support; (f) relationship stress; (g) mother-daughter attachment; (h) intimate partner violence; (i) religious involvement; and (j) criminal justice involvement. Results indicate the following factors are negatively associated with risky sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, treating a physical problem with prescription drugs, religious involvement, and mother–daughter attachment. The following factors are positively associated with risky sexual behavior: higher number of mental health symptoms, being U.S.-born, and criminal justice involvement. We discuss implications for the future development of culturally relevant interventions based on the study findings. PMID:27886095

  10. 10 Years of "Adult Learning": Content Analysis of an Academic Journal (United States)

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Robbins, Stacey E.; Bixby, John


    Academic publications provide insights into a discipline's history, knowledge base, and research norms, and thus analyzing publication activity provides learning about the field of study. To learn more about the field of adult and continuing education, this study used content analysis to examine 10 years of "Adult Learning" from 2006…

  11. Self-Controlled Feedback in 10-Year-Old Children: Higher Feedback Frequencies Enhance Learning (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; de Medeiros, Franklin Laroque; Kaefer, Angelica; Wally, Raquel


    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether learning in 10-year-old children--that is, the age group for which the Chiviacowsky et al. (2006) study found benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR)--would differ depending on the frequency of feedback they chose. The authors surmised that a relatively high feedback frequency…

  12. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  13. Cystic fibrosis school for 10-year-olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf


    on which they can make their own choices in order to improve their quality of life. In practical terms we make classes of 4-8 10-year-old children with CF. We give them 6 lessons of 3 hours. One lesson every second month. The lessons substitute a monthly visit. The psysiotherapist and the nurse teach...... give them a good basis on which they can make their own choices about how they want to live their lives with cystic fibrosis and with optimal quality of life.......Compliance or rather lack of compliance has always been a problem when treating patients with cystic fibrosis. The patients tend to drop the treatment more or less if the treatment gets too complicated or laboured. We have attempted a systematical education of our patients in a CF school...

  14. Omental infarction in an obese 10-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kambouri


    Full Text Available Primary omental infarction (POI has a low incidence worldwide, with most cases occurring in adults. This condition is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain in childhood. Herein, we present a case of omental infarction in an obese 10-year-old boy who presented with acute abdominal pain in the right lower abdomen. The ultrasound (US examination did not reveal the appendix but showed secondary signs suggesting acute appendicitis. The child was thus operated on under the preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis but the intraoperative finding was omental infarct. Since the omental infarct as etiology of acute abdominal pain is uncommon, we highlight some of the possible etiologies and emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of omental infarction.

  15. 10 year course of IQ in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd


    are largely uninvestigated, but may identify subgroups with different intellectual trajectories. Eighty-nine first-episode psychosis patients were investigated on IQ at baseline and at 10-years follow-up. Total time in psychosis was defined as two separate variables; Duration of psychosis before start...... of treatment (i.e. duration of untreated psychosis: DUP), and duration of psychosis after start of treatment (DAT). The sample was divided in three equal groups based on DUP and DAT, respectively. To investigate if diagnosis could separate IQ-trajectories beyond that of psychotic duration, two diagnostic...... categories were defined: core versus non-core SSDs. No significant change in IQ was found for the total sample. Intellectual course was not related to DUP or stringency of diagnostic category. However, a subgroup with long DAT demonstrated a significant intellectual decline, mainly associated with a weaker...

  16. Development and tracking of central patterns of subcutaneous fat of rural South African youth: Ellisras longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemper Han CG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals grow and accumulate central patterns of body fat into the diseases they will suffer from as older adults. The need to elicit the development and tracking of central patterns of body fat from younger age into adolescent remains to be explored. Method Skinfolds measurements were done according to the standard procedures in the Ellisras Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. In total, 2,225 children--550 preschool and 1,675 primary school--aged 3-10 years (birth cohorts 1993 to 1986 were enrolled at baseline in 1996 and followed through out the eight-year periodic surveys. In 2003, 1,771 children--489 preschool and 1,282 primary school--were still in the study. Results The development of triceps, biceps, suprailiac and suscapular skinfolds of Ellisras girls were significantly higher (p Conclusion The accumulation of central patterns of body fat of Ellisras children starts in childhood and adolescence spurt with Ellisras girls acquiring more than boys over time. High significant tracking of skinfold thickness while the skinfold ratios show low and insignificant tracking over time. The magnitude of central patterns of body fat accumulation over time requires further investigation to clarify their association with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study. (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana


    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  18. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage. (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy


    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  19. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes (United States)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.


