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Sample records for 1-d cmut array

  1. 1D multi-element CMUT arrays for ultrasound thermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Djin, William Apoutou; Canney, Michael; Meynier, Cyril; Chavrier, Françoise; Lafon, Cyril; Nguyen-Dinh, An; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Carpentier, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Interstitial therapeutic ultrasound devices are a promising technology for performing thermal ablation in a wide variety of organs. In this study, the use of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers (CMUTs) for interstitial heating applications was investigated. CMUTs exhibit potential advantages for use in therapeutic ultrasound applications in comparison to standard piezo ultrasound transducer technologies as they have good characteristics in terms of miniaturization (cell size: few dozens of microns), bandwidth (several MHz) and high electro-acoustic efficiency. Two designs of CMUT arrays were studied: (1) a 1D 128-element planar-CMUT array originally dedicated to abdominal ultrasound imaging purposes (5 MHz, element size: 0.3 × 8.0 mm2); (2) a 12-element linear-array, 32.4-mm long and 0.8-mm wide, developed specifically for minimally-invasive interstitial therapeutic applications (6 MHz, element size: 2.7 × 0.8 mm2). Simulations were performed to evaluate the ability to generate thermal lesions in soft tissues with: (1) 1 single linear array, (2) a combination of multiple linear arrays positioned on a cylindrical catheter. Experimental investigations performed with the CMUT imaging array showed the ability to generate surface acoustic intensities (Iac) up to 20 W.cm-2 and to generate intense centimetric thermal lesions in in-vitro turkey breast tissues. At 6 MHz, a single element was able to generate in water a maximum peak pressure of >0.5 MPa. In simulations, the ability to use various power levels and frequencies on independent elements, as well as combinations of multiple linear-arrays offered sufficient flexibility to achieve a wide variety of thermal ablation patterns in 3D. Simulated ablation volumes could be controlled to cover accurately non-symmetrical volumes of brain metastases. In conclusion, CMUT arrays show interesting characteristics, which may open new perspectives of spatial control for conformal interstitial thermal therapy with

  2. A low power, area efficient fpga based beamforming technique for 1-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bastin; Joseph, Jose; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2015-08-01

    A low power area efficient digital beamformer targeting low frequency (2MHz) 1-D linear Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) array is developed. While designing the beamforming logic, the symmetry of the CMUT array is well exploited to reduce the area and power consumption. The proposed method is verified in Matlab by clocking an Arbitrary Waveform Generator(AWG). The architecture is successfully implemented in Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA kit to check its functionality. The beamforming logic is implemented for 8, 16, 32, and 64 element CMUTs targeting Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platform at Vdd 1.62V for UMC 90nm technology. It is observed that the proposed architecture consumes significantly lesser power and area (1.2895 mW power and 47134.4 μm(2) area for a 64 element digital beamforming circuit) compared to the conventional square root based algorithm.

  3. Row-Column Addressed 2-D CMUT Arrays with Integrated Apodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental results from row-column addressed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with integrated apodization are presented. The apodization is applied by varying the density of CMUT cells in the array with the objective of damping the edge waves originating from the element...

  4. Front-end receiver electronics for high-frequency monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS imaging arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes the design of CMOS receiver electronics for monolithic integration with capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays for highfrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. A custom 8-inch (20-cm) wafer is fabricated in a 0.35-μm two-poly, four-metal CMOS process and then CMUT arrays are built on top of the application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) on the wafer. We discuss advantages of the single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS approach in terms of receive sensitivity and SNR. Low-noise and high-gain design of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) optimized for a forward-looking volumetric-imaging CMUT array element is discussed as a challenging design example. Amplifier gain, bandwidth, dynamic range, and power consumption trade-offs are discussed in detail. With minimized parasitics provided by the CMUT-on-CMOS approach, the optimized TIA design achieves a 90 fA/√Hz input-referred current noise, which is less than the thermal-mechanical noise of the CMUT element. We show successful system operation with a pulseecho measurement. Transducer-noise-dominated detection in immersion is also demonstrated through output noise spectrum measurement of the integrated system at different CMUT bias voltages. A noise figure of 1.8 dB is obtained in the designed CMUT bandwidth of 10 to 20 MHz.

  5. 2-D Row-Column CMUT Arrays with an Open-Grid Support Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of 64 + 64 2-D row-column addressed CMUT arrays with 250 μm element pitch and 4.4 MHz center frequency in air incorporating a new design approach is presented. The arrays are comprised of two wafer bonded, structured silicon-on-insulator wafers featuring an opengr...

  6. Equivalent circuit-based analysis of CMUT cell dynamics in arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, H K; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2013-05-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are usually composed of large arrays of closely packed cells. In this work, we use an equivalent circuit model to analyze CMUT arrays with multiple cells. We study the effects of mutual acoustic interactions through the immersion medium caused by the pressure field generated by each cell acting upon the others. To do this, all the cells in the array are coupled through a radiation impedance matrix at their acoustic terminals. An accurate approximation for the mutual radiation impedance is defined between two circular cells, which can be used in large arrays to reduce computational complexity. Hence, a performance analysis of CMUT arrays can be accurately done with a circuit simulator. By using the proposed model, one can very rapidly obtain the linear frequency and nonlinear transient responses of arrays with an arbitrary number of CMUT cells. We performed several finite element method (FEM) simulations for arrays with small numbers of cells and showed that the results are very similar to those obtained by the equivalent circuit model.

  7. Capacitive Substrate Coupling of Row–Column-Addressed 2-D CMUT Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Bouzari, Hamed; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    of the semiconductor substrate can be sustained for at least 10 minutes making it applicable for row–column-addressed CMUT arrays for ultrasonic imaging. Theoretically the reduced parasitic capacitance indicates that the receive sensitivity of the bottom elements can be increased by a factor of 2:1....

  8. Design and simulation of a tactile display based on a CMUT array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvardas, Vasilios G.; Hatalis, Miltiadis K.; Miliou, Amalia N.

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we present the design of a tactile display based on a CMUT-phased array. The array implements a 'pixel' of the display and is used to focus airborne ultrasound energy on the skin surface. The pressure field, generated by the focused ultrasound waves, is used to excite the mechanoreceptors under the skin and transmit tactile information. The results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) and the CMUT-phased array for ultrasound emission are presented. The 3D models of the device and the array were developed using a commercial FEA package. Modelling and simulations were performed using the parameters from the POLYMUMPS surface micromachining technology from MEMSCAP. During the analysis of the phased array, several parameters were studied in order to determine their importance in the design of the tactile display. The output of the array is compared with the acoustic intensity thresholds in order to prove the feasibility of the design. Taking into account the density of the mechanoreceptors in the skin, we conclude that there should be at least one receptor under the excitation area formed on the skin.

  9. Volumetric elasticity imaging with a 2-D CMUT array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ted G; Hall, Timothy J; Panda, Satchi; Richards, Michael S; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Resnick, Jeff; Barnes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This article reports the use of a two-dimensional (2-D) capacitive micro-machined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) to acquire radio-frequency (RF) echo data from relatively large volumes of a simple ultrasound phantom to compare three-dimensional (3-D) elasticity imaging methods. Typical 2-D motion tracking for elasticity image formation was compared with three different methods of 3-D motion tracking, with sum-squared difference (SSD) used as the similarity measure. Differences among the algorithms were the degree to which they tracked elevational motion: not at all (2-D search), planar search, combination of multiple planes and plane independent guided search. The cross-correlation between the predeformation and motion-compensated postdeformation RF echo fields was used to quantify motion tracking accuracy. The lesion contrast-to-noise ratio was used to quantify image quality. Tracking accuracy and strain image quality generally improved with increased tracking sophistication. When used as input for a 3-D modulus reconstruction, high quality 3-D displacement estimates yielded accurate and low noise modulus reconstruction.

  10. Void-Free Direct Bonding of CMUT Arrays with Single Crystalline Plates and Pull- In Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Dahl Johnsen, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    The implications on direct bonding quality, when using a double oxidation step to fabricate capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), is analyzed. The protrusions along the CMUT cavity edges created during the second oxidation are investigated using simulations, AFM measurements...

  11. Integrated circuits for volumetric ultrasound imaging with 2-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Anshuman; Choe, Jung Woo; Lee, Byung Chul; Wygant, Ira O; Nikoozadeh, Amin; Oralkan, Ömer; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2013-12-01

    Real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging systems require transmit and receive circuitry to generate ultrasound beams and process received echo signals. The complexity of building such a system is high due to requirement of the front-end electronics needing to be very close to the transducer. A large number of elements also need to be interfaced to the back-end system and image processing of a large dataset could affect the imaging volume rate. In this work, we present a 3-D imaging system using capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology that addresses many of the challenges in building such a system. We demonstrate two approaches in integrating the transducer and the front-end electronics. The transducer is a 5-MHz CMUT array with an 8 mm × 8 mm aperture size. The aperture consists of 1024 elements (32 × 32) with an element pitch of 250 μm. An integrated circuit (IC) consists of a transmit beamformer and receive circuitry to improve the noise performance of the overall system. The assembly was interfaced with an FPGA and a back-end system (comprising of a data acquisition system and PC). The FPGA provided the digital I/O signals for the IC and the back-end system was used to process the received RF echo data (from the IC) and reconstruct the volume image using a phased array imaging approach. Imaging experiments were performed using wire and spring targets, a ventricle model and a human prostrate. Real-time volumetric images were captured at 5 volumes per second and are presented in this paper.

  12. 3-D Vector Flow Using a Row-Column Addressed CMUT Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Engholm, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an in-house developed 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) appliedfor 3-D blood flow estimation. The probe breaks with conventional transducers in two ways; first, the ultrasonicpressure field is generated from thousands of small vibrating micromachined...

  13. A large-signal model for CMUT arrays with arbitrary membrane geometry operating in non-collapsed mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Sarp; Zahorian, Jaime; Degertekin, F Levent

    2013-11-01

    A large-signal, transient model has been developed to predict the output characteristics of a CMUT array operated in the non-collapse mode. The model is based on separation of the nonlinear electrostatic voltage-to-force relation and the linear acoustic array response. For modeling of linear acoustic radiation and crosstalk effects, the boundary element method is used. The stiffness matrix in the vibroacoustics calculations is obtained using static finite element analysis of a single membrane which can have arbitrary geometry and boundary conditions. A lumped modeling approach is used to reduce the order of the system for modeling the transient nonlinear electrostatic actuation. To accurately capture the dynamics of the non-uniform electrostatic force distribution over the CMUT electrode during large deflections, the membrane electrode is divided into patches shaped to match higher order membrane modes, each introducing a variable to the system model. This reduced order nonlinear lumped model is solved in the time domain using commercial software. The model has two linear blocks to calculate the displacement profile of the electrode patches and the output pressure for a given force distribution over the array. The force-to-array-displacement block uses the linear acoustic model, and the Rayleigh integral is evaluated to calculate the pressure at any field point. Using the model, the time-domain transmitted pressure can be simulated for different large drive signal configurations. The acoustic model is verified by comparison to harmonic FEA in vacuum and fluid for high- and low-aspect-ratio membranes as well as mass-loaded membranes. The overall software model is verified by comparison to transient 3-D finite element analysis and experimental results for different large drive signals, and an example for a phased array simulation is given.

  14. Diamond-based 1-D imaging arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansley, S.P.; Williams, O.A.; Ye, H. [Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rizvi, N.; Whitfield, M.D.; Jackman, R.B. [Exitech Limited, Hanborough Park, Long Hanborough, Oxford OX8 8LH (United Kingdom); McKeag, R.D. [Centronic Ltd., Centronic House, King Henry' s Drive, New Addington, Croydon CR9 OBG (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-16

    Diamond has shown great promise for the fabrication of high sensitivity, low dark current, fast and visible-blind deep UV photodetectors. In addition to careful choice of substrate material, defect passivation treatments applied to the diamond after growth have been found to considerably enhance the detector characteristics achieved. In this paper we report on the first purposefully designed 1-D CVD diamond imaging array for the detection of nanosecond 193 nm excimer laser pulses using this approach. It is shown to perform extremely well, giving less than 2% pixel-to-pixel variation in signal response, and is fast enough to avoid any sign of charge build up during prolonged operation. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F Levent

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter-based volumetric imaging arrays, for which the elements must be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom-designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT-on-CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low-temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT-to-CMOS interconnection. This CMUT-to-CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire-bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT-on-CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Ex- periments on a 1.6-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a center frequency of 15 MHz show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging chronic total occlusions located 1 cm from the CMUT array.

  16. 1-D array of perforated diode neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Walter J. [Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: wjm4444@ksu.edu; Bellinger, Steven L.; Unruh, Troy C.; Henderson, Chris M.; Ugorowski, Phil; Morris-Lee, Bryce [Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Taylor, Russell D. [Electronics Design Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); McGregor, Douglas S. [Kansas State University, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.edu

    2009-06-01

    Performance of a 4 cm long 64-pixel perforated diode neutron detector array is compared with an identical array of thin-film coated diodes. The perforated neutron detector design has been adapted to a 1-D pixel array capable of 120 {mu}m spatial resolution and counting efficiency greater than 12%. Deep vertical trenches filled with {sup 6}LiF provide outstanding improvement in efficiency over thin-film coated diode designs limited to only 4.5%. This work marks the final step towards the construction of a much larger array consisting of 1024 pixels spanning 10 cm. The larger detector array will be constructed with a sub-array of 64-pixel sensors, and will be used for small-angle neutron scattering experiments at the Spallation Neutron Source of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  17. A high-frequency transimpedance amplifier for CMOS integrated 2D CMUT array towards 3D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiwei; Cheong, Jia Hao; Cha, Hyouk-Kyu; Yu, Hongbin; Je, Minkyu; Yu, Hao

    2013-01-01

    One transimpedance amplifier based CMOS analog front-end (AFE) receiver is integrated with capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) towards high frequency 3D ultrasound imaging. Considering device specifications from CMUTs, the TIA is designed to amplify received signals from 17.5MHz to 52.5MHz with center frequency at 35MHz; and is fabricated in Global Foundry 0.18-µm 30-V high-voltage (HV) Bipolar/CMOS/DMOS (BCD) process. The measurement results show that the TIA with power-supply 6V can reach transimpedance gain of 61dBΩ and operating frequency from 17.5MHz to 100MHz. The measured input referred noise is 27.5pA/√Hz. Acoustic pulse-echo testing is conducted to demonstrate the receiving functionality of the designed 3D ultrasound imaging system.

  18. Developing 1D nanostructure arrays for future nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke DG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is intense and growing interest in one-dimensional (1-D nanostructures from the perspective of their synthesis and unique properties, especially with respect to their excellent optical response and an ability to form heterostructures. This review discusses alternative approaches to preparation and organization of such structures, and their potential properties. In particular, molecular-scale printing is highlighted as a method for creating organized pre-cursor structure for locating nanowires, as well as vapor–liquid–solid (VLS templated growth using nano-channel alumina (NCA, and deposition of 1-D structures with glancing angle deposition (GLAD. As regards novel optical properties, we discuss as an example, finite size photonic crystal cavity structures formed from such nanostructure arrays possessing highQand small mode volume, and being ideal for developing future nanolasers.

  19. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing.

  20. Simulating Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) using Field II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Oralkan, Omer; Kupnik, Mario;

    2010-01-01

    Field II has been a recognized simulation tool for piezoceramic medical transducer arrays for more than a decade. The program has its strength in doing fast computations of the spatial impulse response (SIR) from array elements by dividing the elements into smaller mathematical elements (ME)s from...... which it calculates the SIR responses. The program features predefined models for classical transducer geometries, but currently none for the fast advancing CMUTs. This work addresses the assumptions required for modeling CMUTs with Field II. It is shown that rectangular array elements, populated...

  1. Cooperative eigenmodes and scattering in 1D atomic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Bettles, R J; Adams, C S

    2016-01-01

    Using a classical coupled dipole model, we numerically investigate the cooperative behavior of a one dimensional array of atomic dipoles driven by a weak laser field. Changing the polarization and direction of the driving field allows us to separately address superradiant, subradiant, red shifted, and blue shifted eigenmodes, as well as observe strong Fano-like interferences between different modes. The cooperative eigenvectors can be characterized by the phase difference between nearest neighbor dipoles, ranging from all oscillating in phase to all oscillating out of phase with their nearest neighbors. Investigating the eigenvalue behavior as a function of atom number and lattice spacing, we find that certain eigenmodes of an infinite atomic chain have the same decay rate as a single atom between two mirrors.

  2. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes with voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V, frequencies up to 5 MHz and different driving slew rates. Measurements are performed on the circuit in order to assess its functionality and power consumption...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  3. 1-D Systolic Arrays Design of LMS Adaptive (FIR Digital Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the 1-D systolic array approach with a method of systematic linear design of systolic algorithms. Past methods for mapping the Least-Mean-Square (LMS Adaptive Finite-Impulse-Response (FIR filter onto parallel and pipelined architectures either introduce delays in the coefficients updates or have excessive hardware requirements. In this article, we describe an efficient 1-D systolic array for the LMS adaptive FIR filter that produces the same output and error signals as produced by the standard LMS adaptive filter architecture with single assignment form of processor functions.The proposed systolic architectures that are designed operate on a block-by-block basis and makes use of the flexibility in the design, which takes the inner product step (convolution sum of the tap weight vector and the tap input vector in the design consideration. It enables us to extract more than one algorithm for the same problem. The input and output data flow sequentially and continuously into and out of the systolic arrays at the system clock rates, during each clock period, processing element of the same type operates in parallel. The most computationally demanding among them performs only two consecutive multiplications and two additions/subtractions per clock period, thereby allowing a very high throughput and very fast block signal processing to be achieved at the expense of a delay of L samples between the input and output and 100% utilization, L being the block size.

  4. Combined Excitatory and Inhibitory Coupling in a 1-D Array of Belousov-Zhabotinsky Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    the maximum concentration of ClO2 in the droplets as B50 mM. To observe the concentration of ClO2 in the microfluidic drops, we place a 400 nm...surably rapid. In the 30 seconds that it takes to load the capillary with droplets , remove it from the microfluidic chip and place it in the microscope for...Combined excitatory and inhibitory coupling in a 1-D array of Belousov–Zhabotinsky droplets Ning Li,†a Jorge Delgado,†bc Hector O. González-Ochoa,ad

  5. A hand-held row-column addressed CMUT probe with integrated electronics for volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    A 3 MHz, λ / 2-pitch 62+62 channel row-column addressed 2-D CMUT array designed to be mounted in a probe handle and connected to a commercial BK Medical scanner for real-time volumetric imaging is presented. It is mounted and wire-bonded on a flexible PCB, which is connected to two rigid PCBs wit...

  6. Quantum phase transition of light in a 1-D photon-hopping-controllable resonator array

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Chun-Wang; Deng, Zhi-Jiao; Dai, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Xing; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2011-01-01

    We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1-D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast read-out of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to coming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.

  7. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  8. Integrated reconfigurable high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a high-voltage transmitting circuit aimed for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in scanners for medical applications is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage CMOS process. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able...... performance. The design occupies an on-chip area of 0.938 mm2 and the power consumption of a 128-element transmitting circuit array that would be used in an portable ultrasound scanner is found to be a maximum of 181 mW....

  9. Acoustic backing in 3-D integration of CMUT with front-end electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Sigrid; Rønnekleiv, Arne

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) have shown promising qualities for medical imaging. However, there are still some problems to be investigated, and some challenges to overcome. Acoustic backing is necessary to prevent SAWs excited in the surface of the silicon substrate from affecting the transmit pattern from the array. In addition, echoes resulting from bulk waves in the substrate must be removed. There is growing interest in integrating electronic circuits to do some of the beamforming directly below the transducer array. This may be easier to achieve for CMUTs than for traditional piezoelectric transducers. We will present simulations showing that the thickness of the silicon substrate and thicknesses and acoustic properties of the bonding material must be considered, especially when designing highfrequency transducers. Through simulations, we compare the acoustic properties of 3-D stacks bonded with three different bonding techniques; solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding, direct fusion bonding, and anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACA). We look at a CMUT array with a center frequency of 30 MHz and three silicon wafers underneath, having a total silicon thickness of 100 μm. We find that fusion bonding is most beneficial if we want to prevent surface waves from damaging the array response, but SLID and ACA are also promising if bonding layer thicknesses can be reduced.

  10. A comparison of 1D and 1.5D arrays for imaging volumetric flaws in small bore pipework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.

    2015-03-01

    1.5D arrays can be seen as a potentially ideal compromise between 1D arrays and 2D matrix arrays in terms of focusing capability, element density, weld coverage and data processing time. This paper presents an initial study of 1D and 1.5D arrays for high frequency (15MHz) imaging of volumetric flaws in small-bore (30-60mm outer diameter) thin-walled (3-8mm) pipework. A combination of 3D modelling and experimental work is used to determine Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement with a strong relationship between SNR and the longer dimension of element size observed. Similar behavior is demonstrated experimentally rendering a 1mm diameter Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in Copper-Nickel alloy undetectable using a larger array element. A 3-5dB SNR increase is predicted when using a 1.5D array assuming a spherical reflector and a 2dB increase was observed on experimental trials with a FBH. It is argued that this improvement is likely to be a lower bound estimate due to the specular behavior of a FBH with future trials planned on welded samples with realistic flaws.

  11. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...

  12. Dimensional Scaling for Optimized CMUT Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; la Cour, Mette Funding;

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a dimensional scaling study using numerical simulations, where gap height and plate thickness of a CMUT cell is varied, while the lateral plate dimension is adjusted to maintain a constant transmit immersion center frequency of 5 MHz. Two cell configurations have been simulated...

  13. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo, O.; Illera, S.; Varea, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sauerwald, T.; Schütze, A.; Cirera, A.; Prades, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called ``hot-spots''. On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures.One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal

  14. Inclusion of Cu nano-cluster 1D arrays inside a C3-symmetric artificial oligopeptide via co-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ruiying; Li, Fei; Yang, Chunpeng; Wan, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    A peptide sequence N3-GVGV-OMe (G: glycine; V: valine) was attached to a benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivative via ``click chemistry'' to afford a C3-symmetric artificial oligopeptide. The key feature of this oligopeptide is that the binding sites (triazole groups formed by click reaction) are located at the center, while the three oligopeptide arms with a strong tendency to assemble are located around it, which provides inner space to accommodate nanoparticles via self-assembly. The inclusion of Cu nanoclusters and the formation of one-dimensional (1D) arrays inside the nanofibers of the C3-symmetric artificial oligopeptide assembly were observed, which is quite different from the commonly observed nanoparticle growth on the surface of the pre-assembled oligopeptide nanofibers via the coordination sites located outside. Our finding provides an instructive concept for the design of other stable organic-inorganic hybrid 1D arrays with the inorganic nanoparticles inside.A peptide sequence N3-GVGV-OMe (G: glycine; V: valine) was attached to a benzene 1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivative via ``click chemistry'' to afford a C3-symmetric artificial oligopeptide. The key feature of this oligopeptide is that the binding sites (triazole groups formed by click reaction) are located at the center, while the three oligopeptide arms with a strong tendency to assemble are located around it, which provides inner space to accommodate nanoparticles via self-assembly. The inclusion of Cu nanoclusters and the formation of one-dimensional (1D) arrays inside the nanofibers of the C3-symmetric artificial oligopeptide assembly were observed, which is quite different from the commonly observed nanoparticle growth on the surface of the pre-assembled oligopeptide nanofibers via the coordination sites located outside. Our finding provides an instructive concept for the design of other stable organic-inorganic hybrid 1D arrays with the inorganic nanoparticles inside. Electronic

  15. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in a Quasi-1D Rhombic Linear Optical Waveguide Array

    CERN Document Server

    Maimistov, Andrey I

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional rhombic array of the waveguides is considered. System of equations describing coupled waves in the waveguide in the linear limit is solved exactly. The electric field distribution was found both for the diffractionless (or dispersionless) flat band modes and for the dispersive modes.

  16. Mutual Radiation Impedance of Uncollapsed CMUT Cells with Different Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Ozgurluk, Alper; Atalar, Abdullah; Koymen, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial approximation is proposed for the mutual acoustic impedance between uncollapsed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) cells with different radii in an infinite rigid baffle. The resulting approximation is employed in simulating CMUTs with a circuit model. A very good agreement is obtained with the corresponding finite element simulation (FEM) result.

  17. A Fast Method to Calculate the Spatial Impulse Response for 1-D Linear Ultrasonic Phased Array Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is developed to accurately determine the spatial impulse response at the specifically discretized observation points in the radiated field of 1-D linear ultrasonic phased array transducers with great efficiency. In contrast, the previously adopted solutions only optimize the calculation procedure for a single rectangular transducer and required approximation considerations or nonlinear calculation. In this research, an algorithm that follows an alternative approach to expedite the calculation of the spatial impulse response of a rectangular linear array is presented. The key assumption for this algorithm is that the transducer apertures are identical and linearly distributed on an infinite rigid plane baffled with the same pitch. Two points in the observation field, which have the same position relative to two transducer apertures, share the same spatial impulse response that contributed from corresponding transducer, respectively. The observation field is discretized specifically to meet the relationship of equality. The analytical expressions of the proposed algorithm, based on the specific selection of the observation points, are derived to remove redundant calculations. In order to measure the proposed methodology, the simulation results obtained from the proposed method and the classical summation method are compared. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed strategy can speed up the calculation procedure since it accelerates the speed-up ratio which relies upon the number of discrete points and the number of the array transducers. This development will be valuable in the development of advanced and faster linear ultrasonic phased array systems.

  18. A Fast Method to Calculate the Spatial Impulse Response for 1-D Linear Ultrasonic Phased Array Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Cheng; Sun, Zhenguo; Cai, Dong; Muhammad, Salman; Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Qiang

    2016-11-08

    A method is developed to accurately determine the spatial impulse response at the specifically discretized observation points in the radiated field of 1-D linear ultrasonic phased array transducers with great efficiency. In contrast, the previously adopted solutions only optimize the calculation procedure for a single rectangular transducer and required approximation considerations or nonlinear calculation. In this research, an algorithm that follows an alternative approach to expedite the calculation of the spatial impulse response of a rectangular linear array is presented. The key assumption for this algorithm is that the transducer apertures are identical and linearly distributed on an infinite rigid plane baffled with the same pitch. Two points in the observation field, which have the same position relative to two transducer apertures, share the same spatial impulse response that contributed from corresponding transducer, respectively. The observation field is discretized specifically to meet the relationship of equality. The analytical expressions of the proposed algorithm, based on the specific selection of the observation points, are derived to remove redundant calculations. In order to measure the proposed methodology, the simulation results obtained from the proposed method and the classical summation method are compared. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed strategy can speed up the calculation procedure since it accelerates the speed-up ratio which relies upon the number of discrete points and the number of the array transducers. This development will be valuable in the development of advanced and faster linear ultrasonic phased array systems.

  19. Investigation of 1D Siliver Nanoparticle Arrays for Use as Molecule Concentration-Specific SERS Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional arrays of silver nanoparticles with a particle size of 10.5 nm and interparticle spacing of 8.5 nm were fabricated by depositing nanoparticles in gas phase on block copolymer self-assembled templates. The substrate showed a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS enhancement factor as high as 1×107 with good reproducibility and stability. The dependence of the average enhancement factor and the SERS intensity on the packing density of the analyte molecules were investigated. For a tiny amount of analytes in the range of 1×10-14 to 3×10-13 mol/mm2, the SERS signal showed a linear dependence on the molecule packing density on a logarithmic scale, with a slope of about 1.25. The substrates are promising for quantitative detection of trace level molecules.

  20. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  1. Transceiver Design for CMUT-Based Super-Resolution Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnamfar, Parisa; Molavi, Reza; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-04-01

    A recently introduced structure for the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) has focused on the applications of the asymmetric mode of vibration and has shown promising results in construction of super-resolution ultrasound images. This paper presents the first implementation and experimental results of a transceiver circuit to interface such CMUT structures. The multiple input/multiple output receiver in this work supports both fundamental and asymmetric modes of operation and includes transimpedance amplifiers and low-power variable-gain stages. These circuit blocks are designed considering the trade-offs between gain, input impedance, noise, linearity and power consumption. The high-voltage transmitter can generate pulse voltages up to 60 V while occupying a considerably small area. The overall circuit is designed and laid out in a 0.35 μm CMOS process and a four-channel transceiver occupies 0.86 × 0.38 mm(2). The prototype chip is characterized in both electrical and mechanical domains. Measurement results show that each receiver channel has a nominal gain of 110 dBΩ with a 3 dB bandwidth of 9 MHz while consuming 1.02 mW from a 3.3 V supply. The receiver is also highly linear, with 1 dB compression point of minimum 1.05 V which is considerably higher than the previously reported designs. The transmitter consumes 98.1 mW from a 30 V supply while generating 1.38 MHz, 30 V pulses. The CMOS-CMUT system is tested in the transmit mode and shows full functionality in air medium.

  2. SU-E-T-163: Characterization of a Novel High Resolution 1D Silicon Monolithic Array for Small Field Commissioning and Quality Assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisello, F [FAU University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, DE (Germany); IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, DE (United States); McGlade, J; Wang, P; Kralik, J; Kosterin, P; Mooij, R; Solberg, T [University of Pennsylvenia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Menichelli, D; Celi, J [IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, DE (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To study the suitability of a novel 1D silicon monolithic array for dosimetry of small radiation fields and for QA of high dose gradient treatment modalities (IMRT and SBRT). Methods: A 1D array composed of 4 monolithic silicon modules of 64 mm length and 1 mm pixel pitch was developed by IBA Dosimetry. Measurements were carried out for 6MV and 15MV photons on two commercial different linacs (TrueBeam and Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and for a CyberKnife G4 (Accuray Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). The 1D array was used to measure output factors (OF), profiles and off axis correction factors (OACF) for the Iris CyberKnife variable collimator (5–60 mm). In addition, dose profiles (at the isocenter plane) were measured for multiple IMRT and SBRT treatment plans and compared with those obtained using EDR2radiographic film (Carestream Health, Rochester NY), a commercial 2D diode array and with the dose distribution calculated using a commercial TPS (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Results: Due to the small pixel pitch of the detector, IMRT and SBRT plan profiles deviate from film measurements by less than 2%. Similarly, the 1D array exhibits better performance than the 2D diode array due to the larger (7 mm) pitch of that device. Iris collimator OFs measured using the 1D silicon array are in good agreement with the commissioning values obtained using a commercial stereotactic diode as well as with published data. Maximum deviations are < 3% for the smallest field (5 and 7.5mm) and below 1% for all other dimensions. Conclusion: We have demonstrated good performances of the array for commissioning of small photon fields and in patient QA, compared with diodes and film typically used in these clinical applications. The technology compares favorably with existing commercial solutions The presenting author is founded by a Marie Curie Early Initial Training Network Fellowship of the European Communitys Seventh Framework Programme under

  3. Integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Farch, Kjartan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an integrated differential high-voltage transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the integrated circuit in order...... to assess its performance. The circuit generates pulses at differential voltage levels of 60V, 80V and 100 V, a frequency up to 5MHz and a measured driving strength of 1.75 V/ns with the CMUT connected. The total on-chip area occupied by the transmitting circuit is 0.18 mm2 and the power consumption...

  4. Integrated Reconfigurable High-Voltage Transmitting Circuit for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2014-01-01

    -out and measurements are performed on the integrated circuit. The transmitting circuit is reconfigurable externally making it able to drive a wide variety of CMUTs. The transmitting circuit can generate several pulse shapes, pulse voltages up to 100 V, maximum pulse range of 50 V and frequencies up to 5 MHz. The area...

  5. Investigation of PDMS as coating on CMUTs for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Laursen, Mads Bjerregaard;

    2014-01-01

    A protective layer is necessary for Capacitive Mi- cromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) to be used for imaging purpose. The layer should both protect the device itself and the patient while maintaining the performance of the device. In this work Sylgard 170 PDMS is tested as coating material...

  6. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rahman Mohd Yusri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf.

  7. Single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS front-end system for real-time volumetric IVUS and ICE imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurun, Gokce; Tekes, Coskun; Zahorian, Jaime; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Karaman, Mustafa; Hasler, Jennifer; Degertekin, F Levent

    2014-02-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echography (ICE) catheters with real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging capability can provide unique benefits to many interventional procedures used in the diagnosis and treatment of coronary and structural heart diseases. Integration of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with front-end electronics in single-chip configuration allows for implementation of such catheter probes with reduced interconnect complexity, miniaturization, and high mechanical flexibility. We implemented a single-chip forward-looking (FL) ultrasound imaging system by fabricating a 1.4-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array using CMUT-on-CMOS technology on a front-end IC implemented in 0.35-μm CMOS process. The dual-ring array has 56 transmit elements and 48 receive elements on two separate concentric annular rings. The IC incorporates a 25-V pulser for each transmitter and a low-noise capacitive transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for each receiver, along with digital control and smart power management. The final shape of the silicon chip is a 1.5-mm-diameter donut with a 430-μm center hole for a guide wire. The overall front-end system requires only 13 external connections and provides 4 parallel RF outputs while consuming an average power of 20 mW. We measured RF A-scans from the integrated single- chip array which show full functionality at 20.1 MHz with 43% fractional bandwidth. We also tested and demonstrated the image quality of the system on a wire phantom and an ex vivo chicken heart sample. The measured axial and lateral point resolutions are 92 μm and 251 μm, respectively. We successfully acquired volumetric imaging data from the ex vivo chicken heart at 60 frames per second without any signal averaging. These demonstrative results indicate that single-chip CMUT-on-CMOS systems have the potential to produce realtime volumetric images with image quality and speed suitable for catheter-based clinical applications.

  8. Reversible supra-channel effects: 3D kagome structure and catalysis via a molecular array of 1D coordination polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeri; Noh, Tae Hwan; Jung, Ok-Sang

    2013-10-14

    Self-assembly of CuX2 (X(-) = ClO4(-) and BF4(-)) with 2,3-bis(nicotinoyloxy)naphthalene yields a 1D loop-chain skeleton. The loop-chains form an ensemble constituting a unique 3D kagome-type structure with both hexagonal and trigonal supra-channels. The unprecedented supra-channel effects on the catalytic oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone were investigated.

  9. 1D goes 2D: A Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in superconducting arrays of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhe

    2010-10-01

    We report superconducting resistive transition characteristics for array(s) of coupled 4-Angstrom single wall carbon nanotubes embedded in aluminophosphate-five zeolite. The transition was observed to initiate at 15 K with a slow resistance decrease switching to a sharp, order of magnitude drop between 7.5 and 6.0 K with strong (anisotropic) magnetic field dependence. Both the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition that establishes quasi long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes, leading to an inhomogeneous system comprising 3D superconducting regions connected by weak links. Global coherence is established at below 5 K with the appearance of a well-defined supercurrent gap/low resistance region at 2 K. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2014-01-01

    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....

  11. Dynamics of impurity attraction and repulsion of an intrinsic localized mode in a driven 1-D cantilever array

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, M; Shi, W; Shige, S; Ishikawa, T; Soga, Y; Hubbard, B E; Ilic, B; Sievers, A J

    2014-01-01

    Both low frequency and high frequency impurity modes have been produced in a SiN micromechanical cantilever array by illumination with either an infrared or visible laser. When such laser-induced impurities are placed near a driven intrinsic localized mode (ILM) it is either repelled or attracted. By measuring the linear response spectrum for these two cases it was found that vibrational hopping of the ILM takes place when the natural frequency of the ILM and an even symmetry linear local mode are symmetrically located about the driven ILM frequency so that parametric excitation of these two linear modes is enhanced, amplifying the lateral motion of the ILM. Numerical simulations are consistent with these signature findings. It is also demonstrated that the correct sign of the observed interaction can be found with a harmonic lattice-impurity model but the magnitude of the effect is enhanced in a nonlinear lattice.

  12. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic...... plate equation and the Galerkin method. Utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is

  13. Output pressure and harmonic characteristics of a CMUT as function of bias and excitation voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Sebastian Molbech;

    2015-01-01

    The large bandwidth makes CMUT based transducers interesting for both conventional and harmonic imaging. The inherent nonlinear behavior of the CMUT, however, poses an issue for harmonic imaging as it is difficult to dissociate the harmonics generated in the tissue from the harmonic content of th...

  14. Using 1D theory to understand 3D stagnation of a wire-array Z pinch in the absence of radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund

    2015-11-01

    Many high-energy-density systems implode towards the axis of symmetry, where it collides on itself, forming a hot plasma. However, experiments show these imploding plasmas develop three-dimensional (3D) structures. As a result, the plasma cannot completely dissipate its kinetic energy at stagnation, instead retaining significant 3D flow. A useful tool for understanding the effects of this residual flow is 3D simulation, but the amount and complexity of information can be daunting. To address this problem, we explore the connection between 3D simulation and one-dimensional (1D) theory. Such a connection, if it exists, is mutually beneficial: 1D theory can provide a clear picture of the underlying dynamics of 3D stagnation. On the other hand, deviations between theory and simulation suggest how 1D theory must be modified to account for 3D effects. In this work, we focus on a 3D, magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a compact wire-array Z pinch. To provide a simpler background against which to test our ideas, we artificially turn off radiation during the stagnation phase. Examination of the initial accumulation of mass on axis reveals oblique collision between jets, shock accretion, and vortex formation. Despite evidence for shock-dominated stagnation, a 1D shockless stagnation solution is more appropriate for describing the global dynamics, in that it reproduces the increase of on-axis density with time. However, the 1D solution must be modified to account for 3D effects: the flows suggest enhanced thermal transport as well as centrifugal force. Upon reaching peak compression, the stagnation transitions to a second phase, in which the high-pressure core on axis expands outward into the remaining imploding plasma. During this phase, a 1D shock solution describes the growth of the shock accretion region, as well as the decrease of on-axis density with time. However, the effect of 3D flows is still present: the on-axis temperature does not cool during expansion, which

  15. Plasmonic spectrum on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle pairs with different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, N. T. R. N.; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Huang, Jin-Wei; Huang, Hung Ji; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2016-11-01

    Simulations of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the near field intensity and absorption spectra of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of rod-shape metal nanoparticle (MNP) pairs using the finite element method (FEM) and taking into account the different core patterns for biosensor and solar cell applications are investigated. A tunable optical spectrum corresponding to the transverse SPR modes is observed. The peak resonance wavelength (λ res) can be shifted to red as the core patterns in rod-shape MNPs have been changed. We find that the 2D periodic array of core-shell MNP pairs (case 2) exhibit a red shifted SPR that can be tuned the gap enhancement and absorption efficiency simultaneously over an extended wavelength range. The tunable optical performances give us a qualitative idea of the geometrical properties of the periodic array of rod-shape MNP pairs on SPRs that can be as a promising candidate for plasmonic biosensor and solar cell applications.

  16. Quantum simulation of 2d topological physics using orbital-angular-momentum-carrying photons in a 1d array of cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom that has recently motivated much exciting research in diverse fields ranging from optical communication to quantum information. We show for the first time that it is also a unique and valuable resource for quantum simulation, by demonstrating theoretically how \\emph{2d} topological physics can be simulated in a \\emph{1d} array of optical cavities using OAM-carrying photons. Remarkably, this newly discovered application of OAM states not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation. By showing how important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition can be studied in a small simulator with just a few cavities ready for immediate experimental exploration, we demonstrate the prospect of photonic OAM for quantum simulation which can have a significant impact on the research of topological physics.

  17. Modal analysis based equivalent circuit model and its verification for a single cMUT cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, S. P.; Rottenberg, X.; Rochus, V.; Czarnecki, P.; Helin, P.; Severi, S.; Nauwelaers, B.; Tilmans, H. A. C.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the lumped equivalent circuit model and its verification of both transmission and reception properties of a single cell capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT), which is operating in a non-collapse small signal region. The derivation of this equivalent circuit model is based on the modal analysis techniques, harmonic modes are included by using the mode superposition method; and thus a wide frequency range response of the cMUT cell can be simulated by our equivalent circuit model. The importance of the cross modal coupling between different eigenmodes of a cMUT cell is discussed by us for the first time. In this paper the development of this model is only illustrated by a single circular cMUT cell under a uniform excitation. Extension of this model and corresponding results under a more generalized excitation will be presented in our upcoming publication (Mao et al 2016 Proc. IEEE Int. Ultrasonics Symp.). This model is verified by both finite element method (FEM) simulation and experimental characterizations. Results predicted by our model are in a good agreement with the FEM simulation results, and this works for a single cMUT cell operated in either transmission or reception. Results obtained from the model also rather match the experimental results of the cMUT cell. This equivalent circuit model provides an easy and precise way to rapidly predict the behaviors of cMUT cells.

