WorldWideScience

Sample records for 1-dimensional calculations

  1. Travelling wave solutions for ( + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jonu Lee; Rathinasamy Sakthivel

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we implement the exp-function method to obtain the exact travelling wave solutions of ( + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations. Four models, the ( + 1)-dimensional generalized Boussinesq equation, ( + 1)-dimensional sine-cosine-Gordon equation, ( + 1)-double sinh-Gordon equation and ( + 1)-sinh-cosinh-Gordon equation, are used as vehicles to conduct the analysis. New travelling wave solutions are derived.

  2. Nonpropagating Solitary Waves in (2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Jian-Ping; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2005-01-01

    By means of extended homogeneous balance method and variable separation approach, quite a general variable separation solution of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt equation is derived. From the variable separation solution and by selecting appropriate functions, a new class of (2+1)-dimensional nonpropagating solitary waves are found. The novel features exhibited by these new structures are first revealed.

  3. Variable Separation Solutions in (1+1)-Dimensional and (3+1)-Dimensional Systems via Entangled Mapping Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chao-Qing; YAN Cai-Jie; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the entangled mapping approach (EMA) is applied to obtain variable separation solutions of (1+1)-dimensional and (3+1)-dimensional systems. By analysis, we firstly find that there also exists a common formula to describe suitable physical fields or potentials for these (1+1)-dimensional models such as coupled integrable dispersionless (CID) and shallow water wave equations. Moreover, we find that the variable separation solution of the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers system satisfies the completely same form as the universal quantity U1 in (2+ 1 )-dimensional systems. The only difference is that the function q is a solution of a constraint equation and p is an arbitrary function of three independent variables.

  4. Hypocycloidal throat for 2 + 1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Recently we have shown that for 2 + 1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes a non-circular throat may lead to a physical wormhole in the sense that the energy conditions are satisfied. By the same token, herein we consider an angular dependent throat geometry embedded in a 2 + 1-dimensional flat spacetime in polar coordinates. It is shown that, remarkably, a generic, natural example of the throat geometry is provided by a hypocycloid. That is, two flat 2 + 1 dimensions are glued together along a hypocycloid. The energy required in each hypocycloid increases with the frequency of the roller circle inside the large one. (orig.)

  5. Periodic Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation and (3+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huan; TIAN Bo; ZHANG Hai-Qiang; GENG Tao; MENG Xiang-Hua; LIU Wen-Jun; CAI Ke-Jie

    2008-01-01

    For describing various complex nonlinear phenomena in the realistic world, the higher-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations appear more attractive in many fields of physical and engineering sciences. In this paper, by virtue of the Hirota bilinear method and Riemann theta functions, the periodic wave solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation and (3+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation are obtained. Furthermore, it is shown that the known soliton solutions for the two equations can be reduced from the periodic wave solutions.

  6. Geodesic bi-scalars in (n+1)-dimensional spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a sequel to the previous papers RRK 85 - 12 and 85 - 18 (1985), which dealt with the geodesic bi-scalars in a Robertson-Walker universe with flat 3-space and in an anisotropic homogeneous universe, respectively. In the present article, the results obtained before are extended to the case of a (n+1)-dimensional spacetime. (author)

  7. SIMILARITY REDUCTIONS OF THE(2+1)-DIMENSIONAL BURGERS SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU DANG-BO; CHU KAI-QIN

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, using the direct method of the (2+1)-dimensional multi-component Burgers system, some types of similarity reductions are obtained. The corresponding group explanations of the reductions, Virasoro integrability and soliton solutions of Burgers system are also discussed.

  8. Upon Generating (2+1)-dimensional Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Bai, Yang; Wu, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Under the framework of the Adler-Gel'fand-Dikii(AGD) scheme, we first propose two Hamiltonian operator pairs over a noncommutative ring so that we construct a new dynamical system in 2+1 dimensions, then we get a generalized special Novikov-Veselov (NV) equation via the Manakov triple. Then with the aid of a special symmetric Lie algebra of a reductive homogeneous group G, we adopt the Tu-Andrushkiw-Huang (TAH) scheme to generate a new integrable (2+1)-dimensional dynamical system and its Hamiltonian structure, which can reduce to the well-known (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson (DS) hierarchy. Finally, we extend the binormial residue representation (briefly BRR) scheme to the super higher dimensional integrable hierarchies with the help of a super subalgebra of the super Lie algebra sl(2/1), which is also a kind of symmetric Lie algebra of the reductive homogeneous group G. As applications, we obtain a super 2+1 dimensional MKdV hierarchy which can be reduced to a super 2+1 dimensional generalized AKNS equation. Finally, we compare the advantages and the shortcomings for the three schemes to generate integrable dynamical systems.

  9. Exact travelling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation and the (1+1)-dimensional compound KdVB equation using the new approach of generalized (′/)-expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Nur Alam; M Ali Akbar; M Fazlul Hoque

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the new generalized (′/)-expansion method is executed to find the travelling wave solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional mKdV-ZK equation and the (1+1)-dimensional compound KdVB equation. The efficiency of this method for finding exact and travelling wave solutions has been demonstrated. It is shown that the new approach of generalized (′/)-expansion method is a straightforward and effective mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in applied mathematics, mathematical physics and engineering. Moreover, this procedure reduces the large volume of calculations.

  10. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  11. Ruppeiner Geometry of (2 + 1)-Dimensional Spinning Dilaton Black Hole*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiu-Wu; WEI Shao-Wen; LIU Yu-Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the geometrothermodynamics of (2 + 1)-dimensional spinning dilaton black hole.We show that the Ruppeiner curvature vanishes, which implies that there exist no phase transitions and thermodynamic interactions. However when the thermodynamics fluctuation is included, the geometry structure is reconsidered. The non-vanishing Ruppeiner curvature is obtained, which means the phase space is non-flat. We also study the phase transitions and show that it can indeed take place at some points.

  12. Aspects of noncommutative (1+1)-dimensional black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of $(1+1)-$dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length $\\sqrt{\\theta}$ cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scal...

  13. Exact solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional stochastic Burgers equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Tieying [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Dalian Nationalities for University, Dalian 116600 (China)]. E-mail: wangty@dlnu.edu.cn; Ren Yonghong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao Yali [Department of Mathematics, Chaoyang Teachers College, Chaoyang 122000 (China)

    2006-08-15

    A generalized tan h function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more exact solutions. More Wick-type stochastic multiple soliton-like solutions and triangular periodic solutions are obtained for the (3 + 1)-dimensional Wick-type stochastic Burgers equation via Hermite transformation.

  14. Non-trivial 2+1-Dimensional Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Grigore, D. R.; Scharf, G.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze 2+1-dimensional gravity in the framework of quantum gauge theory. We find that Einstein gravity has a trivial physical subspace which reflects the fact that the classical solution in empty space is flat. Therefore we study massive gravity which is not trivial. In the limit of vanishing graviton mass we obtain a non-trivial massless theory different from Einstein gravity. We derive the interaction from descent equations and obtain the cosmological topologically massive gravity. Howe...

  15. Causality in 1+1-dimensional Yukawa model-II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asrarul Haque; Satish D Joglekar

    2013-10-01

    The limits → large, $M →$ large with ($g^{3}/M$) = const. of the 1+1-dimensional Yukawa model are discussed. The conclusion of the results on bound states of the Yukawa model in this limit (obtained in arXiv:0908.4510v3 [hep-th]) is taken into account. It is found that model reduces to an effective non-local 3 theory in this limit. Causality violation also is observed in this limit.

  16. A pseudoCoulombian potential in D=1 dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the D=1 dimensional space, we study the bound state solutions of the potential V(x)=-c/x+b/x2 (e, b>0). They occur on the right half-plane xin[0, ∞[. In the limit b→0, we recover the spectrum of the D=1 Coulomb potential. Supersymmetric properties are briefly discussed. The model is extended by considering complex coupling constants. Nonlinear effects are also treated by considering a linear energy dependence of the e coupling constant.

  17. Exact interior solutions in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Biswas, Ritabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur, Howrah, West Bengal (India); Usmani, A.A. [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-04-15

    We provide a new class of exact solutions for the interior in 2 + 1-dimensional spacetime. The solutions obtained for the perfect fluid model both with and without cosmological constant (Λ) are found to be regular and singularity free. It assumes very simple analytical forms that help us to study the various physical properties of the configuration. Solutions without Λ are found to be physically acceptable. (orig.)

  18. X-ray spontaneous emission control by 1-dimensional photonic bandgap structure

    OpenAIRE

    André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Paper available at http://epjd.edpsciences.org/index.php?option=com_article&access=standard&Itemid=129&url=/articles/epjd/abs/2010/06/d09549/d09549.html International audience The possibility of controlling the X-ray spontaneous emission of atoms embedded in a 1-dimensional photonic bandgap structure by the so-called Purcell effect, is studied. Calculations of the spontaneously emitted power are presented from Fermi's golden rule in the framework of the Wigner-time approach extended to ...

  19. GUP Corrected Fermion Tunnelling from 2 + 1 Dimensional Black String

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Feng, Zhongwen; Ren, Wei; Chen, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, using the generalized Dirac equation which is modified by GUP, we study the fermion tunneling from 2 + 1 dimensional black string. Our results show that the Hawking temperature is not only depended on the event horizon of black string but also related to the quantum number of emitted fermion (energy and mass). Meanwhile, we find the GUP can slow down the Hawking temperature increase and lead to the remnants. It implies that the GUP can avoid the evaporation of black holes.

  20. 1+1 dimensional compactifications of string theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goheer, Naureen; Kleban, Matthew; Susskind, Leonard

    2004-05-14

    We argue that stable, maximally symmetric compactifications of string theory to 1+1 dimensions are in conflict with holography. In particular, the finite horizon entropies of the Rindler wedge in 1+1 dimensional Minkowski and anti-de Sitter space, and of the de Sitter horizon in any dimension, are inconsistent with the symmetries of these spaces. The argument parallels one made recently by the same authors, in which we demonstrated the incompatibility of the finiteness of the entropy and the symmetries of de Sitter space in any dimension. If the horizon entropy is either infinite or zero, the conflict is resolved.

  1. Quantum Interest in (3+1) dimensional Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    The so-called "Quantum Inequalities", and the "Quantum Interest Conjecture", use quantum field theory to impose significant restrictions on the temporal distribution of the energy density measured by a time-like observer, potentially preventing the existence of exotic phenomena such as "Alcubierre warp-drives" or "traversable wormholes". Both the quantum inequalities and the quantum interest conjecture can be reduced to statements concerning the existence or non-existence of bound states for a certain one-dimensional quantum mechanical pseudo-Hamiltonian. Using this approach, we shall provide a simple proof of one version of the Quantum Interest Conjecture in (3+1) dimensional Minkowski space.

  2. Nucleosynthetic Signatures of Asymmetric Supernovae - Lessons from 1-dimensional Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the evidence for asymmetries in explosions, and in particular, the nucleosynthetic signatures from these asymmetries. To guide our intuition for these yields, we have modeled a series of spherically symmetric explosions with a range of explosion energies. Here we present the results from these 1-dimensional simulations, focusing on the yields of the radioactive elements 44Ti and 56Ni. We find that, although the abundance yields of 44Ti do depend sensitively on the explosion energy, the trend (whether it increases or decreases with explosion energy) depends very sensitively on the model

  3. Nucleosynthetic Signatures of Asymmetric Supernovae - Lessons from 1-dimensional Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, A. L.; Fryer, C. L.; Timmes, F. X.; McGhee, K.

    2005-07-01

    We review the evidence for asymmetries in explosions, and in particular, the nucleosynthetic signatures from these asymmetries. To guide our intuition for these yields, we have modeled a series of spherically symmetric explosions with a range of explosion energies. Here we present the results from these 1-dimensional simulations, focusing on the yields of the radioactive elements 44Ti and 56Ni. We find that, although the abundance yields of 44Ti do depend sensitively on the explosion energy, the trend (whether it increases or decreases with explosion energy) depends very sensitively on the model.

  4. A pseudoCoulombian potential in D=1 dimensional space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, R J [Groupe de Physique theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Mezhoud, R [Faculty of Sciences, Boumerdes University, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Yekken, R [Institut de Physique, USTHB Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria)], E-mail: lombard@ipno.in2p3.fr, E-mail: mezhoudreda@yahoo.fr, E-mail: rabia_yek@yahoo.fr

    2009-12-15

    In the D=1 dimensional space, we study the bound state solutions of the potential V(x)=-c/x+b/x{sup 2} (e, b>0). They occur on the right half-plane xin[0, {infinity}[. In the limit b{yields}0, we recover the spectrum of the D=1 Coulomb potential. Supersymmetric properties are briefly discussed. The model is extended by considering complex coupling constants. Nonlinear effects are also treated by considering a linear energy dependence of the e coupling constant.

  5. Perturbational blowup solutions to the compressible 1-dimensional Euler equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Manwai, E-mail: nevetsyuen@hotmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2011-10-24

    We construct non-radially symmetry solutions for the compressible 1-dimensional adiabatic Euler equations in this Letter. In detail, we perturb the linear velocity with a drifting term: (1)u=c(t)x+b(t), to seek new solutions. Then, we transform the problem into the analysis of ordinary differential equations. By investigating the corresponding ordinary differential equations, a new class of blowup or global solutions can be given. Here, our constructed solutions can provide the mathematical explanations for the drifting phenomena of some propagation wave like Tsunamis. And when we adopt the Galilean-like transformation to a drifting frame, the constructed solutions are self-similar. -- Highlights: → We construct non-radially symmetry solutions for the 1-dimensional Euler equations. → We perturb the linear velocity with a drifting term to seek new solutions. → We transform the Euler system into the ordinary differential equations analysis. → The solutions model the drifting phenomena of some propagation wave like Tsunamis. → Under the Galilean-like transformation, the constructed solutions are self-similar.

  6. Tipping Points in 1-Dimensional Schelling Models with Switching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpalias, George; Elwes, Richard; Lewis-Pye, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Schelling's spacial proximity model was an early agent-based model, illustrating how ethnic segregation can emerge, unwanted, from the actions of citizens acting according to individual local preferences. Here a 1-dimensional unperturbed variant is studied under switching agent dynamics, interpretable as being open in that agents may enter and exit the model. Following the authors' work (Barmpalias et al., FOCS, 2014) and that of Brandt et al. (Proceedings of the 44th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC 2012), 2012), rigorous asymptotic results are established. The dynamic allows either type to take over almost everywhere. Tipping points are identified between the regions of takeover and staticity. In a generalization of the models considered in [1] and [3], the model's parameters comprise the initial proportions of the two types, along with independent values of the tolerance for each type. This model comprises a 1-dimensional spin-1 model with spin dependent external field, as well as providing an example of cascading behaviour within a network.

  7. Generalized (2+1) dimensional black hole by Noether symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darabi, F. [Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics of IRAN (CEAAI-RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atazadeh, K.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We use the Noether symmetry approach to find f(R) theory of (2+1) dimensional gravity and (2+1) dimensional black hole solution consistent with this f(R) gravity and the associated symmetry. We obtain f(R)=D{sub 1} R(n/n+1)(R/K){sup 1/n} + D{sub 2}R + D{sub 3}, where the constant term D{sub 3} plays no dynamical role. Then, we find general spherically symmetric solution for this f(R) gravity which is potentially capable of being as a black hole. Moreover, in the special case D{sub 1} = 0, D{sub 2} = 1, namely f(R) = R + D{sub 3}, we obtain a generalized BTZ black hole which, other than common conserved charges m and J, contains a new conserved charge Q. It is shown that this conserved charge corresponds to the freedom in the choice of the constant term D{sub 3} and represents symmetry of the action under the transformation R {yields}R' = R + D{sub 3} along the killing vector {partial_derivative}{sub R}. The ordinary BTZ black hole is obtained as the special case where D{sub 3} is fixed to be proportional to the infinitesimal cosmological constant and consequently the symmetry is broken via Q=0. We study the thermodynamics of the generalized BTZ black hole and show that its entropy can be described by the Cardy-Verlinde formula. (orig.)

  8. Quench dynamics in confined 1 + 1-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a framework for investigating the response of conformally invariant confined 1 + 1-dimensional systems to a quantum quench. While conformal invariance is generally destroyed in a global quantum quench, systems that can be described as or mapped to integrable deformations of a CFT may present special instances where a conformal field theory-based analysis could provide useful insight into the non-equilibrium dynamics. We investigate this possibility by considering a quench analogous to that of the quantum Newton’s Cradle experiment (Kinoshita et al 2006 Nature 440 900) and demonstrating qualitative agreement between observables derived in the CFT framework and those of the experimental system. We propose that this agreement may be a feature of the proximity of the experimental system to an integrable deformation of a c = 1 CFT. (letter)

  9. Aspects of noncommutative (1+1)-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of (1+1)-dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length √(θ) cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass M, cosmological constant Λ, etc.), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics allows for the either complete evaporation, or the production of black hole remnants.

  10. Aspects of noncommutative (1+1)-dimensional black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, Jonas R.; Nicolini, Piero

    2011-08-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of (1+1)-dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length θ cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass M, cosmological constant Λ, etc.), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics allows for the either complete evaporation, or the production of black hole remnants.

  11. Aspects of noncommutative (1+1)-dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mureika, Jonas R

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of $(1+1)-$dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length $\\sqrt{\\theta}$ cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass $M$, cosmological constant $\\Lambda$, etc...), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics allows for the either complete evaporation, or the production of black hole remnants.

  12. Nonlocal symmetry and exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Li, Huang; Yong, Chen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the truncated Painlevé analysis, nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation of the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff equation are presented. Then the nonlocal symmetry is localized to the corresponding nonlocal group by the prolonged system. In addition, the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii-Schiff is proved consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) solvable. As a result, the soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions of the equation are explicitly given, which are difficult to find by other traditional methods. Moreover figures are given out to show the properties of the explicit analytic interaction solutions. Project supported by the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005), the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120076110024), the Network Information Physics Calculation of Basic Research Innovation Research Group of China (Grant No. 61321064), and the Fund from Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things (Grant No. ZF1213).

  13. Boundary dynamics and the statistical mechanics of the 2 + 1-dimensional black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Baniados, M; Ortiz, M E

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the density of states of the 2 + 1-dimensional BTZ black hole in the micro-and grand-canonical ensembles. Our starting point is the relation between 2 + 1-dimensional quantum gravity and quantised Chern-Simons theory. In the micro-canonical ensemble, we find the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy by relating a Kac-Moody algebra of global gauge charges to a Virasoro algebra with a classical central charge via a twisted Sugawara construction. This construction is valid at all values of the black hole radius. At infinity it gives the asymptotic isometries of the black hole, and at the horizon it gives an explicit form for a set of deformations of the horizon whose algebra is the same Virasoro algebra. In the grand-canonical ensemble we define the partition function by using a surface term at infinity that is compatible with fixing the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole. We then compute the partition function directly in a boundary Wess-Zumino-Witten theory, and find that we obtain the correc...

  14. Nonlocal symmetry and exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii–Schiff equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Li, Huang; Yong, Chen

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the truncated Painlevé analysis, nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation of the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii–Schiff equation are presented. Then the nonlocal symmetry is localized to the corresponding nonlocal group by the prolonged system. In addition, the (2+1)-dimensional modified Bogoyavlenskii–Schiff is proved consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) solvable. As a result, the soliton–cnoidal wave interaction solutions of the equation are explicitly given, which are difficult to find by other traditional methods. Moreover figures are given out to show the properties of the explicit analytic interaction solutions. Project supported by the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953904), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275072 and 11435005), the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120076110024), the Network Information Physics Calculation of Basic Research Innovation Research Group of China (Grant No. 61321064), and the Fund from Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things (Grant No. ZF1213).

  15. Quantum cosmology in (1 +1 )-dimensional Hořava-Lifshitz theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitelli, J. P. M.

    2016-05-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 92, 084012 (2015)], the author studied the classical (1 +1 )-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe filled with a perfect fluid in the Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity. This theory is dynamical due to the anisotropic scaling of space and time. It also resembles the Jackiw-Teitelboim model, in which a dilatonic degree of freedom is necessary for dynamics. In this paper, I will take one step further in the understanding of (1 +1 )-dimensional HL cosmology by means of the quantization of the FRW universe filled with a perfect fluid with the equation of state (EoS) p =w ρ . The fluid will be introduced in the model via Schutz formalism and Dirac's algorithm will be used for quantization. It will be shown that the Schrödinger equation for the wave function of the universe has the following properties: for w =1 (radiation fluid), the characteristic potential will be exponential, resembling Liouville quantum mechanics; for w ≠1 , a characteristic inverse square potential appears in addition to a regular polynomial that depends on the EoS. Explicit solutions for a few cases of interest will be found and the expectation value of the scale factor will be calculated. As in usual quantum cosmology, it will be shown that the quantum theory smooths out the big-bang singularity, but the classical behavior of the universe is recovered in the low-energy limit.

  16. The Casimir energy of skyrmions in the 2+1-dimensional O(3)-model

    CERN Document Server

    Walliser, H

    1999-01-01

    One-loop quantum corrections to the classical vortices in 2+1 dimensional O(3)-models are evaluated. Skyrme and Zeeman potential terms are used to stabilize the size of topological solitons. Contributions from zero modes, bound-states and scattering phase-shifts are calculated for vortices with winding index n=1 and n=2. For both cases the S-matrix shows a pronounced series of resonances for magnon-vortex scattering in analogy to the well-established baryon resonances in hadron physics, while vortices with n>2 are already classically unstable against decay. The quantum corrections destabilize the classically bound n=2 configuration. Approximate independence of the results with respect to changes in the renormalization scale is demonstrated.

  17. 2 + 1-dimensional traversable wormholes supported by positive energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the shapes of the throats of wormholes, including thin-shell wormholes (TSWs) in 2 + 1 dimensions. In particular, in the case of TSWs this is done in a flat 2 + 1-dimensional bulk spacetime by using the standard method of cut-and-paste. Upon departing from a pure time-dependent circular shape i.e., r = a(t) for the throat, we employ a θ-dependent closed loop of the form r = R(t, θ), and in terms of R(t, θ) we find the surface energy density σ on the throat. For the specific convex shapes we find that the total energy which supports the wormhole is positive and finite. In addition, we analyze the general wormhole's throat. By considering the specific equation of r = R(θ) instead of r = r{sub 0} = const., and upon certain choices of functions for R(θ), we find the total energy of the wormhole to be positive. (orig.)

  18. 2 + 1-dimensional traversable wormholes supported by positive energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit the shapes of the throats of wormholes, including thin-shell wormholes (TSWs) in 2 + 1 dimensions. In particular, in the case of TSWs this is done in a flat 2 + 1-dimensional bulk spacetime by using the standard method of cut-and-paste. Upon departing from a pure time-dependent circular shape i.e., r = a(t) for the throat, we employ a θ-dependent closed loop of the form r = R(t, θ), and in terms of R(t, θ) we find the surface energy density σ on the throat. For the specific convex shapes we find that the total energy which supports the wormhole is positive and finite. In addition, we analyze the general wormhole's throat. By considering the specific equation of r = R(θ) instead of r = r0 = const., and upon certain choices of functions for R(θ), we find the total energy of the wormhole to be positive. (orig.)

  19. 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics at high baryon densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Iu; Bleicher, M.; Huovinen, P.; Petersen, H.

    2015-05-01

    A 3+1 dimensional event-by-event viscous hydrodynamic + cascade model is applied for the simulation of heavy ion collision reactions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 6.3... 200 GeV. UrQMD cascade is used for the pre-thermal (pre-hydro) and final (post-hydro) stages of the reaction. The baryon, as well as electric charge densities are consistently taken into account in the model. For this aim the equation of state based on a Chiral model coupled to the Polyakov loop is used in hydrodynamic phase of evolution. As a result of the model adjustment to the experimental data, the effective values of the shear viscosity over entropy density η/s are obtained for different collision energies in the BES region. A decrease of the effective values of η/s from 0.2 to 0.08 is observed as collision energy increases from \\sqrt{s} ≈ 7 to 39 GeV.

  20. Quantum informational model of 3+1 dimensional gravitational dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Quantum information theory is undergoing rapid development and recently there has been much progress in mapping out its relationship to low dimensional gravity, primarily through Chern-Simons topological quantum field theory and conformal field theory, with the prime application being topological quantum computation. Less attention has been paid to the relationship of quantum information theory to the long established and well tested theory of gravitational dynamics of 3+1 dimensional spacetime. Here we discuss this question in the weak field approximation of the 4-space metric tensor. The proposed approach considers a quantum algorithmic scheme suitable for simulating physical curved space dynamics that is traditionally described by the well known Einstein-Hilbert action. The quantum algorithmic approach builds upon Einstein's veirbein representation of gravity, which Einstein originally developed back in 1928 in his search for a unified field theory and, moreover, which is presently widely accepted as the preferred theoretical approach for representing dynamical relativistic Dirac fields in curved space. Although the proposed quantum algorithmic scheme is regular-lattice based it nevertheless recovers both the Einstein equation of motion as an effective field theory and invariance of the gravitational gauge field (i.e., the spin connection) with respect to Lorentz transformations as the local symmetry group in the low energy limit.

  1. Baicklund transformation and multiple soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张解放; 吴锋民

    2002-01-01

    We study an approach to constructing multiple soliton solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation. We take the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa (JM) equation as an example. Using the extended homogeneous balance method, one can find a Backlund transformation to decompose the (3+1)-dimensional JM equation into a linear partial differential equation and two bilinear partial differential equations. Starting from these linear and bilinear partial differential equations, some multiple soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional JM equation are obtained by introducing a class of formal solutions.

  2. 3+1 -dimensional Schwinger terms and non-commutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Langmann, E; Edwin Langmann; Jouko Mickelsson

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: We discuss 2-cocycles of the Lie algebra \\Map(M^3;\\g) of smooth, compactly supported maps on 3-dimensional manifolds M^3 with values in a compact, semi-simple Lie algebra \\g. We show by explicit calculation that the Mickelsson-Faddeev-Shatashvili cocycle \\f{\\ii}{24\\pi^2}\\int\\trac{A\\ccr{\\dd X}{\\dd Y}} is cohomologous to the one obtained from the cocycle given by Mickelsson and Rajeev for an abstract Lie algebra \\gz of Hilbert space operators modeled on a Schatten class in which \\Map(M^3;\\g) can be naturally embedded. This completes a rigorous field theory derivation of the former cocycle as Schwinger term in the anomalous Gauss' law commutators in chiral QCD(3+1) in an operator framework. The calculation also makes explicit a direct relation of Connes' non-commutative geometry to (3+1)-dimensional gauge theory and motivates a novel calculus generalizing integration of \\g-valued forms on 3-dimensional manifolds to the non-commutative case.

  3. (1 + 1) dimensional hydrodynamics for high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satarov, L. M.; Mishustin, I. N.; Merdeev, A. V.; Stöcker, H.

    2007-10-01

    A (1 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamical model in the light-cone coordinates is used to describe central heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic bombarding energies. Deviations from Bjorken scaling are taken into account by choosing finite-size profiles for the initial energy density. The sensitivity of fluid-dynamical evolution to the equation of state and the parameters of initial state are investigated. Experimental constraints on the total energy of produced particles are used to reduce the number of model parameters. Spectra of secondary particles are calculated under the assumption that the transition from the hydrodynamical stage to the collisionless expansion of matter occurs at a certain freeze-out temperature. An important role of resonances in the formation of observed hadronic spectra is demonstrated. The calculated rapidity distributions of pions, kaons, and antiprotons in central Au + Au collisions at √s NN = 200 GeV are compared with experimental data of the BRAHMS Collaboration. Parameters of the initial state are reconstructed for different choices of the equation of state. The best fit of these data is obtained for a soft equation of state and Gaussian-like initial profiles of the energy density, intermediate between the Landau and Bjorken limits.

  4. Variable separation solutions and new solitary wave structures to the (1+1)-dimensional Ito system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-Zhi; He Bao-Gang; Zhang Jie-Fang

    2006-01-01

    A variable separation approach is proposed and extended to the (1+1)-dimensional physics system.The variable separation solution of (1+1)-dimensional Ito system is obtained.Some special types of solutions such as non-propagating solitary wave solution,propagating solitary wave solution and looped soliton solution are found by selecting the arbitrary function appropriately.

  5. Electrostatic self-force in (2+1)-dimensional cosmological gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Furtado, C; Furtado, Claudio; Moraes, Fernando

    1996-01-01

    Point sources in (2+1)-dimensional gravity are conical singularities that modify the global curvature of the space giving rise to self-interaction effects on classical fields. In this work we study the electrostatic self-interaction of a point charge in the presence of point masses in (2+1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant.

  6. Three New (2+1)-dimensional Integrable Systems and Some Related Darboux Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We introduce two operator commutators by using different-degree loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1, then under the framework of zero curvature equations we generate two (2+1)-dimensional integrable hierarchies, including the (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave (SWW) hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional Kaup-Newell (KN) hierarchy. Through reduction of the (2+1)-dimensional hierarchies, we get a (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KN equation. Furthermore, we obtain two Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation. Similarly, the Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional KN equation could be deduced. Finally, with the help of the spatial spectral matrix of SWW hierarchy, we generate a (2+1) heat equation and a (2+1) nonlinear generalized SWW system containing inverse operators with respect to the variables x and y by using a reduction spectral problem from the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2012AQ011, ZR2013AL016, ZR2015EM042, National Social Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 13BJY026, the Development of Science and Technology Project under Grant No. 2015NS1048 and A Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program under Grant No. J14LI58

  7. Horizons in 2+1-dimensional collapse of particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dieter Brill; Puneet Khetarpal; Vijay Kaul

    2007-07-01

    A simple, geometrical construction is given for three-dimensional spacetimes with negative cosmological constant that contain two particles colliding head-on. Depending on parameters like particle masses and distance, the combined geometry will be that of a particle, or of a black hole. In the black hole case the horizon is calculated. It is found that the horizon typically starts at a point and spreads into a closed curve with corners, which propagate along spacelike caustics and disappear as the horizon passes the particles.

  8. 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamics at high baryon densities

    CERN Document Server

    Karpenko, Iu; Huovinen, P; Petersen, H

    2013-01-01

    We apply a 3+1D viscous hydrodynamic + cascade model to the heavy ion collision reactions with $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=6.3\\dots39$ GeV. To accommodate the model for a given collision energy range, the initial conditions for hydrodynamic phase are taken from UrQMD, and the equation of state at finite baryon density is based on Chiral model coupled to the Polyakov loop. We study the collision energy dependence of pion and kaon rapidity distributions and $m_T$-spectra, as well as charged hadron elliptic flow and how shear viscosity affects them. The model calculations are compared to the data for Pb-Pb collisions at CERN SPS, as well as for Au-Au collisions in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) program energies at BNL RHIC. The data favours the value of shear viscosity $\\eta/s\\gtrsim0.2$ for this collision energy range.

  9. Entanglement Entropy and Mutual Information of Circular Entangling Surfaces in 2 + 1-dimensional Quantum Lifshitz Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Tianci; Faulkner, Thomas; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement entropy (EE) of circular entangling cuts in the 2+1-dimensional quantum Lifshitz model, whose ground state wave function is a spatially conformal invariant state of the Rokhsar-Kivelson type, whose weight is the Gibbs weight of 2D Euclidean free boson. We show that the finite subleading corrections of EE to the area-law term as well as the mutual information are conformal invariants and calculate them for cylinder, disk-like and spherical manifolds with various spatial cuts. The subtlety due to the boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully addressed. We find that in the geometry of a punctured plane with many small holes, the constant piece of EE is proportional to the number of holes, indicating the ability of entanglement to detect topological information of the configuration. Finally, we compare the mutual information of two small distant disks with Cardy's relativistic CFT scaling proposal. We find that in the quantum Lifshitz model, the mutual information al...

  10. Hamiltonian Approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H

    2008-01-01

    We study the Hamiltonian approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, considering both the pure Coulomb gauge and the gauge where in addition the remaining constant gauge field is restricted to the Cartan algebra. We evaluate the corresponding Faddeev-Popov determinants, resolve Gauss' law and derive the Hamiltonians, which differ in both gauges due to additional zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel in the pure Coulomb gauge. By Gauss' law the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel constrain the physical wave functionals to zero colour charge states. We solve the Schroedinger equation in the pure Coulomb gauge and determine the vacuum wave functional. The gluon and ghost propagators and the static colour Coulomb potential are calculated in the first Gribov region as well as in the fundamental modular region, and Gribov copy effects are studied. We explicitly demonstrate that the Dyson-Schwinger equations do not specify the Gribov region while the propagators and vertices do depend on the ...