    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. The impact factor of rheumatology journals : an analysis of 2008 and the recent 10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Min; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Despite various weaknesses, the impact factor (IF) is still used as an important indictor for scientific quality in specific subject categories. In the current study, the IFs of rheumatology journals over the past 10 years were serially analyzed and compared with that from other fields. For the past

  1. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities (United States)

    Olcucu, Burcin


    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  2. A 10-year review of perioperative complications in pharyngeal flap surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, SOP; Dhar, BK; Robinson, PH; Goorhuis-Brouwer, SM; Nicolai, JPA


    A 10-year retrospective study was undertaken to investigate perioperative complications in pharyngeal flap surgery in one institution using inferiorly and superiorly based flaps. In this fashion the current practice of surgical technique based on local findings and perioperative care, through regula

  3. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter


    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  4. Effect of meteorology and soil condition on metolachlor and atrazine volatilization over a 10 year period (United States)

    Volatilization of pesticides can detrimentally affect the environment by contaminating soil and surface waters far away from where the pesticides were applied. A 10-year study was conducted to focus on the impact of soil and climatic factors governing herbicide volatilization from an agricultural f...

  5. Frontal Electroencephalogram Activation Asymmetry, Emotional Intelligence, and Externalizing Behaviors in 10-Year-Old Children (United States)

    Santesso, L. Diane; Dana, L. Reker; Schmidt, Louis A.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among resting frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) (hypothesized to reflect a predisposition to positive versus negative affect and ability to regulate emotions), emotional intelligence, and externalizing behaviors in a sample of non-clinical 10-year-old children. We found that boys…

  6. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go


    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  7. Stress Generation, Avoidance Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: A 10-Year Model (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.


    This study examined (a) the role of avoidance coping in prospectively generating both chronic and acute life stressors and (b) the stress-generating role of avoidance coping as a prospective link to future depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,211 late-middle-aged individuals (500 women and 711 men) assessed 3 times over a 10-year period. As…

  8. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua


    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  9. Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance-based Measure of Daily Function (United States)


    Page 3 of 18 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0084 TITLE: "Longitudinal Study of a Novel Performance- based Measure of Daily Function." PRINCIPAL...14Mar2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance- based Measure of Daily Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0084 contrasts with more typical informant based measures . In a preliminary study we compared patients with MCI, patients with mild AD who by diagnosis

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad (United States)

    Ren, Wei


    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  11. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.


    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regula

  12. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit and

  13. Longitudinal changes of cardiac structure and function in CKD (CASCADE study). (United States)

    Cai, Qi-Zhe; Lu, Xiu-Zhang; Lu, Ye; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon


    Little is known regarding the natural longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function in CKD. We hypothesized that baseline CKD stage is associated with progressive worsening in cardiac structure and function. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, recruiting 300 patients with stages 3-5 CKD from a major regional tertiary center and university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Baseline CKD stages were studied in relation to natural longitudinal changes in echocardiographic and tissue Doppler imaging-derived parameters. Over 1 year, the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy increased from 40.3% to 48.9%, median left atrial volume index increased 4.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1, 7.7) ml/m(2) (Pcardiac structure and function and predicted greater longitudinal progression in LV mass index (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 6.58), volume index (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.62), and left atrial volume index (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.20 to 5.69) and worse diastolic dysfunction grade (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.69) compared with stage 3a in the fully adjusted analysis. In conclusion, more advanced CKD at baseline may be associated with larger longitudinal increases in LV mass and volume and greater deterioration in diastolic function.

  14. Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups. (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Cifre, Eva


    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study was conducted with 250 participants working in 52 small groups. Longitudinal results from Structural Equation Modeling with data aggregated at the group level showed, as expected, that collective efficacy beliefs predict collective flow over time, both being related reciprocally. Findings and their theoretical and practical implications in the light of Social Cognitive Theory are discussed.

  15. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan


    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso


    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  17. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris


    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  18. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12-19 years : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Post, Wendy; Visscher, Chris


    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12-19 years (n=267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 year

  19. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore


    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette


    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  1. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara


    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  2. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung


    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  3. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  4. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies (United States)

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail


    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.