  18. Parametric nonlinear lumped element model for circular CMUTs in collapsed mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğdu, Elif; Ozgurluk, Alper; Atalar, Abdullah; Köymen, Hayrettin

    2014-01-01

    We present a parametric equivalent circuit model for a circular CMUT in collapsed mode. First, we calculate the collapsed membrane deflection, utilizing the exact electrical force distribution in the analytical formulation of membrane deflection. Then we develop a lumped element model of collapsed membrane operation. The radiation impedance for collapsed mode is also included in the model. The model is merged with the uncollapsed mode model to obtain a simulation tool that handles all CMUT behavior, in transmit or receive. Large- and small-signal operation of a single CMUT can be fully simulated for any excitation regime. The results are in good agreement with FEM simulations.

  19. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calcu- lations and Finite Element Modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates...

  20. Acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    The acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for volumetric ultrasound imaging is investigated. Experimental results from a 2.7 MHz, λ/2-pitch capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with 62 rows and 62 columns are presented and analyzed in the frequ......The acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for volumetric ultrasound imaging is investigated. Experimental results from a 2.7 MHz, λ/2-pitch capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with 62 rows and 62 columns are presented and analyzed...

  1. Acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-01-01

    The acoustical cross-talk in row–column addressed 2-D transducer arrays for volumetric ultrasound imaging is investigated. Experimental results from a 2.7 MHz, λ/2-pitch capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with 62 rows and 62 columns are presented and analyzed...

  2. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays for Integrated Diagnostic/Therapeutic Catheters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Serena H.; Wygant, Ira O.; Yeh, David T.; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Bayram, Baris; Kupnik, Mario; Oralkan, Omer; Ergun, A. Sanli; Yaralioglu, Goksen G.; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    2006-05-01

    In recent years, medical procedures have become increasingly non-invasive. These include endoscopic procedures and intracardiac interventions (e.g., pulmonary vein isolation for treatment of atrial fibrillation and plaque ablation for treatment of arteriosclerosis). However, current tools suffer from poor visualization and difficult coordination of multiple therapeutic and imaging devices. Dual-mode (imaging and therapeutic) ultrasound arrays provide a solution to these challenges. A dual-mode transducer can provide focused, noncontact ultrasound suitable for therapy and can be used to provide high quality real-time images for navigation and monitoring of the procedure. In the last decade, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), have become an attractive option for ultrasonic imaging systems due to their fabrication flexibility, improved bandwidth, and integration with electronics. The CMUT's potential in therapeutic applications has also been demonstrated by surface output pressures as high as 1MPa peak to peak and continuous wave (CW) operation. This paper reviews existing interventional CMUT arrays, demonstrates the feasibility of CMUTs for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), and presents a design for the next-generation CMUTs for integrated imaging and HIFU endoscopic catheters.

  3. Integrated Differential Three-Level High-Voltage Pulser Output Stage for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger;

    2015-01-01

    A new integrated differential three-level highvoltage pulser output stage to drive capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) is proposed in this paper. A topology comparison between the new differential output stage and the most commonly used single-ended topology is performed...

  4. Elimination of Second-Harmonics in CMUTs using Square Pulse Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Diederichsen, Søren Elmin; Hansen, Sebastian Molbech;

    2016-01-01

    of the transmitted signal. This work presents how proper pulse coding of a bipolar pulser, which is present in most commercial ultrasound scanners, can reduce the intrinsic generated harmonic to fundamental pressure amplitude ratio to below −35 dB, making CMUT probes usable for clinical applications....

  5. Fabrication of Novel 2D NiO Nanosheet Branched on 1D-ZnO Nanorod Arrays for Gas Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thuy Hoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of 3D structures composed of 1D n-type ZnO nanorods (NRs and 2D p-type NiO nanosheets (NSs by a low-cost, low-temperature, and large-area scalable hydrothermal process and its use in highly sensitive NO2 gas sensors were studied. The p-n heterojunctions formed by NiO-ZnO interfaces as well as large area two-dimensional NiO NSs themselves increased the adsorption of NO2. Moreover, the charge transfer between NiO and ZnO enhanced the responsivity and sensitivity of NO2 sensing even at a concentration of 1 ppm. The 30-min NiO NS growth on ZnO NRs in the hybrid sensor showed the highest sensitivity due to the formation of optimum p-n heterojunctions between ZnO NRs and NiO NSs for gas adsorption and carrier transport. Low responsivity toward reducing gases was also observed.

  6. 3-D Imaging Using Row-Column-Addressed Arrays With Integrated Apodization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Bagge, Jan Peter;

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the fabrication, characterization, and experimental imaging results of a 62+62 element λ/2-pitch row-column-addressed capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array with integrated apodization. A new fabrication process was used to manufacture a 26.3 mm by 26...

  7. Second harmonic and subharmonic for non-linear wideband contrast imaging using a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novell, Anthony; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Bouakaz, Ayache

    2013-08-01

    When insonified with suitable ultrasound excitation, contrast microbubbles generate various non-linear scattered components, such as the second harmonic (2H) and the subharmonic (SH). In this study, we exploit the wide frequency bandwidth of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) to enhance the response from ultrasound contrast agents by selective imaging of both the 2H and SH components simultaneously. To this end, contrast images using the pulse inversion method were recorded with a 64-element CMUT linear array connected to an open scanner. In comparison to imaging at 2H alone, the wideband imaging including both the 2H and SH contributions provided up to 130% and 180% increases in the signal-to-noise and contrast-to-tissue ratios, respectively. The wide-frequency band of CMUTs offers new opportunities for improved ultrasound contrast agent imaging.

  8. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is white light interferometer. Fitting the plate parameter for the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement, a deviation of 0.07% is seen. Electrostatic and small-signal dynamic analysis are performed using energy considerations including anisotropy. The stable position, effective spring constant, pullin distance, and pull-in voltage are found for both circular and square anisotropic plates, and the pressure dependence is included by comparison with the corresponding analysis for a parallel plate. Measurements on fabricated devices with both circular and square plates subjected to increasing bias voltage are performed, and it is observed that the models including anisotropic effects are within the uncertainty interval of the measurements. Finally, a lumped element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT.

  9. High-voltage integrated transmitting circuit with differential driving for CMUTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llimos Muntal, Pere; Larsen, Dennis Øland; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-voltage integrated differential transmitting circuit for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) used in portable ultrasound scanners is presented. Due to its application, area and power consumption are critical and need to be minimized. The circuitry...... is designed and implemented in AMS 0.35 μ m high-voltage process. Measurements are performed on the fabricated integrated circuit in order to assess its performance. The transmitting circuit consists of a low-voltage control logic, pulse-triggered level shifters and a differential output stage that generates...... conditions is 0.936 mW including the load. The integrated circuits measured prove to be consistent and robust to local process variations by measurements....

  10. Evaluation of wafer bonded CMUTs with rectangular membranes featuring high fill factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Serena H; Kupnik, Mario; Zhuang, Xuefeng; Lin, Der-Song; Butts-Pauly, Kim; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T

    2008-09-01

    Increasing fill factor is one design approach used to increase average output displacement, output pressure, and sensitivity of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). For rectangular cells, the cell-to-cell spacing and the aspect ratio determine the fill factor. In this paper, we explore the effects of these parameters on performance, in particular the nonuniformity of collapse voltage between neighboring cells and presence of higher order modes in air or immersed operation. We used a white light interferometer to measure nonuniformity in deflection between neighboring cells. We found that reducing the cell-to-cell spacing could cause bending of the center support post, which amplifies nonuniformities in collapse voltage to 18.4% between neighboring cells. Using a 2-D finite element model (FEM), we found that for our designs, increasing the support post width to 1.67 times the membrane thickness alleviated the post bending problem. Using impedance and interferometer measurements to observe the effects of aspect ratio on higher order modes, we found that the (1,3) modal frequency approached the (1,1) modal frequency as the aspect ratio of the rectangles increased. In air operation, under continuous wave (CW) excitation at the center frequency, the rectangular cells behaved in the (1,1) mode. In immersion, because of dispersive guided modes, these cells operated in a higher order mode when excited with a CW signal at the center frequency. This contributed to a loss of output pressure; for this reason our rectangular design was unsuitable for CW operation in immersion.

  11. Effect of In vitro Passage with Selection Pressure on Fitness of Plasmid-free Chlamydia Muridarum Strain CMUT3%体外传代选择对鼠衣原体质粒缺失株培养特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超群; 任林; 陆春雪; 李忠玉; 钟光明; 吴移谋

    2016-01-01

    Objective To unravel the effect of passage selection pressure on fitness of plasmid ̄free Chlamydia muri ̄darum strain CMUT3 and uncover the correlation between genetic and phenotypic signatures. Methods CMUT3 organisms were in vitro passaged for 40 generations under the alternating unassisted/assisted ̄infection cycle conditions and the infectivity of initial and final generation organisms in cell culture was measured by comparing their attachment efficiency phenotype in the presence or absence of centrifugation.Next ̄generation sequencing technology was then used to sequence the genomes of passaged CMUT3G40 and the parental CMUT3G0. Results Passaged CMUT3G40 organisms became less de ̄pendent on centrifugation and more efficient for infecting HeLa cells in the absence of centrifugation compared to the paren ̄tal CMUT3G0.Comparative genomes analysis of CMUT3G40 and CMUT3G0 revealed that a G to C substitution at position 277313,resulting in a glutamine to glutamic acid amino acid change in the protein product of TC0237 ( 99. 7% in CMUT3G40 versus 0% in CMUT3G0 genomes) . Conclusion The TC0237Q117E missense mutation under in vitro pas ̄sage selection pressure can be attributed to an in vitro attachment enhancement phenotype of plasmid ̄free C. muridarum CMUT3 organisms.%目的:探讨传代选择对鼠衣原体质粒缺失株CMUT3菌株培养特性的影响及其相应机制。方法采用“无辅助感染”和“辅助感染”交替方式体外传代培养CMUT3菌株,而后观察传代菌株和亲代感染细胞时的吸附效率以及对离心因素的依赖性,并利用下一代测序技术对传代菌株CMUT3G40和亲代CMUT3G0进行全基因组测序分析。结果传代菌株CMUT3G40在感染HeLa细胞时对离心因素依赖性降低,吸附试验表明CMUT3G40菌株对细胞的吸附能力增强;比较基因组学分析结果表明 CMUT3G40菌株与亲代 CMUT3G0在 tc0237基因存在差异, TC0237Q117E错义突变出现于CMUT3G40

  12. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  13. On the Current Drive Capability of Low Dimensional Semiconductors: 1D versus 2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Appenzeller, J

    2015-12-01

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  14. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  15. One-Dimensional (1-D) Nanoscale Heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhen SHEN; Di CHEN; Yoshio BANDO; Dmitri GOLBERG

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures have been attracted much attention as a result of their exceptional properties, which are different from bulk materials. Among 1-D nanostructures, 1-D heterostructures with modulated compositions and interfaces have recently become of particular interest with respect to potential applications in nanoscale building blocks of future optoelectronic devices and systems. Many kinds of methods have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures. This article reviews the most recent development, with an emphasize on our own recent efforts, on 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, especially those synthesized from the vapor deposition methods, in which all the reactive precursors are mixed together in the reaction chamber. Three types of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures, defined from their morphologies characteristics, are discussed in detail, which include 1-D co-axial core-shell heterostructures, 1-D segmented heterostructures and hierarchical heterostructures. This article begins with a brief survey of various methods that have been developed for synthesizing 1-D nanoscale heterostructures and then mainly focuses on the synthesis, structures and properties of the above three types of nanoscale heterostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards the topic of 1-D nanoscale heterostructures.

  16. Growth and Magnetic Characterization of 1D Permalloy Nanowires Using Self Developed Anodic Aluminium Oxide Templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Mandal, Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    1D Permalloy refers to arrays of nanowires (NWs) made of an alloy of Ni and Fe with 80 and 20 at% composition respectively. In the present work 1 D Permalloy NWs arrays were fabricated into the pores of self engineered Anodic Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates by a simple electrodeposition technique (EDT). By varying the anodization voltage and parameters of the electrolyte solutions we developed AAO templates with different average pore diameters (40 nm to 70 nm) and developed 1D Permalloy NWs within them. Structural characterization of AAO templates and 1D Permalloy NWs were performed by Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM respectively). X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of 1D Permalloy NWs showed their fcc crystalline structure and the AAO template was found to be amorphous in nature. Magnetic studies showed the 1D Permalloy NWs arrays to have strong shape anisotropy, and the easy axis was found to be parallel to the NWs axis. We studied the angular dependence of magnetic properties of the NWs. Coercivity (Hc) and remanence (Mr/Ms) measured along the NWs axis were found to be higher than those measured in a direction perpendicular to the NWs axis. 1D Permalloy NWs developed in this work have the potential to be used in magnetic recording devices.

  17. Heat Capacity of 1D Molecular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatskii, M. I.; Barabashko, M. S.; Sumarokov, V. V.; Jeżowski, A.; Stachowiak, P.

    2017-04-01

    The heat capacity of 1D chains of nitrogen and methane molecules (adsorbed in the outer grooves of bundles of closed-cap single-walled carbon nanotubes) has been studied in the temperature ranges 2-40 and 2-60 K, respectively. The temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 1D chains of nitrogen molecules below 3 K is close to a linear. It was found that the rotational heat capacity of methane molecules is a significant part of the total heat capacity of the chains throughout the whole investigated temperature range, whereas in the case of nitrogen, the librations are significant only above 15 K. The dependence of the heat capacity for methane below 10 K indicates the presence of a Schottky anomaly caused by the tunneling between the lowest energy levels of the CH4 molecule rotational spectra. Characteristic features observed in the temperature dependence of the heat capacity of 1D methane crystals are also discussed.

  18. Social exploration of 1D games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the apparently meaningless concept of a 1 dimensional computer game is explored, via netnography. A small number of games was designed and implemented, in close contact with online communities of players and developers, providing evidence that 1 dimension is enough to produce intere...... interesting gameplay, to allow for level design and even to leave room for artistic considerations on 1D rendering. General techniques to re-design classic 2D games into 1D are also emerging from this exploration....

  19. First Observation of Upsilon(1D) States

    CERN Document Server

    Csorna, S E; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Mahapatra, R; Briere, R A; Chen, G P; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Drell, P S; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Viehhauser, G; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Brandenburg, G; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Benslama, K; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Ammar, R; Besson, D; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Wilksen, T; Zoeller, M M; Muramatsu, H; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Chen, S; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Park, C S; Park, W; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Maravin, Y; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Khroustalev, K; Mountain, R; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Mahmood, A H

    2002-01-01

    The CLEO III experiment has recently accumulated a large statistics sample of 4.73 x 10^6 Upsilon(3S) decays. We present the first evidence for the production of the triplet Upsilon(1D) states in the four-photon cascade, Upslion(3S) -> gamma chi_b(2P), chi_b(2P) -> gamma Upsilon(1D), Upsilon(1D) -> gamma chi_b(1P), chi_b(1P) -> gamma Upsilon(1S), followed by the Upsilon(1S) annihilation to e+ e- or mu+ mu-. The signal has a significance of 9.7 standard deviations. The measured product branching ratio for these five decays, (3.3 +- 0.6 +- 0.5) x 10^{-5}, is consistent with the theoretical estimates. We see a 6.8 standard deviation signal for a state with a mass of 10162.2 +- 1.6 MeV/c^2, consistent with the Upsilon(1D_2) assignment. We also present improved measurements of the Upsilon(3S) -> pi0 pi0 Upsilon(1S) branching ratio and the associated di-pion mass distribution.

  20. Calibration of a 1D/1D urban flood model using 1D/2D model results in the absence of field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, J; Djordjević, S; Chen, A S; Savić, D A; Stanić, M

    2011-01-01

    Recently increased flood events have been prompting researchers to improve existing coupled flood-models such as one-dimensional (1D)/1D and 1D/two-dimensional (2D) models. While 1D/1D models simulate sewer and surface networks using a one-dimensional approach, 1D/2D models represent the surface network by a two-dimensional surface grid. However their application raises two issues to urban flood modellers: (1) stormwater systems planning/emergency or risk analysis demands for fast models, and the 1D/2D computational time is prohibitive, (2) and the recognized lack of field data (e.g. Hunter et al. (2008)) causes difficulties for the calibration/validation of 1D/1D models. In this paper we propose to overcome these issues by calibrating a 1D/1D model with the results of a 1D/2D model. The flood-inundation results show that: (1) 1D/2D results can be used to calibrate faster 1D/1D models, (2) the 1D/1D model is able to map the 1D/2D flood maximum extent well, and the flooding limits satisfactorily in each time-step, (3) the 1D/1D model major differences are the instantaneous flow propagation and overestimation of the flood-depths within surface-ponds, (4) the agreement in the volume surcharged by both models is a necessary condition for the 1D surface-network validation and (5) the agreement of the manholes discharge shapes measures the fitness of the calibrated 1D surface-network.

  1. YORP torques with 1D thermal model

    CERN Document Server

    Breiter, Slawomir; Czekaj, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A numerical model of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect for objects defined in terms of a triangular mesh is described. The algorithm requires that each surface triangle can be handled independently, which implies the use of a 1D thermal model. Insolation of each triangle is determined by an optimized ray-triangle intersection search. Surface temperature is modeled with a spectral approach; imposing a quasi-periodic solution we replace heat conduction equation by the Helmholtz equation. Nonlinear boundary conditions are handled by an iterative, FFT based solver. The results resolve the question of the YORP effect in rotation rate independence on conductivity within the nonlinear 1D thermal model regardless of the accuracy issues and homogeneity assumptions. A seasonal YORP effect in attitude is revealed for objects moving on elliptic orbits when a nonlinear thermal model is used.

  2. Glass-based 1-D dielectric microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasera, Alessandro; Scotognella, Francesco; Valligatla, Sreeramulu; Varas, Stefano; Jasieniak, Jacek; Criante, Luigino; Lukowiak, Anna; Ristic, Davor; Gonçalves, Rogeria Rocha; Taccheo, Stefano; Ivanda, Mile; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Ramponi, Roberta; Martucci, Alessandro; Ferrari, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a reliable RF sputtering techniques allowing to fabricate glass-based one dimensional microcavities, with high quality factor. This property is strongly related to the modification of the density of states due to the confinement of the gain medium in a photonic band gap structure. In this short review we present some of the more recent results obtained by our team exploiting these 1D microcavities. In particular we present: (1) Er3+ luminescence enhancement of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition; (2) broad band filters based on disordered 1-D photonic structures; (3) threshold defect-mode lasing action in a hybrid structure.

  3. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  4. ZnO 1-D nanostructures: Low temperature synthesis and characterizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apurba Dev; S Chaudhuri; B N Dev

    2008-06-01

    ZnO is one of the most important semiconductors having a wide variety of applications in photonic, field emission and sensing devices. In addition, it exhibits a wide variety of morphologies in the nano regime that can be grown by tuning the growth habit of the ZnO crystal. Among various nanostructures, oriented 1-D nanoforms are particularly important for applications such as UV laser, sensors, UV LED, field emission displays, piezoelectric nanogenerator etc. We have developed a soft chemical approach to fabricate well-aligned arrays of various 1-D nanoforms like nanonails, nanowires and nanorods. The microstructural and photoluminescence properties of all the structures were investigated and tuned by varying the synthesis parameters. Field emission study from the aligned nanorod arrays exhibited high current density and a low turn-on field. These arrays also exhibited very strong UV emission and week defect emission. These structures can be utilized to fabricate efficient UV LEDs.

  5. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  6. Diagnostics from a 1-D atmospheric column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatley, J.M.; Mace, G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Various diagnostics were computed from an array of radiosondes during an intensive field operation arranged by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The network data was centered around the site at Lamont, Oklahoma. The apparent heat source and apparent moisture sink were computed and compared to the kinematic vertical velocity for both real data and the mesoscale analysis and prediction system. Three different case studies of various weathe regimes were examined.

  7. One-Dimensional (1D) ZnS Nanomaterials and Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaosheng FANG; Lide ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials and nanostructures have received much attention due to their potential interest for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices. Zinc sulfide (ZnS) is an important semiconductor compound of Ⅱ-Ⅵ group,and the synthesis of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures has been of growing interest owing to their promising application in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. This paper reviews the recent progress on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures, including nanowires, nanowire arrays, nanorods, nanobelts or nanoribbons,nanocables, and hierarchical nanostructures etc. This article begins with a survey of various methods that have been developed for generating 1D nanomaterials and nanostructures, and then mainly focuses on structures,synthesis, characterization, formation mechanisms and optical property tuning, and luminescence mechanisms of 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures. Finally, this review concludes with personal views towards future research on 1D ZnS nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  8. Defect Characterization Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. In this paper a quantitative comparison of 2D arrays with different element layouts is performed. A technique for extracting the scattering matrix of a defect from the raw 2D array data is also presented. The method is tested on experimental data for characterization of various volumetric defects.

  9. Relaxation of a 1-D gravitational system

    CERN Document Server

    Valageas, P

    2006-01-01

    We study the relaxation towards thermodynamical equilibrium of a 1-D gravitational system. This OSC model shows a series of critical energies $E_{cn}$ where new equilibria appear and we focus on the homogeneous ($n=0$), one-peak ($n=\\pm 1$) and two-peak ($n=2$) states. Using numerical simulations we investigate the relaxation to the stable equilibrium $n=\\pm 1$ of this $N-$body system starting from initial conditions defined by equilibria $n=0$ and $n=2$. We find that in a fashion similar to other long-range systems the relaxation involves a fast violent relaxation phase followed by a slow collisional phase as the system goes through a series of quasi-stationary states. Moreover, in cases where this slow second stage leads to a dynamically unstable configuration (two peaks with a high mass ratio) it is followed by a new sequence ``violent relaxation/slow collisional relaxation''. We obtain an analytical estimate of the relaxation time $t_{2\\to \\pm 1}$ through the mean escape time of a particle from its potent...

  10. 1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume

    We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  11. Analysis list: Nr1d2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr1d2 Liver + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d2.Liver.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Liver.gml ...

  12. Analysis list: Nr1d1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr1d1 Adipocyte,Cardiovascular,Liver,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d1.5.tsv http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr1d1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d1....Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d1.C...ardiovascular.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr1d1.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosc

  13. Diffusion and particle mobility in 1D system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borman, V. D.; Johansson, B.; Skorodumova, N. V.; Tronin, I. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2006-01-01

    The transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) systems have been studied theoretically. Contradictory experimental results on molecular transport in quasi-1D systems, such as zeolite structures, when both diffusion transport acceleration and the existence of the diffusion mode with lower particle

  14. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  15. The Gain Properties of 1-D Active Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The terminology 'ID frequency'(w ID) is proposed after analyzing the 1D active photonic crystal based on the transfer matrix method. The relationship between wID and the structure parameters of the photonic crystal is investigated.

  16. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone.

  17. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  18. 1D photonic crystal sensor integrated in a microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Pedro; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    A refractive index sensor was designed as a 1D resonator incorporated in a microfluidic channel, where aqueous solutions were injected. A sensitivity of 480 nm/RIU and a minimum difference of Deltan = 0.002 were determined.......A refractive index sensor was designed as a 1D resonator incorporated in a microfluidic channel, where aqueous solutions were injected. A sensitivity of 480 nm/RIU and a minimum difference of Deltan = 0.002 were determined....

  19. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Borras, Ana; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Plasma related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres and semiconducting inorganic nanowires. A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent nanowires and nanofibres. In this article we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, A...

  20. Unveiling the Role of CNTs on the Phase Formation of 1D Ferroelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Amit

    2015-05-21

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to act as templates or bottom electrodes for three dimension (3D) capacitor arrays, which utilise one dimension (1D) ferroelectric nanostructures to increase memory size and density. However, growing a ferroelectric on the surface of CNTs is non-trivial. Here, we demonstrate that multi-walled (MW) CNTs decrease the time and temperature for formation of lead zirconium titanate Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) by ~100 ºC commensurate with a decrease in activation energy from 68±15 kJ/mol to 27±2 kJ/mol. As a consequence, monophasic PZT was obtained at 575 ºC for MWCNTs/PZT whereas for pure PZT traces of pyrochlore were still present at 650 ºC, where PZT phase formed due to homogeneous nucleation. The piezoelectric nature of MWCNT/PZT synthesised at 500 ºC for 1 h was proved. Although further work is required to prove the concept of 3D capacitor arrays, our result suggests that it is feasible to utilise MWCNTs as templates/electrodes for the formation of 1D PZT nano ferroelectrics.

  1. Measuring the Speed of Sound in a 1D Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jacob; Revelle, Melissa; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    We report measurements of the speed of sound in a two-spin component, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. The 1D system is an array of one-dimensional tubes created by a 2D optical lattice. By increasing the lattice depth, the tunneling between tubes is sufficiently small to make each an independent 1D system. To measure the speed of sound, we create a density notch at the center of the atom cloud using a sheet of light tuned far from resonance. The dipole force felt by both spin states will be equivalent, so this notch can be thought of as a charge excitation. Once this beam is turned off, the notch propagates to the edge of the atomic cloud with a velocity that depends on the strength of interatomic interactions. We control interactions using a magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance, allowing us to measure the speed of sound over a wide range of interaction. This method may be used to extract the Luttinger parameter vs. interaction strength. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation.

  2. From 1D chain to 3D network: A theoretical study on TiO{sub 2} low dimensional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ling-ju; He, Tao, E-mail: het@nanoctr.cn [CAS Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-06-14

    We have performed a systematic study on a series of low dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanostructures under density functional theory methods. The geometries, stabilities, growth mechanism, and electronic structures of 1D chain, 2D ring, 2D ring array, and 3D network of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are analyzed. Based on the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} building unit, a series of 1D TiO{sub 2} nano chains and rings can be built. Furthermore, 2D ring array and 3D network nanostructures can be constructed from 1D chains and rings. Among non-periodic TiO{sub 2} chain and ring structures, one series of ring structures is found to be more stable. The geometry model of the 2D ring arrays and 3D network structures in this work has provided a theoretical understanding on the structure information in experiments. Based on these semiconductive low dimensional structures, moreover, it can help to understand and design new hierarchical TiO{sub 2} nanostructure in the future.

  3. 1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-09-01

    The ability to synthesize a diverse spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals presents an enticing prospect for exploring nanoscale size- and shape-dependent properties. Here we report a general strategy to craft a variety of plain nanorods, core-shell nanorods, and nanotubes with precisely controlled dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on functional bottlebrush-like block copolymers with well-defined structures and narrow molecular weight distributions as nanoreactors. These cylindrical unimolecular nanoreactors enable a high degree of control over the size, shape, architecture, surface chemistry, and properties of 1D nanocrystals. We demonstrate the synthesis of metallic, ferroelectric, upconversion, semiconducting, and thermoelectric 1D nanocrystals, among others, as well as combinations thereof.

  4. Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Alisa

    atom. One of the signatures and functions of a 1D atom is the nonlinear optical response at the single-photon level. A PCW chip is designed to experimentally study the transmission spectrum of an embedded QD. The transmission spectrum is shown to be modi_ed by 30% around the resonance of the QD......A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... platform for realizing a 1D atom, and are the subject of theoretical and experimental investigations in this thesis. We use _nite element method in 3D to calculate the local density of states (LDOS) in photonic-crystal membranes. The detailed spatial maps show strong inhibition of LDOS in the bandgap...

  5. Diffusion and particle mobility in 1D system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borman, V.D. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Kashirskoe shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Johansson, B. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Skorodumova, N.V. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Tronin, I.V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Kashirskoe shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: ivt@rbcmail.ru; Tronin, V.N. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Kashirskoe shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Troyan, V.I. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University), Kashirskoe shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-12-04

    The transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) systems have been studied theoretically. Contradictory experimental results on molecular transport in quasi-1D systems, such as zeolite structures, when both diffusion transport acceleration and the existence of the diffusion mode with lower particle mobility (single-file diffusion ({approx}t{sup 1/2})) have been reported, are consolidated in a consistent model. Transition from the single-file diffusion mode to an Einstein-like diffusion {approx}t with diffusion coefficient increasing with the density has been predicted to occur at large observation times.

  6. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BURIAN, STEVEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  7. On the D1-D5 conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    2000-03-01

    I give a review of some aspects of the D1-D5 conformal field theory that is dual to string theory on AdS 3 . Particular attention is paid to the gravitational interpretation of the elliptic genus as a sum over 3-manifolds.

  8. Suppression of spin-orbit effects in 1D system

    OpenAIRE

    Entin, M. V.; Magarill, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    We report the absence of spin effects such as spin-galvanic effect, spin polarization and spin current under static electric field and inter-spin-subband absorption in 1D system with spin-orbit interaction of arbitrary form. It was also shown that the accounting for the direct interaction of electron spin with magnetic field violates this statement.

  9. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders;

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  10. Ultracold spherical horizons in gauged N=1, d=4 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meessen, Patrick, E-mail: meessenpatrick@uniovi.e [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, Avda. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Ortin, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Ortin@cern.c [Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Facultad de Ciencias C-XVI, C.U. Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-04

    We show that the near-horizon limit of ultracold magnetic Reissner-Nordstroem-De Sitter black holes, whose geometry is the direct product of 2-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and a 2-sphere, preserves half of the supersymmetries of minimal R-gauged N=1, d=4 supergravity.

  11. Simulation of Organic Solar Cells Using AMPS-1D Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah G. Babiker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of microelectronic and photonic structure in one dimension program [AMPS-1D] program has been successfully used to study inorganic solar cells. In this work the program has been used to optimize the performance of the organic solar cells. The cells considered consist of poly(2-methoxy-5-(3,7- dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene [MDMO-PPV

  12. Active damping of the 1D rocking mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babakhani, Bayan; Vries, de Theo

    2010-01-01

    Active damping of a rotational vibration mode in the linear guidance of a precision machine in a one dimensional (1D) setting is considered in this paper. This so-called rocking mode presents itself in machines having linear actuation. The limitation this vibration mode imposes on the machine precis

  13. Nonclassical Particle Transport in the 1-D Diffusive Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Vasques, Richard; Krycki, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the nonclassical diffusion approximation to the nonclassical transport equation in certain 1-D diffusive systems. This result provides a more solid foundation in which to improve this theory for relevant nuclear applications.

  14. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  15. New D1-D5-P geometries from string amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Turton, David

    2011-01-01

    We derive the long range supergravity fields sourced by a D1-D5-P bound state from disk amplitudes for massless closed string emission. We suggest that since the parameter controlling the string perturbation expansion for this calculation decreases with distance from the bound state, the resulting asymptotic fields are valid even in the regime of parameters in which there is a classical black hole solution with the same charges. The supergravity fields differ from the black hole solution by multipole moments and are more general than those contained within known classes of solutions in the literature, whilst still preserving four supersymmetries. Our results support the conjecture that the black hole solution should be interpreted as a coarse-grained description rather than an exact description of the gravitational field sourced by D1-D5-P bound states in this regime of parameters.

  16. Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-01-01

    The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.

  17. Iron-based 1D nanostructures by electrospinning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Cynthia; Brioude, Arnaud; Salles, Vincent; Plenet, Jean-Claude; Asmar, Roy; Monteil, Yves; Khoury, Randa; Khoury, Antonio; Miele, Philippe

    2010-03-26

    Iron-based 1D nanostructures have been successfully prepared using an electrospinning technique and varying the pyrolysis atmospheres. Hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) nanotubes and polycrystalline Fe(3)C nanofibers were obtained by simple air or mixed gas (H(2), Ar) annealing treatments. Using the air annealing treatment, a high control of the morphology as well as of the wall thickness of the nanotubes was demonstrated with a direct influence of the starting polymer concentration. When mixed gases (H(2) and Ar) were used for the annealing treatments, for the first time polycrystalline Fe(3)C nanofibers composed of carbon graphitic planes were obtained, ensuring Fe(3)C nanoparticle stability and nanofiber cohesion. The morphology and structural properties of all these iron-based 1D nanostructures were fully characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Polaron in a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Nsangou

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Polaron states in a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire with a parabolic confinement potential are investigated applying the Feynman variational principle. The effect of the wire radius on the polaron ground state energy level, the mass and the Fröhlich electron-phonon-coupling constant are obtained for the case of a quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire. The effect of anisotropy of the structure on the polaron ground state energy level and the mass are also investigated. It is observed that as the wire radius tends to zero, the polaron mass and energy diverge logarithmically. The polaron mass and energy differ from the canonical strong-coupling behavior by the Fröhlich electron-phonon coupling constant and the radius of the quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire that are expressed through a logarithmic function. Moreover, it is observed that the polaron energy and mass for strong coupling for the case of the quasi 1D cylindrical quantum wire are greater than those for bulk crystals. It is also observed that the anisotropy of the structure considerably affects both the polaron ground state energy level and the mass. It is found that as the radius of the cylindrical wire reduces, the regimes of the weak and intermediate coupling polaron shorten while the region of the strong coupling polaron broadens and extends into those of the weak and intermediate ones. Analytic expressions for the polaron ground state energy level and mass are derived for the case of strong coupling polarons.

  19. Ultrahigh-Q nanocavity with 1D photonic gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notomi, M; Kuramochi, E; Taniyama, H

    2008-07-21

    Recently, various wavelength-sized cavities with theoretical Q values of approximately 10(8) have been reported, however, they all employ 2D or 3D photonic band gaps to realize strong light confinement. Here we numerically demonstrate that ultrahigh-Q (2.0x10(8)) and wavelength-sized (V(eff) approximately 1.4(lambda/n)3) cavities can be achieved by employing only 1D periodicity.

  20. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  1. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Kehan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

  2. The stability of 1-D soliton in transverse direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Deepa; Bera, Ratan Kumar; Das, Amita; Kaw, Predhiman

    2016-12-01

    The complete characterization of the exact 1-D solitary wave solutions (both stationary and propagating) for light plasma coupled system have been studied extensively in the parameter space of light frequency and the group speed [Poornakala et al., Phys. Plasmas 9(5), 1820 (2002)]. It has been shown in 1-D that solutions with single light wave peak and paired structures are stable and hence long lived. However, solutions having multiple peaks of light wave are unstable due to Raman scattering instability [Saxena et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 072307 (2007)]. Here, we have shown with the help of 2-D fluid simulation that single peak and paired solutions too get destabilized by the transverse filamentation instability. The numerical growth rates obtained from simulations is seen to compare well with the analytical values. It is also shown that multiple peaks solitons first undergo the regular 1-D forward Raman scattering instability. Subsequently, they undergo a distinct second phase of destabilization through transverse filamentation instability. This is evident from the structure as well as the plot of the perturbed energy which shows a second phase of growth after saturating initially. The growth rate of the filamentation instability being comparatively slower than the forward Raman instability this phase comes quite late and is clearly distinguishable.

  3. Homogenization of 1D and 2D magnetoelastic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the equivalent in-plane mechanical properties of one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D, periodic magneto-elastic lattices. A lumped parameter model describes the lattices using magnetic dipole moments in combination with axial and torsional springs. The homogenization procedure is applied to systems linearized about stable configurations, which are identified by minimizing potential energy. Simple algebraic expressions are derived for the properties of 1D structures. Results for 1D lattices show that a variety of stiffness changes are possible through reconfiguration, and that magnetization can either stiffen or soften a structure. Results for 2D hexagonal and re-entrant lattices show that both reconfigurations and magnetization have drastic effects on the mechanical properties of lattice structures. Lattices can be stiffened or softened and the Poisson’s ratio can be tuned. Furthermore for certain hexagonal lattices the sign of Poisson’s ratio can change by varying the lattice magnetization. In some cases presented, analytical and numerically estimated equivalent properties are validated through numerical simulations that also illustrate the unique characteristics of the investigated configurations.

  4. Supported plasma-made 1D heterostructures: perspectives and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borras, Ana; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Romero-Gomez, Pablo; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R, E-mail: anaisabel.borras@icmse.csic.es [Materials Science Institute of Seville (CSIC-Universidad Sevilla), C/Americo Vespucio 49 41092, Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-05-04

    Plasma-related methods have been widely used in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres (NFs) and semiconducting inorganic nanowires (NWs). A natural progression of the research in the field of 1D nanostructures is the synthesis of multicomponent NWs and NFs. In this paper we review the state of the art of the fabrication by plasma methods of 1D heterostructures including applications and perspectives. Furthermore, recent developments on the use of metal seeds (Ag, Au, Pt) to obtain metal-oxide nanostructures are also extensively described. Results are shown for various metal substrates, either metal foils or supported nanoparticles/thin films of the metal where the effects of the size, surface coverage, percolation degree and thickness of the metal seeds have been systematically evaluated. The possibilities of the process are illustrated by the preparation of nanostructured films and supported NFs of different metal-oxides (Ag, Au and SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZnO). Particularly, in the case of silver, the application of an oxygen plasma treatment prior to the deposition of the oxide was critical for efficiently controlling the growth of the 1D heterostructures. A phenomenological model is proposed to account for the thin-film nanostructuring and fibre formation by considering basic phenomena such as stress relaxation, inhomogeneities in the plasma sheath electrical field and the local disturbance of the oxide growth.

  5. Molecular characterization of zebrafish Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1), a novel organic anion-transporting polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2013-11-22

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily includes a group of polyspecific transporters that mediate transport of large amphipathic, mostly anionic molecules across cell membranes of eukaryotes. OATPs/Oatps are involved in the disposition and elimination of numerous physiological and foreign compounds. However, in non-mammalian species, the functional properties of Oatps remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the role of Oatp1d1 in zebrafish to gain insights into the functional and structural evolution of the OATP1/Oatp1 superfamily. We show that diversification of the OATP1/Oatp1 family occurs after the emergence of jawed fish and that the OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b subfamilies appeared at the root of tetrapods. The Oatp1d subfamily emerged in teleosts and is absent in tetrapods. The zebrafish Oatp1d1 is similar to mammalian OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b members, with the main physiological role in transport and balance of steroid hormones. Oatp1d1 activity is dependent upon pH gradient, which could indicate bicarbonate exchange as a mode of transport. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation and structural properties revealed that (i) His-79 in intracellular loop 3 is conserved within OATP1/Oatp1 family and is crucial for the transport activity; (ii) N-glycosylation impacts membrane targeting and is conserved within the OATP1/Oatp1 family with Asn-122, Asn-133, Asn-499, and Asn-512 residues involved; (iii) the evolutionarily conserved cholesterol recognition interaction amino acid consensus motif is important for membrane localization; and (iv) Oatp1d1 is present in dimeric and possibly oligomeric form in the cell membrane. In conclusion, we describe the first detailed characterization of a new Oatp transporter in zebrafish, offering important insights into the functional evolution of the OATP1/Oatp1 family and the physiological role of Oatp1d1.

  6. Laser-scanning photoacoustic microscopy with ultrasonic phased array transducer

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Fan; Zhang, Xiangyang; Chiu, Chi Tat; Zhou, Bill L.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhang, Hao F.; Jiao, Shuliang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report our latest progress on proving the concept that ultrasonic phased array can improve the detection sensitivity and field of view (FOV) in laser-scanning photoacoustic microscopy (LS-PAM). A LS-PAM system with a one-dimensional (1D) ultrasonic phased array was built for the experiments. The 1D phased array transducer consists of 64 active elements with an overall active dimension of 3.2 mm × 2 mm. The system was tested on imaging phantom and mouse ear in vivo. Experimen...

  7. Strategies for Ultrasound Imaging Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2010-02-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. This has clear benefits as real defects and engineering structures are three-dimensional. This paper describes different approaches to optimize 2D array design. Results are shown that illustrate the application of the proposed techniques to modeling and experimental data.