  11. Spatial volume dependence for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Margarita García; González-Arroyo, Antonio; Okawa, Masanori

    2013-09-01

    We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N , the length of the torus L and the Z N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders depend on the combination x = λ N L and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (λ is `t Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence ( N L dependence). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable scaling of the magnetic flux.

  12. Spatial volume dependence for 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Margarita García; Okawa, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    We study the 2+1 dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on a finite two-torus with twisted boundary conditions. Our goal is to study the interplay between the rank of the group N, the length of the torus L and the Z_N magnetic flux. After presenting the classical and quantum formalism, we analyze the spectrum of the theory using perturbation theory to one-loop and using Monte Carlo techniques on the lattice. In perturbation theory, results to all orders depend on the combination x=\\lambda NL and an angle defined in terms of the magnetic flux (\\lambda\\ is 't Hooft coupling). Thus, fixing the angle, the system exhibits a form of volume independence (NL dependence). The numerical results interpolate between our perturbative calculations and the confinement regime. They are consistent with x-scaling and provide interesting information about the k-string spectrum and effective string theories. The occurrence of tachyonic instabilities is also analysed. They seem to be avoidable in the large N limit with a suitable sc...

  13. Propagation of light in(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyu Hao; Guosheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger(NLS)equation with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities is investigated,which describes propagation of light in(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with inhomogeneous nonlinearities.New types of optical modes and nonlinear effects in optical media are presented numerically.The results reveal that the regular split of beam can be obtained in (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear optical media with inhomogeneous nonlinearities,by adjusting the guiding parameter.Furthermore,the stability of beam regular split is discussed numerically,and the results reveal that the beam regular split is stable to the finite initial perturbations.

  14. Generalized Kudryashov method for solving some (3+1-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shafiqul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have applied the generalized Kudryashov methods to obtain the exact travelling wave solutions for the (3+1-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa (JM equation, the (3+1-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP equation and the (3+1-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK. The attained solutions show distinct physical configurations. The constraints that will guarantee the existence of specific solutions will be investigated. These solutions may be useful and desirable for enlightening specific nonlinear physical phenomena in genuinely nonlinear dynamical systems.

  15. Infinitely-many conservation laws for two (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations in fluids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Jiang; Bo Tian; Pan Wang; Kun Su

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a method that can be used to construct the infinitely-many conservation laws with the Lax pair is generalized from the (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) to the (2+1)-dimensional ones. Besides, we apply that method to the Kadomtsev– Petviashvili (KP) and Davey–Stewartson equations in fluids, and respectively obtain their infinitelymany conservation laws with symbolic computation. Based on that method, we can also construct the infinitely-many conservation laws for other multidimensional NLEEs possessing the Lax pairs, including the cylindrical KP, modified KP and (2+1)-dimensional Gardner equations, in fluids, plasmas, optical fibres and Bose–Einstein condensates.

  16. Generalized Dromion Structures of New (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear EvolutionEquation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2001-01-01

    We derive the generalized dromions of the new (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation by the arbitrary function presented in the bilinearized linear equations. The rich soliton and dromion structures for this system are released.

  17. Darboux Transformations and N-soliton Solutions of Two (2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional Caudrey–Dodd–Gibbon–Kotera–Sawaka (CDGKS) equation and (2+1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are constructed through the Darboux matrix method, respectively. N-soliton solutions of these two equations are presented by applying the Darboux transformations N times. The right-going bright single-soliton solution and interactions of two and three-soliton overtaking collisions of the (2+1)-dimensional CDGKS equation are studied. By choosing different seed solutions, the right-going bright and left-going dark single-soliton solutions, the interactions of two and three-soliton overtaking collisions, and kink soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional mKdV equation are investigated. The results can be used to illustrate the interactions of water waves in shallow water

  18. Construction of Perturbatively Correct Light Front Hamiltonian for (2+1)-Dimensional Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, M Yu; Zubov, R A; Franke, V A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider (2+1)-dimensional SU(N)-symmetric gauge theory within light front perturbation theory, regularized by the method analogous to Pauli-Villars regularization. This enables us to construct correct renormalized light front Hamiltonian.

  19. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field

  20. A new (2+1) dimensional integrable evolution equation for an ion acoustic wave in a magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Abhik, E-mail: abhik.mukherjee@saha.ac.in; Janaki, M. S., E-mail: ms.janaki@saha.ac.in; Kundu, Anjan, E-mail: anjan.kundu@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2015-07-15

    A new, completely integrable, two dimensional evolution equation is derived for an ion acoustic wave propagating in a magnetized, collisionless plasma. The equation is a multidimensional generalization of a modulated wavepacket with weak transverse propagation, which has resemblance to nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and has a connection to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation through a constraint relation. Higher soliton solutions of the equation are derived through Hirota bilinearization procedure, and an exact lump solution is calculated exhibiting 2D structure. Some mathematical properties demonstrating the completely integrable nature of this equation are described. Modulational instability using nonlinear frequency correction is derived, and the corresponding growth rate is calculated, which shows the directional asymmetry of the system. The discovery of this novel (2+1) dimensional integrable NLS type equation for a magnetized plasma should pave a new direction of research in the field.

  1. Bosonic and Fermionic Entropy of (2+1)-Dimensional Charged Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ju-Hua; WANG Yong-Jiu; JING Ji-Liang

    2001-01-01

    From resolving Klein-Gordon equation and Dirac equation in (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole spacetime and using 't Hooft's boundary condition and "quasi-periodic" boundary condition in the thin film brick wall model of black hole, which is introduced by LIU Weng-Biao and ZHAO Zheng, we obtain the bosonic and fermionic entropy of (2+1)-dimensional charged black hole, and find that the bosonic entropy is three times of fermionic entropy.

  2. New Explicit Exact Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Generalized Broer-Kaup System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    A nonlinear transformation and some multi-solition solutions for the (2+1 )-dimensional generalized Broer-Kaup (GBK) system is first given by using the homogeneous balance method. Then starting from the nonlinear transformation, we reduce the (2+ 1)-dimensional GBK system to a simple linear evolution equation. Solving this equation,we can obtain some new explicit exact solutions of the original equations by means of the extended hyperbola function method.

  3. Anomaly-Induced Magnetic Screening in 2+1 dimensional QED at Finite Density

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano ForteINFN Torino, Italy

    1993-01-01

    We show that in 2+1 dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics an external magnetic field applied to a finite density of massless fermions is screened, due to a $2+1$-dimensional realization of the underlying $2$-dimensional axial anomaly of the space components of the electric current. This is shown to imply screening of the magnetic field, i.e., the Meissner effect. We discuss the physical implications of this result.

  4. Finite symmetry transformation group and localized structures of the (2+1)-dimensional coupled Burgers equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Ya; Yang Duo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the finite symmetry transformation group of the (2+ 1)-dimensional coupled Burgers equation is studied by the modified direct method,and with the help of the truncated Painlevé expansion approach,some special localized structures for the (2+ 1)-dimensional coupled Burgers equation are obtained,in particular,the dromion-like and solitoff-like structures.

  5. New Exact Solutions and Conservation Laws to (3+1)-Dimensional Potential-YTSF Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Using the modified CK's direct method, we build the relationship between new solutions and old ones and find some new exact solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation. Based on the invariant group theory, Lie point symmetry groups and Lie symmetries of the (3+1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation are obtained. We also get conservation laws of the equation with the given Lie symmetry.

  6. Curvatures and discrete Gauss-Codazzi equation in (2 + 1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P.

    2015-07-01

    We derive the Gauss-Codazzi equation in the holonomy and plane-angle representations and we use the result to write a Gauss-Codazzi equation for a discrete (2 + 1)-dimensional manifold, triangulated by isosceles tetrahedra. This allows us to write operators acting on spin network states in (2 + 1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity, representing the 3-dimensional intrinsic, 2-dimensional intrinsic, and 2-dimensional extrinsic curvatures.

  7. Curvatures and discrete Gauss-Codazzi equation in (2+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy P

    2015-01-01

    We derive the Gauss-Codazzi equation in the holonomy and plane-angle representations and we use the result to write a Gauss-Codazzi equation for a discrete (2+1)-dimensional manifold, triangulated by isosceles tetrahedra. This allows us to write operators acting on spin network states in (2+1)-dimensional loop quantum gravity, representing the 3-dimensional intrinsic, 2-dimensional intrinsic, and 2-dimensional extrinsic curvatures.

  8. New Soliton-like Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zheng; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation describes the interaction of a Riemann wave propagating along the y-axis with a long wave along the x-axis. In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation, six kinds of new special exact soltion-like solutions of (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation are obtained by using some general transformations and the further generalized projective Riccati equation method.

  9. Topological aspects of classical and quantum (2+1)-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand (3+1)-dimensional gravity, (2+1)-dimensional gravity is studied as a toy model. Our emphasis is on its topological aspects, because (2+1)-dimensional gravity without matter fields has no local dynamical degrees of freedom. Starting from a review of the canonical ADM formalism and York's formalism for the initial value problem, we will solve the evolution equations of (2+1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant in the case of g=0 and g=1, where g is the genus of Riemann surface. The dynamics of it is understood as the geodesic motion in the moduli space. This remarkable fact is the same with the case of (2+1)-dimensional pure gravity and seen more apparently from the action level. Indeed we will show the phase space reduction of (2+1)-dimensional gravity in the case of g=1. For g ≥ 2, unfortunately we are not able to explicitly perform the phase space reduction of (2+1)-dimensional gravity due to the complexity of the Hamiltonian constraint equation. Based on this result, we will attempt to incorporate matter fields into (2+1)-dimensional pure gravity. The linearization and mini-superspace methods are used for this purpose. By using the linearization method, we conclude that the transverse-traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor affects the geodesic motion. In the case of the Einstein-Maxwell theory, we observe that the Wilson lines interact with the geometry to bend the geodesic motion. We analyze the mini-superspace model of (2+1)-dimensional gravity with the matter fields in the case of g=0 and g=1. For g=0, a wormhole solution is found but for g=1 we can not find an analogous solution. Quantum gravity is also considered and we succeed to perform the phase space reduction of (2+1)-dimensional gravity in the case of g=1 at the quantum level. From this analysis we argue that the conformal rotation is not necessary in the sense that the Euclidean quantum gravity is inappropriate for the full gravity. (author)

  10. Bulk-boundary correspondence in (3+1)-dimensional topological phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Tiwari, Apoorv; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-07-01

    We discuss (2+1)-dimensional gapless surface theories of bulk (3+1)-dimensional topological phases, such as the BF theory at level K , and its generalization. In particular, we put these theories on a flat (2+1)-dimensional torus T3 parameterized by its modular parameters, and compute the partition functions obeying various twisted boundary conditions. We show the partition functions are transformed into each other under S L (3 ,Z ) modular transformations, and furthermore establish the bulk-boundary correspondence in (3+1) dimensions by matching the modular S and T matrices computed from the boundary field theories with those computed in the bulk. We also propose the three-loop braiding statistics can be studied by constructing the modular S and T matrices from an appropriate boundary field theory.

  11. The (1+1)-dimensional Massive sine-Gordon Field Theory and the Gaussian Wave-functional Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, W F

    1999-01-01

    The ground, one- and two-particle states of the (1+1)-dimensional massive sine-Gordon field theory are investigated within the framework of the Gaussian wave-functional approach. We demonstrate that for a certain region of the model-parameter space, the vacuum in the field system is asymmetrical, which verifies an earlier conjecture. Furthermore, it is shown that two-particle bound state can exist upon the asymmetric vacuum for some portion of the aforementioned region. Besides, the masses of one particle and tow-particle bound state upon the symmetric vacuum are also calculated, and the resultant masses agree with the recent second-order results of fermion-mass perturbation for the massive Schwinger model.

  12. Hypocycloidal throat for 2+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazharimousavi, S Habib

    2015-01-01

    Recently we have shown that for $2+1-$dimensional thin-shell wormholes a non-circular throat may lead to a physical wormhole in the sense that the energy conditions are satisfied. By the same token, herein we consider angular dependent throat geometry embedded in a $2+1-$dimensional flat spacetime in polar coordinates. It is shown that a generic, natural example of throat geometry is provided remarkably by a hypocycloid. That is, two flat $2+1-$dimensions are glued together along a hypocycloid. The energy required in each hypocycloid increases with the frequency of the roller circle inside the large one.

  13. Hypocycloidal throat for 2+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2015-11-01

    Recently we have shown that for 2+1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes a non-circular throat may lead to a physical wormhole in the sense that the energy conditions are satisfied. By the same token, herein we consider an angular dependent throat geometry embedded in a 2+1-dimensional flat spacetime in polar coordinates. It is shown that, remarkably, a generic, natural example of the throat geometry is provided by a hypocycloid. That is, two flat 2+1 dimensions are glued together along a hypocycloid. The energy required in each hypocycloid increases with the frequency of the roller circle inside the large one.

  14. Inclined periodic homoclinic breather and rogue waves for the (1+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhengde Dai; Chuanjian Wang; Jun Liu

    2014-10-01

    A new method, homoclinic (heteroclinic) breather limit method (HBLM), for seeking rogue wave solution to nonlinear evolution equation (NEE) is proposed. (1+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation is used as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested method. Rational homoclinic wave solution, a new family of two-wave solution, is obtained by inclined periodic homoclinic breather wave solution and is just a rogue wave solution. This result shows that rogue wave originates by the extreme behaviour of homoclinic breather wave in (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave fields.

  15. The quantum interest conjecture in (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    The quantum inequalities, and the closely related quantum interest conjecture, impose restrictions on the distribution of the energy density measured by any time-like observer, potentially preventing the existence of exotic phenomena such as Alcubierre warp-drives or traversable wormholes. It has already been proved that both assertions can be reduced to statements concerning the existence or non-existence of bound states of a certain 1-dimensional quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. Using this approach, we will informally review a simple variational proof of one version of the Quantum Interest conjecture in (3+1)-dimensional Minkowski space.

  16. New Multi-soliton Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang-Kui; Zhaqilao; FANG Jian-Hui; LI Zhi-Bin; PANG Ting; LIN Peng

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an explicit N-fold Darboux transformation with multi-parameters for both a (1+1)-dimensional Broer Kaup (BK) equation and a (1+1)-dimensional high-order Broer Kaup equation is constructed with the help of a gauge transformation of their spectral problems. By using the Darboux transformation and new ba-sic solutions of the spectral problems, 2N-soliton solutions of the BK equation, the high-order BK equation, and the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation are obtained.

  17. New Multiple Soliton-like Solutions to (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation with Variable Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huai-Tang; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    A new generalized tanh function method is used for constructing exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the Riccati equation, which has more new solutions. More new multiple soliton-like solutions are obtained for the (3+ 1 )-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficients.

  18. 2+1-dimensional wormhole from a doublet of scalar fields

    OpenAIRE

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We present a class of exact solutions in the framework of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled minimally to a doublet of scalar fields. Our solution can be interpreted upon the tuning of parameters as an asymptotically flat wormhole as well as a particle model in 2+1 dimensions.

  19. Path Integral Evaluation of the Free Propagator on the (D-1)-dimensional Pseudosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Wospakrik, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    We present an explicit path integral evaluation of the free Hamiltonian propagator on the (D-1)-dimensional pseudosphere, in the horicyclic coordinates, using the integral equation method. This method consists in deriving an integral equation for the propagator that turns out to be of Abel's type.

  20. A Phase Space Path Integral for (2+1)-Dimensional Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Carlip, Steven

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between the phase space path integral in (2+1)-dimensional gravity and the canonical quantization of the corresponding reduced phase space in the York time slicing. I demonstrate the equivalence of these two approaches, and discuss some subtleties in the definition of the path integral necessary to prove this equivalence.

  1. Differential Invariants of the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    We construct the differential invariants of Lie symmetry pseudogroups of the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation and analyze the structure of the induced differential invariant algebra. Their syzygies and recurrence relations are classified. In addition, a moving frame and the invariantization of the breaking soliton equation are also presented. The algorithms are based on the method of equivariant moving frames.

  2. Construction of New Exact Solutions for the (3 + 1-Dimensional Burgers System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitian Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of a variable separation method and a generalized direct ansätz function approach, new exact solutions including cross kink-wave solutions, doubly periodic kinky-wave solutions, and breather type of two-solitary wave solutions for the (3 + 1-dimensional Burgers system are obtained. Moreover, the mechanical features are also investigated.

  3. Localized Excitations in a Sixth-Order (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shou-Feng

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, by means of the Lax pair, Darboux transformation, and variable separation approach, a new exact solution of a sixth-order (1+ 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation, which includes some arbitrary functions,is obtained. Abundant new localized excitations can be found by selecting appropriate functions and they are illustrated both analytically and graphically.

  4. Exact Solutions of Some (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By means of the variable separation method, new exact solutions of some (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations are obtained. Abundant localized excitations can be found by selecting corresponding arbitrary functions appropriately. Namely, the new soliton-like localized excitations and instanton-like localized excitations are presented.

  5. Periodic Wave Solution to the (3+1)-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yong-Qi

    2008-01-01

    @@ One- and two-periodic wave solutions for (3+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation are presented by means of Hirota's bilinear method and the Riemann theta function. The soliton solution can be obtained from the periodic wave solution in an appropriate limiting procedure.

  6. Conservation laws for two (2 + 1)-dimensional differential-difference systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Guofu [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific Engineering Computing, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China) and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: gfyu@lsec.cc.ac.cn; Tam, H.-W. [Department of Computer Science, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: tam@comp.hkbu.edu.hk

    2006-10-15

    Two integrable differential-difference equations are considered. One is derived from the discrete BKP equation and the other is a symmetric (2 + 1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation. An infinite number of conservation laws for the two differential-difference equations are deduced.

  7. Soliton excitations and chaotic patterns for the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zheng; Ma Song-Hua; Fang Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    By improved projective equation approach and a linear variable separation approach, a new family of exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli (BLP) system is derived. Based on the derived solitary wave solution, some dromion and solitoff excitations and chaotic behaviours are investigated.

  8. Linear superposition method for (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ji; Wang Rui-Min; Ye Li-Jun

    2006-01-01

    New forms of different-periodic travelling wave solutions for the(2+1)-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov(ZK) equation and the Davey-Stewartson(DS)equation are obtained by the linear superposition approach of Jacobi elliptic function.A sequence of cyclic identities plays an important role in these procedures.

  9. Chaotic solutions of(2+1)-dimensional Broek-Kaup equation with variable coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zheng; Ma Song-Hua; Fang Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an improved projective approach is used to obtain the variable separation solutions with two arbitrary functions of the(2+1)-dimensional Broek-Kaup equation with variable coefficients(VCBK). Based on the derived solitary wave solution and using a known chaotic system, some novel chaotic solutions are investigated.

  10. Soliton Fission and Fusion in (2+1)-Dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chun-Long; FANG Jian-Ping; CHEN Li-Qun

    2005-01-01

    By means of a special Painlevé-Backlund transformation and a multilinear variable separation approach,an exact solution with arbitrary functions of the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system (BLP) is derived.Based on the derived variable separation solution, we obtain some special soliton fission and fusion solutions for the higher dimensional BLP system.

  11. Variable Separation Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓艳; 楼森岳

    2003-01-01

    Considering that the multi-linear variable separation approach has been proved to be very useful to solve many (2+1)-dimensional integrable systems, we obtain the variable separation solutions of the Burgers equation with arbitrary number of variable separated functions. The Y-shaped soliton fusion phenomenon is revealed.

  12. Nonpropagating Solitons in (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long-Water Wave System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long; LIU Qing

    2005-01-01

    With the help of an extended mapping approach, a new type of variable separation excitation with three arbitrary functions of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long-water wave system (DLW) is derived. Based on the derived variable separation excitation, abundant non-propagating solitons such as dromion, ring, peakon, and compacton etc.are revealed by selecting appropriate functions in this paper.

  13. Periodic Homoclinic Wave of (1+1)-Dimensional Long-Short Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-Long; DAI Zheng-De; GUO Yan-Feng

    2008-01-01

    @@ The exact periodic homoclinic wave of (1+1) D long-short wave equation is obtained using an extended homoclinic test technique.This result shows complexity and variety of dynamical behaviour for a (1+1)-dimensional longshort wave equation.

  14. Annihilation Solitons and Chaotic Solitons for the (2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By means of an improved mapping method and a variable separation method, a scries of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational function solutions) to the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton system is derived. Based on the derived solitary wave excitation, we obtain some special annihilation solitons and chaotic solitons in this short note.

  15. New and More General Rational Formal Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Toda System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation and Riccati equation rational expansion approach, some new and more general rational formal solutions to (2+1)-dimensional Toda system are obtained. The method used here can also be applied to solve other nonlinear differential-difference equation or equations.

  16. Variable Separation for (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations with Mixed Partial Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng-Zhou; ZHANG Shun-Li

    2008-01-01

    We present basic theory of variable separation for (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations with mixed partial derivatives. As an application, we classify equations uxt = A(u, ux)uxxx + B(u, ux) that admits derivative-dependent functional separable solutions (DDFSSs) and illustrate how to construct those DDFSSs with some examples.

  17. Global Null Controllability of the 1-Dimensional Nonlinear Slow Diffusion Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Michel CORON; Jesús Ildefonso D(I)AZ; Abdelmalek DRICI; Tommaso MINGAZZINI

    2013-01-01

    The authors prove the global null controllability for the 1-dimensional nonlinear slow diffusion equation by using both a boundary and an internal control.They assume that the internal control is only time dependent.The proof relies on the return method in combination with some local controllability results for nondegenerate equations and rescaling techniques.

  18. On (2+1) Dimensional Topologically Massive Non-linear Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Slusarczyk, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2002-01-01

    The (2+1) dimensional non-linear electrodynamics, the so called Pagels--Tomboulis electrodynamics, with the Chern--Simons term is considered. We obtain "generalized self--dual equation" and find the corresponding generalized massive Chern--Simons Lagrangian. Similar results for (2+1) massive dilaton electrodynamics have been obtained.

  19. Hamiltonian Monte Carlo study of (1+1)-dimensional models with restricted supersymmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattice versions with restricted suppersymmetry of simple (1+1)-dimensional supersymmetric models are numerically studied using a local hamiltonian Monte Carlo method. The pattern of supersymmetry breaking closely follows the expectations of Bartels and Bronzan obtain in an alternative lattice formulation. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the performance of the WRF 1-Dimensional Lake model over the East Africa Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the performance of the 1-Dimensional lake model coupled to WRF over East Africa. The Africa Great lakes exert a great influence on the climate of the region and a number of studies have shown how the lake influences the circulation and the total precipitation over the region. The lakes have highly variable depths, with Lake Victoria having an average depth of 40m and Lake Tanganyika a depth of 450m. The Lake model for WRF was tested and calibrated for the Great lakes, however it was not tested for tropical lakes. We hypothesize that the inclusion of a 1-dimensional lake will reduce the precipitation bias as compared to the WRF model without the lake model. In addition initializing the lake temperature using a vertical temperature profile that closes resembles the one over these lakes will greatly reduce the spin up time. The simulations utilized three nested domains at 36, 12 and 4km. The 4km domain is centered over Lake Victoria Basin, while the 12 km domain includes all the lakes in East Africa. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets are used in evaluating the precipitation, and the following statistics were calculated: root mean square error, standard deviation of the model and observations and mean bias. The results show that the use of the 1-dimensional lake model improves the precipitation over the region considerably compared to an uncoupled model. The asymmetrical rainfall pattern is evident in the simulations. However using the default vertical temperature profile with a three-month spin up is not adequate to transfer heat to the bottom of the lake. Hence the temperatures are still very cold at the bottom. A nine-month spin up improves the lake surface temperatures and lake temperatures at the bottom. A two year spin up greatly improves the lake surface temperatures and hence the total precipitation over the lake. Thus longer spin up time allows for adequate heat transfer in the lake. Initializing the

  1. Periodic Wave Solutions to a (3+1)-Dimensional Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-Min

    2012-01-01

    Two classes of periodic wave solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation are derived by employing the Hirota bilinear method and theta function identities.These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions of genus one and can be converted into an elliptic function format,both their long wave limit and extremum value are discussed in detail.%Two classes of periodic wave solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation are derived by employing the Hirota bilinear method and theta function identities. These solutions are expressed in terms of Riemann theta functions of genus one and can be converted into an elliptic function format, both their long wave limit and extremum value are discussed in detail.

  2. Symmetries, Integrability and Exact Solutions to the (2+1)-Dimensional Benney Types of Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Ze; Xin, Xiang-Peng

    2016-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the (2+1)-dimensional Benney types of equations. By the complete Lie group classification method, all of the point symmetries of the Benney types of equations are obtained, and the integrable condition of the equation is given. Then, the symmetry reductions and exact solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear wave equations are presented. Especially, the shock wave solutions of the Benney equations are investigated by the symmetry reduction and trial function method. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11171041 and 11505090, Research Award Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province under Grant No. BS2015SF009, and the doctorial foundation of Liaocheng University under Grant No. 31805

  3. (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear propagation equation for ultrashort pulsed beam in left-handed material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yong-Hua; Fu Xi-Quan; Wen Shuang-Chun; Su Wen-Hua; Fan Dian-Yuan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a comprehensive framework for treating the nonlinear propagation of ultrashort pulse in metamaterial with dispersive dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability is presented. Under the slowly-evolving-wave approximation, a generalized (3+1)-dimensional wave equation first order in the propagation coordinate and suitable for both right-handed material (RHM) and left-handed material (LHM) is derived. By the commonly used Drude dispersive model for LHM, a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation describing ultrashort pulsed beam propagation in LHM is obtained, and its difference from that for conventional RHM is discussed. Particularly, the self-steeping effect of ultrashort pulse is found to be anomalous in LHM.

  4. Quantum tunneling from generalized (2+1) dimensional black holes having Noether symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, F.; Atazadeh, K.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the Hawking radiation from {\\it generalized} rotating and static $(2+1)$-dimensional BTZ black holes. In this regard, we have benefited the quantum tunneling approach with WKB approximation and obtained the tunneling rate of outgoing scalar and spinor particles across the horizons. We have also obtained the Hawking temperature at the horizons corresponding to the emission of these particles. It is shown that the tunneling rate and Hawking temperature of generalized $(2+1)$-dim...

  5. Double Elliptic Equation Expansion Approach and Novel Solutions of (2+1)-Dimensional Break Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xue-Qin; SUN Wei-Kun; ZHI Hong-Yan; CAO Nan-Bin; SHEN Ya-Liang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, by means of double elliptic equation expansion approach, the novel double nonlinear wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional break soliton equation are obtained. These double nonlinear wave solutions contain the double Jacobi elliptic function-like solutions, the double solitary wave-like solutions, and so on. The method is also powerful to some other nonlinear wave equations in (2+1) dimensions.

  6. Counter-rotational effects on stability of 2 + 1-dimensional thin-shell wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2014-09-15

    The role of angular momentum in a 2 + 1-dimensional rotating thin-shell wormhole (TSW) is considered. Particular emphasis is given to stability when the shells (rings) are counter-rotating. We find that counter-rotating halves make the TSW supported by the equation of state of a linear gas more stable. Under a small velocity dependent perturbation, however, it becomes unstable. (orig.)

  7. Expanding $(n+1)$-Dimensional Wormhole Solutions in Brans-Dicke Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, E.; Riazi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained two classes of $(n+1)$-dimensional wormhole solutions using a traceless energy-momentum tensor in Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. The first class contains wormhole solutions in an open geometry while the second contains wormhole solutions in both open and closed universes. In addition to wormhole geometries, naked singularities and maximally symmetric spacetime also appear among the solutions as special cases. We have also considered the travesibility of the wormhole solutions...

  8. The first integral method to study the (2+1)-dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Matinfar; M Eslami; S Roshandel

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have presented the applicability of the first integral method for constructing exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Jaulent–Miodek equations. The first integral method is a powerful and effective method for solving nonlinear partial differential equations which can be applied to nonintegrable as well as integrable equations. The present paper confirms the significant features of the method employed and exact kink and soliton solutions are constructed through the established first integrals.

  9. Pair production of Dirac particles in a d + 1-dimensional noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousmane Samary, Dine [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin); N' Dolo, Emanonfi Elias; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert [University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin)

    2014-11-15

    This work addresses the computation of the probability of fermionic particle pair production in d + 1-dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using Seiberg-Witten maps, which establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, up to the first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent, and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed. (orig.)

  10. Painlevé Analysis and Some Solutions of(2+1)-Dimensional Generalized Burgers Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Ke-Zhu; WU B-in; CHEN Xian-Feng

    2003-01-01

    Burgers equation ut = 2uux + uxx describes a lot of phenomena in physics fields, and it has attracted much attention.In this paper,the Burgers equation is generalized to (2+1) dimensions.By means of the Painlev(e') analysis,the most generalized Painlev(e') integrable(2+1)-dimensional integrable Burgers systems are obtained.Some exact solutions of the generalized Burgers system are obtained via variable separation approach.

  11. A 2+1-Dimensional Non-Isothermal Magnetogasdynamic System. Hamiltonian-Ermakov Integrable Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli An

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A 2+1-dimensional anisentropic magnetogasdynamic system with a polytropic gas law is shown to admit an integrable elliptic vortex reduction when γ=2 to a nonlinear dynamical subsystem with underlying integrable Hamiltonian-Ermakov structure. Exact solutions of the magnetogasdynamic system are thereby obtained which describe a rotating elliptic plasma cylinder. The semi-axes of the elliptical cross-section, remarkably, satisfy a Ermakov-Ray-Reid system.

  12. (3+1)-dimensional framework for leading-order non conformal anisotropic hydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In this work I develop a new framework for anisotropic hydrodynamics that generalizes the leading order of the hydrodynamic expansion to the full (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic massive case. Following previous works, my considerations are based on the Boltzmann kinetic equation with the collisional term treated in the relaxation time approximation. The momentum anisotropy is included explicitly in the leading term, allowing for a large difference between the longitudinal and transverse pressur...

  13. Linearized analysis of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of previous result by Hosoya and Nakao that (2+1)-dimensional gravity reduces the geodesic motion in moduli space, we investigate the effects of matter fields on the geodesic motion using the linearized theory. It is shown that the transverse-traceless parts of energy-momentum tensor make the deviation from the geodesic motion. This result is important for the Einstein-Maxwell theory due to the existence of global modes of Maxwell fields on torus. (author)

  14. Embed-Solitons and Their Evolutional Behaviors of (3+1)-Dimensional Burgers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hai-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long

    2007-01-01

    With the help of an extended mapping approach and a linear variable separation method, new families of variable separation solutions with arbitrary functions for the (3+1)-dimensional Burgers system are derived. Based on thc derived exact solutions, some novel and interesting localized coherent excitations such as embed-solitons are revealed by selecting appropriate boundary conditions and/or initial qualifications. The time evolutional properties of the novel localized excitation are also briefly investigated.

  15. Fission and Fusion of Solitons for the (1+1)-Dimensional Kupershmidt Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Jin-Ping

    2001-01-01

    By means of the heat conduction equation and the standard truncated Painlevé expansion, the (1+1) dimensional Kupershmidt equation is solved. Some significant exact multi-soliton solutions are given. Especially; for the interaction of the multi-solitons of the Kupershmidt equation, we find that a single (resonant) kink or bell soliton may be fissioned to several kink or bell solitons. Inversely, several kink or bell solitons may also be fused to one kink or bell soliton.

  16. Chirped Waves for a Generalized (2 + 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Schr(ā)dinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xian-Jing

    2011-01-01

    The exact chirped seliton-like and quasi-periodic wave solutions of (2 + 1 )-dimensional generalized nonlinear Schr(ā)dinger equation including linear and nonlinear gain (loss) with variable coefficients are obtained detailedly in this paper. The form and the behavior of solutions are strongly affected by the modulation of both the dispersion coefficient and the nonlinearity coefficient. In addition, self-similar soliton-like waves precisely piloted from our obtained selutions by tailoring the dispersion and linear gain (loss).

  17. Quasi-periodic and Non-periodic Waves in (2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LOU Sen-Yue

    2005-01-01

    New exact quasi-periodic and non-periodic solutions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear systems are studied by means of the multi-linear variable separation approach (MLVSA) and the Jacobi elliptic functions with the space-time-dependent modulus. Though the result is valid for all the MLVSA solvable models, it is explicitly shown for the long-wave and short-wave interaction model.