    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  6. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew


    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  7. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter


    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  8. Delayed initiation of breast development in girls with higher prenatal dioxin exposure: A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijs, M.M.; Koppe, J.G.; Olie, K.; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Vulsma, T.; Westra, M.; ten Tusscher, G.W.


    Objectives: While many studies have assessed the health impacts of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on animals and humans, long-term consequences for especially adolescents, have not (yet) been well documented. This is certainly also true for the effects of PBDE exposure. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, now

  9. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia


    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  10. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin


    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  11. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.


    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the e

  12. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise


    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  13. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi


    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  14. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study (United States)

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari


    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  15. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children (United States)

    López, Magdalena


    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  16. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin


    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  17. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Lei, Jing


    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  18. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva


    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study wa

  19. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A


    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  20. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.


    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  1. Longitudinal Case Studies of the Information Search Process of Users in Libraries. (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Carol Collier


    Presents longitudinal case studies of four students in high school and after completion of college to compare their perceptions of the information search process in libraries. Library user studies are discussed, a model of the search process is described, and implications for the design of information systems are suggested. (36 references) (LRW)

  2. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation Longitudinal Study in Six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Sargent, J.D.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Hunt, K.; Sweeting, H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Hanewinkel, R.


    Background: Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose: This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European

  3. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies (United States)

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine


    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  4. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.


    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...

  5. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert


    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  6. Click Chemistry and Radiochemistry: The First 10 Years. (United States)

    Meyer, Jan-Philip; Adumeau, Pierre; Lewis, Jason S; Zeglis, Brian M


    The advent of click chemistry has had a profound influence on almost all branches of chemical science. This is particularly true of radiochemistry and the synthesis of agents for positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and targeted radiotherapy. The selectivity, ease, rapidity, and modularity of click ligations make them nearly ideally suited for the construction of radiotracers, a process that often involves working with biomolecules in aqueous conditions with inexorably decaying radioisotopes. In the following pages, our goal is to provide a broad overview of the first 10 years of research at the intersection of click chemistry and radiochemistry. The discussion will focus on four areas that we believe underscore the critical advantages provided by click chemistry: (i) the use of prosthetic groups for radiolabeling reactions, (ii) the creation of coordination scaffolds for radiometals, (iii) the site-specific radiolabeling of proteins and peptides, and (iv) the development of strategies for in vivo pretargeting. Particular emphasis will be placed on the four most prevalent click reactions-the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA), and the Staudinger ligation-although less well-known click ligations will be discussed as well. Ultimately, it is our hope that this review will not only serve to educate readers but will also act as a springboard, inspiring synthetic chemists and radiochemists alike to harness click chemistry in even more innovative and ambitious ways as we embark upon the second decade of this fruitful collaboration.

  7. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families


    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria


    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  8. Study of cross correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, L.G.; Manchkha, S.P.; Sviridov, V.G.


    An experimental study was made of the effect that a longitudinal magnetic field has on correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a transverse direction. This effect on those fluctuations was shown to be small in comparison to its effect on the coefficients of longitudinal correlation. This indicates that the structure of the temperature field becomes more anisotropic so that there is an increase in the scale of turbulent disturbances in the direction of the magnetic field's force lines. 1 figure, 2 references.

  9. Longitudinal association of body mass index with lung function: The CARDIA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barr R Graham


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung function at the end of life depends on its peak and subsequent decline. Because obesity is epidemic in young adulthood, we quantified age-related changes in lung function relative to body mass index (BMI. Methods The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA study in 1985–86 (year 0 recruited 5,115 black and white men and women, aged 18–30. Spirometry testing was conducted at years 0, 2, 5 and 10. We estimated 10 year change in FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC according to baseline BMI and change in BMI within birth cohorts with initial average ages 20, 24, and 28 years, controlling for race, sex, smoking, asthma, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. Measurements and Main Results Participants with baseline BMI 2 experienced 10 year increases of 71 ml in FVC and 60 ml in FEV1 and neither measure declined through age 38. In contrast, participants with baseline BMI ≥ 26.4 kg/m2 experienced 10 year decreases of 185 ml in FVC and 64 ml in FEV1. FEV1/FVC increased with increasing BMI. Weight gain was also associated with lung function. Those who gained the most weight over 10 years had the largest decrease in FVC, but FVC increased with weight gain in those initially thinnest. In contrast, FEV1 decreased with increasing weight gain in all participants, with maximum decline in obese individuals who gained the most weight during the study. Conclusion Among healthy young adults, increasing BMI in the initially thin participants was associated with increasing then stable lung function through age 38, but there were substantial lung function losses with higher and increasing fatness. These results suggest that the obesity epidemic threatens the lung health of the general population.