  8. Coupling of Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL: static case; Acoplamiento de Nod1D y HOTCHANNEL: caso estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez T, A.M. [IPN-ESFM, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ovando C, R. [IIE-Gcia. de Energia Nuclear, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rovando@iie.org.mx

    2003-07-01

    In this work the joining of the programs Nod1D and HOTCHANNEL, developed in the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) and in the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) respectively is described. The first one allows to study the neutronic of a nuclear reactor and the second one allows to carry out the analysis of hot channel of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Nod1 D is a program that it solves by nodal methods type finite element those diffusion equations in multigroup, and it is the static part of Nod Kin that it solves the diffusion equation in their time dependent part. For another side HOTCHANNEL is based on a mathematical model constituted by four conservation equations (two of mass conservation, one of motion quantity and one of energy), which are solved applying one discretization in implicit finite differences. Both programs have been verified in independent form using diverse test problems. In this work the modifications that were necessary to carry out to both for obtaining a coupled program that it provides the axial distribution of the neutron flux, the power, the burnup and the void fraction, among others parameters as much as neutronic as thermal hydraulics are described. Those are also mentioned limitations, advantages and disadvantages of the final product to which has been designated Nod1 D-HotChn. Diverse results for the Cycle 1 of the Laguna Verde Unit 1 reactor of the Nucleo electric central comparing them with those obtained directly with the CoreMasterPresto code are provided. (Author)

  9. Finite size effects on the electromagnetic field enhancement from low-dimensional silver nanoshell dimer arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Youlin [Zhengzhou University, China; Zhao, Ke [ORNL; Jia, Yu [Zhengzhou University, China; Hu, Xing [Zhengzhou University, China; Zhang, Zhenyu [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Finite size effects on the optical properties of one-dimensional 1D and two-dimensional 2D nanoshell dimer arrays are investigated using generalized Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation within the context of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SERS. It is shown that the huge enhancement in the electromagnetic EM field at the center of a given dimer oscillates with the length of the 1D array. For an array of fixed length, the EM enhancement also oscillates along the array, but with a different period. Both types of oscillations can be attributed to the interference of the dynamic dipole fields from different dimers in the array. When generalized to 2D arrays, EM enhancement higher than that of the 1D arrays can be gained with a constant magnitude, a salient feature advantageous to experimental realization of single-molecule SERS. 2008 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.3009293

  10. Finite Size Effects on the Electromagnetic Field Enhancement from Low-dimensional Silver Nanoshell Dimer Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youlin; Zhao, Ke; Jia, Yu; Hu, Xing; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2009-03-01

    Finite size effects on the optical properties of one-dimensional (1D) and 2D nanoshell dimer arrays are investigated using generalized Mie theory and coupled dipole approximation within the context of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). It is shown that the huge enhancement in the electromagnetic (EM) field at the center of a given dimer oscillates with the length of the 1D array. For an array of fixed length, the EM enhancement also oscillates along the array, but with a different period. Both types of oscillations can be attributed to the interference of the dynamic dipole fields from different dimers in the array. When generalized to 2D arrays, EM enhancement higher than that of the 1D arrays can be gained with a constant magnitude, a salient feature advantageous to experimental realization of single-molecule SERS. [K. Zhao et al, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 081102 (2005); Y. L. Song et al, accepted by J. Chem. Phys.

  11. BGK electron solitary waves: 1D and 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-J. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results for 1D BGK electron solitary wave (phase-space electron hole solutions and, based on the new results, extends the solutions to include the 3D electrical interaction (E ~ 1/r 2 of charged particles. Our approach for extending to 3D is to solve the nonlinear 3D Poisson and 1D Vlasov equations based on a key feature of 1D electron hole (EH solutions; the positive core of an EH is screened by electrons trapped inside the potential energy trough. This feature has not been considered in previous studies. We illustrate this key feature using an analytical model and argue that the feature is independent of any specific model. We then construct azimuthally symmetric EH solutions under conditions where electrons are highly field-aligned and ions form a uniform background along the magnetic field. Our results indicate that, for a single humped electric potential, the parallel cut of the perpendicular component of the electric field (E⊥ is unipolar and that of the parallel component (E|| bipolar, reproducing the multi-dimensional features of the solitary waves observed by the FAST satellite. Our analytical solutions presented in this article capture the 3D electric interaction and the observed features of (E|| and E⊥. The solutions predict a dependence of the parallel width-amplitude relation on the perpendicular size of EHs. This dependence can be used in conjunction with experimental data to yield an estimate of the typical perpendicular size of observed EHs; this provides important information on the perpendicular span of the source region as well as on how much electrostatic energy is transported by the solitary waves.

  12. Investigation of associations between NR1D1, RORA and RORB genes and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Chieh Lai

    Full Text Available Several genes that are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are implicated in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder (BD. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between genetic variants in NR1D1 RORA, and RORB genes and BD in the Han Chinese population. We conducted a case-control genetic association study with two samples of BD patients and healthy controls. Sample I consisted of 280 BD patients and 200 controls. Sample II consisted of 448 BD patients and 1770 healthy controls. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NR1D1, RORA, and RORB genes were genotyped using GoldenGate VeraCode assays in sample I, and 492 markers in the three genes were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide CHB Array in sample II. Single marker and gene-based association analyses were performed using PLINK. A combined p-value for the joining effects of all markers within a gene was calculated using the rank truncated product method. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was also applied to test gene-gene interactions in sample I. All markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.001. In sample I, the associations with BD were observed for rs4774388 in RORA (OR = 1.53, empirical p-value, P = 0.024, and rs1327836 in RORB (OR = 1.75, P = 0.003. In Sample II, there were 45 SNPs showed associations with BD, and the most significant marker in RORA was rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and in RORB was rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0.027. A combined p-value of 1.6×10-6, 0.7, and 1.0 was obtained for RORA, RORB and NR1D1, respectively, indicting a strong association for RORA with the risk of developing BD. A four way interaction was found among markers in NR1D1, RORA, and RORB with the testing accuracy 53.25% and a cross-validation consistency of 8 out of 10. In sample II, 45 markers had empirical p-values less than 0.05. The most significant markers in RORA and RORB genes were rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and rs17611535 (OR = 3

  13. ESO science data product standard for 1D spectral products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Retzlaff, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 process allows the upload, validation, storage, and publication of reduced data through the ESO Science Archive Facility. Since its introduction, 2 million data products have been archived and published; 80% of them are one-dimensional extracted and calibrated spectra. Central to Phase3 is the ESO science data product standard that defines metadata and data format of any product. This contribution describes the ESO data standard for 1d-spectra, its adoption by the reduction pipelines of selected instrument modes for in-house generation of reduced spectra, the enhanced archive legacy value. Archive usage statistics are provided.

  14. Nonlocal order parameters for the 1D Hubbard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco

    2012-12-07

    We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point U(c)=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at U(c). The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model.

  15. Automatic simulation of 1D and 2D chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlelo-Cuautle, E; Munoz-Pacheco, J-M [Department of Electronics, INAOE, Luis Enrique Erro No. 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla, 72840 MEXICO (Mexico)], E-mail: e.tlelo@ieee.org, E-mail: mpacheco@inaoep.mx

    2008-02-15

    A new method is introduced for automatic simulation of three kinds of chaotic oscillators: Chua's circuit, generalized Chua's circuit and chaotic oscillator implemented with saturated functions. The former generates the double-scroll, and the others 1D n-scroll attractors. The third chaotic oscillator is modified to generate 2D n-scrolls attractors. The oscillators are modelled by applying state variables and piecewise-linear approximation. Basically, the method computes the eigenvalues of the oscillators to begin time simulation and to make control of step-size automatically.

  16. Main: 1D6R [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D6R 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Bowman-Birk Type Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor Glycine Ma...x Molecule: Trypsinogen; Chain: A; Fragment: Cationic Precursor; Molecule: Bowman-Birk Prote...inase Inhibitor Precursor; Chain: I Hydrolase 3.4.21.4 (Bowman-Birk Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor) J.Koepke...r Crystal Structure Of Cancer Chemopreventive Bowman-Birk Inhibitor In Ternary Complex With Bovine Trypsin A... 477 2000 Protease Inhibitor, Serine Protease, Bowman-Birk Inhibitor SWS:TRY1_BOV

  17. Restrained Dark $U(1)_d$ at Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, F C

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a spontaneously broken $U(1)_d$ gauge symmetry with a muon-specific dark Higgs. Our first goal is to verify how the presence of a new dark Higgs, $\\phi$, and a dark gauge boson, $V$, can simultaneously face the anomalies from the muon magnetic moment and the proton charge radius. Secondly, by assuming that $V$ must decay to an electron-positron pair, we explore the corresponding parameter space determined with the low energy constraints coming from $ K \\to \\mu X$, electron $(g-2)_e$, $K \\to \\mu \

  18. Breakdown of 1D water wires inside Charged Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, Shashank

    2016-01-01

    Using Molecular Dynamics approach we investigated the structure, dynamics of water confined inside pristine and charged 6,6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs). This study reports the breakdown of 1D water wires and the emergence of triangular faced water on incorporating charges in 6,6 CNTs. Incorporation of charges results in high potential barriers to the flipping of water molecules due to the formation of a large number of hydrogen bonds. The PMF analyses show the presence of ~2 kcal/mol barrier for the movement of water inside pristine CNT and almost negligible barrier in charged CNTs.

  19. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    project and collaboration with a lot of partners to improve medical ultrasound imaging. The focus in this part of the project is to design, fabricate and characterize 1D CMUT arrays. Two versions of 1D transducers are made, one at Stanford University and one at DTU. Electrical and acoustical......, but two possible solutions are suggested. Two devices are assembled into probe handles and initial acoustical characterizations are promising. Even though the sensitivity is currently low, images are produced with recognizable features both on phantoms and volunteers. It can be mentioned that a -6 d......The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...

  20. Optimal Control of 1D and 2D Circuit QED

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, R; Glaser, S J; Marquardt, F; Schulte-Herbrueggen, T

    2009-01-01

    Optimal control can be used to significantly improve multi-qubit gates in quantum information processing hardware architectures based on superconducting circuit quantum electrodynamics. We apply this approach not only to dispersive gates of two qubits inside a cavity, but, more generally, to architectures based on two-dimensional arrays of cavities and qubits. For high-fidelity gate operations, simultaneous evolutions of controls and couplings in the two coupling dimensions of cavity grids are shown to be significantly faster than conventional sequential implementations. Even under experimentally realistic conditions speedups by a factor of three can be gained. The methods immediately scale to large grids and indirect gates between arbitrary pairs of qubits on the grid. They are anticipated to be paradigmatic for 2D arrays and lattices of controllable qubits.

  1. Modeling atrazine transport in soil columns with HYDRUS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju CELESTINO LADU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Both physical and chemical processes affect the fate and transport of herbicides. It is useful to simulate these processes with computer programs to predict solute movement. Simulations were run with HYDRUS-1D to identify the sorption and degradation parameters of atrazine through calibration from the breakthrough curves (BTCs. Data from undisturbed and disturbed soil column experiments were compared and analyzed using the dual-porosity model. The study results show that the values of dispersivity are slightly lower in disturbed columns, suggesting that the more heterogeneous the structure is, the higher the dispersivity. Sorption parameters also show slight variability, which is attributed to the differences in soil properties, experimental conditions and methods, or other ecological factors. For both of the columns, the degradation rates were similar. Potassium bromide was used as a conservative non-reactive tracer to characterize the water movement in columns. Atrazine BTCs exhibited significant tailing and asymmetry, indicating non-equilibrium sorption during solute transport. The dual-porosity model was verified to best fit the BTCs of the column experiments. Greater or lesser concentration of atrazine spreading to the bottom of the columns indicated risk of groundwater contamination. Overall, HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated the atrazine transport in soil columns.

  2. Tunability and Sensing Properties of Plasmonic/1D Photonic Crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashour M; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Hamdy, Hany

    2017-02-08

    Gold/one-dimensional photonic crystal (Au/1D-PC) is fabricated and applied for sensitive sensing of glucose and different chemical molecules of various refractive indices. The Au layer thickness is optimized to produce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the right edge of the photonic band gap (PBG). As the Au deposition time increased to 60 sec, the PBG width is increased from 46 to 86 nm in correlation with the behavior of the SPR. The selectivity of the optimized Au/1D-PC sensor is tested upon the increase of the environmental refractive index of the detected molecules. The resonance wavelength and the PBG edges increased linearly and the transmitted intensity increased nonlinearly as the environment refractive index increased. The SPR splits to two modes during the detection of chloroform molecules based on the localized capacitive coupling of Au particles. Also, this structure shows high sensitivity at different glucose concentrations. The PBG and SPR are shifted to longer wavelengths, and PBG width is decreased linearly with a rate of 16.04 Å/(μg/mm(3)) as the glucose concentration increased. The proposed structure merits; operation at room temperature, compact size, and easy fabrication; suggest that the proposed structure can be efficiently used for the biomedical and chemical application.

  3. A Framework for Low-Communication 1-D FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Tak Peter Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-performance computing on distributed-memory systems, communication often represents a significant part of the overall execution time. The relative cost of communication will certainly continue to rise as compute-density growth follows the current technology and industry trends. Design of lower-communication alternatives to fundamental computational algorithms has become an important field of research. For distributed 1-D FFT, communication cost has hitherto remained high as all industry-standard implementations perform three all-to-all internode data exchanges (also called global transposes. These communication steps indeed dominate execution time. In this paper, we present a mathematical framework from which many single-all-to-all and easy-to-implement 1-D FFT algorithms can be derived. For large-scale problems, our implementation can be twice as fast as leading FFT libraries on state-of-the-art computer clusters. Moreover, our framework allows tradeoff between accuracy and performance, further boosting performance if reduced accuracy is acceptable.

  4. Study of 1D Strange Charmed Meson Family Using HQET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently LHCb predicted spin 1 and spin 3 states Ds1⁎(2860 and Ds3⁎(2860 which are studied through their strong decays and are assigned to fit the 13D1 and 13D3 states in the charm spectroscopy. In this paper, using the heavy quark effective theory, we state that assigning Ds1⁎(2860 as the mixing of 13D1-23S1 states is rather a better justification to its observed experimental values than a pure state. We study its decay modes variation with hadronic coupling constant gxh and the mixing angle θ. We appoint spin 3 state Ds3⁎(2860 as the missing 1D  3-JP state and also study its decay channel behavior with coupling constant gyh. To appreciate the above results, we check the variation of decay modes for their spin partners states, that is, 1D2 and 1D2′, with their masses and strong coupling constant, that is, gxh and gyh. Our calculation using HQET approach gives mixing angle of the 13D1-23S1 state for Ds1⁎(2860 to lie in the range (-1.6 radians ≤θ≤-1.2 radians. Our calculation for coupling constant values gives gxh to lie within value range of 0.17–0.20 and gyh to be 0.40. We expect from experiments to observe this mixing angle to verify our results.

  5. Tunability and Sensing Properties of Plasmonic/1D Photonic Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Ahmed, Ashour M.; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Hamdy, Hany

    2017-01-01

    Gold/one-dimensional photonic crystal (Au/1D-PC) is fabricated and applied for sensitive sensing of glucose and different chemical molecules of various refractive indices. The Au layer thickness is optimized to produce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at the right edge of the photonic band gap (PBG). As the Au deposition time increased to 60 sec, the PBG width is increased from 46 to 86 nm in correlation with the behavior of the SPR. The selectivity of the optimized Au/1D-PC sensor is tested upon the increase of the environmental refractive index of the detected molecules. The resonance wavelength and the PBG edges increased linearly and the transmitted intensity increased nonlinearly as the environment refractive index increased. The SPR splits to two modes during the detection of chloroform molecules based on the localized capacitive coupling of Au particles. Also, this structure shows high sensitivity at different glucose concentrations. The PBG and SPR are shifted to longer wavelengths, and PBG width is decreased linearly with a rate of 16.04 Å/(μg/mm3) as the glucose concentration increased. The proposed structure merits; operation at room temperature, compact size, and easy fabrication; suggest that the proposed structure can be efficiently used for the biomedical and chemical application. PMID:28176799

  6. Transformation of 1-D Chiral-chained Titanium Phosphate to 2-D Layer Structure Through a 1-D Zigzag Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chao; YANG Yu-lin; LI Wei-sheng; LIU Yun-ling; YI Zhuo; GUO Yang-hong; PANG Wen-qin

    2005-01-01

    The transformation of titanium phosphate from 1-D chiral- chain(JTP-A) to 2-D layer(TP-J1) has been carefully investigated. Through a hydrolysis-condensation self-assembly pathway, the crystals of TP-J1 can be obtained from the JTP-A phase under hydrothermal conditions. An intermediate material with zigzag chain during the transformation was observed by XRD characterization. A hypothesis of the transformation mechanism is also described in this article. It is noteworthy that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the transformation.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D6QA-2G4QA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D6QA-2G4QA 1D6Q 2G4Q A A KVFERCELARTLKRLGMDGYRGISLANWMCLAKWESGYN...GRCELAAAMKRHGLDNYRGYSLGNWVCAAKFESNFNTQATNRNTD-GSTDYGILQINSRWWCNDGRTPGSRNLCNIPCSALLSSDITASVNCAKKIVSDGNGMNAWVAWRNRCKGTDVQA...bID> A 2G4QA NRNTD-GS...> 1D6Q A 1D6QA

  8. Microlens Masses from 1-D Parallaxes and Heliocentric Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) microlens parallaxes can be combined with heliocentric lens-source relative proper motion measurements to derive the lens mass and distance, as suggested by Ghosh et al. (2004). Here I present the first mathematical anlysis of this procedure, which I show can be represented as a quadratic equation. Hence, it is formally subject to a two-fold degeneracy. I show that this degeneracy can be broken in many cases using the relatively crude 2-D parallax information that is often available for microlensing events. I also develop an explicit formula for the region of parameter space where it is more difficult to break this degeneracy. Although no mass/distance measurements have yet been made using this technique, it is likely to become quite common over the next decade.

  9. Identification of a T1D Susceptibility Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Morahan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not known what causes type 1 diabetes (T1D, which affects over 1 million people in the U.S. alone. Each year, 30,000 young people in the U.S. develop this disease and depend on insulin injections thereafter. Because of the huge cost to the individual, the family, and to society in increased health care costs, it is important to find what makes these people susceptible. The disease process itself is clear: the individual’s immune system — T lymphocytes in particular — attack and destroy the body’s insulin-producing cells. But how and why this autoimmune process starts or proceeds unregulated is still not known.

  10. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschikin, Maria [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Ben-Abdallah, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, RD128, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Biehs, Svend-Age, E-mail: biehs@theorie.physik.uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  11. 1D-transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter of the nan......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have uniform diameter of ̃40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (̃500). The diameter...... of the nanowire is small enough to ensure a 1D superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied DC current...

  12. Phenomenological predictions of 3+1d anisotropic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nopoush, Mohammad; Ryblewski, Radoslaw

    2016-01-01

    We make phenomenological predictions for particle spectra and elliptic flow in heavy-ion collisions using 3+1d anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) including the effects of both shear and bulk viscosities. The dynamical equations necessary are derived by taking moments of the Boltzmann equation allowing for three distinct (diagonal) momentum-space anisotropy parameters. The formulation is based on relaxation-time approximation for the collisional kernel and a lattice-QCD-based equation of state. Evolving the system to late times, we calculate particle production using THERMINATOR 2, modified to account for an ellipsoidal distribution function. We obtain particle spectra for different particle species such as pions, kaons, and protons, and elliptic flow $v_2$ as a function of centrality, transverse momentum, and rapidity. In our model, we have four free parameters, i.e. freeze-out temperature, initial central energy density, initial momentum-space anisotropies, and shear viscosity to entropy density ratio. Using...

  13. Effective theory of Black Holes in the 1/D expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (eg Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this 'black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for 'black droplets', ie black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  14. Global Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  15. Bimetallic nanostructures as active Raman markers: gold-nanoparticle assembly on 1D and 2D silver nanostructure surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawidjaja, Ray; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Choi, Ikjun; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-11-01

    It is demonstrated that bimetallic silver-gold anisotropic nanostructures can be easily assembled from various nanoparticle building blocks with well-defined geometries by means of electrostatic interactions. One-dimensional (1D) silver nanowires, two-dimensional (2D) silver nanoplates, and spherical gold nanoparticles are used as representative building blocks for bottom-up assembly. The gold nanoparticles are electrostatically bound onto the 1D silver nanowires and the 2D silver nanoplates to give bimetallic nanostructures. The unique feature of the resulting nanostructures is the particle-to-particle interaction that subjects absorbed analytes to an enhanced electromagnetic field with strong polarization dependence. The Raman activity of the bimetallic nanostructures is compared with that of the individual nanoparticle blocks by using rhodamine 6G solution as the model analyte. The Raman intensity of the best-performing silver-gold nanostructure is comparable with the dense array of silver nanowires and silver nanoplates that were prepared by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. An optimized design of a single-nanostructure substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), based on a wet-assembly technique proposed here, can serve as a compact and low-cost alternative to fabricated nanoparticle arrays.

  16. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  17. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  18. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  19. Cavitation Influence in 1D Part-load Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörfler, P. K.

    2016-11-01

    Residual swirl in the draft tube of Francis turbines may cause annoying low- frequency pulsation of pressure and power output, in particular during part-load operation. A 1D analytical model for these dynamic phenomena would enable simulation by some conventional method for computing hydraulic transients. The proper structure of such a model has implications for the prediction of prototype behaviour based on laboratory tests. The source of excitation as well as the dynamic transmission behaviour of the draft tube flow may both be described either by lumped or distributed parameters. The distributed version contains more information and, due to limited possibilities of identification, some data must be estimated. The distributed cavitation compliance is an example for this dilemma. In recent publications, the customary assumption of a constant wave speed has produced dubious results. The paper presents a more realistic model for distributed compressibility. The measured influence of the Thoma number is applied with the local cavitation factor. This concept is less sensitive to modelling errors and explains both the Thoma and Froude number influence. The possible effect of the normally unknown non-condensable gas content in the vortex cavity is shortly commented. Its measurement in future tests is recommended. It is also recommended to check the available analytical vortex models for possible dispersion effects.

  20. Towards a consistent picture for quasi-1D organic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron-Leyraud, N. [Departement de physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Auban-Senzier, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502, CNRS - Univ. Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, 91405 Orsay (France); Rene de Cotret, S. [Departement de physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Bechgaard, K. [Department of Chemistry, H.C. Orsted Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jerome, D., E-mail: jerome@lps.u-psud.f [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502, CNRS - Univ. Paris-Sud, Bat. 510, 91405 Orsay (France); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Taillefer, L. [Departement de physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2010-06-01

    The electrical resistivity of the quasi-1D organic superconductor (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} was recently measured at low temperature from the critical pressure needed to suppress the spin-density-wave state up to a pressure where superconductivity has almost disappeared. This data revealed a direct correlation between the onset of superconductivity at T{sub c} and the strength of a non-Fermi-liquid linear term in the normal-state resistivity, going as {rho}(T)={rho}{sub 0}+AT+BT{sup 2} at low temperature, so that A{yields}0 as T{sub c{yields}}0. Here we show that the contribution of low-frequency antiferromagnetic fluctuations to the spin-lattice relaxation rate is also correlated with this non-Fermi-liquid term AT in the resistivity. These correlations suggest that anomalous scattering and pairing have a common origin, both rooted in the low-frequency antiferromagnetic fluctuations measured by NMR. A similar situation may also prevail in the recently discovered iron-pnictide superconductors.

  1. Sulfur chemistry: 1D modeling in massive dense cores

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, V; Herpin, F

    2011-01-01

    The main sulfur-bearing molecules OCS, H2S, SO, SO2, and CS have been observed in four high mass dense cores (W43-MM1, IRAS 18264, IRAS 05358, and IRAS 18162). Our goal is to put some constraints on the relative evolutionary stage of these sources by comparing these observations with time-dependent chemical modeling. We used the chemical model Nahoon, which computes the gas-phase chemistry and gas-grain interactions of depletion and evaporation. Mixing of the different chemical compositions shells in a 1D structure through protostellar envelope has been included since observed lines suggest nonthermal supersonic broadening. Observed radial profiles of the temperature and density are used to compute the chemistry as a function of time. With our model, we underproduce CS by several orders of magnitude compared to the other S-bearing molecules, which seems to contradict observations, although some uncertainties in the CS abundance observed at high temperature remain. The OCS/SO2, SO/SO2, and H2S/SO2 abundance ra...

  2. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  3. Nonclassical Particle Transport in 1-D Random Periodic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Vasques, Richard; Slaybaugh, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the recently proposed nonclassical transport equation. This equation contains an extra independent variable compared to the classical transport equation (the path-length $s$), and models particle transport taking place in homogenized random media in which a particle's distance-to-collision is not exponentially distributed. To solve the nonclassical equation one needs to know the $s$-dependent ensemble-averaged total cross section, $\\Sigma_t(\\mu,s)$, or its corresponding path-length distribution function, $p(\\mu,s)$. We consider a 1-D spatially periodic system consisting of alternating solid and void layers, randomly placed in the $x$-axis. We obtain an analytical expression for $p(\\mu,s)$ and use this result to compute the corresponding $\\Sigma_t(\\mu,s)$. Then, we proceed to numerically solve the nonclassical equation for different test problems in rod geometry; that is, particles can move only in the directions $\\mu=\\pm 1$. To assess the accuracy of these solutions, we produce ...

  4. Modeling of 1D Anomalous Diffusion in Fractured Nanoporous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinali Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractured nanoporous reservoirs include multi-scale and discontinuous fractures coupled with a complex nanoporous matrix. Such systems cannot be described by the conventional dual-porosity (or multi-porosity idealizations due to the presence of different flow mechanisms at multiple scales. More detailed modeling approaches, such as Discrete Fracture Network (DFN models, similarly suffer from the extensive data requirements dictated by the intricacy of the flow scales, which eventually deter the utility of these models. This paper discusses the utility and construction of 1D analytical and numerical anomalous diffusion models for heterogeneous, nanoporous media, which is commonly encountered in oil and gas production from tight, unconventional reservoirs with fractured horizontal wells. A fractional form of Darcy’s law, which incorporates the non-local and hereditary nature of flow, is coupled with the classical mass conservation equation to derive a fractional diffusion equation in space and time. Results show excellent agreement with established solutions under asymptotic conditions and are consistent with the physical intuitions.

  5. Benchmarking of a 1D Scrape-off layer code SOLF1D with SOLPS and its use in modelling long-legged divertors

    CERN Document Server

    Havlickova, E; Subba, F; Coster, D; Wischmeier, M; Fishpool, G

    2013-01-01

    A 1D code modelling SOL transport parallel to the magnetic field (SOLF1D) is benchmarked with 2D simulations of MAST-U SOL performed via the SOLPS code for two different collisionalities. Based on this comparison, SOLF1D is then used to model the effects of divertor leg stretching in 1D, in support of the planned Super-X divertor on MAST. The aim is to separate magnetic flux expansion from volumetric power losses due to recycling neutrals by stretching the divertor leg either vertically or radially.

  6. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO nanocomposites for photocatalysis and gas sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRITAM PATIL; GANESH GAIKWAD; D R PATIL; JITENDRA NAIK

    2016-06-01

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), which gave the evidence of 1-D ZnO nanorods, polymerization of pyrrole monomer and strong interaction between PPy and 1-D ZnO nanorods, respectively. Photocatalytic activity of 1-D ZnO nanorods was conducted by $3^3$ level full-factorial design to evaluate the effect of three independent process variables viz., dye concentration (crystal violet), catalyst concentration (1-D ZnO nanorods) and the reaction time on the preferred response: photodegradation efficiency (%). The PPy/1-D ZnO nanocompositeswere used for the sensing of NH$_3$, LPG, CO$_2$ and H$_2$S gases, respectively, at room temperature. It was observed that PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites with different 1-D ZnO nanorod weight ratios (15 and 25%) had better selectivity and sensitivity towards NH3 at room temperature.

  7. Absolute rate constant determinations for the deactivation of O/1D/ by time resolved decay of O/1D/ yields O/3P/ emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.

  8. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information of the...... of the displacement. Systems for probing lateral displacements and in-plane vibrations (1-D and 2-D) are displayed, as will systems for probing angular velocity and torsional vibrations of rotating objects....

  9. Spatio-temporal stability of 1D Kerr cavity solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelens, L.; Parra-Rivas, P.; Leo, F.; Gomila, D.; Matias, Manuel A.; Coen, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Lugiato-Lefever equation (LLE) has been extensively studied since its derivation in 1987, when this meanfield model was introduced to describe nonlinear optical cavities. The LLE was originally derived to describe a ring cavity or a Fabry-Perot resonator with a transverse spatial extension and partially filled with a nonlinear medium but it has also been shown to be applicable to other types of cavities, such as fiber resonators and microresonators. Depending on the parameters used, the LLE can present a monostable or bistable input-output response curve. A large number of theoretical studies have been done in the monostable regime, but the bistable regime has remained widely unexplored. One of the reasons for this was that previous experimental setups were not able to works in such regimes of the parameter space. Nowadays the possibility of reaching such parameter regimes experimentally has renewed the interest in the LLE. In this contribution, we present an in-depth theoretical study of the different dynamical regimes that can appear in parameter space, focusing on the dynamics of localized solutions, also known as cavity solitons (CSs). We show that time-periodic oscillations of a 1D CS appear naturally in a broad region of parameter space. More than this oscillatory regime, which has been recently demonstrated experimentally,1 we theoretically report on several kinds of chaotic dynamics. We show that the existence of CSs and their dynamics is related with the spatial dynamics of the system and with the presence of a codimension-2 point known as a Fold-Hopf bifurcation point. These dynamical regimes can become accessible by using devices such as microresonators, for instance widely used for creating optical frequency combs.

  10. Modeling shear band interaction in 1D torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partom, Yehuda; Hanina, Erez

    2017-01-01

    When two shear bands are being formed at close distance from each other they interact, and further development of one of them may be quenched down. As a result there should be a minimum distance between shear bands. In the literature there are at least three analytical models for this minimum distance. Predictions of these models do not generally agree with each other and with test results. Recently we developed a 1D numerical scheme to predict the formation of shear bands in a torsion test of a thin walled pipe. We validated our code by reproducing results of the pioneering experiments of Marchand and Duffy, and then used it to investigate the mechanics of shear localization and shear band formation. We describe our shear band code in a separate publication, and here we use it only as a tool to investigate the interaction between two neighboring shear bands during the process of their formation. We trigger the formation of shear bands by specifying two perturbations of the initial strength. We vary the perturbations in terms of their amplitude and/or their width. Usually, the stronger perturbation triggers a faster developing shear band, which then prevails and quenches the development of the other shear band. We change the distance between the two shear bands and find, that up to a certain distance one of the shear bands becomes fully developed, and the other stays only partially developed. Beyond this distance the two shear bands are both fully developed. Finally, we check the influence of certain material and loading parameters on the interaction between the two shear bands, and compare the results to predictions of the analytical models from the literature.

  11. Restrained dark U (1 )d at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Fagner C.; Fajfer, Svjetlana

    2016-12-01

    We investigate a spontaneously broken U (1 )d gauge symmetry with a muon-specific dark Higgs. Our first goal is to verify how the presence of a new dark Higgs, ϕ , and a dark gauge boson, V , can simultaneously face the anomalies from the muon magnetic moment and the proton charge radius. Second, by assuming that V must decay to an electron-positron pair, we explore the corresponding parameter space determined with the low-energy constraints coming from K →μ X , electron (g -2 )e, K →μ νμe+e-, K →μ νμμ+μ-, and τ →ντμ νμe+e-. We focus on the scenario where the V mass is below ˜2 mμ and the ϕ mass runs from few MeV to 250 MeV, with V -photon mixing of the order ˜O (10-3). Among weak process at low energies, we check the influence of the new light vector on kaon decays as well as on the scattering e+e-→μ+μ-e+e- and discuss the impact of the dark Higgs on e+e-→μ+μ-μ+μ-. Finally, we consider contributions of the V -photon mixing in the decays π0→γ e+e-, η →γ e+e-, ρ →π e+e-, K*→K e+e-, and ϕ (1020 )→η e+e-.

  12. Resolution-optimized NMR measurement of (1)D(CH), (1)D(CC) and (2)D(CH) residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Bryce, David L; O'neil-Cabello, Erin; Nikonowicz, Edward P; Bax, Ad

    2004-11-01

    New methods are described for accurate measurement of multiple residual dipolar couplings in nucleic acid bases. The methods use TROSY-type pulse sequences for optimizing resolution and sensitivity, and rely on the E.COSY principle to measure the relatively small two-bond (2)D(CH) couplings at high precision. Measurements are demonstrated for a 24-nt stem-loop RNA sequence, uniformly enriched in (13)C, and aligned in Pf1. The recently described pseudo-3D method is used to provide homonuclear (1)H-(1)H decoupling, which minimizes cross-correlation effects and optimizes resolution. Up to seven (1)H-(13)C and (13)C-(13)C couplings are measured for pyrimidines (U and C), including (1)D(C5H5), (1)D(C6H6), (2)D(C5H6), (2)D(C6H5), (1)D(C5C4), (1)D(C5C6), and (2)D(C4H5). For adenine, four base couplings ((1)D(C2H2), (1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)) are readily measured whereas for guanine only three couplings are accessible at high relative accuracy ((1)D(C8H8), (1)D(C4C5), and (1)D(C5C6)). Only three dipolar couplings are linearly independent in planar structures such as nucleic acid bases, permitting cross validation of the data and evaluation of their accuracies. For the vast majority of dipolar couplings, the error is found to be less than +/-3% of their possible range, indicating that the measurement accuracy is not limiting when using these couplings as restraints in structure calculations. Reported isotropic values of the one- and two-bond J couplings cluster very tightly for each type of nucleotide.

  13. Laser-scanning photoacoustic microscopy with ultrasonic phased array transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fan; Zhang, Xiangyang; Chiu, Chi Tat; Zhou, Bill L; Shung, K Kirk; Zhang, Hao F; Jiao, Shuliang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report our latest progress on proving the concept that ultrasonic phased array can improve the detection sensitivity and field of view (FOV) in laser-scanning photoacoustic microscopy (LS-PAM). A LS-PAM system with a one-dimensional (1D) ultrasonic phased array was built for the experiments. The 1D phased array transducer consists of 64 active elements with an overall active dimension of 3.2 mm × 2 mm. The system was tested on imaging phantom and mouse ear in vivo. Experiments showed a 15 dB increase of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) when beamforming was employed compared to the images acquired with each single element. The experimental results demonstrated that ultrasonic phased array can be a better candidate for LS-PAM in high sensitivity applications like ophthalmic imaging.

  14. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D3AB-1LLDA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D3AB-1LLDA 1D3A 1LLD B A -TKVSVVGAAGTVGAAAGYNIALRDIADEVVFVDIPDKE...PNAIYMLITNPVDIATHVAQKLTGLPENQIFGSGTNLDSARLRFLIAQQTGVNVKNVHAYIAGEHGDSEVPLWESATIGGVPMSDWTPLPGHDPLDADKREEIHQEVK... 1LLD A 1LLDA...> 1 1LLD A 1LLDA

  15. Multidimensional Systolic Arrays of LMS AlgorithmAdaptive (FIR Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir A. R. Al-Hashemy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A multidimensional systolic arrays realization of LMS algorithm by a method of mapping regular algorithm onto processor array, are designed. They are based on appropriately selected 1-D systolic array filter that depends on the inner product sum systolic implementation. Various arrays may be derived that exhibit a regular arrangement of the cells (processors and local interconnection pattern, which are important for VLSI implementation. It reduces latency time and increases the throughput rate in comparison to classical 1-D systolic arrays. The 3-D multilayered array consists of 2-D layers, which are connected with each other only by edges. Such arrays for LMS-based adaptive (FIR filter may be opposed the fundamental requirements of fast convergence rate in most adaptive filter applications.

  16. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D0GD-2RJLA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D0GD-2RJLA 1D0G 2RJL D A PQRVAAHITGTRGEKALGRKINSWESSRSGHSFLS-NLH...LRNGELVIHEKGFYYIYSQTYFRFQEEIKENTKNDKQMVQYIYKYTS-YPDPILLMKSARNSCWSKDAEYGLYSIYQGGIFELKENDRIFVSVTNEHLIDM-DHEASFFGAFLVG GD...KPRAHLTVVRQTPTQFPALHWEHEL--GLAFTKNRMNYTNKFLLIPESGDYFIYSQVTFRG--------MKPDSITVVITKVTDS...YPEPTQLLMGTKSVS-EVG-SNWFQPIYLGAMFSLQEGDKLMVNVSDISLVDYTKEDKTFFGAFLL- ...D0G D 1D0GD HSFLS-NLHLR

  17. Surface Plasmon Resonances in 1D and 2D Arrays of Metal Nanoparticles for the Control of Enhanced Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    SPECTROSCOPIES FA9550-09-1-0579 Noguez, Cecilia Roman-Velazquez, Carlos E. Angulo, Ali M. Instituto de Fisica Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico...Ciudad Universitaria , Del. Coyoacan, C.P. 04510, Mexico D.F. AFOSR/JA (703) 696-9705 875 NORTH RANDOLPH STREET SUITE 325, ROOM 3112 ARLINGTON, VA

  18. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of trans-hexatriene-1,1-d2 and -cis-1-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Fuson, Hannah A.; Tian, Hengfeng; Blake, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    Mixtures of trans-hexatriene-1,1-d2, -cis-1-d1, and -trans-1-d1 have been synthesized. Anharmonic frequencies and harmonic intensities were predicted with the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model for the out-of-plane (a″) modes of the three isotopologues. Assignments are proposed for most of the a″ vibrational modes above 500 cm-1. Ground state (GS) rotational constants have been determined for the 1,1-d2 and cis-1-d1 species from the analysis of rotational structure of C-type bands in the high-resolution (0.0015 cm-1) infrared spectra in a mixture of the three isotopologues. The GS constants for the 1,1-d2 species are A0 = 0.8018850(6), B0 = 0.0418540(6), and C0 = 0.0397997(4) cm-1. The GS constants for the cis-1-d1 species are A0 = 0.809388(1), B0 = 0.043532(2), and C0 = 0.041320(1) cm-1. Small inertial defects confirm planarity for both species. These ground state rotational constants are intended for use in determining a semiexperimental equilibrium structure and evaluating the influence of chain length on π-electron delocalization in polyenes.

  19. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic...

  20. Volumetric Ultrasound Imaging with Row-Column Addressed 2-D Arrays Using Spatial Matched Filter Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann;

    2015-01-01

    For 3-D ultrasound imaging with row-column addressed 2-D arrays, the two orthogonal 1-D transmit and receive arrays are both used for one-way focusing in the lateral and elevation directions separately and since they are not in the same plane, the two-way focusing is the same as one-way focusing....

  1. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit.

  2. Acute exercise and physiological insulin induce distinct phosphorylation signatures on TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Pehmøller, Christian; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the phosphorylation signatures of two Rab GTPase activating proteins TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physical exercise and physiological insulin levels induced by a carbohydrate rich meal using a paired experimental design. Eight healthy male volunteers...... in response to physiological stimuli in human skeletal muscle and support the idea that Akt and AMPK are upstream kinases. TBC1D1 phosphorylation signatures were comparable between in vitro contracted mouse skeletal muscle and exercised human muscle, and we show that AMPK was regulating phosphorylation...... of these sites in mouse muscle. Contraction and exercise elicited a different phosphorylation pattern of TBC1D4 in mouse compared with human muscle, and although different circumstances in our experimental setup may contribute to this difference, the observation exemplifies that transferring findings between...

  3. Expression of CD1d protein in human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Abdelwahed Hussein, Mahmoud-Rezk

    2011-05-01

    CD1d is a member of CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which represent antigen-presenting molecules. Immunofluorescent staining methods were utilized to examine expression pattern of CD1d in human testicular specimens. In testis showing normal spermatogenesis, a strong CD1d cytoplasmic expression was seen the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. A moderate expression was observed in the spermatocytes. In testes showing maturation arrest, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and weak in spermatogonia and spermatocytes compared to testis with normal spermatogenesis. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli and Leydig cells. This preliminary study displayed testicular infertility-related changes in CD1d expression. The ultrastructural changes associated with with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis are open for further investigations.

  4. TBC1D24 genotype-phenotype correlation: Epilepsies and other neurologic features

    OpenAIRE

    Balestrini, S; Milh, M.; Castiglioni, C.; Lüthy, K.; Finelli, M. J.; Verstreken, P.; Cardon, A; Stražišar, B. G.; Holder, J. L.; Lesca, G; Mancardi, M. M.; Poulat, A. L.; Repetto, G. M.; Banka, S.; Bilo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients...

  5. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  6. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting.

  7. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  8. Wave modes of collective vortex gyration in dipolar-coupled-dot-array magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-Soo; Vogel, Andreas; Jung, Hyunsung; Lee, Ki-Suk; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2013-07-01

    Lattice vibration modes are collective excitations in periodic arrays of atoms or molecules. These modes determine novel transport properties in solid crystals. Analogously, in periodical arrangements of magnetic vortex-state disks, collective vortex motions have been predicted. Here, we experimentally observe wave modes of collective vortex gyration in one-dimensional (1D) periodic arrays of magnetic disks using time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. The observed modes are interpreted based on micromagnetic simulation and numerical calculation of coupled Thiele equations. Dispersion of the modes is found to be strongly affected by both vortex polarization and chirality ordering, as revealed by the explicit analytical form of 1D infinite arrays. A thorough understanding thereof is fundamental both for lattice vibrations and vortex dynamics, which we demonstrate for 1D magnonic crystals. Such magnetic disk arrays with vortex-state ordering, referred to as magnetic metastructure, offer potential implementation into information processing devices.