  18. A Few New 2+1-Dimensional Nonlinear Dynamics and the Representation of Riemann Curvature Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xiangzhi

    2016-09-01

    We first introduced a linear stationary equation with a quadratic operator in ∂x and ∂y, then a linear evolution equation is given by N-order polynomials of eigenfunctions. As applications, by taking N=2, we derived a (2+1)-dimensional generalized linear heat equation with two constant parameters associative with a symmetric space. When taking N=3, a pair of generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations with the same eigenvalues with the case of N=2 are generated. Similarly, a second-order flow associative with a homogeneous space is derived from the integrability condition of the two linear equations, which is a (2+1)-dimensional hyperbolic equation. When N=3, the third second flow associative with the homogeneous space is generated, which is a pair of new generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. Finally, as an application of a Hermitian symmetric space, we established a pair of spectral problems to obtain a new (2+1)-dimensional generalized Schrödinger equation, which is expressed by the Riemann curvature tensors.

  19. New Multiple Soliton-like and Periodic Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional Canonical Generalized KP Equation with Variable Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Hua; LIU Xi-Qiang; BAI Cheng-Lin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized tanh function method is extended to (2+1)-dimensional canonical generalized KP (CGKP) equation with variable coefficients. Taking advantage of the Riccati equation, many explicit exact solutions,which contain multiple soliton-like and periodic solutions, are obtained for the (2+1)-dimensional CGKP equation with variable coefficients.

  20. Searching for the (3+1)-Dimensional Painlevé Integrable Model and its Solitary Wave Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李画眉

    2002-01-01

    A (3+1)-dimensional integrable model constructed by conformal invariants is proven to be integrable. The solitary wave solution of the model is obtained by a simple algebraic transformation relation between the (3 + 1)-dimensional Harry-Dym equation and the cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation.

  1. A Bilinear B(a)cklund Transformation and Explicit Solutions for a (3+1)-Dimensional Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-Ping

    2008-01-01

    @@ Considering the bilinear form of a (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation, we obtain a bilinear Backlund transformation for the equation.As an application, soliton solution and stationary rational solution for the (3+1)-dimensional soliton equation are presented.

  2. Overcoming the sign problem in 1-dimensional QCD by new integration rules with polynomial exactness

    OpenAIRE

    Ammon, A.; T. Hartung; Jansen, K.; Leövey, H.; Volmer, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new integration method for the groups $U(N)$ and $SU(N)$, for which we verified numerically that it is polynomially exact for $N\\le 3$. The method is applied to the example of 1-dimensional QCD with a chemical potential. We explore, in particular, regions of the parameter space in which the sign problem appears due the presence of the chemical potential. While Markov Chain Monte Carlo fails in this region, our new integration method still provides results for the c...

  3. Exact periodic waves and their interactions for the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan-Ze Peng

    2005-08-01

    By means of the singular manifold method we obtain a general solution involving three arbitrary functions for the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation. Diverse periodic wave solutions may be produced by appropriately selecting these arbitrary functions as the Jacobi elliptic functions. The interaction properties of the periodic waves are investigated numerically and found to be nonelastic. The long wave limit yields some new types of solitary wave solutions. Especially the dromion and the solitoff solutions obtained in this paper possess new types of solution structures which are quite different from the basic dromion and solitoff ones reported previously in the literature.

  4. Local Scale-Invariance of the 2+1 dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Jeffrey; Gemming, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Local Scale-Invariance theory is tested by extensive dynamical simulations of the driven dimer lattice gas model, describing the surface growth of the 2+1 dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang surfaces. Very precise measurements of the universal autoresponse function enabled us to perform nonlinear fitting with the scaling forms, suggested by local scale-invariance (LSI). While the simple LSI ansatz does not seem to work, forms based on logarithmic extension of LSI provide satisfactory description of the full (measured) time evolution of the autoresponse function.

  5. Distributions of self-interactions and voids in (1+1)-dimensional directed percolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.; Jensen, M.H.; Sneppen, K. [Center for Chaos and Turbulence Studies, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    1995-09-01

    We investigate the scaling of self-interactions and voids in (1+1)-dimensional directed percolation clusters and backbones. We verify that the meandering of the backbone scales like the directed cluster. A geometric relation between the size distribution and the fractal dimensions of a set of objects is applied to find the scaling properties of self-interactions in directed percolation. Lastly we connect the geometric properties of the backbone with the avalanche distribution generated by interface dynamics at the depinning transition.

  6. LOCALIZED COHERENT STRUCTURES OF THE (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL HIGHER ORDER BROER-KAUP EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张解放; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    By using the extended homogeneous balance method, the localized coherentstructures are studied. A nonlinear transformation was first established, and then thelinearization form was obtained based on the extended homogeneous balance method for thehigher order ( 2 + 1 ) -dimensional Broer-Kaup equations. Starting from this linearizationform equation, a variable separation solution with the entrance of some arbitrary functionsand some arbitrary parameters was constructed. The quite rich localized coherent structureswere revealed. This method, which can be generalized to other (2 + 1 )-dimensionalnonlinear evolution equation, is simple and powerful.

  7. Periodic folded waves for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water wave equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Wen-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A general solution,including three arbitrary functions,is obtained for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) equation by means of the WTC truncation method.Introducing proper multiple valued functions and Jacobi elliptic functions in the seed solution,special types of periodic folded waves are derived.In the long wave limit these periodic folded wave patterns may degenerate into single localized folded solitary wave excitations.The interactions of the periodic folded waves and the degenerated single folded solitary waves axe investigated graphically and found to be completely elastic.

  8. A new Riccati equation rational expansion method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qi [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Chen Yong [M.M. Key Lab, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Nonlinear Science Center and Department of Mathematics, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); E-mail: chenyong@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, we present a new Riccati equation rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. Compared with most existing tanh methods and other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only recover some known solutions, but also find some new and general solutions. The solutions obtained in this paper include rational triangular periodic wave solutions, rational solitary wave solutions and rational wave solutions. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on (2 + 1)-dimensional Burgers equation.

  9. Exotic Localized Coherent Structures of the (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long-Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JieFang

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with the extended homogeneous balance method for studying thc abundantlocalized solution structures in the (2-k1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equations uty + xx + (u2)xy/2 = 0, ηt +(u + u + uxy)x = 0. Starting from the homogeneous balance method, we find that the richness of the localized coherentstructures of the model is caused by the entrance of two variable-separated arbitrary functions. For some special selectionsof the arbitrary functions, it is shown that the localized structures of the model may be dromions, lumps, breathers,instantons and ring solitons.

  10. Exotic interactions between solitons of the (2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Chao-Qing; Zhou Guo-Quan

    2007-01-01

    Starting from the extended tanh-function method (ETM) based on the mapping method, the variable separation solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov (ANNV) system are derived. By further study, we find that these variable separation solutions are seemingly independent of but actually dependent on each other. Based on the variable separation solution and by choosing appropriate functions, some novel and interesting interactions between special solitons, such as bell-like compacton, peakon-like compacton and compacton-like semifoldon, are investigated.

  11. Gauss integration over relativistic 3-body phase space for 1-dimensional distributions of 2 --> 3 reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bolokhov, A A; Bolokhov, T A; Sherman, S G

    1996-01-01

    We present the analysis of the phase space geometry of 2 \\rightarrow 3 reaction for the general case of nonzero and unequal particle masses. Its purpose is to elaborate an alternative approach to the problem of integration over phase space which does not exploit the Monte Carlo principle. The fast and effective algorithm of integration based on Gauss method is developed for treating 1--dimensional distributions in two--particle invariant variables. The algorithm is characterized by significantly improved accuracy and it can meet requirements of interactive processing.

  12. Integrability of an extended (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation with Bell polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun-Hu; Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the extended (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation.The binary Bell polynomials are used to construct bilinear equation,bilinear B(a)cklund transformation,Lax pair,and Darboux covariant Lax pair for this equation.Moreover,the infinite conservation laws of this equation are found by using its Lax pair.All conserved densities and fluxes are given with explicit recursion formulas.The N-soliton solutions are also presented by means of the Hirota bilinear method.

  13. Critical behavior of (2 +1 )-dimensional QED: 1 /Nf corrections in the Landau gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotikov, A. V.; Shilin, V. I.; Teber, S.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamical generation of a fermion mass is studied within (2 +1 )-dimensional QED with N four-component fermions in the leading and next-to-leading orders of the 1 /N expansion. The analysis is carried out in the Landau gauge, which is supposed to insure the gauge independence of the critical fermion flavor number, Nc. It is found that the dynamical fermion mass appears for N

  14. Exponential prototype structures for (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli systems in mathematical physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskonus, Haci Mehmet; Bulut, Hasan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a new method called improved Bernoulli sub-equation function method has been proposed. This method is based on the Bernoulli sub-ODE method. After we mention the general properties of proposed method, we apply this algorithm to the (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation system. This gives us some new prototype solutions such as exponential and rational function solutions. Then, we have plotted two- and three-dimensional surfaces of analytical solutions. Finally, we have submitted a comprehensive conclusion.

  15. Quasiperiodic wave solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional generalized breaking soliton equation via bilinear Bäcklund transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhonglong; Han, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we focus on a (2+1)-dimensional generalized breaking soliton equation, which describes the (2+1)-dimensional interaction of a Riemann wave propagating along the y -direction with a long wave along the x-direction. Based on a multidimensional Riemann theta function, the quasiperiodic wave solutions of a (2+1)-dimensional generalized breaking soliton equation are investigated by means of the bilinear Bäcklund transformation. The relations between the quasiperiodic wave solutions and the soliton solutions are rigorously established by a limiting procedure. The dynamical behaviors of the quasiperiodic wave solutions are discussed by presenting the numerical figures.

  16. Multi-linear Variable Separation Approach to Solve a (1+1)-Dimensional Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The multi-linear variable separation approach (MLVSA ) is very useful to solve (2+ 1)-dimensional integrable systems. In this letter, we extend this method to solve a (1+1)-dimensional coupled integrable dispersion-less system.Namely, by using a Backlund transformation and the MLVSA, we find a new general solution and define a new "universal formula". Then, some new (1+1)-dimensional coherent structures of this universal formula can be found by selecting corresponding functions appropriately. Specially, in some conditions, bell soliton and kink soliton can transform each other, which are illustrated graphically.

  17. Quantum Cosmology in $(1+1)$-dimensional Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz theory of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pitelli, J P M

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 92:084012, 2015], the author studied the classical $(1+1)$-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe filled with a perfect fluid in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity. This theory is dynamical due to the anisotropic scaling of space and time. It also resembles the Jackiw-Teitelboim model, in which a dilatonic degree of freedom is necessary for dynamics. In this paper, I will give one step further in the understanding of (1+1)-dimensional HL cosmology by means of the quantization of the FRW universe filled with a perfect fluid with equation of state (EoS) $p=w\\rho$. The fluid will be introduced in the model via Schutz formalism and Dirac's algorithm will be used for quantization. It will be shown that the Schr\\"odinger equation for the wave function of the universe has the following properties: for $w=1$ (radiation fluid), the characteristic potential will be exponential, resembling Liouville quantum mechanics; for $w\

  18. Variable Separation Solution for (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Models Related to Schr(o)dinger Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-Zhi; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2004-01-01

    A variable separation approach is proposed and successfully extended to the (1+1)-dimensional physics models. The new exact solution of (1+ 1)-dimensional nonlinear models related to Schrodinger equation by the entrance of three arbitrary functions is obtained. Some special types of soliton wave solutions such as multi-soliton wave solution,non-stable soliton solution, oscillating soliton solution, and periodic soliton solutions are discussed by selecting the arbitrary functions appropriately.

  19. On High-Frequency Soliton Solutions to a(2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Partial Differential Evolution Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuetche Kamgang Victor; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2008-01-01

    A(2+1)-dimensional nonlinear partial differential evolution(NLPDE)equation is presented as a model equation for relaxing high-rate processes in active barothropic media.With the aid of symbolic computation and Hirota's method,some typical solitary wave solutions to this(2+1)-dimensional NLPDE equation are unearthed.As a result,depending on the dissipative parameter,single and multivalued solutions are depicted.

  20. Overcoming the sign problem in 1-dimensional QCD by new integration rules with polynomial exactness

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, A; Jansen, K; Leövey, H; Volmer, J

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new integration method for the groups $U(N)$ and $SU(N)$, for which we verified numerically that it is polynomially exact for $N\\le 3$. The method is applied to the example of 1-dimensional QCD with a chemical potential. We explore, in particular, regions of the parameter space in which the sign problem appears due the presence of the chemical potential. While Markov Chain Monte Carlo fails in this region, our new integration method still provides results for the chiral condensate on arbitrary precision, demonstrating clearly that it overcomes the sign problem. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our new method leads to orders of magnitude reduced errors also in other regions of parameter space.

  1. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Bragança, E; Saharian, A A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even funct...

  2. Chiral density wave versus pion condensation in the 1+1 dimensional NJL model

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Prabal

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the possibility of an inhomogeneous quark condensate in the 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the large-$N_c$ limit at finite temperature $T$ and quark chemical potential $\\mu$ using dimensional regularization. The phase diagram in the $\\mu$--$T$ plane is mapped out. At zero temperature, an inhomogeneous phase with a chiral-density wave exists for all values of $\\mu>\\mu_c$. Performing a Ginzburg-Landau analysis, we show that in the chiral limit, the critical point and the Lifschitz point coincide. We also consider the competition between a chiral-density wave and a constant pion condensate at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$. The phase diagram in the $\\mu_I$--$\\mu$ plane is mapped out and shows a rich phase structure.

  3. Bilinearization and new multisoliton solutions for the (4+1)-dimensional Fokas equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHANG SHENG; TIAN CHI; QIAN WEI-YI

    2016-06-01

    The (4+1)-dimensional Fokas equation is derived in the process of extending the integrable Kadomtsev–Petviashvili and Davey–Stewartson equations to higher-dimensional nonlinear wave equations. This equation is under investigation in this paper. Hirota’s bilinear method is, for the first time, used to solve such a higher-dimensional equation. In order to bilinearize the Fokas equation, some appropriate transformations are adopted. As a result, single-soliton solution,double-soliton solution and three-soliton solution are obtained. A new uniform formula of n-soliton solution is derived from this. It is shown that the transformations adopted in this work play a key role in converting the Fokas equation into Hirota’s bilinear form.

  4. Localized structures for (2+1)-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gui Mu; Zhengde Dai; Zhanhui Zhao

    2013-09-01

    It is shown that Painlevé integrability of (2+1)-dimensional Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation is easy to be verified using the standard Weiss–Tabor–Carnevale (WTC) approach after introducing the Kruskal’s simplification. Furthermore, by employing a singular manifold method based on Painlevé truncation, variable separation solutions are obtained explicitly in terms of two arbitrary functions. The two arbitrary functions provide us a way to study some interesting localized structures. The choice of rational functions leads to the rogue wave structure of Boiti–Leon–Pempinelli equation. In addition, for the other choices, it is observed that two solitons may evolve into breather after interaction. Also, the interaction between two kink compactons is investigated.

  5. Casimir interaction between spheres in $\\boldsymbol{(D+1)}$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Teo, L P

    2014-01-01

    We consider the Casimir interaction between two spheres in $(D+1)$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime due to the vacuum fluctuations of scalar fields. We consider combinations of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The TGTG formula of the Casimir interaction energy is derived. The computations of the T matrices of the two spheres are straightforward. To compute the two G matrices, known as translation matrices, which relate the hyper-spherical waves in two spherical coordinate frames differ by a translation, we generalize the operator approach employed in [IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. \\textbf{36}, 1078 (1988)]. The result is expressed in terms of an integral over Gegenbauer polynomials. Using our expression for the Casimir interaction energy, we derive the large separation and small separation asymptotic expansions of the Casimir interaction energy. In the large separation regime, we find that the Casimir interaction energy is of order $L^{-2D+3}$, $L^{-2D+1}$ and $L^{-2D-1}$ respectively for Dirichlet-Di...

  6. Some Developments of the Casimir Effect in $p$-Cavity of $(D+1)$-Dimensional Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Zhai, Xiang-Hua; Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The Casimir effect for rectangular boxes has been studied for several decades. But there are still some points unclear. Recently, there are new developments related to this topic, including the demonstration of the equivalence of the regularization methods and the clarification of the ambiguity in the regularization of the temperature-dependent free energy. Also, the interesting quantum spring was raised stemming from the topological Casimir effect of the helix boundary conditions. We review these developments together with the general derivation of the Casimir energy of the $p$-dimensional cavity in ($D+1$)-dimensional spacetime, paying special attention to the sign of the Casimir force in a cavity with unequal edges. In addition, we also review the Casimir piston, which is a configuration related to rectangular cavity.

  7. (3 + 1)-dimensional framework for leading-order nonconformal anisotropic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2015-07-01

    In this work I develop a new framework for anisotropic hydrodynamics that generalizes the leading order of the hydrodynamic expansion to the full (3 + 1)-dimensional anisotropic massive case. Following previous works, my considerations are based on the Boltzmann kinetic equation with the collisional term treated in the relaxation time approximation. The momentum anisotropy is included explicitly in the leading term, allowing for a large difference between the longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as for nontrivial transverse dynamics. Energy and momentum conservation is expressed by the first moment of the Boltzmann equation. The system of equations is closed by using the zeroth and second moments of the Boltzmann equation. The close-to-equilibrium matching with second-order viscous hydrodynamics is demonstrated. In particular, I show that the coupling between shear and bulk pressure corrections, recently proved to be important for an accurate description of momentum anisotropy and bulk viscous dynamics, does not vanish in the close-to-equilibrium limit.

  8. (3+1)-dimensional framework for leading-order non conformal anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tinti, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We develop a new framework for anisotropic hydrodynamics that generalizes the leading order of the hydrodynamic expansion to the full (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic massive case. Following previous works, our considerations are based on the Boltzmann kinetic equation with the collisional term treated in the relaxation time approximation. The momentum anisotropy is included explicitly in the leading term, allowing for a large difference between the longitudinal and transverse pressures as well as for non trivial transverse dynamics. Energy and momentum conservation is expressed by the first moment of the Boltzmann equation. The system of equations is closed by using the zeroth and second moments of the Boltzmann equation. The close-to-equilibrium matching with second-order viscous hydrodynamics is demonstrated. In particular, we show that the coupling between shear and bulk pressure corrections, recently proved to be important for an accurate description of momentum anisotropy and bulk viscous dynamics, does no...

  9. Large phase shift of (1+1)-dimensional nonlocal spatial solitons in lead glass

    CERN Document Server

    Shou, Qian; Guo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The large phase shift of strongly nonlocal spatial optical soliton(SNSOS) in the (1+1)-dimensional [(1+1)D] lead glass is investigated using the perturbation method. The fundamental soliton solution of the nonlocal nonlinear Schodinger equation(NNLSE) under the second approximation in strongly nonlocal case is obtained. It is found that the phase shift rate along the propagation direction of such soliton is proportional to the degree of nonlocality, which indicates that one can realize Pi-phase-shift within one Rayleigh distance in (1+1)D lead glass. A full comprehension of the nonlocality-enhancement to the phase shift rate of SNSOS is reached via quantitative comparisons of phase shift rates in different nonlocal systems.

  10. New Exact Solutions of (1 + 1)-Dimensional Coupled Integrable Dispersionless System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Chao-Qing; YANG Qin; WANG Yue-Yue

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the exp-function method, which was originally proposed to find new exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, to the Riccati equation, and some exact solutions of this equation are obtained. Based on the Riccati equation and its exact solutions, we find new and more general variable separation solutions with two arbitrary functions of (1+1)-dimensional coupled integrable dispersionless system. As some special examples, some new solutions can degenerate into variable separation solutions reported in open literatures. By choosing suitably two independent variables p(x) and q(t) in our solutions, the annihilation phenomena of the flat-basin soliton,arch-basin soliton, and flat-top soliton are discussed.

  11. An Eternal Time Machine in 2+1 Dimensional anti-de Sitter Space

    CERN Document Server

    De Deo, S

    2002-01-01

    2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter space has been the subject of much recent investigation. Studies of the behaviour of point particles in this space have given us a greater understanding of the BTZ black hole solutions produced by topological identification of adS isometries. In this paper, we present a new configuration of two orbiting massive point particles that leads to an ``eternal'' time machine, where closed timelike curves fill the entire space. In contrast to previous solutions, this configuration has no event or chronology horizons. Another interesting feature is that there is no lower bound on the relative velocities of the point masses used to construct the time machine; as long as the particles exceed a certain mass threshold, an eternal time machine will be produced.

  12. Noether Gauge Symmetry of Dirac Field in (2 + 1-Dimensional Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganim Gecim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a gravitational theory including a Dirac field that is nonminimally coupled to gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions. Noether gauge symmetry approach can be used to fix the form of coupling function F(Ψ and the potential V(Ψ of the Dirac field and to obtain a constant of motion for the dynamical equations. In the context of (2 + 1-dimensional gravity, we investigate cosmological solutions of the field equations using these forms obtained by the existence of Noether gauge symmetry. In this picture, it is shown that, for the nonminimal coupling case, the cosmological solutions indicate both an early-time inflation and late-time acceleration for the universe.

  13. Poisson structure and symmetry in the Chern-Simons formulation of (2+1)-dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Meusburger, C

    2003-01-01

    In the formulation of (2+1)-dimensional gravity as a Chern-Simons gauge theory, the phase space is the moduli space of flat Poincar\\'e group connections. Using the combinatorial approach developed by Fock and Rosly, we give an explicit description of the phase space and its Poisson structure for the general case of a genus g oriented surface with punctures representing particles and a boundary playing the role of spatial infinity. We give a physical interpretation and explain how the degrees of freedom associated with each handle and each particle can be decoupled. The symmetry group of the theory combines an action of the mapping class group with asymptotic Poincar\\'e transformations in a non-trivial fashion. We derive the conserved quantities associated to the latter and show that the mapping class group of the surface acts on the phase space via Poisson isomorphisms.

  14. BRST Invariant Theory Of A Generalized 1+1 Dimensional Nonlinear Sigma Model With Topological Term

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yong-Chang; Lee, Xi-Guo

    2006-01-01

    We give a generalized Lagrangian density of 1+1 Dimensional O(3) nonlinear sigma model with subsidiary constraints, different Lagrange multiplier fields and topological term, find a lost intrinsic constraint condition, convert the subsidiary constraints into inner constraints in the nonlinear sigma model, give the example of not introducing the lost constraint, by comparing the example with the case of introducing the lost constraint, we obtain that when not introducing the lost constraint, one has to obtain a lot of various non-intrinsic constraints. We further deduce the gauge generator, give general BRST transformation of the model under the general conditions. It is discovered that there exists a gauge parameter originating from the freedom degree of BRST transformation in a general O(3) nonlinear sigma model, and we gain the general commutation relations of ghost field.

  15. Extremal curves in 2+1-dimensional Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Orland, P; Orland, Peter; Semenoff, Gordon W.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the structure of the potential energy of 2+1-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on a torus with gauge group SU(2). We use a standard definition of distance on the space of gauge orbits. The curves of extremal potential energy in orbit space satisfy a certain partial differential equation. We argue that the energy spectrum is gapped because the extremal curves are of finite length. Though classical gluon waves satisfy our differential equation, they are not extremal curves. We construct examples of extremal curves and find how the length of these curves depends on the dimensions of the torus. The intersections with the Gribov horizon are determined explicitly. The results are discussed in the context of Feynman's ideas about the origin of the mass gap.

  16. A second look at transition amplitudes in (2+1)-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperman, Joshua H; Miller, Jonah M

    2016-01-01

    Studying transition amplitudes in (2+1)-dimensional causal dynamical triangulations, Cooperman and Miller discovered speculative evidence for Lorentzian quantum geometries emerging from its Euclidean path integral. On the basis of this evidence, Cooperman and Miller conjectured that Lorentzian de Sitter spacetime, not Euclidean de Sitter space, dominates the ground state of the quantum geometry of causal dynamical triangulations on large scales, a scenario akin to that of the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in which Lorentzian spacetimes dominate a Euclidean path integral. We argue against this conjecture: we propose a more straightforward explanation of their findings, and we proffer evidence for the Euclidean nature of these seemingly Lorentzian quantum geometries. This explanation reveals another manner in which the Euclidean path integral of causal dynamical triangulations behaves correctly in its semiclassical limit--the implementation and interaction of multiple constraints.

  17. Structures and Interactions of Soliton in (2+1)-Dimensional Generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Hang-Yu

    2005-01-01

    A variable separation approach is used to obtain exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional generalized Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation. Two of these exact solutions are analyzed to study the interaction between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton (i.e. the array of the localized structure in the y direction, which propagates in the x direction) and between two dromions. The interactions between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton are classified into several types according to the phase shifts due to collision. There are two types of singular interactions. One is the resonant interaction that generates one line soliton while the other is the extremely repulsive or long-range interaction where two solitons interchange each other infinitely apart. Some new phenomena of interaction between two dromions are also reported in this paper, and detailed behaviors of interactions are illustrated both analytically and graphically.

  18. Regularization strategy for an inverse problem for a 1 + 1 dimensional wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Jussi; Lassas, Matti; Oksanen, Lauri

    2016-06-01

    An inverse boundary value problem for a 1 + 1 dimensional wave equation with a wave speed c(x) is considered. We give a regularization strategy for inverting the map { A } :c\\mapsto {{Λ }}, where Λ is the hyperbolic Neumann-to-Dirichlet map corresponding to the wave speed c. That is, we consider the case when we are given a perturbation of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map \\tilde{{{Λ }}}={{Λ }}+{ E }, where { E } corresponds to the measurement errors, and reconstruct an approximative wave speed \\tilde{c}. We emphasize that \\tilde{{{Λ }}} may not be in the range of the map { A }. We show that the reconstructed wave speed \\tilde{c} satisfies \\parallel \\tilde{c}-c\\parallel ≤slant C\\parallel { E }{\\parallel }1/54. Our regularization strategy is based on a new formula to compute c from Λ.

  19. Analytical, 1-Dimensional Impedance Model of a Composite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Søgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    An analytical, 1-dimensional impedance model for a composite solid oxide fuel cell cathode is derived. It includes geometrical parameters of the cathode, e.g., the internal surface area and the electrode thickness, and also material parameters, e.g., the surface reaction rate and the vacancy...... diffusion coefficient. The model is successfully applied to a total of 42 impedance spectra, obtained in the temperature range 555°C–852°C and in the oxygen partial pressure range 0.028 atm–1.00 atm for a cathode consisting of a 50/50 wt% mixture of (La0.6Sr0.4)0.99CoO3 − δ and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 − δ...... and providing both qualitative and quantitative information on the evolution of the impedance spectra of cathodes with changing parameters....

  20. Three-dimensional whole-core transport calculation of the OECD benchmark problem C5G7 MOX by the CRX code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Soo Lee; Nam, Zin Cho [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Yusong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The OECD 3-dimensional benchmark problem C5G7 MOX was calculated by the CRX code. For 3-dimensional heterogeneous calculation, the CRX code uses a fusion technique of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional methods: the method of characteristics for radial 2-dimensional calculation and diamond difference scheme (DD) that is an S{sub N}-like method for axial 1-dimensional calculation. We improve the fusion method by using a linear characteristics (LC) solver in the 1-dimensional calculation. Here, we present brief structure of 2-dimensional/1-dimensional fusion method and the results of 3 configurations of benchmark problem. We also present results of several different 1-dimensional calculation options. Numerical results show that the LC scheme presents better performance than DD. In the results of the benchmark problem, k(eff) errors are less than 0.05% and the averages of pin power errors are less than 1% for all calculations.

  1. Polarization operator in the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics with a nonzero fermion density in a constant uniform magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Khalilov, V R

    2015-01-01

    The polarization operator (tensor) for planar charged fermions in constant uniform magnetic field is calculated in the one-loop approximation of the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED$_{2+1}$) with a nonzero fermion density. We construct the Green function of the Dirac equation with a constant uniform external magnetic field in the QED$_{2+1}$ at the finite chemical potential, find the imaginary part of this Green function and then obtain the polarization tensor related to the combined contribution from real particles occupying the finite number of energy levels and magnetic field. We expect that some physical effects under consideration seem to be likely to be revealed in a monolayer graphene sample in the presence of external constant uniform magnetic field $B$ perpendicular to it.

  2. Polarization operator in the 2+1 dimensional quantum electrodynamics with a nonzero fermion density in a constant uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalilov, V.R.; Mamsurov, I.V. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-01

    The polarization operator (tensor) for planar charged fermions in a constant uniform magnetic field is calculated in the one-loop approximation of 2 + 1-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED{sub 2+1}) with a nonzero fermion density. We construct the Green function of the Dirac equation with a constant uniform external magnetic field in QED{sub 2+1} at a finite chemical potential, find the imaginary part of this Green function, and then obtain the polarization tensor related to the combined contribution from real particles occupying the finite number of energy levels and magnetic field. We expect that some physical effects under consideration seem likely to be revealed in a monolayer graphene sample in the presence of an external constant uniform magnetic field B perpendicular to it. (orig.)

  3. Dynamical formation and evolution of (2+1)-dimensional charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation and evolution of (2 + 1)-dimensional charged black holes. We numerically study dynamical collapses of charged matter fields in an anti-de Sitter background and note the formation of black holes using the double-null formalism. Moreover, we include renormalized energy-momentum tensors assuming the S-wave approximation to determine thermodynamical back-reactions to the internal structures. If there are no semi-classical effects, the amount of charge determines the causal structures. If the charge is sufficiently small, the causal structure has a space-like singularity. However, as the charge increases, an inner Cauchy horizon appears. If we have sufficient charge, we see a space-like outer horizon and a time-like inner horizon, and if we give excessive charge, black hole horizons disappear. We have some circumstantial evidence that weak cosmic censorship is still satisfied, even for such excessive charge cases. Also, we confirm that there is mass inflation along the inner horizon, although the properties are quite different from those of four-dimensional cases. Semi-classical back-reactions will not affect the outer horizon, but they will affect the inner horizon. Near the center, there is a place where negative energy is concentrated. Thus, charged black holes in three dimensions have two types of curvature singularities in general: via mass inflation and via a concentration of negative energy. Finally, we classify possible causal structures. (paper)

  4. Theta-function Solutions to the(2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun-Min; YANG Xiao

    2011-01-01

    @@ A new periodic wave solution in terms of theta functions is presented for a kind of elliptic equation.Based on the results,with the help of Mathematica and the improved generalized F-expansion method,some periodic wave solutions in terms of theta functions are obtained for the(2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation.In addition,x-direction periodic wave solutions are derived,their properties and profiles are displayed in 3D figures.To our knowledge,these solutions are reported for the first time.%A new periodic wave solution in terms of theta functions is presented for a kind of elliptic equation. Based on the results, with the help of Mathematica and the improved generalized F-expansion method, some periodic wave solutions in terms of theta functions are obtained for the (2+l)-dimensional breaking soliton equation. In addition, x-direction periodic wave solutions are derived, their properties and proBles are displayed in 3D figures. To our knowledge, these solutions are reported for the first time.

  5. Smooth and sharp creation of a pointlike source for a $(3+1)$-dimensional quantum field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, L J; Kunstatter, Gabor; Louko, Jorma

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the smooth and sharp creation of a pointlike source for a quantised massless scalar field in $(3+1)$-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, as a model for the breakdown of correlations that has been proposed to occur at the horizon of an evaporating black hole. After a smooth creation, the renormalised energy density $\\langle T_{00} \\rangle$ is well defined away from the source, but it is time dependent, and it is so large near the source that the total energy transmitted into the field during the source creation is infinite. In the sharp creation limit, $\\langle T_{00} \\rangle$ diverges everywhere in the causal future of the creation event, and so does the response of an Unruh-DeWitt detector that operates in the causal future of the creation event. The source creation is hence significantly more singular than the corresponding process in $1+1$ dimensions, and may be sufficiently singular to break down quantum correlations in the way which has been proposed to happen in the spacetime of an evaporating b...

  6. Dynamical formation and evolution of (2+1)-dimensional charged black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation and evolution of 2+1-dimensional charged black holes. We numerically study dynamical collapses of charged matter fields in an anti de Sitter background and note the formation of black holes using the double-null formalism. Moreover, we include re-normalized energy-momentum tensors assuming the S-wave approximation to determine thermodynamical back-reactions to the internal structures. If there is no semi-classical effects, the amount of charge determines the causal structures. If the charge is sufficiently small, the causal structure has a space-like singularity. However, as the charge increases, an inner Cauchy horizon appears. If we have sufficient charge, we see a space-like outer horizon and a time-like inner horizon, and if we give excessive charge, black hole horizons disappear. We have some circumstantial evidences that weak cosmic censorship is still satisfied, even for such excessive charge cases. Also, we confirm that there is mass inflation alon...