  10. TIPSS: 10 years of experience; TIPSS: 10 Jahre klinische Erfahrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, G.M.; Brado, M.; Simon, C.; Radeleff, B.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiodiagnostik; Noeldge, G.; Scharf, J.; Hansmann, J.


    Purpose: To demonstrate and document 10 years of clinical experience gathered by us with TIPSS and to discuss achievements, problems and outlook. Results: Variceal filling was widely reduced by TIPSS, and significantly reduced portal liver perfusion as assessed morphologically and rheologically. However, there was an immediate onset of compensated liver perfusion by increased arterial inflow. Total liver perfusion did not change significantly. In TIPSS portal decompression was readily achieved, the portosystemic gradient dropping from an average of 24 mm Hg to 10.5 mm Hg. In our series we could not demonstrate an increased incidence of hepatic encephalopathy during the 30-day post-TIPSS period. Early mortality was 4% and early rebleeding rate 3%. The 12-month re-intervention rate based on an invasive portography follow-up protocol was 76%, and the 24-month re-intervention rate was 90%. The definite occlusion rate was below 5%. Beyond a follow-up time span of 24-months the necessity for re-intervention dropped significantly: Less than one-third of our patients required some sort of re-intervention. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Ziel: Darstellung der nach 10jaehriger klinischer Anwendung von TIPSS gewonnenen Erfahrungen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Grundlagen, der Veraenderungen in der Haemodynamik der Leber und der Langzeitergebnisse. Ergebnisse: TIPSS reduziert die Varizenfuellung und verringert morphologisch und haemodynamisch die portale Perfusion. Die Gesamtleberperfusion aendert sich nicht signifikant. Unter TIPSS kommt es zu einer unmittelbaren Zunahme der arteriellen Leberperfusion. Die portale Drucksenkung erfolgt von einem portosystemischen Mitteldruck von 24 mmHg auf 10,5 mmHg im Durchschnitt. Die spontane hepatische Enzephalopathierate von etwa 20% aendert sich durch TIPSS nicht wesentlich. Die Fruehletalitaet betraegt 4% und die Nachblutungsrate 3%. Insbesondere die Standardisierung von Indikationen und Kontraindikationen, des Punktionsbesteckes, der

  11. Psychological Factors Predict Eating Disorder Onset and Maintenance at 10-year Follow-up


    Holland, Lauren A.; Bodell, Lindsay P.; Keel, Pamela K.


    The present study sought to identify psychological factors that predict onset and maintenance of eating disorders. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from an epidemiological study of health and eating behaviors in men and women (N=1320; 72% female) to examine the prospective and independent influence of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) Perfectionism, Interpersonal Distrust, and Maturity Fears subscales in predicting the onset and maintenance of eating disorders at 10-year follow-...

  12. SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of

  13. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John


    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  14. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise


    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila


    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability (United States)

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane


    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  17. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert


    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  18. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, GS


    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged re

  19. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  20. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris


    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  1. The Precursors of Reading Ability in Young Readers: Evidence from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate


    We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…

  2. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease: A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F.F. Odish


    Conclusions: This study demonstrates divergent longitudinal changes to the connectome in (pre HD compared to healthy controls. This provides novel insights into structural correlates associated with clinical and cognitive functions in HD and possible compensatory mechanisms at play in preHD.

  3. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.


    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  4. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis


    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  5. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van


    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient rel

  6. Similarities and reciprocal influences in eating behavior within sibling pairs: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Snoek, H.M.; Strien, T. van; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.