  9. 1D Ni-Co oxide and sulfide nanoarray/carbon aerogel hybrid nanostructures for asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density and excellent cycling stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pin; Tian, Jian; Sang, Yuanhua; Tuan, Chia-Chi; Cui, Guanwei; Shi, Xifeng; Wong, C P; Tang, Bo; Liu, Hong

    2016-09-15

    The fabrication of supercapacitor electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability is still a great challenge. A carbon aerogel, possessing a hierarchical porous structure, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity, is an ideal backbone to support transition metal oxides and bring hope to prepare electrodes with high energy density and excellent cycling stability. Therefore, NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid supercapacitor electrode materials were synthesized by assembling Ni-Co precursor needle arrays on the surface of the channel walls of hierarchical porous carbon aerogels derived from chitosan in this study. The 1D nanostructures grow on the channel surface of the carbon aerogel vertically and tightly, contributing to the enhanced electrochemical performance with ultrahigh energy density. The energy density of NiCo2S4 nanotube array/carbon aerogel and NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array/carbon aerogel hybrid asymmetric supercapacitors can reach up to 55.3 Wh kg(-1) and 47.5 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 400 W kg(-1), respectively. These asymmetric devices also displayed excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of about 96.6% and 92% over 5000 cycles.

  10. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical.

  11. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectra of the TRANS-HEXATRIENE-1,1-D2 and -CIS-1-D1 Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.; Fuson, Hannah A.; Tian, Hengfeng; Blake, Thomas A.

    2011-06-01

    Hexatriene-1,1-D2 with some admixture of the cis-1-D1 and trans-1-D1 species was synthesized by reaction of 2,4-pentadienal and (methyl-D3)-triphenylphosphonium iodide (Wittig reagent). The trans isomer was isolated by preparative gas chromatography, and the high-resolution (0.0015 Cm-1) infrared spectrum was recorded on a Bruker IFS 125HR instrument. The rotational structure in two C-type bands for the 1,1-D2 species was analyzed. For this species the bands at 902.043 and 721.864 Cm-1 yielded composite ground state rotational constants of A0 = 0.801882(1), B0 = 0.041850(2), and C0 = 0.039804(1) Cm-1. For the cis-1-D1 species the C-type band at 803.018 Cm-1 gave A0 = 0.809384(2), B0 = 0.043530(3), and C0 = 0.041321(2) Cm-1. By iodine-catalyzed isomerization, we have obtained some of the much less favored cis isomer and hope to obtain microwave spectra for its three deuterium-substituted species. The rotational constants reported here contribute to data needed for determining a semi-experimental structure for trans-hexatriene, which should show that the structural consequences of pi-electron delocalization increase with the chain length of polyenes.

  13. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  14. Clocked combustor can array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Srinivasan, Shiva Kumar

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a clocked combustor can array for coherence reduction in a gas turbine engine. The clocked combustor can array may include a number of combustor cans positioned in a circumferential array. A first set of the combustor cans may have a first orientation and a second set of the combustor cans may have a second orientation.

  15. Framework and limits on power density in wind and hydrokinetic device arrays using systematic flow manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Wind and hydrokinetic turbine array performance suffers because the wakes of upstream turbines diminish flow to downstream turbines. Here we analyze systematic deflection of the wakes to direct unimpeded flow onto the downstream turbines and increase the area power density. We examine the case of an abstract 1D turbine-deflector array aligned parallel to a 2D free stream flow, in which case the array presents negligible frontal area to the flow without deflection. Using the framework of inviscid fluid dynamics, the flow manipulation is decomposed into flow deflection due to bound vorticity in the array, and energy extraction resulting from free vorticity shed by the array. While this general framework is agnostic to the technological details, it captures the geometry of a vertical fence of turbines and deflectors along the centerline of a river, minimizing the array footprint. We find a localized array can direct significant kinetic energy through itself, while having a minimal impact on array efficiency; the...

  16. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and pharmacological properties of the porcine 5-HT(1D) receptor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.L. Bhalla (Pankaj); H.S. Sharma (Hari); T. Wurch (Thierry); P.J. Pauwels (Petrus); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA cDNA encoding the full-length 5-HT(1D) receptor derived from porcine cerebral cortex was amplified, cloned and sequenced, using guinea-pig 5-HT(1D) receptor coding sequence oligonucleotide primers in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT - PC

  17. 1D Grating structures designed by the time domain topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lirong; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Sigmund, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the time domain application of topology optimization to 1D photonic devices. The method is confirmed to converge to the global minimum when optimizing a Bragg grating structure.......We report on the time domain application of topology optimization to 1D photonic devices. The method is confirmed to converge to the global minimum when optimizing a Bragg grating structure....

  18. A rational route to SCM materials based on a 1-D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Jan; Näther, Christian

    2011-07-07

    Thermal annealing of a discrete complex with terminal SeCN anions and monodentate coligands enforces the formation of a 1D cobalt selenocyanato coordination polymer that shows slow relaxation of the magnetization. Therefore, this approach offers a rational route to 1D materials that might show single chain magnetic behaviour.

  19. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B99C-2AZ1D [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GSDS--VESAN >E --HHHHH> ATOM 316...>D 2AZ1D HGSDHEDEGANE >E HHH...pdbID>1B99 C 1B99C EELLT-EVKPN ...> - > ATOM 3319 CA GLU C 141 17.330 5.755...DChain>2AZ1D DELVDWDRDAS re>GG EEGGHcture

  20. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D7EA-1OTAA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D7EA-1OTAA 1D7E 1OTA A A ---VAFGSEDIENTLAKMDDGQLDGLAFGAIQLDGDGNI...ne>VAL CA 559 PHE CA 524 1OTA A 1OTAA KKALSGDSYWVF E EE...9981689453 7.820000171661377 tion> 0.8790000081062...1399 0.36500000953674316 -0.3330000042915344 -0.25200000405311584 -0.9089999794960022

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D5NC-1UNFX [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available msd> 1.0891029834747314 EVID> 1 1UNF...1D5NC-1UNFX 1D5N 1UNF C X ----SYTLPSLPYAYDALEPHFDKQTMEIHHTKHHQTYV...NNANAALESL----PEFANLPVEELITKLDQLPADKKTVL---------RNNAGGHANHSLFWKGLKKGT--TLQGDLKAAIERDFGSVDNFKAEFEKAAASRFGSGW...HH EVID> 0 TRP CA 380 1UNF X 1UNF

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D5ND-1UNFX [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1.0915240049362183 EVID> 1 1UNF...1D5ND-1UNFX 1D5N 1UNF D X ----SYTLPSLPYAYDALEPHFDKQTMEIHHTKHHQTYV...NNANAALESL----PEFANLPVEELITKLDQLPADKKTVL---------RNNAGGHANHSLFWKGLKKGTT--LQGDLKAAIERDFGSVDNFKAEFEKAAASRFGSGW...H EVID> 0 TRP CA 379 1UNF X 1UNF

  3. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D5IL-2GJJA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1D5IL-2GJJA 1D5I 2GJJ L A -DIKMTQSPSSMYASLGERVTITCKASQDIN------SY... 219 ALA CA 310 SER CA 336 2GJJ A 2GJJA PEVVKTGASVK 5.283660888671875 1 2GJJ... A 2GJJA RLEIK----RGEVQ

  4. Analysis of the interaction proteins of PIH1D1%与PIH1D1相互作用的蛋白分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章元; 张业

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析细胞中与PIH1D1相互作用的蛋白.方法 构建稳定表达FLAG-HA双标签标记的PIH1D1蛋白的HEK293T细胞株,利用FLAG-HA串联亲和纯化(TAP)双标签纯化实验,对目的条带进行质谱分析.结果 成功构建稳定表达FLAG-HA双标签标记的PIH1D1细胞株.通过质谱分析得到了PIH1D1相互作用的蛋白数据,包括细胞质内RNA PolⅡ组装复合物成员RPAP3、UXT、PFD2和PFD6等,凋亡复合物成员MONAD/WDR92等,钙调蛋白信号通路中的PIP和CALM1以及代谢通路中的PKM和LCN1等.结论 PIH1D1与细胞中RPAP3、UXT、PFD2、PFD6、MONAD/WDR92、PIP、CALM1、PKM和LCN1等相互作用,提示PIH1D1可能参与细胞中RNApol Ⅱ组装、细胞凋亡、钙调蛋白通路等多种生理过程.

  5. Alternative spliced CD1d transcripts in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambez Hajipouran Benam

    Full Text Available CD1d is a MHC I like molecule which presents glycolipid to natural killer T (NKT cells, a group of cells with diverse but critical immune regulatory functions in the immune system. These cells are required for optimal defence against bacterial, viral, protozoan, and fungal infections, and control of immune-pathology and autoimmune diseases. CD1d is expressed on antigen presenting cells but also found on some non-haematopoietic cells. However, it has not been observed on bronchial epithelium, a site of active host defence in the lungs. Here, we identify for the first time, CD1D mRNA variants and CD1d protein expression on human bronchial epithelial cells, describe six alternatively spliced transcripts of this gene in these cells; and show that these variants are specific to epithelial cells. These findings provide the basis for investigations into a role for CD1d in lung mucosal immunity.

  6. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction.

  7. rasdaman Array Database: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticariu, George; Toader, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    rasdaman (Raster Data Manager) is a Free Open Source Array Database Management System which provides functionality for storing and processing massive amounts of raster data in the form of multidimensional arrays. The user can access, process and delete the data using SQL. The key features of rasdaman are: flexibility (datasets of any dimensionality can be processed with the help of SQL queries), scalability (rasdaman's distributed architecture enables it to seamlessly run on cloud infrastructures while offering an increase in performance with the increase of computation resources), performance (real-time access, processing, mixing and filtering of arrays of any dimensionality) and reliability (legacy communication protocol replaced with a new one based on cutting edge technology - Google Protocol Buffers and ZeroMQ). Among the data with which the system works, we can count 1D time series, 2D remote sensing imagery, 3D image time series, 3D geophysical data, and 4D atmospheric and climate data. Most of these representations cannot be stored only in the form of raw arrays, as the location information of the contents is also important for having a correct geoposition on Earth. This is defined by ISO 19123 as coverage data. rasdaman provides coverage data support through the Petascope service. Extensions were added on top of rasdaman in order to provide support for the Geoscience community. The following OGC standards are currently supported: Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS). The Web Map Service is an extension which provides zoom and pan navigation over images provided by a map server. Starting with version 9.1, rasdaman supports WMS version 1.3. The Web Coverage Service provides capabilities for downloading multi-dimensional coverage data. Support is also provided for several extensions of this service: Subsetting Extension, Scaling Extension, and, starting with version 9.1, Transaction Extension, which

  8. Spatial and frequency domain effects of defects in 1D photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Rudziński, A; Szczepański, P; 10.1007/s11082-007-9095-3

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of influence of defects in 1D photonic crystal (PC) on the density of states and simultaneously spontaneous emission, in both spatial and frequency domains. In our investigations we use an analytic model of 1D PC with defects. Our analysis reveals how presence of a defect causes a defect mode to appear. We show that a defect in 1D PC has local character, being negligible in regions of PC situated far from the defected elementary cell. We also analyze the effect of multiple defects, which lead to photonic band gap splitting.

  9. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  10. Electronic Switch Arrays for Managing Microbattery Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Alahmad, Mahmoud; Sukumar, Vinesh; Zghoul, Fadi; Buck, Kevin; Hess, Herbert; Li, Harry; Cox, David

    2008-01-01

    Integrated circuits have been invented for managing the charging and discharging of such advanced miniature energy-storage devices as planar arrays of microscopic energy-storage elements [typically, microscopic electrochemical cells (microbatteries) or microcapacitors]. The architecture of these circuits enables implementation of the following energy-management options: dynamic configuration of the elements of an array into a series or parallel combination of banks (subarrarys), each array comprising a series of parallel combination of elements; direct addressing of individual banks for charging/or discharging; and, disconnection of defective elements and corresponding reconfiguration of the rest of the array to utilize the remaining functional elements to obtain the desited voltage and current performance. An integrated circuit according to the invention consists partly of a planar array of field-effect transistors that function as switches for routing electric power among the energy-storage elements, the power source, and the load. To connect the energy-storage elements to the power source for charging, a specific subset of switches is closed; to connect the energy-storage elements to the load for discharging, a different specific set of switches is closed. Also included in the integrated circuit is circuitry for monitoring and controlling charging and discharging. The control and monitoring circuitry, the switching transistors, and interconnecting metal lines are laid out on the integrated-circuit chip in a pattern that registers with the array of energy-storage elements. There is a design option to either (1) fabricate the energy-storage elements in the corresponding locations on, and as an integral part of, this integrated circuit; or (2) following a flip-chip approach, fabricate the array of energy-storage elements on a separate integrated-circuit chip and then align and bond the two chips together.

  11. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  12. Array Antenna Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, B L G; Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    This letter defines a physical bound based array figure of merit that provides a tool to compare the performance of both single and multi-band array antennas with respect to return-loss, thickness of the array over the ground-plane, and scan-range. The result is based on a sum-rule result of Rozanov-type for linear polarization. For single-band antennas it extends an existing limit for a given fixed scan-angle to include the whole scan-range of the array, as well as the unit-cell structure in the bound. The letter ends with an investigation of the array figure of merit for some wideband and/or wide-scan antennas with linear polarization. We find arrays with a figure of merit >0.6 that empirically defines high-performance antennas with respect to this measure.

  13. Study of intrinsic localized vibrational modes in micromechanical oscillator arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Hubbard, B E; English, L Q; Sievers, A J; Ilic, B; Czaplewski, D A; Craighead, H G

    2003-06-01

    Intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) have been observed in micromechanical cantilever arrays, and their creation, locking, interaction, and relaxation dynamics in the presence of a driver have been studied. The micromechanical array is fabricated in a 300 nm thick silicon-nitride film on a silicon substrate, and consists of up to 248 cantilevers of two alternating lengths. To observe the ILMs in this experimental system a line-shaped laser beam is focused on the 1D cantilever array, and the reflected beam is captured with a fast charge coupled device camera. The array is driven near its highest frequency mode with a piezoelectric transducer. Numerical simulations of the nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice have been carried out to assist with the detailed interpretation of the experimental results. These include pinning and locking of the ILMs when the driver is on, collisions between ILMs, low frequency excitation modes of the locked ILMs and their relaxation behavior after the driver is turned off.

  14. Fixed-rate compressed floating-point arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-30

    ZFP is a library for lossy compression of single- and double-precision floating-point data. One of the unique features of ZFP is its support for fixed-rate compression, which enables random read and write access at the granularity of small blocks of values. Using a C++ interface, this allows declaring compressed arrays (1D, 2D, and 3D arrays are supported) that through operator overloading can be treated just like conventional, uncompressed arrays, but which allow the user to specify the exact number of bits to allocate to the array. ZFP also has variable-rate fixed-precision and fixed-accuracy modes, which allow the user to specify a tolerance on the relative or absolute error.

  15. Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.

  16. Vorticity and Λ polarization in event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Fang, Ren-Hong; Petersen, Hannah; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2017-01-01

    We visualized the vortical fluid in fluctuating QGP using (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics, computed the spin distribution and correlation of hyperons and estimated the polarization splitting between Λ and .

  17. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  18. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL...... be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice......)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose...

  19. Derivative expansion and the induced Chern-Simons term in N=1, d=3 superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, F S; Petrov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply a supersymmetric generalization of the method of derivative expansion to compute the induced non-Abelian Chern-Simons term in $\\mathcal{N}=1$, $d=3$ superspace, for an arbitrary gauge group.

  20. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  1. Ruthenium and osmium complexes of hemilabile chiral monophosphinite ligands derived from 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol as catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Angela T; Lensink, Cornelis; Falshaw, Andrew; Clark, George R; Wright, L James

    2014-12-07

    The monophosphinite ligands, 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P1), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P2), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P3), and 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-ethyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P4), can be conveniently prepared from the chiral natural products 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol. On treatment of toluene solutions of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with two mole equivalents of the ligands D-PY (Y = 1-4) the complexes RuCl2(D-P1)2 (1), RuCl2(D-P2)2 (4), RuCl2(D-P3)2 (5), or RuCl2(D-P4)2 (6), respectively, are formed. Similarly, treatment of OsCl2(PPh3)3 with D-P1 gives OsCl2(D-P1)2 (7). The single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1 reveals that each D-P1 ligand coordinates to ruthenium through phosphorus and the oxygen atom of the methoxyl group. Treatment of 1 with excess LiBr or LiI results in metathesis of the chloride ligands and RuBr2(D-P1)2 (2) or RuI2(D-P1)2 (3), respectively, are formed. Exposure of a solution of 1 to carbon monoxide results in the very rapid formation of RuCl2(CO)2(D-P1)2 (8), thereby demonstrating the ease with which the oxygen donors are displaced from the metal and hence the hemilabile nature of the two bidentate D-P1 ligands in 1. Preliminary studies indicate that 1-7 act as catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation reactions of acetophenone and 3-quinuclidinone to give the corresponding alcohols in generally high conversions but low enantiomeric excesses.

  2. Integrated avalanche photodiode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Eric S.

    2015-07-07

    The present disclosure includes devices for detecting photons, including avalanche photon detectors, arrays of such detectors, and circuits including such arrays. In some aspects, the detectors and arrays include a virtual beveled edge mesa structure surrounded by resistive material damaged by ion implantation and having side wall profiles that taper inwardly towards the top of the mesa structures, or towards the direction from which the ion implantation occurred. Other aspects are directed to masking and multiple implantation and/or annealing steps. Furthermore, methods for fabricating and using such devices, circuits and arrays are disclosed.

  3. The structure of nanocomposite 1D cationic conductor crystal@SWNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N A; Kumskov, A S; Zakalyukin, R M; Vasiliev, A L; Chernisheva, M V; Eliseev, A A; Krestinin, A V; Freitag, B; Hutchison, J L

    2012-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of one-dimensional (1D) crystals of the cationic conductors CuI, CuBr and AgBr inside single-walled carbon nanotubes, mainly (n, 0), were obtained using the capillary technique. 1D crystal structure models were proposed based on the high resolution transmission electron microscopy performed on a FEI Titan 80-300 at 80 kV with aberration correction. According to the models and image simulations there are two modifications of 1D crystal: hexagonal close-packed bromine (iodine) anion sublattice (growth direction ) and 1D crystal cubic structure (growth direction ) compressed transversely to the nanotube (D(m) ∼1.33 nm) axis. Tentatively this kind of 1D crystal can be considered as monoclinic. One modification of the anion sublattice reversibly transforms into the other inside the nanotube, probably initiated by electron beam heating. As demonstrated by micrographs, copper or silver cations can occupy octahedral positions or are statistically distributed across two tetrahedral positions. A 1DAgBr@SWNT (18, 0; 19, 0) pseudoperiodic 'lattice distortion' is revealed resulting from convolution of the nanotube wall function image with 1D cubic crystal function image.

  4. Arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold atoms and their applications in atom optics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印建平; 高伟建; 胡建军

    2002-01-01

    A single microscopic magnetic trap for neutral atoms using planar current-carrying wires was proposed and studiedtheoretically by Weinstein et al. In this paper, we propose three structures of composite current-carrying wires to provide1D, 2D and 3D arrays of microscopic magnetic traps for cold alkali atoms. The spatial distributions of magnetic fieldsgenerated by these structures are calculated and the field gradient and curvature in each single microtrap are analysed.Our study shows that arrays of microscopic magnetic traps can be used to provide 1D, 2D or 3D atomic magneticlattices, and even to realize 1D, 2D and 3D arrays of magneto-optical traps, and so on.

  5. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  6. HERMES Precision Results on g1p, g1d and g1n and the First Measurement of the Tensor Structure Function b1d

    CERN Document Server

    Riedl, C; Akopov, Z; Amarian, M; Ammosov, V V; Andrus, A; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avakian, R; Avetisian, A; Avetissian, E; Bailey, P; Baturin, V; Baumgarten, C; Beckmann, M; Belostotskii, S; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, Helmut B; Borisov, A; Bouwhuis, M; Brack, J; Brüll, A; Bryzgalov, V V; Capitani, G P; Chiang, H C; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Devitsin, E G; Di Nezza, P; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elalaoui-Moulay, A; Elbakian, G M; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Ely, J; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Feshchenko, A; Felawka, L; Fox, B; Franz, J; Frullani, S; Gärber, Y; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Garrow, K; Garutti, E; Gaskell, D; Gavrilov, G E; Karibian, V; Graw, G; Grebenyuk, O; Greeniaus, L G; Hafidi, K; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Heesbeen, D; Henoch, M; Hertenberger, R; Hesselink, W H A; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hommez, B; Iarygin, G; Ivanilov, A; Izotov, A; Jackson, H E; Jgoun, A; Kaiser, R; Kinney, E; Kiselev, A; Königsmann, K C; Kopytin, M; Korotkov, V A; Kozlov, V; Krauss, B; Krivokhizhin, V G; Lagamba, L; Lapikas, L; Laziev, A; Lenisa, P; Liebing, P; Lindemann, T; Lipka, K; Lorenzon, W; Lü, J; Maiheu, B; Makins, N C R; Marianski, B; Marukyan, H O; Masoli, F; Mexner, V; Meyners, N; Miklukho, O; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Muccifora, V; Nagaitsev, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Yu; Nass, A; Negodaev, M A; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; Oganessyan, K; Ohsuga, H; Orlandi, G; Pickert, N; Potashov, S Yu; Potterveld, D H; Raithel, M; Reggiani, D; Reimer, P E; Reischl, A; Reolon, A R; Rith, K; Airapetian, A; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubacek, L; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Yu I; Sanjiev, I; Savin, I; Scarlett, C; Schäfer, A; Schill, C; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Schwind, A; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seitz, B; Shanidze, R G; Shearer, C; Shibata, T A; Shutov, V B; Simani, M C; Sinram, K; Stancari, M D; Statera, M; Steffens, E; Steijger, J J M; Stewart, J; Stösslein, U; Tait, P; Tanaka, H; Taroian, S P; Tchuiko, B; Terkulov, A R; Tkabladze, A V; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; Van der Nat, P B; van der Steenhoven, G; Vetterli, Martin C; Vikhrov, V; Vincter, M G; Visser, J; Vogel, C; Vogt, M; Volmer, J; Weiskopf, C; Wendland, J; Wilbert, J; Ybeles-Smit, G V; Yen, S; Zihlmann, B; Zohrabyan, H G; Zupranski, P; Riedl, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Final HERMES results on the proton, deuteron and neutron structure function g1 are presented in the kinematic range 0.00211d are presented.

  7. Analysis of VCSEL Array Module Using a Simple Microlens Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hen-Wai; Tsao; Shyh-Lin; Tsao

    2003-01-01

    A simple microlens array is designed between VCSEL array and fiber array for integration of array module. We increase the optical coupling efficiency from -32.057 dBm to -0.9054 dBm by using our designed microlens array.

  8. Analysis of VCSEL Array Module Using a Simple Microlens Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ming Cheng; Hen-Wai Tsao; Shyh-Lin Tsao

    2003-01-01

    A simple microlens array is designed between VCSEL array and fiber array for integration of array module. We increase the optical coupling efficiency from-32.057 dBm to-0.9054 dBm by using our designed microlens array.

  9. Stable Interacting $(2 + 1)d$ Conformal Field Theories at the Boundary of a class of $(3 + 1)d$ Symmetry Protected Topological Phases

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Zhen; BenTov, Yoni; Xu, Cenke

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent studies of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases, we explore the possible gapless quantum disordered phases in the $(2+1)d$ nonlinear sigma model defined on the Grassmannian manifold $\\frac{U(N)}{U(n)\\times U(N - n)}$ with a Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) term at level $k$, which is the effective low energy field theory of the boundary of certain $(3+1)d$ SPT states. With $k = 0$, this model has a well-controlled large-$N$ limit, $i.e.$ its renormalization group equations can be computed exactly with large-$N$. However, with the WZW term, the large-$N$ and large-$k$ limit alone is not sufficient for a reliable study of the nature of the quantum disordered phase. We demonstrate that at least for $n = 1$, through a combined large-$N$, large-$k$ and $3-\\epsilon$ generalization, a stable fixed point in the quantum disordered phase can be reliably located, which corresponds to a $(2+1)d$ strongly interacting conformal field theory. Extension of our method to $n > 1$ will also be discussed.

  10. Solar array deployment mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calassa, Mark C.; Kackley, Russell

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a Solar Array Deployment Mechanism (SADM) used to deploy a rigid solar array panel on a commercial spacecraft. The application required a deployment mechanism design that was not only lightweight, but also could be produced and installed at the lowest possible cost. This paper covers design, test, and analysis of a mechanism that meets these requirements.

  11. Array for detecting microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd D.

    2014-07-08

    The present embodiments relate to an array system for detecting and identifying biomolecules and organisms. More specifically, the present embodiments relate to an array system comprising a microarray configured to simultaneously detect a plurality of organisms in a sample at a high confidence level.

  12. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  13. Thin film encapsulated 1D thermoelectric detector in an IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints o

  14. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-10-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  15. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  16. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic performance of cuprous oxide porous nanosheet arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianghua; Wang, Jianqiang [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Yihe [Beijing Key Laboratory of Mineral Materials and Utilization of Solid Waste, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Cao, Minhua, E-mail: caomh@bit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, Department of Chemistry, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical Abstract: We demonstrated a facile and efficient process for fabricating Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh. Benefiting from the 1D array structure and porous structure, the as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O sample exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh were synthesized via the facile and efficient process. • The Cu{sub 2}O sample exhibited the 1D array structure and porous nanosheet morphology. • The as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheet arrays exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: One-dimensional nanostructures are of great interest for a wide range of applications. In this work, we demonstrated the fabrication of visible-light-responsive Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheet arrays. The synthesis involved the growth of Cu(OH){sub 2} nanosheet arrays on Cu mesh by solution-based corrosion and thermal transformation of Cu(OH){sub 2} nanosheet to Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheets on Cu mesh. Benefiting from the one dimensional array structure and porous structure, the as-prepared Cu{sub 2}O porous nanosheet arrays exhibited significantly improved photocatalytic activity for methyl orange degradation under visible light irradiation.

  17. VES/TEM 1D joint inversion by using Controlled Random Search (CRS) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Porsani, Jorge Luís; Santos, Fernando Acácio Monteiro dos; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Electrical (DC) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) soundings are used in a great number of environmental, hydrological, and mining exploration studies. Usually, data interpretation is accomplished by individual 1D models resulting often in ambiguous models. This fact can be explained by the way as the two different methodologies sample the medium beneath surface. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) is good in marking resistive structures, while Transient Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to conductive structures. Another difference is VES is better to detect shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper layers. A Matlab program for 1D joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings was developed aiming at exploring the best of both methods. The program uses CRS - Controlled Random Search - algorithm for both single and 1D joint inversions. Usually inversion programs use Marquadt type algorithms but for electrical and electromagnetic methods, these algorithms may find a local minimum or not converge. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data, and then it was used to invert experimental data from two places in Paraná sedimentary basin (Bebedouro and Pirassununga cities), both located in São Paulo State, Brazil. Geoelectric model obtained from VES and TEM data 1D joint inversion is similar to the real geological condition, and ambiguities were minimized. Results with synthetic and real data show that 1D VES/TEM joint inversion better recovers simulated models and shows a great potential in geological studies, especially in hydrogeological studies.

  18. Noncoherent Spectral Optical CDMA System Using 1D Active Weight Two-Code Keying Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Chyun Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new family of one-dimensional (1D active weight two-code keying (TCK in spectral amplitude coding (SAC optical code division multiple access (OCDMA networks. We use encoding and decoding transfer functions to operate the 1D active weight TCK. The proposed structure includes an optical line terminal (OLT and optical network units (ONUs to produce the encoding and decoding codes of the proposed OLT and ONUs, respectively. The proposed ONU uses the modified cross-correlation to remove interferences from other simultaneous users, that is, the multiuser interference (MUI. When the phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN is the most important noise, the modified cross-correlation suppresses the PIIN. In the numerical results, we find that the bit error rate (BER for the proposed system using the 1D active weight TCK codes outperforms that for two other systems using the 1D M-Seq codes and 1D balanced incomplete block design (BIBD codes. The effective source power for the proposed system can achieve −10 dBm, which has less power than that for the other systems.

  19. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis S Hughes

    Full Text Available Fluorine (19F NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC to objectively determine which model (number of peaks would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/.

  20. 3+1D Massless Weyl spinors from bosonic scalar-tensor duality

    CERN Document Server

    Amoretti, Andrea; Caruso, Giacomo; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo

    2013-01-01

    We consider the fermionization of a bosonic free theory characterized by the 3+1D scalar - tensor duality. This duality can be interpreted as the dimensional reduction, via a planar boundary, of the 4+1D topological BF theory. In this model, adopting the Sommerfield tomographic representation of quantized bosonic fields, we explicitly build a fermionic operator and its associated Klein factor such that it satisfies the correct anticommutation relations. Interestingly, we demonstrate that this operator satisfies the massless Dirac equation and that it can be identified with a 3+1D Weyl spinor. Finally, as an explicit example, we write the integrated charge density in terms of the tomographic transformed bosonic degrees of freedom.

  1. Periodic Properties of 1D FE Discrete Models in High Frequency Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Żak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element discrete models of various engineering 1D structures may be considered as structures of certain periodic characteristics. The source of this periodicity comes from the discontinuity of stress/strain field between the elements. This behaviour remains unnoticeable, when low frequency dynamics of these structures is investigated. At high frequency regimes, however, its influence may be strong enough to dominate calculated structural responses distorting or even falsifying them completely. In this paper, certain computational aspects of structural periodicity of 1D FE discrete models are discussed by the authors. In this discussion, the authors focus their attention on an exemplary problem of 1D rod modelled according to the elementary theory.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF COUPLED 1D-2D MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR TIDAL RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zu-xin; YIN Hai-long

    2004-01-01

    Some coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic and water quality models depicting tidal water bodies with complex topography were presented. For the coupled models, finite element method was used to solve the governing equations so as to study tidal rivers with complex topography. Since the 1D and 2D models were coupled, the principle of model coupling was proposed to account appropriately for the factors of water level, flow and pollutant flux and the related dynamical behavior was simulated. Specifically the models were used to probe quantitative pollution contribution of receiving water from neighboring Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces to the pollution in the Huangpu River passing through Shanghai City. Numerical examples indicated that the developed coupled 1D-2D models are applicable in tidal river network region of Shanghai.

  3. 3+1D Massless Weyl Spinors from Bosonic Scalar-Tensor Duality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amoretti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the fermionization of a bosonic-free theory characterized by the 3+1D scalar-tensor duality. This duality can be interpreted as the dimensional reduction, via a planar boundary, of the 4+1D topological BF theory. In this model, adopting the Sommerfield tomographic representation of quantized bosonic fields, we explicitly build a fermionic operator and its associated Klein factor such that it satisfies the correct anticommutation relations. Interestingly, we demonstrate that this operator satisfies the massless Dirac equation and that it can be identified with a 3+1D Weyl spinor. Finally, as an explicit example, we write the integrated charge density in terms of the tomographic transformed bosonic degrees of freedom.

  4. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. An improved 1D area law for frustration-free systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arad, Itai; Vazirani, Umesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a new proof for the 1D area law for frustration-free systems with a constant gap, which exponentially improves the entropy bound in Hastings' 1D area law, and which is tight to within a polynomial factor. For particles of dimension $d$, spectral gap $\\epsilon>0$ and interaction strength of at most $J$, our entropy bound is $S_{1D}\\le \\orderof{1}X^3\\log^8 X$ where $X\\EqDef(J\\log d)/\\epsilon$. Our proof is completely combinatorial, combining the detectability lemma with basic tools from approximation theory. Incorporating locality into the proof when applied to the 2D case gives an entanglement bound that is at the cusp of being non-trivial in the sense that any further improvement would yield a sub-volume law.

  6. Microstates of D1-D5(-P) black holes as interacting D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    In our previous study [1] (1311.6540), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black $p$-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary $p$-branes (the $p$-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1-D5 and D1-D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black $p$-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the $p$-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1-D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  7. Microstates of D1-D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1-D5 and D1-D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1-D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  8. REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING METHOD WITH 1-D UNSTEADY FLOW MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jin-bin; ZHANG Xiao-feng

    2007-01-01

    A real-time forecasting method coupled with the 1-D unsteady flow model with the recursive least-square method was developed. The 1-D unsteady flow model was modified by using the time-variant parameter and revising it dynamically through introducing a variable weighted forgetting factor, such that the output of the model could be adjusted for the real time forecasting of floods. The application of the new real time forecasting model in the reach from Yichang to Luoshan of the Yangtze River was demonstrated. Computational result shows that the forecasting accuracy of the new model is much higher than that of the original 1-D unsteady flow model. The method developed is effective for flood forecasting, and can be used for practical operation in the flood forecasting.

  9. New multi-camera calibration algorithm based on 1D objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-jian ZHAO; Yun-cai LIU

    2008-01-01

    A new calibration algorithm for multi-camera systems using 1D calibration objects is proposed. The algorithm integrates the rank-4 factorization with Zhang (2004)'s method. The intrinsic parameters as well as the extrinsic parameters are recovered by capturing with cameras the 1D object's rotations around a fixed point. The algorithm is based on factorization of the scaled measurement matrix, the projective depth of which is estimated in an analytical equation instead of a recursive form. For more than three points on a 1D object, the approach of our algorithm is to extend the scaled measurement matrix. The obtained parameters are finally refined through the maximum likelihood inference. Simulations and experiments with real images verify that the proposed technique achieves a good trade-off between the intrinsic and extrinsic camera parameters.

  10. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  11. Solution to 1-D consolidation of non-homogeneous soft clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Kang-he; WEN Jie-bang; XIA Jian-zhong

    2005-01-01

    In this work, semi-analytical methods were used to solve the problem of 1-D consolidation of non-homogeneous soft clay with spatially varying coefficients of permeability and compressibility. The semi-analytical solution was programmed and then verified by comparison with the obtained analytical solution of a special case. Based on the results of some computations and comparisons with the 1-D homogeneous consolidation (by Terzaghi) and the 1-D non-linear consolidation theory (by Davis et al.)of soft clay, some diagrams were prepared and the relevant consolidation behavior of non-homogeneous soils is discussed. It was shown that the result obtained differs greatly from Terzaghi's theory and that of the non-linear consolidation theory when the coefficients of permeability and compressibility vary greatly.

  12. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  13. Characterisation and improvement of j(O1D) filter radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Birger; Heard, Dwayne E.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Schmitt, Rainer; Whalley, Lisa K.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric O3 → O(1D) photolysis frequencies j(O1D) are crucial parameters for atmospheric photochemistry because of their importance for primary OH formation. Filter radiometers have been used for many years for in situ field measurements of j(O1D). Typically the relationship between the output of the instruments and j(O1D) is non-linear because of changes in the shape of the solar spectrum dependent on solar zenith angles and total ozone columns. These non-linearities can be compensated for by a correction method based on laboratory measurements of the spectral sensitivity of the filter radiometer and simulated solar actinic flux density spectra. Although this correction is routinely applied, the results of a previous field comparison study of several filter radiometers revealed that some corrections were inadequate. In this work the spectral characterisations of seven instruments were revised, and the correction procedures were updated and harmonised considering recent recommendations of absorption cross sections and quantum yields of the photolysis process O3 → O(1D). Previous inconsistencies were largely removed using these procedures. In addition, optical interference filters were replaced to improve the spectral properties of the instruments. Successive determinations of spectral sensitivities and field comparisons of the modified instruments with a spectroradiometer reference confirmed the improved performance. Overall, filter radiometers remain a low-maintenance alternative of spectroradiometers for accurate measurements of j(O1D) provided their spectral properties are known and potential drifts in sensitivities are monitored by regular calibrations with standard lamps or reference instruments.

  14. Modelling turbulent vertical mixing sensitivity using a 1-D version of NEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Reffray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Through two numerical experiments, a 1-D vertical model called NEMO1D was used to investigate physical and numerical turbulent-mixing behaviour. The results show that all the turbulent closures tested (k + l from Blanke and Delecluse, 1993 and two equation models: Generic Lengh Scale closures from Umlauf and Burchard, 2003 are able to correctly reproduce the classical test of Kato and Phillips (1969 under favourable numerical conditions while some solutions may diverge depending on the degradation of the spatial and time discretization. The performances of turbulence models were then compared with data measured over a one-year period (mid-2010 to mid-2011 at the PAPA station, located in the North Pacific Ocean. The modelled temperature and salinity were in good agreement with the observations, with a maximum temperature error between −2 and 2 °C during the stratified period (June to October. However the results also depend on the numerical conditions. The vertical RMSE varied, for different turbulent closures, from 0.1 to 0.3 °C during the stratified period and from 0.03 to 0.15 °C during the homogeneous period. This 1-D configuration at the PAPA station (called PAPA1D is now available in NEMO as a reference configuration including the input files and atmospheric forcing set described in this paper. Thus, all the results described can be recovered by downloading and launching PAPA1D. The configuration is described on the NEMO site (http://www.nemo-ocean.eu/Using-NEMO/Configurations/C1D_PAPA. This package is a good starting point for further investigation of vertical processes.

  15. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  16. P systems with array objects and array rewriting rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.G. Subramanian; R. Saravanan; M. Geethalakshmi; P. Helen Chandra; M. Margenstern

    2007-01-01

    Array P systems were introduced by Pǎun Gh. which is linking the two areas of membrane computing and picture grammars. Puzzle grammars were introduced by us for generating connected picture arrays in the two-dimensional plane, motivated by the problem of tiling the plane. On the other hand, incorporating into arrays the developmental type of generation used in the well-known biologically motivated L systems, Siromoney and Siromoney proposed a very general rectangular array generating model, called extended controlled tabled L array system (ECTLAS). In this paper we introduce two variations of the array P system, called BPG array P system and parallel array P system. The former has in the regions array objects and basic puzzle grammar rules (BPG), which are a specific kind of puzzle grammar rules. In the latter, the regions have rectangular array objects and tables of context-free rules. We examine these two types of P systems for their array generative power.

  17. Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Raymond H. [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morrison, Stan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Morris, Sarah [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Tigar, Aaron [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc.; Dam, William [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Dayvault, Jalena [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management

    2016-04-26

    Motivation for Study: Natural flushing of contaminants at various U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites is not proceeding as quickly as predicted (plume persistence) Objectives: Help determine natural flushing rates using column tests. Use 1D reactive transport modeling to better understand the major processes that are creating plume persistence Approach: Core samples from under a former mill tailings area Tailings have been removed. Column leaching using lab-prepared water similar to nearby Gunnison River water. 1D reactive transport modeling to evaluate processes

  18. Synthesis and characterization of 1D iron(II) spin crossover coordination polymers with hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Lochenie, Charles; Weber, Birgit

    2014-02-07

    Purposeful ligand design was used for the synthesis of eight new 1D iron(II) spin crossover coordination polymers aiming for cooperative spin transitions with hysteresis. The results from magnetic measurements and X-ray structure analysis show that the combination of rigid linkers and a hydrogen bond network between the 1D chains is a promising tool to reach this goal. Five of the eight new samples show a cooperative spin transition with hysteresis with up to 43 K wide hysteresis loops.

  19. Statistics of Eigenfunctions in 1D Tight Binding Model: Distribution of Riccati Variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Ge

    2001-01-01

    For energy eigenfunctions in 1D tight binding model, the distribution of ratios of the nearest components (Riccati variable), denoted by f(p), gives information on their fluctuation properties. The shape of f(p) is studied numerically for three versions of the 1D tight binding model. It is shown that when perturbation is strong the shape of f(p) is usually quite close to that of the Lorentzian distribution and in the case of weak perturbation the shape of the central part of f(p) is model-dependent while the shape of tails are still close to the Lorentzian form.``

  20. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer signaling pathway in the brain: emerging physiological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbi Ahmed

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine is an important catecholamine neurotransmitter modulating many physiological functions, and is linked to psychopathology of many diseases such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are the most abundant dopaminergic receptors in the striatum, and although a clear segregation between the pathways expressing these two receptors has been reported in certain subregions, the presence of D1-D2 receptor heteromers within a unique subset of neurons, forming a novel signaling transducing functional entity has been shown. Recently, significant progress has been made in elucidating the signaling pathways activated by the D1-D2 receptor heteromer and their potential physiological relevance.

  1. Using the D1D5 CFT to Understand Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Avery, Steven

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, we review work presented in arXiv:0906.2015, arXiv:0907.1663, arXiv:1002.3132, arXiv:1003.2746, and arXiv:1007.2202 on the D1D5 system. We begin with some motivational material for black holes in string theory. In Chapter 2, we review the D1D5 system, including the gravity and CFT descriptions. In Chapter 3, we show how to perturbatively relax the decoupling limit in a general AdS-CFT setting. This allows one to compute the emission out of the AdS/CFT into the asymptotic...

  2. Opto-digital image encryption by using Baker mapping and 1-D fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Li, She; Liu, Wei; Liu, Shutian

    2013-03-01

    We present an optical encryption method based on the Baker mapping in one-dimensional fractional Fourier transform (1D FrFT) domains. A thin cylinder lens is controlled by computer for implementing 1D FrFT at horizontal direction or vertical direction. The Baker mapping is introduced to scramble the amplitude distribution of complex function. The amplitude and phase of the output of encryption system are regarded as encrypted image and key. Numerical simulation has been performed for testing the validity of this encryption scheme.