  7. Dynamical formation and evolution of (2+1)-dimensional charged black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Kim, Hongbin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation and evolution of (2 + 1)-dimensional charged black holes. We numerically study dynamical collapses of charged matter fields in an anti-de Sitter background and note the formation of black holes using the double-null formalism. Moreover, we include renormalized energy-momentum tensors assuming the S-wave approximation to determine thermodynamical back-reactions to the internal structures. If there are no semi-classical effects, the amount of charge determines the causal structures. If the charge is sufficiently small, the causal structure has a space-like singularity. However, as the charge increases, an inner Cauchy horizon appears. If we have sufficient charge, we see a space-like outer horizon and a time-like inner horizon, and if we give excessive charge, black hole horizons disappear. We have some circumstantial evidence that weak cosmic censorship is still satisfied, even for such excessive charge cases. Also, we confirm that there is mass inflation along the inner horizon, although the properties are quite different from those of four-dimensional cases. Semi-classical back-reactions will not affect the outer horizon, but they will affect the inner horizon. Near the center, there is a place where negative energy is concentrated. Thus, charged black holes in three dimensions have two types of curvature singularities in general: via mass inflation and via a concentration of negative energy. Finally, we classify possible causal structures.

  8. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependent evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters

  9. Expanding (n+1)-dimensional wormhole solutions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained two classes of (n+1)-dimensional wormhole solutions using a traceless energy-momentum tensor in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. The first class contains wormhole solutions in an open geometry, while the second contains wormhole solutions in both open and closed universes. In addition to wormhole geometries, naked singularities and maximally symmetric space-time also appear among the solutions as special cases. We have also considered the traversability of the wormhole solutions and have shown that they are indeed traversable. Finally, we have discussed the energy-momentum tensor which supports this geometry and have checked for the energy conditions. We have found that wormhole solutions in the first class of solutions violate the weak energy condition (WEC). In the second class, the wormhole geometries in a closed universe do violate the WEC, but in an open universe with a suitable choice of constants the supporting matter energy-momentum tensor can satisfy the WEC. However, even in this case the full effective energy-momentum tensor including the scalar field and the matter energy-momentum tensor still violates the WEC.

  10. Polar magneto-optical Kerr effect instrument for 1-dimensional magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Sachin; Sharma, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) is a powerful technique to investigate the magnetization behaviour in magnetic nanostructures. We describe the design of a polar MOKE instrument for investigating the magnetization variation in MOKE signal observed in the exciting regime where the size of the magnetic nanostructures is around 20-350 nm. In particular, when the magnetization of the sample is perpendicular to its plane (i.e., along the axis of a cylindrical nanowire) we use polar MOKE configuration. The sign and magnitude of the small rotation measured in the signal is found proportional to the magnetization and its direction. The MOKE measurements indicate that the hysteresis depends on the shape as well as the density of nanostructures formed. The instrument is sensitive enough to clearly indicate the effect of magneto-static interaction on shape of M-H loop. We have observed the coercive field of ˜269 G for cylindrical nanowire grown in anodic aluminium oxide template and ˜135 G for "pin" shaped nanowire grown in polycarbonate track etched template. The magnetization reversal measurements are intricate in the case of "pin" or "X" shaped nanostructures as seen from the loop. These typical MOKE measurements on the 1-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures explore the effect of magneto-static interaction between the nanostructures.

  11. Vacuum energy is non-positive for (2 + 1)-dimensional holographic CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Andrew; Wiseman, Toby

    2016-02-01

    We consider a (2 + 1)-dimensional holographic CFT on a static spacetime with globally timelike Killing vector. Taking the spatial geometry to be closed but otherwise general we expect a non-trivial vacuum energy at zero temperature due to the Casimir effect. We assume a thermal state has an AdS/CFT dual description as a static smooth solution to gravity with a negative cosmological constant, which ends only on the conformal boundary or horizons. A bulk geometric argument then provides an upper bound on the ratio of CFT free energy to temperature. Considering the zero temperature limit of this bound implies the vacuum energy of the CFT is non-positive. Furthermore the vacuum energy must be negative unless the boundary metric is locally conformal to a product of time with a constant curvature space. We emphasise the argument does not require the zero temperature bulk geometry to be smooth, but only that singularities are ‘good’ so are hidden by horizons at finite temperature.

  12. Vacuum energy is non-positive for (2+1)-dimensional holographic CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Hickling, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We consider a (2+1)-dimensional holographic CFT on a static spacetime with globally timelike Killing vector. Taking the spatial geometry to be closed but otherwise general we expect a non-trivial vacuum energy at zero temperature due to the Casimir effect. We assume a thermal state has an AdS/CFT dual description as a static smooth solution to gravity with a negative cosmological constant, which ends only on the conformal boundary or horizons. A bulk geometric argument then provides an upper bound on the ratio of CFT free energy to temperature. Considering the zero temperature limit of this bound implies the vacuum energy of the CFT is non-positive. Furthermore the vacuum energy must be negative unless the boundary metric is locally conformal to a product of time with a constant curvature space. We emphasise the argument does not require the zero temperature bulk geometry to be smooth, but only that singularities are `good' so are hidden by horizons at finite temperature.

  13. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, L.E. [Foothill Engineering Consultants, Mercury, Nevada (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependant evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1 992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters.

  14. A model of random center vortex lines in continuous 2+1-dimensional space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Altarawneh, Derar; Höllwieser, Roman

    2016-01-01

    A picture of confinement in QCD based on a condensate of thick vortices with fluxes in the center of the gauge group (center vortices) is studied. Previous concrete model realizations of this picture utilized a hypercubic space-time scaffolding, which, together with many advantages, also has some disadvantages, e.g., in the treatment of vortex topological charge. In the present work, we explore a center vortex model which does not rely on such a scaffolding. Vortices are represented by closed random lines in continuous 2+1-dimensional space-time. These random lines are modeled as being piece-wise linear, and an ensemble is generated by Monte Carlo methods. The physical space in which the vortex lines are defined is a torus with periodic boundary conditions. Besides moving, growing and shrinking of the vortex configurations, also reconnections are allowed. Our ensemble therefore contains not a fixed, but a variable number of closed vortex lines. This is expected to be important for realizing the deconfining ph...

  15. An integrable symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation and a family of its solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xingbiao [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific Engineering Computing, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Chunxia [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific Engineering Computing, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China); Nimmo, Jonathan J C [Department of Mathematics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QW (United Kingdom); Yu Guofu [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific Engineering Computing, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2719, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2005-01-07

    A symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation is proposed. By means of a dependent variable transformation, the equation is firstly transformed into multilinear form and further decoupled into bilinear form by introducing auxiliary independent variables. A bilinear Baecklund transformation is found and then the corresponding Lax pair is derived. Explicit solutions expressed in terms of pfaffian solutions of the bilinear form of the symmetric (2+1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation are given. As a special case of the pfaffian solutions, we obtain soliton solutions and dromions.

  16. Dromion and Multi-soliton Structures of the (2+1)-Dimensional Higher-Order Broer-Kaup System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林机

    2002-01-01

    Using the standard truncated Painlevé analysis and the Backlund transformation, we can obtain many significant exact soliton solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional higher-order Broer-Kaup (HBK) system. A special type of soliton solution is described by the variable coefficient heat-conduction-like equation. The inclusion of three arbitrary functions in the general expressions of the solitons makes the solitons of the (2+1)-dimensional HBK system possess abundant structures such as solitofT solutions, multi-dromion solutions, ring solitons and so on.

  17. Finite temperature fermion condensate, charge and current densities in a (2+1)-dimensional conical space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Bezerra de Mello, E.R. [Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Braganca, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Universidade Federal da Parai ba, Departamento de Fisica, 58.059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Saharian, A.A. [Yerevan State University, Department of Physics, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-06-15

    We evaluate the fermion condensate and the expectation values of the charge and current densities for a massive fermionic field in (2+1)-dimensional conical spacetime with a magnetic flux located at the cone apex. The consideration is done for both irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. The expectation values are decomposed into the vacuum expectation values and contributions coming from particles and antiparticles. All these contributions are periodic functions of the magnetic flux with the period equal to the flux quantum. Related to the non-invariance of the model under the parity and time-reversal transformations, the fermion condensate and the charge density have indefinite parity with respect to the change of the signs of the magnetic flux and chemical potential. The expectation value of the radial current density vanishes. The azimuthal current density is the same for both the irreducible representations of the Clifford algebra. It is an odd function of the magnetic flux and an even function of the chemical potential. The behavior of the expectation values in various asymptotic regions of the parameters are discussed in detail. In particular, we show that for points near the cone apex the vacuum parts dominate. For a massless field with zero chemical potential the fermion condensate and charge density vanish. Simple expressions are derived for the part in the total charge induced by the planar angle deficit and magnetic flux. Combining the results for separate irreducible representations, we also consider the fermion condensate, charge and current densities in parity and time-reversal symmetric models. Possible applications to graphitic nanocones are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Analytical travelling wave solutions and parameter analysis for the (2+1)-dimensional Davey–Stewartson-type equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jianping Shi; Jibin Li; Shumin Li

    2013-11-01

    By using dynamical system method, this paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional Davey–Stewartson-type equations. The analytical parametric representations of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions as well as unbounded wave solutions are obtained under different parameter conditions. A few diagrams corresponding to certain solutions illustrate some dynamical properties of the equations.

  19. New Exact Solutions and Interactions Between Two Solitary Waves for (3+1)-Dimensional Jimbo-Miwa System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qiu-Ying; MA Song-Hua; ZHANG Ying-Yue; FANG Jian-Ping; CHEN Tian-Lun; HONG Bi-Hai; ZHENG Chun-Long

    2008-01-01

    By means of an extended mapping approach and a linear variable separation approach, a new family of exact solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa system is derived. Based on the derived solitary wave solution, we obtain some special localized excitations and study the interactions between two solitary waves of the system.

  20. New Families of Rational Form Variable Separation Solutions to (2+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-Yong

    2009-01-01

    With the aid of symbolic computation system Maple, some families of new rational variable separation solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equations are constructed by means of a function transformation, improved mapping approach, and variable separation approach, among which there are rational solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational wave solutions.

  1. A Series of Variable Separation Solutions and New Soliton Structures of (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chang-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    Variable separation approach is introduced to solve the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation. A series of variable separation solutions is derived with arbitrary functions in system. We present a new soliton excitation model (24). Based on this excitation, new soliton structures such as the multi-lump soliton and periodic soliton are revealed by selecting the arbitrary function appropriately.

  2. Grammian and Pfaffian solutions as well as Pfaffianization for a (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ya-Ning; Ma Wen-Xiu; Xu Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Grammian and Pfaffian derivative formulae,Grammian and Pfaffian solutions are obtained for a (3+1)-dimensional generalized shallow water equation in the Hirota bilinear form.Moreover,a Pfaffian extension ismade for the equation by means of the Pfaffianization procedure,the Wronski-type and Gramm-type Pfaffian solutions of the resulting coupled system are presented.

  3. A 3+1 dimensional viscous hydrodynamic code for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, Iu.; Huovinen, P.; Bleicher, M.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the details of 3+1 dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code for the simulations of quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The code solves the equations of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics in the Israel-Stewart framework. With the help of ideal-viscous splitting, we keep the ability to solve the equations of ideal hydrodynamics in the limit of zero viscosities using a Godunov-type algorithm. Milne coordinates are used to treat the predominant expansion in longitudinal (beam) direction effectively. The results are successfully tested against known analytical relativistic inviscid and viscous solutions, as well as against existing 2+1D relativistic viscous code. Catalogue identifier: AETZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 825 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 92 750 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: any with a C++ compiler and the CERN ROOT libraries. Operating system: tested on GNU/Linux Ubuntu 12.04 x64 (gcc 4.6.3), GNU/Linux Ubuntu 13.10 (gcc 4.8.2), Red Hat Linux 6 (gcc 4.4.7). RAM: scales with the number of cells in hydrodynamic grid; 1900 Mbytes for 3D 160×160×100 grid. Classification: 1.5, 4.3, 12. External routines: CERN ROOT (http://root.cern.ch), Gnuplot (http://www.gnuplot.info/) for plotting the results. Nature of problem: relativistic hydrodynamical description of the 3-dimensional quark-gluon/hadron matter expansion in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Solution method: finite volume Godunov-type method. Running time: scales with the number of hydrodynamic cells; typical running times on Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-3770 CPU @ 3.40 GHz, single thread mode, 160

  4. Space-time-resolved quantum electrodynamics: A (1+1)-dimensional model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Scott; Smith, Dallas; Pritchett, Luke; Gardner, John; Ware, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a model that reduces quantum electrodynamics (QED) in time plus three spatial dimensions to time plus a single spatial dimension, making it is possible to numerically calculate the dynamic behavior of simple QED systems. The dimensionality is restricted in such a way as to preserve the influence of spin and angular momentum. In contrast to the S -matrix scattering approach, these calculations are not perturbative within the zero- and one-photon sector of the relevant Hilbert space. The model restricts the electron occupation number to one and the photon occupation number to zero or one. We use this model to calculate the dynamics of a so-called bare electron that dresses itself by a photon field.

  5. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  6. Entropy of 2+1 dimensional de Sitter space without cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, W; Park, Y J; Kim, Wontae; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2006-01-01

    By introducing the generalized uncertainty principle on the quantum state density, we calculate the statistical entropy of a scalar field on the background of three-dimensional de Sitter space without artificial cutoff. The desired entropy proportional to the horizon perimeter is obtained.

  7. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...... complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested....

  8. Darboux Transformation and Soliton Solutions for the (2+1)-Dimensional Generalization of Shallow Water Wave Equation with Symbolic Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xiao-Yong; MENG Xiang-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the (2+1)-dimensional generalization of shallow water wave equation,which may be used to describe the propagation of ocean waves,is analytically investigated.With the aid of symbolic computation,we prove that the (2+1)-dimensional generalization of shallow water wave equation possesses the Painlevé property under a certain condition,and its Lax pair is constructed by applying the singular manifold method.Based on the obtained Lax representation,the Darboux transformation (DT) is constructed.The first iterated solution,second iterated solution and a special N-soliton solution with an arbitrary function are derived with the resulting DT.Relevant properties are graphically illustrated,which might be helpful to understanding the propagation processes for ocean waves in shallow water.

  9. New doubly periodic and multiple soliton solutions of the generalized (3+1)-dimensional KP equation with variable coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈怀堂; 张鸿庆

    2003-01-01

    A new generalized Jacobi elliptic function method is used to construct the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in a unified way. The main idea of this method is to take full advantage of the elliptic equation which has more new solutions. More new doubly periodic and multiple soliton solutions are obtained for the generalized (3+1)-dimensional Kronig-Penny (KP) equation with variable coefficients. This method can be applied to other equations with variable coefficients.

  10. New localized excitations and cross-like fractal structures to the (2+1)-dimensional Broer–Kaup system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zitian Li

    2014-09-01

    A broad general variable separation solution with two arbitrary lower-dimensional functions of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer–Kaup (BK) equations was derived by means of a projective equation method and a variable separation hypothesis. Based on the derived variable separation excitation, some new special types of localized solutions such as oscillating solitons, instantonlike and cross-like fractal structures are revealed by selecting appropriate functions of the general variable separation solution.

  11. A New Class of (2+1)-Dimensional Localized Coherent Structures with Completely Elastic and Non-elastic Interactive Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie-Fang; MENG Jian-Ping; HUANG Wen-Hua

    2004-01-01

    From the variable separation solution and by selecting appropriate functions, a new class of localized coherent structures consisting of solitons in various types are found in the (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction equation. The completely elastic and non-elastic interactive behavior between the dromion and compacton, dromion and peakon, as well as between peakon and compacton are investigated. The novel features exhibited by these new structures are revealed for the first time.

  12. Determining lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) worldwide using a tuned 1-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1)

    OpenAIRE

    Layden, A.; S. MacCallum; Merchant, C.

    2015-01-01

    FLake, a 1-dimensional freshwater lake model, is tuned for 244 globally distributed large lakes using lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs). The model, tuned using only 3 lake properties; lake depth, albedo (snow and ice) and light extinction co-efficient, substantially improves the measured biases in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes. The daily ...

  13. A Generalized Variable-Coefficient Algebraic Method Exactly Solving (3+1)-Dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A generalized variable-coefficient algebraic method is applied to construct several new families of exact solutions of physical interestfor (3+1)-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli (KP) equation. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. Compared with the existing tanh method, the extended tanh method, the Jacobi elliptic function method, and the algebraic method, the proposed method gives new and more general solutions.

  14. The soliton-like solutions to the (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li De-sheng; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    By a simple transformation, we reduce the (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system to a simple nonlinear partial differential equation. In order to solve this equation by generalized tanh-function method, we only need to solve a simple system of first-order ordinary differential equations, and by doing so we can obtain many new soliton-like solutions which include the solutions obtained by using the conventional tanh-function method.

  15. Finite temperature Casimir effect on spherical shells in (D+1)-dimensional spacetime and its high temperature limit

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the finite temperature Casimir free energy acting on a spherical shell in (D+1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime due to the vacuum fluctuations of scalar and electromagnetic fields. Dirichlet, Neumann, perfectly conducting and infinitely permeable boundary conditions are considered. The Casimir free energy is regularized using zeta functional regularization technique. To renormalize the Casimir free energy, we compute the heat kernel coefficients $c_n$, $0\\leq n\\leq D+1$, from the ...

  16. Exact Solutions for ( $3+1$ )-Dimensional Potential-YTSF Equation and Discrete Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Wang; Zhenhui Wang

    2013-01-01

    By employing Hirota bilinear method, we mainly discuss the ( $3+1$ )-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and discrete KP equation. For the former, we use the linear superposition principle to get its $N$ exponential wave solutions. In virtue of some Riemann theta function formulas, we also construct its quasiperiodic solutions and analyze the asymptotic properties of these solutions. For the latter, by using certain variable transformations and identities of the theta functions, we explicitly...

  17. Three distinct types of quantum phase transitions in a (2+1)-dimensional array of dissipative Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sperstad, Einar B. Stiansen. Iver B.; Sudbø, Asle

    2012-01-01

    We have performed large-scale Monte Carlo simulations on a model describing a (2+1)-dimensional array of dissipative Josephson junctions. We find three distinct stable quantum phases of the system. The most ordered state features long-range spatial ordering in the phase $\\theta$ of the superconducting order parameter, but temporal ordering only in spatial gradients $\\Delta \\theta$, not in $\\theta$. Significantly, the most ordered state therefore does not have 3D XY ordering. Rather, it featur...

  18. Extended Jacobi elliptic function method and its applications to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long-wave equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong; Li Biao; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    @@ An extended Jacobi elliptic function method is proposed for constructing the exact double periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in a unified way. It is shown that these solutions exactly degenerate to the many types of soliton solutions in a limited condition. The Wu-Zhang equation (which describes the (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave) is investigated by this means and more formal double periodic solutions are obtained.

  19. Localized Structures on Periodic Background Wave of (2+1)-Dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli System via an Object Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object reduction for nonlinear partial differential equations. As a concrete example of its applications in physical problems, this method is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli system, which has the extensive physics background, and an abundance of exact solutions is derived from some reduction equations. Based on the derived solutions, the localized structures under the periodic wave background are obtained.

  20. Solving Integrable Broer-Kaup Equations in (2+1)-Dimensional Spaces via an Improved Variable Separation Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Sheng; LUO Cheng-Xin; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Starting from Backlund transformation and using Cole-Hopf transformation, we reduce the integrable Broer-Kaup equations in (2+1)-dimensional spaces to a simple linear evolution equation with two arbitrary functions of {x,t} and {y,t} in this paper. And we can obtain some new solutions of the original equations by investigating the simple nonlinear evolution equation, which include the solutions obtained by the variable separation approach.

  1. Coherent soliton structures of the (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文华; 张解放; 盛正卯

    2002-01-01

    The variable separation approach is used to find exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-waveresonance interaction equation. The abundance of the coherent soliton structures of this model is introduced by theentrance of an arbitrary function of the seed solutions. For some special selections of the arbitrary function, it is shownthat the coherent soliton structures may be dromions, solitoffs, etc.

  2. Using Symbolic Computation to Exactly Solve the Integrable Broer-Kaup Equations in (2+1)-Dimensional Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fu-Ding; CHEN Jing; L(U) Zhuo-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    The extended tanh method is further improved by generalizing the Riccati equation and introducing its twenty seven new solutions. As its application, the (2+ 1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup equation is investigated and then its fifty four non-travelling wave solutions have been obtained. The results reported in this paper show that this method is more powerful than those, such as tanh method, extended tanh method, modified extended tanh method and Riccati equation expansion method introduced in previous literatures.

  3. Bright and dark soliton solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation and generalized Benjamin equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmet Bekir; Özkan Güner

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we obtain the 1-soliton solutions of the (3 + 1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (gKP) equation and the generalized Benjamin equation. By using two solitary wave ansatz in terms of sech$^{p}$ and tanh$^{p}$ functions, we obtain exact analytical bright and dark soliton solutions for the considered model. These solutions may be useful and desirable for explaining some nonlinear physical phenomena in genuinely nonlinear dynamical systems.

  4. Complex wave excitations and chaotic patterns for a general (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Hua; Fang Jian-Ping; Zheng Chun-Long

    2008-01-01

    Starting from an improved mapping approach and a linear variable separation approach, a new family of exact solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions and rational function solutions) with arbitrary functions for a general (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg de Vries system (GKdV) is derived. According to the derived solutions, we obtain some novel dromion-lattice solitons, complex wave excitations and chaotic patterns for the GKdV system.

  5. Casimir Effect of Massive Scalar Field with Hybrid Boundary Condition in (1+1)-Dimensional Spacetime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-Kai; LIU Wen-Biao; QIU Wei-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The Casimir energy of maesive scalar field with hybrid (Dirichlet-Neumann) boundary condition is calcu-lated. In order to regularize the model, the typical methods named as mode summation method and Green's function method are used respectively. It is found that the regularized zero-point energy density depends on the scalar field's mass. When the field is massless, the result is consistent with previous literatures.

  6. Thermodynamics of hot quantum scalar field in a (D+1) dimensional curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    C., W A Rojas

    2016-01-01

    We use the brick wall model to calculate the free energy of quantum scalar field in a curved spacetime (D +1) dimensions. We find the thermodynamics properties of quantum scalar field in several scenaries: Minkowski spacetime, Schwarzschild spacetime and BTZ spacetime. For the cases analysed, the thermodynamical properties of quantum scalar field is exactly with the reported. It was found that the entropy of the gas is proportional to the horizon area in a gravity field strong, which is consistent with the holographic principle.

  7. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended

  8. Tachyonic instabilities in 2+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory and its connection to Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chamizo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We consider the $2+1$ dimensional Yang-Mills theory with gauge group $\\text{SU}(N)$ on a flat 2-torus under twisted boundary conditions. We study the possibility of phase transitions (tachyonic instabilities) when $N$ and the volume vary and certain chromomagnetic flux associated to the topology of the bundle can be adjusted. Under natural assumptions about how to match the perturbative regime and the expected confinement, we prove that the absence of tachyonic instabilities is related to some problems in number theory, namely the Diophantine approximation of irreducible fractions by other fractions of smaller denominator.

  9. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Izquierdo, Alberto; Mateos Guilarte, Juan

    2012-01-01

    [EN] In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and $\\phi^4$ models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schr\\"odinger differential operators with P\\"oschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in ...

  10. Full Symmetry Groups and Similar Reductions of a (2+1)-Dimensional Resonant Davey-Stewartson System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Rui; CHEN Yong; QIAN Long-Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Applying the classical Lie symmetry method to the (2+1)-dimensional resonant Davey-Stewartson system introduced by Tang [X. Y. Tang et al., Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 42 (2007) 2707], a more general infinite dimensional Lie symmetry with Kac-Moody-Virasoro type Lie algebra is obtained, which involves four arbitrary functions of t.Alternatively, by a simple direct method, the full symmetry groups including Lie symmetry group and non-Lie symmetry group are gained straightly. In this way, the related Lie algebra can be easily found by a more simple limiting procedure.Lastly, via solving the characteristic equations, three types of the general similar reductions are derived.

  11. Exact and explicit solutions to the ( 3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation via the Exp-function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öziş, Turgut; Aslan, İsmail

    2008-11-01

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method, with the aid of a symbolic computation system such as Mathematica, is applied to the ( 3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation to show its effectiveness and reliability. Exact and explicit generalized solitary solutions are obtained in more general forms. The free parameters can be determined by initial or boundary conditions. Being less restrictive and concise, the method can be applied to many high-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations having wide applications in applied physical sciences.

  12. Exact and explicit solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation via the Exp-function method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozis, Turgut [Department of Mathematics, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: turgut.ozis@ege.edu.tr; Aslan, Ismail [Department of Mathematics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)

    2008-11-24

    In this Letter, the Exp-function method, with the aid of a symbolic computation system such as Mathematica, is applied to the (3+1)-dimensional Jimbo-Miwa equation to show its effectiveness and reliability. Exact and explicit generalized solitary solutions are obtained in more general forms. The free parameters can be determined by initial or boundary conditions. Being less restrictive and concise, the method can be applied to many high-dimensional nonlinear evolution equations having wide applications in applied physical sciences.

  13. Nonlocal symmetries, consistent Riccati expansion integrability, and their applications of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Yong

    2015-09-01

    For the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup-Kupershmidt (BKK) system, the nonlocal symmetries related to the Schwarzian variable and the corresponding transformation group are found. Moreover, the integrability of the BKK system in the sense of having a consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) is investigated. The interaction solutions between soliton and cnoidal periodic wave are explicitly studied. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LQ13A010014) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11326164, 11401528, 11435005, and 11375090).

  14. Critical behaviour of ($2+1$)-dimensional QED: 1/N_f-corrections in the Landau gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V; Teber, S

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical generation of a fermion mass is studied within ($2+1$)-dimensional QED with $N$ four-component fermions in the leading and next-to-leading orders of the 1/N expansion. The analysis is carried out in the Landau gauge which is supposed to insure the gauge independence of the critical fermion flavour number, N_c. It is found that the dynamical fermion mass appears for N

  15. Exact Solutions for (3+1-Dimensional Potential-YTSF Equation and Discrete Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing Hirota bilinear method, we mainly discuss the (3+1-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and discrete KP equation. For the former, we use the linear superposition principle to get its N exponential wave solutions. In virtue of some Riemann theta function formulas, we also construct its quasiperiodic solutions and analyze the asymptotic properties of these solutions. For the latter, by using certain variable transformations and identities of the theta functions, we explicitly investigate its periodic waves solutions in terms of one-theta function and two-theta functions.

  16. Kink degeneracy and rogue potential solution for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZHENHUI XU; HANLIN CHEN; ZHENGDE DAI

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we obtained the exact breather-type kink soliton and breather-type periodic soliton solutions for the (3+1)-dimensional B-type Kadomtsev--Petviashvili (BKP) equation using the extended homoclinic test technique. Some new nonlinear phenomena, such as kink and periodic degeneracies, are investigated. Using the homoclinic breather limit method, some new rational breather solutions are found as well. Meanwhile, we also obtained the rational potential solution which is found to be just a rogue wave. These results enrich thevariety of the dynamics of higher-dimensional nonlinear wave field.

  17. New Exact Travelling Wave Solutions to Hirota Equation and (1+1)-Dimensional Dispersive Long Wave Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; CHEN Yong; LI Biao; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the computerized symbolic Maple, we study two important nonlinear evolution equations, i.e.,the Hirota equation and the (1+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation by use of a direct and unified algebraic method named the general projective Riccati equation method to find more exact solutions to nonlinear differential equations. The method is more powerful than most of the existing tanh method. New and more general form solutions are obtained. The properties of the new formal solitary wave solutions are shown by some figures.

  18. Cloud of strings as source in 2 + 1-dimensional f(R) = R{sup n} gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazharimousavi, S.H.; Halilsoy, M. [Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Physics, Gazimagusa (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    We present three parameters exact solutions with possible black holes in 2 + 1-dimensional f(R) = R{sup n} modified gravity coupled minimally to a cloud of strings. These three parameters are n, the coupling constant of the cloud of strings ξ, and an integration constant C. Although in general one has to consider each set of parameters separately, for n an even integer greater than one we give a unified picture providing black holes. For n ≥ 1 we analyze a null/timelike geodesic within the context of particle confinement. (orig.)

  19. $Q-\\Phi$ criticality in the extended phase space of $(n+1)$-dimensional RN-AdS black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yu-Bo; Cao, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve a deeper understanding of gravity theories, it is important to further investigate the thermodynamic properties of black hole at the critical point, besides the phase transition and critical behaviors. In this paper, by using Maxwell's equal area law, we choose $T,Q,\\Phi$ as the state parameters and study the phase equilibrium problem of general $(n+1)$-dimensional RN-AdS black holes thermodynamic system. The boundary of the two-phase coexistence region and its isotherm and isopotential lines are presented, which may provide theoretical foundation for studying the phase transition and phase structure of black hole systems.

  20. Thermodynamic and geometric framework of a (2+1)-dimensional black hole with non-linear electrodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Gang; Liu Zhan-Fang; Lan Ming-Jian

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of a (2 + 1)-dimensional black hole with non-linear electrodynamics from the viewpoint of geometry is studied and some kinds of temperatures of the black hole have been obtained.Weinhold curvature and Ruppeiner curvature are explored as information geometry.Moreover,based on Quevedo's theory,the Legendre invariant geometry is investigated for the black hole. We also study the relationship between the scalar curvatures of the above several metrics and the phase transitions produced from the heat capacity.

  1. Storage and retrieval of (3+1)-dimensional weak-light bullets and vortices in a coherent atomic gas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiming; Li, Hui-jun; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    A robust light storage and retrieval (LSR) in high dimensions is highly desirable for light and quantum information processing. However, most schemes on LSR realized up to now encounter problems due to not only dissipation, but also dispersion and diffraction, which make LSR with a very low fidelity. Here we propose a scheme to achieve a robust storage and retrieval of weak nonlinear high-dimensional light pulses in a coherent atomic gas via electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that it is available to produce stable (3+1)-dimensional light bullets and vortices, which have very attractive physical property and are suitable to obtain a robust LSR in high dimensions.

  2. The exp(−Φ(η-expansion method with application in the (1+1-dimensional classical Boussinesq equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun-Or- Roshid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodic and soliton solutions are presented for the (1+1-dimensional classical Boussinesq equation which governs the evolution of nonlinear dispersive long gravity wave traveling in two horizontal directions on shallow water of uniform depth. The equation is handled via the exp(−Φ(η-expansion method. It is worth declaring that the method is more effective and useful for solving the nonlinear evolution equations. In particular, mathematical analysis and numerical graph are provided for those solitons, periodic, singular kink and bell type solitary wave solutions to visualize the dynamics of the equation.

  3. Symbolic Computation and Construction of Soliton-Like Solutions to the(2+1)-Dimensional Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; LI Biao; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2003-01-01

    Based on the computerized symbolic system Maple, a new generalized expansion method of Riccatiequation for constructing non-travelling wave and coefficient functions' soliton-like solutions is presented by a new generalansatz. Making use of the method, we consider the (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton equation, ut + buxxy + 4buvx +4buxv = 0, uy = vx, and obtain rich new families of the exact solutions of the breaking soliton equation, including thenon-travelling wave and constant function soliton-like solutions, singular soliton-like solutions, and triangular functionsolutions.

  4. Entanglement entropy and mutual information of circular entangling surfaces in the 2  +  1-dimensional quantum Lifshitz model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianci; Chen, Xiao; Faulkner, Thomas; Fradkin, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the entanglement entropy (EE) of circular entangling cuts in the 2  +  1-dimensional quantum Lifshitz model. The ground state in this model is a spatially conformal invariant state of the Rokhsar-Kivelson type, whose amplitude is the Gibbs weight of 2D Euclidean free boson. We show that the finite subleading corrections of EE to the area-law term, as well as the mutual information, are conformal invariants and calculate them for cylinder, disk-like and spherical manifolds with various spatial cuts. The subtlety due to the boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully addressed. We find that in the geometry of a punctured plane with many small holes, the constant piece of EE is proportional to the number of holes, indicating the ability of entanglement to detect topological information of the configuration. Finally, we compare the mutual information of two small distant disks with Cardy’s relativistic CFT scaling proposal. We find that in the quantum Lifshitz model, the mutual information also scales at long distance with a power determined by the lowest scaling dimension local operator in the theory.