    The present study investigated similarities and reciprocal influences in emotional, external and restrained eating in adolescent siblings, and the moderating role of sex and quality of relationship. A total of 415 sibling pairs (aged 13-16 years) participated in this two-wave one-year longitudinal s

  7. Growth in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension : a longitudinal retrospective multiregistry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Ivy, D Dunbar; Wheeler, Jeremy G; Brand, Monika; Beghetti, Maurice; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Humpl, Tilman; Iriart, Xavier; Rouzic, Erwan Muros-Le; Bonnet, Damien; Berger, Rolf M F


    BACKGROUND: To enable adequate interpretation of growth measurements in the management of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), we assessed growth and its associated determinants in children with PAH. METHODS: We did a retrospective longitudinal study of height and body-mass index in

  8. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas


    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  9. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith


    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe


    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  11. Scrutinizing Practicum for a More Powerful Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study with Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger


    This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…

  12. Poststroke depression and its multifactorial nature : Results from a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ryck, A.; Fransen, E.; Brouns, R.; Geurden, M.; Peij, D.; Marien, P.; De Deyn, P. P.; Engelborghs, S.


    Objective: Poststroke depression (PSD) is commonly observed in stroke patients and has a negative impact on functional outcome and quality of life. Therefore, a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted aiming to determine prevalence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems (United States)

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.


    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  14. Resilience in Midwestern Families: Selected Findings from the First Decade of a Prospective, Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.


    An ongoing longitudinal study of 558 focal youth and families was used to review mechanisms of resilience. Findings demonstrated how resilience to economic adversity for families was promoted by marital support, effective problem solving, and a sense of mastery. For youth, resilience was promoted by support from parents, sibling, and other adults.…

  15. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.


    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  16. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Steffie van der; Steenbeek, Henderien; Dijk, Marijn van; Geert, Paul van


    Using a longitudinal study on childrens’ understanding of scientific concepts, we compare the relative importance of general (e.g., standardized test scores) and microgenetic measures (interaction patterns) to characterize the development of scientific understanding over 1.5 years. A researcher work

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.


    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  18. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports (United States)

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus


    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual beha

  20. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda


    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  1. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures (United States)

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.


    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey


    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  3. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha


    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  4. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas


    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  5. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children. (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  6. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael


    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  7. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra


    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  8. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vendrig, N.J.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Guardabassi, L.; Butaye, P.; Nielsen, J.P.; Jong, de M.; Giessen, van de A.W.


    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.


    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  10. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl; /SLAC


    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  11. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.


    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  12. Pre-Service Primary Education Teachers' Changing Attitudes towards Teaching: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Tok, Sukran


    This study investigated the longitudinal changes in the attitudes of pre-service primary education teachers towards the teaching profession as they progressed through training. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in pre-service teachers' attitudes towards the profession between their freshman and senior years. Moreover, the…

  13. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.


    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  14. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol


    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  15. How Long Does Victimization Foster Fear of Crime? A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele


    We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…

  16. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew


    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  17. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.


    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  18. The Relationship between the Negotiation of Meaning and Language Learning: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Bitchener, John


    For over 20 years, SLA research has been investigating the role of negotiation in second language acquisition. While much attention has been given to an examination of the conditions that are necessary for acquisition and the factors that can facilitate opportunities for negotiation, limited attention has been given to a longitudinal study of the…

  19. The parent-child relationship and adolescent alcohol use : a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.


    Background: Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association betwee


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  1. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James


    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  2. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan


    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  3. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.


    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  4. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children


    Pauline M Emmett; Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate


    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patte...

  5. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T.; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.


    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  6. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women. (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others


    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  7. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating. (United States)

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  8. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa


    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustees: Final Report on Waves 1 and 2. (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Corson, Walter

    The study reports the results of a two-wave longitudinal interview of over 2,000 individuals who exhausted their unemployment insurance (UI) benefits in October 1974. The interviews were conducted at the time of exhaustion and four months later in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle. UI exhaustees are a relatively representative cross-section…

  10. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling


    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and you

  11. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark


    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei


    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  13. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.


    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in n

  14. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica


    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  15. Guidance Services for Children and a Right to Education Law: Results of a Longitudinal Study. (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.; And Others


    Examines guidance services for young children with emotional and behavioral problems in school. A longitudinal study followed the children (N=527) from preschool screening through grade three, and found that over one quarter of the children had used guidance services. Differences emerged between children with transitory and persistent problems.…

  16. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China (United States)

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan


    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  17. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.


    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  18. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah


    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  19. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah


    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper


    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…