  3. File list: Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Nr1d2 All cell types SRX109462,SRX12817...4,SRX128175 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.ALL.10.Nr1d2.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.ALL.05.Nr1d1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Nr1d1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Oth.ALL.50.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: Oth.ALL.20.Nr1d2.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Simulation of engine cooling with coupled 1D and 3D flow computation; Simulation der Motorkuehlung mit Hilfe gekoppelter 1D- und 3D-Stroemungsberechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafenberger, P.; Klinner, P.; Nefischer, P. [BMW Motoren GmbH, Steyr (Austria); Klingebiel, F. [AMSTRAL Engineering fuer Stroemungsmechanik GmbH, Idstein (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    Shorting the development time for new engines and vehicles is leading to the increasing use of computational design and simulation methods in the automotive industry. For several years now, both one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow computation have been used successfully in the development of cooling systems. However, the fact that less hardware is used in the early development stages makes new demands on the quality and quantity of these simulation results. BMW's diesel development division has been able to improve the quality of the results and to reduce the processing time by improving the model quality and by coupling existing 1D and 3D computational fluid dynamic programmes. (orig.) [German] Die Verkuerzung der Entwicklungszeit neuer Motoren und Automobile fuehrt zu einem verstaerkten Einsatz von rechnergestuetzten Konstruktions- und Simulationsmethoden in der Fahrzeugindustrie. Sowohl eindimensionale als auch dreidimensionale Stroemungsberechnungen werden seit Jahren erfolgreich bei der Entwicklung von Kuehlsystemen eingesetzt. Der Entfall von Hardware-Baugruppen in der fruehen Entwicklungsphase stellt jedoch neue Anforderungen an die Qualitaet und Quantitaet dieser Simulationsergebnisse. Durch Verbesserung der Modellqualitaet und durch Kopplung vorhandener 1D- und 3D-Stroemungsberechnungsprogramme konnten in der Dieselmotorenentwicklung von BMW die Qualitaet der Ergebnisse und die Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit deutlich gesteigert werden. (orig.)

  9. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  10. Thin film encapsulated 1D thermoelectric detector in an IR microspectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R F

    2010-01-01

    A thermopile-based detector array for use in a miniaturized Infrared (IR) spectrometer has been designed and fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The emphasis is on the optimal of the detector array at the system level, while considering the thermal design, the dimensional constraints of a design on a chip and the CMOS compatibility. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the Thermo-Electric (TE) elements at an as narrow as possible pitch, which is limited by processing cons...

  11. Dynamics of the 1D Heisenberg model and optical absorption of spinons in cuprate antiferromagnetic chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzana, J.; Eder, R.

    1996-01-01

    Published in: Phys. Rev. B 55 (1997) 3358-3361 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We use numerical and analytical results to construct a simple ansatz for the energy dynamical correlation function of the 1D antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. This is

  12. Fresnel Lenses fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining on Polymer 1D Photonic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guduru Surya S.K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of micro Fresnel lenses by femtosecond laser surface ablation on polymer 1D photonic crystals. This device is designed to focus the transmitted wavelength of the photonic crystal and filter the wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap region. Integration of such devices in a wavelength selective light harvesting and filtering microchip can be achieved.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1D5IH-3FZUH [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ntryIDChain> CKATG--YTFSS >EEEE -- GGG> 3FZU H 3FZUH CAASGFRFTFNN ...>EEEE GGGure> ATOM 1790 CA CYS H 22 34.95...SW >EEEE ---- > ATOM 2413 CA ALA...pdbChain> 1D5IH ARGHSYYFYDGDYW >EE

  14. Classical solution to 1D viscous polytropic perfect fluids with constant diffusion coefficients and vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhilei; Wu, Shanqiu

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the initial boundary value problem for one-dimensional (1D) viscous, compressible and heat conducting fluids. We establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions, with large data and possible vacuum at initial time. Our approach is based on the Calderón-Zygmund decomposition technique and allows that the viscosity and heat conductivity are both constant.

  15. Experimental Conditions: SE19_S2_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SE19_S2_M1_D1 SE19 Grobal triacylglycerol analysis in mouse liver and white adipose... tissue (WAT) by high resolution LC/ESI-QTOF MS/MS SE19_S2 Mouse white adipose tissue (WAT) SE19_S2_M1 20 ug

  16. Plasma as a tool for growth of 1D and 2D nanomaterials and their conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvelbar, Uros

    2015-09-01

    The growth of 1D and 2D nanostructures in low pressure oxygen plasma is presented with the special stress on metal-oxide nanowires and their deterministic growth mechanisms. Since the resulting nanostructures not always have required properties for applications their modifications are required. Therefore their conversions into different oxides or sulphites/nitrides are required with either molecules, atoms, electrons or photons.

  17. (3+1)D Anomalous Twisted Gauge Theories with Global Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In (3+1)D twisted gauge theories, global symmetry may be imposed on topological currents $\\star\\frac{1}{2\\pi}db^I$ in a hydrodynamical way ($I=1,2,\\cdots$, $\\{b^I\\}$ is a set of Kalb-Ramond gauge fields). This methodology has been applied before in the Chern-Simons theory of fractional quantum Hall liquids. We find that, in some twisted gauge theories (with discrete Abelian gauge group $G_g$), implementing a global symmetry (denoted by $G_s$) is always inconsistent. There are two consequences. First, the symmetry-enriched topological order (SET) of the ground state is anomalous, which cannot exist in (3+1)D system alone. It can exist as a boundary of 4+1D topological phases. Second, if $G_s$ is fully gauged, the resulting new gauge theory has gauge anomaly. A (4+1)D topological phase is required to cancel this anomaly. We elaborate this phenomenon via a concrete example.

  18. GLOBAL EXISTENCE AND ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR OF THE SOLUTION TO 1-D ENERGY TRANSPORT MODEL FOR SEMICONDUCTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎勇; 陈丽

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of global smooth solution to the initial boundary problem for the 1-D energy transport model in semiconductor science. We prove that the smooth solution of the problem converges to a stationary solution exponentially fast as t - ∞ when the initial data is a small perturbation of the stationary solution.

  19. On time-reversal anomaly of 2+1d topological phases

    CERN Document Server

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We describe a method to find the anomaly of the time-reversal symmetry of 2+1d topological quantum field theories, by computing the fractional anomalous momentum on the cross-cap background. This allows us, for example, to identify the parameter $\

  20. Probing the dispersion properties of 1D nanophotonic waveguides with far-field Fourier optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thomas, N.; Jágerská, J.; Houdré, R.;

    2008-01-01

    We present an advanced Fourier space imaging technique to probe guided light in nanophotonic structures with an effective numerical aperture of 2.5. This superresolution technique allows us to successfully investigate the dispersive properties of 1D nanowaveguides such as photonic crystal W1 wave...

  1. CAMK1D amplification implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Kim, Young H; Kwei, Kevin A; La Choi, Yoon; Bocanegra, Melanie; Langerød, Anita; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Huntsman, David G; Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer exhibits clinical and molecular heterogeneity, where expression profiling studies have identified five major molecular subtypes. The basal-like subtype, expressing basal epithelial markers and negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, is associated with higher overall levels of DNA copy number alteration (CNA), specific CNAs (like gain on chromosome 10p), and poor prognosis. Discovering the molecular genetic basis of tumor subtypes may provide new opportunities for therapy. To identify the driver oncogene on 10p associated with basal-like tumors, we analyzed genomic profiles of 172 breast carcinomas. The smallest shared region of gain spanned just seven genes at 10p13, including calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID (CAMK1D), functioning in intracellular signaling but not previously linked to cancer. By microarray, CAMK1D was overexpressed when amplified, and by immunohistochemistry exhibited elevated expression in invasive carcinomas compared to carcinoma in situ. Engineered overexpression of CAMK1D in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells led to increased cell proliferation, and molecular and phenotypic alterations indicative of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including loss of cell-cell adhesions and increased cell migration and invasion. Our findings identify CAMK1D as a novel amplified oncogene linked to EMT in breast cancer, and as a potential therapeutic target with particular relevance to clinically unfavorable basal-like tumors.

  2. Build up An Operational Flood Simulation from Existing 1D Channel Flow Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Lien, Ho-Cheng; Shen, Jhih-Cyuan; Chung, Ming-Ko

    2016-04-01

    Several 2D flood simulations will be developed for urban area in recent years in Taiwan. Original ideas focus on the static flood maps produced by the 2D flood simulation with respect to design events, which could be useful no matter for planning or disaster awareness. However, an extra bonus is expected to see if we can reuse the 2D flood simulation framework for operational use or not. Such a project goal inspire us to setup a standard operation procedure before any progress from existing 1D channel flow works. 3 key issues are taken into account in the SOP: 1. High Resolution Terrain: A 1m resolution digital terrain model (DTM) is considered as a reference. The Channels and structures should be setup in 1D channel flow works if we can identify under such high resolution. One should examine the existing 1D channel flow works consistent with the DTM or not. 2. Meteo Stations Referenced: Real time precipitation would be send to referenced location in RR models during an operational forecast. Existing 1D channels flow works are usually specifically for design events which are not necessarily equipped with such references. 3. Time Consuming: A full scale 2D flood simulation needs a lot of computation resources. A solution should be derived within practical time limits. Under the above consideration, some impacts and procedures will be analyzed and developed to setup the SOP for further model modification.

  3. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  4. Solvent-free porous framework resulted from 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymer

    KAUST Repository

    Kole, Goutam Kumar Umar

    2010-01-01

    A solvent-free porous metal organic framework is constructed by the 3D entanglement of 1D zigzag coordination polymeric chains. The role of solvents and the effect of reaction conditions on such unique entanglement are addressed. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1BU1D-1OOTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1BU1D-1OOTA 1BU1 1OOT D A -IIVVALYDYEAIHHEDLSFQKGDQMVVLEESGE---WW...14> 1OOT A 1OOTA...tryChain> -21.645000457763672 -6.38100004196167 51.89799880981445 ...76022339 -0.7429999709129333 -0.09000000357627869 tion> 1.78559505939483641OOT A 1OOTA WTGRV--NGREG

  6. Nonlinear Control of Absorption in Graphene-based 1D Photonic Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Vincenti, M A; Grande, M; D'Orazio, A; Scalora, M

    2013-01-01

    Perfect, narrow-band absorption is achieved in an asymmetric 1D photonic crystal with a monolayer graphene defect. Thanks to the large third order nonlinearity of graphene and field localization in the defect layer we demonstrate the possibility to achieve controllable, saturable absorption for the pump frequency.

  7. CD1d-restricted peripheral T cell lymphoma in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Emmanuel; Urb, Mirjam; Chandra, Shilpi; Robinot, Rémy; Bricard, Gabriel; de Bernard, Simon; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Gazzo, Sophie; Blond, Olivier; Khurana, Archana; Baseggio, Lucile; Heavican, Tayla; Ffrench, Martine; Crispatzu, Giuliano; Mondière, Paul; Schrader, Alexandra; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Martin, Nadine; Dalle, Stéphane; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Salles, Gilles; Lachuer, Joel; Hermine, Olivier; Asnafi, Vahid; Roussel, Mikael; Lamy, Thierry; Herling, Marco; Iqbal, Javeed; Buffat, Laurent; Marche, Patrice N.; Gaulard, Philippe; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous entity of neoplasms with poor prognosis, lack of effective therapies, and a largely unknown pathophysiology. Identifying the mechanism of lymphomagenesis and cell-of-origin from which PTCLs arise is crucial for the development of efficient treatment strategies. In addition to the well-described thymic lymphomas, we found that p53-deficient mice also developed mature PTCLs that did not originate from conventional T cells but from CD1d-restricted NKT cells. PTCLs showed phenotypic features of activated NKT cells, such as PD-1 up-regulation and loss of NK1.1 expression. Injections of heat-killed Streptococcus pneumonia, known to express glycolipid antigens activating NKT cells, increased the incidence of these PTCLs, whereas Escherichia coli injection did not. Gene expression profile analyses indicated a significant down-regulation of genes in the TCR signaling pathway in PTCL, a common feature of chronically activated T cells. Targeting TCR signaling pathway in lymphoma cells, either with cyclosporine A or anti-CD1d blocking antibody, prolonged mice survival. Importantly, we identified human CD1d-restricted lymphoma cells within Vδ1 TCR-expressing PTCL. These results define a new subtype of PTCL and pave the way for the development of blocking anti-CD1d antibody for therapeutic purposes in humans. PMID:27069116

  8. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Guido F; Niemitz, Matthias; Bisson, Jonathan; Lodewyk, Michael W; Soldi, Cristian; Shaw, Jared T; Tantillo, Dean J; Saya, Jordy M; Vos, Klaas; Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Hiemstra, Henk; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Friesen, J Brent

    2016-02-05

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of "structural correctness" depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D (1)H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D (1)H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D (1)H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication.

  9. Models of Late-Type Disk Galaxies: 1-D Versus 2-D

    CERN Document Server

    Mineikis, Tadas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of stochasticity on the observed galaxy parameters by comparing our stochastic star formation two-dimensional (2-D) galaxy evolution models with the commonly used one-dimensional (1-D) models with smooth star formation. The 2-D stochastic models predict high variability of the star formation rate and the surface photometric parameters across the galactic disks and in time.

  10. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Sing, M.;

    2002-01-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap...

  11. Phase structure of (2+1)d strongly coupled lattice gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Strouthos, C G

    2003-01-01

    We study the chiral phase transition in (2+1)d strongly coupled U(N) lattice gauge theories with staggered fermions. We show with high precision simulations performed directly in the chiral limit that these models undergo a Berezinski-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We also show that this universality class is unaffected even in the large N limit.

  12. Influence of lipid rafts on CD1d presentation by dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Wei; Martaresche, Cecile; Escande-Beillard, Nathalie;

    2011-01-01

    Our main objective was to analyze the role of lipid rafts in the activation of Valpha-14(-) and Valpha-14(+) T hybridomas by dendritic cells. We showed that activation of Valpha-14(+) hybridomas by dendritic cells or other CD1d-expressing cells was altered by disruption of lipid rafts...

  13. Stabilization and shape control of a 1D piezoelectric Timoshenko beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, T.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show how to perform stabilization and shape control for a finite dimensional model that recasts the dynamics of an inflatable space reflector in port-Hamiltonian (pH) form. We show how to derive a decentralized passivity-based controller which can be used to stabilize a 1D piezoelec

  14. A new EEG measure using the 1D cluster variation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maren, Alianna J.; Szu, Harold H.

    2015-05-01

    A new information measure, drawing on the 1-D Cluster Variation Method (CVM), describes local pattern distributions (nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor) in a binary 1-D vector in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter h for the specific case where the fractions of elements in each of two states are the same (x1=x2=0.5). An example application of this method would be for EEG interpretation in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), especially in the frontier of invariant biometrics based on distinctive and invariant individual responses to stimuli containing an image of a person with whom there is a strong affiliative response (e.g., to a person's grandmother). This measure is obtained by mapping EEG observed configuration variables (z1, z2, z3 for next-nearest neighbor triplets) to h using the analytic function giving h in terms of these variables at equilibrium. This mapping results in a small phase space region of resulting h values, which characterizes local pattern distributions in the source data. The 1-D vector with equal fractions of units in each of the two states can be obtained using the method for transforming natural images into a binarized equi-probability ensemble (Saremi & Sejnowski, 2014; Stephens et al., 2013). An intrinsically 2-D data configuration can be mapped to 1-D using the 1-D Peano-Hilbert space-filling curve, which has demonstrated a 20 dB lower baseline using the method compared with other approaches (cf. SPIE ICA etc. by Hsu & Szu, 2014). This CVM-based method has multiple potential applications; one near-term one is optimizing classification of the EEG signals from a COTS 1-D BCI baseball hat. This can result in a convenient 3-D lab-tethered EEG, configured in a 1-D CVM equiprobable binary vector, and potentially useful for Smartphone wireless display. Longer-range applications include interpreting neural assembly activations via high-density implanted soft, cellular-scale electrodes.

  15. Simulation of transient dynamic behavior in laterally coupled VCSEL arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyopoulos, Spilios

    2002-06-01

    A novel, fast simulation tool for transient response is developed to study jitter and noise caused by lateral cavity interactions in VCSEL arrays. The cavity mode profiles, obtained from a paraxial eigenmode analysis, are used to derive fast 1-D rate equations that implement gain confinement, edge clipping, wide angle scattering and diffraction (self-interference) losses. These equations are augmented by lateral coupling terms describing the interactions among nearest neighbor cavities. Slow time scale coupling describes interactions of phase-shifted cavities via mutually induced electric polarization, cross-hole burning and cross-cavity gain due to optical fringe-field interactions. The tool is used to study cavity cross-talk, lateral bit pattern error effects, and the possibility of excitation of long range modulations over the array. Conclusions relating VCSEL packing density to BER, bit suppression by neighboring cavities, and array phase locking are given.

  16. Role of α1D -adrenoceptors in vascular wall hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Rodríguez-Hernández, S N; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; López-Sánchez, P; Touyz, R M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2015-09-01

    The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses. Angiotensin II increased systolic blood pressure. Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta was greater (40% higher) in Ang II-treated rats than in the controls, and similar effect occurred with KCl 80 mm. Responses in tail arteries were not significantly different among the different groups. Angiotensin II decreased α1D -ARs without modifying the other α1 -ARs and induced an increase in media thickness (hypertrophy) in aorta, while no structural change occurred in tail artery. Losartan prevented and reversed hypertension and hypertrophy, while BMY 7378 prevented and reversed the aorta's hypertrophic response, without preventing or reversing hypertension. Findings indicate that Ang II-induced aortic hypertrophic response involves Ang II-AT1 Rs and α1D -ARs. Angiotensin II-induced α1D -AR-mediated vascular remodeling occurs independently of hypertension. Findings identify a α1D -AR-mediated process whereby Ang II influences aortic hypertrophy independently of blood pressure elevation.

  17. Improvement of the 2D/1D Method in MPACT Using the Sub-Plane Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Aaron M [ORNL; Collins, Benjamin S [ORNL; Downar, Thomas [University of Michigan

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan are jointly developing the MPACTcode to be the primary neutron transport code for the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA). To solve the transport equation, MPACT uses the 2D/1D method, which decomposes the problem into a stack of 2D planes that are then coupled with a 1D axial calculation. MPACT uses the Method of Characteristics for the 2D transport calculations and P3 for the 1D axial calculations, then accelerates the solution using the 3D Coarse mesh Finite Dierence (CMFD) method. Increasing the number of 2D MOC planes will increase the accuracy of the alculation, but will increase the computational burden of the calculations and can cause slow convergence or instability. To prevent these problems while maintaining accuracy, the sub-plane scheme has been implemented in MPACT. This method sub-divides the MOC planes into sub-planes, refining the 1D P3 and 3D CMFD calculations without increasing the number of 2D MOC planes. To test the sub-plane scheme, three of the VERA Progression Problems were selected: Problem 3, a single assembly problem; Problem 4, a 3x3 assembly problem with control rods and pyrex burnable poisons; and Problem 5, a quarter core problem. These three problems demonstrated that the sub-plane scheme can accurately produce intra-plane axial flux profiles that preserve the accuracy of the fine mesh solution. The eigenvalue dierences are negligibly small, and dierences in 3D power distributions are less than 0.1% for realistic axial meshes. Furthermore, the convergence behavior with the sub-plane scheme compares favorably with the conventional 2D/1D method, and the computational expense is decreased for all calculations due to the reduction in expensive MOC calculations.

  18. 1D Ladder-like Chain and 1D Channeled 3D Supramolecular Architectures Based on Benzophenone-2,4'-dicarboxylic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Gang; LI Dong-Sheng; FU Feng; WU Ya-Pan; WANG Ji-Jiang; WANG Yao-Yu

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of AgNO3, 2,2'-bipyridyl, and benzophenone-2,4'-dicarboxylic acid gave rise to two benzophenone-2,4'-dicarboxylic acid). The two compounds are extended by hydrogen bonds in two different apbonding between H2L ligands and water molecules, then extended to a 3D supramolecular architecture. Compound 2 possesses 3D supramolecular architecture containing 1D open channels, which are driven due to the strong H-bonding interactions occurring between the HL anions and water molecules; interestingly, [Ag(bpy)2]+ cations vestigated, the emission maxima for 2 exhibits red-shift compared with that of free ligand and 1 due to chelating effect of the 2,2'-bipyridine ligand to the silver ion and the presence of aromatic π-packing.

  19. Engineered Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of a "Treelike" 1D/1D TiO2 Nanotube-CdSe Nanowire Heterostructure: Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Broad Spectrum of Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bratindranath; Sarker, Swagotom; Crone, Eric; Pathak, Pawan; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan R

    2016-12-07

    This work presents a hitherto unreported approach to assemble a 1D oxide-1D chalcogenide heterostructured photoactive film. As a representative system, bismuth (Bi) catalyzed 1D CdSe nanowires are directly grown on anodized 1D TiO2 nanotube (T_NT). A combination of the reductive successive-ionic-layer-adsorption-reaction (R-SILAR) and the solution-liquid-solid (S-L-S) approach is implemented to fabricate this heterostructured assembly, reported in this 1D/1D form for the first time. XRD, SEM, HRTEM, and elemental mapping are performed to systematically characterize the deposition of bismuth on T_NT and the growth of CdSe nanowires leading to the evolution of the 1D/1D heterostructure. The resulting "treelike" photoactive architecture demonstrates UV-visible light-driven electron-hole pair generation. The photoelectrochemical results highlight: (i) the formation of a stable n-n heterojunction between TiO2 nanotube and CdSe nanowire, (ii) an excellent correlation between the absorbance vis-à-vis light conversion efficiency (IPCE), and (iii) a photocurrent density of 3.84 mA/cm(2). This proof-of-concept features the viability of the approach for designing such complex 1D/1D oxide-chalcogenide heterostructures that can be of interest to photovoltaics, photocatalysis, environmental remediation, and sensing.

  20. A mobile ferromagnetic shape detection sensor using a Hall sensor array and magnetic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misron, Norhisam; Shin, Ng Wei; Shafie, Suhaidi; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce; Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mobile Hall sensor array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the mobile Hall sensor array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of mobile Hall sensor array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the mobile Hall sensor array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.

  1. A Mobile Ferromagnetic Shape Detection Sensor Using a Hall Sensor Array and Magnetic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nashiren Farzilah Mailah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials.

  2. A Mobile Ferromagnetic Shape Detection Sensor Using a Hall Sensor Array and Magnetic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misron, Norhisam; Shin, Ng Wei; Shafie, Suhaidi; Marhaban, Mohd Hamiruce; Mailah, Nashiren Farzilah

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for the shape detection of ferromagnetic materials that are embedded in walls or floors. The operation of the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage to describe the shape of the ferromagnetic material. Two permanent magnets are used to generate the magnetic flux flow. The distribution of magnetic flux is perturbed as the ferromagnetic material is brought near the permanent magnets and the changes in magnetic flux distribution are detected by the 1-D array of the Hall sensor array setup. The process for magnetic imaging of the magnetic flux distribution is done by a signal processing unit before it displays the real time images using a netbook. A signal processing application software is developed for the 1-D Hall sensor array signal acquisition and processing to construct a 2-D array matrix. The processed 1-D Hall sensor array signals are later used to construct the magnetic image of ferromagnetic material based on the voltage signal and the magnetic flux distribution. The experimental results illustrate how the shape of specimens such as square, round and triangle shapes is determined through magnetic images based on the voltage signal and magnetic flux distribution of the specimen. In addition, the magnetic images of actual ferromagnetic objects are also illustrated to prove the functionality of Mobile Hall Sensor Array system for actual shape detection. The results prove that the Mobile Hall Sensor Array system is able to perform magnetic imaging in identifying various ferromagnetic materials. PMID:22346653

  3. Evaporating metal nanocrystal arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James C.; Zhao, Chenwei; Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James M., Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) substrates with a self-ordered triangular array of nanopores provide the means to fabricate multiple forms of nano materials, such as nanowires and nanoparticles. This study focuses on nanostructures that emerge in thin films of metals thermally evaporated onto the surface of AAO. Previous work showed that films of different evaporated metals assume dramatically different structures, e.g. an ordered triangular array of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles forms for lead (Pb) while a polycrystalline nanohoneycomb structure forms for silver (Ag). Here, we present investigations of the effects of substrate temperature and deposition angle that reveal the processes controlling the nano particle array formation. Our findings indicate that arrays form provided the grain nucleation density exceeds the pore density and the atomic mobility is high enough to promote grain coalescence. They introduce a method for producing films with anisotropic grain array structure. The results provide insight into the influence of substrate nano-morphology on thin film growth energetics and kinetics that can be harnessed for creating films with other novel nano-structures.

  4. Chemically grown vertically aligned 1D ZnO nanorods with CdS coating for efficient quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSC): a controlled synthesis route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Sawanta S; Kim, Hyungjin; Patil, Pramod S; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-12-28

    In the present article, vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized by an aqueous chemical growth (ACG) route on a fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. These nanorods were further sensitized with cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The synthesized CdS coated ZnO nanorods were characterized for their structural and morphological properties with X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Finally, prepared CdS coated 1D ZnO photoelectrodes were tested for their photoelectrochemical performance. Our results show that the sample deposited after 40 SILAR cycles shows 5.61 mA cm(-2) short current density (JSC) with η = 1.61% power conversion efficiency.

  5. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures.

  6. Wormhole spacetimes, CTCs and chronology protection in a dc-SQUID array

    CERN Document Server

    Sabín, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We present an analog quantum simulator of spacetimes containing traversable wormholes. A suitable spatial dependence in the external bias of a dc-SQUID array mimics the propagation of light in a 1D wormhole background. The impedance of the array places severe limitations on the type of spacetime that we are able to implement. However, we find that wormhole throat radius in the sub-mm range are achievable. We show how to modify this spacetime in order to allow the existence of closed timelike curves. The quantum fluctuations of the phase associated to the finite array impedance might be seen as an analogue of Hawking's chronology protection mechanism.

  7. Quantum simulation of traversable wormhole spacetimes in a dc-SQUID array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabín, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    We present an analog quantum simulator of spacetimes containing traversable wormholes. A suitable spatial dependence in the external bias of a dc-SQUID array mimics the propagation of light in a 1D wormhole background. The impedance of the array places severe limitations on the type of spacetime that we are able to implement. However, we find that a wormhole throat radius in the submillimeter range is achievable. We show how to modify this spacetime in order to allow the existence of closed timelike curves. The quantum fluctuations of the phase associated to the finite array impedance might be seen as an analog of Hawking's chronology-protection mechanism.

  8. Three-Dimensional Synthetic Aperture Focusing Using a Rocking Convex Array Transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Pedersen, Mads Møller;

    2010-01-01

    Volumetric imaging can be performed using 1-D arrays in combination with mechanical motion. Outside the elevation focus of the array, the resolution and contrast quickly degrade compared with the lateral plane, because of the fixed transducer focus. This paper shows the feasibility of using...... synthetic aperture focusing for enhancing the elevation focus for a convex rocking array. The method uses a virtual source (VS) for defocused multi-element transmit, and another VS in the elevation focus point. This allows a direct time-of-flight to be calculated for a given 3-D point. To avoid artifacts...

  9. Targeting PPM1D by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase magnesium/manganese-dependent 1D (PPM1D is a p53-induced phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of stress response pathways and has oncogenic properties. However, the functional role of PPM1D in bladder cancer (BC remains largely unknown. In the present study, lentivirus vectors carrying small hairpin RNA (shRNA targeting PPM1D were used to explore the effects of PPM1D knockdown on BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPM1D significantly inhibited cell growth and colony forming ability in the BC cell lines 5637 and T24. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PPM1D silencing increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of PPM1D also inhibited 5637 cell tumorigenicity in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that PPM1D plays a potentially important role in BC tumorigenicity, and lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against PPM1D might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC.

  10. Targeting PPM1D by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits the tumorigenicity of bladder cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of the Intensive Care Unit, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhu, H. [Department of the Intensive Care Unit, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, H.; Zhang, L. [Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ding, Q.; Jiang, H. [Institute of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-09-23

    Protein phosphatase magnesium/manganese-dependent 1D (PPM1D) is a p53-induced phosphatase that functions as a negative regulator of stress response pathways and has oncogenic properties. However, the functional role of PPM1D in bladder cancer (BC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, lentivirus vectors carrying small hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting PPM1D were used to explore the effects of PPM1D knockdown on BC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PPM1D significantly inhibited cell growth and colony forming ability in the BC cell lines 5637 and T24. Flow cytometric analysis showed that PPM1D silencing increased the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase. Downregulation of PPM1D also inhibited 5637 cell tumorigenicity in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that PPM1D plays a potentially important role in BC tumorigenicity, and lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA against PPM1D might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of BC.

  11. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  12. Bifurcations of families of 1D-tori in 4D symplectic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Franziska; Lange, Steffen; Ketzmerick, Roland; Bäcker, Arnd

    2016-06-01

    The regular structures of a generic 4d symplectic map with a mixed phase space are organized by one-parameter families of elliptic 1d-tori. Such families show prominent bends, gaps, and new branches. We explain these features in terms of bifurcations of the families when crossing a resonance. For these bifurcations, no external parameter has to be varied. Instead, the longitudinal frequency, which varies along the family, plays the role of the bifurcation parameter. As an example, we study two coupled standard maps by visualizing the elliptic and hyperbolic 1d-tori in a 3d phase-space slice, local 2d projections, and frequency space. The observed bifurcations are consistent with the analytical predictions previously obtained for quasi-periodically forced oscillators. Moreover, the new families emerging from such a bifurcation form the skeleton of the corresponding resonance channel.

  13. Magnetic Anticrossing of 1D Subbands in Coupled Ballistic Double Quantum Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLOUNT,MARK A.; MOON,JEONG-SUN; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; LYO,SUNGKWUN K.; WENDT,JOEL R.; RENO,JOHN L.

    2000-07-13

    We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoconductance of vertically coupled double quantum wires. Using a novel flip-chip technique, the wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a s 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure. We observe quantized conductance steps due to each quantum well and demonstrate independent control of each ID wire. A broad dip in the magnetoconductance at -6 T is observed when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to both the current and growth directions. This conductance dip is observed only when 1D subbands are populated in both the top and bottom constrictions. This data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.

  14. A 1D (radial) Plasma Jet Propagation Study for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Welch, D. R.; Thoma, C.; Golovkin, I.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2011-10-01

    The Plasma Liner Experiment will explore the formation of imploding spherical ``plasma liners'' that reach peak pressures of 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation. The liners will be formed through the merging of dense, high velocity plasma jets (n ~1017 cm-3, T ~3 eV, v ~50 km/s) in a spherically convergent geometry. The focus of this 1D (radial) study is argon plasma jet evolution during propagation from the rail gun source to the jet merging radius. The study utilizes the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) PIC code with atomic physics included through the use of a non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) Equation of State (EOS) table. We will present scenarios for expected 1D (radial) plasma jet evolution, from upon exiting the PLX rail gun to reaching the jet merging radius. The importance of radiation cooling early in the simulation is highlighted. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER54835.

  15. Bifurcations of families of 1D-tori in 4D symplectic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Franziska; Lange, Steffen; Ketzmerick, Roland; Bäcker, Arnd

    2016-06-01

    The regular structures of a generic 4d symplectic map with a mixed phase space are organized by one-parameter families of elliptic 1d-tori. Such families show prominent bends, gaps, and new branches. We explain these features in terms of bifurcations of the families when crossing a resonance. For these bifurcations, no external parameter has to be varied. Instead, the longitudinal frequency, which varies along the family, plays the role of the bifurcation parameter. As an example, we study two coupled standard maps by visualizing the elliptic and hyperbolic 1d-tori in a 3d phase-space slice, local 2d projections, and frequency space. The observed bifurcations are consistent with the analytical predictions previously obtained for quasi-periodically forced oscillators. Moreover, the new families emerging from such a bifurcation form the skeleton of the corresponding resonance channel.

  16. Effect of the deformation operator in the D1D5 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Zaq; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2014-01-01

    The D1D5 CFT gives a holographic dual description of a near-extremal black hole in string theory. The interaction in this theory is given by a marginal deformation operator, which is composed of supercharges acting on a twist operator. The twist operator links together different copies of a free CFT. We study the effect of this deformation operator when it links together CFT copies with winding numbers M and N to produce a copy with winding M+N, populated with excitations of a particular form. We compute the effect of the deformation operator in the full supersymmetric theory, firstly on a Ramond-Ramond ground state and secondly on states with an initial bosonic or fermionic excitation. Our results generalize recent work which studied only the bosonic sector of the CFT. Our findings are a step towards understanding thermalization in the D1D5 CFT, which is related to black hole formation and evaporation in the bulk.

  17. Effect of the twist operator in the D1D5 CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Zaq; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2014-01-01

    The D1D5 CFT has been very useful in the study of black holes. The interaction in this theory involves a twist operator, which links together different copies of a free CFT. For the bosonic fields, we examine the action of this twist when it links together CFT copies with winding numbers M and N to produce a copy with winding M+N. Starting with the vacuum state generates a squeezed state, which we compute. Starting with an initial excitation on one of the copies gives a linear combination of excitations on the final state, which we also compute. These results generalize earlier computations where these quantities were computed for the special case M=N=1. Our results should help in understanding the thermalization process in the D1D5 CFT, which gives the dual of black hole formation in the bulk.

  18. Analytical investigations of the magnetotelluric directionality estimation in 1-D anisotropic layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, T.; Oshiman, N.; Yoshimura, R.

    2016-11-01

    Inferring geoelectric dimensionality (1D, 2D or 3D) and directionality (strike directions) from the impedance tensor is a basic procedure in magnetotelluric data processing. Given that electrical anisotropy is increasingly recognized in observations, it is valuable to understand the imprint of anisotropy in these analyses. In this paper, we analytically investigate the estimation of strike directions based on rotational invariants in 1D anisotropic layered media. We first show that if anisotropy axes are identical in all anisotropic layers, the estimated strike coincides with that direction. We then derive an analytical formula of the strike angle at long periods for general anisotropic layers with an isotropic basement. This formula shows a clear physical interpretation that the strike angle points where the conductance integrated along depth takes a maximum value.

  19. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabtaji, Agung; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  20. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed.

  1. Controlling Interface States in 1D Photonic Crystals by tuning Bulk Geometric Phases

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wensheng; Chen, Baojie; Pun, Edwin Y B; Chan, C T; Tam, Wing Yim

    2016-01-01

    Interface states in photonic crystals usually require defects or surface/interface decorations. We show here that one can control interface states in 1D photonic crystals through the engineering of geometrical phase such that interface states can be guaranteed in even or odd, or in all photonic bandgaps. We verify experimentally the designed interface states in 1D multilayered photonic crystals fabricated by electron beam vapor deposition. We also obtain the geometrical phases by measuring the reflection phases at the bandgaps of the PCs and achieve good agreement with the theory. Our approach could provide a platform for the design of using interface states in photonic crystals for nonlinear optic, sensing, and lasing applications

  2. FPGA Implementation of Efficient VLSI Architecture for Fixed Point 1-D DWT Using Lifting Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Sowjanya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a scheme for the design of area efficient and high speed pipeline VLSI architecture for the computation of fixed point 1-d discrete wavelet transform using lifting scheme is proposed. The main focus of the scheme is to reduce the number and period of clock cycles and efficient area with little or no overhead on hardware resources. The fixed point representation requires less hardware resources compared with floating point representation. The pipelining architecture speeds up the clock rate of DWT and reduced bit precision reduces the area required for implementation. The architecture has been coded in verilog HDL on Xilinx platform and the target FPGA device used is Virtex-II Pro family, XC2VP7-7board. The proposed scheme requires the least computing time for fixed point 1-D DWT and achieves theless area for implementation, compared with other architectures. So this architecture is realizable for real time processing of DWT computation applications.

  3. Quantitative Multiscale Analysis using Different Wavelets in 1D Voice Signal and 2D Image

    CERN Document Server

    Shakhakarmi, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    Mutiscale analysis represents multiresolution scrutiny of a signal to improve its signal quality. Multiresolution analysis of 1D voice signal and 2D image is conducted using DCT, FFT and different wavelets such as Haar, Deubachies, Morlet, Cauchy, Shannon, Biorthogonal, Symmlet and Coiflet deploying the cascaded filter banks based decomposition and reconstruction. The outstanding quantitative analysis of the specified wavelets is done to investigate the signal quality, mean square error, entropy and peak-to-peak SNR at multiscale stage-4 for both 1D voice signal and 2D image. In addition, the 2D image compression performance is significantly found 93.00% in DB-4, 93.68% in bior-4.4, 93.18% in Sym-4 and 92.20% in Coif-2 during the multiscale analysis.

  4. Static sign language recognition using 1D descriptors and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, José F.; Toxqui, Carina; Padilla, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2012-10-01

    A frame work for static sign language recognition using descriptors which represents 2D images in 1D data and artificial neural networks is presented in this work. The 1D descriptors were computed by two methods, first one consists in a correlation rotational operator.1 and second is based on contour analysis of hand shape. One of the main problems in sign language recognition is segmentation; most of papers report a special color in gloves or background for hand shape analysis. In order to avoid the use of gloves or special clothing, a thermal imaging camera was used to capture images. Static signs were picked up from 1 to 9 digits of American Sign Language, a multilayer perceptron reached 100% recognition with cross-validation.

  5. Design, implementation and analysis of fully digital 1-D controllable multiscroll chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the fully digital implementation of a 1-D multiscroll chaos generator based on a staircase nonlinearity in the 3rd-order jerk system using the Euler approximation. For the first time, digital design is exploited to provide real-time controllability of (i) number of scrolls, (ii) position in 1-D space, (iii) Euler step size and (iv) system parameter. The effect of variations in these fields on the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is analyzed. The system is implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized on an Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA, exhibiting area utilization less than 3.5% and high performance with experimentally verified throughput up to 3.33 Gbits/s. This fully digital system enables applications in modulation schemes and chaos-based cryptosystems without analog to digital conversion. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Revisiting the D1/D5 system or bubbling in AdS{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Matteo [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Pedro J. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Institut de Fisica d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Edf. Cn, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    In this article we study the relation between the bubbling construction and the Mathur's microscopic solutions for the D1/D5 system. We have found that the regular near horizon D1/D5 system (after appropriated constraints are imposed) contains all the bubbling regular solutions. Then, we show that the features of this system are rather different from the bubbling in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}, since the perimeter and not the area plays a key role. After setting the main dictionary between the two approaches, we investigate on extensions to non-regular solutions like conical defects and/or naked singular solutions. In particular, among the latter metrics, closed time-like curves are found together with a chronology protection mechanism enforced by the AdS/CFT duality.

  7. Riemann-Hadamard method for solving a (2+1)-D problem for degenerate hyperbolic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Aleksey; Popivanov, Nedyu

    2015-11-01

    We consider a (2+1)-D boundary value problem for degenerate hyperbolic equation, which is closely connected with transonic fluid dynamics. This problem was introduced by Protter in 1954 as a multi-dimensional analogue of the Darboux problem in the plain, which is known to be well-posed. However the (2+1)-D problem is overdetermined with infinitely many conditions necessary for its classical solvability and there exist generalized solutions of this problem with strong singularities. Last years we study the exact asymptotic behavior of such singular solutions. We offer a Riemann-Hadamard method for solving the problem instead of the used until now method of successive approximations for solving an equivalent integral equation. As result, we obtain a more convenient representation of the singular solutions giving more precise results in our investigation.

  8. Numerical Methods and Comparisons for 1D and Quasi 2D Streamer Propagation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Mengmin; Guan, Huizhe; Zeng, Rong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we propose four different strategies to simulate the one-dimensional (1D) and quasi two-dimensional (2D) model for streamer propagation. Each strategy involves of one numerical method for solving Poisson's equation and another method for solving continuity equations in the models, and a total variation diminishing three-stage Runge-Kutta method in temporal discretization. The numerical methods for Poisson's equation include finite volume method, discontinuous Galerkin methods, mixed finite element method and least-squared finite element method. The numerical method for continuity equations is chosen from the family of discontinuous Galerkin methods. The accuracy tests and comparisons show that all of these four strategies are suitable and competitive in streamer simulations from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. By applying any strategy in real simulations, we can study the dynamics of streamer propagations and influences due to the change of parameters in both of 1D and quasi 2D models. T...

  9. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  10. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabtaji, Agung, E-mail: sabtaji.agung@gmail.com, E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id [Study Program of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Earth Sciencies and Technology, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Indonesia’s Agency for Meteorological, Climatological and Geophysics Region V, Jayapura 1572 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  11. Complex Langevin Dynamics in 1+1d QCD at Non-Zero Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalzbauer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We present our results obtained from gauge cooled complex Langevin simulations in 1+1d QCD at non-zero densities in the strong coupling regime with unrooted staggered fermions. For small quark masses there are regions of the chemical potential where this method fails to reproduce correct results. In these parameter ranges we studied the effect of different gauge cooling schemes on the distributions of the fermion determinant as well as of observables.