  5. Jet propagation and Mach-cone formation in (3+1)-dimensional ideal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the jet-medium interactions in a Quark-Gluon Plasma using a hydrodynamical model. Such a Quark-Gluon Plasma represents a very early stage of our universe and is assumed to be created in heavy-ion collisions. Its properties are subject of current research. Since the comparison of measured data to model calculations suggests that the Quark-Gluon Plasma behaves like a nearly perfect liquid, the medium created in a heavy-ion collision can be described applying hydrodynamical simulations. One of the crucial questions in this context is if highly energetic particles (so-called jets), which are produced at the beginning of the collision and traverse the formed medium, may lead to the creation of a Mach cone. Such a Mach cone is always expected to develop if a jet moves with a velocity larger than the speed of sound relative to the medium. In that case, the measured angular particle distributions are supposed to exhibit a characteristic structure allowing for direct conclusions about the Equation of State and in particular about the speed of sound of the medium. Several different scenarios of jet energy loss are examined (the exact form of which is not known from first principles) and different mechanisms of energy and momentum loss are analyzed, ranging from weak interactions (based on calculations from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, pQCD) to strong interactions (formulated using the Anti-de-Sitter/Conformal Field Theory Correspondence, AdS/CFT). Though they result in different angular particle correlations which could in principle allow to distinguish the underlying processes (if it becomes possible to analyze single-jet events), it is shown that the characteristic structure observed in experimental data can be obtained due to the different contributions of several possible jet trajectories through an expanding medium. Such a structure cannot directly be connected to the Equation of State. In this context, the impact of a strong flow

  6. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  7. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  8. Variable separation solutions and new solitary wave structures to the (1+1)-dimensional equations of long-wave-short-wave resonant interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-Zhi; He Bao-Gang; Zhang Jie-Fang

    2004-01-01

    A variable separation approach is proposed and extended to the (1+1)-dimensional physical system. The variable separation solutions of (1+1)-dimensional equations of long-wave-short-wave resonant interaction are obtained. Some special type of solutions such as soliton solution, non-propagating solitary wave solution, propagating solitary wave solution, oscillating solitary wave solution are found by selecting the arbitrary function appropriately.

  9. (3 + 1)-dimensional cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries equation for nonextensive dust acoustic waves: Symbolic computation and exact solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Shimin [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Research Group MAC 2, Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam 1098XG (Netherlands); Wang Hongli [School of Business and Administration, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Mei Liquan [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Center for Computational Geosciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2012-06-15

    By combining the effects of bounded cylindrical geometry, azimuthal and axial perturbations, the nonlinear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of negatively charged dust grains, nonextensive ions, and nonextensive electrons are studied in this paper. Using the reductive perturbation method, a (3 + 1)-dimensional variable-coefficient cylindrical Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the nonlinear propagation of DAWs is derived. Via the homogeneous balance principle, improved F-expansion technique and symbolic computation, the exact traveling and solitary wave solutions of the KdV equation are presented in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Moreover, the effects of the plasma parameters on the solitary wave structures are discussed in detail. The obtained results could help in providing a good fit between theoretical analysis and real applications in space physics and future laboratory plasma experiments where long-range interactions are present.

  10. Symmetry Reduction, Exact Solutions, and Conservation Laws of (2+1)-Dimensional Burgers Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zhong-Zhou; LIU Xi-Qiang; BAI Cheng-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Using the classical Lie method of infinitesimals, we first obtain the symmetry of the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de-Vries (3D-BKdV) equation. Then we reduce the 3D-BKdV equation using the symmetry and give some exact solutions of the 3D-BKdV equation. When using the direct method, we restrict a condition and get a relationship between the new solutions and the old ones. Given a solution of the 3D-BKdV equation, we can get a new one from the relationship. The relationship between the symmetry obtained by using the classical Lie method and that obtained by using the direct method is also mentioned. At last, we give the conservation laws of the 3D-BKdV equation.

  11. New Traveling Wave Solutions by the Extended Generalized Riccati Equation Mapping Method of the (2+1-Dimensional Evolution Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Riccati equation mapping is extended with the basic (G′/G-expansion method which is powerful and straightforward mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper, we construct twenty-seven traveling wave solutions for the (2+1-dimensional modified Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation by applying this method. Further, the auxiliary equation G′(η=w+uG(η+vG2(η is executed with arbitrary constant coefficients and called the generalized Riccati equation. The obtained solutions including solitons and periodic solutions are illustrated through the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions, and the rational functions. In addition, it is worth declaring that one of our solutions is identical for special case with already established result which verifies our other solutions. Moreover, some of obtained solutions are depicted in the figures with the aid of Maple.

  12. A class of interior solutions corresponding to a (2+1)-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ranjan, E-mail: rsharma@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, P. D. Women' s College, Jalpaiguri 735101 (India); Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, West Bengal (India); Karar, Indrani, E-mail: indrani.karar08@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Saroj Mohan Institute of Technology, Guptipara, West Bengal (India)

    2011-10-05

    Lower-dimensional gravity has the potential of providing non-trivial and valuable insight into some of the conceptual issues arising in four-dimensional relativistic gravitational analysis. The asymptotically anti-de Sitter (2+1)-dimensional spacetime described by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) which admits a black hole solution, has become a source of fascination for theoretical physicists in recent years. By suitably choosing the form of the mass function m(r), we derive a new class of solutions for the interior of an isotropic star corresponding to the exterior (2+1) asymptotically anti-de Sitter BTZ spacetime. The solution obtained satisfies all the regularity conditions and its simple analytical form helps us to study the physical parameters of the configuration in a simple manner.

  13. Localized Excitations of (2+1)-Dimensional Korteweg-de Vries System Derived from a Periodic Wave Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Ji-Ye; FEI Jin-Xi; CAI Gui-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Long

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of an improved projective approach and a linear variable separation method,new types of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions,periodic wave solutions,and rational function solutions)with arbitrary functions for (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries system are derived.Usually,in terms of solitary wave solutions and rational function solutions,one can find some important localized excitations.However,based on the derived periodic wave solution in this paper,we find that some novel and significant localized coherent excitations such as dromions,peakons,stochastic fractal patterns,regular fractal patterns,chaotic line soliton patterns as well as chaotic patterns exist in the KdV system as considering appropriate boundary conditions and/or initial qualifications.

  14. Soliton solutions for a (3 + 1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Tian, Bo; Zhen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Xi-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a (3 + 1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation, which describes the nonlinear behaviors of ion-acoustic waves in a magnetized plasma where the cooler ions are treated as a fluid with adiabatic pressure and the hot isothermal electrons are described by a Boltzmann distribution. With the Hirota method and symbolic computation, we obtain the one-, two- and three-soliton solutions for such an equation. We graphically study the solitons related with the coefficient of the cubic nonlinearity M. Amplitude of the one soliton increases with increasing M, but the width of one soliton keeps unchanged as M increases. The two solitons and three solitons are parallel, and the amplitudes of the solitons increase with increasing M, but the widths of the solitons are unchanged. It is shown that the interactions between the two solitons and among the three solitons are elastic.

  15. A transformed rational function method for (3+1)-dimensional potential Yu–Toda–Sasa–Fukuyama equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sheng Zhang; Hong-Qing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    A direct method, called the transformed rational function method, is used to construct more types of exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations by introducing new and more general rational functions. To illustrate the validity and advantages of the introduced general rational functions, the (3+1)-dimensional potential Yu–Toda–Sasa–Fukuyama (YTSF) equation is considered and new travelling wave solutions are obtained in a uniform way. Some of the obtained solutions, namely exponential function solutions, hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, Jacobi elliptic function solutions and rational solutions, contain an explicit linear function of the independent variables involved in the potential YTSF equation. It is shown that the transformed rational function method provides more powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  16. Bäcklund Transformation and Soliton Solutions for a (3+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Breaking Soliton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Gao, Yi-Tian; Lan, Zhong-Zhou; Yang, Jin-Wei

    2016-09-01

    In this article, a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient breaking soliton equation is investigated. Based on the Bell polynomials and symbolic computation, the bilinear forms and Bäcklund transformation for the equation are derived. One-, two-, and three-soliton solutions are obtained via the Hirota method. N-soliton solutions are also constructed. Propagation characteristics and interaction behaviors of the solitons are discussed graphically: (i) solitonic direction and position depend on the sign of the wave numbers; (ii) shapes of the multisoliton interactions in the scaled space and time coordinates are affected by the variable coefficients; (iii) multisoliton interactions are elastic for that the velocity and amplitude of each soliton remain unchanged after each interaction except for a phase shift.

  17. (2+1)-Dimensional Electron Acoustic Solitary Waves in an Unmagnetized Collisionless Plasma with Vortex-Like Hot Electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mai-Mai; DUAN Wen-Shan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,(2+1)-dimensional electron acoustic waves (EAW) in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma have been studied by the linearized method and the reductive perturbation technique,respectively.The dispersion relation and a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation have been obtained for the EAW in the plasma considering a cold electron fluid and a vortex-like hot electrons.It is found from some numerical results that the parameter β (the ratio of the free hot electron temperature to the hot trapped electron temperature) effects on the amplitude and the width of the electron acoustic solitary waves (EASW).It can be indicated that the free hot electron temperature and the hot trapped electron temperature have very important effect on the characters of the propagation for the EASW.

  18. Restudy of Structures and Interactions of Solitons in (2+1)-Dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Hang-Yu; CHEN Yi-Xin

    2006-01-01

    Some new structures and interactions of solitons for the (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are revealed with the help of the idea of the bilinear method and variable separation approach. The solutions to describe the interactions between two dromions, between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton, and between two y-periodic solitons are included in our results. Detailed behaviors of interaction are illustrated both analyticaily and in graphically. Our analysis shows that the interaction properties between two solitons are related to the form of interaction constant. The form of interaction constant and the dispersion relationship are related to the form of the seed solution {u0, v0, w0 } in Backlund transformation.

  19. Interaction Behaviours Between Solitons and Cnoidal Periodic Waves for (2+1)-Dimensional Caudrey—Dodd—Gibbon—Kotera—Sawada Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xue-Ping; Wang, Jian-Yong; Ren, Bo; Yang, Yun-Qing

    2016-08-01

    The consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method is employed to the (2+1)-dimensional Caudrey—Dodd—Gibbon-Kotera—Sawada (CDGKS) equation. The interaction solutions between solitons and the cnoidal periodic waves are explicitly obtained. Concretely, we discuss a special kind of interaction solution in the form of tanh functions and Jacobian elliptic functions in both analytical and graphical ways. The results show that the profiles of the soliton-cnoidal periodic wave interaction solutions can be designed by choosing different values of wave parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505154, the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ16A010003, and the Scientific Research Foundation for Doctoral Program of Zhejiang Ocean University under Grant No. Q1511

  20. On free massless (pseudo)scalar quantum field theory in 1+1-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a consistent quantum field theory of a free massless (pseudo)scalar field in 1+1-dimensional space-times free of infrared divergences. We show that in such a quantum field theory (i) a continuous symmetry of (pseudo)scalar field translations is spontaneously broken, (ii) Goldstone bosons appear as quanta of a free massless (pseudo)scalar field and (iii) there is a non-vanishing spontaneous magnetization. In spite of the existence of a spontaneous magnetization the main inequality between vacuum expectation values of certain operators which have been used for the derivation of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem (C. Itzykson and J.-M. Drouffe, Statistical field theory, Vol. I, 1989, pp. 219-224) is fulfilled. (orig.)

  1. Dynamical generation of extended objects in a (1+1)-dimensional chiral field theory: Nonperturbative Dirac operator resolvent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the (1+1)-dimensional Nambu - Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model nonperturbatively. In addition to its simple ground-state saddle points, the effective action of this model has a rich collection of nontrivial saddle points in which the composite fields σ(x)=left-angle bar ψψ right-angle and π(x)=left-angle bar ψiγ5ψ right-angle form static space-dependent configurations because of nontrivial dynamics. These configurations may be viewed as one-dimensional chiral open-quotes bags.close quotes We start our analysis of such configurations by asking what kind of initially static {σ(x),π(x)} background configurations will remain so under fermionic back reaction. By simply looking at the asymptotic spatial behavior of the expectation value of the fermion number current we show, independently of the large-N limit, that a necessary condition for this situation to occur is that {σ(x),π(x)} give rise to a reflectionless Dirac operator. We provide an explicit formula for the diagonal resolvent of the Dirac operator in a reflectionless {σ(x),π(x)} background which produces a prescribed number of bound states. We analyze in detail the cases of a single as well as two bound states. We explicitly check that these reflectionless backgrounds may be tuned such that the large- N saddle-point condition is satisfied. Thus, in the case of the NJL model, reflectionlessness is also sufficient to assure the time independence of the background. In our view, these facts make our work conceptually simpler than the previous work of Shei and of Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu which were based on the inverse scattering formalism. Our method of finding such nontrivial static configurations may be applied to other (1+1)-dimensional field theories. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. The Interactions of N-Soliton Solutions for the Generalized (2+1-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Fifth-Order KdV Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A generalized (2+1-dimensional variable-coefficient KdV equation is introduced, which can describe the interaction between a water wave and gravity-capillary waves better than the (1+1-dimensional KdV equation. The N-soliton solutions of the (2+1-dimensional variable-coefficient fifth-order KdV equation are obtained via the Bell-polynomial method. Then the soliton fusion, fission, and the pursuing collision are analyzed depending on the influence of the coefficient eAij; when eAij=0, the soliton fusion and fission will happen; when eAij≠0, the pursuing collision will occur. Moreover, the Bäcklund transformation of the equation is gotten according to the binary Bell-polynomial and the period wave solutions are given by applying the Riemann theta function method.

  3. Comparison of BCF-10, BCF-12, and BCF-20 Scintillating Fibers for Use in a 1-Dimensional Linear Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Scott M. Watson; James T. Johnson

    2012-10-01

    One-dimensional fiber-bundle arrays may prove useful in a number of radiation sensing applications where radiation detection over large areas is needed. Tests have been performed to evaluate the light generation and transmission characteristics of 15-meter long, 10-fiber bundles of BCF-10, BCF-12, and BCF-20 scintillating fibers (Saint Gobain) exposed to collimated gamma-ray sources. The test set-up used one R9800 (Hamamatsu) photomultiplier tube (PMT) at each end, with a high-speed waveform digitizer to collect data. Time constraints were imposed on the waveform data to perform time-of-flight analysis of the events in the fiber bundles, eliminating spurious noise pulses in the high gain PMTs and also allowing 1-dimensional localization of interactions along the lengths of the fiber bundles. This paper will present the results of these measurements including the attenuation coefficients of the two fiber types and the timing resolution (position uncertainty) possible for each fiber bundle when using the R9800 PMTs.

  4. The Design of Monolithic AC-coupled 1-Dimensional Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) Phased-array Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Donald Y. C.; Lopez, J.

    2011-04-01

    A fully monolithic 1-Dimensional (1-D) AC-coupled Voltage-Controlled-Oscillators (VCOs) phased-array network design will be presented in this paper. This radio-frequency (RF) VCO array integrates on-chip inductors, varactors and bias current sources and it contains an odd number of VCOs AC-coupled through on-chip switchable resistor networks using MOSFETs. The measured results and SPICE simulated performance of the monolithic unit cell VCO agree reasonably well. Realistic circuit simulations in IBM 7HP 0.18 um BiCMOS design kit indicate promising results of the 1-D coupled-VCO array by showing the design can control the phasing of this on-chip VCO-array by means of tuning the edge elements and/or by varying the coupling strength via different resistor values using the on-chip MOSFET switches. Simulation data shows that it can offer high directivity and a possible element-to-element phase tuning arrangement that allows a ˜±20-30° degree coverage from broadside without the need for phase shifters or additional circuitry complexity. This AC-coupled 1-D VCO array, therefore, shows great potential for RF active antennas applications to perform wide angle beam steering for the highly used S-band.

  5. On a family of (1+1)-dimensional scalar field theory models: Kinks, stability, one-loop mass shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we construct a one-parametric family of (1+1)-dimensional one-component scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Inspired by the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models, we look at all possible extensions such that the kink second-order fluctuation operators are Schroedinger differential operators with Poeschl-Teller potential wells. In this situation, the associated spectral problem is solvable and therefore we shall succeed in analyzing the kink stability completely and in computing the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass exactly. When the parameter is a natural number, the family becomes the hierarchy for which the potential wells are reflectionless, the two first levels of the hierarchy being the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} models. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct a family of scalar field theory models supporting kinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order kink fluctuation operators involve Poeschl-Teller potential wells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We compute the one-loop quantum correction to the kink mass with different methods.

  6. Regularization of Casimir free energy for p-dimensional Hypercubic Cavities inside D+1-dimensional Minkowski Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Ruihui

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We reconsider the thermal scalar Casimir effect for p-dimensional hypercubic cavity inside D+1-dimensional Minkowski space-time.The thermal Casimir free energy can be divided into the divergent zero-temperature part and the automatically finite temperature-dependent part through standard quantum field theory treatments.Due to the finiteness,the regularization of the temperature-dependent part,which is also required for the convergency of the Casimir energy and the vanishing of the Casimir force with the separation increasing to infinity,is neglected in some literatures.We derive rigorously the regularization of the zero temperature part as well as the temperature-dependent part of the free energy by making use of the zeta function technique and the Abel-Plana formula.In the cases of D=3,p=1 and D=3,p=3,we precisely recover the results of parallel plates and three-dimensional box in the literature.And explicit expressions of the Casimir free energy in both low temperature (small separations and high temperature (large separations regimes are given,through which we find that after the regularization of both parts,with the side length going to infinity the force always tends to zero for different boundary conditions.Our study may be helpful in providing a comprehensive and complete understanding of this old problem.

  7. Critical behaviour of ($2+1$)-dimensional QED: $1/N_f$-corrections in an arbitrary non-local gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Kotikov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (D$\\chi$SB) is studied within ($2+1$)-dimensional QED with $N$ four-component fermions. The leading and next-to-leading orders of the $1/N$ expansion are computed exactly. The analysis is carried out in an arbitrary non-local gauge. Resumming the wave-function renormalization constant at the level of the gap equation yields a strong suppression of the gauge dependence of the critical fermion flavour number, $N_c(\\xi)$ where $\\xi$ is the gauge fixing parameter, which is such that D$\\chi$SB takes place for $N

  8. Variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to a new (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Dingjiang E-mail: hdj8116@163.com; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, based on a new intermediate transformation, a variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to a new (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup (SGBK) system. As a result, several new families of exact soliton-like solutions are obtained, beyond the travelling wave. When imposing some condition on them, the new exact solitary wave solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional SGBK system are given. The method can be applied to other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  9. Painlevé Analysis and Determinant Solutions of a (3+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation in Wronskian and Grammian Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiang-Hua; TIAN Bo; FENG Qian; YAO Zhen-Zhi; GAO Yi-Tian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the investigation is focused on a (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (vcKP) equation, which can describe the realistic nonlinear phenomena in the fluid dynamics and plasma vcKP equation is obtained under certain coefficients constraint, and its solution in the Wronskian determinant form is constructed and verified by virtue of the Wronskian technique. Besides the Wronskian determinant solution, it is shown that the (3+1)-dimensional vcKP equation also possesses a solution in the form of the Grammian determinant.

  10. Variable-Coefficient Hyperbola Function Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Broer-Kaup System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Based on a new intermediate transformation, a variable-coefficient hyperbola function method is proposed.Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to the (2+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Broer Kaup system. As a result, several new families of exact soliton-like solutions are obtained, besides the travelling wave. When imposing some conditions on them, the new exact solitary wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Broer-Kaup system are given. The method can be applied to other variable-coefficient nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  11. On an Auto-B(a)cklund Transformation for (2+1)-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Generalized KP Equations and Exact Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Cheng-Jie; BAI Cheng-Lin; HAN Ji-Guang; ZHAO Hong

    2005-01-01

    By the application of the extended homogeneous balance method, we derive an auto-Backlund transformation (BT) for (2+1)-dimensional variable coefficient generalized KP equations. Based on the BT, in which there are two homogeneity equations to be solved, we obtain some exact solutions containing single solitary waves.

  12. Aspects of (2+1) dimensional gravity: AdS3 asymptotic dynamics in the framework of Fefferman-Graham-Lee theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Rooman, M.; Spindel, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    Using the Chern-Simon formulation of (2+1) gravity, we derive, for the general asymptotic metrics given by the Fefferman-Graham-Lee theorems, the emergence of the Liouville mode associated to the boundary degrees of freedom of (2+1) dimensional anti de Sitter geometries.

  13. Multi-linear Variable Separation Approach to Solve a (2+1)-Dimensional Generalization of Nonlinear Schr(o)dinger System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Shou-Feng; ZHANG Jun; PAN Zu-Liang

    2005-01-01

    By using a Backlund transformation and the multi-linear variable separation approach, we find a new generalsolution ofa (2+1)-dimensional generalization of the nonlinear Schrodinger system. The new "universal" formula is defined, and then, rich coherent structures can be found by selecting corresponding functions appropriately.

  14. Soliton Solutions and Interaction Between a Line Soliton and a y-Periodic Soliton in Generalized (2+1)-Dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-Hua; ZHANG Jie-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Using the variable separation approach, many types of exact solutions of the generalized (2+1)-dimensional Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation are derived. One of the exact solutions of this model is analyzed to study the interaction between a line soliton and a y-periodic soliton.

  15. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  16. 1-Dimensional simulation of thermal annealing in a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel wall section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, J.T.; Rosinski, S.T.; Acton, R.U.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to provide experimental heat transfer boundary condition and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section thermal response data that can be used to benchmark computer codes that simulate thermal annealing of RPVS. This specific protect was designed to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with experimental data that could be used to support the development of a thermal annealing model. A secondary benefit is to provide additional experimental data (e.g., thermal response of concrete reactor cavity wall) that could be of use in an annealing demonstration project. The setup comprised a heater assembly, a 1.2 in {times} 1.2 m {times} 17.1 cm thick [4 ft {times} 4 ft {times} 6.75 in] section of an RPV (A533B ferritic steel with stainless steel cladding), a mockup of the {open_quotes}mirror{close_quotes} insulation between the RPV and the concrete reactor cavity wall, and a 25.4 cm [10 in] thick concrete wall, 2.1 in {times} 2.1 in [10 ft {times} 10 ft] square. Experiments were performed at temperature heat-up/cooldown rates of 7, 14, and 28{degrees}C/hr [12.5, 25, and 50{degrees}F/hr] as measured on the heated face. A peak temperature of 454{degrees}C [850{degrees}F] was maintained on the heated face until the concrete wall temperature reached equilibrium. Results are most representative of those RPV locations where the heat transfer would be 1-dimensional. Temperature was measured at multiple locations on the heated and unheated faces of the RPV section and the concrete wall. Incident heat flux was measured on the heated face, and absorbed heat flux estimates were generated from temperature measurements and an inverse heat conduction code. Through-wall temperature differences, concrete wall temperature response, heat flux absorbed into the RPV surface and incident on the surface are presented. All of these data are useful to modelers developing codes to simulate RPV annealing.

  17. Determining lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs worldwide using a tuned 1-dimensional lake model (FLake, v1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Layden

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available FLake, a 1-dimensional freshwater lake model, is tuned for 244 globally distributed large lakes using lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs. The model, tuned using only 3 lake properties; lake depth, albedo (snow and ice and light extinction co-efficient, substantially improves the measured biases in various features of the LSWT annual cycle, including the LSWTs of saline and high altitude lakes. The daily mean absolute differences (MAD and the spread of differences (±2 standard deviations across the trial seasonally ice covered lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining below 1 °C for part of the annual cycle is reduced from 3.01± 2.25 °C (pre-tuning to 0.84 ± 0.51 °C (post-tuning. For non-seasonally ice-covered trial lakes (lakes with a lake-mean LSWT remaining above 1 °C throughout its annual cycle, the average daily mean absolute difference (MAD is reduced from 3.55 ± 3.20 °C to 0.96 ± 0.63 °C. The post tuning results for the trial lakes (35 lakes are highly representative of the post tuning results of the 244 lakes. The sensitivity of the summer LSWTs of deeper lakes to changes in the timing of ice-off is demonstrated. The modelled summer LSWT response to changes in ice-off timing is found to be strongly affected by lake depth and latitude, explaining 0.50 (R2adj, p = 0.001 of the inter-lake variance in summer LSWTs. Lake depth alone explains 0.35 (p =0.003 of the variance. The tuning approach undertaken in this study, overcomes the obstacle of the lack of available lake characteristic information (snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for individual lakes. Furthermore, the tuned values for lake depth, snow and ice albedo and light extinction co-efficient for the 244 lakes provide guidance for improving LSWTs modelling in FLake.

  18. 1-Dimensional simulation of thermal annealing in a commercial nuclear power plant reactor pressure vessel wall section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to provide experimental heat transfer boundary condition and reactor pressure vessel (RPV) section thermal response data that can be used to benchmark computer codes that simulate thermal annealing of RPVS. This specific protect was designed to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with experimental data that could be used to support the development of a thermal annealing model. A secondary benefit is to provide additional experimental data (e.g., thermal response of concrete reactor cavity wall) that could be of use in an annealing demonstration project. The setup comprised a heater assembly, a 1.2 in x 1.2 m x 17.1 cm thick [4 ft x 4 ft x 6.75 in] section of an RPV (A533B ferritic steel with stainless steel cladding), a mockup of the open-quotes mirrorclose quotes insulation between the RPV and the concrete reactor cavity wall, and a 25.4 cm [10 in] thick concrete wall, 2.1 in x 2.1 in [10 ft x 10 ft] square. Experiments were performed at temperature heat-up/cooldown rates of 7, 14, and 28 degrees C/hr [12.5, 25, and 50 degrees F/hr] as measured on the heated face. A peak temperature of 454 degrees C [850 degrees F] was maintained on the heated face until the concrete wall temperature reached equilibrium. Results are most representative of those RPV locations where the heat transfer would be 1-dimensional. Temperature was measured at multiple locations on the heated and unheated faces of the RPV section and the concrete wall. Incident heat flux was measured on the heated face, and absorbed heat flux estimates were generated from temperature measurements and an inverse heat conduction code. Through-wall temperature differences, concrete wall temperature response, heat flux absorbed into the RPV surface and incident on the surface are presented. All of these data are useful to modelers developing codes to simulate RPV annealing

  19. New Exact Solutions to the (2+1)-Dimensional Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Equation: Modification of the Extended Homoclinic Test Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Najafi; Maliheh Najafi; M. T. Darvishi

    2012-01-01

    By means of modification of the extended homoclinic test approach (mEHTA), we obtain some new exact soliton solutions for the (2+l)-dimensional Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) equation by obtaining a bilinear closed form for it.%By means of modification of the extended homoclinic test approach (mEHTA),we obtain some new exact soliton solutions for the (2+1)-dimensional Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) equation by obtaining a bilinear closed form for it.

  20. New Periodic Solution to Jacobi Elliptic Functions of a (2+1)-Dimensional BKP Equation and a Generalized Klein-Gordon Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hong-Cai; Deng Ai-Ping; Qin Zhen-Yun

    2009-01-01

    @@ With the help of the homogeneous balance method, the Jacobi elliptic expansion method and the auxiliary equation method, the first elliptic function equation is used to obtain the Jacobi doubly periodic wave solutions of the (2+1)-dimensionai B-type Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (BKP) equation and the generalized Klein-Gordon equation. The method is also valid for other (1+1)-dimensional and higher dimensional systems.

  1. A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qing [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)], E-mail: lsxylq@163.com; Zhu Jiamin; Hong Bihai [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)

    2008-09-15

    A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed and applied to a (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified and generalized Broer-Kaup system. It is shown that the method presented by Huang and Zhang [Huang DJ, Zhang HQ. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005; 23:601] is a special case of our method. The results obtained in the paper include many new formal solutions besides the all solutions found by Huang and Zhang.

  2. The generalizing Riccati equation mapping method in non-linear evolution equation: application to (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelle equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Shundong [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China)], E-mail: zhusd1965@sina.com

    2008-09-15

    The tanh method is used to find travelling wave solutions to various wave equations. In this paper, the extended tanh function method is further improved by the generalizing Riccati equation mapping method and picking up its new solutions. In order to test the validity of this approach, the (2 + 1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelle equation is considered. As a result, the abundant new non-travelling wave solutions are obtained.

  3. A new compound Riccati equations rational expansion method and its application to the (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Lina [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: songlina1981@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Qi; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, based on a new general ansaetze and symbolic computation, a new compound Riccati equations rational expansion method is proposed. Being concise and straightforward, it is applied to the (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Vesselov system. It is shown that more complexiton solutions can be found by this new method. The method can be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  4. (3+1)维ZK方程的孤立波解%Multi-solitary wave solutions of the (3 +1)-dimensional ZK equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉仁; 周志刚; 张娟; 杨红娟

    2012-01-01

    采用变换和拟设相结合的方法得到了(3+1)维Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK)方程的几组精确解,包括周期波解、单孤子解和双孤子解.%Some exact solution, involving the periodical solution, single soliton solution and doublesoliton solution are obtained for the (3 ~t~ 1 )-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation by usingtransformations.

  5. Exact solutions in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time admitting a linear or non-linear equation of state

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Ayan; Rahaman, Farook; Jotania, Kanti; Sharma, Ranjan; Rahaman, Mosiur

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational analyzes in lower dimensions has become a field of active research interest ever since Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1849, 1992) proved the existence of a black hole solution in (2 + 1) dimensions. The BTZ metric has inspired many investigators to develop and analyze circularly symmetric stellar models which can be matched to the exterior BTZ metric. We have obtained two new classes of solutions for a (2 + 1)-dimensional anisotropic star in anti-de ...

  6. Chiral Anomaly in Euclidean (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL Space and AN Application to the Quantum Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    The chiral anomaly in (2+1)-dimensions and its relationship to the zero mode of the Dirac equation in the massless case is studied. Solutions are obtained for the Dirac equation under a vector potential which generates a constant magnetic field. It is shown that there is an anomaly term associated with the corresponding chiral transformation. It can be calculated by using the regularization procedure of Fujikawa. The results are applied to the quantum Hall effect.

  7. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  8. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…

  9. Spin-orbit gap of graphene: First-principles calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yugui; Ye, Fei; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Fang, Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Even though graphene is a low energy system consisting of the two dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms, its quasi-particle excitations are fully described by the 2+1 dimensional relativistic Dirac equation. In this paper we show that while the spin-orbit interaction in graphene is of the order of $4 meV$, it opens up a gap of the order of $10^{-3} meV$ at the Dirac points. We present the first principle calculation of the spin-orbit gap, and explain the behavior in terms of a simple ...

  10. Induced parity violating thermal effective action for (2+1)-dimensional fermions interacting with a non-Abelian background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the parity breaking effective action in 2+1 dimensions, generated, at finite temperature, by massive fermions interacting with a non-Abelian gauge background. We explicitly calculate, in the static limit, parity violating amplitudes up to the seven point function, which allows us to determine the corresponding effective actions. There are two classes of such actions that arise: namely, terms that do not manifestly depend on E(vector sign) and ones that do. We derive the exact effective action that is not manifestly dependent on E(vector sign). For the other class that depends explicitly on E(vector sign), there are families of terms that can be determined order by order in perturbation theory. We attempt to generalize our results to nonstatic backgrounds through the use of time ordered exponentials and prove gauge invariance, both small and large, of the resulting effective action. We also point out some open questions that need to be further understood

  11. New exact solutions to MKDV-Burgers equation and (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation via extended Riccati equation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Cuicui [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: cuicuikong@yahoo.com.cn; Wang Dan; Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-01-30

    In this paper, with the aid of symbolic computation and a general ansaetz, we presented a new extended rational expansion method to construct new rational formal exact solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, we apply it to the MKDV-Burgers equation and the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation, then several new kinds of exact solutions are successfully obtained by using the new ansaetz. The method can also be applied to other nonlinear partial differential equations.

  12. The First Law of Thermodynamics of the (2+1)-Dimensional Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli Black Holes and Kerr-de Sitter Spacetimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuang; WU Shuang-Qing; XIE Fei; DAN Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the case of the (2 + 1)-dimensional Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes. In particular, we focus on the integral mass formulas. It is found that by assuming the cosmological constant as a variable state parameter, both the differential and integral mass formulas of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in the asymptotic flat spacetimes can be directly extended to those of rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter and de Sitter backgrounds. It should be pointed that these formulae come into existence in any dimensions.