  12. New Scotogenic Model of Neutrino Mass with $U(1)_D$ Gauge Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest; Radovcic, Branimir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new realization of the one-loop radiative model of neutrino mass generated by dark matter (scotogenic), where the particles in the loop have an additional $U(1)_D$ gauge symmetry, which may be exact or broken to $Z_2$. This model is relevant to a number of astrophysical observations, including AMS-02 and the dark matter distribution in dwarf galactic halos.

  13. Scotogenic $Z_2$ or $U(1)_D$ Model of Neutrino Mass with $\\Delta(27)$ Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The scotogenic model of radiative neutrino mass with $Z_2$ or $U(1)_D$ dark matter is shown to accommodate $\\Delta(27)$ symmetry naturally. The resulting neutrino mass matrix is identical to either of two forms, one proposed in 2006, the other in 2008. These two structures are studied in the context of present neutrino data, with predictions of $CP$ violation and neutrinoless double beta decay.

  14. Mentor Graphics在京发布1D-3D CFD解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜莹

    2012-01-01

    7月10日,Mentor Graphics1D-3D CFD解决方案战略发布会在北京举行。作为领先的电子设计自动化技术和MCAE技术的领导厂商,Mentor Graphics Mechanical Analysis部门总经理Erich Buergel分享了最新的产品解决方案。

  15. Two Qubits Entanglement Dynamics in 1D Heisenberg Chain with Intrinsic Decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Bin; ZHANG Li-li; ZOU Jian

    2006-01-01

    To reveal how the decoherence modifies the time evolution of the entanglement of quantum system,the intrinsic decoherence approach and the entanglement of formation are used, and the time evolution of entanglement for two-qubit 1D quantum Heisenberg model in an external uniform magnetic field is derived. It is shown that the external magnetic field can strengthen the effects of the intrinsic decoherence on the entanglement of the system.

  16. 1D-Var temperature retrievals from microwave radiometer and convective scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Martinet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the potential of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR for providing accurate temperature retrievals by combining convective scale numerical models and brightness temperatures (BTs. A one-dimensional variational (1D-Var retrieval technique has been tested to optimally combine MWR and 3-h forecasts from the French convective scale model AROME. A microwave profiler HATPRO (Humidity and Temperature PROfiler was operated during 6 months at the meteorological station of Bordeaux (Météo France. MWR BTs were monitored against simulations from the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator 2 radiative transfer model. An overall good agreement was found between observations and simulations for opaque V-band channels but large errors were observed for channels the most affected by liquid water and water vapour emissions (51.26 and 52.28 GHz. 1D-Var temperature retrievals are performed in clear-sky and cloudy conditions using a screening procedure based on cloud base height retrieval from ceilometer observations, infrared radiometer temperature and liquid water path derived from the MWR observations. The 1D-Var retrievals were found to improve the AROME forecasts up to 2 km with a maximum gain of approximately 50 % in root-mean-square-errors (RMSE below 500 m. They were also found to outperform neural network retrievals. A static bias correction was proposed to account for systematic instrumental errors. This correction was found to have a negligible impact on the 1D-Var retrievals. The use of low elevation angles improves the retrievals up to 12 % in RMSE in cloudy-sky in the first layers. The present implementation achieved a RMSE with respect to radiosondes within 1 K in clear-sky and 1.3 K in cloudy-sky conditions for temperature.

  17. E1DS: catalytic site prediction based on 1D signatures of concurrent conservation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale automatic annotation of protein sequences remains challenging in postgenomics era. E1DS is designed for annotating enzyme sequences based on a repository of 1D signatures. The employed sequence signatures are derived using a novel pattern mining approach that discovers long motifs consisted of several sequential blocks (conserved segments). Each of the sequential blocks is considerably conserved among the protein members of an EC group. Moreover, a signature includes at least thre...

  18. EXTENSION OF THE 1D FOUR-GROUP ANALYTIC NODAL METHOD TO FULL MULTIGROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. D. Ganapol; D. W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    In the mid 80’s, a four-group/two-region, entirely analytical 1D nodal benchmark appeared. It was readily acknowledged that this special case was as far as one could go in terms of group number and still achieve an analytical solution. In this work, we show that by decomposing the solution to the multigroup diffusion equation into homogeneous and particular solutions, extension to any number of groups is a relatively straightforward exercise using the mathematics of linear algebra.

  19. Finite difference approximation of control via the potential in a 1-D Schrodinger equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kime

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of steering given initial data to given terminal data via a time-dependent potential, the control, in a 1-D Schrodinger equation. We determine a condition for existence of a transferring potential within our approximation. Using Maple, we give equations for the control and also examples in which the potential is restricted to be centralized and to be a step potential.

  20. Transfer Matrix Approach to 1d Random Band Matrices: Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Mariya; Shcherbina, Tatyana

    2016-09-01

    We study the special case of n× n 1D Gaussian Hermitian random band matrices, when the covariance of the elements is determined by the matrix J=(-W^2triangle +1)^{-1}. Assuming that n≥ CW log W≫ 1, we prove that the averaged density of states coincides with the Wigner semicircle law up to the correction of order W^{-1}.

  1. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S19_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S19 PSEUDO: Unlabeled and labeled Medicago samples for flavonoid annotation using ShiftedIonsFinde...03_M1) and for a blank sample (S16_M1 to S16_M3) are used. Import file name is unlabeling SE37_DS5 Flavonoid like peak search by ShiftedIonsFinder ... ...SE37_S19_M1_D1 SE37 Medicago truncatula shoot metabolite analysis using stable isot

  2. Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Meng; Huixiao Wang; Jiangang Chen; Shuhan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was ...

  3. Time-dependent delta-interactions for 1D Schr\\"odinger Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Hmidi, Taoufik; Nier, Francis

    2009-01-01

    The non autonomous Cauchy problem for time dependent 1D point interactions is considered. The regularity assumptions for the coupling parameter are accurately analyzed and show that the general results for non autonomous linear evolution equations in Banach spaces are far from being optimal. In the mean time, this article shows an unexpected application of paraproduct techniques, initiated by J.M. Bony for nonlinear partial differential equations, to a classical linear problem.

  4. Towards an Automatic Parking System using Bio-Inspired 1-D Optical Flow Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Although several (semi-) automatic parking systems have been presented throughout the years [1]–[12], car manufacturers are still looking for low-cost sensors providing redundant information about the obstacles around the vehicle, as well as efficient methods of processing this information, in the hope of achieving a very high level of robustness. We therefore investigated how Local Motion Sensors (LMSs) [13], [14], comprising only of a few pixels giving 1-D optical fl...

  5. A Fulling-Kuchment theorem for the 1D harmonic oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We prove that there exists a pair of "non-isospectral" 1D semiclassical Schr\\"odinger operators whose spectra agree modulo h^\\infty. In particular, all their semiclassical trace invariants are the same. Our proof is based on an idea of Fulling-Kuchment and Hadamard's variational formula applied to suitable perturbations of the harmonic oscillator. Keywords: Inverse spectral problems, semiclassical Schr\\"odinger operators, trace invariants, Hadamard's variational formula, harmonic oscillator, Penrose mushroom, Sturm-Liouville theory.

  6. Controlled Growth and Field-emission Application of 1D ZnS Nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S.Fang; Y.Bando; D.Golberg

    2007-01-01

    1 Results One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have recently stimulated great interest due to their potential value for understanding fundamental physical concepts and for applications in constructing nanoscale electric and optoelectronic devices since the discovery of carbon nanotubes[1]. ZnS is one of the first semiconductors discovered and probably one of the most important materials in the electronics industry with a wide range of applications[2]. Controllable growth of nanostructures is a crucial is...

  7. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 10129, Torino (Italy); Rahnema, Farzad, E-mail: farzad@gatech.edu [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States); Zhang, Dingkang [Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State Street NW, Atlanta, Ga, 30332-0745 (United States)

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  8. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  9. Insulin stimulation regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation sites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelbeek, R J W; Chambers, M A; Tantiwong, P

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are typically insulin resistant, exhibiting impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Animal and cell culture experiments have shown that site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 is critical for GLUT4 tr...... translocation facilitating glucose uptake, but their regulation in human skeletal muscle is not well understood....

  10. Piezo-semiconductive quasi-1D nanodevices with or without anti-symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneo, Rodolfo; Lovat, Giampiero; Burghignoli, Paolo; Falconi, Christian

    2012-09-04

    The piezopotential in floating, homogeneous, quasi-1D piezo-semiconductive nanostructures under axial stress is an anti-symmetric (i.e., odd) function of force. Here, after introducing piezo-nano-devices with floating electrodes for maximum piezo-potential, we show that breaking the anti-symmetric nature of the piezopotential-force relation, for instance by using conical nanowires, can lead to better nanogenerators, piezotronic and piezophototronic devices.

  11. The Submillimeter Array

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, P T P; Lo, K Y; Ho, Paul T.P.; Moran, James M.; Lo, Kwok Yung

    2004-01-01

    The Submillimeter Array (SMA), a collaborative project of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), has begun operation on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. A total of eight 6-m telescopes comprise the array, which will cover the frequency range of 180-900 GHz. All eight telescopes have been deployed and are operational. First scientific results utilizing the three receiver bands at 230, 345, and 690 GHz have been obtained and are presented in the accompanying papers.

  12. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  13. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k larges...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  14. Enzyme-catalysed synthesis of galactosylated 1D- and 1L-chiro-inositol, 1D-pinitol, myo-inositol and selected derivatives using the beta-galactosidase from the thermophile Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain TP6-B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanne B; Kröger, Lars; Falshaw, Andrew; Falshaw, Ruth; Farkas, Erzsébet; Thiem, Joachim; Win, Anna L

    2004-08-02

    The products from the enzymatic beta-D-galactopyranosylation of 1D-chiro-inositol, 1D-pinitol, 1D-3-O-allyl-4-O-methyl-chiro-inositol, 1D-3,4-di-O-methyl-chiro-inositol, 1L-chiro-inositol and myo-inositol in combined yields ranging from 46% to 64% have been obtained using the beta-galactosidase isolated from an anaerobic extreme thermophile, Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain TP6-B1 and p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside as the donor. Analysis of the products from these reactions reveals information about the acceptor preferences of the enzyme.

  15. Secure information embedding into 1D biomedical signals based on SPIHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Oscar J; Alesanco, Alvaro; García, José

    2013-08-01

    This paper proposes an encoding system for 1D biomedical signals that allows embedding metadata and provides security and privacy. The design is based on the analysis of requirements for secure and efficient storage, transmission and access to medical tests in e-health environment. This approach uses the 1D SPIHT algorithm to compress 1D biomedical signals with clinical quality, metadata embedding in the compressed domain to avoid extra distortion, digital signature to implement security and attribute-level encryption to support Role-Based Access Control. The implementation has been extensively tested using standard electrocardiogram and electroencephalogram databases (MIT-BIH Arrhythmia, MIT-BIH Compression and SCCN-EEG), demonstrating high embedding capacity (e.g. 3 KB in resting ECGs, 200 KB in stress tests, 30 MB in ambulatory ECGs), short delays (2-3.3s in real-time transmission) and compression of the signal (by ≃3 in real-time transmission, by ≃5 in offline operation) despite of the embedding of security elements and metadata to enable e-health services.

  16. Study of 1D stranged-charm meson family using HQET

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Recently LHCb predicted spin 1 and spin 3 states D* s1(2860) and D* s3(2860) which are studied through their strong decays, and are assigned to fit the 13D1and 13D3 states in the charm spectroscopy. In this paper,using the heavy quark effective theory, we state that assigning D*s1(2860) as the mixing of 13D1 - 23S1 states, is rather a better justification to its observed experimental values than a pure state. We study its decay modes variation with hadronic coupling constant gxh and the mixing angle . We appoint spin 3 state D* s3(2860) as the missing 1D 3- JP state, and also study its decay channel behavior with coupling constant gyh. To appreciate the above results, we check the variation of decay modes for their spin partners states i.e. 1D2 and 1D'2 with their masses and strong coupling constant i.e. gxh and gyh. Our calculation using HQET approach give mixing angle between the 13D1 - 23S1 state for D* s1(2860) to lie in the range (-1.6 radians < theta < -1.2 radians). Our calculation for coupling c...

  17. A two-layer $\\alpha\\omega$ dynamo model, and its implications for 1-D dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Roald, C B

    1999-01-01

    I will discuss an attempt at representing an interface dynamo in a simplified, essentially 1D framework. The operation of the dynamo is broken up into two 1D layers, one containing the $\\alpha$ effect and the other containing the $\\omega$ effect, and these two layers are allowed to communicate with each other by the simplest possible representation of diffusion, an analogue of Newton's law of cooling. Dynamical back-reaction of the magnetic field on them with diagrams I computed for a comparable purely 1D model. The bifurcation structure shows remarkable similarity, but a couple of subtle changes imply dramatically different physical behaviour for the model. In particular, the solar-like dynamo mode found in the 1-layer model is not stable in the 2-layer version; instead there is an (apparent) homoclinic bifurcation and a sequence of periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic modes. I argue that the fragility of these models makes them effectively useless as predictors or interpreters of more complex dynamos.

  18. A SPLIT-CHARACTERISTIC FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR 1-D UNSTEADY FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi-lin; TANG Hong-wu; LIU Xiao-hua

    2007-01-01

    An efficient and accurate solution algorithm was proposed for 1-D unsteady flow problems widely existing in hydraulic engineering. Based on the split-characteristic finite element method, the numerical model with the Saint-Venant equations of 1-D unsteady flows was established. The assembled finite element equations were solved with the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. In the semi-implicit and explicit scheme, the critical time step of the method was dependent on the space step and flow velocity, not on the wave celerity. The method was used to eliminate the restriction due to the wave celerity for the computational analysis of unsteady open-channel flows. The model was verified by the experimental data and theoretical solution and also applied to the simulation of the flow in practical river networks. It shows that the numerical method has high efficiency and accuracy and can be used to simulate 1-D steady flows, and unsteady flows with shock waves or flood waves. Compared with other numerical methods, the algorithm of this method is simpler with higher accuracy, less dissipation, higher computation efficiency and less computer storage.

  19. Coupled 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow: Influence of modeling parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain.

  20. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the C(1D) + D2 reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hickson, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    In a previous joint experimental and theoretical study of the barrierless chemical reaction C(1D) + H2 at low temperatures (300-50 K) [K. M. Hickson, J.-C. Loison, H. Guo, Y. V. Suleimanov, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6, 4194.], excellent agreement was found between experimental thermal rate constants and theoretical estimates based on ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) over the two lowest singlet potential energy surfaces (PESs). Here, we extend this work to one of its deuterated counterparts, C(1D) + D2, over the same temperature range. Experimental and RPMD results are in very good agreement when contributions from both PESs to this chemical reaction are included in the RPMD simulations. The deviation between experiment and the RPMD calculations does not exceed 25 % and both results exhibit a slight negative temperature dependence. The first excited 1A" PES plays a more important role than the ground 1A' PES as the temperature is decreased, similar to our previous studies of the C(1D) + H2 reaction but...

  1. A study on cooling efficiency using 1-d analysis code suitable for cooling system of thermoforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhen Zhe; Heo, Kwang Su; Xuan, Dong Ji; Seol, Seoung Yun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Thermoforming is one of the most versatile and economical processes available for polymer products, but cycle time and production cost must be continuously reduced in order to improve the competitive power of products. In this study, water spray cooling was simulated to apply to a cooling system instead of compressed air cooling in order to shorten the cycle time and reduce the cost of compressed air used in the cooling process. At first, cooling time using compressed air was predicted in order to check the state of mass production. In the following step, the ratio of removed energy by air cooling or water spray cooling among the total removed energy was found by using 1-D analysis code of the cooling system under the condition of checking the possibility of conversion from 2-D to 1-D problem. The analysis results using water spray cooling show that cycle time can be reduced because of high cooling efficiency of water spray, and cost of production caused by using compressed air can be reduced by decreasing the amount of the used compressed air. The 1-D analysis code can be widely used in the design of a thermoforming cooling system, and parameters of the thermoforming process can be modified based on the recommended data suitable for a cooling system of thermoforming

  2. Low band gap frequencies and multiplexing properties in 1D and 2D mass spring structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Arafa H.; Mehaney, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    This study reports on the propagation of elastic waves in 1D and 2D mass spring structures. An analytical and computation model is presented for the 1D and 2D mass spring systems with different examples. An enhancement in the band gap values was obtained by modeling the structures to obtain low frequency band gaps at small dimensions. Additionally, the evolution of the band gap as a function of mass value is discussed. Special attention is devoted to the local resonance property in frequency ranges within the gaps in the band structure for the corresponding infinite periodic lattice in the 1D and 2D mass spring system. A linear defect formed of a row of specific masses produces an elastic waveguide that transmits at the narrow pass band frequency. The frequency of the waveguides can be selected by adjusting the mass and stiffness coefficients of the materials constituting the waveguide. Moreover, we pay more attention to analyze the wave multiplexer and DE-multiplexer in the 2D mass spring system. We show that two of these tunable waveguides with alternating materials can be employed to filter and separate specific frequencies from a broad band input signal. The presented simulation data is validated through comparison with the published research, and can be extended in the development of resonators and MEMS verification.

  3. Quantitative 3D electromagnetic field determination of 1D nanostructures from single projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phatak, C.; Knoop, L. de; Houdellier, F.; Gatel, C.; Hÿtch, M. J.; Masseboeuf, A.

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have been regarded as the most promising building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanocomposite material systems as well as for alternative energy applications. Although they result in confinement of a material, their properties and interactions with other nanostructures are still very much three-dimensional (3D) in nature. In this work, we present a novel method for quantitative determination of the 3D electromagnetic fields in and around 1D nanostructures using a single electron wave phase image, thereby eliminating the cumbersome acquisition of tomographic data. Using symmetry arguments, we have reconstructed the 3D magnetic field of a nickel nanowire as well as the 3D electric field around a carbon nanotube field emitter, from one single projection. The accuracy of quantitative values determined here is shown to be a better fit to the physics at play than the value obtained by conventional analysis. Moreover the 3D reconstructions can then directly be visualized and used in the design of functional 3D architectures built using 1D nanostructures.

  4. Influence of Underhood Flow on Engine Cooling Using 1-D And 3-D Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolehovský Ondřej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical simulation of complete cooling system of internal combustion engine (GT-SUITE, which also involves the simulation of flow in underhood using the computationally undemanding simulation. A detailed model of the internal combustion engine is extended to a cooling circuit model which is then coupled to a simplified underhood model which is created with the help of GT-COOL application as a 3-D model and afterwards transferred to a 1-D form. The approaches, one using 1-D solution of arrangement of the heat exchangers and the other 3-D approach using the underhood model, were investigated in two steady states corresponding to various vehicle speeds and engine load. These simulations have shown the inappropriateness of 1-D approach when solving the flow in the heat exchangers in the underhood and helped to explore a relatively undemanding method of flow simulation in the underhood, which enables to detect the interaction between the models of the cooling system and the internal combustion engine and the issue of arrangement of the heat exchangers in the underhood.

  5. Subplane-based Control Rod Decusping Techniques for the 2D/1D Method in MPACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Aaron M [ORNL; Collins, Benjamin S [ORNL; Downar, Thomas [University of Michigan

    2017-01-01

    The MPACT transport code is being jointly developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Michigan to serve as the primary neutron transport code for the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator. MPACT uses the 2D/1D method to solve the transport equation by decomposing the reactor model into a stack of 2D planes. A fine mesh flux distribution is calculated in each 2D plane using the Method of Characteristics (MOC), then the planes are coupled axially through a 1D NEM-P$_3$ calculation. This iterative calculation is then accelerated using the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference method. One problem that arises frequently when using the 2D/1D method is that of control rod cusping. This occurs when the tip of a control rod falls between the boundaries of an MOC plane, requiring that the rodded and unrodded regions be axially homogenized for the 2D MOC calculations. Performing a volume homogenization does not properly preserve the reaction rates, causing an error known as cusping. The most straightforward way of resolving this problem is by refining the axial mesh, but this can significantly increase the computational expense of the calculation. The other way of resolving the partially inserted rod is through the use of a decusping method. This paper presents new decusping methods implemented in MPACT that can dynamically correct the rod cusping behavior for a variety of problems.

  6. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-21

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal {sup 235}U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable.

  7. Surface defect inspection of TFT-LCD panels based on 1D Fourier method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-da; Lu, Rong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flat panel displays have been used in a wide range of electronic devices. The defects on their surfaces are an important factor affecting the product quality. Automated optical inspection (AOI) method is an important and effective means to perform the surface defection inspection. In this paper, a kind of defect extraction algorithm based on one dimensional (1D) Fourier theory for the surface defect extraction with periodic texture background is introduced. In the algorithm, the scanned surface images are firstly transformed from time domain to frequency domain by 1D Fourier transform. The periodic texture background on the surface is then removed by using filtering methods in the frequency domain. Then, a dual-threshold statistical control method is applied to separate the defects from the surface background. Traditional 1D Fourier transform scheme for detecting ordinary defects is very effective; however, the method is not where the defect direction is close to horizontal in periodic texture background. In order to tackle the problem, a mean threshold method based on faultless image is put forward. It firstly calculates the upper and lower control limits of the every reconstructed line scanned image with faultless and then computes the averages of the upper and lower limits. The averages then act as the constant double thresholds to extract the defects. The experimental results of different defects show that the method developed in the paper is very effective for TFT-LCD panel surface defect inspection even in the circumstance that the defect directions are close to horizontal.

  8. Interview: glycolipid antigen presentation by CD1d and the therapeutic potential of NKT cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT) are critical determinants of the immune response to cancer, regulation of autioimmune disease, clearance of infectious agents, and the development of artheriosclerotic plaques. In this interview, Mitch Kronenberg discusses his laboratory's efforts to understand the mechanism through which NKT cells are activated by glycolipid antigens. Central to these studies is CD1d--the antigen presenting molecule that presents glycolipids to NKT cells. The advent of CD1d tetramer technology, a technique developed by the Kronenberg lab, is critical for the sorting and identification of subsets of specific glycolipid-reactive T cells. Mitch explains how glycolipid agonists are being used as therapeutic agents to activate NKT cells in cancer patients and how CD1d tetramers can be used to assess the state of the NKT cell population in vivo following glycolipid agonist therapy. Current status of ongoing clinical trials using these agonists are discussed as well as Mitch's prediction for areas in the field of immunology that will have emerging importance in the near future.

  9. Determination of cellular lipids bound to human CD1d molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Cox

    Full Text Available CD1 molecules are glycoproteins that present lipid antigens at the cell surface for immunological recognition by specialized populations of T lymphocytes. Prior experimental data suggest a wide variety of lipid species can bind to CD1 molecules, but little is known about the characteristics of cellular ligands that are selected for presentation. Here we have molecularly characterized lipids bound to the human CD1d isoform. Ligands were eluted from secreted CD1d molecules and separated by normal phase HPLC, then characterized by mass spectroscopy. A total of 177 lipid species were molecularly identified, comprising glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The glycerophospholipids included common diacylglycerol species, reduced forms known as plasmalogens, lyso-phospholipids (monoacyl species, and cardiolipins (tetraacyl species. The sphingolipids included sphingomyelins and glycosylated forms, such as the ganglioside GM3. These results demonstrate that human CD1d molecules bind a surprising diversity of lipid structures within the secretory pathway, including compounds that have been reported to play roles in cancer, autoimmune diseases, lipid signaling, and cell death.

  10. Numerical Modeling of Imploding Plasma liners Using the 1D Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code HELIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. S.; Hanna, D. S.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Stanic, M.; Cassibry, J. T.; Macfarlane, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is attempting to form imploding plasma liners to reach 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation, via 30--60 spherically convergent plasma jets. PLX is partly motivated by the desire to develop a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion. The liner density, atomic makeup, and implosion velocity will help determine the maximum pressure that can be achieved. This work focuses on exploring the effects of atomic physics and radiation on the 1D liner implosion and stagnation dynamics. For this reason, we are using Prism Computational Science's 1D Lagrangian rad-hydro code HELIOS, which has both equation of state (EOS) table-lookup and detailed configuration accounting (DCA) atomic physics modeling. By comparing a series of PLX-relevant cases proceeding from ideal gas, to EOS tables, to DCA treatments, we aim to identify how and when atomic physics effects are important for determining the peak achievable stagnation pressures. In addition, we present verification test results as well as brief comparisons to results obtained with RAVEN (1D radiation-MHD) and SPHC (smoothed particle hydrodynamics).

  11. Soil salt leaching under different irrigation regimes:HYDRUS-1D modelling and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenZhi ZENG; Chi XU; JingWei WU; JieSheng HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Field irrigation experiments were conducted in the Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China, to study the effects of irrigation regimes on salt leaching in the soil profile. The data were used to calibrate and validate the HYDRUS-1D model. The results demonstrated that the model can accurately simulate the water and salt dy-namics in the soil profile. The HYDRUS-1D model was then used to simulate 15 distinct irrigation scenarios. The results of the simulation indicated that irrigation amount did not have a significant effect on soil water storage but that increases in irrigation amount could accelerate salt leaching. However, when the irrigation amount was larger than 20 cm, the acceleration was not obvious. Compared with irrigating only once, intermittent irrigation had a better effect on increasing soil water storage and salt leaching, but excessive irrigation times and intervals did not improve salt leaching. In addition, we found that the irrigation regime of 20 cm, irrigated twice at 1-d intervals, might signifi-cantly increase salt leaching in the plough layer and decrease the risks of deep seepage and groundwater con-tamination.

  12. Implementation and validation of a 1D fluid model for collapsible channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Fels, Sidney; Green, Sheldon

    2013-11-01

    A 1D fluid model is implemented for the purpose of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in complex and completely collapsible geometries, particularly targeting the case of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The fluid mechanics are solved separately from any solid mechanics, making possible the use of a highly complex and/or black-box solver for the solid mechanics. The fluid model is temporally discretized with a second-order scheme and spatially discretized with an asymmetrical fourth-order scheme that is robust in highly uneven geometries. A completely collapsing and reopening geometry is handled smoothly using a modified area function. The numerical implementation is tested with two driven-geometry cases: (1) an inviscid analytical solution and (2) a completely closing geometry with viscous flow. Three-dimensional fluid simulations in static geometries are performed to examine the assumptions of the 1D model, and with a well-defined pressure-recovery constant the 1D model agrees well with 3D models. The model is very fast computationally, is robust, and is recommended for OSA simulations where the bulk flow pressure is primarily of interest.

  13. Numerical simulation of Ge solar cells using D-AMPS-1D code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Marcela, E-mail: barrera@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Rubinelli, Francisco [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC)-CONICET, Gueemes 3450, Santa Fe 3000 (Argentina); Rey-Stolle, Ignacio [Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense 30, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pla, Juan [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida General Paz 1499, San Martin 1650, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2012-08-15

    A solar cell is a solid state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. When light with photon energies greater than the band gap is absorbed by a semiconductor material, free electrons and free holes are generated by optical excitation in the material. The main characteristic of a photovoltaic device is the presence of internal electric field able to separate the free electrons and holes so they can pass out of the material to the external circuit before they recombine. Numerical simulation of photovoltaic devices plays a crucial role in their design, performance prediction, and comprehension of the fundamental phenomena ruling their operation. The electrical transport and the optical behavior of the solar cells discussed in this work were studied with the simulation code D-AMPS-1D. This software is an updated version of the one-dimensional (1D) simulation program Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Devices (AMPS) that was initially developed at The Penn State University, USA. Structures such as homojunctions, heterojunctions, multijunctions, etc., resulting from stacking layers of different materials can be studied by appropriately selecting characteristic parameters. In this work, examples of cells simulation made with D-AMPS-1D are shown. Particularly, results of Ge photovoltaic devices are presented. The role of the InGaP buffer on the device was studied. Moreover, a comparison of the simulated electrical parameters with experimental results was performed.

  14. Position error in profiles retrieved from MIPAS observations with a 1-D algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carlotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The information load (IL analysis, first introduced for the two-dimensional approach (Carlotti and Magnani, 2009, is applied to the inversion of MIPAS observations operated with a 1-dimensional (1-D retrieval algorithm. The IL distribution of MIPAS spectra is shown to be often asymmetrical with respect to the tangent points of the observations and permits to identify the preferential latitude where the profiles retrieved with a 1-D algorithm should be geo-located. Therefore a position error is made when the tangent points of the observations are used to assign the geo-location of the retrieved profile. We assess the amplitude of the position error for some of the MIPAS main targets and we show that the IL analysis can also be used as a tool for the selection of observations that, when analyzed, minimize the position error of the retrieved profile. When the temperature (T profiles are used for the retrieval of volume mixing ratio (VMR of atmospheric constituents, the T position error (of the order of 1.5 degrees of latitude induces a VMR error that is directly connected with the horizontal T gradients. Temperature profiles can be externally-provided or determined in a previous step of the retrieval process. In the first case, the IL analysis shows that a meaningful fraction (often exceeding 50% of the VMR error deriving from the 1-D approximation is to be attributed to the mismatch between the position assigned to the external T profile and the positions where T is required by the analyzed observations. In the second case the retrieved T values suffer by an error of 1.5–2 K due to neglecting the horizontal variability of T; however the error induced on VMRs is of minor entity because of the generally small mismatch between the IL distribution of the observations analyzed to retrieve T and those analyzed to retrieve the VMR target. An estimate of the contribution of the

  15. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zoran S; Ignjatović, Nenad; Wu, Victoria; Žunič, Vojka; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Škapin, Srečo; Miljković, Miroslav; Uskoković, Vuk; Uskoković, Dragan

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6mg/cm(2). X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P63/m space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the continuous

  16. MAST-1D, a Model to Route Sediment and Tracers in Channel-Floodplain Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viparelli, E.; Lauer, J. W.; Belmont, P.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain can occur via meander migration, overbank deposition or erosion, and channel widening or narrowing. Depending on channel and floodplain history, floodplains can act either as sources or sinks of bed material and/or wash load. The Morphodynamics And Sediment Tracers in 1D program (MAST-1D) is a numerical model built to describe grain size specific transport of sediment and tracers and the long-term - i.e. decadal and longer - evolution of channel floodplain complexes. MAST-1D differs from other 1D numerical models because it allows for 1) uneven exchange of sediment and tracers between the river channel and the floodplain, 2) temporal changes in channel geometry, bed elevation and floodplain thickness, which result in changes in the channel hydraulic capacity, and 3) temporal changes of size distribution and tracer content in the floodplain, in the load and in the underlying substrate. Under conditions of constant base level, water and sediment supply, the main assumptions in the model result in the system evolving asymptotically toward a steady state wherein channel bed erosion is balanced by channel bed deposition. When at this condition, the amount of sediment deposited on the floodplain through point bar deposition and overbank sedimentation is balanced by the erosion of sediment from the floodplain through lateral migration. However, imbalances in floodplain storage can persist for many years even when the channel bed elevation and size distribution are near steady state. The MAST-1D program is applied to study the long term response of a sand bed river, an 80 km long reach of the Minnesota River between Mankato and Jordan, Minnesota, to changes in flow regime and the sediment load due to the development of intensive agriculture in the watershed. The simulations are performed in successive phases, the model is first set up so that under the best estimates available for pre-agriculture conditions, channel

  17. HLA class II susceptibility pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, J; Hajilooi, M; Furst, D; Rezaei, H; Shahryari-Hesami, S; Kowsarifard, S; Zamani, A; Solgi, G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the HLA-DRB1/HLA-DQB1 susceptibility and protection pattern for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a population from Hamadan, north-west of Iran. A total of 133 patients with T1D were tested for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using PCR-SSP compared to 100 ethnic-matched healthy controls. Alleles and haplotypes frequencies were compared between both groups. The most susceptible alleles for disease were HLA-DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:02, DQB1*02:01 and DQB1*03:02, and protective alleles were HLA-DRB1*07:01, *11:01, *13:01, *14:01 and DRB1*15 and HLA-DQB1*06:01, *06:02 and *06:03. Haplotype analysis revealed that patients with T1D had higher frequencies of DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01 (OR = 4.86, P < 10(-7) ) and DRB1*04:02-DQB1*03:02 (OR = 9.93, P < 10(-7) ) and lower frequencies of DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:01 (P = 0.0005), DRB1*11:01-DQB1*03:01 (P = 0.001), DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 (P = 0.002) and DRB1*15-DQB1*06:01 (P = 0.001) haplotypes compared to healthy controls. Heterozygote combination of both susceptible haplotypes (DR3/DR4) confers the highest risk for T1D (RR = 18.80, P = 4 × 10(-5) ). Additionally, patients with homozygote diplotype, DR3/DR3 and DR4/DR4, showed a similar risk with less extent to heterozygote combination (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.01, respectively). Our findings not only confirm earlier reports from Iranians but also are in line with Caucasians and partly with Asians and some African patients with T1D. Remarkable differences were the identification of DRB1*04:01-DQB1*03:02, DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03 and DRB1*16-DQB1*05:02 as neutral and DRB1*13:01-DQB1*06:03 as the most protective haplotypes in this study.

  18. File list: Oth.Liv.05.Nr1d1.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Liv.05.Nr1d1.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Nr1d1 Liver SRX128176,SRX997762,SRX9977...63,SRX997761,SRX997760,SRX997765,SRX997764,SRX109461,SRX100296,SRX994725,SRX994726,SRX100297 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Liv.05.Nr1d1.AllCell.bed ...

  19. Altered Expression Profile of Renal α1D-Adrenergic Receptor in Diabetes and Its Modulation by PPAR Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha1D-adrenergic receptor (α1D-AR plays important roles in regulating physiological and pathological responses mediated by catecholamines, particularly in the cardiovascular and urinary systems. The present study was designed to investigate the expression profile of α1D-AR in the diabetic kidneys and its modulation by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. 12-week-old Zucker lean (ZL and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZD rats were treated with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone for 8–10 weeks. Gene microarray, real-time PCR, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy were performed to assess mRNA and protein expression of α1D-AR in rat kidney tissue. Using microarray, we found that α1D-AR gene was dramatically upregulated in 22-week-old ZD rats compared to ZL controls. Quantitative PCR analysis verified a 16-fold increase in α1D-AR mRNA in renal cortex from ZD animals compared to normal controls. Chronic treatment with fenofibrate or rosiglitazone reduced renal cortical α1D-AR gene. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed that α1D-AR protein was induced in the glomeruli and tubules of diabetic rats. Moreover, dual immunostaining for α1D-AR and kidney injury molecule-1 indicated that α1D-AR was expressed in dedifferentiated proximal tubules of diabetic Zucker rats. Taken together, our results show that α1D-AR expression is upregulated in the diabetic kidneys. PPAR activation suppressed renal expression of α1D-AR in diabetic nephropathy.

  20. Programming for seismogram 1-D generation, considering the attenuation and dispersing effects; Programa para gerar sismograma 1-D, considerando os efeitos da atenuacao e dispersao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Bruno de O.; Oliveira, Sergio A.M. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP)

    2004-07-01

    For a processing and an interpretation of correct seismic data, it is necessary to recognize and to know as the factors act that influence in the propagation of the seismic waves, as the attenuation and the dispersion, constituting in the biggest practical impediment for the use of seismic for targets the big depths, limiting the resolution of the method. However these phenomena little are taken in consideration in the analysis of the data, thus the necessity of its bigger agreement, because if attenuation and dispersion they confuse the application of the seismic, if convenient understood and measures, can be valuable sources of information about the constitution of the rocks. Therefore, in this work the effect of the attenuation and dispersion in the data of reflection seismic had been simulated on a program, in Mat-Lab. Being able to generate 1-D seismograms, in the domain of the time, considering the normal incidence of plain wave in a package of plain, horizontal and isotropic layers, taking in account the physical attributes of the way, being able to simulate the effects of ghost and of multiples of free surface, if considering the source in the water. (author)

  1. What causes the large extensions of red-supergiant atmospheres? Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1-D hydrostatic, 3-D convection, and 1-D pulsating model atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Scholz, M; Freytag, B; Marcaide, J M; Hauschildt, P H; Wood, P R; Abellan, F J

    2015-01-01

    We present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants, increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of 3 RSGs in the near-infrared K-band with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution. To comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3-D convection, and new 1-D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Our near-infrared flux spectra are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict ...

  2. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskaly, Karlene Rosera [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  3. TRMM Solar Array Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This final report presents conclusions/recommendations concerning the TRMM Solar Array; deliverable list and schedule summary; waivers and deviations; as-shipped performance data, including flight panel verification matrix, panel output detail, shadow test summary, humidity test summary, reverse bias test panel; and finally, quality assurance summary.

  4. TANGO Array.. 2. Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.

    2004-01-01

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10 14 to 10 18 eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of ˜60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as ˜4°. The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  5. TANGO Array. 2. Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauleo, P. E-mail: pablo.bauleo@colostate.edu; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A

    2004-01-11

    The angular and energy resolutions of the TANGO Array were obtained using extensive Monte Carlo simulations performed with a double purpose: (1) to determine the appropriate parameters for the array fitting to the desired range of sensitivity (the knee energy region), and (2) to construct a reliable shower database required for reference in the analysis of experimental data. The AIRES code, with the SIBYLL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (assuming protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 10{sup 14} to 10{sup 18} eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detectors (water Cherenkov detectors), including the electronics, pickup noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cables. The trigger stage was considered in the simulations in order to estimate the trigger efficiency of the array and to verify the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper delineates the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and describes the simulated data. The results of these simulations suggest that we can expect an error in the energy of the primary cosmic-ray of {approx}60% of the estimated value and that the error in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as {approx}4 deg. . The present simulations also indicate that unambiguous assignments of the primary energy cannot be obtained because of the uncertainty in the nature of the primary cosmic ray.

  6. The Murchison Widefield Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Daniel A.; Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Ord, Stephen M.; Bernardi, Gianni

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the excellent Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory site allows the Murchison Widefield Array to employ a simple RFI blanking scheme and still calibrate visibilities and form images in the FM radio band. The techniques described are running autonomously in our calibration and imagin

  7. Array processors in chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostlund, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The field of attached scientific processors (''array processors'') is surveyed, and an attempt is made to indicate their present and possible future use in computational chemistry. The current commercial products from Floating Point Systems, Inc., Datawest Corporation, and CSP, Inc. are discussed.

  8. Bandwidth Reconfigurable Metamaterial Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial structures provide innovative ways to manipulate electromagnetic wave responses to realize new applications. This paper presents a conformal wideband metamaterial array that achieves as much as 10 : 1 continuous bandwidth. This was done by using interelement coupling to concurrently achieve significant wave slow-down and cancel the inductance stemming from the ground plane. The corresponding equivalent circuit of the resulting array is the same as that of classic metamaterial structures. In this paper, we present a wideband Marchand-type balun with validation measurements demonstrating the metamaterial (MTM array’s bandwidth from 280 MHz to 2800 MHz. Bandwidth reconfiguration of this class of array is then demonstrated achieving a variety of band-pass or band-rejection responses within its original bandwidth. In contrast with previous bandwidth and frequency response reconfigurations, our approach does not change the aperture’s or ground plane’s geometry, nor does it introduce external filtering structures. Instead, the new responses are realized by making simple circuit changes into the balanced feed integrated with the wideband MTM array. A variety of circuit changes can be employed using MEMS switches or variable lumped loads within the feed and 5 example band-pass and band-rejection responses are presented. These demonstrate the potential of the MTM array’s reconfiguration to address a variety of responses.

  9. Microelectronic Stimulator Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-09

    retinal prosthesis test device. Figure 3b shows an enlarged view of a nano-channel glass (NCG) electrode array. Figure 4 shows a conceptual layout (floor...against a visual cortex. 10 This involves invasive brain surgery through the cranium . From a surgical point of view, the intra ocular approach is

  10. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  11. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of bivalent ligands against A1-D1 receptor heteromers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian SHEN; Lei ZHANG; Wan-ling SONG; Tao MENG; Xin WANG; Lin CHEN; Lin-yin FENG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To design and synthesize bivalent ligands for adenosine A1-dopamine D1 receptor heteromers (A1-D1R),and evaluate their pharmacological activities.Methods:Bivalent ligands and their corresponding A1R monovalent ligands were designed and synthesized.The affinities of the bivalent ligands for A1R and D1R in rat brain membrane preparation were examined using radiolabeled binding assays.To demonstrate the formation of A1-D1R,fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was conducted in HEK293 cells transfected with D1-CFP and A1-YFP.Molecular modeling was used to analyze the possible mode of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions.Results:Two bivalent ligands for A1R and D1R (20a,20b),as well as the corresponding A1R monovalent ligands (21a,21b) were synthesized.In radiolabeled binding assays,the bivalent ligands showed affinities for A1R 10-100 times higher than those of the corresponding monovalent ligands.In FRET experiments,the bivalent ligands significantly increased the heterodimerization of A1R and D1R compared with the corresponding monovalent ligands.A heterodimer model with the interface of helixes 3,4,5 of A1R and helixes 1,6,7 from D1R was established with molecular modeling.The distance between the two ligand binding sites in the heterodimer model was approximately 48.4 (A),which was shorter than the length of the bivalent ligands.Conclusion:This study demonstrates the existence of A1-D1R in situ and a simultaneous interaction of bivalent ligands with both the receptors.

  12. Nanoelectronic Modeling (NEMO): Moving from commercial grade 1-D simulation to prototype 3-D simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard

    2001-03-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about the publically available NEMO 1-D executables can be found at http://hpc.jpl.nasa.gov/ PEP/gekco/nemo

  13. Natural Outbreak of BVDV-1d-Induced Mucosal Disease Lacking Intestinal Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M V; Konradt, G; de Souza, S O; Bassuino, D M; Silveira, S; Mósena, A C S; Canal, C W; Pavarini, S P; Driemeier, D

    2017-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Pestivirus genus, which is further divided into subgenotypes (1a-1u and 2a-c). When persistent infection occurs, the calf will be immunotolerant to BVDV and possibly develop mucosal disease. This study describes an outbreak of BVDV-1d-induced mucosal disease lacking intestinal lesions. Eleven calves presented with anorexia, sialorrhea, lameness, recumbency, and death. Three calves were necropsied, showing ulceration of the interdigital skin and the oral and nasal mucosa; linear ulcers in the tongue, esophagus, and rumen; and rounded ulcers in the abomasum. Microscopically, mucosa and skin had superficial necrosis, with single-cell necrosis and vacuolation in epithelial cells, and severe parakeratosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed BVDV antigen in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in skin and mucosa. All 11 dead calves were positive upon reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Pestivirus along with another 11 live calves from the herd, which were positive again by RT-PCR and IHC after a 4-week interval. Sequencing of the 5' untranslated region and N-terminal protease showed that viruses from these 22 calves were homologous and of subgenotype BVDV-1d. Cytopathic BVDV was isolated from 8 of 11 dead calves, but only noncytopathic BVDV was isolated from the 11 live animals. The findings indicate that this was an outbreak of mucosal disease caused by BVDV-1d, with high morbidity, and lesions restricted to the upper alimentary system and skin and absent from intestine. Thus, the epidemiological and pathological features in this form of mucosal disease may be similar to vesicular diseases, including foot and mouth disease.

  14. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  15. Electrochemical cortisol immunosensors based on sonochemically synthesized zinc oxide 1D nanorods and 2D nanoflakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Kaushik, Ajeet; Pokhrel, Nimesh; Bhansali, Shekhar; Pala, Nezih

    2015-01-15

    We report on label free, highly sensitive and selective electrochemical immunosensors based on one-dimensional 1D ZnO nanorods (ZnO-NRs) and two-dimensional 2D ZnO nanoflakes (ZnO-NFs) which were synthesized on Au-coated substrates using simple one step sonochemical approach. Selective detection of cortisol using cyclic voltammetry (CV) is achieved by immobilizing anti-cortisol antibody (Anti-C(ab)) on the ZnO nanostructures (NSs). 1D ZnO-NRs and 2D ZnO-NFs provide unique sensing advantages over bulk materials. While 1D-NSs boast a high surface area to volume ratio, 2D-NSs with large area in polarized (0001) plane and high surface charge density could promote higher Anti-C(ab) loading and thus better sensing performance. Beside large surface area, ZnO-NSs also exhibit higher chemical stability, high catalytic activity, and biocompatibility. TEM studies showed that both ZnO-NSs are single crystalline oriented in (0001) plane. The measured sensing parameters are in the physiological range with a sensitivity of 11.86 µA/M exhibited by ZnO-NRs and 7.74 µA/M by ZnO-NFs with the lowest detection limit of 1 pM which is 100 times better than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbant immunoassay (ELISA). ZnO-NSs based cortisol immunosensors were tested on human saliva samples and the performance were validated with conventional (ELISA) method which exhibits a remarkable correlation. The developed sensors can be integrated with microfluidic system and miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and such developed protocol can be used in personalized health monitoring/diagnostic.

  16. Membranes from nanoporous 1D and 2D materials: A review of opportunities, developments, and challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Wun-gwi

    2013-12-01

    Membranes utilizing nanoporous one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials are emerging as attractive candidates for applications in molecular separations and related areas. Such nanotubular and nanolayered materials include carbon nanotubes, metal oxide nanotubes, layered zeolites, porous layered oxides, layered aluminophosphates, and porous graphenes. By virtue of their unique shape, size, and structure, they possess transport properties that are advantageous for membrane and thin film applications. These materials also have very different chemistry from more conventional porous 3D materials, due to the existence of a large, chemically active, external surface area. This feature also necessitates the development of innovative strategies to process these materials into membranes and thin films with high performance. This work provides the first comprehensive review of this emerging area. We first discuss approaches for the synthesis and structural characterization of nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. Thereafter, we elucidate different approaches for fabrication of membranes and thin films from these materials, either as multiphase (composite/hybrid) or single-phase membranes. The influence of surface chemistry and processing techniques on the membrane morphology is highlighted. We then discuss the applications of such membranes in areas relating to molecular transport and separation, e.g. gas and liquid-phase separations, water purification, and ion-conducting membranes. The review concludes with a discussion of the present outlook and some of the key scientific challenges to be addressed on the path to industrially applicable membranes containing nanoporous 1D and 2D materials. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  18. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidts, M.; Hou, Y.; Cortés, CR; Mans, DA; HUBER, C; Boldt, K.; Patel, M.; Van Reeuwijk, J; Plaza, JM; Van Beersum, SEC; Yap, ZM; Letteboer, SJF; Taylor, SP; Herridge, W.; Johnson, CA

    2015-01-01

    ARTICLE Received 1 Oct 2014 | Accepted 31 Mar 2015 | Published 5 June 2015 TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport Miriam Schmidts1,2,3,4,*, Yuqing Hou5,*, Claudio R. Corte´s6, Dorus A. Mans2,3, Celine Huber7, Karsten Boldt8, Mitali Patel1, Jeroen van Reeuwijk2,3, Jean-Marc Plaza9, Sylvia E.C. van Beersum2,3, Zhi Min Yap1, Stef J.F. Letteboer2,3, S Paige Taylor10, Warren Herridge11, Colin A. Johns...

  19. Phase-sensitive detection of Bragg scattering at 1D optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Slama, S; Deh, B; Ludewig, A; Zimmermann, C; Courteille, P W; Courteille, Ph.W.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the observation of Bragg scattering at 1D atomic lattices. Cold atoms are confined by optical dipole forces at the antinodes of a standing wave generated by the two counter-propagating modes of a laser-driven high-finesse ring cavity. By heterodyning the Bragg-scattered light with a reference beam, we obtain detailed information on phase shifts imparted by the Bragg scattering process. Being deep in the Lamb-Dicke regime, the scattered light is not broadened by the motion of individual atoms. In contrast, we have detected signatures of global translatory motion of the atomic grating.

  20. Hair on non-extremal D1-D5 bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Pratik; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We consider a truncation of type IIB supergravity on four-torus where in addition to the Ramond-Ramond 2-form field, the Ramond-Ramond axion (w) and the NS-NS 2-form field (B) are also retained. In the (w, B) sector we construct a linearised perturbation carrying only left moving momentum on two-charge non-extremal D1-D5 geometries of Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. The perturbation is found to be smooth everywhere and normalizable. It is constructed by matching to leading order solutions of the perturbation equations in the inner and outer regions of the geometry.

  1. Design for manufacturability from 1D to 4D for 90-22 nm technology nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Balasinski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    This book explains integrated circuit design for manufacturability (DfM) at the product level (packaging, applications) and applies engineering DfM principles to the latest standards of product development at 22 nm technology nodes.  It is a valuable guide for layout designers, packaging engineers and quality engineers, covering DfM development from 1D to 4D, involving IC design flow setup, best practices, links to manufacturing and product definition, for process technologies down to 22 nm node, and product families including memories, logic, system-on-chip and system-in-package.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Song Lin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D ceria (CeO2 nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Carbon Nanotubes/GaAs Hybrid PV Devices with AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Xosrovashvili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance and characteristics of a hybrid heterojunction single-walled carbon nanotube and GaAs solar cell are modelled and numerically simulated using AMPS-1D device simulation tool. The device physics and performance with different junction parameters are analysed. The results suggest that the open-circuit voltage changes very slightly by changing the electron affinity, acceptor and donor density while the other electrical parameters reach an optimum value. Increasing the concentration of a discrete defect density in the absorber layer decreases the electrical parameters. The current-voltage characteristics, quantum efficiency, band gap, and thickness variation of the photovoltaic response will be quantitatively considered.

  4. Simulation of Tunnel Junction in Cascade Solar Cell (GaAs/Ge Using AMPS-1D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benmoussa Dennai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the tunnel junction interconnect was key the first two-terminal monolithic, multi-junction solar cell development. This paper describes simulation for the tunnel junction (GaAs between top cell (GaAs and bottom cell (Ge. This solar cell cascade was simulated when using one dimensional simulation program called analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures (AMPS-1D. In the simulation, the thickness of the tunnel junction layer was varied from 10 to 50 nm. By varying thickness of tunnel junction layer the simulated device performance was demonstrate in the form of current-voltage(I-V characteristics and quantum efficiency (QE.

  5. Peculiarities of propagation of acoustic excitations through an imperfect 1D-superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.; Fedorov, S.A. [Galkin Institute for Physics and Engineering of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Gumennyk, K.V., E-mail: gumennyk@depm.fti.ac.donetsk.ua [Galkin Institute for Physics and Engineering of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2012-09-15

    Virtual crystal approximation is adapted to address peculiarities of propagation of acoustic waves through a 1D 'sandwich' superstructure consisting of alternating layers of two types randomly substituted by foreign layers of the third type. Same-parity layers are of the same width and constitute a sublattice. Dependence of the lowest forbidden acoustic zone width of the described structure on concentrations of impurity layers in the two sublattices is numerically evaluated for longitudinal and transverse excitations. Values of substitute concentrations making the structure completely transparent prove to be independent of the relative widths of the 1st and 2nd type layers.

  6. Thermal impedance at the interface of contacting bodies: 1-D examples solved by semi-derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple 1-D semi-infinite heat conduction problems enable to demonstrate the potential of the fractional calculus in determination of transient thermal impedances of two bodies with different initial temperatures contacting at the interface ( x = 0 at t = 0 . The approach is purely analytic and uses only semi-derivatives (half-time and semi-integrals in the Riemann-Liouville sense. The example solved clearly reveals that the fractional calculus is more effective in calculation the thermal resistances than the entire domain solutions.

  7. Momentum-carrying waves on D1-D5 microstate geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    If one attempts to add momentum-carrying waves to a black string then the solution develops a singularity at the horizon; this is a manifestation of the 'no hair theorem' for black objects. However individual microstates of a black string do not have a horizon, and so the above theorem does not apply. We construct a perturbation that adds momentum to a family of microstates of the extremal D1-D5 string. This perturbation is analogous to the 'singleton' mode localized at the boundary of AdS; to leading order it is pure gauge in the AdS interior of the geometry.

  8. Momentum-carrying waves on D1-D5 microstate geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur@mps.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2012-09-21

    If one attempts to add momentum-carrying waves to a black string then the solution develops a singularity at the horizon; this is a manifestation of the 'no hair theorem' for black objects. However individual microstates of a black string do not have a horizon, and so the above theorem does not apply. We construct a perturbation that adds momentum to a family of microstates of the extremal D1-D5 string. This perturbation is analogous to the 'singleton' mode localized at the boundary of AdS; to leading order it is pure gauge in the AdS interior of the geometry.

  9. Analysis on characteristics of 1-D apodized and chirped photonic crystals containing negative refractive materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Kai; CUI Wei-wei; XU Xiao-hui; LI Zhi-quan

    2008-01-01

    Using transfer matrix method, the optical transmission properties of 1-D photonic crystals composed partially of negativerefraction media are analyzed. The transmission spectra of periodic photonic crystal, chirped photonic crystal and apodizedphotonic crystal are numerically simulated respectively. By contrast with optical transmission properties of ordinary photo-nic crystals made of positive refraction media, the transmission spectra of apodized photonic crystal become unregular, theBragg flat-headed area recurs but the peak of transmission does not change significantly. Futhermore, the band gap rangeof chirped photonic crystal diminishes gradually.

  10. Maximizing 1D “like” implosion performance for inertial confinement fusion science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, John L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-15

    While the march towards achieving indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion at the NIF has made great progress, the experiments show that multi-dimensional effects still dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seed by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of ICF implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. To this end, LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a 1D implosion platform where 1D means high yield over 1D clean calculations. Taking advantage of the properties of beryllium capsules, a high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed. The higher drive efficiency for beryllium enables larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry at the expense of drive. Smaller capsules with a high adiabat drive are expected to reduce the convergence and thus increase predictability. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the initial mass in the hot spot can be controlled via the target fielding temperature which changes the liquid vapor pressure. Varying the initial hot spot mass via the vapor pressure controls the implosion convergence and minimizes the need to vaporize the dense fuel layer during the implosion to achieve ignition relevant hot spot densities. The last method is double shell targets. Unlike hot spot ignition, double shells ignite volumetrically. The inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. Radiation trapping and the longer confinement times relax the conditions required to ignite the fuel. Key challenges for double shell targets are coupling the momentum of the outer shell to

  11. Adiabatic evolution of 1D shape resonances: an artificial interface conditions approach

    CERN Document Server

    Faraj, Ali; Nier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Artificial interface conditions parametrized by a complex number $\\theta_{0}$ are introduced for 1D-Schr{\\"o}dinger operators. When this complex parameter equals the parameter $\\theta\\in i\\R$ of the complex deformation which unveils the shape resonances, the Hamiltonian becomes dissipative. This makes possible an adiabatic theory for the time evolution of resonant states for arbitrarily large time scales. The effect of the artificial interface conditions on the important stationary quantities involved in quantum transport models is also checked to be as small as wanted, in the polynomial scale $(h^N)_{N\\in \\N}$ as $h\\to 0$, according to $\\theta_{0}$.

  12. Analytical solution to the Riemann problem of 1D elastodynamics with general constitutive laws

    CERN Document Server

    Berjamin, H; Chiavassa, G; Favrie, N

    2016-01-01

    Under the hypothesis of small deformations, the equations of 1D elastodynamics write as a 2 x 2 hyperbolic system of conservation laws. Here, we study the Riemann problem for convex and nonconvex constitutive laws. In the convex case, the solution can include shock waves or rarefaction waves. In the nonconvex case, compound waves must also be considered. In both convex and nonconvex cases, a new existence criterion for the initial velocity jump is obtained. Also, admissibility regions are determined. Lastly, analytical solutions are completely detailed for various constitutive laws (hyperbola, tanh and polynomial), and reference test cases are proposed.

  13. Complex-Temperature Phase Diagrams of 1D Spin Models with Next-Nearest-Neighbor Couplings

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    We study the dependence of complex-temperature phase diagrams on details of the Hamiltonian, focusing on the effect of non-nearest-neighbor spin-spin couplings. For this purpose, we consider a simple exactly solvable model, the 1D Ising model with nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-to-nearest-neighbor (NNN) couplings. We work out the exact phase diagrams for various values of $J_{nnn}/J_{nn}$ and compare these with the case of pure nearest-neighbor (NN) couplings. We also give some similar result...

  14. Comparison between the 1D deconvolution and the ETM scatter correction techniques in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebossen, R.; Bendrien, B.; Frouin, V. [CEA-Service Hospitalier F. Joliot, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Scatter corrections usually degrade the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) while they improve image quantification. Dual energy corrections provide scatter corrected images with a poor SNR due to the use of two sinograms having low statistics. We have evaluated the SNR on 20 cm uniform cylinder images, acquired on an ECAT 953B/31 with septa in the field-of-view, corrected for scatter using the 1D deconvolution method and an energy based correction developed at Orsay. The latter, referenced as the Estimation of True Method, uses a High Energy Window (HEW) with 550 and 850 keV settings to estimate the true component registered in the Classical Energy Window (CEW) with 250 and 850 keV settings. A sinogram of scattered events is formed from this noisy estimate of the trues. It is filtered and then subtracted from the CEW sinogram to provide a scatter free sinogram. Nine Regions of Interest (ROI) of 18mm diameter have been drawn on a 110 mm diameter circle and reported on 11 direct slices (96 million events each in the CEW and 8 million in the HEW). The SNR has been defined as the ratio of the mean over the standard deviation of all ROI values. With the 1D deconvolution the SNR is 38.0, close to that obtained without scatter correction (39.1) It is lower with the ETM depending on the filter used: with a rectangular window of 9 bins by 15 angles it is 29;.8 (26.9 with a 5 by 5 window) while with a 2D Gaussian filter (7 bins by 13 angles variances) it is 30.8. This value is higher than 22.1 measured on the HEW image. The ETM with adequate filtering allows scatter correction with a SNR acceptable compared with that measured with the 1D deconvolution. Yet the ETM has a clear advantage over the 1D deconvolution in case of asymetrical source distributions in non homogeneous media and in case of off-plane scattering as has been tested on various phantom measurements.

  15. Partial Internal Control Recovery on 1-D Klein-Gordon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Pranoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this exposition, a technique to recover internal control on a distributed parameter system is reported. The system is described by 1-D Klein-Gordon partial differential equation with a time-varying parameter. We would like to recover the internal control applied to the system if we know some limited information about the output. We use a method called sentinel method to recover the internal control. It involves some construction of a linear functional, and we show that this construction relates closely to the exact controllability problem.

  16. Simulations of Edge Effect in 1D Spin Crossover Compounds by Atom-Phonon Coupling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, J.; Chiruta, D.; Jureschi, C. M.; Alayli, Y.; Turcu, C. O.; Dahoo, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    We used the atom-phonon coupling model to explain and illustrate the behaviour of a linear nano-chain of molecules. The analysis of the system's behaviour was performed using Free Energy method, and by applying Monte Carlo Metropolis (MCM) method which take into account the phonon contribution. In particular we tested both the MCM algorithm and the dynamic-matrix method and we expose how the thermal behaviour of a 1D spin crossover system varies as a function of different factors. Furthermore we blocked the edge atoms of the chain in its high spin state to study the effect on the system's behaviour.

  17. Hair on non-extremal D1-D5 bound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pratik; Srivastava, Yogesh K.; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-09-01

    We consider a truncation of type IIB supergravity on four-torus where in addition to the Ramond-Ramond 2-form field, the Ramond-Ramond axion ( w) and the NS-NS 2-form field ( B) are also retained. In the ( w, B) sector we construct a linearised perturbation carrying only left moving momentum on two-charge non-extremal D1-D5 geometries of Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. The perturbation is found to be smooth everywhere and normalisable. It is constructed by matching to leading order solutions of the perturbation equations in the inner and outer regions of the geometry.

  18. Pharmacological evidence that 5-HT1D activation induces renal vasodilation by NO pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-06-01

    5-HT is a powerful vasoconstrictor substance in renal vasculature (mainly by 5-HT₂ activation). Nevertheless, 5-HT is notable for its dual cardiovascular effects, producing both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor actions. This study aimed to investigate whether, behind the predominant serotonergic vasoconstrictor action, THE 5-HT system may exert renal vasodilator actions, and, if so, characterize the 5-HT receptors and possible indirect pathways. Renal perfusion pressure (PP), systemic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) measurement in in situ autoperfused rat kidney was determined in phenylephrine infused rats. Intra arterial (i.a.) bolus administration of 5-HT (0.00000125-0.1 μg/kg) decreased renal PP in the presence of a phenylephrine continuous infusion (phenylephrine-infusion group), without modifying SBP or HR. These vasodilator responses were potentiated by 5-HT₂ antagonism (ritanserin, 1 mg/kg i.v.), whereas the responses were abolished by 5-HT₁ /₇ antagonist (methiothepin, 100 μg/kg i.v.) or 5-HT1D antagonist (LY310762, 1 mg/kg i.v.). The i.a. administration (0.00000125 to 0.1 μg/kg) of 5-CT or L-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist) mimicked 5-HT vasodilator effect, while other agonists (1-PBG, α-methyl-5-HT, AS-19 (5-HT₇), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) or CGS-12066B (5-HT1B)) did not alter baseline haemodynamic variables. L-694,247 vasodilation was abolished by i.v. bolus of antagonists LY310762 (5-HT1D, 1 mg/kg) or L-NAME (nitric oxide, 10 mg/kg), but not by i.v. bolus of indomethacin (cyclooxygenase, 2 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel, 20 mg/kg). These outcomes suggest that 5-HT1D activation produces a vasodilator effect in the in situ autoperfused kidney of phenylephrine-infusion rats mediated by the NO pathway.

  19. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  20. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K D Rathod; P K Singh; Vasant Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at 45° with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate the selective deflection of the bosonic isotope 174Yb and the fermionic isotope 171Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  1. Results and limits in the 1-D analytical modeling for the asymmetric DG SOI MOSFET

    OpenAIRE

    O. Cobianu; M. Glesner

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results and the limits of 1-D analytical modeling of electrostatic potential in the low-doped p type silicon body of the asymmetric n-channel DG SOI MOSFET, where the contribution to the asymmetry comes only from p- and n-type doping of polysilicon used as the gate electrodes. Solving Poisson's equation with boundary conditions based on the continuity of normal electrical displacement at interfaces and the presence of a minimum electrostatic potential by using the...

  2. Excitation of multiple resonances in 1D Anderson localized systems for efficient light amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Byun, Kyung Min; Kim, Young L

    2015-03-01

    Excitation of hybridized multiple resonances can be an effective route for coherent light generation in irregular 1D systems larger than the localization length of light. Necklace states are often considered to have nonlocalized states. However, we propose that some hybridized/coupled states can have high-resonant tunneling with spatially extended fields. If strong localization properties are preserved in hybridized resonances, the excitation of such states allows for deposition of the excitation energy deep into the structure and spatial overlap with local gain regions. This result could allow for better utilizing hybridized resonances in biological or natural photonic systems.

  3. Variational Formulation of 1-D Unsteady Compressible Flow in a Deforming Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaolian Liu; Yi Tao; Yingxue Liu

    2003-01-01

    The variational principles for 1-D unsteady compressible flow in a deforming tube derived in a previous paper are improved essentially by reconstructing the initial/final-integral terms according to a new method suggested in a recent paper. As a result, the inherent shortcoming of variational principles of being unable to admit physically rational initial/final-value conditions in initial/boundary-value problems is successfully eliminated. Thus, a new theoretical basis for the time-space finite-element analysis is provided.

  4. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  5. Time multiplexing super resolution using a 2D Barker-based array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilovitsh, Asaf; Ilovitsh, Tali; Preter, Eyal; Levanon, Nadav; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    We propose the use of a two dimensional Barker-based array in order to improve the performance of the standard time multiplexing super resolution system. The Barker-based array is a 2D generalization of the standard 1D Barker code. It enables achieving a two dimensional super resolution image using only one dimensional scan, by exploiting its unique auto correlation property. A sequence of low resolution images are captured at different lateral positions of the array, and are decoded properly using the same array. In addition, we present the use of a mismatched array for the decoding process. The cross correlation between the Barker-based array and the mismatched array has a perfect peak to sidelobes ratio, making it ideal for the super resolution process. Also, we propose the projection of this array onto the object using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Projecting the array eliminates the need for printing it, mechanically shifting it, and having a direct contact with the object, which is not feasible in many imaging applications. The proposed method is presented analytically, demonstrated via numerical simulation, and validated by laboratory experiments.

  6. Potential role of TBC1D4 in enhanced post-exercise insulin action in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, Jonas Thue; Frøsig, Christian; Pehmøller, Christian

    2009-01-01

    insulin stimulation. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: We provide evidence for site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D4 in human skeletal muscle in response to physiological hyperinsulinaemia. The data support the idea that TBC1D4 is a nexus for insulin- and exercise-responsive signals that may mediate increased...... insulin action after exercise....

  7. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  8. Pulsar Timing Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of an ensemble of radio pulsars to constrain the characteristic strain caused by a stochastic gravitational wave background has advanced the cause of detection of very low frequency gravitational waves significantly. This electromagnetic means of gravitational wave detection, called Pulsar Timing Array(PTA), is reviewed in this article. The principle of operation of PTA, the current operating PTAs and their status is presented along-with a discussion of the main ch...

  9. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  10. The Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, Valerie

    2014-03-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a large collaborative effort dedicated to the design and operation of the next-generation ground-based very high-energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will improve by about one order of magnitude the sensitivity with respect to the current major arrays (VERITAS, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC) in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV, and will extend the viability of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique (IACT) down to tens of GeV and above 100 TeV. In order to achieve such improved performance at both a northern and southern CTA site, four 23m diameter Large Size Telescopes (LST) optimized for low energy gamma rays will be deployed close to the centre of the array. A larger number of Medium Size Telescopes (MST) will be optimized for the core IACT energy range. The southern site will include 25 12m single-mirror MSTs and a US contribution of up to 24 novel dual-mirror design Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) type MSTs with a primary mirror of 9.5m diameter, and will also include an array of Small Size Telescopes (SST) to observe the highest-energy gamma rays from galactic sources. The SSTs can be smaller and more widely separated because more energetic gamma rays produce a larger Cherenkov light pool with many photons. The SSTs achieve a large collection area by covering a wide (10 sq km) footprint on the ground. The CTA project is finishing its preparatory phase, and the pre-production phase will start this year. I will review the status and the expected performance of CTA as well as the main scientific goals for the observatory.

  11. YBCO Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-14

    40, 489 (1961). [8] W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical recipes: the art of scientific computing (Cambridge...has recently become a commercial product. He has developed processes for depositing state-of-the art YBCO films on buffered sapphire substrates. His...technology can most improve and on what subsystems would benefit most from the pt.. .imance available from these arrays. Aqppoved f or publicO re󈧎OSI AIR

  12. Solar collector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  13. The TALE Infill Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    The TALE Infill Array in conjunction with the TALE Tower Detector will provide hybrid coverage of the cosmic ray energy spectrum down to 3x10^16 eV. It will consist of about 100, two square meter scintillators on the surface spaced at 400 m; and 24 buried twelve square meter scintillators. The combination of surface and underground detectors will allow for the determination of the muon content of showers and thus give a handle on cosmic ray composition.

  14. Identification of regions critical for the integrity of the TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Jorge Santiago Lima

    Full Text Available The TSC1-TSC2-TBC1D7 complex is an important negative regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 that controls cell growth in response to environmental cues. Inactivating TSC1 and TSC2 mutations cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC, an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of benign tumours in various organs and tissues, notably the brain, skin and kidneys. TBC1D7 mutations have not been reported in TSC patients but homozygous inactivation of TBC1D7 causes megaencephaly and intellectual disability. Here, using an exon-specific deletion strategy, we demonstrate that some regions of TSC1 are not necessary for the core function of the TSC1-TSC2 complex. Furthermore, we show that the TBC1D7 binding site is encoded by TSC1 exon 22 and identify amino acid residues involved in the TSC1-TBC1D7 interaction.

  15. TANGO ARRAY II: Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Filevich, A.

    The angular and energy resolution of the TANGO Array has been obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. The AIRES code, with the SYBILL hadronic collision package, was used to simulate Extended Air Showers produced by primary cosmic rays (protons and iron nuclei), with energies ranging from 1014 eV to 1018 eV. These data were fed into a realistic code which simulates the response of the detector stations (water ˇCerenkov detectors), including the electronics, pick up noise, and the signal attenuation in the connecting cabling. The trigger stage is taken into account in order to produce estimates of the trigger efficiency of the array and to check the accuracy of the reconstruction codes. This paper describes the simulations performed to obtain the expected behavior of the array, and presents the simulated data. These simulations indicate that the accuracy of the cosmic ray primary energy determination is expected to be ˜ 60 % and the precision in the measurement of the direction of arrival can be estimated as ˜ 4 degrees.

  16. Spaceborne Processor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Schatzel, Donald V.; Whitaker, William D.; Sterling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A Spaceborne Processor Array in Multifunctional Structure (SPAMS) can lower the total mass of the electronic and structural overhead of spacecraft, resulting in reduced launch costs, while increasing the science return through dynamic onboard computing. SPAMS integrates the multifunctional structure (MFS) and the Gilgamesh Memory, Intelligence, and Network Device (MIND) multi-core in-memory computer architecture into a single-system super-architecture. This transforms every inch of a spacecraft into a sharable, interconnected, smart computing element to increase computing performance while simultaneously reducing mass. The MIND in-memory architecture provides a foundation for high-performance, low-power, and fault-tolerant computing. The MIND chip has an internal structure that includes memory, processing, and communication functionality. The Gilgamesh is a scalable system comprising multiple MIND chips interconnected to operate as a single, tightly coupled, parallel computer. The array of MIND components shares a global, virtual name space for program variables and tasks that are allocated at run time to the distributed physical memory and processing resources. Individual processor- memory nodes can be activated or powered down at run time to provide active power management and to configure around faults. A SPAMS system is comprised of a distributed Gilgamesh array built into MFS, interfaces into instrument and communication subsystems, a mass storage interface, and a radiation-hardened flight computer.

  17. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  18. Atomic layer deposition of 1D and 2D nickel nanostructures on graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung Wook; Yoon, Jaehong; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Shong, Bonggeun; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram

    2017-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanowires (NWs) and two-dimensional (2D) thin films of Ni were deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using NH3 as a counter reactant. Thermal ALD using NH3 gas forms 1D NWs along step edges, while NH3 plasma enables the deposition of a continuous 2D film over the whole surface. The lateral and vertical growth rates of the Ni NWs are numerically modeled as a function of the number of ALD cycles. Pretreatment with NH3 gas promotes selectivity in deposition by the reduction of oxygenated functionalities on the HOPG surface. On the other hand, NH3 plasma pretreatment generates surface nitrogen species, and results in a morphological change in the basal plane of graphite, leading to active nucleation across the surface during ALD. The effects of surface nitrogen species on the nucleation of ALD Ni were theoretically studied by density functional theory calculations. Our results suggest that the properties of Ni NWs, such as their density and width, and the formation of Ni thin films on carbon surfaces can be controlled by appropriate use of NH3.

  19. Performance studies on high pressure 1-D position sensitive neutron detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Desai; A M Shaikh

    2008-11-01

    The powder diffractometer and Hi-Q diffractometer at Dhruva reactor make use of five identical 1-D position sensitive detectors (PSDs) to scan scattering angles in the range 3° to 140°. In order to improve the overall throughput of these spectrometers, it is planned to install a bank of 15 high-efficiency and high-resolution PSDs arranged in three layers with five PSDs in each layer. With each high pressure PSD (3He 10 bar + Kr 2 bar) showing the efficiency gain of 1.8 at 1.2 Å, detector bank is expected to show overall gain of 5.5 times the present detection efficiency and reduction in data collection time by equivalent factor. The 1-D PSDs are developed in batches of five, and are characterized so that all PSDs operate at uniform parameters such as position resolution, uniformity of efficiency and linearity of response. Position spectrum indicates the differential position resolution to be ∼ 1 mm and integral position resolution to be 3–4 mm. Broadening of position spectrum at the extreme end of sensitive length of PSD is analysed using fine shift of the beam. Dependence of position resolution and dynamic range of output pulse on the input impedance of pre-amplifier is also presented.

  20. Superdescendants of the D1D5 CFT and their dual 3-charge geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusto, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Russo, Rodolfo [Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de L’Ecole Normale Supérieure,24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris cedex (France)

    2014-03-03

    We describe how to obtain the gravity duals of semiclassical states in the D1-D5 CFT that are superdescendants of a class of RR ground states. On the gravity side, the configurations we construct are regular and asymptotically reproduce the 3-charge D1-D5-P black hole compactified on S{sup 1}×T{sup 4}. The geometries depend trivially on the T{sup 4} directions but non-trivially on the remaining 6D space. In the decoupling limit, they reduce to asymptotically AdS{sub 3}×S{sup 3}×T{sup 4} spaces that are dual to CFT states obtained by acting with (exponentials of) the operators of the superconformal algebra. As explicit examples, we generalise the solution first constructed in arXiv:1306.1745 and discuss another class of states that have a more complicated dual geometry. By using the free orbifold description of the CFT we calculate the average values for momentum and the angular momenta of these configurations. Finally we compare the CFT results with those obtained in the bulk from the asymptotically M{sup 1,4}×S{sup 1}×T{sup 4} region.

  1. Design method for a laser line beam shaper of a general 1D angular power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oved, E.; Oved, A.

    2016-05-01

    Laser line is a beam of laser, spanned in one direction using a beam shaper to form a fan of light. This illumination tool is important in laser aided machine vision, 3D scanners, and remote sensing. For some applications the laser line should have a specific angular power distribution. If the distribution is nonsymmetrical, the beam shaper is required to be nonsymmetrical freeform, and its design process using optical design software is time consuming due to the long optimization process which usually converges to some local minimum. In this paper we introduce a new design method of a single element refractive beam shaper of any predefined general 1D angular power distribution. The method makes use of a notion of "prism space", a geometrical representation of all double refraction prisms, and any 1D beam shaper can be described by a continuous curve in this space. It is shown that infinitely many different designs are possible for any given power distribution, and it is explained how an optimal design is selected among them, based on criteria such as high transmission, low surface slopes, robustness to manufacturing errors etc. The method is non-parametric and hence does not require initial guess of a functional form, and the resultant optical surfaces are described by a sequence of points, rather than by an analytic function.

  2. Reciprocating Compressor 1D Thermofluid Dynamic Simulation: Problems and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gimelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors here extend a 0D-1D thermofluid dynamic simulation approach to describe the phenomena internal to the volumetric machines, reproducing pressure waves’ propagation in the ducts. This paper reports the first analysis of these phenomena in a reciprocating compressor. The first part presents a detailed experimental analysis of an open-type reciprocating compressor equipped with internal sensors. The second part describes a 0D-1D thermofluid dynamic simulation of the compressor. Comparison of computed and measured values of discharge mass flow rate shows a good agreement between results for compression ratio <5. Then, to improve the model fitting at higher pressures, a new scheme has been developed to predict the blow-by through the ring pack volumes. This model is based on a series of volumes and links which simulate the rings’ motions inside the grooves, while the ring dynamics are imposed using data from the literature about blow-by in internal combustion engines. The validation is obtained comparing experimental and computing data of the two cylinder engine blowby. After the validation, a new comparison of mass flow rate on the compressor shows a better fitting of the curves at higher compression ratio.

  3. A Review of Swarm-Based 1D/2D Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia Mihail Teodorescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available While swarming behavior, widely encountered in nature, has recently sparked numerous models and interest in domains as optimization, data clustering, and control, their application to signal processing remains sporadic. In this paper I provide a unitary treatment and a review of former results obtained in signal filtering and enhancement using swarms. General equations are presented for these procedures and stability issues are considered, with examples. The paper overviews several swarming model I introduced in previous papers and provides new evidence of the applicability of these models in signal processing. In all the models for 1D signal processing, the key idea is that the swarm hunts a prey that impersonates the filtered signal. In the 2D models, the signal (image represents the “landscape” over which the swarm moves at a distance, while the swarm interacts with the signal (landscape. I provide and discuss details of the underlying theory of the models for processing time-domain signals and images. While this paper partly follows and summarizes previous papers, it nevertheless includes supplementary theoretical and algorithmic considerations and new results for both 1D and 2D signal processing. Although following either biological models or physical models in swarm algorithms is not generally accepted for technical applications, we prefer to emphasize the analogies established by our biomimetic approach with these two groups of models.

  4. Bogoliubov coefficients for the twist operator in the D1D5 CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Zaq, E-mail: carson.231@osu.edu; Mathur, Samir D., E-mail: mathur.16@osu.edu; Turton, David, E-mail: turton.7@osu.edu

    2014-12-15

    The D1D5 CFT is a holographic dual of a near-extremal black hole in string theory. The interaction in this theory involves a twist operator which joins together different copies of a free CFT. Given a large number of D1 and D5 branes, the effective length of the circle on which the CFT lives is very large. We develop a technique to study the effect of the twist operator in the limit where the wavelengths of excitations are short compared to this effective length, which we call the ‘continuum limit’. The method uses Bogoliubov coefficients to compute the effect of the twist operator in this limit. For bosonic fields, we use the method to reproduce recent results describing the effect of the twist operator when it links together CFT copies with windings M and N, producing a copy of winding M+N. We also comment on possible generalizations of our results. The methods developed here may help in understanding the twist interaction at higher orders. This in turn should provide insight into the thermalization process in the D1D5 CFT, which gives a holographic description of black hole formation.

  5. Hypocenter determination using simulated annealing, updated 1D seismic velocity model and focal mechanism analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Akhmad Fanani; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Sule, Rachmat; Juanda, Aditya Abdurrahman

    2013-09-01

    Hypocenter determination of micro-earthquakes of Mount "X-1" geothermal field has been conducted using simulated annealing and guided error search method using a 1D seismic velocity model. In order to speed up the hypocenter determination process a three-circle intersection method has been used to guide the simulated annealing and guided error search process. We used P and S arrival time's microseismic data. In the simulated annealing and guided error search processes, the minimum travel time from a source to a receiver has been calculated by employing ray tracing with shooting method. The resulting hypocenters from the above process occurred at depths of 3-4 km below mean sea level. These hypocenter distributions are correlated with previous study which was concluded that the most active microseismic area in which the site of many fractures and also vertical circulation place. Later on, resulting hypocenters location was used as input to determine 1-D seismic velocity using joint hypocenter determination method. The results of VELEST indicate show low Vp/Vs ratio value at depths of 3-4 km. Our interpretation is this anomaly may be related to a rock layer which is saturated by vapor (gas or steam). Another feature is high Vp/Vs ratio value at depths of 1-3 km that may related to a rock layer which is saturated by fluid or partial melting. We also analyze the focal mechanism of microseismic using ISOLA method to determine the source characteristic of this event.

  6. A world-line framework for 1D Topological Conformal sigma-models

    CERN Document Server

    Baulieu, L; Toppan, F

    2015-01-01

    We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct $sl(2|1)$-invariant actions for the $(2,2,0)$ chiral and ($1,2,1)$ real supermultiplets of the twisted $D$-module representations of the $sl(2|1)$ superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal $\\sigma$-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension $\\lambda$ of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, $2\\lambda+1$, the free theories being recovered at $\\lambda=-\\frac{1}{2}$. We also present, generalizing previous works, the $D$-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by ${\\cal N}=(p,q)$ pseudo-supersymmetry acting on $(k,n,n-k)$ supermultiplets. Besides $sl(2|1)$, we obtain the superalgebras $A(1,1)$, $D(2,1;\\alpha)$, $D(3,1)$, $D(4,1)$, $A(2,1)$ from $(p,q)= (1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,1)$, at given $k,n$ and critical values ...

  7. Thermodynamics of Large N Gauge Theories with Chemical Potentials in a 1/D Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand thermodynamical properties of N D-branes with chemical potentials associated with R-symmetry charges, we study a one dimensional large N gauge theory (bosonic BFSS type model) as a first step. This model is obtained through a dimensional reduction of a 1+D dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills theory and we use a 1/D expansion to investigate the phase structure. We find three phases in the \\mu-T plane. We also show that all the adjoint scalars condense at large D and obtain a mass dynamically. This dynamical mass protects our model from the usual perturbative instability of massless scalars in a non-zero chemical potential. We find that the system is at least meta-stable for arbitrary large values of the chemical potentials in D \\to \\infty limit. We also explore the existence of similar condensation in higher dimensional gauge theories in a high temperature limit. In 2 and 3 dimensions, the condensation always happens as in one dimensional case. On the other hand, if the dimension is higher than...

  8. Thermodynamics of large N gauge theories with chemical potentials in a 1/ D expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    In order to understand thermodynamical properties of N D-branes with chemical potentials associated with R-symmetry charges, we study a one dimensional large N gauge theory (bosonic BFSS type model) as a first step. This model is obtained through a dimensional reduction of a 1 + D dimensional SU( N) Yang-Mills theory and we use a 1 /D expansion to investigate the phase structure. We find three phases in the μ - T plane. We also show that all the adjoint scalars condense at large D and obtain a mass dynamically. This dynamical mass protects our model from the usual perturbative instability of massless scalars in a non-zero chemical potential. We find that the system is at least meta-stable for arbitrary large values of the chemical potentials in D → ∞ limit. We also explore the existence of similar condensation in higher dimensional gauge theories in a high temperature limit. In 2 and 3 dimensions, the condensation always happens as in one dimensional case. On the other hand, if the dimension is higher than 4, there is a critical chemical potential and the condensation happens only if the chemical potentials are below it.