  13. Exact solutions of the (2+1) Dimensional Dirac equation in a constant magnetic field in the presence of a minimal length

    CERN Document Server

    Menculini, L; Roy, P

    2013-01-01

    We study the (2+1) dimensional Dirac equation in an homogeneous magnetic field (relativistic Landau problem) within a minimal length, or generalized uncertainty principle -GUP-, scenario. We derive exact solutions for a given explicit representation of the GUP and provide expressions of the wave functions in the momentum representation. We find that in the minimal length case the degeneracy of the states is modified and that there are states that do not exist in the ordinary quantum mechanics limit (\\beta -->0). We also discuss the mass-less case which may find application in describing the behavior of charged fermions in new materials like Graphene.

  14. Galilean-Invariant (2+1)-Dimensional Models with a Chern-Simons-Like Term and D=2 N oncommutative Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukierski, Jerzy; Stichel, Peter C.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a new D=2 nonrelativistic classical mechanics model providing via the Noether theorem the (2+1)-Galilean symmetry algebra with two central charges: mass m and the coupling constant k of a Chern-Simons-like term. In this way we provide the dynamical interpretation of the second central charge of the (2+1)-dimensional Galilean algebra. We discuss also the interpretation of k as describing the noncommutativity of D=2 space coordinates. The model is quantized in two ways: using the Os...

  15. Personal Finance Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  16. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  17. 一维离散椭圆共振问题解的多重性%The Multiplicity of Solutions of 1-Dimensional Discrete Elliptic Problem with Resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福伟; 刘进生

    2012-01-01

    By using the variational method and critical point theory, especially critical group and Morse theory, combined with the matrix theory and space dimension, taking into account the critical points of both positive and negative energy functional, the multiplicity of solutions of 1-dimensional nonlinear discrete elliptic resonant problem was investigated. Under some assumptions, two kinds of new sufficient conditions were obtained under which there exist at least two nonzero solutions. An example was given to verify the obtained results. The results showed that, under the same assumptions, the number of known solutions of 1-dimensional resonant problem is more than that of multidimensional resonant problem.%利用变分方法与临界点理论,特别是临界群与Morse理论,结合矩阵理论与空间维数,同时考虑正、负能量泛函的临界点,研究了一维非线性离散椭圆共振问题解的多重性.在一定的假设条件下,得到了此类问题至少存在两个非零解的两类新的充分条件,并给出了具体应用的实例.结果表明:在相同的假设条件下,一维共振问题比多维共振问题得到的解更多.

  18. On the Quasi-Periodic Wave Solutions and Asymptotic Analysis to a (3+1)-Dimensional Generalized Kadomtsev—Petviashvili Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a (3+1)-dimensional generalized Kadomtsev—Petviashvili (GKP) equation is investigated, which can be used to describe many nonlinear phenomena in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. Based on the generalized Bell's polynomials, we succinctly construct the Hirota's bilinear equation to the GKP equation. By virtue of multidimensional Riemann theta functions, a lucid and straightforward way is presented to explicitly construct multiperiodic Riemann theta function periodic waves (quasi-periodic waves) for the (3+1)-dimensional GKP equation. Interestingly, the one-periodic waves are well-known cnoidal waves, which are considered as one-dimensional models of periodic waves. The two-periodic waves are a direct generalization of one-periodic waves, their surface pattern is two-dimensional that they have two independent spatial periods in two independent horizontal directions. Finally, we analyze asymptotic behavior of the multiperiodic periodic waves, and rigorously present the relationships between the periodic waves and soliton solutions by a limiting procedure. (general)

  19. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  20. Development of approximate shielding calculation method for high energy cosmic radiation on LEO satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sin, M. W.; Kim, M. H. [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    To calculate total dose effect on semi-conductor devices in satellite for a period of space mission effectively, two approximate calculation models for a comic radiation shielding were proposed. They are a sectoring method and a chord-length distribution method. When an approximate method was applied in this study, complex structure of satellite was described into multiple 1-dimensional slabs, structural materials were converted to reference material(aluminum), and the pre-calculated dose-depth conversion function was introduced to simplify the calculation process. Verification calculation was performed for orbit location and structure geometry of KITSAT-1 and compared with detailed 3-dimensional calculation results and experimental values. The calculation results from approximate method were estimated conservatively with acceptable error. However, results for satellite mission simulation were underestimated in total dose rate compared with experimental values.

  1. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  2. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  3. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  4. Painlevé Analysis, Soliton Collision and Bäcklund Transformation for the (3+1)-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Kadomtsev—Petviashvili Equation in Fluids or Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we investigate a (3+1)-dimensional generalized variable-coefficient Kadomtsev—Petviashvili equation, which can describe the nonlinear phenomena in fluids or plasmas. Painlevé analysis is performed for us to study the integrability and we find that the equation is not completely integrable. By virtue of the binary Bell polynomials, bilinear form and soliton solutions are obtained, and Bäcklund transformation in the binary-Bell-polynomial form and bilinear form are derived. Soliton collisions are graphically discussed: the solitons keep their original shapes unchanged after the collision except for the phase shifts. Variable coefficients are seen to affect the motion of solitons: when the variable coefficients are chosen as the constants, solitons keep their directions unchanged during the collision; with the variable coefficients as the functions of the temporal coordinate, the one soliton changes its direction. (general)

  5. Bäcklund transformation and N-soliton solutions for a (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation in nonlinear water waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under investigation in this paper is a (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation generated via the Jaulent–Miodek hierarchy for nonlinear water waves. With the aid of binary Bell polynomials and symbolic computation, bilinear forms and a Bäcklund transformations are derived. N-soliton solutions are obtained through the Hirota method. Soliton propagation is discussed analytically. The bell-shaped soliton, anti-bell-shaped soliton and shock wave can be seen with some parameters selected. Soliton interactions are analyzed graphically: four kinds of elastic interactions are presented: two parallel bell-shaped solitons, two parallel anti-bell-shaped solitons, three parallel bell-shaped solitons and three parallel anti-bell-shaped solitons. We see that (1) the solitons maintain their original amplitudes, widths and directions except for some phase shifts after each interaction, and (2) the smaller the soliton amplitude is, the faster the soliton travels. (papers)

  6. Exactly Solvable {\\varvec{N}}-Body Quantum Systems with \\varvec{N=3^k ( k} ≥ \\varvec{2)} in the {\\varvec{D=1}} Dimensional Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachkhaznadji, A.; Lassaut, M.

    2016-09-01

    We study the exact solutions of a particular class of N confined particles of equal mass, with N=3^k (k=2,3, ldots ), in the D=1 dimensional space. The particles are clustered in clusters of three particles. The interactions involve a confining mean field, two-body Calogero type of potentials inside the cluster, interactions between the centres of mass of the clusters and finally a non-translationally invariant N-body potential. The case of nine particles is exactly solved, in a first step, by providing the full eigensolutions and eigenenergies. Extending this procedure, the general case of N particles (N=3^k, k ≥ 2) is studied in a second step. The exact solutions are obtained via appropriate coordinate transformations and separation of variables. The eigenwave functions and the corresponding energy spectrum are provided.

  7. Theta Periodic Wave Solutions to (2+ 1)-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov Equation%(2+1)维Zakharov-Kuznetsov方程的Theta周期波解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉红; 王鸿章; 刁群

    2012-01-01

    给出椭圆方程的一组Theta周期波解,结合它的一个Backlund变换,得到这个椭圆方程的无穷序列Theta函数周期波解,最后利用这个椭圆方程作为辅助方程,借助于计算机符号计算软件Mathematica,得到了(2+1)维Zakharov-Kuznetsov方程的无穷序列Theta函数周期波解.%Based on some theta periodic wave solutions to a elliptical equation, together with its Backlund transformation, infinite sequences theta periodic wave solutions are derived; then regarding this elliptical equation as an auxiliary equation, with the help of computer software Mathematica, infinite sequences theta periodic wave solutions to (2 + 1)-dimensional Zakha-rov- Kuznetsov equation are obtained.

  8. A Variable Separation Approach to Solve the Integrable and Nonintegrable Models:Coherent Structures of the (2 + 1)-Dimensional KdV Eqnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LOU Sen-Yue

    2002-01-01

    We study the localized coherent structures ofa generally nonintegrable (2+ 1 )-dimensional KdV equation via a variable separation approach. In a special integrable case, the entrance of some arbitrary functions leads to abundant coherent structures. However, in the general nonintegrable case, an additional condition has to be introduced for these arbitrary functions. Although the additional condition has been introduced into the solutions of the nonintegrable KdV equation, there still exist many interesting solitary wave structures. Especially, the nonintegrable KdV equation possesses the breather-like localized excitations, and the similar static ring soliton solutions as in the integrable case. Furthermor,in the integrable case, the interaction between two travelling ring solitons is elastic, while in the nonintegrable case we cannot find even the single travelling ring soliton solution.

  9. Density-fluctuation symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation for a bubbly liquid with experimental support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Liquids with gas bubbles are commonly seen in medical science, natural science, daily life and engineering. Nonlinear-wave symbolic computation on the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov model for a bubbly liquid is hereby performed. An auto-Bäcklund transformation and with some solitonic solutions are obtained. With respect to the density fluctuation of the bubble-liquid mixture, both the auto-Bäcklund transformation and solitonic solutions depend on the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions. We note that some shock waves given by our solutions have been observed by the gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments. Effects on a bubbly liquid with respect to the bubble-liquid-viscosity, transverse-perturbation, bubble-liquid-nonlinearity and bubble-liquid-dispersion coefficient functions might be detected by the future gas-bubble/liquid-mixture experiments.

  10. Exact solutions in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time admitting a linear or non-linear equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Ayan; Jotania, Kanti; Sharma, Ranjan; Rahaman, Mosiur

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational analyzes in lower dimensions has become a field of active research interest ever since Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli (BTZ) (Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1849, 1992) proved the existence of a black hole solution in (2 + 1) dimensions. The BTZ metric has inspired many investigators to develop and analyze circularly symmetric stellar models which can be matched to the exterior BTZ metric. We have obtained two new classes of solutions for a (2 + 1)-dimensional anisotropic star in anti-de Sitter background space-time which have been obtained by assuming that the equation of state (EOS) describing the material composition of the star could either be linear or non-linear in nature. By matching the interior solution to the BTZ exterior metric with zero spin, we have demonstrated that the solutions provided here are regular and well-behaved at the stellar interior.

  11. Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. F.

    The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…

  12. Relativistic shell model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R. J.

    1986-06-01

    Shell model calculations are discussed in the context of a relativistic model of nuclear structure based on renormalizable quantum field theories of mesons and baryons (quantum hadrodynamics). The relativistic Hartree approximation to the full field theory, with parameters determined from bulk properties of nuclear matter, predicts a shell structure in finite nuclei. Particle-hole excitations in finite nuclei are described in an RPA calculation based on this QHD ground state. The particle-hole interaction is prescribed by the Hartree ground state, with no additional parameters. Meson retardation is neglected in deriving the RPA equations, but it is found to have negligible effects on low-lying states. The full Dirac matrix structure is maintained throughout the calculation; no nonrelativistic reductions are made. Despite sensitive cancellations in the ground state calculation, reasonable excitation spectra are obtained for light nuclei. The effects of including charged mesons, problems with heavy nuclei, and prospects for improved and extended calculations are discussed.

  13. nuclear reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work , the sensitivity of different reactor calculation methods, and the effect of different assumptions and/or approximation are evaluated . A new concept named error map is developed to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the accuracy of calculations. To achieve this goal a generalized, multigroup, multi dimension code UAR-DEPLETION is developed to calculate the spatial distribution of neutron flux, effective multiplication factor and the spatial composition of a reactor core for a period of time and for specified reactor operating conditions. The code also investigates the fuel management strategies and policies for the entire fuel cycle to meet the constraints of material and operating limitations

  14. Large scale GW calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present GW calculations of molecules, ordered and disordered solids and interfaces, which employ an efficient contour deformation technique for frequency integration and do not require the explicit evaluation of virtual electronic states nor the inversion of dielectric matrices. We also present a parallel implementation of the algorithm, which takes advantage of separable expressions of both the single particle Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction. The method can be used starting from density functional theory calculations performed with semilocal or hybrid functionals. The newly developed technique was applied to GW calculations of systems of unprecedented size, including water/semiconductor interfaces with thousands of electrons

  15. Radioactive cloud dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological dosage principles, as well as methods for calculating external and internal dose rates, following dispersion and deposition of radioactive materials in the atmosphere are described. Emphasis has been placed on analytical solutions that are appropriate for hand calculations. In addition, the methods for calculating dose rates from ingestion are discussed. A brief description of several computer programs are included for information on radionuclides. There has been no attempt to be comprehensive, and only a sampling of programs has been selected to illustrate the variety available

  16. Handout on shielding calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to avoid the difficulties of the radioprotection supervisors in the tasks related to shielding calculations, is presented in this paper the basic concepts of shielding theory. It also includes exercises and examples. (author)

  17. Calculativeness and trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    . Contrary to Williamson, however, Løgstrup’s contention is that trust, not calculativeness, is the default attitude and only when suspicion is awoken does trust falter. The paper argues that while Williamson’s distinction between calculativeness and trust is supported by phenomenology, the analysis needs......Williamson’s characterisation of calculativeness as inimical to trust contradicts most sociological trust research. However, a similar argument is found within trust phenomenology. This paper re-investigates Williamson’s argument from the perspective of Løgstrup’s phenomenological theory of trust...... to take actual subjective experience into consideration. It points out that, first, Løgstrup places trust alongside calculativeness as a different mode of engaging in social interaction, rather conceiving of trust as a state or the outcome of a decision-making process. Secondly, the analysis must take...

  18. A Simple Calculator Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lyle; McWilliam, James

    1983-01-01

    The problem of finding cube roots when limited to a calculator with only square root capability is discussed. An algorithm is demonstrated and explained which should always produce a good approximation within a few iterations. (MP)

  19. EFFECTIVE DISCHARGE CALCULATION GUIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S.BIEDENHARN; C.R.THORNE; P.J.SOAR; R.D.HEY; C.C.WATSON

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for calculating the effective discharge for rivers with alluvial channels.An alluvial river adjusts the bankfull shape and dimensions of its channel to the wide range of flows that mobilize the boundary sediments. It has been shown that time-averaged river morphology is adjusted to the flow that, over a prolonged period, transports most sediment. This is termed the effective discharge.The effective discharge may be calculated provided that the necessary data are available or can be synthesized. The procedure for effective discharge calculation presented here is designed to have general applicability, have the capability to be applied consistently, and represent the effects of physical processes responsible for determining the channel, dimensions. An example of the calculations necessary and applications of the effective discharge concept are presented.

  20. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  1. Geometric unsharpness calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J. [International Training and Education Group (INTEG), Oakville, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    The majority of radiographers' geometric unsharpness calculations are normally performed with a mathematical formula. However, a majority of codes and standards refer to the use of a nomograph for this calculation. Upon first review, the use of a nomograph appears more complicated but with a few minutes of study and practice it can be just as effective. A review of this article should provide enlightenment. (author)

  2. Scientific calculating peripheral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethridge, C.D.; Nickell, J.D. Jr.; Hanna, W.H.

    1979-09-01

    A scientific calculating peripheral for small intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems and for distributed-task processing systems is established with a number-oriented microprocessor controlled by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller. A MOS/LSI number-oriented microprocessor provides the scientific calculating capability with Reverse Polish Notation data format. Master processor task definition storage, input data sequencing, computation processing, result reporting, and interface protocol is managed by a single component universal peripheral interface microcontroller.

  3. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  4. Electrical installation calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, AJ

    2006-01-01

    Designed to provide a step by step guide to successful application of the electrical installation calculations required in day to day electrical engineering practice, the Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike.Now in its seventh edition, Volume 1 has been fully updated to meet the requirements of the 2330 Level 2 Certificate in Electrotechnical Technology from City & Guilds, and will also prove a vi

  5. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogenbirk, A.

    1994-07-01

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL).

  6. Uncertainty calculations made easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a neutron cross section sensitivity/uncertainty analysis performed in a complicated 2D model of the NET shielding blanket design inside the ITER torus design, surrounded by the cryostat/biological shield as planned for ITER. The calculations were performed with a code system developed at ECN Petten, with which sensitivity/uncertainty calculations become relatively simple. In order to check the deterministic neutron transport calculations (performed with DORT), calculations were also performed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Care was taken to model the 2.0 cm wide gaps between two blanket segments, as the neutron flux behind the vacuum vessel is largely determined by neutrons streaming through these gaps. The resulting neutron flux spectra are in excellent agreement up to the end of the cryostat. It is noted, that at this position the attenuation of the neutron flux is about 1 l orders of magnitude. The uncertainty in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the vacuum vessel and at the beginning of the cryostat was determined in the calculations. The uncertainty appears to be strongly dependent on the exact geometry: if the gaps are filled with stainless steel, the neutron spectrum changes strongly, which results in an uncertainty of 70% in the energy integrated flux at the beginning of the cryostat in the no-gap-geometry, compared to an uncertainty of only 5% in the gap-geometry. Therefore, it is essential to take into account the exact geometry in sensitivity/uncertainty calculations. Furthermore, this study shows that an improvement of the covariance data is urgently needed in order to obtain reliable estimates of the uncertainties in response parameters in neutron transport calculations. (orig./GL)

  7. Traveling Wave Solutions for Fifth Order (1+1-Dimensional Kaup-Keperschmidt Equation with the Help of Exp(-Phi-Expansion Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Or ROSHID

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By using exp(-Phi-expansion method, abundant exact traveling wave solutions for the fifth order (1+1-dimensional Kaup-Keperschmidt equation have been obtained in a uniform way. The obtained solutions in this work are imperative and significant for the explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the exp(-Phi-expansion method together with the first order ordinary differential equation, provides a progress mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, together with graphical representation, explicitly reveal the complete reliability and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TH v\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} o\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} w\\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML;} .shape {behavior:url(#default#VML;} By using the -expansion method, abundant exact traveling wave solutions for the fifth order (1+1-dimensional Kaup-Kupershmidt equation are obtained in a uniform way. The obtained solutions in this work are imperative and significant for explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the -expansion method, together with the first order ordinary differential equation, provides a progress mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations. Numerical results, together with graphical representation, explicitly reveal the complete reliability and high efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TH /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso

  8. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Kurki-Suonio, H

    2001-01-01

    I review standard big bang nucleosynthesis and some versions of nonstandard BBN. The abundances of the primordial isotopes D, He-3, and Li-7 produced in standard BBN can be calculated as a function of the baryon density with an accuracy of about 10%. For He-4 the accuracy is better than 1%. The calculated abundances agree fairly well with observations, but the baryon density of the universe cannot be determined with high precision. Possibilities for nonstandard BBN include inhomogeneous and antimatter BBN and nonzero neutrino chemical potentials.

  9. Dynamics Calculation of Spoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Compared with ellipse cavity, the spoke cavity has many advantages, especially for the low and medium beam energy. It will be used in the superconductor accelerator popular in the future. Based on the spoke cavity, we design and calculate an accelerator

  10. Daylight calculations in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Anne; Roy, Nicolas; Hvass, Mette;

    programs can give different results. This can be due to restrictions in the program itself and/or be due to the skills of the persons setting up the models. This is crucial as daylight calculations are used to document that the demands and recommendations to daylight levels outlined by building authorities...

  11. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed

  12. Curvature calculations with GEOCALC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.

    1987-04-01

    A new method for calculating the curvature tensor has been recently proposed by D. Hestenes. This method is a particular application of geometric calculus, which has been implemented in an algebraic programming language on the form of a package called GEOCALC. They show how to apply this package to the Schwarzchild case and they discuss the different results.

  13. 2+1维Burgers方程的Bäcklund变换及其严格解%Bäcklund Transformations and Exact Solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation which is considered as an important model in nonlinear physics. Using the truncated Painlevé expansion, an auto Bäcklund transformation of the (2+1)-dimensional Burgers equation is derived, and then a number of new exact solutions are obtained.%  2+1维Burgers方程是非线性物理中的一个重要模型。利用截断Painlevé分析方法,建立了一个自Bäcklund变换定理,求得了大量的新的严格解。

  14. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task

  15. Linewidth calculations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Strandberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We are currently developing a new technique to further enhance the sensitivity of collinear laser spectroscopy in order to study the most exotic nuclides available at radioactive ion beam facilities, such as ISOLDE at CERN. The overall goal is to evaluate the feasibility of the new method. This report will focus on the determination of the expected linewidth (hence resolution) of this approach. Different effects which could lead to a broadening of the linewidth, e.g. the ions' energy spread and their trajectories inside the trap, are studied with theoretical calculations as well as simulations.

  16. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  17. Matlab numerical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. This book is designed for use as a scientific/business calculator so that you can get numerical solutions to problems involving a wide array of mathematics using MATLAB. Just look up the function y

  18. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  19. Multilayer optical calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    When light hits a multilayer planar stack, it is reflected, refracted, and absorbed in a way that can be derived from the Fresnel equations. The analysis is treated in many textbooks, and implemented in many software programs, but certain aspects of it are difficult to find explicitly and consistently worked out in the literature. Here, we derive the formulas underlying the transfer-matrix method of calculating the optical properties of these stacks, including oblique-angle incidence, absorption-vs-position profiles, and ellipsometry parameters. We discuss and explain some strange consequences of the formulas in the situation where the incident and/or final (semi-infinite) medium are absorptive, such as calculating $T>1$ in the absence of gain. We also discuss some implementation details like complex-plane branch cuts. Finally, we derive modified formulas for including one or more "incoherent" layers, i.e. very thick layers in which interference can be neglected. This document was written in conjunction with ...

  20. Some calculations for TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I took only few topics to investigate, some on which I had some personal interest, and others that I felt rather crucial for the design. In this document I report my calculations on these various subjects. Therefore this document represents my tangible contribution to TRISTAN design. I give in the following the list of the topics which are discussed in this document. 1. Increase of the vertical betatron emmitance by skew quadrupoles in the electron storage ring. 2. Bremsstrahlung. 3. Dipole correcting system for electron ring. 4. Wigglers at low energies 5. Steady state compensation of beam loading in the single beam mode in the electron storage ring. 6. Coupled bunch longitudinal instability for electron ring. 7. Ion production and trapping in the electron storage ring for TRISTAN. 8. Estimate of the longitudinal impedance for the TRISTAN electron storage ring. (author)

  1. Impact Cratering Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the von Mises and Mohr-Coulomb strength models with and without damage effects and developed a model for dilatancy. The models and results are given in O'Keefe et al. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting with the bolide in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements. These features included a central uplift, an inner ring, circular terracing and faulting. This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths of approximately 0.1 GPa and at depth strengths of approximately 1.0 GPa. We modeled the damage in geologic materials using a phenomenological approach, which coupled the Johnson-Cook damage model with the CTH code geologic strength model. The objective here was not to determine the distribution of fragment sizes, but rather to determine the effect of brecciated and comminuted material on the crater evolution, fault production, ejecta distribution, and final crater morphology.

  2. Parallel nearest neighbor calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Harold

    We are just starting to parallelize the nearest neighbor portion of our free-Lagrange code. Our implementation of the nearest neighbor reconnection algorithm has not been parallelizable (i.e., we just flip one connection at a time). In this paper we consider what sort of nearest neighbor algorithms lend themselves to being parallelized. For example, the construction of the Voronoi mesh can be parallelized, but the construction of the Delaunay mesh (dual to the Voronoi mesh) cannot because of degenerate connections. We will show our most recent attempt to tessellate space with triangles or tetrahedrons with a new nearest neighbor construction algorithm called DAM (Dial-A-Mesh). This method has the characteristics of a parallel algorithm and produces a better tessellation of space than the Delaunay mesh. Parallel processing is becoming an everyday reality for us at Los Alamos. Our current production machines are Cray YMPs with 8 processors that can run independently or combined to work on one job. We are also exploring massive parallelism through the use of two 64K processor Connection Machines (CM2), where all the processors run in lock step mode. The effective application of 3-D computer models requires the use of parallel processing to achieve reasonable "turn around" times for our calculations.

  3. One-dimensional linear calculation of the heat flux from infrared and thermocouple measurements at Jet tokamak; Calcul 1D lineaire du flux de chaleur par inversion des mesures de temperatures infrarouges et des thermocouples du Tokamak Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyet, M

    2005-07-01

    Our work is dedicated to the assessment of the heat released in the Jet tokamak divertor tiles. We have performed the computation of the heat flux from temperature data collected by thermo-couples through a 1 dimensional linear model. This method has implied solving an inverse problem whose matrix is singular, we have succeeded in using Tikhonov's regularization technique. Then we have compared these values of the heat flux with those deduced from infra-red measurements. Infra-red measurements are impaired by the deposition of particles on the surface. Both methods give unrealistic negative values at the end of the plasma discharge. The use of a non-linear 1-dimensional model that would allow the diffusion coefficient to vary is expected to improve the calculation. (A.C.)

  4. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  5. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  6. Calculation of multiphoton ionization processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. N.; Poe, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    We propose an accurate and efficient procedure in the calculation of multiphoton ionization processes. In addition to the calculational advantage, this procedure also enables us to study the relative contributions of the resonant and nonresonant intermediate states.

  7. Calculation of e- H scattering processes using hyperspherical coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented for accurately solving the Schroedinger equation of the scattering of an electron from a hydrogen atom in three dimensions, which uses hyperspherical coordinates. The motivation for using this new technique is that previous methods - the coupled channel expansions using target atom eigenfunctions, polarization functions and pseudostates, and variational methods have all proven unsatisfactory. The coupled channel calculations tend to have difficulty obtaining convergence with respect to basis set size, and the variational method interjects spurious resonances. Previous applications of hyperspherical coordinates have used methods that, while adequate for computing the energy level of the sound state of H-, are not appropriate to full scattering calculations. Converged surface functions were obtained at a set of discrete values of the hyperradius, which acts as a parameter. The surface functions are further expanded in a basis set that involves 1-dimensional functions of the hyperspherical angle, which are obtained by a finite difference method. The surface functions were used to expand the scattering functions. The resulting coupled equations are solved numerically. The wave functions are obtained separately at each energy and are converged with respect to the number of basis functions used

  8. A comparison of carbon calculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International attention to carbon dioxide emissions is turning to an individual's contribution, or 'carbon footprint.' Calculators that estimate an individual's CO2 emissions have become more prevalent on the internet. Even with similar inputs, however, these calculators can generate varying results, often by as much as several metric tons per annum per individual activity. This paper examines the similarities and differences among ten US-based calculators. Overall, the calculators lack consistency, especially for estimates of CO2 emissions from household electricity consumption. In addition, most calculators lack information about their methods and estimates, which impedes comparison and validation. Although carbon calculators can promote public awareness of carbon emissions from individual behavior, this paper reveals the need for improved consistency and transparency in the calculators

  9. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  10. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to ε2 and ε4 used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and Β-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential

  11. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  12. (2+1)-维反对称Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov方程的Bcklund变换和局域相干结构%Backlund Transformation and Localized Coherent Structure for the(2+1)-Dimensional Asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张解放; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This article is concerned with the extended homogeneous balance method for studying the abundant localized solution structure of the (2 + 1)-dimensional asymmetric Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov equation. A Backlund transformation was first obtained, and then the richness of the localized coherent structures was found, which was caused by the entrance of two variable-separated arbitrary functions, in the model. For some special choices of the arbitrary functions, it is shown that the localized structures of the model may be dromions, lumps, and ring solitons.

  13. (2+1)维Zakharov-Kuznetsov方程的精确解和孤子结构%Exact solutions and soliton structures of (2 +1) -dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨征; 马松华; 方建平

    2011-01-01

    With the help of the symbolic computation system Maple and an improved Riccati equation mapping approach, a series of exact solutions of the (2 + 1 ) -dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation (ZK) is derived. Based on the derived solution, we obtain some special soliton structures.%在符号计算软件Maple的帮助下,利用改进的Riccati方程映射法得到了(2+1)维Zakharov-Kuznetsov方程(ZK)的新显式精确解.根据得到的解,研究了ZK方程的特殊孤子结构.

  14. Calculation of Spectra of Solids:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The Gilat-Raubenheimer method simplified to tetrahedron division is used to calculate the real and imaginary part of the dynamical response function for electrons. A frequency expansion for the real part is discussed. The Lindhard function is calculated as a test for numerical accuracy. The condu...

  15. Calculation of two Belyi pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Dremov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate two Belyi pairs using the properties of Mulase-Penkava differential. Details are provided including accurate construction of coordinates, variables and equations. The calculation is a part of the work which results in a catalogue arXiv:0710.2658

  16. Deconstructing Calculation Methods: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this series of four articles is to look critically, and in some detail, at the primary strategy approach to written calculation, as set out on pages 5 to 16 of the "Guidance paper" "Calculation." The underlying principle of that approach is that children should use mental methods whenever they are appropriate, whereas for calculations…

  17. Calculations of effective atomic number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliman, Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia); Orlic, N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: norlic@ffri.hr; Jelovica, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    We present and discuss effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) obtained by different methods of calculations. There is no unique relation between the computed values. This observation led us to the conclusion that any Z{sub eff} is valid only for given process. We illustrate calculations for different subshells of atom Z=72 and for M3 subshell of several other atoms.

  18. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  19. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  20. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  1. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post

  2. Computer calculation of Witten's 3-manifold invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten's 2+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is exactly solvable. We compute the partition function, a topological invariant of 3-manifolds, on generalized Seifert spaces. Thus we test the path integral using the theory of 3-manifolds. In particular, we compare the exact solution with the asymptotic formula predicted by perturbation theory. We conclude that this path integral works as advertised and gives an effective topological invariant. (orig.)

  3. Computer calculation of Witten's 3-manifold invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Daniel S.; Gompf, Robert E.

    1991-10-01

    Witten's 2+1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory is exactly solvable. We compute the partition function, a topological invariant of 3-manifolds, on generalized Seifert spaces. Thus we test the path integral using the theory of 3-manifolds. In particular, we compare the exact solution with the asymptotic formula predicted by perturbation theory. We conclude that this path integral works as advertised and gives an effective topological invariant.

  4. An analysis of spatiotemporal localized solutions in the variable coefficients (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with six different forms of dispersion parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, K; Senthilvelan, M

    2016-07-01

    We construct spatiotemporal localized envelope solutions of a (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with varying coefficients such as dispersion, nonlinearity and gain parameters through similarity transformation technique. The obtained localized rational solutions can serve as prototypes of rogue waves in different branches of science. We investigate the characteristics of constructed localized solutions in detail when it propagates through six different dispersion profiles, namely, constant, linear, Gaussian, hyperbolic, logarithm, and exponential. We also obtain expressions for the hump and valleys of rogue wave intensity profiles for these six dispersion profiles and study the trajectory of it in each case. Further, we analyze how the intensity of another localized solution, namely, breather, changes when it propagates through the aforementioned six dispersion profiles. Our studies reveal that these localized solutions co-exist with the collapsing solutions which are already found in the (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The obtained results will help to understand the corresponding localized wave phenomena in related fields. PMID:27475076

  5. Invariant subspaces and exact solutions of (3+1) dimensional short wave equation%(3+1)维短波方程的不变子空间和精确解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷京津; 王丽真

    2015-01-01

    利用不变子空间方法研究了(3+1)维短波方程的不变子空间和精确解。在(2+1)维短波方程增加一维的情形下,构造了更加广泛的精确解,同时也得到了超曲面的爆破解。主要结果不仅推广了不变子空间理论在高维非线性偏微分方程中的应用,而且对研究高维方程的动力系统有重要意义。%Considered herein is invariant spaces and exact solutions of (3+1) dimensional short wave equation with the invariant spaces method. More exact solution and hyperspace blow-up solution are obtained in case of increasing one dimension for (2+1) dimensional short wave equation. The results not only extend the application of the theory of invariant subspace in high-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations, but also have a great meaning for study high-dimensional dynamical system equations.

  6. Practical astronomy with your calculator

    CERN Document Server

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Practical Astronomy with your Calculator, first published in 1979, has enjoyed immense success. The author's clear and easy to follow routines enable you to solve a variety of practical and recreational problems in astronomy using a scientific calculator. Mathematical complexity is kept firmly in the background, leaving just the elements necessary for swiftly making calculations. The major topics are: time, coordinate systems, the Sun, the planetary system, binary stars, the Moon, and eclipses. In the third edition there are entirely new sections on generalised coordinate transformations, nutr

  7. Relativistic calculations of atomic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, Burkhard

    1984-01-01

    A review of relativistic atomic structure calculations is given with a emphasis on the Multiconfigurational-Dirac-Fock method. Its problems and deficiencies are discussed together with the contributions which go beyond the Dirac-Fock procedure.