  9. 1-D air-snowpack modeling of atmospheric nitrous acid at South Pole during ANTCI 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D air-snowpack model of HONO has been developed and constrained by observed chemistry and meteorology data. The 1-D model includes molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion, windpumping in snow, gas phase to quasi-liquid layer phase HONO transfer and quasi-liquid layer nitrate and interstitial air HONO photolysis. Photolysis of nitrate is important as a dominant HONO source inside the snowpack, however, the observed HONO emission from the snowpack was triggered mainly by the equilibrium between quasi liquid layer nitrite and firn air HONO deep down the snow surface (i.e. 30 cm below snow surface. The high concentration of HONO in the firn air is subsequently transported above the snowpack by diffusion and windpumping. The model uncertainties come mainly from lack of measurements and the interpretation of the QLL properties based on the bulk snow measurements. One critical factor is the ionic strength of QLL nitrite, which is estimated here by the bulk snow pH, nitrite concentration, and QLL to bulk snow volume ratio.

  10. 1-D Air-snowpack modeling of atmospheric nitrous acid at South Pole during ANTCI 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liao

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 1-D air-snowpack model of HONO has been developed and constrained by observed chemistry and meteorology data. The 1-D model includes molecular diffusion and mechanical dispersion, windpumping in snow, gas phase to quasi-liquid layer phase HONO transfer and quasi-liquid layer nitrate and interstitial air HONO photolysis. Photolysis of nitrate is important as a dominant HONO source inside the snowpack, however, the observed HONO emission from the snowpack was triggered mainly by the equilibrium between quasi liquid layer nitrite and firn air HONO deep down the snow surface (i.e. 30 cm below snow surface. The high concentration of HONO in the firn air is subsequently transported above the snowpack by diffusion and windpumping. The model uncertainties come mainly from lack of measurements and the interpretation of the QLL properties based on the bulk snow measurements. One critical factor is the ionic strength of QLL nitrite, which is estimated here by the bulk snow pH, nitrite concentration, and QLL to bulk snow volume ratio.

  11. Effect of copper doping on the crystal structure and morphology of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dae Hoon; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2007-11-01

    We have tried to control the aspect ratio and physicochemical properties of 1D nanostructured manganese oxides through copper doping. Copper-doped manganese oxide nanostructures have been synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal treatment for the mixed solution of permanganate anions and copper cations. According to powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic analyses, all the present materials commonly crystallize with alpha-MnO2-type structure but their aspect ratio decreases significantly with increasing the content of copper. Such a variation of crystallite dimension is attributable to the limitation of crystal growth by the incorporation of copper ions. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies at Mn K- and Cu K-edges clearly demonstrate that the average oxidation state of manganese ions is increased by the substitution of divalent copper ions. Electrochemical measurements reveal the improvement of the electrode performance of nanostructured manganate upon copper doping, which can be interpreted as a result of the decrease of aspect ratio and the increase of Mn valence state. From the present experimental findings, it becomes certain that the present Cu doping method can provide an effective way of controlling the crystal dimension and electrochemical property of 1D nanostructured manganese oxide.

  12. Simulation of hetero-junction silicon solar cells with AMPS-1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Como, Norberto; Morales-Acevedo, Arturo [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Electrical Engineering Department, Avenida IPN No. 2508, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-01-15

    Mono- and poly-crystalline silicon solar cell modules currently represent between 80% and 90% of the PV world market. The reasons are the stability, robustness and reliability of this kind of solar cells as compared to those of emerging technologies. Then, in the mid-term, silicon solar cells will continue playing an important role for their massive terrestrial application. One important approach is the development of silicon solar cells processed at low temperatures (less than 300 C) by depositing amorphous silicon layers with the purpose of passivating the silicon surface, and avoiding the degradation suffered by silicon when processed at temperatures above 800 C. This kind of solar cells is known as HIT cells (hetero-junction with an intrinsic thin amorphous layer) and are already produced commercially (Sanyo Ltd.), reaching efficiencies above 20%. In this work, HIT solar cells are simulated by means of AMPS-1D, which is a program developed at Pennsylvania State University. We shall discuss the modifications required by AMPS-1D for simulating this kind of structures since this program explicitly does not take into account interfaces with high interfacial density of states as occurs at amorphous-crystalline silicon hetero-junctions. (author)

  13. Interfaces Supporting Surface Gap Soliton Ground States in the 1D Nonlinear Schroedinger Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dohnal, Tomas; Plum, Michael; Reichel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of verifying the existence of $H^1$ ground states of the 1D nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation for an interface of two periodic structures: $$-u" +V(x)u -\\lambda u = \\Gamma(x) |u|^{p-1}u \\ {on} \\R$$ with $V(x) = V_1(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_1(x)$ for $x\\geq 0$ and $V(x) = V_2(x), \\Gamma(x)=\\Gamma_2(x)$ for $x1$. The article [T. Dohnal, M. Plum and W. Reichel, "Surface Gap Soliton Ground States for the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation," \\textit{Comm. Math. Phys.} \\textbf{308}, 511-542 (2011)] provides in the 1D case an existence criterion in the form of an integral inequality involving the linear potentials $V_{1},V_2$ and the Bloch waves of the operators $-\\tfrac{d^2}{dx^2}+V_{1,2}-\\lambda$. We choose here the classes of piecewise constant and piecewise linear potentials $V_{1,2}$ and check this criterion for a set of parameter values. In the piecewise constant case the Bloch waves are calculated explicitly and in the piecewise linear case verified enclosures of the Bloch waves are computed ...

  14. Quasi-1D physics in metal-organic frameworks: MIL-47(V from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny E. P. Vanpoucke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The geometric and electronic structure of the MIL-47(V metal-organic framework (MOF is investigated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT calculations. Special focus is placed on the relation between the spin configuration and the properties of the MOF. The ground state is found to be antiferromagnetic, with an equilibrium volume of 1554.70 Å3. The transition pressure of the pressure-induced large-pore-to-narrow-pore phase transition is calculated to be 82 MPa and 124 MPa for systems with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, respectively. For a mixed system, the transition pressure is found to be a weighted average of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition pressures. Mapping DFT energies onto a simple-spin Hamiltonian shows both the intra- and inter-chain coupling to be antiferromagnetic, with the latter coupling constant being two orders of magnitude smaller than the former, suggesting the MIL-47(V to present quasi-1D behavior. The electronic structure of the different spin configurations is investigated and it shows that the band gap position varies strongly with the spin configuration. The valence and conduction bands show a clear V d-character. In addition, these bands are flat in directions orthogonal to VO6 chains, while showing dispersion along the the direction of the VO6 chains, similar as for other quasi-1D materials.

  15. CD1d expression and invariant NKT cell responses in herpesvirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusung eTan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a highly conserved subset of unconventional T lymphocytes that express a canonical, semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR and surface markers shared with the natural killer cell lineage. iNKT cells recognize exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens restricted by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules, and are highly responsive to the prototypical agonist, α-galactosylceramide. Upon activation, iNKT cells rapidly coordinate signaling between innate and adaptive immune cells through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to the maturation of antigen-presenting cells and expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Because of their potent immunoregulatory properties, iNKT cells have been extensively studied and are known to play a pivotal role in mediating immune responses against microbial pathogens including viruses. Here, we review evidence that herpesviruses manipulate CD1d expression to escape iNKT cell surveillance and establish lifelong latency in humans. Collectively, published findings suggest that iNKT cells play critical roles in anti-herpesvirus immune responses and could be harnessed therapeutically to limit viral infection and viral-associated disease.

  16. Statistical investigation and thermal properties for a 1-D impact system with dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz I, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.diaz.iturry@gmail.com; Livorati, André L.P., E-mail: livorati@rc.unesp.br; Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.br

    2016-05-06

    Highlights: • The dynamics of a 1-D dissipative impact system is studied. • Statistical properties for the average velocity, root mean square velocity and its deviation are characterized. • A thermodynamics formalism is developed as function of the statistical variable. • The formalism shows itself to be robust, and we can predict numerical values without doing numerical simulations. - Abstract: The behavior of the average velocity, its deviation and average squared velocity are characterized using three techniques for a 1-D dissipative impact system. The system – a particle, or an ensemble of non-interacting particles, moving in a constant gravitation field and colliding with a varying platform – is described by a nonlinear mapping. The average squared velocity allows to describe the temperature for an ensemble of particles as a function of the parameters using: (i) straightforward numerical simulations; (ii) analytically from the dynamical equations; (iii) using the probability distribution function. Comparing analytical and numerical results for the three techniques, one can check the robustness of the developed formalism, where we are able to estimate numerical values for the statistical variables, without doing extensive numerical simulations. Also, extension to other dynamical systems is immediate, including time dependent billiards.

  17. Eighth-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme for 1D Heat Conduction Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Yosaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a high-order compact finite difference method for solving one-dimensional (1D heat conduction equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, respectively. A parameter is used for the direct implementation of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The introduced parameter adjusts the position of the neighboring nodes very next to the boundary. In the case of Dirichlet boundary condition, we developed eighth-order compact finite difference method for the entire domain and fourth-order accurate proposal is presented for the Neumann boundary conditions. In the case of Dirichlet boundary conditions, the introduced parameter behaves like a free parameter and could take any value from its defined domain but for the Neumann boundary condition we obtained a particular value of the parameter. In both proposed compact finite difference methods, the order of accuracy is the same for all nodes. The time discretization is performed by using Crank-Nicholson finite difference method. The unconditional convergence of the proposed methods is presented. Finally, a set of 1D heat conduction equations is solved to show the validity and accuracy of our proposed methods.

  18. Developing a 1D ``like'' performance basecamp for beryllium capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, John; Yi, Austin; Loomis, Eric; Simakov, Andrei; Kyrala, George; Wilson, Doub; Dewald, Eddie; Ralph, Joe; Strozzi, David

    2016-10-01

    Experiments with Beryllium capsules in high density gas filled targets showed little difference in performance with respect to CH or HDC capsules. The hypothesis for the lack of performance difference is attributed to poor control of symmetry based on work by Clark et al. Going forward, the goal is to develop a target design that enables better comparisons between the performance of Be capsules and other ablators, as well as with simulations. To develop a platform in which Be capsules maximize performance with respect to 1D calculations, we have increased the case-to-capsule ratio and reduced the hohlraum drive. The stability properties of beryllium are expected to be accentuated at lower radiation temperature drives compared with other ablators. Experiments have been carried out with case-to-capasule ratio of 3.1 and 4.3. Results from these experiments are being used to develop an optimized case-to-capsule ratio to achieve controllable symmetric implosions with maximum 1D like performance. This presentation will focus on how results of the experiments are used to design the next series of optimized experiments..

  19. A world-line framework for 1D topological conformal σ-models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulieu, L.; Holanda, N. L.; Toppan, F.

    2015-11-01

    We use world-line methods for pseudo-supersymmetry to construct sl(2|1)-invariant actions for the (2, 2, 0) chiral and (1, 2, 1) real supermultiplets of the twisted D-module representations of the sl(2|1) superalgebra. The derived one-dimensional topological conformal σ-models are invariant under nilpotent operators. The actions are constructed for both parabolic and hyperbolic/trigonometric realizations (with extra potential terms in the latter case). The scaling dimension λ of the supermultiplets defines a coupling constant, 2λ + 1, the free theories being recovered at λ = - /1 2 . We also present, generalizing previous works, the D-module representations of one-dimensional superconformal algebras induced by N = ( p , q ) pseudo-supersymmetry acting on (k, n, n - k) supermultiplets. Besides sl(2|1), we obtain the superalgebras A(1, 1), D(2, 1; α), D(3, 1), D(4, 1), A(2, 1) from (p, q) = (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4), (5, 1), at given k, n and critical values of λ.

  20. Mixed Frequency Ultrasound Phased Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    香勇; 霍健; 施克仁; 陈以方

    2004-01-01

    A mixed frequency ultrasonic phased array (MPA) was developed to improve the focus, in which the element excitation frequencies are not all the same as in a normal constant frequency phased array. A theoretical model of the mixed frequency phased array based on the interference principle was used to simulate the array's sound distribution. The pressure intensity in the array focal area was enhanced and the scanning area having effective contrast resolution was enlarged. The system is especially useful for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with more powerful energy and ultrasound imaging diagnostics with improved signal to noise ratios, improved beam forming and more uniform imaging quality.

  1. Compact collimated fiber optic array diagnostic for railgun plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, V; Solberg, J; Ferriera, T; Tully, L; Stephan, P

    2008-10-02

    We have developed and tested a compact collimated sixteen channel fiber optic array diagnostic for studying the light emission of railgun armature plasmas with {approx}mm spatial and sub-{micro}s temporal resolution. The design and operational details of the diagnostic are described. Plasma velocities, oscillation, and dimension data from the diagnostic for the Livermore Fixed Hybrid Armature experiment are presented and compared with 1-D simulations. The techniques and principles discussed allow the extension of the diagnostic to other railgun and related dense plasma experiments.

  2. Waves and instability in a one-dimensional microfluidic array

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin; Feng, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Motion in a one-dimensional (1D) microfluidic array is simulated. Water droplets, dragged by flowing oil, are arranged in a single row, and due to their hydrodynamic interactions spacing between these droplets oscillates with a wave-like motion that is longitudinal or transverse. The simulation yields wave spectra that agree well with experiment. The wave-like motion has an instability which is confirmed to arise from nonlinearities in the interaction potential. The instability's growth is spatially localized. By selecting an appropriate correlation function, the interaction between the longitudinal and transverse waves is described.

  3. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  4. Modulating two-dimensional non-close-packed colloidal crystal arrays by deformable soft lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Junhu; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xuemin; Zhu, Difu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Yang, Bai

    2010-02-16

    We report a simple method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic non-close-packed (ncp) arrays of colloidal microspheres with controllable lattice spacing, lattice structure, and pattern arrangement. This method combines soft lithography technique with controlled deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to convert 2D hexagonal close-packed (hcp) silica microsphere arrays into ncp ones. Self-assembled 2D hcp microsphere arrays were transferred onto the surface of PDMS stamps using the lift-up technique, and then their lattice spacing and lattice structure could be adjusted by solvent swelling or mechanical stretching of the PDMS stamps. Followed by a modified microcontact printing (microcp) technique, the as-prepared 2D ncp microsphere arrays were transferred onto a flat substrate coated with a thin film of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). After removing the PVA film by calcination, the ncp arrays that fell on the substrate without being disturbed could be lifted up, deformed, and transferred again by another PDMS stamp; therefore, the lattice feature could be changed step by step. Combining isotropic solvent swelling and anisotropic mechanical stretching, it is possible to change hcp colloidal arrays into full dimensional ncp ones in all five 2D Bravais lattices. This deformable soft lithography-based lift-up process can also generate patterned ncp arrays of colloidal crystals, including one-dimensional (1D) microsphere arrays with designed structures. This method affords opportunities and spaces for fabrication of novel and complex structures of 1D and 2D ncp colloidal crystal arrays, and these as-prepared structures can be used as molds for colloidal lithography or prototype models for optical materials.

  5. Strain Mapping in Metals Using Ultrasonic Array Speckle Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, A. I.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2009-03-01

    The full-field non-destructive measurement of internal displacement and strain fields is of interest in many engineering applications. This paper describes an approach to measuring internal displacements and strains in metals which uses the correlation of ultrasonic speckle images of the internal structure of the material. This has the key advantage over optical surface displacement and strain measurement techniques in that internal information can be obtained. Experiments are described which use a 1-D ultrasonic array to map 2-D displacement fields for uniform translation and uniaxial tension of a metallic bar. The full matrix of transmit-receive signals from the array was post-processed to generate speckle images using a Fourier-domain imaging algorithm. Block-search cross-correlation was used to find the displacements of small sub-images corresponding to regions within the bar. Potential applications include characterising crack networks and creep damage detection.

  6. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2012-07-01

    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz simulation results reveal better performance for H plane bending as compared to E plane bending. A 100 um thick substrate is used for the design which is best suited for flexible antenna applications. Gain variations of 1.1 dB and 1.4 dB are observed for the two orientations while a significantly increased impedance bandwidth of 3 % is obtained with H plane wrapping. The design is highly suitable for broadband micro-cellular backhaul applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenides as linkers between metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysliak, Oleksandr; Beck, Johannes, E-mail: j.beck@uni-bonn.de

    2013-07-15

    The reactions of zinc metal with elemental selenium and selenium/sulfur mixtures in liquid ammonia or methylamine under solvothermal conditions in closed glass ampoules at 50 °C lead within some days specifically to [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Zn(MeNH{sub 2}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 2.23}S{sub 1.77}]{sub n} (3). From MnCl{sub 2}, Rb{sub 2}Se and excess Se in n-butylamine [Mn({sup n}BuNH{sub 2}){sub 4}Se{sub 6}]{sub n} (4) is obtained after prolonged reaction time at ambient temperature. The compounds are sensitive towards air and loss of NH{sub 3} or the amine ligands. The crystal structures were determined by single crystal diffraction at low temperatures. As a common structural feature, all compounds represent 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenide chains as linkers between the metal atoms and consist of infinite [M–Ch{sub m}–]{sub n} chains (M=Zn, Mn; Ch{sub m}=Se{sub 4}, (S/Se){sub 4}, Se{sub 6}). The Zn central atoms in 1–3 have tetrahedral coordination with two amine ligands, the Mn atoms in 4 have octahedral coordination with four amine ligands and cis position of the two Se atoms. Raman spectra of 1–3 show the stretching mode vibrations of the Ch{sub 4} groups. The observation of S–S, S–Se, and Se–Se vibration bands in the spectrum of 3 indicates the presence of mixed S/Se polyanions. An optical band gap of 1.86(5) eV was determined for 2 by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of Zn and Se in liquid methylamine yields dark red [Zn(NH{sub 2}CH{sub 3})Se{sub 4}], a 1D coordination polymer consisting of helical Zn–Se{sub 4}–Zn– chains. - Highlights: • A series of 1D coordination polymers consisting of metal amine complexes concatenated by polychalcogenide ions is presented. • Syntheses were performed as solvothermal reactions in liquid ammonia, liquid methylamine and n-butylamine. • Crystal structures are dominated by helices [M–Ch{sub m

  8. Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb-Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb-Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the many-body physics.

  9. Dynamics of the gas-liquid interfacial reaction of O(1D) with a liquid hydrocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Carla; King, Kerry L; Costen, Matthew L; McKendrick, Kenneth G

    2011-06-30

    The dynamics of the gas-liquid interfacial reaction of the first electronically excited state of the oxygen atom, O((1)D), with the surface of a liquid hydrocarbon, squalane (C(30)H(62); 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) has been studied experimentally. Translationally hot O((1)D) atoms were generated by 193 nm photolysis of a low pressure (nominally 1 mTorr) of N(2)O a short distance (mean = 6 mm) above a continually refreshed liquid squalane surface. Nascent OH (X(2)Π, v' = 0) reaction products were detected by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) on the OH A(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Π (1,0) band at the same distance above the surface. The speed distribution of the recoiling OH was characterized by measuring the appearance profiles as a function of photolysis-probe delay for selected rotational levels, N'. The rotational (and, partially, fine-structure) state distributions were also measured by recording LIF excitation spectra at selected photolysis-probe delays. The OH v' = 0 rotational distribution is bimodal and can be empirically decomposed into near thermal (~300 K) and much hotter (~6000 K) Boltzmann-temperature components. There is a strong positive correlation between rotational excitation and translation energy. However, the colder rotational component still represents a significant fraction (~30%) of the fastest products, which have substantially superthermal speeds. We estimate an approximate upper limit of 3% for the quantum yield of OH per O((1)D) atom that collides with the surface. By comparison with established mechanisms for the corresponding reactions in the gas phase, we conclude that the rotationally and translationally hot products are formed via a nonstatistical insertion mechanism. The rotationally cold but translationally hot component is most likely produced by direct abstraction. Secondary collisions at the liquid surface of products of either of the previous two mechanisms are most likely responsible for the rotationally and translationally cold

  10. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  11. Retinoic acid regulates CD1d gene expression at the transcriptional level in human and rodent monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuyan; Ross, A Catharine

    2007-04-01

    CD1d belongs to a group of nonclassical antigen-presenting molecules that present glycolipid antigens and thereby activate natural killer T (NKT) cells, a subset of bifunctional T cells. Little is known so far regarding the expression and physiologic regulation of CD1d. Here we show that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), the active metabolite of vitamin A, rapidly (1 hr after treatment) increases CD1d mRNA in human and rodent monocytic cells at a physiologic dose (10 nM). The induction is RA specific and RA receptor (RAR) dependent-RA and an RARalpha agonist, Am580, both had a pronounced positive effect, whereas the addition of RARalpha antagonist partially blocked the increase in CD1d mRNA induced by RA and Am580. The induction was also completely blocked by the presence of actinomycin D. A putative RA-response element was identified in the distal 5' flanking region of the CD1d gene, which binds nuclear retinoid receptors and was responsive to RA in both gel mobility shift assay and transient transfection assay in THP-1 cells. These results further confirmed the transcriptional regulation of RA in CD1d gene expression. Moreover, RA significantly increased alpha-galactosylceramide-induced spleen cell proliferation. These studies together provide evidence for a previously unknown mechanism of CD1d gene expression regulation by RA and suggest that RA is a significant modulator of NKT cell activation.

  12. Initial Stage of the Microwave Ionization Wave Within a 1D Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of the microwave breakdown in a gas is simulated numerically within a simple 1D model which takes into account such processes as the impact ionization of gas molecules, the attachment of electrons to neutral molecules, and plasma diffusion. Calculations are carried out for different spatial distributions of seed electrons with account for reflection of the incident electromagnetic wave from the plasma. The results reveal considerable dependence of the ionization wave evolution on the relation between the field frequency and gas pressure, as well as on the existence of extended rarefied halo of seed electrons. At relatively low gas pressures (or high field frequencies), the breakdown process is accompanied by the stationary ionization wave moving towards the incident electromagnetic wave. In the case of a high gas pressure (or a relatively low field frequency), the peculiarities of the breakdown are associated with the formation of repetitive jumps of the ionization front.

  13. Detecting Arctic snow and ice cover with FY-1D global data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chinese meteorological satellite FY-1D can obtain global data from four spectral channels which include visible channel (0.58-0.68 μm) and infrared channels (0.84-0.89 μm, 10.3-11.3 μm, 11.5-12.5 μm). 2366 snow and ice samples, 2024 cloud samples, 1602 land samples and 1648 water samples were selected randomly from Arctic imageries. Land and water can be detected by spectral features. Snow-ice and cloud can be classified by textural features. The classifier is Bayes classifier. By synthesizing five d ays classifying result of Arctic snow and ice cover area, complete Arctic snow and ice cover area can be obtained. The result agrees with NOAA/NESDIS IMS products up to 70%.

  14. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2015-01-01

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity.

  15. Photo-Thermal Effects in 1D Gratings of Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Palermo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the heat delivered by a mono-layer 1D grating of gold nanoparticles (GNPs created by photo-reduction through two-photon direct laser writing (2P-DLW in a poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA matrix doped with HAuCl4, under resonant laser radiation. We drop cast a film of a PVA + HAuCl4 mixture onto a glass substrate, in which we create gratings of 1 mm2 made by stripes of GNPs characterized by high polydispersivity. We demonstrate that, by controlling the pitch of the GNP stripes, we obtain different values of the photo-induced temperature variations. In the framework of thermo-plasmonics, the experimental investigation of the heat generation from a monolayer of gold nanoparticles represents a key element as a starting point to design thermo-smart platforms for sensing, solar energy harvesting and thermo-catalysis.

  16. Surface-modified Wannier-Stark states in a 1D optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Maury, A; Gorza, M -P; Lambrecht, A; Guérout, R

    2016-01-01

    We study the energy spectrum of atoms trapped in a vertical 1D optical lattice in close proximity to a reflective surface. We propose an effective model to describe the interaction between the atoms and the surface at any distance. Our model includes the long-range Casimir-Polder potential together with a short-range Lennard-Jones potential, which are considered non-perturbatively with respect to the optical lattice potential. We find an intricate energy spectrum which contains a pair of loosely-bound states localized close to the surface in addition to a surface-modified Wannier-Stark ladder at long distances. Atomic interferometry involving those loosely-bound atom-surface states is proposed to probe the adsorption dynamics of atoms on mirrors.

  17. Facile hydrothermal route to the controlled synthesis of -Fe2O3 1-D nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lixia Yang; Ying Liang; Hou Chen; Lingyan Kong; Wei Jiang

    2008-12-01

    Single-crystalline -Fe2O3 1-D nanostructures can be obtained via a facile one-step hydrothermal synthetic route. It was found that the introduction of SnCl4 played a key role in determining the composition and morphology of -Fe2O3. The addition of SnCl4 favours the formation of Fe2O3 rather than FeOOH, and the morphology can be tuned from nanorod to double-shuttle as the increase of SnCl4 concentration. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selectedarea electron diffraction (SAED). This simple method does not need any seed, catalyst, or template, thus is promising for large-scale and low-cost production.

  18. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin M. Jureschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2’-hydroxyethyl-1,2,4-triazole3]I2∙H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P-temperature (T phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region.

  19. Wavelength modulated SERS hot spot distribution in 1D nanostructures on metal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Zeng, Xiping; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Xuemei; Wei, Hua; Huang, Yingzhou; Liu, Anping; Wang, Shuxia; Wen, Weijia

    2016-10-01

    Surface plasmons confining strong electromagnetic fields near metal surfaces, well-known as hot spots, provide an extremely efficient platform for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this work, SERS spectra of probing molecules in a silver particle-wire 1D nanostructure on a thin gold film are investigated. The Raman features of SERS spectra collected at the particle-wire joints exhibit an obvious wavelength dependence phenomenon. This result is confirmed electromagnetic field simulation, revealing that hot spot distribution is sensitively influenced by the wavelength of incident light at the joints. Further studies indicate this wavelength dependence of hot spot distribution is immune to influence from the geometric shape of the particle or the angle between wire and particle, which improves fabrication tolerance. This technology may have promising applications in surface plasmon related fields, such as ultrasensors, solar energy and selective surface catalysis.

  20. Analysis of silicon solar cell degradation in space using PC-1D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, E.G. (IMEC, Leuven (Belgium) DEE (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)); Demesmaeker, E.; Ghannam, M.; Nijs, J. (DEE (UPC), Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-04-01

    This work presents a computation method to evaluate the life expectance of cells in space. The effects of the radiation environment are taken into account as a reduction of carrier lifetime. This reduction is calculated for each particle type as a function of the incident energy and the traveled depth inside the cell. Afterwards the calculated lifetimes are supplied to the PC-1D in order to obtain the electrical characteristics of the cell. The method allows one to calculate the equivalent damage relative to 1 MeV electrons of the different particles in the space environment. But its main feature lies in the direct calculation of the cell degradation by adding the contribution to lifetime reduction of each particle type. Results on efficiency degradation versus time in a circular orbit of 4630 km and 90deg inclination are shown for different cover glass thicknesses. (orig.).

  1. Correlations of the upper branch of 1D harmonically trapped two-component fermi gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharashi, Seyed Ebrahim; Blume, D

    2013-07-26

    We present highly accurate energy spectra and eigenfunctions of small 1D harmonically trapped two-component Fermi gases with interspecies δ-function interactions, and analyze the correlations of the so-called upper branch (i.e., the branch that describes a repulsive Fermi gas consisting of atoms but no molecules) for positive and negative coupling constants. Changes of the two-body correlations as a function of the interspecies coupling strength reflect the competition of the interspecies interaction and the effective repulsion due to the Pauli exclusion principle, and are interpreted as a few-body analog of a transition from a nonmagnetic to a magnetic phase. Moreover, we show that the eigenstate ψadia of the infinitely strongly interacting system with |n1+n2|>2 and |n1-n2|Fermi-Fermi mapping function to the eigenfunction of the noninteracting single-component Fermi gas.

  2. Staggered grid leap-frog scheme for the (2+1)D Dirac equation

    CERN Document Server

    Hammer, René

    2013-01-01

    A numerical scheme utilizing a grid which is staggered in both space and time is proposed for the numerical solution of the (2+1)D Dirac equation in presence of an external electromagnetic potential. It preserves the linear dispersion relation of the free Weyl equation for wave vectors aligned with the grid and facilitates the implementation of open (absorbing) boundary conditions via an imaginary potential term. This explicit scheme has second order accuracy in space and time. A functional for the norm is derived and shown to be conserved. Stability conditions are derived. Several numerical examples, ranging from generic to specific to textured topological insulator surfaces, demonstrate the properties of the scheme which can handle general electromagnetic potential landscapes.

  3. Formation of Gd coordination polymer with 1D chains mediated by Bronsted acidic ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Lin, Hechun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duan, Chungang; Peng, Hui

    2017-03-01

    One dimensional coordination polymer Gd[(SO4)(NO3)(C2H6SO)2] (1) is prepared through the mediation of Bronsted acid ionic liquid, which crystallized in the monoclinic space of C2/c. In this polymer, adjacent Gd atoms are linked by two SO42- ions to generate a 1-D chain, and all oxygen atoms in SO42- groups are connected to three nearest Gd atoms in μ3:η1:η1:η2 fashion. Gd, S and N from SO42- and NO3- are precisely coplanar. The planar is coordinated by a pair of DMSO molecules, which is parallel and linked by hydrogen bonding to form a three-dimensional supramolecular network. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of 1 reveals weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Gd (III) ions. It exhibits relatively large magneto-caloric effect with -ΔSm=28.8 J Kg-1 K-1 for ΔH=7 T.

  4. Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Dibyendu [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Div. and Center for Nonlinear Studies; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan [Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan (India). Integrated Science Education and Research Centre

    2014-01-07

    We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a Λ- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.

  5. REAL-TIME FLOOD FORECASTING MODELING OF 1D UNSTEADY CHANNEL FLOW AND KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The model of 1D unsteady channel flow combined with the Kalmanfilter for real-time channel flood forecasting was attempted in this study. The suitable upstream and downstream boundary conditions were suggested. The system equation was given by the linearization of the finitedifference equations of the mass conservation and momentum equations as well as the boundary conditions. In the Kalman filter updating model, because the number of measurement variable is less then that of state-space variables, the measurement error covariance matrix could be estimated in real time through the innovation sequence, and the system error covariance matrix needs to be estimated preliminarily. A real example of flood forecasting in the Huaihe River was given to explain how the method works. The results show that the model is reasonable and effective.

  6. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supe...

  7. Controllable Photonic Band Gap and Defect Mode in a 1D CO2-Laser Optical Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi; YIN Jian-Ping

    2008-01-01

    We Dropose a new method to form a novel controllable photonic crystal with cold atoms and study the photonic band gap(PBG)of an infinite 1D CO2-laser optical lattice of 85Rb atoms under the condition of quantum coherence.A significant gap generated near the resonant frequency of the atom is founded and its dependence on physical parameters is also discussed.Using the eigenquation of defect mode,we calculate the defect mode when a defect is introduced into such a lattice.Our study shows that the proposed new method can be used to optically probe optical lattice in situ and to design some novel and controllable photonic crystals.

  8. Optical properties in 1D photonic crystal structure using Si/C60 multilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing; Tang Jiyu; Han Peide; Chen Junfang

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of using Si/C60 mulfilayer films as one-dimensional(1D)photonie band gap crystals was investigated by theoretical calculations using a transfer matrix method(TMM).The response has been studied both within and out of the periodic plane of Si/C60 multilayers.It is found that Si/C60 multilayer films show incomplete photonic band gap(PBG)behavior in the visible frequency range.The fabricated Si/C60 multilayers with two pairs of 70 am C60 and 30 nm Si layers exhibit a PBG at central wavelength of about 600 nm.and the highest reflectivity call reach 99%.As a consequence,this photonic crystal may be important for fabricating a photonic crystal with an incomplete band gap in the visible frequency range.

  9. A 1D Optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap

    CERN Document Server

    Gomis-Bresco, J; Oudich, M; El-Jallal, S; Griol, A; Puerto, D; Chavez, E; Pennec, Y; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Alzina, F; Martínez, A; Torres, C M Sotomayor

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the boom of cavity optomechanics, which exploits the confinement and coupling of optical waves and mechanical vibrations at the nanoscale. Amongst the different physical implementations,optomechanical (OM) crystals built on semiconductor slabs are particularly interesting since they enable the integration and manipulation of multiple OM elements in a single chip and provide GHz phonons suitable for coherent phonon manipulation. Different demonstrations of coupling of infrared photons and GHz phonons in cavities created by inserting defects on OM crystals have been performed. However, the considered structures do not show a complete phononic bandgap at the frequencies of interest, which in principle should allow longer dephasing time, since acoustic leakage is minimized. In this work we demonstrate the excitation of acoustic modes in a 1D OM crystal properly designed to display a full phononic bandgap for acoustic modes at about 4 GHz. The confined phonons have an OM coupling rangin...

  10. Fep1d: a script for the analysis of reaction coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banushkina, Polina V; Krivov, Sergei V

    2015-05-05

    The dynamics of complex systems with many degrees of freedom can be analyzed by projecting it onto one or few coordinates (collective variables). The dynamics is often described then as diffusion on a free energy landscape associated with the coordinates. Fep1d is a script for the analysis of such one-dimensional coordinates. The script allows one to construct conventional and cut-based free energy profiles, to assess the optimality of a reaction coordinate, to inspect whether the dynamics projected on the coordinate is diffusive, to transform (rescale) the reaction coordinate to more convenient ones, and to compute such quantities as the mean first passage time, the transition path times, the coordinate dependent diffusion coefficient, and so forth. Here, we describe the implemented functionality together with the underlying theoretical framework.

  11. Smooth non-extremal D1-D5-P solutions as charged gravitational instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative and more direct construction of the non-supersymmetric D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. We show that these solutions --- with all three charges and both rotations turned on --- can be viewed as a charged version of the Myers-Perry instanton. We present an inverse scattering construction of the Myers-Perry instanton metric in Euclidean five-dimensional gravity. The angular momentum bounds in this construction turn out to be precisely the ones necessary for the smooth microstate geometries. We add charges on the Myers-Perry instanton using appropriate SO(4,4) hidden symmetry transformations. The full construction can be viewed as an extension and simplification of a previous work by Katsimpouri, Kleinschmidt and Virmani.

  12. Application of OpenMP to Wireline Triaxial Induction Logging in 1D Layered Anisotropic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and accurate forward modeling of logging tool responses is essential for data inversion in the log data interpretation in both real time and postprocessing. With the aggressive advancement of various high-performance computing techniques and computer hardware technology, it is possible to significantly improve the efficiency of the forward modeling. In this paper, we apply OpenMP to parallelize the simulation of triaxial induction logging tools in 1D multilayered anisotropic formation. The parallel process is explained in detail and numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effect of the parallel programming. Comparison of the original code and the parallel code shows that the latter is much faster without loss of accuracy, which is very promising for future real-time inversion.

  13. A 1-D modelling of streaming potential dependence on water content during drainage experiment in sand

    CERN Document Server

    Allègre, Vincent; Ackerer, Philippe; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05371.x

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of electrokinetics for unsaturated conditions is crucial for numerous of geophysical data interpretation. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the streaming potential coefficient C as a function of the water saturation Sw is still discussed. We propose here to model both the Richards' equation for hydrodynamics and the Poisson's equation for electrical potential for unsaturated conditions using 1-D finite element method. The equations are first presented and the numerical scheme is then detailed for the Poisson's equation. Then, computed streaming potentials (SPs) are compared to recently published SP measurements carried out during drainage experiment in a sand column. We show that the apparent measurement of DV / DP for the dipoles can provide the SP coefficient in these conditions. Two tests have been performed using existing models for the SP coefficient and a third one using a new relation. The results show that existing models of unsaturated SP coefficients C(Sw) provide poor results in term...

  14. One-electron singular spectral features of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Čadež, T.

    2017-01-01

    The momentum, electronic density, spin density, and interaction dependences of the exponents that control the (k , ω)-plane singular features of the σ = ↑ , ↓ one-electron spectral functions of the 1D Hubbard model at finite magnetic field are studied. The usual half-filling concepts of one-electron lower Hubbard band and upper Hubbard band are defined in terms of the rotated electrons associated with the model Bethe-ansatz solution for all electronic density and spin density values and the whole finite repulsion range. Such rotated electrons are the link of the non-perturbative relation between the electrons and the pseudofermions. Our results further clarify the microscopic processes through which the pseudofermion dynamical theory accounts for the one-electron matrix elements between the ground state and excited energy eigenstates.

  15. Experimental demonstration of an efficient number diagnostic for long 1D ion chains

    CERN Document Server

    Kamsap, Marius Romuald; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Houssin, Marie; Knoop, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Very long, one-dimensional (1D) ion chains are the basis for many applications, in particular in quantum information processing and reliable diagnostics are needed to quantify them. To that purpose, we have experimentally validated Dubin's model for very long ion chains [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2753 (1993)]. This diagnostic allows to precisely determine the number of trapped ion with an accuracy of almost 1\\% without counting them, by measuring the ion-ion distance of the innermost particles, as well as the trapping potential along the ion chain direction. In our experiment, based on a 155 ion chain, the central 30 ions are measured to be equidistant to better than 2\\%, and we can determine the total number of trapped ions with a 4.5\\% uncertainty, completely dominated by a conservative estimation of the experimental characterisation of the trap.

  16. Refractive index sensor based on a 1D photonic crystal in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental...... demonstrations performed with several ethanol solutions ranging from a purity of 96.00% (n = 1.36356) to 95.04% (n = 1.36377) yielded a sensitivity (Δλ/Δn) of 836 nm/RIU and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 x 10-5 RIU, which is, however, still one order of magnitude higher than the theoretical lower limit...... of the limit of detection 1.3 x 10–6 RIU....

  17. Refractive Index Sensor Based on a 1D Photonic Crystal in a Microfluidic Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B. Mogensen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental demonstrations performed with several ethanol solutions ranging from a purity of 96.00% (n = 1.36356 to 95.04% (n = 1.36377 yielded a sensitivity (Δλ/Δn of 836 nm/RIU and a limit of detection (LOD of 6 x 10-5 RIU, which is, however, still one order of magnitude higher than the theoretical lower limit of the limit of detection 1.3 x 10–6 RIU.

  18. Development and tests of x-ray multifoil optical system for 1D imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pína, Ladislav; Hudec, René; Inneman, Adolf J.; Baca, Tomas; Blazek, M.; Platkevic, M.; Sieger, Ladislav; Doubravova, Daniela; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Schultz, Ted B.; Dániel, Vladimír.

    2016-09-01

    The proposed wide-field optical system has not been used yet. Described novel approach is based on the use of 1D "Lobster eye" optics in combination with Timepix X-ray detector in the energy range 3 - 40 keV. The proposed project includes theoretical study and a functional sample of the Timepix X-ray detector with multifoil wide-field X-ray "Lobster eye" optics. Using optics to focus X-rays on a detector is necessary in cases where the intensity of impinging X-ray radiation is below the sensitivity of the detector without optic. Generally this is the case of very low light phenomena, or e.g. monitoring astrophysical objects in space. Namely, such optical system could find applications in laboratory spectroscopy systems or in a rocket space experiment. Designed wide-field optical system combined with Timepix X-ray detector is described together with experimental results obtained during laboratory tests.

  19. Recursive Estimation of Gauss-Markov Random Fields Indexed over 1-D Space

    CERN Document Server

    Vats, Divyanshu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents optimal recursive estimators for vector valued Gauss-Markov random \\emph{fields} taking values in $\\R^M$ and indexed by (intervals of) $\\R$ or $\\Z$. These 1-D fields are often called reciprocal processes. They correspond to two point boundary value fields, i.e., they have boundary conditions given at the end points of the indexing interval. To obtain the recursive estimators, we derive two classes of recursive representations for reciprocal processes. The first class transforms the Gaussian reciprocal process into a Gauss-Markov \\emph{process}, from which we derive forward and backwards recursive representations. The second representation folds the index set and transforms the original \\emph{field} taking values in $\\R^M$ into a Markov \\emph{process} taking values in $\\R^{2M}$. The folding corresponds to recursing the reciprocal process from the boundary points and telescoping inwards. From these recursive representations, Kalman filters and recursive smoothers are promptly derived.

  20. Application of MSOR iteration with Newton scheme for solutions of 1D nonlinear porous medium equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, J. V. L.; Sulaiman, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers Newton-MSOR iterative method for solving 1D nonlinear porous medium equation (PME). The basic concept of proposed iterative method is derived from a combination of one step nonlinear iterative method which known as Newton method with Modified Successive Over Relaxation (MSOR) method. The reliability of Newton-MSOR to obtain approximate solution for several PME problems is compared with Newton-Gauss-Seidel (Newton-GS) and Newton-Successive Over Relaxation (Newton-SOR). In this paper, the formulation and implementation of these three iterative methods have also been presented. From four examples of PME problems, numerical results showed that Newton-MSOR method requires lesser number of iterations and computational time as compared with Newton-GS and Newton-SOR methods.