  8. Calculations of turbulent separated flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of incompressible turbulent separated flows is carried out by using two-equation turbulence models of the K-epsilon type. On the basis of realizability analysis, a new formulation of the eddy-viscosity is proposed which ensures the positiveness of turbulent normal stresses - a realizability condition that most existing two-equation turbulence models are unable to satisfy. The present model is applied to calculate two backward-facing step flows. Calculations with the standard K-epsilon model and a recently developed RNG-based K-epsilon model are also made for comparison. The calculations are performed with a finite-volume method. A second-order accurate differencing scheme and sufficiently fine grids are used to ensure the numerical accuracy of solutions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for both mean and turbulent quantities. The comparison shows that the present model performs quite well for separated flows.

  9. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use

  10. Quantitative calculation of dislocation mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminarayan, S.; Preston, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    The authors present a new method to calculate the response of dislocations to applied stress. This new method, called the dislocation treadmill, can be used to study the effect of vacancies, interstitials, stresses, strain rate, temperature, etc., on the steady state velocity of the dislocation. The authors demonstrate the use of the method by calculating the response of a dislocation to a constant applied shear stress.

  11. The calculation of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehaelter (task group for pressure vessels) have been revised with the following objective: conversion to international standards (SI), adaption to the latest state of guidelines for production and testing, revision of the contents of individual regulations. Another target of the cooperating interest groups of producers, operators, and supervisory bodies was a harmonization of the approaches for calculation with other German guidelines, in particular the Technische Regeln fuer Dampfkessel (technical regulations for steam boilers). (orig./RW)

  12. Flexible mental calculation and "Zahlenblickschulung"

    OpenAIRE

    Rechtsteiner-Merz, Charlotte; Rathgeb-Schnierer, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The study focuses on the development of mental calculation of elementary students who show difficulties in learning math. In total, 20 children in 8 classes were observed during their first year at school. The math education of five classes was based on a special approach called “Zahlenblickschulung”, whereas three classes experienced more regular lessons. The collected data allowed a development of a typology of flexibility in mental calculation. Additionally, it was ...

  13. Multifragmentation calculated with relativistic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A saturating hamiltonian is presented in a relativistically covariant formalism. The interaction is described by scalar and vector mesons, with coupling strengths adjusted to the nuclear matter. No explicit density dependence is assumed. The hamiltonian is applied in a QMD calculation to determine the fragment distribution in O + Br collision at different energies (50 - 200 MeV/u) to test the applicability of the model at low energies. The results are compared with experiment and with previous non-relativistic calculations. (orig.)

  14. Hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhalev, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the present time there is only one classic method for hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes. In it fluid flow velocity and pipeline diameter are considered as given values.The paper proposes a procedure for physical modeling and hydraulic calculation of pressure pipes, based on the theory of similarity. Methods for obtaining similarity criteria from combinations of similarity numbers were discussed. Similarity numbers and criteria and criteria equations were defined.

  15. The Dental Trauma Internet Calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Lauridsen, Eva Fejerskov; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg;

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim Prediction tools are increasingly used to inform patients about the future dental health outcome. Advanced statistical methods are required to arrive at unbiased predictions based on follow-up studies. Material and Methods The Internet risk calculator at the Dental Trauma Guide......) in the period between 1972 and 1991. Subgroup analyses and estimates of event probabilities were based on the Kaplan-Meier and the Aalen-Johansen method. Results The Internet risk calculator shows individualized prognoses for the short and long-term healing outcome of traumatized teeth with the following...... were based on the tooth’s root development stage and other risk factors at the time of the injury. Conclusions This article explains the data base, the functionality and the statistical approach of the Internet risk calculator....

  16. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States); Lidia, S. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  17. Canister Transfer Facility Criticality Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Monroe-Rammsy

    2000-10-13

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the criticality risk in the surface facility for design basis events (DBE) involving Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) standardized canisters (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 2000a). Since some of the canisters will be stored in the surface facility before they are loaded in the waste package (WP), this calculation supports the demonstration of concept viability related to the Surface Facility environment. The scope of this calculation is limited to the consideration of three DOE SNF fuels, specifically Enrico Fermi SNF, Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA) SNF, and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF.

  18. Verification of Internal Dose Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissi, Abdelmadjid

    The MIRD internal dose calculations have been in use for more than 15 years, but their accuracy has always been questionable. There have been attempts to verify these calculations; however, these attempts had various shortcomings which kept the question of verification of the MIRD data still unanswered. The purpose of this research was to develop techniques and methods to verify the MIRD calculations in a more systematic and scientific manner. The research consisted of improving a volumetric dosimeter, developing molding techniques, and adapting the Monte Carlo computer code ALGAM to the experimental conditions and vice versa. The organic dosimetric system contained TLD-100 powder and could be shaped to represent human organs. The dosimeter possessed excellent characteristics for the measurement of internal absorbed doses, even in the case of the lungs. The molding techniques are inexpensive and were used in the fabrication of dosimetric and radioactive source organs. The adaptation of the computer program provided useful theoretical data with which the experimental measurements were compared. The experimental data and the theoretical calculations were compared for 6 source organ-7 target organ configurations. The results of the comparison indicated the existence of an agreement between measured and calculated absorbed doses, when taking into consideration the average uncertainty (16%) of the measurements, and the average coefficient of variation (10%) of the Monte Carlo calculations. However, analysis of the data gave also an indication that the Monte Carlo method might overestimate the internal absorbed doses. Even if the overestimate exists, at least it could be said that the use of the MIRD method in internal dosimetry was shown to lead to no unnecessary exposure to radiation that could be caused by underestimating the absorbed dose. The experimental and the theoretical data were also used to test the validity of the Reciprocity Theorem for heterogeneous

  19. Molecular calculations with B functions

    CERN Document Server

    Steinborn, E O; Ema, I; López, R; Ramírez, G

    1998-01-01

    A program for molecular calculations with B functions is reported and its performance is analyzed. All the one- and two-center integrals, and the three-center nuclear attraction integrals are computed by direct procedures, using previously developed algorithms. The three- and four-center electron repulsion integrals are computed by means of Gaussian expansions of the B functions. A new procedure for obtaining these expansions is also reported. Some results on full molecular calculations are included to show the capabilities of the program and the quality of the B functions to represent the electronic functions in molecules.

  20. Ab Initio Calculations of Oxosulfatovanadates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøberg, Torben; Johansen, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Restricted Hartree-Fock and multi-configurational self-consistent-field calculations together with secondorder perturbation theory have been used to study the geometry, the electron density, and the electronicspectrum of (VO2SO4)-. A bidentate sulphate attachment to vanadium was found to be stable...... with anO-V-O angle of 72.5 degrees . The calculated spectrum shows bands in reasonable agreement with anexperimental spectrum which has been attributed to (VO2SO4)-. The geometry and the electron density fortwo binuclear vanadium complexes proposed as intermediates in the vanadium catalyzed SO2...

  1. Data Acquisition and Flux Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebmann, C.; Kolle, O; Heinesch, B;

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation.......In this chapter, the basic theory and the procedures used to obtain turbulent fluxes of energy, mass, and momentum with the eddy covariance technique will be detailed. This includes a description of data acquisition, pretreatment of high-frequency data and flux calculation....

  2. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  3. B(a)cklund Transformations and Exact Solutions of a (3+ 1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Equation%一个(3+1)维非线性方程的B(a)cklund变换和精确解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琳; 桂胜华

    2012-01-01

    Binary Bell polynomials are applied to construct the bilinear forms for a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear equation. The authors obtain its Backlund transformations and corresponding Lax pair. In the meantime, the periodic wave solution to the nonlinear equation is constructed by using the bilinear equations and a proper Riemann theta function.%利用双Bell多项式方法构造了一个(3+1)维非线性方程的双线性形式,得到了该方程的双线性B(a)cklund变换和相应的Lax对.同时利用Riemann theta函数,获得了该方程的周期波解.

  4. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  5. Dead reckoning calculating without instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Doerfler, Ronald W

    1993-01-01

    No author has gone as far as Doerfler in covering methods of mental calculation beyond simple arithmetic. Even if you have no interest in competing with computers you'll learn a great deal about number theory and the art of efficient computer programming. -Martin Gardner

  6. Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Resource Strategies, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This "Professional Growth & Support Spending Calculator" helps school systems quantify all current spending aimed at improving teaching effectiveness. Part I provides worksheets to analyze total investment. Part II provides a system for evaluating investments based on purpose, target group, and delivery. In this Spending Calculator…

  7. Quasiclassical Calculations in Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2000-01-01

    We present some applications of general harmonic/wavelet analysis approach (generalized coherent states, wavelet packets) to numerical/analytical calculations in (nonlinear) quasiclassical/quantum beam dynamics problems. (Naive) deformation quantization, multiresolution representations and Wigner transform are the key points.

  8. ITER Port Interspace Pressure Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Van Hove, Walter A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) is equipped with 54 access ports. Each of these ports has an opening in the bioshield that communicates with a dedicated port cell. During Tokamak operation, the bioshield opening must be closed with a concrete plug to shield the radiation coming from the plasma. This port plug separates the port cell into a Port Interspace (between VV closure lid and Port Plug) on the inner side and the Port Cell on the outer side. This paper presents calculations of pressures and temperatures in the ITER (Ref. 1) Port Interspace after a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a pipe of the Tokamak Cooling Water System (TCWS) with high temperature water. It is assumed that this DEGB occurs during the worst possible conditions, which are during water baking operation, with water at a temperature of 523 K (250 C) and at a pressure of 4.4 MPa. These conditions are more severe than during normal Tokamak operation, with the water at 398 K (125 C) and 2 MPa. Two computer codes are employed in these calculations: RELAP5-3D Version 4.2.1 (Ref. 2) to calculate the blowdown releases from the pipe break, and MELCOR, Version 1.8.6 (Ref. 3) to calculate the pressures and temperatures in the Port Interspace. A sensitivity study has been performed to optimize some flow areas.

  9. Relativistic multiple scattering Xα calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one component relativistic theory has recently been developed and tested on isolated atoms and on molecules through the molecular scattered-wave formalism of Johnson, while its application to energy-band calculations (through a relativistic augmented-plane-wave program) has also been considered

  10. Prenatal radiation exposure. Dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unborn child requires special protection. In this context, the indication for an X-ray examination is to be checked critically. If thereupon radiation of the lower abdomen including the uterus cannot be avoided, the examination should be postponed until the end of pregnancy or alternative examination techniques should be considered. Under certain circumstances, either accidental or in unavoidable cases after a thorough risk assessment, radiation exposure of the unborn may take place. In some of these cases an expert radiation hygiene consultation may be required. This consultation should comprise the expected risks for the unborn while not perturbing the mother or the involved medical staff. For the risk assessment in case of an in-utero X-ray exposition deterministic damages with a defined threshold dose are distinguished from stochastic damages without a definable threshold dose. The occurrence of deterministic damages depends on the dose and the developmental stage of the unborn at the time of radiation. To calculate the risks of an in-utero radiation exposure a three-stage concept is commonly applied. Depending on the amount of radiation, the radiation dose is either estimated, roughly calculated using standard tables or, in critical cases, accurately calculated based on the individual event. The complexity of the calculation thereby increases from stage to stage. An estimation based on stage one is easily feasible whereas calculations based on stages two and especially three are more complex and often necessitate execution by specialists. This article demonstrates in detail the risks for the unborn child pertaining to its developmental phase and explains the three-stage concept as an evaluation scheme. It should be noted, that all risk estimations are subject to considerable uncertainties.

  11. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  12. A Note on 3 + 1 Dimensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    2000-01-01

    Recent work by Castro, Granik and El Naschie has given a rationale for the three dimensionality of our physical space within the framework of cantorian fractal space time using similar ideas of quantized fractal space time and noncommutativity. We also deduce the same result. Interestingly this is also seen to provide a rationale for an unproven conjecture of Poincare.

  13. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. Calculation of gas turbine characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamaev, B. I.; Murashko, V. L.

    2016-04-01

    The reasons and regularities of vapor flow and turbine parameter variation depending on the total pressure drop rate π* and rotor rotation frequency n are studied, as exemplified by a two-stage compressor turbine of a power-generating gas turbine installation. The turbine characteristic is calculated in a wide range of mode parameters using the method in which analytical dependences provide high accuracy for the calculated flow output angle and different types of gas dynamic losses are determined with account of the influence of blade row geometry, blade surface roughness, angles, compressibility, Reynolds number, and flow turbulence. The method provides satisfactory agreement of results of calculation and turbine testing. In the design mode, the operation conditions for the blade rows are favorable, the flow output velocities are close to the optimal ones, the angles of incidence are small, and the flow "choking" modes (with respect to consumption) in the rows are absent. High performance and a nearly axial flow behind the turbine are obtained. Reduction of the rotor rotation frequency and variation of the pressure drop change the flow parameters, the parameters of the stages and the turbine, as well as the form of the characteristic. In particular, for decreased n, nonmonotonic variation of the second stage reactivity with increasing π* is observed. It is demonstrated that the turbine characteristic is mainly determined by the influence of the angles of incidence and the velocity at the output of the rows on the losses and the flow output angle. The account of the growing flow output angle due to the positive angle of incidence for decreased rotation frequencies results in a considerable change of the characteristic: poorer performance, redistribution of the pressure drop at the stages, and change of reactivities, growth of the turbine capacity, and change of the angle and flow velocity behind the turbine.

  15. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  16. Rate calculation with colored noise

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Thomas; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2016-01-01

    The usual identification of reactive trajectories for the calculation of reaction rates requires very time-consuming simulations, particularly if the environment presents memory effects. In this paper, we develop a new method that permits the identification of reactive trajectories in a system under the action of a stochastic colored driving. This method is based on the perturbative computation of the invariant structures that act as separatrices for reactivity. Furthermore, using this perturbative scheme, we have obtained a formally exact expression for the reaction rate in multidimensional systems coupled to colored noisy environments.

  17. Calculation of transonic aileron buzz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, J. L.; Bailey, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference computer code that uses a two-layer algebraic eddy viscosity model and exact geometric specification of the airfoil has been used to simulate transonic aileron buzz. The calculated results, which were performed on both the Illiac IV parallel computer processor and the Control Data 7600 computer, are in essential agreement with the original expository wind-tunnel data taken in the Ames 16-Foot Wind Tunnel just after World War II. These results and a description of the pertinent numerical techniques are included.

  18. Digital calculations of engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Starkman, E S; Taylor, C Fayette

    1964-01-01

    Digital Calculations of Engine Cycles is a collection of seven papers which were presented before technical meetings of the Society of Automotive Engineers during 1962 and 1963. The papers cover the spectrum of the subject of engine cycle events, ranging from an examination of composition and properties of the working fluid to simulation of the pressure-time events in the combustion chamber. The volume has been organized to present the material in a logical sequence. The first two chapters are concerned with the equilibrium states of the working fluid. These include the concentrations of var

  19. Calculational Tool for Skin Contamination Dose Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, R L

    2002-01-01

    Spreadsheet calculational tool was developed to automate the calculations preformed for dose assessment of skin contamination. This document reports on the design and testing of the spreadsheet calculational tool.

  20. Atomic physics: computer calculations and theoretical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Drukarev, E. G.

    2004-01-01

    It is demonstrated, how the theoretical analysis preceding the numerical calculations helps to calculate the energy of the ground state of helium atom, and enables to avoid qualitative errors in the calculations of the characteristics of the double photoionization.

  1. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  2. Flow Field Calculations for Afterburner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoJianxing; LiuQuanzhong; 等

    1995-01-01

    In this paper a calculation procedure for simulating the coimbustion flow in the afterburner with the heat shield,flame stabilizer and the contracting nozzle is described and evaluated by comparison with experimental data.The modified two-equation κ-ε model is employed to consider the turbulence effects,and the κ-ε-g turbulent combustion model is used to determine the reaction rate.To take into accunt the influence of heat radiation on gas temperature distribution,heat flux model is applied to predictions of heat flux distributions,The solution domain spanned the entire region between centerline and afterburner wall ,with the heat shield represented as a blockage to the mesh.The enthalpy equation and wall boundary of the heat shield require special handling for two passages in the afterburner,In order to make the computer program suitable to engineering applications,a subregional scheme is developed for calculating flow fields of complex geometries.The computational grids employed are 100×100 and 333×100(non-uniformly distributed).The numerical results are compared with experimental data,Agreement between predictions and measurements shows that the numerical method and the computational program used in the study are fairly reasonable and appopriate for primary design of the afterburner.

  3. Light Pipe Energy Savings Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Erin; Behringer, Ernest R.

    2009-04-01

    Dependence on fossil fuels is unsustainable and therefore a shift to renewable energy sources such as sunlight is required. Light pipes provide a way to utilize sunlight for interior lighting, and can reduce the need for fossil fuel-generated electrical energy. Because consumers considering light pipe installation may be more strongly motivated by cost considerations than by sustainability arguments, an easy means to examine the corresponding costs and benefits is needed to facilitate informed decision-making. The purpose of this American Physical Society Physics and Society Fellowship project is to create a Web-based calculator to allow users to quantify the possible cost savings for their specific light pipe application. Initial calculations show that the illumination provided by light pipes can replace electric light use during the day, and in many cases can supply greater illumination levels than those typically given by electric lighting. While the installation cost of a light pipe is significantly greater than the avoided cost of electricity over the lifetime of the light pipe at current prices, savings may be realized if electricity prices increase.

  4. Constructing approximate conservation laws for perturbed (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation%构造(2+1)维扰动 Boussinesq 方程的近似守恒律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩

    2013-01-01

    T he method of constructing approximate conserved vectors and conserved law s for perturbed (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation are concretely described .In terms of the partial Lagrangian ap-proach ,the conserved law s are constructed by using approximate Noether method ,then the approximate Noether-type symmetry operators and approximate conserved law s are obtained .%利用近似Noether-type对称算子构造了具有扰动项的(2+1)维Boussinesq方程的近似守恒向量和近似守恒律,在(2+1)维Boussinesq方程允许的拉格朗日函数的情况下,利用近似Noether法研究了该方程的守恒律,给出了(2+1)维扰动Boussinesq方程的近似Noether对称算子、近似守恒向量以及近似守恒律。

  5. Gaussian-type light bullet solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hai-Ping, E-mail: zhp63521@126.com [College of Ecology, Zhejiang Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang, 323000 (China); Dai, Chao-Qing [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang, 311300 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Two kinds of Gaussian-type light bullet (LB) solutions of the (3+1)-dimensional Schrödinger equation with cubic and power-law nonlinearities in PT-symmetric potentials are analytically obtained. The phase switches, powers and transverse power-flow densities of these solutions in homogeneous media are studied. The linear stability analysis of these LB solutions and the direct numerical simulation indicate that LB solutions are stable below some thresholds for the imaginary part of PT-symmetric potentials in the defocusing cubic and focusing power-law nonlinear medium, while they are always unstable for all parameters in other media. Moreover, the broadened and compressed behaviors of LBs in the exponential periodic amplification system and diffraction decreasing system are discussed. Results indicate that LB is more stable for the sign-changing nonlinearity in the exponential periodic amplification system than for the non-sign-changing nonlinearity in the diffraction decreasing system at the same propagation distances.

  6. Langage C++ et calcul scientifique

    OpenAIRE

    Saramito, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    La simulation numérique est devenue essentielle dans de nombreux domaines tels que la mécanique des fluides et des solides, la météo, l'évolution du climat, la biologie ou les semi-conducteurs. Elle permet de comprendre, de prévoir, d'accéder là où les instruments de mesures s'arrêtent. Ce livre présente des méthodes performantes du calcul scientifique : matrices creuses, résolution efficace des grands systèmes linéaires, ainsi que de nombreuses applications à la résolution par éléments fini...

  7. Painless causality in defect calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, C; Cheung, Charlotte; Magueijo, Joao

    1997-01-01

    Topological defects must respect causality, a statement leading to restrictive constraints on the power spectrum of the total cosmological perturbations they induce. Causality constraints have for long been known to require the presence of an under-density in the surrounding matter compensating the defect network on large scales. This so-called compensation can never be neglected and significantly complicates calculations in defect scenarios, eg. computing cosmic microwave background fluctuations. A quick and dirty way to implement the compensation are the so-called compensation fudge factors. Here we derive the complete photon-baryon-CDM backreaction effects in defect scenarios. The fudge factor comes out as an algebraic identity and so we drop the negative qualifier ``fudge''. The compensation scale is computed and physically interpreted. Secondary backreaction effects exist, and neglecting them constitutes the well-defined approximation scheme within which one should consider compensation factor calculatio...

  8. Thermodynamic Calculations for Systems Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu, Rohana; Gundersen, Maria T.; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Systems Biocatalysis’ is a term describing multi-enzyme processes in vitro for the synthesis of chemical products. Unlike in-vivo systems, such an artificial metabolism can be controlled in a highly efficient way in order to achieve a sufficiently favourable conversion for a given target product...... on the basis of kinetics. However, many of the most interesting non-natural chemical reactions which could potentially be catalysed by enzymes, are thermodynamically unfavourable and are thus limited by the equilibrium position of the reaction. A good example is the enzyme ω-transaminase, which catalyses...... be altered by coupling with other reactions. For instance, in the case of ω-transaminase, such a coupling could be with alanine dehydrogenase. Herein, the aim of this work is to identify thermodynamic bottlenecks within a multi-enzyme process, using group contribution method to calculate the Gibbs free...

  9. FLAG-SGH Sedov calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jimmy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schofield, Sam [LLNL; Shashkov, Mikhail J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-25

    We did not run with a 'cylindrically painted region'. However, we did compute two general variants of the original problem. Refinement studies where a single zone at each level of refinement contains the entire internal energy at t=0 or A 'finite' energy source which has the same physical dimensions as that for the 91 x 46 mesh, but consisting of increasing numbers of zones with refinement. Nominal mesh resolution: 91 x 46. Other mesh resolutions: 181 x 92 and 361 x 184. Note, not identical to the original specification. To maintain symmetry for the 'fixed' energy source, the mesh resolution was adjusted slightly. FLAG Lagrange or full (Eulerian) ALE was used with various options for each simulation. Observation - for either Lagrange or ALE, point or 'fixed' source, calculations converge on density and pressure with mesh resolution, but not energy, (not vorticity either).

  10. Calculating the GONG Leakage Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, F.; Howe, R.

    Since spherical harmonics do not form a complete orthonormal basis set over a portion of a sphere, helioseismic spectra computed for a specific target mode with degree ellt and azimuthal degree mt also contain modes with nearby ell'' and m''. These spatial leaks greatly increase the complexity of the observed spectrum, complicating the spectral fitting and degrading the resulting mode parameter estimates. This is particularly true where the target mode and the leaks have similar frequencies. Some strategies for fitting helioseismic spectra explicitly include the leakage matrix which estimates the relative strength of a mode (ell'' and m'') in the spectrum at (ellt,mt). Since the fitting methods assume that the matrix is correct and apply it as a constraint, an inaccurate matrix introduces systematic errors in the estimated mode parameters. It is thus important to have as accurate a matrix as possible. Here we report on the calculation of the leakage matrix for the GONG observations. The matrix elements are essentially the integrals (over the observed portion of the solar surface) of the crossproducts of the two spherical harmonics. However, several effects have been included to increase the accuracy of the matrix. These include the projection factor of the observable (velocity, intensity, modulation), the spatial apodization applied to the data, the finite rectangular pixel dimensions of the observations, and possible errors in the estimated image geometry. Other factors to be incorporated are the observed MTF, the merging of the GONG images, and the horizontal components of the oscillatory velocity field. We will compare the latest calculation with the observed spectrum and assess the relative importance of the input factors. We will also compare the leakage matrices for velocity and intensity to estimate their contribution to the large apparent differences in the helioseismic spectra obtained from these observables.

  11. Dyscalculia and the Calculating Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Dyscalculia, like dyslexia, affects some 5% of school-age children but has received much less investigative attention. In two thirds of affected children, dyscalculia is associated with another developmental disorder like dyslexia, attention-deficit disorder, anxiety disorder, visual and spatial disorder, or cultural deprivation. Infants, primates, some birds, and other animals are born with the innate ability, called subitizing, to tell at a glance whether small sets of scattered dots or other items differ by one or more item. This nonverbal approximate number system extends mostly to single digit sets as visual discrimination drops logarithmically to "many" with increasing numerosity (size effect) and crowding (distance effect). Preschoolers need several years and specific teaching to learn verbal names and visual symbols for numbers and school agers to understand their cardinality and ordinality and the invariance of their sequence (arithmetic number line) that enables calculation. This arithmetic linear line differs drastically from the nonlinear approximate number system mental number line that parallels the individual number-tuned neurons in the intraparietal sulcus in monkeys and overlying scalp distribution of discrete functional magnetic resonance imaging activations by number tasks in man. Calculation is a complex skill that activates both visual and spatial and visual and verbal networks. It is less strongly left lateralized than language, with approximate number system activation somewhat more right sided and exact number and arithmetic activation more left sided. Maturation and increasing number skill decrease associated widespread non-numerical brain activations that persist in some individuals with dyscalculia, which has no single, universal neurological cause or underlying mechanism in all affected individuals. PMID:27515455

  12. On Calculation of Amplitudes in Quantum Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karplyuk, Kostyantyn; Zhmudsky, Oleksandr

    2012-01-01

    A new method of calculation of amplitudes of different processes in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The method does not use the Feynman technique of trace of product of matrices calculation. The method strongly simplifies calculation of cross sections for different processes. The effectiveness of the method is shown on the cross-section calculation of Coulomb scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron annihilation.

  13. Factors affecting calculation of L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  14. Benchmark calculations for EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past few years, EGS4 has undergone an extensive upgrade to EGS5, in particularly in the areas of low-energy electron physics, low-energy photon physics, PEGS cross section generation, and the coding from Mortran to Fortran programming. Benchmark calculations have been made to assure the accuracy, reliability and high quality of the EGS5 code system. This study reports three benchmark examples that show the successful upgrade from EGS4 to EGS5 based on the excellent agreements among EGS4, EGS5 and measurements. The first benchmark example is the 1969 Crannell Experiment to measure the three-dimensional distribution of energy deposition for 1-GeV electrons shower in water and aluminum tanks. The second example is the 1995 Compton-scattered spectra measurements for 20-40 keV, linearly polarized photon by Namito et. al., in KEK, which was a main part of the low-energy photon expansion work for both EGS4 and EGS5. The third example is the 1986 heterogeneity benchmark experiment by Shortt et. al., who used a monoenergetic 20-MeV electron beam to hit the front face of a water tank containing both air and aluminum cylinders and measured spatial depth dose distribution using a small solid-state detector. (author)

  15. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  16. Selfconsistent calculations for hyperdeformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.; Dobaczewski, J.; Dudek, J.; Luo, W.D. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France)

    1996-12-31

    Properties of the hyperdeformed nuclei in the A {approximately} 170 mass range are re-examined using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method with the SOP parametrization. A comparison with the previous predictions that were based on a non-selfconsistent approach is made. The existence of the {open_quotes}hyper-deformed shell closures{close_quotes} at the proton and neutron numbers Z=70 and N=100 and their very weak dependence on the rotational frequency is suggested; the corresponding single-particle energy gaps are predicted to play a role similar to that of the Z=66 and N=86 gaps in the super-deformed nuclei of the A {approximately} 150 mass range. Selfconsistent calculations suggest also that the A {approximately} 170 hyperdeformed structures have neglegible mass asymmetry in their shapes. Very importantly for the experimental studies, both the fission barriers and the {open_quotes}inner{close_quotes} barriers (that separate the hyperdeformed structures from those with smaller deformations) are predicted to be relatively high, up to the factor of {approximately}2 higher than the corresponding ones in the {sup 152}Dy superdeformed nucleus used as a reference.

  17. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  18. RTU Comparison Calculator Enhancement Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James D.; Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2014-03-31

    Over the past two years, Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has been investigating ways to increase the operating efficiency of the packaged rooftop units (RTUs) in the field. First, by issuing a challenge to the RTU manufactures to increase the integrated energy efficiency ratio (IEER) by 60% over the existing ASHRAE 90.1-2010 standard. Second, by evaluating the performance of an advanced RTU controller that reduces the energy consumption by over 40%. BTO has previously also funded development of a RTU comparison calculator (RTUCC). RTUCC is a web-based tool that provides the user a way to compare energy and cost savings for two units with different efficiencies. However, the RTUCC currently cannot compare savings associated with either the RTU Challenge unit or the advanced RTU controls retrofit. Therefore, BTO has asked PNNL to enhance the tool so building owners can compare energy and savings associated with this new class of products. This document provides the details of the enhancements that are required to support estimating energy savings from use of RTU challenge units or advanced controls on existing RTUs.

  19. Calculation Methods for Wallenius’ Noncentral Hypergeometric Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    2008-01-01

    conditional distribution of independent binomial variates given their sum. No reliable calculation method for Wallenius' noncentral hypergeometric distribution has hitherto been described in the literature. Several new methods for calculating probabilities from Wallenius' noncentral hypergeometric...

  20. Dynamics Calculation of Travel Wave Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the dynamics calculating of the travel tube, we must obtain the field map in the tube. The field map can be affected by not only the beam loading, but also the attenuation coefficient. The calculation of the attenuation coefficient

  1. A New Approach for Calculating Vacuum Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗红石; 平加伦; 顾建中

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Dyson-Schwinger approach, we propose a new method for calculating vacuum susceptibilities. As an example, the vector vacuum susceptibility is calculated. A comparison with the results of the previous approaches is presented.

  2. Pressure Vessel Calculations for VVER-440 Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordósy, G.; Hegyi, Gy.; Keresztúri, A.; Maráczy, Cs.; Temesvári, E.; Vértes, P.; Zsolnay, É.

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were performed for a selected cycle of the Paks NPP Unit II to test a computational model. In the model the source term was calculated by the core design code KARATE and the neutron transport calculations were performed by the MCNP. Different forms of the source specification were examined. The calculated results were compared with measurements and in most cases fairly good agreement was found.

  3. 40 CFR 89.207 - Credit calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 89.207 Section 89... Trading Provisions § 89.207 Credit calculation. (a) Requirements for calculating NO X credits from Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive...

  4. Thermohydraulic calculation of WWER-type NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique of thermohydraulic calculation of the WWER-type NPP in unsteady processes is described. Effective algorithm for solving hydrodynamics equations without regard for acoustic effects permitting to use enough large time integration step is given. Calculation of two-dimensional temperature fields in fuel element is considered. Method for calculating a pressurizer, steam generators and pumps is described as well

  5. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy... ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a) Calculation of Domestic Utilities' Annual Assessment Ratio to the Fund. Domestic utilities shall be...

  6. 7 CFR 760.1106 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.1106 Section 760.1106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Payment calculation. (a) Preliminary, unadjusted LCP payments are calculated for a producer by...

  7. 7 CFR 1416.104 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.104 Section 1416.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Livestock Compensation Program § 1416.104 Payment calculation. (a) LCP payments are calculated...

  8. 7 CFR 1416.504 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.504 Section 1416.504 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS Tropical Fruit Disaster Program § 1416.504 Payment calculation. (a) Payments are calculated...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.650 - Emission calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.650 Section 1065.650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.650 Emission calculations....

  10. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs

  11. Quantum Transport Calculations Using Periodic Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-01-01

    An efficient new method is presented to calculate the quantum transports using periodic boundary conditions. This method allows the use of conventional ground state ab initio programs without big changes. The computational effort is only a few times of a normal ground state calculations, thus is makes accurate quantum transport calculations for large systems possible.

  12. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than three significant digits. Probabilities will be truncated to the number...

  13. Calculating massive 3-loop graphs for operator matrix elements by the method of hyperlogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Reserach Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, Johannes; Raab, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Reserach Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)

    2014-02-15

    We calculate convergent 3-loop Feynman diagrams containing a single massive loop equipped with twist τ=2 local operator insertions corresponding to spin N. They contribute to the massive operator matrix elements in QCD describing the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering at large virtualities. Diagrams of this kind can be computed using an extended version to the method of hyperlogarithms, originally being designed for massless Feynman diagrams without operators. The method is applied to Benz- and V-type graphs, belonging to the genuine 3-loop topologies. In case of the V-type graphs with five massive propagators new types of nested sums and iterated integrals emerge. The sums are given in terms of finite binomially and inverse binomially weighted generalized cyclotomic sums, while the 1-dimensionally iterated integrals are based on a set of ∝30 square-root valued letters. We also derive the asymptotic representations of the nested sums and present the solution for N element of C. Integrals with a power-like divergence in N-space∝a{sup N}, a element of R, a>1, for large values of N emerge. They still possess a representation in x-space, which is given in terms of root-valued iterated integrals in the present case. The method of hyperlogarithms is also used to calculate higher moments for crossed box graphs with different operator insertions.

  14. Argosy 4 - A programme for lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a detailed description of the methods of calculation used in the Argosy 4 computer programme, and of the input requirements and printed results produced by the programme. An outline of the physics of the Argosy method is given. Section 2 describes the lattice calculation, including the burn up calculation, section 3 describes the control rod calculation and section 4 the reflector calculation. In these sections the detailed equations solved by the programme are given. In section 5 input requirements are given, and in section 6 the printed output obtained from an Argosy calculation is described. In section 7 are noted the principal differences between Argosy 4 and earlier versions of the Argosy programme

  15. Multilinguals’ language choice for mental calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates self-reported language choice for mental calculations among 1,454 adult multilinguals from a variety of linguistic, social and ethnic backgrounds. As mental calculation is a complex cognitive operation involving both language-dependent and language independent processes, we sought to establish a baseline of first language (L1) or foreign language(s) (LX) use for mental calculation and identify the factors that influence multilinguals’ choice of...

  16. Comparison of methods for calculating water erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis presents a comparison of methods for calculating water erosion. The aim is to summarize available evidence concerning the problems of water erosion. There are presented some methods how to calculate average annual erosion of soils, and selected models for calculating the erosion immediately. There are also listed possible erosion control measures through which we can at least slow the effects of erosion, rather than stop completely.

  17. Calculation of plasma characteristics of the sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Abbas Bari; Zhong Jia-Yong; Chen Miu; Zhao Jing; Zhang Jie

    2006-01-01

    The ionization level and free electron density of most abundant elements (C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, S, and Fe) in the sun are calculated from the centre of the sun to the surface of the photosphere. The model and computations are made under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The Saha equation has been used to calculate the ionization level of elements and the electron density. Temperature values for calculations along the solar radius are taken from referebces.

  18. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    OpenAIRE

    X. H. Zhong; Li, L.; Ning, P. Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  19. Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note constitutes the first edition of a Handbook for the calculation of reactor protections. This handbook makes it possible to calculate simply the different neutron and gamma fluxes and consequently, to fix the minimum quantities of materials necessary under general safety conditions both for the personnel and for the installations. It contains a certain amount of nuclear data, calculation methods, and constants corresponding to the present state of our knowledge. (authors)

  20. Dynamic calculations of pressurized water reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model is briefly described for the calculation of oscillations in the WWER-440 reactor internals. The model was developed for improved safety of the type of reactors. It allows calculating vibrations resistance of reactor components, mainly during accidents, such as loss of coolant accidents. Some results are given of the calculation of forces acting in the rupture of the reactor inlet and outlet pipes. (Z.M.)

  1. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  2. Evaluating Energy Sector Investments: Calculating Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson de Oliveira Pamplona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A major task in assessing risks of investment projects is defining the approach to calculating the project’s volatility. Looking at assorted estimation techniques, this paper calculates their volatilities. The techniques originate from authors in the area and involve project-specific variables of uncertainty. These techniques are applied to a case of electricity distribution through real options. Results are then compared. The difference between the calculated volatilities was low, leaving, in the case of the project evaluated here, the decision unchanged. The paper’s contribution consists of providing a detailed presentation of calculating volatility by the methods cited and by comparing the results obtained by its application.

  3. The conundrum of calculating carbon footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Gausset, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    A pre-condition for reducing global warming is to minimise the emission of greenhouse gasses (GHGs). A common approach to informing people about the link between behaviour and climate change rests on developing GHG calculators that quantify the ‘carbon footprint’ of a product, a sector or an actor....... There is, however, an abundance of GHG calculators that rely on very different premises and give very different estimates of carbon footprints. In this chapter, we compare and analyse the main principles of calculating carbon footprints, and discuss how calculators can inform (or misinform) people who wish...

  4. Surface Tension Calculation of Undercooled Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Butler equation and extrapolated thermodynamic data of undercooled alloys from those of liquid stable alloys, a method for surface tension calculation of undercooled alloys is proposed. The surface tensions of liquid stable and undercooled Ni-Cu (xNi=0.42) and Ni-Fe (xNi=0.3 and 0.7) alloys are calculated using STCBE (Surface Tension Calculation based on Butler Equation) program. The agreement between calculated values and experimental data is good enough, and the temperature dependence of the surface tension can be reasonable down to 150-200 K under the liquid temperature of the alloys.

  5. Unravelling the Mysteries of Expert Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The processes and procedures used by expert mental calculators are identified from a literature review. Experts are characterized by knowledge of a variety of methods, ability to recall numerical equivalents, and ability to remember the numbers involved in various stages of calculations. (MNS)

  6. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Credit calculation. 91.1307 Section 91...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or...

  7. Calculation of LDL apoB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sniderman, A.D.; Tremblay, A.J.; Graaf, J. de; Couture, P.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tests the validity of the Hattori formula to calculate LDL apoB based on plasma lipids and total apoB. METHODS: In 2178 patients in a tertiary care lipid clinic, LDL apoB calculated as suggested by Hattori et al. was compared to directly measured LDL apoB isolated by ultracent

  8. Calculation of resonance integral for fuel cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for calculating the shielding correction, formulated in the previous paper [6], was broadened and applied for a cluster of cylindrical rods. The sam analytical method as in the previous paper was applied. A combination of Gauss method with the method of Almgren and Porn used for solving the same type of integral was used to calculate the geometry functions. CLUSTER code was written for ZUSE-Z-23 computer to calculate the shielding corrections for pairs of fuel rods in the cluster. Computing time for one pair of fuel rods depends on the number of closely placed rod, and for two closely placed rods it is about 3 hours. Calculations were done for clusters containing 7 and 19 UO2 rods. results show that calculated values of resonance integrals are somewhat higher than the values obtained by Helstrand empirical formula. Taking into account the results for two rods from the previous paper it can be noted that the calculated and empirical values for clusters with 2 and 7 rods are in agreement since the deviations do not exceed the limits of experimental error (±2%). In case of larger cluster with 19 rods deviations are higher than the experimental error. Most probably the calculated values exceed the experimental ones result from the fact that in this paper the shielding correction is calculated only in the region up to 1 keV

  9. Calculated LET-Spectrum of Antiprotons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    -LET components resulting from the annihilation. Though, the calculations of dose-averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity. Materials and Methods Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating...

  10. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...

  11. Stability Test for Transient-Temperature Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Graphical test helps assure numerical stability of calculations of transient temperature or diffusion in composite medium. Rectangular grid forms basis of two-dimensional finite-difference model for heat conduction or other diffusion like phenomena. Model enables calculation of transient heat transfer among up to four different materials that meet at grid point.

  12. 7 CFR 760.406 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.406 Section 760.406 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) Under this subpart, separate payment rates for eligible livestock owners and...

  13. CO2 calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Werner; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Many countries are in the process of mapping their national CO2 emissions, but only few have managed to produce an overall report at municipal level yet. Denmark, however, has succeeded in such a project. Using a new national IT-based calculation model, municipalities can calculate the extent of...

  14. 7 CFR 760.909 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.909 Section 760.909 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Payment calculation. (a) Under this subpart separate payment rates are established for eligible...

  15. Calculated Atomic Volumes of the Actinide Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H.; Andersen, O. K.; Johansson, B.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium.......The equilibrium atomic volume is calculated for the actinide metals. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium....

  16. 7 CFR 1416.704 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 1416.704 Section 1416.704 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... PROGRAMS 2005 Hurricane Tree Assistance Program § 1416.704 Payment calculation. (a) An approved...

  17. 7 CFR 760.307 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.307 Section 760.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) An eligible livestock producer will be eligible to receive payments for grazing losses...

  18. 7 CFR 760.1203 - Payment calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment calculation. 760.1203 Section 760.1203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... calculation. (a) Producers must be paid for feed losses of higher costs only for one of the three years,...

  19. 30 CFR 5.30 - Fee calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee calculation. 5.30 Section 5.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.30 Fee calculation....

  20. 47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...

  1. Calculating the Greeks by Cubature formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Josef

    2004-01-01

    We provide cubature formulas for the calculation of derivatives of expected values in the spririt of Terry Lyons and Nicolas Victoir. In financial mathematics derivatives of option prices with respect to initial values, so called Greeks, are of particular importance as hedging parameters. Cubature formulas allow to calculate these quantities very quickly. Simple examples are added to the theoretical exposition.

  2. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  3. Data base to compare calculations and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological and climatological data bases were compared with known tritium release points and diffusion calculations to determine if calculated concentrations could replace measure concentrations at the monitoring stations. Daily tritium concentrations were monitored at 8 stations and 16 possible receptors. Automated data retrieval strategies are listed. (PSB)

  4. Calculation of Temperature Rise in Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.; Witt, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Gives a simple but fuller account of the basis for accurately calculating temperature rise in calorimetry. Points out some misconceptions regarding these calculations. Describes two basic methods, the extrapolation to zero time and the equal area method. Discusses the theoretical basis of each and their underlying assumptions. (CW)

  5. Atomic Structure Calculations for Neutral Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Alonizan, Norah; Qindeel, Rabia; Ben Nessib, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels and oscillator strengths for neutral oxygen have been calculated using the Cowan (CW), SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS), and AUTOSTRUCTURE (AS) atomic structure codes. The results obtained with these atomic codes have been compared with MCHF calculations and experimental values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database.

  6. Calculating "g" from Acoustic Doppler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sebastian; Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the Doppler effect for sound is introduced in high school and college physics courses. Students calculate the perceived frequency for several scenarios relating a stationary or moving observer and a stationary or moving sound source. These calculations assume a constant velocity of the observer and/or source. Although seldom…

  7. Investment Return Calculations and Senior School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzherbert, Richard M.; Pitt, David G. W.

    2010-01-01

    The methods for calculating returns on investments are taught to undergraduate level business students. In this paper, the authors demonstrate how such calculations are within the scope of senior school students of mathematics. In providing this demonstration the authors hope to give teachers and students alike an illustration of the power and the…

  8. Modeling tire deformation for power loss calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, D.; Rohde, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A combined thermo-mechanical model for calculating tire power loss has been developed at GMR. This paper presents the techniques for developing the realistic finite element models needed in both the thermal and deformation portions of the combined model. It also describes the techniques used in calculating deformed tire shapes. First, procedures are outlined for automatically generating a finite element discretization of a tire. Then, this discretization, together with information about the properties of tire materials, is used to develop a finite element model of the tire. This model is used in MSC NASTRAN to calculate compliances, i.e., the response of the tire to inflation and to unit loads applied at points on the tire surface. These compliances are then used in an algorithm which calculates the deformed shape of a tire loaded against the pavement surface. Sample results are presented to show the agreement between calculated and measured tire deformation.

  9. Semantic Similarity Calculation of Chinese Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiang Pan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a two layers computing method to calculate semantic similarity of Chinese word. Firstly, using Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA subject model to generate subject spatial domain. Then mapping word into topic space and forming topic distribution which is used to calculate semantic similarity of word(the first layer computing. Finally, using semantic dictionary "HowNet" to deeply excavate semantic similarity of word (the second layer computing. This method not only overcomes the problem that it’s not specific enough merely using LDA to calculate semantic similarity of word, but also solves the problems such as new words (haven’t been added in dictionary and without considering specific context when calculating semantic similarity based on semantic dictionary "HowNet". By experimental comparison, this thesis proves feasibility,availability and advantages of the calculation method.

  10. Tools for calculations in color space

    CERN Document Server

    Sjodahl, Malin

    2013-01-01

    Both the higher energy and the initial state colored partons contribute to making exact calculations in QCD color space more important at the LHC than at its predecessors. This is applicable whether the method of assessing QCD is fixed order calculation, resummation, or parton showers. In this talk we discuss tools for tackling the problem of performing exact color summed calculations. We start with theoretical tools in the form of the (standard) trace bases and the orthogonal multiplet bases (for which a general method of construction was recently presented). Following this, we focus on two new packages for performing color structure calculations: one easy to use Mathematica package, ColorMath, and one C++ package, ColorFull, which is suitable for more demanding calculations, and for interfacing with event generators.

  11. Benchmark calculations of sodium fast critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high expectations from fast critical experiments impose the additional requirements on reliability of final reconstructed values, obtained in experiments at critical facility. Benchmark calculations of critical experiments are characterized by impossibility of complete experiment reconstruction, the large amounts of input data (dependent and independent) with very different reliability. It should also take into account different sensitivity of the measured and appropriate calculated characteristics to the identical changes of geometry parameters, temperature, and isotopic composition of individual materials. The calculations of critical facility experiments are produced for the benchmark models, generated by the specific reconstructing codes with its features when adjusting model parameters, and using the nuclear data library. The generated benchmark model, providing the agreed calculated and experimental values for one or more neutronic characteristics can lead to considerable differences for other key characteristics. The sensitivity of key neutronic characteristics to the extra steel allocation in the core, and ENDF/B nuclear data sources is performed using a few calculated models of BFS-62-3A and BFS1-97 critical assemblies. The comparative analysis of the calculated effective multiplication factor, spectral indices, sodium void reactivity, and radial fission-rate distributions leads to quite different models, providing the best agreement the calculated and experimental neutronic characteristics. This fact should be considered during the refinement of computational models and code-verification purpose. (author)

  12. Upper Subcritical Calculations Based on Correlated Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobes, Vladimir [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL; Dunn, Michael E [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute and American Nuclear Society standard for Validation of Neutron Transport Methods for Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculations defines the upper subcritical limit (USL) as “a limit on the calculated k-effective value established to ensure that conditions calculated to be subcritical will actually be subcritical.” Often, USL calculations are based on statistical techniques that infer information about a nuclear system of interest from a set of known/well-characterized similar systems. The work in this paper is part of an active area of research to investigate the way traditional trending analysis is used in the nuclear industry, and in particular, the research is assessing the impact of the underlying assumption that the experimental data being analyzed for USL calculations are statistically independent. In contrast, the multiple experiments typically used for USL calculations can be correlated because they are often performed at the same facilities using the same materials and measurement techniques. This paper addresses this issue by providing a set of statistical inference methods to calculate the bias and bias uncertainty based on the underlying assumption that the experimental data are correlated. Methods to quantify these correlations are the subject of a companion paper and will not be discussed here. The newly proposed USL methodology is based on the assumption that the integral experiments selected for use in the establishment of the USL are sufficiently applicable and that experimental correlations are known. Under the assumption of uncorrelated data, the new methods collapse directly to familiar USL equations currently used. We will demonstrate our proposed methods on real data and compare them to calculations of currently used methods such as USLSTATS and NUREG/CR-6698. Lastly, we will also demonstrate the effect experiment correlations can have on USL calculations.

  13. Using Inverted Indices for Accelerating LINGO Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2011-01-01

    The ever growing size of chemical data bases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating the...... queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialised hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices it is possible to calculate LINGOsim...

  14. The WFIRST Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the exposure time calculator for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey. The calculator works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and SN determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The source code is made available for public use.

  15. Calculation of external dose from distributed source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail

  16. Neutronic parameters calculations of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronic calculations that reproduce in a simplified way some aspects of a CANDU reactor design were performed. Starting from some prefixed reactor parameters, cylindrical and uniform iron adjuster rods were designed. An appropriate refueling scheme was established, defininig in a 2 zones model their dimensions and exit burnups. The calculations have been done using the codes WIMS-D4 (cell), SNOD (reactivity device simulations) and PUMA (reactor). Comparing with similar calculations done with codes and models usually employed for CANDU design, it is concluded that the models and methods used are appropriate. (Author)

  17. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas

    2014-06-15

    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  18. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Stopping-power calculations for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method developed by Brandt and Reinheimer which explicitly includes the effect of the semiconductor gap has been used to calculate the proton and α-particle stopping powers of the valence-electron gas of C (diamond), ZnTe, and U. These values, as well as those existing for Si and Ge, have been combined with the stopping contribution of the electronic core obtained from the statistical atomic model of Bonderup. Stopping powers have also been calculated using the statistical model alone. The calculated curves, which are valid for all incident projectile energies, reproduce the overall features of the semiempirical slowing-down curves, but not always the absolute values

  20. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure......This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines...

  1. Equivalent-spherical-shield neutron dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron doses through 162-cm-thick spherical shields were calculated to be 1090 and 448 mrem/h for regular and magnetite concrete, respectively. These results bracket the measured data, for reinforced regular concrete, of /approximately/600 mrem/h. The calculated fraction of the high-energy (>20 MeV) dose component also bracketed the experimental data. The measured and calculated doses were for a graphite beam stop bombarded with 100 nA of 800-MeV protons. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Ti-84 Plus graphing calculator for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    McCalla

    2013-01-01

    Get up-to-speed on the functionality of your TI-84 Plus calculator Completely revised to cover the latest updates to the TI-84 Plus calculators, this bestselling guide will help you become the most savvy TI-84 Plus user in the classroom! Exploring the standard device, the updated device with USB plug and upgraded memory (the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition), and the upcoming color screen device, this book provides you with clear, understandable coverage of the TI-84's updated operating system. Details the new apps that are available for download to the calculator via the USB cabl

  3. Energy of plate tectonics calculation and projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Swedan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics and observations suggest that the energy of the geological activities resulting from plate tectonics is equal to the latent heat of melting, calculated at mantle's pressure, of the new ocean crust created at midocean ridges following sea floor spreading. This energy varies with the temperature of ocean floor, which is correlated with surface temperature. The objective of this manuscript is to calculate the force that drives plate tectonics, estimate the energy released, verify the calculations based on experiments and observations, and project the increase of geological activities with surface temperature rise caused by climate change.

  4. Fluidization calculation on nuclear fuel kernel coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluidization of nuclear fuel kernel coating was calculated. The bottom of the reactor was in the from of cone on top of the cone there was a cylinder, the diameter of the cylinder for fluidization was 2 cm and at the upper part of the cylinder was 3 cm. Fluidization took place in the cone and the first cylinder. The maximum and the minimum velocity of the gas of varied kernel diameter, the porosity and bed height of varied stream gas velocity were calculated. The calculation was done by basic program

  5. Pairing schemes for HFB calculations of nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Duguet, T; Bonche, P

    2005-01-01

    Several pairing schemes currently used to describe superfluid nuclei through Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) calculations are briefly reviewed. We put a particular emphasis on the regularization recipes used in connection with zero-range forces and on the density dependence which usually complement their definition. Regarding the chosen regularization process, the goal is not only to identify the impact it may or may not have on pairing properties of nuclei through spherical 1D HFB calculations but also to assess its tractability for systematic axial 2D and 3D mean-field and beyond-mean-field calculations.

  6. RA-0 reactor. New neutronic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updating of the neutronic calculations performed at the RA-0 reactor, located at the Natural, Physical and Exact Sciences Faculty of Cordoba National University, are herein described. The techniques used for the calculation of a reactor like the RA-0 allows prediction in detail of the flux behaviour in the core's interior and in the reflector, which will be helpful for experiments design. In particular, the use of WIMSD4 code to make calculations on the reactor implies a novelty in the possible applications of this code to solve the problems that arise in practice. (Author)

  7. Pressure vessel calculations for VVER-440 reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordósy, G; Hegyi, Gy; Keresztúri, A; Maráczy, Cs; Temesvári, E; Vértes, P; Zsolnay, E

    2005-01-01

    For the determination of the fast neutron load of the reactor pressure vessel a mixed calculational procedure was developed. The procedure was applied to the Unit II of Paks NPP, Hungary. The neutron source on the outer surfaces of the reactor was determined by a core design code, and the neutron transport calculations outside the core were performed by the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The reaction rate in the activation detectors at surveillance positions and at the cavity were calculated and compared with measurements. In most cases, fairly good agreement was found.

  8. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Semidirect algorithms in electron propagator calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, V.G.; Ortiz, J.V. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Electron propagator calculations have been executed with a semi-direct algorithm that generates only a subset of transformed electron repulsion integrals and that takes advantage of Abelian point group symmetry. Diagonal self-energy expressions that are advantageous for large molecules are employed. Illustrative calculations with basis sets in excess of 200 functions include evaluations of the ionization energies of C{sup 2{minus}}{sub 7} and Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}. In the former application, a bound dianion is obtained for a D{sub 3h} structure. In the latter, many final states of the same symmetry are calculated without difficulty.

  10. 46 CFR 170.090 - Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... necessary to compute and plot any of the following curves as part of the calculations required in this subchapter, these plots must also be submitted: (1) Righting arm or moment curves. (2) Heeling arm or...

  11. Large Numbers and Calculators: A Classroom Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcavi, Abraham; Hadas, Nurit

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity demonstrating how a scientific calculator can be used in a mathematics classroom to introduce new content while studying a conventional topic. Examples of reading and writing large numbers, and reading hidden results are provided. (YP)

  12. Resonance integral calculations for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of calculation of resonance integrals of finite dilution and temperature are given for both, homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries, together with results obtained from these methods as applied to the design of high temperature reactors. (author)

  13. Methods of bone marrow dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several methods of bone marrow dose calculation for photon irradiation were analised. After a critical analysis, the author proposes the adoption, by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN, of Rosenstein's method for dose calculations in Radiodiagnostic examinations and Kramer's method in case of occupational irradiation. It was verified by Eckerman and Simpson that for monoenergetic gamma emitters uniformly distributed within the bone mineral of the skeleton the dose in the bone surface can be several times higher than dose in skeleton. In this way, is also proposed the Calculation of tissue-air ratios for bone surfaces in some irradiation geometries and photon energies to be included in the Rosenstein's method for organ dose calculation in Radiodiagnostic examinations. (Author)

  14. Reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventh biennial meeting on reactor physics calculations in the Nordic countries was arranged by VTT Energy on May 8-9, 1995. 26 papers on different subjects in the field of reactor physics were presented by 45 participants representing research establishments, technical universities, utilities, consultants and suppliers. Resent development and verification of the program systems of ABB Atom, Risoe, Scandpower, Studsvik and VTT Energy were the main topic of the meeting. Benchmarking of the two assembly codes CASMO-4 and HELIOS is proceeding. Cross section data calculated with CASMO-HEX have been validated for the Loviisa reactors. On core analysis ABB atom gives a description on its latest core simulator version POLCA7 with the calculation Core Master 2 and the BWR core supervision system Core Watch. Transient calculations with HEXTRAN, HEXTRAN- PLIM, TRAB, RAMONA, SIMULATE-3K and a code based on PRESTO II/POLCA7 were also presented

  15. Slide Rule For Calculating Curing Schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heater, Don

    1995-01-01

    Special-purpose slide rule devised for calculating schedules for storing and curing adhesives, sealants, and other materials characterized by known curing times and shelf lives. Prevents mistakes commonly made in determining storage and curing schedules.

  16. Quasiclassical Calculations for Wigner Functions via Multiresolution

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorova, A N; Fedorova, Antonina N.; Zeitlin, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    We present the application of variational-wavelet analysis to numerical/analytical calculations of Wigner functions in (nonlinear) quasiclassical beam dynamics problems. (Naive) deformation quantization and multiresolution representations are the key points.

  17. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  18. Risk calculation method for complex engineering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rapid and simple risk calculation method for large and complex engineering systems, the simulated maximum entropy method (SMEM, which is based on integration of the advantages of the Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods, thus avoiding the shortcoming of the slow convergence rate of the Monte Carlo method in risk calculation. Application of SMEM in the calculation of reservoir flood discharge risk shows that this method can make full use of the known information under the same conditions and obtain the corresponding probability distribution and the risk value. It not only greatly improves the speed, compared with the Monte Carlo method, but also provides a new approach for the risk calculation in large and complex engineering systems.

  19. Spreadsheet Templates for Chemical Equilibrium Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhairav D.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two general spreadsheet templates to carry out all types of one-equation chemical equilibrium calculations encountered by students in undergraduate chemistry courses. Algorithms, templates, macros, and representative examples are presented to illustrate the approach. (PR)

  20. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil penalties... penalty is less than $2,000, however. In such cases, the UFA algorithm may generate a gross revenue...

  1. Nuclear structure calculations for astrophysical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we present calculated results on such diverse properties as nuclear energy levels, ground-state masses and shapes, β-decay properties and fission-barrier heights. Our approach to these calculations is to use a unified theoretical framework within which the above properties can all be studied. The results are obtained in the macroscopic-microscopic approach in which a microscopic nuclear-structure single-particle model with extensions is combined with a macroscopic model, such as the liquid drop model. In this model the total potential energy of the nucleus may be calculated as a function of shape. The maxima and minima in this function correspond to such features as the ground state, fission saddle points and shape-isomeric states. Various transition rate matrix elements are determined from wave-functions calculated in the single-particle model with pairing and other relevant residual interactions taken into account

  2. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  3. Modified equipartition calculation for supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Arbutina, B; Andjelic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Vukotic, B

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium is one of the most complex tasks of contemporary astrophysics. We can only estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field strength by using a few very limited methods. Besides Zeeman effect and Faraday rotation, the equipartition or the minimum-energy calculation is a widespread method for estimating magnetic field strength and energy contained in the magnetic field and cosmic ray particles by using only the radio synchrotron emission. Despite of its approximate character, it remains a useful tool, especially when there is no other data about the magnetic field in a source. In this paper we give a modified calculation which we think is more appropriate for estimating magnetic field strengths and energetics in supernova remnants (SNRs). Finally, we present calculated estimates of the magnetic field strengths for all Galactic SNRs for which the necessary observational data are available. The web application for calculation of the mag...

  4. Representation and calculation of economic uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Management and decision making when certain information is available may be a matter of rationally choosing the optimal alternative by calculation of the utility function. When only uncertain information is available (which is most often the case) decision-making calls for more complex methods...... of representation and calculation and the basis for choosing the optimal alternative may become obscured by uncertainties of the utility function. In practice, several sources of uncertainties of the required information impede optimal decision making in the classical sense. In order to be able to better handle...... to uncertain economic numbers are discussed. When solving economic models for decision-making purposes calculation of uncertain functions will have to be carried out in addition to the basic arithmetical operations. This is a challenging numerical problem since improper methods of calculation may introduce...

  5. Relativistic Calculations for Be-like Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-Hui; LI Ping; ZHANG Jian-Ping; LI Hui-Li

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic configuration interaction calculations for the states of 1s22s2, 1s22s3l (l=s,p,d) and 1s22p3l (l=s,p,d) configurations of iron are carried out using relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) and multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method in the active interaction approach. In the present calculation, a large-scale configuration expansion was used in describing the target states. These results are extensively compared with other available calculative and experimental and observed values, the corresponding present results are in good agreement with experimental and observed values, and some differences are found with other available calculative values. Because more relativistic effects are considered than before, the present results should be more accurate and reliable.

  6. Direct calculation of wind turbine tip loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, D.H.; Okulov, Valery; Bhattacharjee, D.

    2016-01-01

    The usual method to account for a finite number of blades in blade element calculations of wind turbine performance is through a tip loss factor. Most analyses use the tip loss approximation due to Prandtl which is easily and cheaply calculated but is known to be inaccurate at low tip speed ratio....... We develop three methods for the direct calculation of the tip loss. The first is the computationally expensive calculation of the velocities induced by the helicoidal wake which requires the evaluation of infinite sums of products of Bessel functions. The second uses the asymptotic evaluation...... of those sums by Kawada. The third uses the approximation due to Okulov which avoids the sums altogether. These methods are compared to the tip loss determined independently and exactly for an ideal three-bladed rotor at tip speed ratios between zero and 15. Kawada's asymptotic approximation and Okulov...

  7. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  8. Limit calculation in MSSM Higgs boson searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joram; Caspart, Rene; Colombo, Fabio; Boer, Wim de; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Gilbert, Andrew; Mueller, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Treiber, Benjamin; Wolf, Roger [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    After run one of the LHC Supersymmetry still remains one of the favorite theories for physics beyond the Standard Model. In the minimal realization of Supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, five Higgs bosons exist. In my presentation I present limit calculation approaches for MSSM Higgs boson searches. The talk focuses on model dependent limit calculation by combining different charged and neutral MSSM Higgs boson searches.

  9. Software Metrics: Calculation and Optimization of Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Kumar Maheswari

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present a algorithmic method for the calculation of thresholds (the starting point for a new state) for a software metric set. To this aim, machine learning and data mining techniques are utilized. We define a data-driven methodology that can be used for efficiency optimization of existing metric sets, for the simplification of complex classification models, and for the calculation of thresholds for a metric set in an environment where no metric set yet exists. The methodo...

  10. Energy of plate tectonics calculation and projection

    OpenAIRE

    N. H. Swedan

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics and observations suggest that the energy of the geological activities resulting from plate tectonics is equal to the latent heat of melting, calculated at mantle's pressure, of the new ocean crust created at midocean ridges following sea floor spreading. This energy varies with the temperature of ocean floor, which is correlated with surface temperature. The objective of this manuscript is to calculate the force that drives plate tectonics, estimate the energy released, verify the...

  11. Calculation of the resonant ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoionizing resonances in the compound system of an electron and a helium ion are observed in kinematically-complete ionization experiments for electrons on helium atoms. The differential cross section is calculated for comparison with these experiments in an equivalent-local form of the distorted-wave impulse approximation. Resonant scattering amplitudes are calculated by a six-state momentum-space coupled-channels method. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Making calculated energy certificate for choosen building

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, Rok

    2015-01-01

    The graduation thesis addresses four given energy efficiency certificates for the preschool in Škofja Loka, calculated according to the valid legislation and work methodology. The building in question was built in the seventies of last century and had it's efficiency improved in 2014. The state of the building before improvements has both measured and calculated efficiency certificates made using the KI Energija 2014 program, while the two energy efficiency certificates for the...

  13. Three dimensional diffusion calculations of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the three dimensional calculation of nuclear reactors using the code TRITON. The purposes of the work were to perform three-dimensional computations of the core of the Soreq nuclear reactor and of the power reactor ZION and to validate the TRITON code. Possible applications of the TRITON code in Soreq reactor calculations and in power reactor research are suggested. (H.K.)

  14. Efficient Finite Element Calculation of Nγ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing.......This paper deals with the computational aspects of the Mohr-Coulomb material model, in particular the calculation of the bearing capacity factor Nγfor a strip and a circular footing....

  15. Users enlist consultants to calculate costs, savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-24

    Consultants who calculate payback provide expertise and a second opinion to back up energy managers' proposals. They can lower the costs of an energy-management investment by making complex comparisons of systems and recommending the best system for a specific application. Examples of payback calculations include simple payback for a school system, a university, and a Disneyland hotel, as well as internal rate of return for a corporate office building and a chain of clothing stores. (DCK)

  16. INTERNAL CALCULATION IN TERM BUSINESS DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Jugoslav Aničić, Miloje Jelić, Jasmina M. Đurović, Srećko Radoičić, Živojin B. Prokopović

    2014-01-01

    Business-financial decision making represent prime activity of top management. Growing complexity in the business ,market and rapid technological change require fast and appropriate answer of top management. Confident and efficient system of internal calculation gives confident base, for making financial decision and strategic as well. Companies of industrial sector in Serbia can significantly improve their business performance by improving internal calculation systems. The preservation and s...

  17. Calculation Methodology for Flexible Arithmetic Processing

    OpenAIRE

    García Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Mora Pascual, Jerónimo Manuel; Mora Mora, Higinio; Signes Pont, María Teresa

    2003-01-01

    A new operation model of flexible calculation that allows us to adjust the operation delay depending on the available time is presented. The operation method design uses look-up tables and progressive construction of the result. The increase in the operators’ granularity opens up new possibilities in calculation methods and microprocessor design. This methodology, together with the advances in technology, enables the functions of an arithmetic unit to be implemented on the basis of techniques...

  18. A revised calculational model for fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    A semi-empirical parametrization has been developed to calculate the fission contribution to evaporative de-excitation of nuclei with a very wide range of charge, mass and excitation-energy and also the nuclear states of the scission products. The calculational model reproduces measured values (cross-sections, mass distributions, etc.) for a wide range of fissioning systems: Nuclei from Ta to Cf, interactions involving nucleons up to medium energy and light ions. (author)

  19. PROSPECTS OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AND COST CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ŢAICU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving production technology requires appropriate measures to achieve an efficient management of costs. This raises the need for continuous improvement of management accounting and cost calculation. Accounting information in general, and management accounting information in particular, have gained importance in the current economic conditions, which are characterized by risk and uncertainty. The future development of management accounting and cost calculation is essential to meet the information needs of management.

  20. VVER-related burnup credit calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculations related to a VVER burnup credit calculational benchmark proposed to the Eastern and Central European research community in collaboration with the OECD/NEA/NSC Burnup Credit Criticality Benchmark Working Group (working under WPNCS - Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) are described. The results of a three-year effort by analysts from the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia and the United Kingdom are summarized and commented on. (author)